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1

Geologic Provinces of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides all information, instructions, downloadable materials, and links to online materials for an exercise developed for use in a Geology of the National Parks course. Using the provided maps, groups of 3 to 6 students are asked to identify between 8 and 12 geologic provinces based on topography, the age of rocks, and the rock types. As a result of this exercise, students will become familiar and comfortable with reading maps and legends, learn basic rock types and how geologic time is divided, define geologic provinces that will form an outline for learning the geology of the U.S., and be able to discuss the maps they create based on what they've learned. This exercise is intended for one of the first class meetings of the quarter or semester and ideally students will approach this exercise without much or any prior knowledge of the geology of the United States.

Leech, Mary

2

United States Geologic Survey: Selected Volcano Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program site contains links to selected material related to volcanic hazards. Users can access information about the volcanic hazards program, publications, topical maps of volcanoes world wide, aviation safety reports, volcanic hazard reports, computer software, volcano digital series and educational videos. Several USGS fact sheets are also available for volcanoes in Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, the Pacific Northwest and around the world. Fact sheets can be downloaded as pdf files or html. This site contains a wide variety of comprehensive material on the world's volcanoes and the hazards associated with them.

2007-01-27

3

Development of engineering geology in western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic concepts and scientific-technical guidance for the planning-design and construction of engineered works was recognized in Europe by the 1800s and by the early 1900s in North America. This early geologic knowledge and experience provided the rudimentary principles that guided practitioners of the 19th century in serving the emerging projects in western United States. Case studies review the scientific-technical lessons

George A Kiersch

2001-01-01

4

Records and history of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication contains two presentations in Portable Document Format (PDF). The first is Renee M. Jaussaud's inventory of the documents accessioned by the end of 1997 into Record Group 57 (Geological Survey) at the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) Archives II facility in College Park, Md., but not the materials in NARA's regional archives. The second is Mary C. Rabbitt's 'The United States Geological Survey 1879-1989,' which appeared in 1989 as USGS Circular 1050. Additionally, USGS Circular 1050 is also presented in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format.

Edited by Nelson, Clifford M.

2000-01-01

5

The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, just a few hours before the mandatory close of the final session of the 45th Congress, when President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the bill appropriating money for sundry civil expenses of the Federal Government for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1879. The sundry civil expenses bill included a brief section establishing a new agency, the United States Geological Survey, placing it in the Department of the Interior, and charging it with a unique combination of responsibilities: 'classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' The legislation stemmed from a report of the National Academy of Sciences, which in June 1878 had been asked by Congress to provide a plan for surveying the Territories of the United States that would secure the best possible results at the least possible cost. Its roots, however, went far back into the Nation's history. The first duty enjoined upon the Geological Survey by the Congress, the classification of the public lands, originated in the Land Ordinance of 1785. The original public lands were the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains claimed by some of the colonies, which became a source of contention in writing the Articles of Confederation until 1781 when the States agreed to cede their western lands to Congress. The extent of the public lands was enormously increased by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and later territorial acquisitions. At the beginning of Confederation, the decision was made not to hold the public lands as a capital asset, but to dispose of them for revenue and to encourage settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the method of surveying and a plan for disposal of the lands, but also reserved 'one-third part of all gold, silver, lead, and copper mines to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall thereafter direct,' thus implicitly requiring classification of the lands into mineral and nonmineral. Mapping of the public lands was begun under the direction of the Surveyor-General, but no special provision was made for classification of the public lands, and it thus became the responsibility of the surveyor. There was,of course, no thought in 1785 or for many years thereafter of employing geologists to make the classification of the mineral lands, for geology was then only in its infancy.

Rabbitt, Mary C.

1989-01-01

6

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Products and Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to products and publications of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP). Links are provided to fact sheets arranged by region in the U.S and by global and national areas. There are also links to general information such as bibliographies and publications on general geology, plate tectonics, and tsunamis. A section on information services includes links to email notification services for earthquakes, moment tensors, and seismicity reports; and RSS feeds on the latest earthquakes. There is also an extensive selection of maps, including earthquake maps, fault and landform maps, and seismic hazard and site response maps. Other materials include multimedia items (CD-ROMs and videos); open-file reports, bulletins, and circulars; and a selection of software for earthquake analysis, mapping, and data distribution. Some items are free; others are available for purchase.

7

What are parasitologists doing in the United States Geological Survey?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was formed in 1879 as the nation's primary natural science and information agency. The mission of the agency is to provide scientific information to a??describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.a?? Prior to 1996, the USGS comprised 3 divisions or disciplines: geology, mapping, and water. Historically, the agency was most noted for cartographic products that were used widely by both government and private sector. With the inclusion of the National Biological Service into the USGS in 1996 as the Biological Resource Discipline (BRD), a living resources dimension was added to the earth sciences character of the USGS. With the addition of BRD, the bureau is able now to contribute both the physical and biological sciences to address the nation's resource management problems.

Cole, R. A.

2002-01-01

8

The United States Geological Survey National Mapping Program Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a collection of United States Geological Survey (USGS) factsheets that introduce and explain a vast array of topics related to mapping. Each subject covers the history and development of that particular topic and includes any software or instruments that may be requried to utilize the information sources described. The topics covered on this site include: GIS, UTM, aerial photographs, map projections, map accuracy measurements, digital elevation models (DEM), satellite imagery, landcover mapping, hydrography, and numerous other components of maps. Information is available in several different formats (paper, html and pdf) and includes links back to other USGS services.

9

72 FR 26832 - Committee Establishment: United States Geological Survey-Climate Change Science Program Committee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Geological Survey--Climate Change Science Program Committee for...U.S. Geological Survey--Climate Change Science Program Committee for...Arctic and at High Latitudes. The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a...

2007-05-11

10

Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing technology. It will describe the benefits of the technology. Real data about a distributed application will be presented as an example of the benefits that this technology can bring to USGS scientific programs. Finally, some of the issues with distributed processing that relate to USGS work will be discussed.

Maddox, Brian G.

2002-01-01

11

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies during 1983. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest.

Edited by Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Reed, K. M.

1985-01-01

12

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies during 1984. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest.

Edited by Bartsch-Winkler, S.

1985-01-01

13

Geologic framework, petroleum potential, and environmental geology of the United States Beaufort and northeasternmost Chukchi Seas  

SciTech Connect

The Beaufort and northeasternmost Chukchi Seas offer petroleum explorationists a promising terrane for medium to giant oil and gas accumulations, but the area is the most environmentally difficult region for petroleum exploration and development in the Nation. The region lies adjacent to the North Slope of Alaska, which is served by the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), a common carrier that would provide an outlet for oil brought to its northern terminus near Prudhoe Bay. If the proposed Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is also built, its pipeline and terminus near Prudhoe Bay would provide the means for carrying offshore natural gas to market. The feasibility of economically transporting large volumes of oil or gas by tanker year-round from the Beaufort Sea to markets in the conterminous United States has yet to be demonstrated. This chapter gives an overview of the geologic framework, petroleum potential, and environmental geology of the Alaskan Beaufort and northeasternmost Chukchi Seas. The principal data base consists of the multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and accompanying high-resolution profiles shown in figure 11.1 and some additional single-channel seismic-reflection profiles, sonobuoy refraction measurements, seabed samples, and bathymetric data. The study area includes the entire Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and most of the OCS in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Most of the continental shelf north of Alaska consists of areas shallower than 60 m (200 ft), where the national petroleum Council considers that the petroleum industry can now confidently proceed with operations. Sea-ice conditions in this area during late September, the usual period of maximum retreat, are shown. The base maps in this report use the conformal polar stereographic projection.

Grantz, A.; May, S.D.; Dinter, D.A.

1989-01-01

14

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short topical and summary articles about the results of 1982 geologic studies on a wide range of subjects of economic and scientific interest. Included are lists of references cited for each article and a compilation of reports about Alaska written by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and published by the Geological Survey and other organizations.

Edited by Reed, Katherine M.; Bartsch-Winkler, Susan

1984-01-01

15

DEVELOPING A COORDINATED INFORMATION PROGRAM FOR GEOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS IN THE UNITED STATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COORDINATED INFORMATION PROGRAM FOR GEOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS IN THE UNITED STATES IS DISCUSSED IN DETAIL IN THIS REPORT. THE AMERICAN GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE APPOINTED A COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE INFORMATION TO DEVELOP A NEW NETWORK FOR COMMUNICATION. THE NEED AROSE FROM A REALIZATION OF SEVERAL DEFICIENCIES OF PRESENT…

CREAGER, WILLIAM A.; SMITH, FOSTER D.

16

Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1975. Geological Survey Circular 765.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Geological Survey has compiled data on water use in this country every fifth year since 1950. This document is the most recent of this series and presents data on water withdrawn for use in the United States in 1975. In the introduction, recent and present water use studies are discussed along with a description of the…

Murray, C. Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

17

Abbreviations used in publications of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of abbreviations in publications of the Geological Survey is determined by several forces working in different directions. Pulling in the direction of greater condensation and the freer use of abbreviations and symbols is the desire to achieve greater economy in publications. Working in the opposite direction is the desire to have the publications used more conveniently by an increasingly heterogeneous public.

U.S. Geological Survey

1953-01-01

18

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the geology of southeast Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set of 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Gehrels, George E.; Berg, Henry C.

2006-01-01

19

Quaternary geologic map of the Hatteras 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1986. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Hatteras 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the "ground" on which we walk, the "dirt" in which we dig foundations, and the "soil" in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

State compilations by Johnson, Gerald H.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; edited and integrated by Richmond, G. M.; Fullerton, D. S.; Weide, D. L.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

1986-01-01

20

Quaternary geologic map of the Dallas 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Dallas 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

State compilations by Luza, Kenneth V.; Jensen, K. M.; Fishman, W. D.; Wermund, E. G., Jr.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Christiansen, Ann Coe; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

1994-01-01

21

Quaternary geologic map of the Sudbury 4 degree by 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Sudbury 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

edited by Fullerton, David S.; compiled by Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Baker, C. L.; Farrand, William R.

2004-01-01

22

Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1985-01-01

23

Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1988-01-01

24

Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and

Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

2010-01-01

25

Quaternary geologic map of the White Lake 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1990. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the White Lake 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

State compilations by Pope, David E.; Gilliland, William A.; Wermund, E. G.; Edited and Integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Weide, David L.; Moore, David W.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

1990-01-01

26

Quaternary geologic map of the Austin 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1993. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Austin 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

State compilations by Moore, David W.; Wermund, E. G., Jr.; edited and integrated by Moore, David W.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Christiansen, Ann Coe; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

1993-01-01

27

Quaternary geologic map of the Vicksburg 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1990. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Vicksburg 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

State compilations by Holbrook, Drew F.; Gilliland, W. A.; Luza, K. V.; Pope, D. E.; Wermund, E. G.; Miller, R. A.; Bush, W. V.; Jensen, K. N.; Fishman W. D.; Edited and Integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.; Weide, David L.; Digital Edition by Bush, Charles A.

1990-01-01

28

Quaternary geologic map of the Lookout Mountain 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I–1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1988. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lookout Mountain 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the "ground" on which we walk, the "dirt" in which we dig foundations, and the "soil" in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

State compilations by Miller, Robert A.; Maher, Stuart W.; Copeland, Charles W., Jr.; Rheams, Katherine F.; Neathery, Thorton L.; Gilliland, William A.; Friddell, Michael S.; Van Nostrand, Arnie K.; Wheeler, Walter H.; Holbrook, Drew F.; Bush, William V.; Edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald M.; Fullerton, David S.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

1988-01-01

29

Quaternary geologic map of the Mobile 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1988. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Mobile 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map

State compilations by Copeland, Charles W., Jr.; Rheams, K. F.; Neathery, T. L.; Gilliland, W. A.; Schmidt, Walter; Clark, W. C., Jr.; Pope, D. E.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.; Weide, David L.; Digital database by Bush, Charles A.

1988-01-01

30

Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: surficial geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

31

About the Geologic Map in the National Atlas of the United States of America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The geologic map in the National Atlas of the United States of America shows the age, distribution, and general character of the rocks that underlie the Nation, including Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (but excluding other small island possessions). (The National Atlas of the United States can be accessed at URL http://nationalatlas.gov/natlas/Natlasstart.asp.) The map depicts the bedrock that lies immediately beneath soils or surficial deposits except where these deposits are so thick and extensive that the type of bedrock beneath them can only be inferred by deep drilling or geophysical methods, or both. Thus, it does not show the extensive glacial deposits of the North Central and Northeastern States, the deep residuum of the Southeastern and South Central States, the relatively thin alluvium along many major rivers and basins, and extensive eolian deposits on the high plains. However, it does show, in a general way, the thick alluvial deposits along the lower Mississippi River and on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, and in the deep basins of the western cordillera. The rocks are classified as either sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, or metamorphic, and their geologic ages are given in terms using a simplified version of the 1999 Geological Society of America geologic time scale. In some places rocks depicted as sedimentary are interlayered with volcanic rocks, including tuff, volcanic breccia, and volcanic flows. Conversely, many of the rocks shown as volcanic include interlayered sedimentary rocks. Plutonic rocks are classified by age and as granitic, intermediate, mafic, or ultramafic, but no similar classification has been attempted for the volcanic rocks in this version of the map. Where sedimentary or volcanic rocks have been metamorphosed but still retain clear evidence of their depositional age and origin, the extent of the metamorphism is shown by a pattern. Where the metamorphism has been so intense that the rocks bear little resemblance to the rocks from which they were derived, they are mapped as gneiss, but the age given is generally the age of the original rocks. The map in the National Atlas is a generalization of a new geologic map of North America that has recently been published by the Geological Society of America. The original compilation was prepared at a scale of 1:2,500,000 for publication at a scale of 1:5,000,000. This generalized version is intended for viewing at scales between about 1:10,000,000 and 1:7,500,000.

Reed, John C.; Bush, Charles A.

2007-01-01

32

United States Geological Survey: International Polar Year Resources (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the upcoming International Polar Year (IPY) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiatives and resources that help support the observance. Topics include a history of IPY (this will be the third IPY) and the role of the USGS in polar research. The education section provides links to USGS resources on glaciation, the North and South Pole, Alaska, climate change, and other topics of interest for IPY investigations. Materials include information on atlases and databases, polar research projects, maps, photos, digital datasets, booklets, and educational guides.

33

BORATE DEPOSITS IN THE UNITED STATES: DISSIMILAR IN FORM, SIMILAR IN GEOLOGIC SETTING.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borate deposits in the western United States have several geologic characteristics in common: All primary deposits are about 20 my or less in age, and they are observed or inferred to be stratigraphically associated with volcanic activity and thermal springs. Most of them lie at least partially in the lacustrine facies of their host formations which implies the existence of closed basins created by contemporaneous tectonic activity. The preservation of the borate and other dissolved salts requires the climate to have been sufficiently arid for evaporation to offset most of the inflow and prevent the loss of salts by overflow.

Smith, George, I.

1985-01-01

34

U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the quantity of resource and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource

Robert A. Crovelli

1984-01-01

35

SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GEOLOGY AND OCCURRENCE OF URANIUM BEARING MARINE BLACK SHALES IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography consists of 81 annotated references concerned with the ; geology and occurence of uranium in marine black shales. The annotations, ; arranged alphabetically by author, present information on geology, geographic ; distribution, environment of deposition, mode of occurrence, and analytical data. ; A map shows the distribution and uranium content of uraniferous shales in the ; United States

Fix

1958-01-01

36

Preliminary report on geology along Atlantic Continental Margin of northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a geologic and geophysical study of the northeastern United States outer continental shelf and the adjacent slope from Georges Bank to Cape Hatteras. The study also includes the adjacent coastal plain because it is a more accessible extension of the shelf. The total study area is about 324,000 sq km, of which the shelf and slope constitute about 181,000 sq km and the coastal plain constitutes 143,000 sq km. The shelf width ranges from about 30 km at Cape Hatteras to about 195 km off Raritan Bay and on Georges Bank. Analyses of bottom samples make it possible to construct a preliminary geologic map of the shelf and slope to a water depth of 2,000 m. The oldest beds cropping out in the submarine canyons and on the slope are of early ate Cretaceous age. Beds of Early Cretaceous and Jurassic age are present in deep wells onshore and probably are present beneath the shelf in the area of this study. Such beds are reported beneath the Scotian shelf on the northeast where they include limestone, salt, and anhydrite. Preliminary conclusions suggest a considerably thicker Mesozoic sedimentary sequence than has been described previously. The region is large; the sedimentary wedge is thick; structures seem favorable; and the hydrocarbon potential may be considerable.

Minard, J. P.; Perry, W. J.; Weed, E. G. A.; Rhodehamel, E. C.; Robbins, E. I.; Mixon, R. B.

1974-01-01

37

Regional geology and petroleum potential of the United State Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope  

SciTech Connect

An extensive frontier terrain that is prospective for petroleum but is as yet incompletely explored and entirely untested underlies the United States Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope. The area is in most places underlain by a thick section of sedimentary rocks prospective for oil and gas, and it contains diverse geologic structures and stratigraphic features that may have trapped hydrocarbon fluids. The prospective sedimentary section includes every geologic system from the Carboniferous to the Tertiary and includes several formations that contain petroleum deposits or strong shows of oil or gas on parts of the North Slope of Alaska. These formations have proved disappointing, however, where tested in a few exploratory wells in the western part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), an area that lies adjacent to the Chukchi shelf. The data base consists mainly of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and accompanying high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles shown in figure 10.1 and some additional USGS single-channel seismic-reflection profiles, sonobuoy refraction measurements, and seabed samples. The multichannel seismic profiles, on which the interpretations presented here are mainly based, are mostly 30 to 90 km apart, with typical line spacings of 40 to 50 km. Ice conditions during data acquisition were such, however, that profile coverage in the northern and northwestern parts of the Chukchi Sea is sparse. Because of the wide spacing and irregular distribution of the profiles, the interpretations are reconnaissance in character. Some of the profiles, particularly in the southwestern part of the study area, are affected by strong artifacts that further limit their usefulness for geologic interpretation and resource assessment.

Grantz, A.; May, S.D.

1989-01-01

38

The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

VanGosen, B. S.

2009-01-01

39

Illinois State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.

40

United States geological survey's reserve-growth models and their implementation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS has developed several mathematical models to forecast reserve growth of fields both in the United States (U.S.) and the world. The models are based on historical reserve growth patterns of fields in the U.S. The patterns of past reserve growth are extrapolated to forecast future reserve growth. Changes of individual field sizes through time are extremely variable, therefore, the reserve growth models take on a statistical approach whereby volumetric changes for populations of fields are used in the models. Field age serves as a measure of the field-development effort that is applied to promote reserve growth. At the time of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000, a reserve growth model for discovered fields of the world was not available. Reserve growth forecasts, therefore, were made based on a model of historical reserve growth of fields of the U.S. To test the feasibility of such an application, reserve growth forecasts were made of 186 giant oil fields of the world (excluding the U.S. and Canada). In addition, forecasts were made for these giant oil fields subdivided into those located in and outside of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The model provided a reserve-growth forecast that closely matched the actual reserve growth that occurred from 1981 through 1996 for the 186 fields as a whole, as well as for both OPEC and non-OPEC subdivisions, despite the differences in reserves definition among the fields of the U.S. and the rest of the world. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Klett, T. R.

2005-01-01

41

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the generalized bedrock geologic map, Yukon Flats region, east-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Stanley, Richard G.; Crews, Jessie

2006-01-01

42

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance geologic map of the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO Exportfiles/ and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

43

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance bedrock geologic map for the northern Alaska peninsula area, southwest Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

he growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

44

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance geologic map of the lower Yukon River region, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

45

Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Blitz, Thomas A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Pierson, M. Patrick

2013-01-01

46

Quaternary geologic map of the Lake Erie 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Erie 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

edited by Fullerton, David S.; Richmond, Gerald M.; state compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Cowan, W. R.; Sevon, W. D.; Goldthwait, R. P.; Farrand, W. R.; Muller, E. H.; Behling, R. E.; Stravers, J. A.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.; Richmond, Gerald Martin

1991-01-01

47

Quaternary geologic map of the Hudson River 4 degree x 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Hudson River 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

State and province compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Sevon, William D.; Muller, Ernest H.; Judson, Sheldon; Black, Robert F.; Wagner, Phillip W.; Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Chapman, William F.; Cowan, William D.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.

1992-01-01

48

Selected annotated bibliography of the geology and occurrence of uranium-bearing marine black shales in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bibliography consists of annotations or abstracts of selected reports that pertain to the geology and occurrence of uranium in marine black shales and their metamorphic equivalents in the United States. Only those reports that were available to the public prior to June 30, 1956, are included. Most of the reports may be consulted in the larger public, university, or scientific libraries. A few reports that have been released to the public in open file may be consulted at designated offices of the Geological Survey. An effort has been made to include only those references to shales whose uranium is believed to be of syngenetic origin and whose major source of radioactivity is uranium. Many general papers on the geology of uranium deposits refer to marine black shales, and some of these general papers have been included.

Fix, Carolyn E.

1956-01-01

49

U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the "quantity of resource" and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource are obtained. Distributions and their properties are established for each of the following resources: (1) oil and nonassociated gas from estimates of the probability of the resource being present and the conditional probability distribution of the quantity of resource given that the resource is present, (2) associated-dissolved gas from its corresponding oil distribution, (3) total gas, (4) oil and total gas in two or more provinces. Computer graphics routines are illustrated with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 860. ?? 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Crovelli, R. A.

1984-01-01

50

Evaluation of SIR-A space radar for geologic interpretation: United States, Panama, Colombia, and New Guinea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons between LANDSAT MSS imagery, and aircraft and space radar imagery from different geologic environments in the United States, Panama, Colombia, and New Guinea demonstrate the interdependence of radar system geometry and terrain configuration for optimum retrieval of geologic information. Illustrations suggest that in the case of space radars (SIR-A in particular), the ability to acquire multiple look-angle/look-direction radar images of a given area is more valuable for landform mapping than further improvements in spatial resolution. Radar look-angle is concluded to be one of the most important system parameters of a space radar designed to be used for geologic reconnaissance mapping. The optimum set of system parameters must be determined for imaging different classes of landform features and tailoring the look-angle to local topography.

Macdonald, H.; Waite, W. P.; Kaupp, V. H.; Bridges, L. C.; Storm, M.

1983-01-01

51

77 FR 11565 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP)--EDMAP and STATEMAP...Title: National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP-EDMAP and STATEMAP...professors, who are skilled in geologic mapping, request EDMAP funding to support...

2012-02-27

52

Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle, United States and Canada, was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420, NM-15). The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the Minnesota Geological Survey, the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the description of map units. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. As a Quaternary geologic map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps relating Quaternary geologic history can be derived. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use, or land-management projects can be derived.

Compiled by Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Goebel, Joseph E.; Ringrose, Susan M.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

1995-01-01

53

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States : Central states : Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for regional and national digital geologic maps attributed with age and lithology information. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for purposes including mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This Open-File Report is a preliminary version of part of a series of integrated state geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. The only national-scale digital geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States for the conterminous U.S. are the digital version of the King and Beikman (1974a, b) map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, as digitized by Schruben and others (1994) and the digital version of the Geologic Map of North America (Reed and others, 2005a, b) compiled at a scale of 1:5,000,000 which is currently being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. In a few cases, new digital compilations were prepared (e.g. OH, SC, SD) or existing paper maps were digitized (e.g. KY, TX). For Alaska and Hawaii, new regional maps are being compiled and ultimately new state maps will be produced. The digital geologic maps are presented in standardized formats as ARC/INFO (.e00) export files and as ArcView shape (.shp) files. Accompanying these spatial databases are a set of five supplemental data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information. The maps for the CONUS have been fitted to a common set of state boundaries based on the 1:100,000 topographic map series of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). When the individual state maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps. No attempt has been made to reconcile differences in mapped geology across state lines. This is the first version of this product and it will be subsequently updated to include four additional states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa)

Stoeser, Douglas B.; Green, Gregory N.; Morath, Laurie C.; Heran, William D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Moore, David W.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2005-01-01

54

Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System  

SciTech Connect

Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

Dahowski, Robert T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

2001-10-19

55

Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

2014-01-01

56

Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the map unit descriptions. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. As a Quaternary geologic map it serves as a base from which a variety of maps relating Quaternary geologic history can be derived. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land use, or land management projects can be derived.

Compiled by Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Farrand, William R.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

1994-01-01

57

Analysis of Geologic Sequestration Costs for the United States and Implications for Climate Change Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through work with the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, ICF has developed a costing model for geologic sequestration of CO2 by geologic setting in the U.S. The GeoCAT model is being used by the EPA Office of Air and Radiation to assist in analyzing the impact of potential climate change legislation. GeoCAT includes an assessment of sequestration capacity

Harry Vidas; Robert Hugman; Christa Clapp

2009-01-01

58

Geologic factors affecting coal mine roof stability in the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof falls in underground coal mines are a continuing source of trouble for mine operators. Fatalities and injuries are a prominent concern, but lost time due to cleanup and disruption of mining operations presents an economic problem as well. Many geologic and geomechanical factors contribute to mine roof instability. These may be seen in rock core during exploration, or in

W. F. Kane; R. C. Milici; T. M. II Gathright

1993-01-01

59

The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

2007-01-01

60

Geology, hydrology, and mineral resources of crystalline rock areas of the northeastern United States  

SciTech Connect

This report, which includes a series of maps, is a compendium of the available information on several topics of importance in defining the geologic setting of crystalline rocks in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern New York (the Adirondack Mountains), Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, southeastern New York, northern New Jersey, and southeastern Pennsylvania. Crystalline rocks are defined herein as bodies of medium- to coarse-grained igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. The study was undertaken to provide background information to assist in evaluating the geologic suitability of such rocks for isolating high-level radioactive waste. Topics covered include the geologic history of the region; patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes and horizontal ground accelerations, crustal stress, regional fault domains, and Holocene faulting and vertical crustal movements; surface processes, anticipated climatic changes, and possible effects of renewed glaciation; landforms and surficial deposits; regional surface-water and ground-water hydrology; and the commercial potential of rock and mineral prospects and mines located within or near crystalline-rock complexes. 68 figures, 35 tables.

Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.; Barosh, P.; Ebel, J.; Kuecher, G.; Tisue, M.; Tsai, S.; Winters, M.; Flower, M.; Sood, M.

1983-10-01

61

The geology of asbestos in the United States and its practical applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently, naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) has drawn the attention of numerous health and regulatory agencies and citizen groups. NOA can be released airborne by (1) the disturbance of asbestos-bearing bedrocks through human activities or natural weathering, and (2) the mining and milling of some mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral(s). Because asbestos forms in specific rock types and geologic conditions, this information can be used to focus on areas with the potential to contain asbestos, rather than devoting effort to areas with minimal NOA potential. All asbestos minerals contain magnesium, silica, and water as essential constituents, and some also contain major iron and/or calcium. Predictably, the geologic environments that host asbestos are enriched in these components. Most asbestos deposits form by metasomatic replacement of magnesium-rich rocks. Asbestos-forming environments typically display shear or evidence for a significant influx of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Asbestos-forming processes can be driven by regional metamorphism, contact metamorphism, or magmatic hydrothermal systems. Thus, asbestos deposits of all sizes and styles are typically hosted by magnesium-rich rocks (often also iron-rich) that were altered by a metamorphic or magmatic process. Rock types known to host asbestos include serpentinites, altered ultramafic and some mafic rocks, dolomitic marbles and metamorphosed dolostones, metamorphosed iron formations, and alkalic intrusions and carbonatites. Other rock types appear unlikely to contain asbestos. These geologic insights can be used by the mining industry, regulators, land managers, and others to focus attention on the critical locales most likely to contain asbestos.

Van Gosen, B. S.

2007-01-01

62

OPTIMAL GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE DISPOSAL IN SALINE AQUIFERS IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.

Susan D. Hovorka

1999-02-01

63

Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

64

United States Geological Survey fire science--Fire danger monitoring and forecasting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each day, the U.S. Geological Survey produces 7-day forecasts for all Federal lands of the distributions of number of ignitions, number of fires above a given size, and conditional probabilities of fires growing larger than a specified size. The large fire probability map is an estimate of the likelihood that ignitions will become large fires. The large fire forecast map is a probability estimate of the number of fires on federal lands exceeding 100 acres in the forthcoming week. The ignition forecast map is a probability estimate of the number of fires on Federal land greater than 1 acre in the forthcoming week. The extreme event forecast is the probability estimate of the number of fires on Federal land that may exceed 5,000 acres in the forthcoming week.

Eidenshink, Jeff C.; Howard, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

65

Access routes to the United States Geological Survey's National Center, Reston, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Center: The U.S. Geological Survey, established in 1879 as a bureau in the Department of the Interior, is one of the Federal Government's major earth science research and fact-finding agencies. By 1960, the continued growth of the Survey's natural resources and environmental programs and activities led to the agency's headquarters personnel being housed in more than 30 different buildings scattered throughout the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. In 1962, Congress approved the construction of a National Center to consolidate the overall Survey's headquarters effort. A site in Reston's industrial/educational complex was selected and on July 15, 1971, ground was broken for the John Wesley Powell Federal Building.

U.S. Geological Survey

1977-01-01

66

Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge acquired by the Geological Survey through programs of research and investigations has no value to the public if it remains in office files or in the minds of the scientists and engineers who did the work. The full discharge of the Survey's responsibilities is attained only by making its acquired knowledge available promptly and effectively to all people who will find it of interest and use. And, to insure effectiveness, reports must be not only accurate but so clearly and simply written that they are easy to read and understand. Efforts by the Geological Survey to attain high quality in reports are necessarily group efforts. The largest contribution is made by the author, who has assembled facts, has worked out ideas to explain them, and has a direct personal interest in making the facts and ideas clearly and effectively known. The Geological Survey encourages that interest, recognizing that it is an essential ingredient of the high morale of the members of the Survey. Authors should keep in mins, however, that the Survey has a proprietary interest in all their manuscript reports and as proprietor may dispose of the reports, or require that they be changed before publication, as it sees git. The Survey generally exercises its proprietary interest only to the extent of seeing that a report is scientifically and technically sound, will reach the proper audience, and will reflect credit on both the Survey and the author. To these ends, each report is reviewed by the author's fellow workers, supervisors, and staff officials, who bring to bear upon it their specialized knowledge, skill, judgement to assure a sound product. In its final form each Survey report is that product of team effort in which many persons do their share -- even though most of them remain anonymous. There is no easy way to prepare reports of high quality, any more than there is an easy means of carrying out research to sure and outstanding conclusions. Each task calls for intensive thinking and for preserving work. The author bears the primary responsibility and correspondingly faces the most difficult task. To aid him is the chief purpose of this volume. The subject matter of this volume is arranged under several principal headings. First, a summary is given of the Survey's publications: the historical basis for them, statistics as to what has been issued in the periods 1879-1957, and a list and description of the several series of reports and maps in which material is being published. Next are outlined successive steps that the author will normally take from the start of a project to his final proofreading of the text and illustrations. Under the third broad heading is brought together much detailed information about the form and content of reports. The fourth part of this volume is devoted to advice on expression -- what to seek and what to avoid. A fifth major part of this volume bears on the most common questions of typographic style that affect Survey publications. The final sections of the volume give instructions for typing manuscript copy and correcting the galley and page proofs; also they include a few useful tables and a discussion of the purpose and content of press releases.

1958-01-01

67

United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Now it is time to learn about your states! Your final project/mobile should include: 1. IMPORTANT FACTS - population - capital - area - state ...

Glover, Mrs.

2008-09-10

68

SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mount Simon injection wells. The geocellular model was used to develop a series of numerical simulations designed to support CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province. Variable density fluid flow simulations were initially run to evaluate model sensitivity to input parameters. Two dimensional, multiple-phase simulations were completed to evaluate issues related to arranging injection fields in the study area. A basin-scale, multiple-phase model was developed to evaluate large scale injection effects across the region. Finally, local scale simulations were also completed with more detailed depiction of the Eau Claire formation to investigate to the potential for upward migration of CO{sub 2}. Overall, the technical work on the project concluded that injection large-scale injection may be achieved with proper field design, operation, siting, and monitoring. Records from Mount Simon injection wells were compiled, documenting more than 20 billion gallons of injection into the Mount Simon formation in the Arches Province over the past 40 years, equivalent to approximately 60 million metric tons CO2. The multi-state team effort was useful in delineating the geographic variability in the Mount Simon reservoir properties. Simulations better defined potential well fields, well field arrangement, CO{sub 2} pipeline distribution system, and operational parameters for large-scale injection in the Arches Province. Multiphase scoping level simulations suggest that injection fields with arrays of 9 to 50+ wells may be used to accommodate large injection volumes. Individual wells may need to be separated by 3 to 10 km. Injection fields may require spacing of 25 to 40 km to limit pressure and saturation front interference. Basin-scale multiple-phase simulations in STOMP reflect variability in the Mount Simon. While simulations suggest a total injection rate of 100 million metric tons per year (approximately to a 40% reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from large point sources across the Arches Pr

Sminchak, Joel

2012-09-30

69

SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mount Simon injection wells. The geocellular model was used to develop a series of numerical simulations designed to support CO2 storage applications in the Arches Province. Variable density fluid flow simulations were initially run to evaluate model sensitivity to input parameters. Two dimensional, multiple-phase simulations were completed to evaluate issues related to arranging injection fields in the study area. A basin-scale, multiple-phase model was developed to evaluate large scale injection effects across the region. Finally, local scale simulations were also completed with more detailed depiction of the Eau Claire formation to investigate to the potential for upward migration of CO2. Overall, the technical work on the project concluded that injection large-scale injection may be achieved with proper field design, operation, siting, and monitoring. Records from Mount Simon injection wells were compiled, documenting more than 20 billion gallons of injection into the Mount Simon formation in the Arches Province over the past 40 years, equivalent to approximately 60 million metric tons CO2. The multi-state team effort was useful in delineating the geographic variability in the Mount Simon reservoir properties. Simulations better defined potential well fields, well field arrangement, CO2 pipeline distribution system, and operational parameters for large-scale injection in the Arches Province. Multiphase scoping level simulations suggest that injection fields with arrays of 9 to 50+ wells may be used to accommodate large injection volumes. Individual wells may need to be separated by 3 to 10 km. Injection fields may require spacing of 25 to 40 km to limit pressure and saturation front interference. Basin-scale multiple-phase simulations in STOMP reflect variability in the Mount Simon. While simulations suggest a total injection rate of 100 million metric tons per year (approximately to a 40% reduction of CO2 emissions from large point sources across the Arches Province) may be feasible,

Sminchak, Joel

2012-09-30

70

United States Geological Survey (USGS) FM cassette seismic-refraction recording system  

SciTech Connect

In this two chapter report, instrumentation used to collect seismic data is described. This data acquisition system has two parts: (1) portable anolog seismic recorders and related ``hand-held-testers`` (HHT) and (2) portable digitizing units. During the anolog recording process, ground motion is sensed by a 2-Hz vertical-component seismometer. The voltage output from the seismometer is split without amplification and sent to three parallel amplifier circuit boards. Each circuit board amplifiers the seismic signal in three stages and then frequency modulates the signal. Amplification at the last two stages can be set by the user. An internal precision clock signal is also frequency modulated. The three data carrier frequencies, the clock carrier frequency, and a tape-speed compensation carrier frequency are summed and recorded on a recorded on a cassette tape. During the digitizing process, the cassette tapes are played back and the signals are demultiplexed and demodulated. An anolog-to-digital converter converts the signals to digital data which are stored on 8-inch floppy disks. 7 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Murphy, J.M.

1988-12-31

71

Divisions of Geologic Time - Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Effective communication in the geosciences requires consistent uses of stratigraphic nomenclature, especially divisions of geologic time. A geologic time scale is composed of standard stratigraphic divisions based on rock sequences and calibrated in years (Harland and others, 1982). Over the years, the development of new dating methods and refinement of previous ones have stimulated revisions to geologic time scales. Since the mid-1990s, geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, academia, and other organizations have sought a consistent time scale to be used in communicating ages of geologic units in the United States. Many international debates have occurred over names and boundaries of units, and various time scales have been used by the geoscience community.

U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee

2007-01-01

72

Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

Robinson, Terry

73

Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 degrees C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

2011-01-01

74

Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources-Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and State Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-delta...

A. W. Karlsen B. J. Valentine S. M. Swanson

2013-01-01

75

Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early Tertiary, combined with the reaction kinetic parameters used in the models. A number of studies indicate that the migration of oil and gas in the Cenozoic Gulf of Mexico basin is primarily vertical, occurring along abundant growth faults associated with sediment deposition or along faults associated with salt domes. The USGS Tertiary assessment team developed a geologic model based on recurring regional-scale structural and depositional features in Paleogene strata to define assessment units (AUs). Three general areas, as described in the model, are found in each of the Paleogene stratigraphic intervals assessed: “Stable Shelf,” “Expanded Fault,” and “Slope and Basin Floor” zones. On the basis of this model, three AUs for the Frio Formation were defined: (1) the Frio Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU, containing reservoirs with a mean depth of about 4,800 feet in normally pressured intervals; (2) the Frio Expanded Fault Zone Oil and Gas AU, containing reservoirs with a mean depth of about 9,000 feet in primarily overpressured intervals; and (3) the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU, which currently has no production but has potential for deep gas resources (>15,000 feet). AUs also were defined for the Hackberry trend, which consists of a slope facies stratigraphically in the middle part of the Frio Formation, and the Anahuac Formation. The Frio Basin Margin AU, an assessment unit extending to the outcrop of the Frio (or basal Miocene), was not quantitatively assessed because of its low potential for production. Two proprietary, commercially available databases containing field and well production information were used in the assessment. Estimates of undiscovered resources for the five AUs were based on a total of 1,734 reservoirs and 586,500 wells producing from the Frio and Anahuac Formations. Estimated total mean values of technically recoverable, undiscovered resources are 172 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 9.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (TCFG), and 542 million barrels of natural gas liquids for all of the Frio and Anahuac AUs. Of the five units asse

Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

2013-01-01

76

USGS National Geologic Map Database: State-wide Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This search tool provides descriptions and availability information for geologic maps of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. These geologic maps are published by a variety of organizations, including State geologic agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), universities, and private companies. Title, date, scale, publisher, series (where applicable), and basic ordering information is provided for each map. A place name search and an advanced search using geologic themes, areas, publishers and other criteria allow for more specific queries to the database.

77

Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been found in the Jurassic section, and significant thicknesses of sandstone with porosities as high as 30 percent and permeabilities in excess of 100 md have been encountered in the Cretaceous interval from about 7,000 to 12,000 ft (2,130 to 3,650 m). Studies of organic geochemistry, vitrinite reflectance, and color alteration of visible organic matter indicate that the Tertiary section, especially in its upper part, contains organic-carbon-rich sediments that are good potential oil source rocks. However, this part of the section is thermally immature and is unlikely to have acted as a source rock anywhere in the area of the B-3 well. The Cretaceous section is generally lean in organic carbon, the organic matter which is present is generally gas-prone, and the interval is thermally immature (although the lowest part of this section is approaching thermal maturity). The deepest part of the well, the Jurassic section, shows the onset of thermal maturity. The lower half of the Jurassic rocks has high organic-carbon contents with generally gas-prone organic matter. This interval is therefore considered to be an excellent possible gas source; it has a very high methane content. The combination of gas-prone source rocks, thermal maturity, significant gas shows in the well at 15,750 ft (4,801 m) and porous reservoir rocks in the deepest parts of the well indicate a considerable potential for gas production from the Jurassic section in the area of the COST No. B-3 well. Wells drilled farther downslope from the B03 site may encounter more fully marine or deeper marine sections that may have a greater potential for oil (rather than gas) generation.

Scholle, Peter A.

1980-01-01

78

Geology, hydrology, and mineral resources of crystalline rock areas of the Lake Superior region, United States. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This report, which includes a series of maps, is a compendium of the available information on several topics of importance in defining the geologic setting of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan). Crystalline rocks are defined herein as bodies of medium; and coarse-grained igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. The study was undertaken to provide background information to assist in evaluating the suitability of such rocks for isolating high-level radioactive waste. Topics covered include geologic history of the region; patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes and horizontal ground accelerations, crustal stress, regional fault domains, and Holocene faulting and vertical crustal movements; surface processes, anticipated climatic changes, and effects of renewed glaciation; landforms and surficial deposits; regional surface; and ground-water hydrology; and commercial potential of rock and mineral prospects of mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies. References, 117 figures, 36 tables.

Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.; Van Luik, A.; Hinze, W.; Braile, L.; Kalliokoski, J.; Pfannkuch, H.; Wright, H. Jr.; Tisue, M.; Sood, M.

1983-10-01

79

Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typists  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present edition, like the others, is intended primarily for Geological Survey authors or prospective authors: it is not the manual of wider scope that Mr. Wood had planned, and it contains none of his new material. If authors outside the Survey shall continue to find the suggestions useful, that will be a byproduct that testifies to the quality of the Survey's standards, which were established early in its history.

edited by Wood, George McLane; Lane, Bernard H.

1935-01-01

80

Rules for the preparation of manuscript and illustrations designed for publication by the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the annual report of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1885-'86, pages 40 and 41, you set forth the functions of the chief of the editorial division as follows: "To secure clear and accurate statement in the material sent to press, careful proof-reading, and uniformity in the details of book-making, as well as to assist the Director in exercising a general supervision over the publications of the Survey."

Hampson, Thomas

1888-01-01

81

Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along the Ohio River Valley corridor in the Appalachian Basin, which underlies large concentrations of CO{sub 2} emission sources. In addition, some wells in the Michigan basin are included. Assessment of the geologic and petrophysical properties of zones of interest has been conducted. Although a large number of formations have been evaluated across the geologic column, the primary focus has been on evaluating the Cambrian sandstones (Mt. Simon, Rose Run, Kerbel) and carbonates layers (Knox Dolomite) as well as on the Silurian-Devonian carbonates (Bass Island, Salina) and sandstones (Clinton, Oriskany, Berea). Factors controlling the development of porosity and permeability, such as the depositional setting have been explored. In northern Michigan the Bass Islands Dolomite appears to have favorable reservoir development. In west central Michigan the St. Peter sandstone exhibits excellent porosity in the Hart and Feuring well and looks promising. In Southeastern Kentucky in the Appalachian Basin, the Batten and Baird well provided valuable data on sequestration potential in organic shales through adsorption. In central and eastern Ohio and western West Virginia, the majority of the wells provided an insight to the complex geologic framework of the relatively little known Precambrian through Silurian potential injection targets. Although valuable data was acquired and a number of critical data gaps were filled through this effort, there are still many challenges ahead and questions that need answered. The lateral extent to which favorable potential injection conditions exist in most reservoirs is still generally uncertain. The prolongation of the characterization of regional geologic framework through partnership would continue to build confidence and greatly benefit the overall CO{sub 2} sequestration effort.

Neeraj Gupta

2009-09-30

82

The preparation of illustrations for reports of the United States Geological survey : with brief descriptions of processes of reproduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There has been an obvious need in the Geological Survey o£ a paper devoted wholly to illustrations. No complete paper on the character, use, and mode of preparation of illustration has been published by the Survey, though brief suggestions concerning certain features of their use have been printed in connection wit other suggestions pertaining to publications. The present paper includes matter which it is hoped will be of service to authors in their work of making up original drafts of illustrations and to drafsmen who are using these originals in preparing more finished drawing but it is not a technical treatise on drafting.

Ridgway, John L.

1920-01-01

83

Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C1/(C2 + C3) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane ??13C and ??D, carbon dioxide ??13C, and water ??D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO2 reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO2 reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane ??13C is distributed along the basin margins where ??D is also depleted, indicating that both CO2-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and decrease of methane composition of the coal-bed gas. Other geologic factors, such as burial, thermal and maturation history, lateral and vertical continuity, and coalification of the coal beds, also played a significant role in controlling methanogenic pathways and provided new perspectives on gas evolution and emplacement. The early-stage gas produced by CO2 reduction has mixed with transitional thermogenic gas in the deeper, central parts of the Powder River Basin to form 'old' gas, whereas along the basin margins the overprint of gas from methyl-type fermentation represents 'new' gas. Thus, a clear understanding of these geologic factors is necessary to relate the microbiological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes involved in the generation of coal-bed gas.

Flores, R. M.; Rice, C. A.; Stricker, G. D.; Warden, A.; Ellis, M. S.

2008-01-01

84

Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: South America: United States Geological Society Professional Paper 1386-I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey has recently posted this detailed chapter on South American glaciers as part of the Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. Edited by Richard Williams and Jane Ferrigno, this ambitious project incorporates LANDSAT images, aerial photographs, and maps "to produce glacier inventories, define glacier locations, support on-going field studies of glacier dynamics, and monitor the extensive glacier recession that has taken place and is continuing in many parts of South America." Based on an impressive collection of images from the 1970s, this resource provides a permanent historic record of the glacial coverage of the planet. Further, the atlas may be used as a standard for comparison with current and future data. Specific sections of the resource cover the glaciers of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.

85

Exercise 3: Reclassifying the New York State Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barbara and David Tewksbury, Hamilton College Summary Students download and merge the multiple sheets of the New York State Geologic Map together and reclassify units to create an attractive and legible version of ...

Tewksbury, Barb

86

Integrated Geophysical and Geological Fault Assessment at a Hazardous-Waste Landfill: Fluorspar Area Fault Complex, Central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal and Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations require proposed hazardous waste facilities undergo a surface-fault rupture hazard assessment prior to issuing construction permits. Permanent ground deformation may expose below-ground structures such as landfills and settling ponds, as well as above-ground structures such as tanks and incinerators to rupture and/or topple failure, and thus potential uncontrolled contaminant release. Regulations prohibit placing new hazardous waste facilities within 61 m (200 ft) of a Holocene-active fault. However, identifying and characterizing active faults in areas lacking geomorphic expression is a challenging task, as exemplified in and near the New Madrid seismic zone and Fluorspar Area fault complex (FAFC). In the mid-continent, surface manifestations of active faults are generally impeded by thick sequence of relatively weak, water-saturated Mississippi embayment sediment overlying bedrock. The soft sediment overburden and long recurrence interval between large earthquakes conceal neotectonic structures in bedrock and commonly fail to produce significant or noticeable geomorphic features. A proposed hazardous-waste landfill in western Kentucky is located within the upper Mississippi embayment and above the late Proterozoic-early Cambrian FAFC, an area also coincident with diffuse microseismicity. Integrated geophysical and geological methodologies were essential for a surface-fault rupture assessment. Nearly 1 km of SH-wave seismic reflection data were collected and interpreted for evidence of late Quaternary deformation. Five significant high-angle anomalies were interpreted to extend within approximately 7 m of the ground surface, near the upper limit of the seismic sampling. Eighty-six, densely spaced, continuous cores, each 9.1 m deep, intersected these features. Stratigraphic and chronological analyses were performed on the cores to assess the presence or absence of structure, and to determine the near-surface extent and age of the features. The upper 10 m of sediment ranged between nearly16 ka and greater than 125 ka. Interpretations of geologic cross sections indicate that the most abrupt elevation changes were constrained to post-date a 53.6 to 75.5 ka loess deposit; however, no perceptible displacement was found at the base of a younger loess dated between 16.6 and 23.5 ka. Collectively, these analyses indicate an absence of Holocene deformation beneath the proposed landfill site.

Woolery, E.; Baldwin, J.; Kelson, K.; Hampson, S.; Givler, R.

2007-12-01

87

Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides an introduction to geologic maps. Topics covered include what is a geologic map, unique features of geologic maps, letter symbols, faults, and strike and dip. Users may click to view colored geologic maps, the geologic map of the United States and the geologic relief map of the United States.

Graymer, Russell

88

The role of interbasin groundwater transfers in geologically complex terranes, demonstrated by the Great Basin in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Great Basin, USA, bedrock interbasin flow is conceptualized as the mechanism by which large groundwater fluxes flow through multiple basins and intervening mountains. Interbasin flow is propounded based on: (1) water budget imbalances, (2) potential differences between basins, (3) stable isotope evidence, and (4) modeling studies. However, water budgets are too imprecise to discern interbasin transfers and potential differences may exist with or without interbasin fluxes. Potentiometric maps are dependent on conceptual underpinnings, leading to possible false inferences regarding interbasin transfers. Isotopic evidence is prone to non-unique interpretation and may be confounded by the effects of climate change. Structural and stratigraphic considerations in a geologically complex region like the Great Basin should produce compartmentalization, where increasing aquifer size increases the odds of segmentation along a given flow path. Initial conceptual hypotheses should explain flow with local recharge and short flow paths. Where bedrock interbasin flow is suspected, it is most likely controlled by diversion of water into the damage zones of normal faults, where fault cores act as barriers. Large-scale bedrock interbasin flow where fluxes must transect multiple basins, ranges, and faults at high angles should be the conceptual model of last resort.

Nelson, Stephen T.; Mayo, Alan L.

2014-06-01

89

Database of the United States Coal Pellet Collection of the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Petrology Laboratory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Organic Petrology Laboratory (OPL) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center in Reston, Virginia, contains several thousand processed coal sample materials that were loosely organized in laboratory drawers for the past several decades. The majority of these were prepared as 1-inch-diameter particulate coal pellets (more than 6,000 pellets; one sample usually was prepared as two pellets, although some samples were prepared in as many as four pellets), which were polished and used in reflected light petrographic studies. These samples represent the work of many scientists from the 1970s to the present, most notably Ron Stanton, who managed the OPL until 2001 (see Warwick and Ruppert, 2005, for a comprehensive bibliography of Ron Stanton's work). The purpose of the project described herein was to organize and catalog the U.S. part of the petrographic sample collection into a comprehensive database (available with this report as a Microsoft Excel file) and to compile and list published studies associated with the various sample sets. Through this work, the extent of the collection is publicly documented as a resource and sample library available to other scientists and researchers working in U.S. coal basins previously studied by organic petrologists affiliated with the USGS. Other researchers may obtain samples in the OPL collection on loan at the discretion of the USGS authors listed in this report and its associated Web page.

Deems, Nikolaus J.; Hackley, Paul C.

2012-01-01

90

Reinterpretation of Paleoproterozoic accretionary boundaries of the north-central United States based on a new aeromagnetic-geologic compilation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Paleoproterozoic crust in the north-central U.S. represents intact juvenile terranes accreted to the rifted Archean Superior craton. A new tectonic province map, based on the interpretation of a new aeromagnetic compilation, published geologic maps, and recent geochronologic data, shows progressive accretion of juvenile arc terranes from ca. 1900-1600 Ma. Contrary to earlier models, geon 18 Penokean-interval crust is primarily confined to a ???2100 Ma tectonic embayment of the rifted Superior craton. The newly defined Spirit Lake tectonic zone, characterized by a sharp magnetic discontinuity that marks the southern limit of Archean and Penokean-interval rocks, is here interpreted to represent an eastern analog of the Cheyenne belt suture zone in southern Wyoming. South of this boundary, geon 17 Yavapai-interval rocks form the basement upon which 1750 Ma rhyolite and succeeding quartzite sequences were deposited. Substantial portions of the Penokean and Yavapai terranes were subsequently deformed during the 1650-1630 Ma Mazatzal orogeny. The northern boundary of the Mazatzal terrane is obscured by abundant 1470-1430 Ma "anorogenic" plutons that stitched the suture with the older Yavapai terrane rocks. These data reveal a progressive tectonic younging to the south as the Laurentian craton grew southward and stabilized during the Proterozoic. Late Mesoproterozoic rift magmatism produced pronounced geophysical anomalies, indicating strong, but localized crustal modification. In comparison to the western U.S., little tectonism has occurred here in the last 1 billion years, providing a uniquely preserved record of the Precambrian evolution of the continental U.S. lithosphere. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Holm, D. K.; Anderson, R.; Boerboom, T. J.; Cannon, W. F.; Chandler, V.; Jirsa, M.; Miller, J.; Schneider, D. A.; Schulz, K. J.; Van Schmus, W. R.

2007-01-01

91

Contaminants from cretaceous black shale Part 2: Effect of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on salinity and selenium cycling, Mancos Shale landscapes, southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) is a known nonpoint source for a significant portion of the salinity and selenium (Se) loads in the Colorado River in the southwestern United States and northwestern corner of Mexico. These two contaminants pose a serious threat to rivers in these arid regions where water supplies are especially critical. Tuttle et al. (companion paper) investigates the cycling of contaminants in a Colorado River tributary watershed (Uncompahgre River, southwestern Colorado) where the MS weathers under natural conditions. This paper builds on those results and uses regional soil data in the same watershed to investigate the impact of MS geology, weathering intensity, land use, and climate on salt and Se storage in and flux from soils on the natural landscape, irrigated agriculture fields, areas undergoing urban development, and wetlands. The size of salinity and Se reservoirs in the MS soils is quantified. Flux calculations show that during modern weathering, natural landscapes cycle salt and Se; however, little of it is released for transport to the Uncompahgre River (10% of the annual salinity and 6% of the annual Se river loads). When irrigated, salinity and Se loads from the MS soil increase (26% and 57% of the river load, respectively), causing the river to be out of compliance with Federal and State Se standards. During 100 years of irrigation, seven times more Se has been removed from agricultural soil than what was lost from natural landscapes during the entire period of pedogenesis. Under more arid conditions, even less salt and Se are expected to be transported from the natural landscape. However, if wetter climates prevail, transport could increase dramatically due to storage of soluble phases in the non-irrigated soil. These results are critical input for water-resource and land-use managers who must decide whether or not the salinity and Se in a watershed can be managed, what sustainable mitigation strategies are possible, and what landscapes should be targeted. The broader implications include providing a reliable approach for quantifying nonpoint-source contamination from MS and other rock units elsewhere that weather under similar conditions and, together with results from our companion paper, address the complex interplay of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on contaminant cycling in the arid Southwest.

Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

92

Modelling the impacts of climate policy on the deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geologic storage across electric power regions in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of a first-of-its-kind holistic, integrated economic analysis of the potential role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies across the regional segments of the United States of America (USA) electric power sector, over the time frame 2005-2045, in response to two hypothetical emissions control policies analyzed against two potential energy supply futures that include updated and substantially higher projected prices for natural gas. A key feature of this paper’s analysis is an attempt to explicitly model the inherent heterogeneities that exist in both the nation’s current and future electricity generation infrastructure and candidate deep geologic CO2 storage formations. Overall, between 180 and 580 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle with CCS (IGCC+CCS) capacity is built by 2045 in these four scenarios, requiring between 12 and 41gigatons of CO2 (GtCO2) of storage in regional deep geologic reservoirs across the USA. Nearly all of this CO2 is from new IGCC+CCS systems, which start to deploy after 2025. Relatively little IGCC+CCS capacity is built before that time, primarily under unique niche opportunities. For the most part, CO2 emissions prices will likely need to be sustained at well over $10-20/ton CO2 before CCS begins to deploy on a large scale within the electric power sector. Within these broad national trends, a highly nuanced picture of CCS deployment across the USA emerges. Across the four scenarios studied here, some North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions do not employ any CCS while others build more than 100 GW of CCS-enabled generation capacity. One region sees as much as 50% of their geologic CO2 storage reservoirs’ total theoretical capacity consumed by 2045, while the majority of the regions still have more than 90% of their potential storage capacity available to meet storage needs in the second half of the century and beyond.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2007-04-02

93

Water Resources of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage for the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. It offers links to a variety of issues concerning water resources. The main links include: news, features, water data, publications and products, technical resources, programs, local information, and contacts. Also featured are links to other divisions within the United States Geological Survey, and FirstGov, a clearinghouse for all branches of the federal government.

94

CVLC: United States Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the major rivers, mountain ranges, and plains of the United States? Follow the directions in each section carefully to fill in and label a blank map of the United States. You will use only one map. Or in other words complete each section on the same map. 1. Mountain Ranges of the United States With ...

Cade

2008-09-04

95

A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that

B. W. Lowry; W. Zhou; Smartgeo

2010-01-01

96

An Evaluation of Selected Extraordinary Floods in the United States Reported by the U.S. Geological Survey and Implications for Future Advancement of Flood Science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty flood peak discharges determine the envelope curve of maximum floods documented in the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. These floods occurred from 1927 to 1978 and are extraordinary not just in their magnitude, but in their hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics. The reliability of the computed discharge of these extraordinary floods was reviewed and evaluated using current (2007) best practices. Of the 30 flood peak discharges investigated, only 7 were measured at daily streamflow-gaging stations that existed when the flood occurred, and 23 were measured at miscellaneous (ungaged) sites. Methods used to measure these 30 extraordinary flood peak discharges consisted of 21 slope-area measurements, 2 direct current-meter measurements, 1 culvert measurement, 1 rating-curve extension, and 1 interpolation and rating-curve extension. The remaining four peak discharges were measured using combinations of culvert, slope-area, flow-over-road, and contracted-opening measurements. The method of peak discharge determination for one flood is unknown. Changes to peak discharge or rating are recommended for 20 of the 30 flood peak discharges that were evaluated. Nine floods retained published peak discharges, but their ratings were downgraded. For two floods, both peak discharge and rating were corrected and revised. Peak discharges for five floods that are subject to significant uncertainty due to complex field and hydraulic conditions, were re-rated as estimates. This study resulted in 5 of the 30 peak discharges having revised values greater than about 10 percent different from the original published values. Peak discharges were smaller for three floods (North Fork Hubbard Creek, Texas; El Rancho Arroyo, New Mexico; South Fork Wailua River, Hawaii), and two peak discharges were revised upward (Lahontan Reservoir tributary, Nevada; Bronco Creek, Arizona). Two peak discharges were indeterminate because they were concluded to have been debris flows with peak discharges that were estimated by an inappropriate method (slope-area) (Big Creek near Waynesville, North Carolina; Day Creek near Etiwanda, California). Original field notes and records could not be found for three of the floods, however, some data (copies of original materials, records of reviews) were available for two of these floods. A rating was assigned to each of seven peak discharges that had no rating. Errors identified in the reviews include misidentified flow processes, incorrect drainage areas for very small basins, incorrect latitude and longitude, improper field methods, arithmetic mistakes in hand calculations, omission of measured high flows when developing rating curves, and typographical errors. Common problems include use of two-section slope-area measurements, poor site selection, uncertainties in Manning's n-values, inadequate review, lost data files, and insufficient and inadequately described high-water marks. These floods also highlight the extreme difficulty in making indirect discharge measurements following extraordinary floods. Significantly, none of the indirect measurements are rated better than fair, which indicates the need to improve methodology to estimate peak discharge. Highly unsteady flow and resulting transient hydraulic phenomena, two-dimensional flow patterns, debris flows at streamflow-gaging stations, and the possibility of disconnected flow surfaces are examples of unresolved problems not well handled by current indirect discharge methodology. On the basis of a comprehensive review of 50,000 annual peak discharges and miscellaneous floods in California, problems with individual flood peak discharges would be expected to require a revision of discharge or rating curves at a rate no greater than about 0.10 percent of all floods. Many extraordinary floods create complex flow patterns and processes that cannot be adequately documented with quasi-steady, uniform one-dimensional analyses. These floods are most accura

Costa, John E.; Jarrett, Robert D.

2008-01-01

97

Divisions of geologic time-major chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective communication in the geosciences requires consistent uses of stratigraphic nomenclature, especially divisions of geologic time. A geologic time scale is composed of standard stratigraphic divisions based on rock sequences and is calibrated in years. Over the years, the development of new dating methods and the refinement of previous methods have stimulated revisions to geologic time scales. Advances in stratigraphy and geochronology require that any time scale be periodically updated. Therefore, Divisions of Geologic Time, which shows the major chronostratigraphic (position) and geochronologic (time) units, is intended to be a dynamic resource that will be modified to include accepted changes of unit names and boundary age estimates. This fact sheet is a modification of USGS Fact Sheet 2007-3015 by the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee.

U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee

2010-01-01

98

Role of environmental geology in US Department of Energy's advanced research and development programs to promote energy security in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe the research programs and program activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that most directly relate to topics in the field of environmental geology. In this light, the mission of the DOE and the definition of environmental geology will be discussed. In a broad sense, environmental geology is that branch of

C. E. Brown

1995-01-01

99

Modeling the impacts of climate policy on the deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geologic storage across electric power regions in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of a first-of-its-kind holistic, integrated economic analysis of the potential role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies across the regional segments of the United States (U.S.) electric power sector, over the time frame 2005–2045, in response to two hypothetical emissions control policies analyzed against two potential energy supply futures that include updated

Marshall Wise; James Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

2007-01-01

100

Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892  

SciTech Connect

Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

1983-12-15

101

Geologic feasibility of selected chalk-bearing sequences within the conterminous United States with regard to siting of radioactive-waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

Various geologic and hydrologic parameters are evaluated in relation to assessing the potential for repository storage of high-level radioactive wastes within several stratigraphic sequences dominated by chalks and chalky limestones. The former lithology is defined as a carbonate rock consisting mainly of very fine-grained particles of micritic calcite. Although chalks also contain coarser-grained particles such as shells of fossil foraminifera and non-calcitic minerals like quartz, most contain more than 90 percent micritic material. The latter represents broken fossil coccolith plates. The chalk-dominated formations discussed are exposed and underlie two different physiographic provinces which nevertheless display a general similarity in both being regions of extensive plains. The Niobrara Formation occurs mainly within the Great Plains province, while the Austin Chalk of Texas and the Selma Group of Alabama and Mississippi are located in the western and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, respectively. The preliminary assessment is that chalk-bearing sequences show some promise and are deserving of added consideration and evaluation. Containment for hundreds of thousands of years would seem possible given certain assumptions. The most promising units from the three studied are the Niobrara Formation and Selma Group. Regional and local conditions make the Austin more suspect.

Gonzales, S.

1975-11-01

102

United States Earthquakes, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1978. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. Hake

1980-01-01

103

United States Earthquakes, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1979. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. von Hake

1981-01-01

104

United States Earthquakes, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1977. The publication is composed of three major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a chronological list of earthquakes by s...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1979-01-01

105

United States Earthquakes, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All earthquakes that occurred in the United States and nearby territories in 1976 are described. The purpose is to provide a continuous history of U.S. earthquakes for studying seismic risk, evaluating nuclear powerplant sites, designing earthquake-resist...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1978-01-01

106

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

107

Geologic Education in Some Wisconsin State Parks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a geology education program which includes hikes, lectures, naturalist training sessions, workshops, writing, collecting, upgrading park facilities, and producing exhibits in state parks in the Lake Michigan District of Wisconsin. The importance of public education and sources of public information are stressed. (CW)

Schneider, Allan F.

1989-01-01

108

United States Travel Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Your task is to create a brochure or video that will entice people to come to your school. We will be presenting these to another grade level. Those students ...

Glover, Mrs.

2008-10-01

109

A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

2010-12-01

110

United States National Seismographic Network  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

Buland, R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1993-09-01

111

Prospecting for Gold in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses gold prospecting in the US. The history of prospecting is covered, as well as where in the US gold can still be found and accounts of successful gold mining. Deposits of gold are also explained, including placer deposits and lode gold. Selected references for additional reading are given.

Kirkemo, Harold

112

Health, United States, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health, United States, 1978 is the third annual report on the health status of the Nation submitted by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to the President and Congress. It was jointly compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics and ...

1978-01-01

113

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using surveys and topographic maps, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has determined distances between points and elevations of features, and put them into a data format at this website. Elevations of the 50 largest cities, highest and lowest points in each state, summits over 14,000 feet, summits east of the Rocky Mountains, geographic centers of each state, length of US boundaries, and extreme distances are covered at this site.

114

Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO{sub 2} injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

None

2011-06-30

115

Astro-Venture Geology Unit Conclusion: Summarizing Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

in this concluding lesson, learners review astronomy and atmosphere systems and draw connections to geological processes and structures. They then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson eight in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

116

Role of environmental geology in US Department of Energy's advanced research and development programs to promote energy security in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to describe the research programs and program activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that most directly relate to topics in the field of environmental geology. In this light, the mission of the DOE and the definition of environmental geology will be discussed. In a broad sense, environmental geology is that branch of earth science that emphasizes the entire spectrum of human interactions with the physical environment that include environmental health, mineral exploration and exploitation, waste management, energy use and conservation, global change, environmental law, natural and man-made hazard assessment, and land-use planning. A large number of research, development, and demonstration programs are under DOE's administration and guidance that directly or indirectly relate to topics in environmental geology. The primary mission of the DOE is to contribute to the welfare of the nation by providing the scientific foundation, technology, policy, and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The research and development funding effort has most recently been redirected toward greater utilization of clean fossil fuels, especially natural gas, weatherization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, fusion energy, and high-energy physics. This paper will summarize the role that environmental geology has played and will continue to play in the execution of DOE's mission and the energy options that DOE has investigated closely. The specific options are those that center around energy choices, such as alternative-fueled transportation, building technologies, energy-efficient lighting, and clean energy.

Brown, C. E.

1995-12-01

117

Regions of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What influences where people live in the United States? Essential Concepts and/or Skills from the IOWA CORE can be found: Link for IOWA CORE What are your guiding questions? Use the following resources to get to know the states in the particular regions of the USA 50 States Practice Regions of the United States Teacherfirst 50 states Map and Facts of the United States United States HIstory Link ...

Evans, Ms.

2011-12-09

118

State of stress in the conterminous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given provinces, stress

Mary Lou Zoback; Mark Zoback

1980-01-01

119

Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which are not currently in development.

Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

2010-01-01

120

Preliminary catalog of the sedimentary basins of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One hundred forty-four sedimentary basins (or groups of basins) in the United States (both onshore and offshore) are identified, located, and briefly described as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) data base in support of the Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration National Assessment Project (Brennan and others, 2010). This catalog of basins is designed to provide a check list and basic geologic framework for compiling more detailed geologic and reservoir engineering data for this project and other future investigations.

Coleman, James L., Jr.; Cahan, Steven M.

2012-01-01

121

A history of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey: vol. III years of 50-50 cooperation, July 1, 1928 to June 30, 1939  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 11-year period from July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1939, was one of violent contrasts , both naturall and man-made; great floods and severe droughts occurred and great industrial activity 'W'as· succeeded by deep and persistent depression which droughts made even more devastating. It spans the· time from the first year of 50-50 cooperation with the States, to the last year that Nathan C. Grover was Chief of the Branch.

Follansbee, Robert

1944-01-01

122

Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users flexibility regarding efficiency and quality of data collection. Quality assurance of survey-grade global positioning is often overlooked or not understood and perceived uncertainties can be misleading. GNSS users can benefit from a blueprint of data collection standards used to ensure consistency among USGS mission areas. A classification of GNSS survey qualities provide the user with the ability to choose from the highest quality survey used to establish objective points with low uncertainties, identified as a Level I, to a GNSS survey for general topographic control without quality assurance, identified as a Level IV. A Level I survey is strictly limited to post-processed methods, whereas Level II, Level III, and Level IV surveys integrate variations of a RT approach. Among these classifications, techniques involving blunder checks and redundancy are important, and planning that involves the assessment of the overall satellite configuration, as well as terrestrial and space weather, are necessary to ensure an efficient and quality campaign. Although quality indicators and uncertainties are identified in post-processed methods using CORS, the accuracy of a GNSS survey is most effectively expressed as a comparison to a local benchmark that has a high degree of confidence. Real-time and post-processed methods should incorporate these "trusted" benchmarks as a check during any campaign. Global positioning surveys are expected to change rapidly in the future. The expansion of continuously operating reference stations, combined with newly available satellite signals, and enhancements to the conterminous geoid, are all sufficient indicators for substantial growth in real-time positioning and quality thereof.

Rydlund, Paul H., Jr.; Densmore, Brenda K.

2012-01-01

123

United States Geological Survey Water Use in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to water use reports for the country and by county and watershed at five year intervals from 1950 to 2000. There is also a region by region comparison and information about how the data was collected.

124

A digital geologic map database for the state of Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This dataset is a composite of part or all of the 12 1:250,000 scale quadrangles that make up Oklahoma. The result looks like a geologic map of the State of Oklahoma. But it is only an Oklahoma shaped map clipped from the 1:250,000 geologic maps. This is not a new geologic map. No new mapping took place. The geologic information from each quadrangle is available within the composite dataset.

compiled by Heran, William D.; Green, Gregory N.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

2003-01-01

125

United States v. Jacobson.  

PubMed

Court Decision: 785 Federal Supplement; 1992 Jan 9 (date of decision). The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia granted in part the Government's motion to protect the true identities of parents and children involved in a criminal fraud case against a doctor accused of using his own sperm in the artificial insemination of his patients. Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson represented that the female patients would be inseminated with sperm from an anonymous donor. The Government alleged that the doctor used his own sperm to inseminate the patients. The District Court decided that significant psychological harm may result to the children if the parents' true identities were disclosed in an open court. In order to safeguard the children's well-being, "information regarding their paternity should be revealed to them in a careful manner and directed by their parents." Rather than close the courtroom, the District Court balanced a First Amendment and common law interest in openness and narrowly tailored measures to protect parent and child privacy. The court permitted the parent witnesses to use pseudonyms, excluded sketch artists from the courtroom, sealed judicial documents containing identifying information regarding the parents or children, and redacted all identifying information from copies of the sealed documents in the public file. PMID:16372436

1992-01-01

126

United States v. Jacobson.  

PubMed

The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, on 9 January 1992, granted in part the Government's motion to protect the true identities of parents and children involved in a criminal fraud case against a doctor accused of using his own sperm in the artificial insemination of his patients. Dr. Cecil B. Jacobson represented that the female patients would be inseminated with sperm from an anonymous donor. The Government alleged that the doctor used his own sperm to inseminate the patients. The District Court decided that significant psychological harm may result to the children if the parents' true identities were disclosed in an open court. In order to safeguard the children's well-being, "information regarding their paternity should be revealed to them in a careful manner and directed by their parents." Rather than close the courtroom, the District Court balanced a First Amendment and common law interest in openness and narrowly tailored measures to protect parent and child privacy. The court permitted the parent witnesses to use pseudonyms, excluded sketch artists from the courtroom, sealed judicial documents containing identifying information regarding the parents or children, and redacted all identifying information from copies of the sealed documents in the public file. PMID:16285101

1992-01-01

127

State geological surveys: Their growing national role in policy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

State geological surveys vary in organizational structure, but are political powers in the field of geology by virtue of their intimate knowledge of and involvement in legislative and political processes. Origins of state geological surveys lie in the recognition of society that settlement and prosperity depended on access to a variety of natural resources, resources that are most familiar to geologists. As the surveys adapt to modern societal pressures, making geology serve the public has become the new mission for many state geological surveys. Geologic mapping was the foundation of most early surveys, and the state surveys have brought mapping back into the public realm to meet today's challenges of growing population density, living environment desires, and resource access.

Gerhard, L. C.

2000-01-01

128

Numerical analysis of seismoelectromagnetic field conversion at confined geological units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that at material boundaries in fluid-saturated porous media, an incoming seismic wave can give rise to electric and magnetic fields due to electrokinetic coupling effects. Given its sensitivity to rock parameters governing fluid flow, this so-called seismoelectromagnetic (or seismoelectric, if only the electric field is considered) interface response is of strong interest with a view to hydro geophysical and petroleum exploration applications. However, the understanding of the correspondence of the converting interface geometry on the one hand and electric and magnetic field characteristics on the other hand is still poor. By means of two-dimensional finite-element modeling in the time domain, we here investigate the character of the seismoelectromagnetic interface response for the special case of spatially confined geological units, which may be representative for clay lenses embedded in an aquifer or petroleum deposits in a host rock. In the numerical analysis we consider the interface response generated by both compressional and shear wave. The modeling results, which are analyzed in terms of snapshots, time slices, and electro and magneto grams, reveal a significant influence of the confined geological units on the generation and character of the seismoelectro-magnetic interface response. The different conversion patterns can be attributed to the induced streaming currents at the interfaces caused by the oscillation of the seismic body waves. Pattern analysis of the interface responses is done with a view to an improved qualitative understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and evolution relative to the geometry of the converting interfaces. Our time-lapse simulations illustrate that the seismoelectromagnetic interface response captures characteristics of the geometry of the converting geological unit, indicating the potential of the seismoelectromagnetic method in particular for exploration of confined targets.

Kroeger, B.; Kemna, A.

2010-12-01

129

Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic Maps are unique in that they show the distribution of geologic features on a landscape through specific symbols and colors. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) site Geologic Maps provides visitors with a good introduction to these concepts, which include the unique features of a geologic map; the meaning of their lines, colors, and symbols; the location of faults; and more. Anyone working with geologic maps or just interested in learning a little about cartography or geology will find this site easy to explore and full of good information.

2000-01-01

130

National Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the United States Geological Survey and its partners, the National Atlas of the United States is a predominantly digital collection of maps serving to update the 1970 version and providing a reliable summary of national-scale geographic information on the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American life. The compilation (found under Atlas Maps) includes sections for interactive map browsing, multimedia maps, map layers data, and printed maps. The Interactive Map Browser provides easy-to-use tools to display, manipulate, print, and query National Atlas data using an overlay approach with layers selected from agriculture, biology, boundaries, climate, environment, geology, demography, transportation, water, and general reference categories. The multimedia maps use animation and/or clickable interfaces to explore a number of topics from geologic history to invasive species to vegetation growth. The map layers data warehouse contains a series of authoritative national geospatial and geostatistical datasets for use in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) or computer-aided design systems. Both data types are tied to specific geographic areas and are categorized and indexed using such parameters as county, State, and zip code boundaries or geographic coordinate systems. The printed map section includes reference and thematic maps (for ordering) reprinted from the 1970 version of the Atlas. In addition to the collection, links are provided to federal and business partners, Atlas News with links to relevant federal sites, an Atlas FAQ page, and a feedback page.

2008-03-24

131

Landforms of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in landforms of the United States with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine deposital versus erosional landforms in the central stable region of the United States, the Appalachian Highlands, the Ozark Region,…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

132

Remarriages: United States, 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of national trends in remarriage including data by previous marital status and color, variation by State, remarriage rates by age and sex, selection by previous marital status, and selected characteristics of remarrying persons in 1969.

K. M. Williams R. P. Kuhn

1973-01-01

133

State of stress and intraplate earthquakes in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently compiled data on the state of stress have been used to define stress provinces in the conterminous United States in which the orientation and relative magnitude of the horizontal principal stresses are fairly uniform. The observed patterns of stress constrain mechanisms for generating intraplate lithospheric stresses. Coupled with new information on geologic structure and tectonism in seismically active areas of the Midcontinent and East, these data help to define some characteristics common to these areas and to identify key questions regarding why certain faults seem to be seismically active. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

Zoback, M. D.; Zoback, M. L.

1981-01-01

134

Elevations and distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the U.S. Geological Survey from students; teachers; writers; editors; publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs, and other reference books; and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. In most cases, the elevations were determined from surveys and from 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In Alaska, information was taken from 1:63,360-scale, 15-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In a few cases, data were obtained from older, 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute maps; these maps are being replaced with larger-scale 7.5-minute coverage. Further information about U.S. Geological Survey products can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 22092 or phone 703-860-6045.

U.S. Geological Survey

1991-01-01

135

A Water Census of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on the development of a water census of the United States, and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2007-01-01

136

National Atlas of the United States Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'National Atlas of the United States of America?', published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1970, is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. Maps dated after 1970 and before 1997 are either revisions of original atlas maps or new maps published in the original atlas format. The USGS and its partners in government and industry began work on a new 'National Atlas' in 1997. Though most new atlas products are designed for the World Wide Web, we are continuing our tradition of printing high-quality maps of America. In 1998, the first completely redesigned maps of the 'National Atlas of the United States?' were published.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2001-01-01

137

Mental Health, United States, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data presented in the fifth edition of 'Mental Health, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...

R. W. Manderscheid M. A. Sonnenschein

1992-01-01

138

Desertification of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an extensive and growing body of scientific literature on desertification. The purposes of the report, therefore, are: To synthesize the available scientific information on desertification in the United States and; To identify federal policies th...

D. Sheridan

1981-01-01

139

Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (?g/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg/kg, and 0.2 to 16 mg/kg, respectively, for antimony. The arsenic and antimony concentrations in stream waters correlate well with the concentrations in soils. However, significantly less arsenic and antimony was extracted from C horizon soils in water leaching experiments, indicating that the arsenic and antimony in the C horizon is present in a less available form than in the A or B horizons. Arsenic and antimony uptake by grayleaf willow (Salix glauca L.) appears minimal, with arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.14 mg/kg and antimony concentrations ranging from less than 0.003 to 0.23 mg/kg in willow leaves. In general, the highest concentrations of both arsenic and antimony in water and soils were found near mineralized areas. Elevated arsenic concentrations were also found in bed sediments from mineralized areas. In these sample matrices, the presence of arsenic and (or) antimony was a good indicator of contact with mineralized rock units.

Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

2007-01-01

140

The diatom genus Actinocyclus in the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ten new and four known taxa of the diatom genus Actinocyclus are described, illustrated, and (or) noted from middle Miocene lake deposits in the Western United States. A key is presented to help separate the taxa based on morphological criteria visible in the light microscope. The geologic ranges of Actinocyclus species in the Western United States are discussed based on examination of over 100 localities of diatomaceous lacustrine deposits.

Edited by Bradbury, J. Platt; Krebs, William N.

1995-01-01

141

Extending Geologic Map Units Beneath Cover Using Geophysical Textural Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending geologic mapping beneath alluvial or tectonically covered areas is a required step in resource assessment because most areas of exposed bedrock have been thoroughly explored. Geophysical survey data, particularly high resolution magnetic and gravity data, can be very useful in estimating the lithologies of covered areas by comparing textural measures of the data with those of areas of exposed (candidate) lithostratigraphic units (LU) nearby. Using possibility theory to combine and compare the various textural measures with those of the concealed area, candidate LUs can be ranked as to their likelihood of being the concealed lithology. These estimates can be carried out using profile or map (grid) data, or a combination of both. Textural measures (per unit area) that have proven useful for grid data are the distribution of anomaly amplitudes, frequency of extrema, the total Euclidean signal surface area, the ratio of ridges and troughs to the total number of extrema ("2-Dedness"), and the strike and dispersion of the horizontal gradient. These measures are computed in a window moving over the data grid. Window size is determined considering the minimum size of geologic features in a region, the observed variability of the candidate LUs, and the sample interval of the gridded data. Survey data for the candidate LUs must be upward continued to the approximate depth of cover before the comparative measures are computed. Normally the thickness of cover is estimated from gravity anomaly data. The various measures are converted from a normalized frequency distribution to a possibility membership function using a mathematical transformation. The measures for the candidate and concealed areas can then be compared using ordinary logical combinations that in general are additive rather than multiplicative so that error only grows additively. Possibility functions can automatically take into account errors from data uncertainty and lack of knowledge so that the resulting ranking of candidate LUs being the covered terrane include uncertainty. The use of multiple measures in ranking possibility makes the ranking more objective and controls bias. Several examples of extending LUs beneath cover have been carried out in southern Arizona.

Gettings, M. E.

2012-12-01

142

Probabilistic methodology for estimation of undiscovered petroleum resources in play analysis of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geostochastic system called FASPF was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for their 1989 assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in the United States. FASPF is a fast appraisal system for petroleum play analysis using a field-size geological model and an analytic probabilistic methodology. The geological model is a particular type of probability model whereby the volumes of oil and

Robert A. Crovelli

1992-01-01

143

Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease Statistics for the United States Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States On this page: The ... The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease Kidney disease statistics for the United States convey the burden of ...

144

31 CFR 539.312 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

2009-07-01

145

FRONTLINE: United States of Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FRONTLINE doesn't shy away from difficult topics, as demonstrated by "United States of Secrets" a recent documentary on the activities of the National Security Agency (NSA) in the United States. On this site, visitors can view both parts of the documentary, explore interviews with tech industry experts, learn about journalistic guidelines, and also look over a raft of extra features. In The Latest section, visitors can look over meditations that include "How the NSA Can Get Onto Your iPhone" and "Inside the NSA the Day After 9/11." Additionally, visitors can view related programs, such as "Top Secret America" and several others.

2014-05-20

146

United States, Capitals and Abbreviations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use the links below to practice locating, naming, and spelling the 50 U.S.States, Capitals and Abbreviation. Go to these different websites to test your skills and knowledge on states and capitals. Be sure to visit every site. They each have different ways to study. #1 States and Capitals Spelling Practice #2 Practice States and Capitals #3 United States Map Puzzle #4 Where is That?! Practice spelling of state and capital names. #5 State Abbreviations Practice Abbreviations Want to listen to Wakko's America song? Click on the first video below. Wakko s America

Ribera, Mr.

2009-04-22

147

HERBICIDE USE ESTIMATES FOR UNITED STATES: (HERBICIDE2)  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Geological Society (USGS) offers GIS coverage containing estimates of herbicide use for the twent-first through the fortieth most-used herbicides in the conterminous United States as reported in Gianessi and Puffer (1991). Herbicide-use estimates in this coverage are repor...

148

HERBICIDE USE ESTIMATES (HERBICIDE1) FOR THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Geological Society (USGS) offers GIS coverage containing estimates of herbicide use for the 20 most-used herbicides in the conterminous United States as reported in Gianessi and Puffer (1991). Herbicide-use estimates in this coverage are reported for each county polygon as...

149

Base-Flow Index Grid for the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages. Base flow is the component of streamflow that can be attributed to ground-water discharge into streams.

Wolock, David M.

2003-01-01

150

Children's Books--United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents an outline of the situation of children's literature in the United States. Information provided includes lists of organizations interested in the publication, selection, and distribution of children's books and of institutions serving international interests in children's books and…

Havilland, Virginia

151

CDC Growth Charts: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—This report presents the revised growth charts for the United States. It summarizes the history of the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts, reasons for the revision, data sources and statistical procedures used, and major features of the revised charts. Methods—Data from five national health examination surveys collected from 1963 to 1994 and five supplementary data sources

Robert J. Kuczmarski; Cynthia L. Ogden; Laurence M. Grummer-Strawn; Katherine M. Flegal; Shumei S. Guo; Rong Wei; Zuguo Mei; Lester R. Curtin; Alex F. Roche; Clifford L. Johnson

2000-01-01

152

Irrigation in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beginning with the Mormon colonization of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, in 1847, irrigation has been a significant part of agriculture in the United States. Most of the Nation's irrigated acreage has always been located in the arid and semiarid regions of the W...

D. M. Lea

1985-01-01

153

Mental Health, United States, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

154

The Changing United States Diet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

1978-01-01

155

Accreditation in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accreditation is a process of external quality review created and used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and programs for quality assurance and quality improvement. Accreditation in the United States is more than a hundred years old, emerging from concerns to protect public health and safety and to serve the public…

Eaton, Judith S.

2009-01-01

156

Geological Stress State Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The stress state is an important controlling factor on the slip behavior of faults and fractures in the earth’s crust and\\u000a hence on the productivity of faulted and fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. Uncertain or poorly constrained estimates of stress\\u000a states can lead to high risk both in drilling and production costs. Current methods for stress tensor estimation rely on slip\\u000a vector

John McFarland; Alan Morris; Barron Bichon; David Riha; David Ferrill; Ronald McGinnis

157

Daily Streamflow Conditions Map of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time data of streamflow conditions as measured at USGS gauging stations around the country. By selecting areas within a state on the map, users receive daily provisional data (which may be subject to revision) on current conditions and flood thresh-holds, as well as streamflow, stage, and rainfall graphs. Historic data and tabulated summaries are also available for the entire state as well as individual stations.

158

Characterization of Venera 15/16 geologic units from Pioneer Venus reflectivity and roughness data  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of geologic units defined for the Venus surface on the basis of Venera 15/16 image data is presently conducted in light of Pioneer Venus reflectivity and rms slope data. Four geologic-unit groups are distinguished: smooth rocky units, rough ones, rough high-dielectric units, and diffusely-scattering ones. Models have been tested for the surface-property origins of several units, and it is determined that plains and tectonic units may be contrasted in terms not only of surface roughness but of surface-roughening tectonic deformation that appears to dominate the erosional regime of Venus. 41 references.

Bindschadler, D.L.; Head, J.W.

1989-01-01

159

Characterization of Venera 15/16 geologic units from Pioneer Venus reflectivity and roughness data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of geologic units defined for the Venus surface on the basis of Venera 15/16 image data is presently conducted in light of Pioneer Venus reflectivity and rms slope data. Four geologic-unit groups are distinguished: smooth rocky units, rough ones, rough high-dielectric units, and diffusely-scattering ones. Models have been tested for the surface-property origins of several units, and it is determined that plains and tectonic units may be contrasted in terms not only of surface roughness but of surface-roughening tectonic deformation that appears to dominate the erosional regime of Venus.

Bindschadler, D. L.; Head, J. W.

1989-01-01

160

United States National Seismic Hazard Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many persons are interested in seismic hazard maps, including geologists, everyday citizens, and persons working in the insurance and actuarial fields. This site will be of great interest to all of those persons, as it contains the national seismic hazard maps created by the United States Geological Survey. User can view the latest series of maps via their homepage, and then proceed to look over their on-line web tools that will allow individuals to assess which sources might pose the greatest hazard in a given region of the country. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors will find handy resources that include "Earthquake Hazards 101" and detailed hazard maps of urban areas. Additionally, the site also includes maps which predict the median level of ground shaking from a particular scenario event and a series of maps which forecast the likelihood of an earthquake rupture occurring during an interval of time in the future.

2008-09-10

161

Sterilization in the United States  

PubMed Central

Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options.

Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

2008-01-01

162

Mayflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of several groups of flying insects. Mayflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of all three sites. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

163

Map of assessed shale gas in the United States, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale-gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012 as part of the National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered gas within shale-gas assessment units. These shale-gas assessment units are mapped, and square-mile cells are shown to represent proprietary shale-gas wells. The square-mile cells include gas-producing wells from shale intervals. In some cases, shale-gas formations contain gas in deeper parts of a basin and oil at shallower depths (for example, the Woodford Shale and the Eagle Ford Shale). Because a discussion of shale oil is beyond the scope of this report, only shale-gas assessment units and cells are shown. The map can be printed as a hardcopy map or downloaded for interactive analysis in a Geographic Information System data package using the ArcGIS map document (file extension MXD) and published map file (file extension PMF). Also available is a publications access table with hyperlinks to current U.S. Geological Survey shale gas assessment publications and web pages. Assessment results and geologic reports are available as completed at the U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program Web Site, http://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx. A historical perspective of shale gas activity in the United States is documented and presented in a video clip included as a PowerPoint slideshow.

U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources Team; Compiled by Biewick, Laura R. H.

2013-01-01

164

Introduction to the Cretaceous Geology of Texas and Other States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this site is to form a database for Cretaceous rocks of North America. The site provides a discussion of Cretaceous stratigraphy with maps and cross sections that illustrate Cretaceous formations of Texas and an extensive bibliography for additional information. Diagrams and discussions of Cretaceous geology in several states can also be accessed by clicking on the appropriate state in the navigation bar to the left.

Minor, Keith; Cretaceousfossils.com

165

Phosphate rock resources of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern Coastal Plain phosphate province, principally in Florida and North Carolina and offshore in the shallow Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina to southern Florida. This resource is considered to be hypothetical because it is based on geologic inference combined with sparse drilling data. Total resources of phosphate rock in the United States are sufficient to supply domestic demands for the foreseeable future, provided that drilling is done to confirm hypothetical resources and the chemistry of the deposits is determined. Mining and beneficiation techniques will have to be modified or improved, and new techniques will have to be developed so that these deposits can be profitably exploited.

Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

1984-01-01

166

The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded about each unit includes its rank, parentage, previous and alternative names and usage, geochronological age, lithology, environment of deposition / mode of origin, thickness, boundaries, type and reference localities and sections, geographical distribution, associated landforms, and literature references. BGS geoscientists use a web-based 'sandbox' system to write and revise definitions. The Lexicon currently stores information on approximately 13,400 geological units that BGS considers to be 'current', with cross references to some 6,000 other names that are considered to be obsolete or alternative names. The entries span the entire preserved geological history of the UK from Archaean to Recent, onshore and offshore.

McCormick, T.

2012-12-01

167

Geologic Maps and Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to resources on geologic mapping, and to sources of geologic maps. There is an introduction to geologic mapping, which summarizes its principles and practices, and a history of United States Geological Survey (USGS) mapping activities from 1879 to the present, as well as links to papers on the values and hazards associated with geologic maps and mapping. Online sources of maps include the USGS Geologic Map Database, other federal map products (FEDMAP), state geological survey products (STATEMAP), and university map products (EDMAP).

168

Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Godoy, A. M.

1983-01-01

169

Homogenity of geological units with respect to the radon risk in the Walloon region of Belgium.  

PubMed

In the process of mapping indoor radon risk, an important step is to define geological units well-correlated with indoor radon. The present paper examines this question for the Walloon region of Belgium, using a database of more than 18,000 indoor radon measurements. With a few exceptions like the Carboniferous (to be divided into Tournaisian, Visean and Namurian-Westphalian) and the Tertiary (in which all Series may be treated together), the Series/Epoch stratigraphic level is found to be the most appropriate geological unit to classify the radon risk. A further division according to the geological massif or region is necessary to define units with a reasonable uniformity of the radon risk. In particular, Paleozoic series from Cambrian to Devonian show strong differences between different massifs. Local hot-spots are also observed in the Brabant massif. Finally, 35 geological units are defined according to their radon risk, 6 of which still present a clear weak homogeneity. In the case of 4 of these units (Jurassic, Middle Devonian of Condroz and of Fagne-Famenne, Ordovician of the Stavelot massif) homogeneity is moderate, but the data are strongly inhomogeneous for Visean in Condroz and in the Brabant massif. The 35 geological units are used in an ANOVA analysis, to evaluate the part of indoor radon variability which can be attributed to geology. The result (15.4-17.7%) agrees with the values observed in the UK. PMID:24953229

Tondeur, François; Cinelli, Giorgia; Dehandschutter, Boris

2014-10-01

170

United States Society on Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Society on Dams (USSD) is a professional organization that promotes the advancement of dam engineering and technology, and fosters public awareness of the importance of dams. The best feature on the society's home page is its excellent introduction to dams and their benefits. First, a short definition of a dam is given, and then some reasons for their construction are outlined with specific examples. There are many pictures of dams across the country, and most have explanations for their importance. Hydroelectric power as a renewable resource is discussed in detail. This Web site is a good learning resource for both kids and adults.

2002-01-01

171

Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database summarizes geologic, geomorphic, and geographic information for about 2,000 Quaternary faults and folds in the United States. These structures are believed to be sources of magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes during the Quaternary Period (the past 1,600,000 years). Maps of these geologic structures are linked to detailed descriptions, including geologic setting, fault orientation, fault type, sense of movement, slip rate, recurrence (repeat) interval, and the time of the most recent surface-faulting event. The database is searchable by using an interactive map viewer, a state/regional interactive map, or a text-based search. There is also a link to a fact sheet that provides information about the database.

172

Stoneflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of flying insects. This site, Stoneflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of this site, with collaboration by Dr. Richard Baumann of Brigham Young University. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

173

Crater-based dating of geological units on Mars: Methods and application for the new global geological map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new, post-Viking generation of Mars orbital imaging and topographical data provide significant higher-resolution details of surface morphologies, which induced a new effort to photo-geologically map the surface of Mars at 1:20,000,000 scale. Although from unit superposition relations a relative stratigraphical framework can be compiled, it was the ambition of this mapping project to provide absolute unit age constraints through crater statistics. In this study, the crater counting method is described in detail, starting with the selection of image data, type locations (both from the mapper's and crater counter's perspectives) and the identification of impact craters. We describe the criteria used to validate and analyse measured crater populations, and to derive and interpret crater model ages. We provide examples of how geological information about the unit's resurfacing history can be retrieved from crater size-frequency distributions. Three cases illustrate short-, intermediate, and long-term resurfacing histories. In addition, we introduce an interpretation-independent visualisation of the crater resurfacing history that uses the reduction of the crater population in a given size range relative to the expected population given the observed crater density at larger sizes. From a set of potential type locations, 48 areas from 22 globally mapped units were deemed suitable for crater counting. Because resurfacing ages were derived from crater statistics, these secondary ages were used to define the unit age rather than the base age. Using the methods described herein, we modelled ages that are consistent with the interpreted stratigraphy. Our derived model ages allow age assignments to be included in unit names. We discuss the limitations of using the crater dating technique for global-scale geological mapping. Finally, we present recommendations for the documentation and presentation of crater statistics in publications.

Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

2013-07-01

174

U.S. Geological Survey: Science in Your State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of scientific reference materials for the 50 states and some territories in the U.S. For each state, there is a section of real-time data that includes current stream flow conditions, drought and flood watches, ground water data, and current natural hazards information. A facts section provides basic geographic and demographic information such as land area, highest and lowest points, population, capital, and others. There is also a selection of links to maps and tools, and additional information on each state's geology, ecology, natural resources, and natural hazards.

175

Method for Estimating Pesticide Use for County Areas of the Conterminous United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the amount and distribution of pesticide compounds used throughout the United States is essential to evaluate the relation between water quality and pesticide use. This information is the basis of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water...

G. P. Thelin L. P. Gianessi

2000-01-01

176

75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...District of New York in United States of America, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.,...

2010-10-13

177

76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed...on the proposed Final Judgment in United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.,...

2011-07-01

178

A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the lithologic character of such units in a meaningful way. A lithogenetic unit category scheme accessible as a GeoSciML-portrayal-based OGC Styled Layer Description resource is key to enabling OneGeology (http://oneGeology.org) geologic map services to achieve a high degree of visual harmonization.

Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

2012-12-01

179

National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in the conterminous United States, excluding the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The data set represents the areas studied during the first decade of the NAWQA Program, from 1991-2001 ("cycle 1").

Hitt, K.J.; Nakagaki, N.

2006-01-01

180

The United States Lighthouse Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Twenty-five years strong, and with an interest in lighthouses throughout the world, the United States Lighthouse Society (USLHS) has a website that informs the public about restoration projects, tours of lighthouses, and the complete subject index to the Society's magazine, the Keeper's Log. The USHLS is a "non-profit historical and educational organization incorporated to educate, inform, and entertain those who are interested in lighthouses, past and present." The "Projects" section of the website is a must-see for visitors, as it contains the history, old and new photos, and restorative needs of each lighthouse, or lightship, as the case may be. The project "LV605" is the restoration effort for one of the few remaining lightships, which were floating lighthouses in waters where a lighthouse was impractical, because of depth, cost, or currents. There are many pictures of these lightships, and a history of these unique vessels is also included.

181

Coal mine bumps: Five case studies in the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Bureau of Mines study was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the coal mine bump problem and its effect on underground coal mining in the Eastern United States. Information was collected on the geologic conditions, mining techniques, and engineering parameters at five bump-prone mines. Two geologic conditions have been found to cause the occurrence of bumps in the

Alan A. Campoli; Carla A. Kertis; Claude A. Goode

1987-01-01

182

Coal mine bumps: Five case studies in the eastern United States. Information circular\\/1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines study was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the coal mine bump problem and its effect on underground coal mining in the Eastern United States. To accomplish this, information was collected on the geologic conditions, mining techniques, and engineering parameters at five bump-prone mines. Two geologic conditions have been found to cause the occurrence of

A. A. Campoli; C. A. Kertis; C. A. Goode

1987-01-01

183

United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies  

SciTech Connect

The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.

Brunton, G.D.

1981-01-01

184

The National Atlas of the United States of America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1970 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published The National Atlas of the United States of America™. It was a 400-page, oversized, 12-pound collection of maps. In 1998, a new and innovative National Atlas will be published. This edition will include both electronic and paper map products and will exploit information management, access, and delivery technologies that didn't exist in 1970.

U.S. Geological Survey

1997-01-01

185

Physical Regions and Features of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line physical geography textbook is an outgrowth of "Natural Landscapes of the United States," 5th Ed. by James Henry and Joann Mossa (Kendall/Hunt, 1995). The text has been rewritten and new illustrations incorporate geospatial data obtained from NASA, the National Atlas of the U.S., and U.S. Geological Survey web sites. As of March 2008 the text covers only the eastern U.S.

Henry, James; Wylie, Miller; Abolins, Mark

186

Mapping the radon potential of the United States: Examples from the Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geologic radon potential of the United States was recently assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Results indicate that approximately 33% of the U.S. population lives within geologic provinces where the average indoor radon levels have the potential to be greater than 4 pCi\\/L (147 Bq\\/m3). Rock types most commonly associated with high indoor radon include: 1) Uraniferous metamorphosed sediments,

Linda C. S. Gundersen; R. Randall Schumann

1996-01-01

187

Radar penetrates only the youngest geological units on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signals from the Shallow Radar were intended to penetrate hundreds of meters or more into Mars, but subsurface reflections are abundant only in known or inferred ice-rich units and young (middle to late Amazonian), apparently pristine, volcanic units. As volcanic units age, fewer subsurface reflections are detected. Also, no subsurface reflections are detected from any northern hemisphere units inferred to be altered by water. We suggest that the general lack of subsurface reflections on Mars is not likely an indication that the shallow interior is devoid of structure and stratigraphy but rather an indication that dielectric contrasts cannot be detected due to signal attenuation originating from scattering and/or absorption. We constrained the attenuation rate in regions with no subsurface reflections to 0.065-0.27 dB/m. This corresponds to scattering losses from meter-scale fractures and/or lithologic density variations of 0.27-1.03 g/cm3. Alternatively, our laboratory measurements have shown that three monolayers of adsorbed water on 2.2-14 vol % smectite clays can completely absorb radar energy and would be equivalent to a global water layer just ˜0.2-0.6 m thick. We suggest that the increased attenuation in volcanic units comes from an increase in fracture density. Attenuation in water-altered units may be due to the greater heterogeneity in sedimentary units and/or chemical alteration that has formed high-surface-area smectites capable of holding the necessary amount of adsorbed water. Overall, the lack of widespread, deep subsurface reflections is due to the more Earth-like radar properties of Mars, as compared to the Moon-like properties that were anticipated.

Stillman, David E.; Grimm, Robert E.

2011-03-01

188

Annual report to the Pecos River Commission on investigations being made in New Mexico and Texas by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pecos River Commission: calendar year 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes investigations in New Mexico and Texas made by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pecos River Commission during the 1976 calendar year and provides a summary of costs for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976.

U.S. Geological Survey

1976-01-01

189

Neurocysticercosis in the United States  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is typically considered a disease of the developing world. Nonetheless, NCC is also diagnosed in the developed world. The rise in the number of cases of NCC in developed countries, especially in the United States of America, has largely been driven by the influx of immigrants from endemic to non-endemic regions and the widespread access to neuroimaging. Cases of local transmission have also been documented particularly in the setting of a tapeworm carrier present in the household, which highlights the relevance of NCC as a public health problem in the USA. Although accurate incidence data in the USA are not available, estimates range from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 100?000 general population and 1.5–5.8 cases per 100?000 Hispanics. We estimate that between 1320 and 5050 new cases of NCC occur every year in the USA. The number of NCC cases reported in the literature in the USA increased from 1494 prior to 2004 to 4632 after that date. Parenchymal cases remain the most commonly reported form of the disease; however, a slight increase in the percentage of extraparenchymal cases has been described in the most recent series. NCC is associated with significant morbidity resulting from hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, and seizures. Although uncommon, NCC is also a cause of premature death in the USA with a calculated annual age-adjusted mortality rate of at least 0.06 per million population.

Serpa, Jose A; White, A Clinton

2012-01-01

190

Geologic mapping of the northern leading hemisphere of Europa from Galileo solid-state imaging data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern leading hemisphere of Europa was imaged at regional mapping resolution (~230 m\\/pixel) by the Galileo spacecraft SSI camera. We produced geologic maps from a regional-scale mosaic and a high resolution inset of this region. Twelve geologic units were sufficient to produce correlative geologic maps at both regional and local scales. Stratigraphic relationships indicate four major episodes in the

Patricio H. Figueredo; Ronald Greeley

2000-01-01

191

Variability of Distributions of Well-Scale Estimated Ultimate Recovery for Continuous (Unconventional) Oil and Gas Resources in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data. This publication uses those 132 continuous oil and gas assessmen...

2012-01-01

192

31 CFR 539.312 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United...

2013-07-01

193

Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with support from NatureServe, has modeled the potential distribution of 419 terrestrial ecosystems for the conterminous United States using a comprehensive biophysical stratification approach that identifies distinct biophysical environments and associates them with known vegetation distributions (Sayre and others, 2009). This standardized ecosystem mapping effort used an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe (Comer and others, 2003). The ecosystem mapping methodology was developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and is now being implemented globally (Sayre and others, 2007). The biophysical stratification approach is based on mapping the major structural components of ecosystems (land surface forms, topographic moisture potential, surficial lithology, isobioclimates and biogeographic regions) and then spatially combining them to produce a set of unique biophysical environments. These physically distinct areas are considered as the fundamental structural units ('building blocks') of ecosystems, and are subsequently aggregated and labeled using the NatureServe classification. The structural footprints were developed from the geospatial union of several base layers including biogeographic regions, isobioclimates (Cress and others, 2009a), land surface forms (Cress and others, 2009b), topographic moisture potential (Cress and others, 2009c), and surficial lithology (Cress and others, in press). Among the 49,168 unique structural footprint classes that resulted from the union, 13,482 classes met a minimum pixel count threshold (20,000 pixels) and were aggregated into 419 NatureServe ecosystems using a semiautomated labeling process based on rule-set formulations for attribution of each ecosystem. The resulting ecosystems are those that are expected to occur based on the combination of the bioclimate, biogeography, and geomorphology. Where land use by humans has not altered land cover, natural vegetation assemblages are expected to occur, and these are described in the ecosystems classification. The map does not show the distribution of urban and agricultural areas - these will be masked out in subsequent analyses to depict the current land cover in addition to the potential distribution of natural ecosystems. This map depicts the smoothed and generalized image of the terrestrial ecosystems dataset. Additional information about this map and any data developed for the ecosystems modeling of the conterminous United States is available online at: http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/ecosystems/.

Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Cress, Jill; Warner, Harumi

2010-01-01

194

Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 1995 Profile Hypertext Format Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States ... Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States series are available on the publication ...

195

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 2001 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States ... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001 This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

196

National Geothermal Data System: State Geological Survey Contributions to Date  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists the Arizona Geological Survey is leading the effort to bring legacy geothermal data to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). NGDS is a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers entering its final stages of development. Once completed the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. This presentation focuses on the scientific and data integration methodology as well as State Geological Survey contributions to date. The NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community and with other emerging data integration and networking efforts. Core to the USGIN concept is that of data provenance; by allowing data providers to maintain and house their data. After concluding the second year of the project, we have nearly 800 datasets representing over 2 million data points from the state geological surveys. A new AASG specific search catalog based on popular internet search formats enables end users to more easily find and identify geothermal resources in a specific region. Sixteen states, including a consortium of Great Basin states, have initiated new field data collection for submission to the NGDS. The new field data includes data from at least 21 newly drilled thermal gradient holes in previously unexplored areas. Most of the datasets provided to the NGDS are being portrayed as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS), meaning that the data is compatible with a variety of visualization software. Web services are ideal for the NGDS data for a number of reasons including that they preserve data ownership in that they are read only and new services can be deployed to meet new requirements without modifying existing applications.

Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Clark, R.; Love, D.; Coleman, C.; Caudill, C.; Matti, J.; Musil, L.; Day, J.; Chen, G.

2012-12-01

197

Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 26 natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Central U.S. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which began with U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2006-01-01

198

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

2006-01-01

199

Annual hydroclimatology of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the annual hydroclimatology of the United States is provided. Time series of monthly streamflow, temperature, and precipitation are developed for 1337 watersheds in the United States. This unique data set is then used to evaluate several approaches for estimating the long-term water balance and the interannual variability of streamflow. Traditional relationships which predict either actual evapotranspiration or

A. Sankarasubramanian; Richard M. Vogel

2002-01-01

200

Health, United States, 1980 with Prevention Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health, United States, 1980 is the fifth annual report on the health status of the Nation submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress of the United States in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Servic...

1980-01-01

201

Medical Licensing Examinations in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses examination requirements for medical licensure in the United States, focusing on the exam components related to assessment of hands-on clinical skills with patients and assessment of medical decision-making skills. Provides a brief history of medical licensing exams, describes the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and…

Melnick, Donald E.; Dillon, Gerard F.; Swanson, David B.

2002-01-01

202

Laboratory Accreditation in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper, the third in a series that includes NBSIR 87-3576, The ABC's of Standards-Related Activities in the United States, and NBSIR 88-3821, The ABC's of Certification Activities in the United States, is designed to provide information on laboratory a...

M. A. Breitenberg

1991-01-01

203

Human Milk Banking in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 30 milk banks existed in the early 1980s in the United States, whereas seven banks currently exist in the United States and one in Canada. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in human milk banks as evidenced by the number of institutions in various stages of developing new human milk banks. During 2003, North American milk banks

Kim Updegrove

2005-01-01

204

STATE SOIL GEOGRAPHIC (STATSGO) DATA BASE FOR THECOTERNIMOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produce...

205

Earthquakes in the Central United States, 1699-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication is an update of an earlier report, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Geologic Investigation I-2812 by Wheeler and others (2003), titled ?Earthquakes in the Central United States-1699-2002.? Like the original poster, the center of the updated poster is a map showing the pattern of earthquake locations in the most seismically active part of the central United States. Arrayed around the map are short explanatory texts and graphics, which describe the distribution of historical earthquakes and the effects of the most notable of them. The updated poster contains additional, post 2002, earthquake data. These are 38 earthquakes covering the time interval from January 2003 to June 2010, including the Mount Carmel, Illinois, earthquake of 2008. The USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) was the source of these additional data. Like the I-2812 poster, this poster was prepared for a nontechnical audience and designed to inform the general public as to the widespread occurrence of felt and damaging earthquakes in the Central United States. Accordingly, the poster should not be used to assess earthquake hazard in small areas or at individual locations.

Dart, Richard L.; Volpi, Christina M.

2010-01-01

206

United States Vital Records Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amateur genealogists beginning their searches through the vital records at the state or county level will find useful resources on this web site. Organized by state and then by county, these pages present instructions on how to make inquiries concerning vital records. In addition to general guidelines on what data to include in a request for birth, marital, and death records, each state's page has addresses for both state and county records offices and information about fees. All fifty states and several US possessions are included. There are also links to other local and national genealogy resources, as well as state and local historical societies, which can often be a good source for genealogical information.

207

Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

Bergman, Jennifer

2009-08-03

208

Airport geomagnetic surveys in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS) personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military documents, such as Handbook 1021/1, but the major requirement is that the range of declination measured within 75 meters of the center of a compass rose be less than or equal to 30 minutes of arc. The USGS Geomagnetism Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T-0. The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site. Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. ?? 2006 Springer.

Berarducci, A.

2006-01-01

209

Distribution and relations of 4- to 10-km-diameter craters to global geologic units of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

By correlating the 1:25,000,000 geologic map of Mars of Scott and Carr (1977) with 4- to 10-km-diameter crater density data from Mariner 9 images, the average crater density for 23 of the equatorial geologic-geomorphic units on Mars was computed. The correlation of these two data sets was accomplished by digitizing both the crater density data and geologic map at the same scale and by comparing them in a computer. This technique assigns the crater density value found in the corresponding location on the geologic data set to a discrete computer file assigned each of the 23 geologic units. By averaging the crater density values accumulated in each file, an "average" crater density for each geologic unit was obtained. Condit believes these average crater density values are accurate indicators of the relative age of the geologic units considered. The statistical validity of these average values is strongest for the geologic units of the largest areal extent. The relative ages as obtained from the average crater density values for the seven largest geologic units, from youngest to oldest, are: Tharsis volcanic material, 21 ?? 4 craters/106km2; smooth plains material, 57 ?? 14 craters/106km2; rolling plains material, 66 ?? 16 craters/106km2; plains materials, 80 ?? 17 craters/106km2; ridged plains material, 128 ?? 25 craters/106km2; hilly and cratered material, 137 ?? 38 craters/106km2; and cratered plateau material, 138 ?? 27 craters/106km2. ?? 1978.

Condit, C. D.

1978-01-01

210

Intranets and Extranets at State Libraries in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an analysis of Intranets and Extranets at selected state libraries in the United States. The paper does not review World Wide Web sites designed for use by the general public; rather, it focuses on Web sites designed and delivered by the state library to a targeted audience, typically state government employees, state library…

Bolt, Nancy M.

211

Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

212

Mapping the radon potential of the united states: Examples from the Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic radon potential of the United States was recently assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Results indicate that approximately 33% of the U.S. population lives within geologic provinces where the average indoor radon levels have the potential to be greater than 4 pCi/L (147 Bq/m3). Rock types most commonly associated with high indoor radon include: 1) Uraniferous metamorphosed sediments, volcanics, and granite intrusives, especially those that are highly deformed or sheared. 2) Glacial deposits derived from uranium-bearing rocks and sediments. 3) Carboniferous, black shales. 4) Soils derived from carbonate rock, especially in karstic terrain. 5) Uraniferous fluvial, deltaic, marine, and lacustrine deposits. Different geologic terrains of the eastern United States illustrate some of the problems inherent in correlating indoor radon with geology. The Central and Southern Appalachian Highlands of the eastern United States have not been glaciated and most soils there are saprolitic, derived directly from the underlying bedrock. Regression analyses of bedrock geologic and radon parameters yield positive correlations (R > 0.5 to 0.9) and indicate that bedrock geology can account for a significant portion of the indoor radon variation. In glaciated areas of the United States such as the northern Appalachian Highlands and Appalachian Plateau, the correlation of bedrock geology to indoor radon is obscured or is positive only in certain cases. In these glaciated areas of the country, it is the type, composition, thickness, and permeability of glacial deposits, rather than the bedrock geology, that controls the radon source.

Gundersen, L. C. S.; Schumann, R. R.

1997-01-01

213

National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in the conterminous United States, excluding the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The data set represents the areas to be studied during the second cycle of the NAWQA Program, from 2001-2012 ("cycle 2").

Hitt, K.J.; Nakagaki, N.

2006-01-01

214

Terrestrial Ecosystems-Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification of the lithology of surficial materials to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States. The ecosystems classification used in this effort was developed by NatureServe. A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. This ecosystem mapping methodology is transparent, replicable, and rigorous. Surficial lithology strongly influences the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, and is one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. These surficial lithology classes were derived from the USGS map 'Surficial Materials in the Conterminous United States,' which was based on texture, internal structure, thickness, and environment of deposition or formation of materials. This original map was produced from a compilation of regional surficial and bedrock geology source maps using broadly defined common map units for the purpose of providing an overview of the existing data and knowledge. For the terrestrial ecosystem effort, the 28 lithology classes of Soller and Reheis (2004) were generalized and then reclassified into a set of 17 lithologies that typically control or influence the distribution of vegetation types.

Cress, Jill; Soller, David; Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

2010-01-01

215

United States' National Interests in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central Asia consists of five newly independent states situated between Russia, China, and Iran halfway around the world from the United States. For the last eight years, the Central Asian States (CAS) have been the object of considerable attention from t...

R. B. Stephens

2000-01-01

216

Tritium rainout over the United States in 1962 and 1963  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnitude and frequency of floods are defined regionally for small streams (drainage This report describes the tritium sampling network established by the U.S. Geological Survey. Tritium rainout data are included for 1962 and 1963 precipitation collected at 15 stations in the United States and Puerto Rico. These data are presented graphically to show seasonal variations and geographic distribution patterns for 1963 tritium rainout. Total tritium rainout during 1963 was considerably higher than it was in previous years. Peak tritium concentrations in late spring or early summer of 1963 were higher by a factor of three or more over concentrations measured in 1962.

Stewart, G. L.; Hoffman, C. M.

1966-01-01

217

Transcontinental Tidal Gravity Profile across the United States.  

PubMed

Data obtained from a transcontinental tidal gravity profile across the United States were analyzed. Results for the principal tidal constituents M(2) and O(1) have shed light on the long-standing problem of the indirect influence of ocean tides on the solid-earth tide. The profile consists of nine observational stations distributed almost evenly around latitudes 39 to 41 degrees north across the United States. The observed values of the gravimetric factor and the phase were found to depend on the tidal characteristics of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. There is no observable correlation between tidal gravity parameters and the regional geology. When the influence of ocean tides is taken into account, it is possible for the first time to bring the gravimetric factors and phases for all the stations of a transcontinental network into a consistent system within the framework of the earth tidal theory. PMID:17844186

Kuo, J T; Jachens, R C; Ewing, M; White, G

1970-05-22

218

Study of uranium oxidation states in geological material.  

PubMed

A wet chemical method to determine uranium (U) oxidation states in geological material has been developed and tested. The problem faced in oxidation state determinations with wet chemical methods is that U redox state may change when extracted from the sample material, thereby leading to erroneous results. In order to quantify and monitor U redox behavior during the acidic extraction in the procedure, an analysis of added isotopic redox tracers, (236)U(VI) and (232)U(IV), and of variations in natural uranium isotope ratio ((234)U/(238)U) of indigenous U(IV) and U(VI) fractions was performed. Two sample materials with varying redox activity, U bearing rock and U-rich clayey lignite sediment, were used for the tests. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox-pair of the mineral phases was postulated as a potentially disturbing redox agent. The impact of Fe(III) on U was studied by reducing Fe(III) with ascorbic acid, which was added to the extraction solution. We observed that ascorbic acid protected most of the U from oxidation. The measured (234)U/(238)U ratio in U(IV) and U(VI) fractions in the sediment samples provided a unique tool to quantify U oxidation caused by Fe(III). Annealing (sample heating) to temperatures above 500 °C was supposed to heal ionizing radiation induced defects in the material that can disturb U redox state during extraction. Good agreement between two independent methods was obtained for DL-1a material: an average 38% of U(IV) determined by redox tracer corrected wet chemistry and 45% for XANES. PMID:23727766

Pidchenko, I; Salminen-Paatero, S; Rothe, J; Suksi, J

2013-10-01

219

State of Disparities in Cardiovascular Health in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Reducing health disparities remains a major public health challenge in the United States. Having timely access to current data on disparities is important for policy and program development. Accordingly, we assessed the current magnitude of disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in the United States. Methods and Results—Using national surveys, we determined CVD and risk factor prevalence

George A. Mensah; Ali H. Mokdad; Earl S. Ford; Kurt J. Greenlund; Janet B. Croft

220

Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs.

Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

1985-06-01

221

Day Pass through Western United States  

NASA Video Gallery

This video over the Western United States was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Sept. 24, 2011, from 17:45:14 to 17:54:1...

222

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2011. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2012-01-01

223

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2010. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2011-01-01

224

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2012. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2012-01-01

225

Geothermal Gradient MAP of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geothermal gradient map is needed in order to determine the hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource of the United States. Based on published and unpublished data (including new measurements) the HDR program will produce updated gradient maps annually, to...

A. Kron G. Heiken

1980-01-01

226

Protecting United States Interests in Antarctica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis begins by presenting a geographic overview of the physical features and resources in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Next, it details the history of claims and interests over Antarctic territory, with particular emphasis on United States ac...

R. W. Scott

1988-01-01

227

United States Animal Health Report, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reporta national overview of domestic animal health in the United States for 2004is a direct result of an external review of the Nations animal health safeguarding system. The Animal Health Safeguarding Review assessed the performance, processes, and...

2004-01-01

228

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication, Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2006, presents summary data for TB cases reported to DTBE, verified, and counted in 2006. It is similar to previous publications and contains six major sections. The first section presents tren...

2006-01-01

229

Antarctic Journal of the United States  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Antarctic Journal of the United States Type : Antarctic Journal NSF Org: OD / OPP Date ... of the journal published is listed below. Authors are indicated for those articles not prepared by ...

230

Shift Work Practices in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The types and distribution of shiftwork systems and the distribution of workers within the major shiftwork industries and service groups in the United States were determined. Sources of data utilized in fulfilling this task were government agencies, manag...

D. L. Tasto M. J. Colligan

1977-01-01

231

Cryogenics in United States National Programmes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the importance of cryogenics to national programmes, such as space, health, agriculture, transportation, conservation, and education. The purpose is to demonstrate the inter-relation between the cryogenic industry and United States ...

T. M. Flynn B. W. Birmingham

1968-01-01

232

Chartbook on Disability in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for available statistics on disability is growing. Researchers, legislators, manufacturers, and the general public are becoming increasingly aware of disability in the United States. The report is intended as a reference publication on basic disa...

L. E. Kraus S. Stoddard

1989-01-01

233

Industrial motor repair in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

1994-09-01

234

The United States Requirements for Polar Icebreakers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was performed to determine the requirements for United States Coast Guard icebreakers in polar regions for the time period 1973-2000. Of the organizations queried that were associated with economic resources and planning, none could provide any...

1967-01-01

235

Preserving the United States's poison control system.  

PubMed

The funding of United States's poison control centers is threatened. The following Commentary argues for support of the current outstanding poison control system by presenting the evidence for its cost-effectiveness. PMID:21563903

Woolf, Alan D; Karnes, David K; Kirrane, Barbara M

2011-04-01

236

Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the strategic significance of dealing effectively with the American debt and deficit, by first describing the background of our current government approach to the economy, then examining the current projections for United States' spen...

J. P. Caraway

2010-01-01

237

Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.

Bodzin, Alec M.

2001-01-01

238

STATUS OF BROMETHALIN OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bromethalin has been extensively researched over the past decade in the United States, Switzerland, England, Denmark, and France. United States EPA registrations were received in 1982 and commercial pelleted formulations containing 0.01% bromethalin were developed and introduced in the USA by Ralston Purina (ASSAULT1*) in 1985 and Velsicol (VENGEANCE1*) in 1986. Ciba-Geigy is currently developing new formulations under the tradename

S. R. Spaulding; H. Spannring

1988-01-01

239

The United States astronomical community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The personnel, institutions, recent history, and projects of the U.S. astronomical community are surveyed. The roles in astronomy of people with different degrees is examined. The founding of major institutions such as NSF and NASA and of major observatories such as NRAO and CTIO is recounted, and the state of the system today is summarized. The major components of U.S. astronomy include the university system, the national astronomy center system, NASA centers, the Smithsonian Institution, government agencies, university facilities, private observatories, astronomical societies, the International Astronomical Union, astronomy amateurs and private industry. The contributions of each of these categories are discussed. Important projects of the coming decade are reviewed, and the strengths and challenges of the U.S. community are assessed.

Howard, W. E., III

1982-10-01

240

Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005  

SciTech Connect

A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-11-09

241

Fire Ecology in the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire has played an important role in the structure of natural ecosystems throughout North America. As a natural process, fire helps clear away dead and dying plant matter and increases the production of native species that occur in fire prone habitats. It also reduces the invasion of exotic species and the succession to woody species in pitcher plant bogs, pine savannas, coastal prairies, marshes, and other natural plant communities of the southeastern United States. Today we use fire as a management tool to maintain and restore the ecological structure of natural plant and animal communities. We study the effects of fire on native species to better understand the influence fire has on the structure of their communities and ecosystems. Historically, human influences have dramatically altered fire effects on the North American landscape. Native Americans used fire to change vegetation patterns prior to European colonization. Following European settlement, fire became viewed as a natural force that should be controlled. Throughout much of our Nation's history, fire has been aggressively suppressed in wildland areas to protect both public and private interests and prevent what was viewed as the destruction of grasslands, forests, and other ecosystems. Tremendous resources have been expended in attempts to prevent and control wildland fire. Yet despite these massive suppression efforts, the potential for catastrophic wildfire continues to threaten millions of acres of America's wilderness. The new Federal Wildland Fire Policy recognizes that past practices of aggressive fire suppression have led to conditions of historically unprecedented fuel loads, or burnable plant materials, in many of our Nation's natural areas. This policy calls for the reintroduction of fire on an ecologically significant scale as one of the tools for public land management. Reintroduction of prescribed fire as a land management tool is a proactive means of reducing the threat posed by wildland fire to both people and property. For the reintroduction of fire to be ecologically effective, though, it must be based on the best available science. Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center are participating in the effort to better understand the role fires play in natural systems and the effects of fire and fire exclusion on certain species. Fire research at the NWRC focuses primarily on the role of fire on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

Geological Survey (U.S.) National Wetlands Research Center

2000-01-01

242

Tornado climatology of the contiguous United States  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of tornadoes that were reported in the contiguous United States for the period from January 1, 1954, through December 31, 1983, have been computed from data in the National Severe Storms Forecast Center tornado data base. The characteristics summarized in this report include frequency and locations of tornadoes, and their lengths, widths, and areas. Tornado strike and intensity probabilities have been estimated on a regional basis, and these estimates have been used to compute wind speeds with 10/sup -5/, 10/sup -6/, and 10/sup -7/ yr/sup -1/ probabilities of occurrence. The 10/sup -7/ yr/sup -1/ wind speeds range from below 200 mph in the western United States to about 330 mph in the vicinity of Kansas and Nebraska. The appendices contain extensive tabulations of tornado statistics. Variations of the characteristics within the contiguous United States are presented in the summaries. Separate tabulations are provided for the contiguous United States, for each state, for each 5/sup 0/ and 1/sup 0/ latitude and longitude box, and for the eastern and western United States.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Andrews, G.L.

1986-05-01

243

Geology and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic mapping and descriptions of the lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas, are presented in this first detailed 1:24,000 geologic map, along with proposed names and descriptions of the hydrostratigraphic units in the study area. Variations in the amount and type of porosity of the lithostratigraphic unit, which vary depending on the depositional environment, lithology, structural history and diagenesis support the resulting hydrostratigraphy proposed herein. Rocks exposed in the study area consist of Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that are assigned to the Trinity Group. The lithostratigraphy includes the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand Members of the Pearsall Formation, and the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone. These lithologic units contain shale, grainstone, sandstone, and fossiliferous limestone, alternating and interfingering with mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. The Trinity aquifer hydrostratigraphic units shown on the map and described herein are characterized by their porosity types. Porosity types were first determined from an analysis of two boreholes conducted in comparison with 143 geophysical logs from northern Bexar County, Texas. The cores and geophysical log comparison resulted in division of the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone into six hydrostratigraphic units, designated A through F. Of those six units, only three remain in the study area because of erosion. The proposed naming of these three hydrostratigraphic units is based on topographic or historical features that occur in the outcrop area of those units. Hydrostratigraphic units that correlate with the boundaries of the formation have been given formational names excluding the lithologic modifier. The Doeppenschmidt hydrostratigraphic unit is stratigraphically the highest interval in the study area, characterized by interparticle, moldic, burrowed, bedding plane, fracture, and cave porosity. The underlying Rust hydrostratigraphic unit appears to be a confining unit with springs/seeps issuing near the contact with the overlying Doeppenschmidt unit. The Rust unit has interparticle, fracture, and cave porosity with cave porosity primarily associated with faulting. The Honey Creek hydrostratigraphic unit is an aquifer in the subsurface and exhibits extremely, well developed porosity and permeability including— interparticle, moldic, burrowed, bedding plane, fracture, channel, and cave porosity. This unit is named for Honey Creek Cave, which discharges water into Honey Creek. The Hensell hydrostratigraphic unit contains primarily interparticle porosity, but also exhibits some moldic and cave porosity in its upper parts. The Cow Creek hydrostratigraphic unit contains interparticle, moldic, vug, burrowed, fracture, bedding plane, channel, and cave porosity. The Cow Creek hydrostratigraphic unit is an aquifer in the subsurface and is the primary target for water-well drillers in the area. The Hammett hydrostratigraphic unit is not exposed in the study area but is thought to underlie parts of the Guadalupe River, based on mapping of the overlying units and comparisons with subsurface thicknesses obtained from the geophysical log. The Hammett unit restricts the downward migration of groundwater, resulting in springs that discharge at the base of the Cow Creek unit. These springs also create some base flow to the Guadalupe River during periods of extreme drought. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Miocene Balcones Fault Zone, which is an extensional system of faults that generally trend southwest to northeast in south-central Texas. An igneous dike, containing aphanitic texture, cuts through the center of the study area near the confluence of Honey Creek and the Guadalupe River. The dike penetrates the Cow Creek Limestone and the lower part of the Hensell Sand, which outcrops at three locations.

Clark, Allan K.; Blome, Charles D.; Morris, Robert R.

2014-01-01

244

Building a "geologic Library" of the Major Lithologic Units in the EL Paso Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogy and Introduction to Petrology, a sophomore level course, is being offered at El Paso Community College for the first time in the spring semester, 2014. To prepare for this, several geology major students have been establishing a "Geologic Library" to include a comprehensive accumulation of material covering the major lithologic units in the El Paso area. Students associated with the Mineralogy SOLARIS project, funded by the National Science Foundation, began this summer by collecting, cutting, slabbing, and polishing rock samples, doing geochemical analyses of all samples using the microprobe, and making petrographic thin sections of each unit collected. In addition, other SOLARIS students have been taking Giga-pan photos of the outcrops where the samples were collected, and Giga-pan photos of the polished slabs. The goal of this "Geologic Library" is to put all of this information on a website, allowing students to observe each outcrop from the Giga-pans, scroll to a close-up of the polished section, link to the geochemical analysis, and then link to photomicrographs of the thin sections.

Nieto, J.; Sanderson, E.; Cancellare, J.; Caskey, D. J.

2013-12-01

245

Scattering Properties of Lunar Geological Units Revealed by the Mini-SAR Imaging Radar, Chandrayaan-1 Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have collected data from Mini-SAR orbital radar on the surface scattering properties of several lunar geological units of varying age and origin with the aim of understanding the physical properties of the surface of the Moon.

C. J. Payne; P. D. Spudis; B. Bussey; B. J. Thomson

2010-01-01

246

Business and politics in the United States and United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  A central objective of the business mobilization of the late 1970s and early 1980s in both the United States and Great Britain\\u000a was to restore company profits to levels of an earlier decade. In the name of “reindustrialization” and “recapitalizing capitalism,”\\u000a government spending was targeted as the chief impediment to such prosperity.64 In the American case, government restraint on business

Michael Useem

1983-01-01

247

76 FR 1975 - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command Presidential Documents Federal Register...Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense...disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be...

2011-01-11

248

Copyright Law of the United States of America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contents of this publication of the United States copyright law include: (1) prefatory note; (2) Constitutional provision respecting copyright; (3) Copyright Law of the United States of America (Title 17, United States Code); (4) schedule of laws repo...

1969-01-01

249

Geologic Time: Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

1997-10-09

250

Earthquake history of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication is a history of the prominent earthquakes in the United States from historical times through 1970. It supersedes all previous editions with the same or similar titles (see page ii) and, in addition to updating earthquake listings through 1970, contains several additions and corrections to previous issues. It also brings together under a common cover earthquake data previously listed in two separate reports: Earthquake History of the United States, Part I, Stronger Earthquakes of the United States (Exclusive of California and Western Nevada) and Earthquake History of the United States, Part II, Stronger Earthquakes of California and Western Nevada. Another addition to this publication is the inclusion of a section describing earthquakes in the Puerto Rico region. For the purpose of listing and describing earthquakes, the United States has been divided into nine regions: (1) Northeastern Region, which includes New England and New York activity and observations of the principal earthquakes of eastern Canada; (2) Eastern Region, including the central Appalachian seismic region activity and the area near Charleston, S.C.; (3) Central Region, which consists of the area between the region just described and the Rocky Mountains; (4) Western Mountain Region, which includes all remaining states except those on the Pacific coast; (5) Washington and Oregon; (6) Alaska; (7) Hawaii; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) California and Western Nevada. This arrangement has been made chiefly with reference to the natural seismic divisions. It also is a convenient arrangement because there are only three states where there is an important division of earthquake activity: In Tennessee, there are quite distinct areas at opposite ends of the state that fall into different regions. Only central and eastern Nevada are included in the Western Mountain Region, as the activity of the western part is closely associated with that of California. Some earthquake activity has occurred in the part of Texas located in the Western Mountain Region. The map facing page 1 shows locations of all earthquakes in the regions that follow. A small map showing the area covered by each region immediately precedes the résumé of each chapter (except for the Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii regions). The seismic risk map below was developed in January 1969 for the conterminous United States by Dr. S. T. Algermissen of NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories. Subject to revision as continuing research warrants, it is an updated edition of a map divides the United States into four zones: Zone 0, areas with no reasonable expectancy of earthquake damage; Zone 1, expected minor damage; Zone 2, expected moderate damage; and Zone 3, major destructive earthquakes may occur.

edited by Coffman, Jerry L.; von Hake, Carl A.; Stover, Carl W.

1982-01-01

251

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Hazards & Preparedness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page points to a number of reports and maps on earthquake hazards, prediction, and preparedness. Map types include seismic hazards maps, shaking hazards maps, and shaking intensity maps. Related programs are also referenced. Other links include, latest earthquake information, general earthquake information, and earthquake research.

252

Insurance literacy in the United States.  

PubMed

Health insurance reform in the United States can be traced back to former President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 who called for universal health coverage. Since that time, various U.S. Presidents attempted to intervene to cover all Americans with some form of compulsory insurance. The election of President Barack Obama in 2008 was believed to be a beginning of a new dialog to transform health care in the United States by redesigning the insurance system in the country. The issue of insurance literacy and the need to educate citizens on insurance terminology are the focus of this article. PMID:20136026

Howard, Diane

2009-01-01

253

The United States Government Manual -- 2001/ 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) released the latest edition of the United States Government Manual on the US Government Printing Office Website September 5 (last year's edition is discussed in the September 15, 2000 Scout Report). The 693-page manual covers agencies in all three branches of the government as well as "quasi-official agencies; international organizations in which the United States participates; and boards, commissions, and committees." Agency descriptions include main officials, the agency's purpose and history, its activities, and a section entitled "Sources of Interest," which gives information such as employment, publications, and other

2001-01-01

254

Tobacco quitlines in the United States.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is the number one preventable cause of death and disability in the United States today. In 2003, the Interagency Committee on Smoking and Health recommended to establish a federally funded national tobacco quitline network by 2005. Quitlines are telephone-based programs that assist tobacco users to quit. The combination of health professionals referring patients to an accessible, evidence-based, cost-effective cessation resource can produce a substantial reduction in the number of tobacco users in the United States. Initiatives to increase knowledge and working relationships between nurses and quitlines need to be created, implemented, and evaluated. PMID:22289401

Fildes, Elizabeth E; Wilson, Marta A T; Crawford, Betty Jo; Kapella-Mshigeni, Salome; Wilson, Lisa A; Henkelman, Wallace

2012-03-01

255

Hidden hotspot track beneath the eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hotspot tracks are thought to be the surface expressions of tectonic plates moving over upwelling mantle plumes, and are characterized by volcanic activity that is age progressive. At present, most hotspot tracks are observed on oceanic or thin continental lithosphere. For old, thick continental lithosphere, such as the eastern United States, hotspot tracks are mainly inferred from sporadic diamondiferous kimberlites putatively sourced from the deep mantle. Here we use seismic waveforms initiated by the 2011 Mw 5.6 Virginia earthquake, recorded by the seismic observation network USArray, to analyse the structure of the continental lithosphere in the eastern United States. We identify an unexpected linear seismic anomaly in the lower lithosphere that has both a reduced P-wave velocity and high attenuation, and which we interpret as a hotspot track. The anomaly extends eastwards, from Missouri to Virginia, cross-cutting the New Madrid rift system, and then bends northwards. It has no clear relationship with the surface geology, but crosses a 75-million-year-old kimberlite in Kentucky. We use geodynamical modelling to show that an upwelling thermal mantle plume that interacts with the base of continental lithosphere can produce the observed seismic anomaly. We suggest that the hotspot track could be responsible for late Mesozoic reactivation of the New Madrid rift system and seismicity of the eastern United States.

Chu, Risheng; Leng, Wei; Helmberger, Don V.; Gurnis, Michael

2013-11-01

256

The MEMIN Research Unit: New results from impact cratering experiments into geological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact research Network) is focused on performing hypervelocity impact experiments, analyzing experimental impact craters and modeling cratering rocesses in geological materials. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaigns on the mesoscale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in thedecimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta.

Poelchau, M. H.; Deutsch, A.; Thoma, K.; Kenkmann, T.

2013-09-01

257

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... 1999 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999 Portable ... and Technicians in the United States: 1999 This report is available in hypertext (.htm) and ...

258

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2000  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2000 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext ... Technicians in the United States: 2000 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and ...

259

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1998  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1998 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... Technicians in the United States: 1998 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientists, Engineers, and ...

260

Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

2011-03-16

261

The United States Show Caves Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information about caves in the United States which are open to the public. The directory is arranged by state and provides locations, operating hours, and telephone numbers for all caves in the U. S. which are developed for public access. Other materials include tips for visitors, a tutorial on cave photography, and a link to the "Virtual Cave," which includes maps and photos of different types of caves.

262

MAJOR LAND USES IN THE UNITED STATES, FROM THE NATIONAL ATLAS PLATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Geological Survey offers geographical information system (GIS) polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States at a scale of 1:7,500,000. The scale of the data limits its use to broad overviews of land use. The source of the coverage is the map of major land u...

263

Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks

R. L. Wimer; M. A. Adams; D. M. Jurich

1981-01-01

264

Shear-wave splitting beneath western United States in relation to plate tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined shear wave splitting in teleseismic shear waves from 26 broadband stations in the western United States. Fast polarization directions (varphi) and delay times (deltat) show spatial variations that are coherent within geologic provinces. Stations located near the San Andreas fault show clear evidence for fault-parallel anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle (115-125 km thickness). This can

Serdar Özalaybey; Martha K. Savage

1995-01-01

265

INTEGRATING DATA LAYERS TO SUPPORT THE NATIONAL MAP OF THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of geographic data layers in multiple raster and vector formats, from many different organizations and at a variety of resolutions and scales, is a significant problem for The National Map of the United States being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Our research has examined data integration from a layer-based approach for five of The National Map data

E. Lynn Usery; Michael P. Finn; Michael Starbuck

266

Gangs in the United States and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of this report is to bring up to date portions of the material published recently (Klein, 1995) on street gangs in the United States and Europe, much of which was current only through 1992. This will be done in two ways: by reporting on new material on European street gangs gathered since 1992, 2 and by describing

Malcolm W. Klein

1996-01-01

267

Haitian Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues faced by Haitian students in the United States, examining Haiti's two distinct societies and describing the effect of Haitian culture on students of Haitian descent in U.S. public schools. Explains how children of Haitian descent must cope with U.S. education and discusses the bilingual challenge for such students. (SM)

Savain, Roger E.

1998-01-01

268

Farm Population of the United States: 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to estimates prepared by the Bureau of the Census and the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the 1982 farm population of 5,620,000, or 2.4% of the national population, continued a long downward trend. About 45% of farm residents lived in the North Central region, 35% in the South, 13% in the West,…

Banks, Vera J.; Mills, Karen M.

1983-01-01

269

Crustal structure of the northwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of the northwestern United States between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Range, which is about 1000 km in length and is between 400 and 700 km in width was examined. The western edge of the study area occupies a position approximately 250 km east of the subduction zone between the Juan De Fuca and North American lithospheric

Rufus Douglas Catchings

1987-01-01

270

Autism in the United States: a Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once rare, autism has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. The increase cannot be attributed to changes in diagnostic criteria, which have actually become more restrictive. Already a heavy burden on educational facilities, the increasing number of patients afflicted with this serious disability will have an enormous effect on the economy as the affected children reach adulthood. Studies of

F. Edward Yazbak

2003-01-01

271

Nonstandard Employment in the Nonmetropolitan United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the prevalence of nonstandard employment in the nonmetropolitan United States using the Current Population Survey Supplement on Contingent Work (1999 and 2001). We find that nonstandard work is more prevalent in nonmetropolitan than in central city or suburban areas. Logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic and work…

McLaughlin, Diane K.; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha J.

2008-01-01

272

United States Cancer Statistics - SEER Publications  

Cancer.gov

SEER is an authoratitive source of information on cancer incidence and survival in the United States. SEER currently collects and publishes cancer incidence and survival data from population-based cancer registries covering approximately 28 percent of the U.S. population.

273

United States Park Police: A History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Park Police is a unique organization within the National Park Service (NPS). It is the oldest NPS component, predating its adoptive parent by half a century (or more, some would argue). Its personnel wear distinctive uniforms, perform sp...

B. Mackintosh

1989-01-01

274

Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and data collected in 2008 and earlier in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Previous U.S. Census Bureau reports on this topic were based on…

Crissey, Sarah R.

2009-01-01

275

United States Average Wind Power by Season.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These wind resource maps are based on a synthesis of 12 regional assessments covering the United States and its territories. The four seasons are defined as: Winter-December, January, and February; Spring-March, April, and May; Summer-June, July, and Augu...

1984-01-01

276

United States Animal Health Report, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth annual report produced by the U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) on the status of animal health in the United States. The report includes updates on new and existing programs, condu...

2008-01-01

277

United States National Strategy in Panama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spectacle of the United States being defied by someone who was little better than a street thug in the fall of 1989 was the beginning of this paper. How did we get to the position where General Manuel Antonio Noriega could laugh at our threats. This p...

M. K. Evenson

1990-01-01

278

AIR QUALITY OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter continue to exceed their standards in many parts of the eastern United States. However, the peak concentration levels and number of ozone exceedances have decreased substantially in recent years due, in part, to the...

279

2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

* Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

U.S. Geological Survey

2013-01-01

280

United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

Carter, Julie H.

2004-01-01

281

The United States Needs German Economic Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only together can the United States and Germany keep the global economy integrated--by removing agricultural roadblocks to a WTO deal, coordinating on relations with China, and securing the flow of international investment. The new German chancellor, Angela Merkel, could save the Doha Round by reinterpreting the budget deal just made on agricultural support funds at the EU summit, something US

Adam S. Posen

2006-01-01

282

United States Security Policy in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter how friendly or well intentioned the ele...

S. R. Nichols H. J. Wiarda

1993-01-01

283

America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

Toro, Leonor; And Others

284

The United States sounding rocket program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States sounding rocket program is discussed. The program is concerned with the fields of solar physics, galactic astronomy, fields and particles, ionospheric physics, aeronomy, and meteorology. Sounding rockets are described with respect to propulsion systems, gross weight, and capabilities. Instruments used to conduct ionospheric probing missions are examined. Results of previously conducted sounding rocket missions are included.

1971-01-01

285

Big Broadband Connectivity in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic and social future of the United States depends on answering the growing demand for very high-speed broadband connectivity, a capability termed "big broadband." Failure to take on the challenge could lead to a decline in global competitiveness and an inability to educate students. (Contains 20 notes.)

Windhausen, John, Jr.

2008-01-01

286

Affirmative Action in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a broad overview of affirmative action in the United States, in regard to the provision of equality for Blacks, Hispanics, and women. Section I presents a brief history, while section II summarizes current policies that require or encourage the conscious use of race and sex as a remedial device in allocating jobs or educational…

Taylor, William L.

287

Computer Use in the United States: 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides statistical information on computer use in the United States in 1984, including home, work, and school use, and use according to socioeconomic status, race, and sex. The data show that over 15 million American adults owned home computers, but only 53% actually use them. About 8% of U.S. households, or 6.98 million, had a…

Kominski, Robert

1988-01-01

288

Classical Linguistics in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of classical linguistic studies in the United States. Cites many of the important American classicists from the nineteenth century to the present. Also gives the history of some scholarly organizations, including the Linguistic Society of America and the American Philological Association. (LMO)

Poultney, James W.

1988-01-01

289

Air quality management in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

2005-07-01

290

Coastal Storms of the Eastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Storms resulting in damage to the East Coast of the United States over the past 42 years have been classified into eight different synoptic situations: hurricanes; wave developments well east of the southeast coast or in the vicinity of Cuba; wave develop...

J. R. Mather H. Adams G. A. Yoshioka

1964-01-01

291

United States-Japan: An Economic View.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cold War is over, the communist threat is gone and the global community has shifted from a bipolar to a multipolar world. Old alliances established as security against the threat are in question. The need for the United States to expend military resou...

W. F. Wall

1995-01-01

292

ALTERNATIVE SEWERS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The history of development of alternative sewers in the United States is discussed along with their basic design features and extent of their use at the present time. Guidance is provided in the form of field experience and rational projections for engineers to estimate the capit...

293

Global Communication: Role of United States Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities of the Carter Center that focus on helping developing countries and suggests mutually beneficial roles universities in the United States could play. Topics discussed include the involvement of business in schools; the use of technology; foreign aid; planning for the future; and linking major universities with developing…

Carter, Jimmy

1990-01-01

294

Managing nuclear weapons in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

Miller, G.

1993-03-16

295

Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

Jeffery, Charles F.

296

Acute Liver Failure in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 5 years the use of a multicenter approach has helped to define acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. Drug-related hepatotoxicity comprises more than 50% of cases of ALF, including acetaminophen toxicity (40%) and idiosyncratic drugs (approximately 12%). Nearly 20% of cases remain of unknown etiology. Outcome of ALF is determined by etiology; by the degree

William M. Lee

297

Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As countries become increasingly interdependent, student populations in the United States are becoming more culturally diverse. These students' transnational perspectives present significant challenges to teachers, but a disconnect exists between the skills teachers need and those provided to them by colleges of education. As teacher preparation…

Shaklee, Beverly D., Ed.; Baily, Supriya, Ed.

2012-01-01

298

The accuracy of United States precipitation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation measurements in the United States (as well as all other countries) are adversely affected by the gauge undercatch bias of point precipitation measurements. When these measurements are used to obtain areal averages, particularly in mountainous terrain, additional biases may be introduced because most stations are at lower elevations in exposed sites. Gauge measurements tend to be underestimates of the

Pavel Ya. Groisman; David R. Legates

1994-01-01

299

Undergraduate nursing education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing education in the United States began in the 1870s with hospital training schools modeled after the Nightingale plan. Presently there are three educational paths that students may take to become a registered nurse (RN). These are the baccalaureate degree (BS), the associate degree (AD) and the diploma. Accelerated nursing programs are also available for people who have a baccalaureate

Susan A. LaRocco

2010-01-01

300

Early Marriage in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and…

Uecker, Jeremy E.; Stokes, Charles E.

2008-01-01

301

Community Colleges in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue discusses the importance of the community college to higher education in the United States. Contained are six articles: (1) "America's Community Colleges: On the Ascent," by Arthur M. Cohen, which places the strengths and challenges of the American community college within a historical context; (2) "Lamps Beside the Golden Door," by…

Lundberg, Richard, Ed.

2002-01-01

302

United States Policy for Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Southern Africa is a region that is of major (not vital) interest to the United States. It is a region dominated by South Africa, possessing vast mineral resources and torn by armed conflict. This paper outlines a proposed US national security policy for ...

P. E. Stein

1986-01-01

303

Education Control in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of educational control in the United States is said to have evolved from theocratic to professional to bureaucratic forms, and finally to a tightly integrated form of technocratic control heralded by new forms of technology, sophisticated types of administration, and the Supreme Court decision concerning Yeshiva. (Author/MLW)

Burris, Beverly H.; Heydebrand, Wolf V.

1981-01-01

304

Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

305

Contemporary African Immigrants to The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe economic difficulties, increased poverty and the political instability that have plagued many African countries in the last two decades have resulted in the large scale migration of Africans Europe and the United States. Unlike their counterparts in the 1960s and 70s who were anxious to return home after acquiring an American education in order to contribute in the

Joseph Takougang

306

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The unauthorized alien (illegal alien) population in the United States is a key and controversial immigration issue. In recent years, competing views on how to address this population have proved to be a major obstacle to enacting comprehensive immigration reform legislation. The unauthorized alien issue is likely to be a key challenge if, as the Senate Majority Leader and

2010-01-01

307

Automotive Transport in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American economy has become geared to motor transport to a degree that has made the automotive in dustries the number one combination of economic acivities in the United States. Whether the measurement is production, em ployment, consumer outlays, tons of materials or miles of travel, the motor vehicle and its operation have assumed a commanding role in nearly everything

Wilfred Owen

1958-01-01

308

Restoring Fiscal Equilibrium in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States faces a “fiscal cliff” at the end of calendar year 2012, when the two major tax cuts from the Bush era and some other tax provisions will expire and in the absence of action scheduled reductions in spending will begin. The subsequent increase in taxes and reduction in spending would dramatically tighten the federal budget deficit at

William R. Cline

2012-01-01

309

Coastal eutrophication assessment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent national assessments document that nitrogen-driven coastal eutrophication is widespread and increasing in the United States. This significant coastal pollution problem includes impacts including increased areas and severity of hypoxic and anoxic waters; alteration of food webs; degradation and loss of sea grass beds, kelp beds and coral reefs; loss of biodiversity; and increased incidences and duration of harmful algal

Donald Scavia; Suzanne B. Bricker

2006-01-01

310

Ground Water Contamination in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water contamination is of increasing concern in the United States because about 50 percent of our drinking water comes from well water. The causes of contamination stem from both point sources and nonpoint sources. Since ground water moves slowly, the contaminant may affect only a small portion of an aquifer for a considerable period of time. Deleterious effects on

Veronica I. Pye; Ruth Patrick

1983-01-01

311

Helium resources of the United States, 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helium resources base of the United States was estimated by the Bureau of Mines to be 894.6 Bcf as of January 1, 1989. These resources are divided into four categories in decreasing degree of the assurance of their existence: (1) helium in storage and in proved natural gas reserves, 282.4 Bcf; (2) helium in probable natural gas resources, estimated

Richard D. Miller; John E. Hamak

1990-01-01

312

Can the United States Defeat Radical Islam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda and affiliated jihadist organizations declared war on the United States. Since that day, the U.S. government has initiated a series of policies, legislation and actions to confront the new threat. Seven years into the war, ...

M. E. Hanratty

2008-01-01

313

United States Bone and Joint Decade  

MedlinePLUS

... have come together as part of the United States Bone and Joint Initiative (USBJI) to improve prevention of bone and joint disorders, and the quality of life for those affected. This goal begins with increased awareness, solid information and more research. The USBJI believes that ...

314

Health, United States, 1981. [Sixth Annual Report].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides the sixth annual report on the health status of the citizens of the United States. Submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Services Act, the report presents statistics concerning recent trends in the health care sector along…

National Center for Health Services Research (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

315

Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Ser...

A. Carr J. A. Kuiper K. G. Hlava

2012-01-01

316

Bullying in Europe and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

1993-01-01

317

CTS United States experiments. A progress report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

1976-01-01

318

AED in the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) work in the United States includes programs with many of the nation's major foundations on issues of education reform, parental involvement in the schools, youth development and bridging the distance between school, work, and successful university education. The projects described here cover a wide…

Academy for Educational Development, 2007

2007-01-01

319

Database for Assessment Unit-Scale Analogs (Exclusive of the United States)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This publication presents a database of geologic analogs useful for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Particularly in frontier areas, where few oil and gas fields have been discovered, assessment methods such as discovery process models may not be usable. In such cases, comparison of the assessment area to geologically similar but more maturely explored areas may be more appropriate. This analog database consists of 246 assessment units, based on the U.S. Geological Survey 2000 World Petroleum Assessment. Besides geologic data to facilitate comparisons, the database includes data pertaining to numbers and sizes of oil and gas fields and the properties of their produced fluids.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, T. R.; Attanasi, Emil D.

2008-01-01

320

Color Landform Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those with an interest in historical US maps, this site will be of value. Ray Sterner of the Johns Hopkins University has relaunched his Color Landform Atlas of the United States (discussed in the January 17, 1997 issue of the Scout Report). The highlight of this relaunch is the availability of 1895 Rand McNally state maps (for twenty-nine states at present). These maps are very large (usually over one megabyte) and detailed; counties are color-coded and railroad lines rather than roads are shown.

Sterner, Ray.

321

Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) is a research unit of the Mackay School of Mines at the University of Nevada, Reno and is the state geological survey. Scientists at NBMG conduct research and publish reports on mineral resources and various aspects of general, environmental, and engineering geology for the state of Nevada. There are on-line publications available to download, geologic maps, K-12 educational resources for teaching about Nevada geology, and a photo and image archive of the state. Links are provided for further information about the state and general geology resources.

322

The magnetic charts of the United States for Epoch 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 24,000 measurements taken from 1900 to 1974 were analyzed by least-squares methods to produce a series of five magnetic charts of the United States for 1975. A feature of the analysis, differing from techniques used for previous editions of the national chart, is that analytic models define the regional magnetic field and are used to contour the magnetic charts. An overall rms (root mean square) fit of less than 235 nT was obtained for the horizontal and vertical intensities; for the chart of magnetic declination, the rms deviation was on the order of 0.5 degrees. The models of annual change, derived from data at repeat stations and observatories operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, yielded an rms deviation of approximately 6 nT/yr in the force components and 0.7 min/yr in magnetic declination.

Fabiano, Eugene B.; Jones, W. J.; Peddie, Norman W.

1979-01-01

323

Climate Change Impacts on the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the US Global Change Research Project, this site contains the much-publicized draft report of the Climate Change Impacts on the United States National Assessment Project. This landmark project investigates the impacts of global climate change at a regional scale. The report includes an overview from the fourteen-member National Assessment Synthesis Team and the full text of the draft report containing information about the effects of climate change on specific regions of the United States and the future of the country's ecosystems. The text is in .pdf format and is accompanied by color figures and tables. The report has been put online for public review and a comments page with instructions for submitting responses via email is included.

324

Novel Arenavirus Infection in Humans, United States  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G against Whitewater Arroyo virus or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was found in 41 (3.5%) of 1,185 persons in the United States who had acute central nervous system disease or undifferentiated febrile illnesses. The results of analyses of antibody titers in paired serum samples suggest that a North American Tacaribe serocomplex virus was the causative agent of the illnesses in 2 persons and that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was the causative agent of the illnesses in 3 other antibody-positive persons in this study. The results of this study suggest that Tacaribe serocomplex viruses native to North America, as well as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, are causative agents of human disease in the United States.

Milazzo, Mary Louise; Campbell, Grant L.

2011-01-01

325

Economic Survey of the United States, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offering the "assessments and recommendation of the 2000 OECD Economic Survey of the United States," this eight-page policy brief from the OECD presents an excellent overview of the status of the US economy. This document aims to answer eight main questions including, "Is the US economy on a higher growth path?" "What are the sources of tension in the economy?" "What monetary policy stance is called for?" and "Are budget surpluses at risk?" Each question is addressed in a compact answer, many with accompanying, easy-to-understand charts and graphs. Contact information and links to related OECD publications are also included at the end of the report. Economic Survey of the United States, 2000 is one in a series of policy briefs on several countries, including the recently released reports on the Netherlands and the Russian Federation.

326

United States Copyright Law and Software Piracy on United States Air Force Microcomputers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study looked at the United States Copyright Law and its applications to computer software. The study looked at USAF policies and regulations governing the protection of copyrighted software. The literature review, including personal correspondence wi...

J. C. Sorensen

1990-01-01

327

Coking-coal deposits of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geohydrologic systems in the Anadarko basin in the central United States are controlled by topography, climate, geologic structures, and aquifer hydraulic properties, all of which are the result of past geologic and hydrologic processes, including tectonics and diagenesis. From Late Cambrian through Middle Ordovician time, a generally transgressive but cyclic sea covered the area. The first deposits were permeable sand, followed by calcareous mud. During periods of sea transgression, burial diagenesis decreased porosity and permeability. During Pennsylvanian time, rapid sedimentation accompanied rapid subsidence in the Anadarko basin. A geopressure zone probably resulted when sediments with little permeability trapped depositional water in Lower Pennsylvanian sands. Burial diagenesis included compaction and thermal alteration of deeply buried organic material, which released carbon dioxide, water, and hydrocarbons. By Middle Pennsylvanian time, the sea had submerged most of the central United States, including the Ozarks, as tectonic activity reached its maximum. During Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, the Ouachita uplift had been formed and was higher than the Ozarks. Uplift was accompanied by a regional upward tilt toward the Ouachita-Ozarks area; the sea receded westward, depositing large quantities of calcareous mud and clay, and precipitating evaporitic material in the restricted-circulation environment. By the end of Permian time, > 20,000 ft of Pennsylvanian and Permian sediments had been deposited in the Anadarko basin. These thick sediments caused rapid and extreme burial diagensis, including alteration of organic material During Permian time in the Ozarks area, development of the Ozark Plateau aquifer system commenced in the permeable Cambrian-Mississippian rocks near the St. Francois Mountains as the Pennsylvanian confining material was removed. Since Permian time, uplift diagenesis has been more active than burial diagenesis in the Anadarko basin. Synopsis of paleohydrologic interpretation indicates that Cambrian-Mississippian rocks in the Anadarko basin should be relatively impermeable, except for local secondary permeability, because rocks in the basin have undergone little uplift diagenesis. (Lantz-PTT)

Berryhill, Louise R.; Averitt, Paul

1951-01-01

328

Annual Hydroclimatology of the Continental United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual hydroclimatology of the continental United States is explored using a unique set of monthly hydroclimatic time-series which accounts for the complex variations in hydrology and climate. Several approaches are compared for estimating the long-term water balance, the interannual variability of streamflow and climate elasticity of streamflow at 1337 watersheds in the continental U.S. Budyko-type relations which predict actual

S. Arumugam; R. Vogel

2001-01-01

329

Physician Assistant Education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As physician assistant (PA) programs developed in the 1960s, curriculum models emerged around the central themes of physician-dependent practice and competency-based education. By 2007, there were 136 accredited programs in the United States, with 108 (79%) offering a master-degree curriculum. PA program preclinical and clinical curricula are typically evenly divided in length, and the typical U.S. PA program has a

P. Eugene Jones

2007-01-01

330

Vietnamese culinary herbs in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification, cultivation, chemistry, and uses of nine Vietnamese herbs, hitherto rare or unknown in the United States,\\u000a are discussed:Giâp Cá (Houttuynia cordata),Lá Lôt (Piper lolot), Rau R?m (Polygonum odoratum),Rau Muông (Ipomoea aquatica),Ngò Gai (Eryngium foetidum),Rau Cân (Oenanthe javanica),Cân Dây Lá (Plectranthus amboinicus),Tía Tô (Perilla frutescens), andRau Ngo (Limnophila aromatica).

K. R. Kuebel; Arthur O. Tucker

1988-01-01

331

Statistical computing in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Recent history and developments related to the increase in statistical computing activities in the United States and by U.S. participants in international efforts are reviewed, with emphasis on important events, organizations, references, and products which contribute to informed selection and use of statistical programs. Three features matrices for major statistical packages are included as potential aids to Japanese statisticians in assessing the utility of these packages in biostatistical applications.

Milton, R C

1979-01-01

332

United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides a Web page covering "Basic Facts About Registering A Trademark." Topics include establishing trademark rights, applications, who may apply, searching for conflicting marks, and use of the "TM," "SM" and "circled R" symbols. The information presented here has been quoted on the 'Net often recently with respect to the relationship (or lack thereof) between domain names and trademarks.

333

The United States of America Country Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and

John W. Lund; R. Gordon Bloomquist; Tonya L. Boyd; Joel Renner

334

Environmental health collaboration: United States and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed nations share similar challenges to human health from commercial and agricultural chemicals that are released into the environment. Although Russia and the United States are historically distinct and unique, both countries are geographically large and economically dependent on emission-producing surface transportation. This paper describes U.S.-Russian collaborative activities that grew from a 1995 conference in Moscow that brought together environmental

C. H. Rubin; R. L. Jones; B. Revich; S. L. Avaliani; E. Gurvich

2003-01-01

335

National Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those interested in aerial photographs, satellite images, or maps as ways to conceptualize the world, will find this site interesting, entertaining, and educational. The US Dept. of Interior offers a National Atlas of the United States, an interactive resource that allows users to view part or all of the US and overlay layers of information including natural features, political boundaries, federal lands, roads, cities, or airports. These layers can be downloaded as compressed .tar.gz files.

1998-01-01

336

Coastal eutrophication assessment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent national assessments document that nitrogen-driven coastal eutrophication is widespread and increasing in the United\\u000a States. This significant coastal pollution problem includes impacts including increased areas and severity of hypoxic and\\u000a anoxic waters; alteration of food webs; degradation and loss of sea grass beds, kelp beds and coral reefs; loss of biodiversity;\\u000a and increased incidences and duration of harmful algal

Donald Scavia; Suzanne B. Bricker

337

Evolving Employment Relations in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Changes in the nature of employment relations have been the subject of much recent discussion in the United States and in\\u000a many other industrial nations. Popular and academic literature have heralded the ascendance of a variety of “nonstandard,”\\u000a “nontraditional,” “atypical,” or “contingent” work arrangements such as temporary work, contracting, and part-time work (see\\u000a Kalleberg 2000, for a review of this

Arne L. Kalleberg

338

Current Issues in Organic Food: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we look at the current issues surrounding organic food in the United States. We first look at production\\u000a issues such as profit, yield, crop insurance, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), input availability, market information,\\u000a number and size of organic farms, and development pressures. We then look at distribution and marketing issues such as the\\u000a definition of organic, market

Kent D. Olson

339

Crime in the United States: 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FBI has released its annual Crime in the United States report for 1998 (preliminary data discussed in the May 18, 1999 Scout Report for Social Sciences). The report is based on the Bureau's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, which compiles data from over 17,000 city, county, and state law enforcement agencies nationwide. The report is offered in seven sections in .pdf format only: Summary of the UCR Program, Crime Index Offenses Reported, Crime Index Offenses Cleared, Persons Arrested, Incidents of Family Violence: A Special Study, Law Enforcement Personnel, and seven appendices.

340

Civil commitment in the United States.  

PubMed

This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States-from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry. PMID:22778709

Testa, Megan; West, Sara G

2010-10-01

341

Civil Commitment in the United States  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States—from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry.

West, Sara G.

2010-01-01

342

Living donor practices in the United States.  

PubMed

Living kidney donation is a common procedure in the United States. Substantial variation exists between transplant centers in their protocols and exclusion criteria for potential living donors. In the absence of clinical trial data to guide decisions about exclusion criteria, knowledge of current practices is an important first step in guiding the formulation of donor protocols and future studies. Certain trends in living donation practices have become apparent from surveys of transplant programs over the past few decades. Over the past 25 years, opposition to living unrelated donation in the United States has gone from strong to essentially nonexistent. With respect to donor age, programs have become less strict regarding upper age limits but stricter regarding younger donor candidates. Protocols regarding kidney function, blood pressure, and diabetes screening also continue to evolve. Although donor follow-up is mandated by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network for 2 years after donation, a majority of donors are lost to follow-up by 1 year. The most commonly cited barriers to donor follow-up include donor inconvenience, cost issues including reimbursement to care providers, and direct and indirect costs to donors. In this article, we review the current knowledge about living donor practices in the United States. PMID:22732040

Mandelbrot, Didier A; Pavlakis, Martha

2012-07-01

343

The United States Uranium Industry, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Low prices and foreign competition continue to plague the United States uranium industry. For eight years (1984-1991) the Secretary of Energy has declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected late in 1993 for 1992. Surface drilling for uranium in 1993 is expected to be about 1 million ft., because deposits are developed prior to mining. Drilling for claim assessment purposes has ceased due to changes in the mining law. All conventional mining and milling in the United States ceased in early 1992 when the last open-pit mine closed. Underground mining ceased in late 1990. Current uranium production is from solution mining (in-situ leaching) in Wyoming, Texas, and Nebraska. Uranium is recovered from Florida phosphate rock processed in Louisiana and from mine water in New Mexico. Uranium concentrate production in 1993 is expected to be about 5 million lbs U[sub 3]O[sub 8]. The United States has large reserves of uranium, but a significant price increase is needed for the industry to rebound.

Chenoweth, W.L.

1993-08-01

344

Uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites of the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program designed to identify criteria favorable for the occurrence of the world's significant uranium deposits. This project deals specifically with uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites in the United States and, in particular, their distribution and origin. From an extensive literature survey and field examination of 44 pegmatite localities in the United States and Canada, the authors have compiled an index to about 300 uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites in the United States, maps giving location of these deposits, and an annotated bibliography to some of the most pertinent literature on the geology of pegmatites. Pegmatites form from late-state magma differentiates rich in volatile constituents with an attendant aqueous vapor phase. It is the presence of an aqueous phase which results in the development of the variable grain size which characterizes pegmatites. All pegmatites occur in areas of tectonic mobility involving crustal material usually along plate margins. Those pegmatites containing radioactive mineral species show, essentially, a similar distribution to those without radioactive minerals. Criteria such as tectonic setting, magma composition, host rock, and elemental indicators among others, all serve to help delineate areas more favorable for uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites. The most useful guide remains the radioactivity exhibited by uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites. Although pegmatites are frequently noted as favorable hosts for radioactive minerals, the general paucity and sporadic distribution of these minerals and inherent mining and milling difficulties negate the resource potential of pegmatites for uranium and thorium.

Adams, J.W.; Arengi, J.T.; Parrish, I.S.

1980-04-01

345

PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical assistance to evaluate DOE's cleanup plans. In addition, the PLUS program has facilitated the involvement of key regulators from host-states beyond the Southern region.

Ken Nemeth

2002-09-01

346

72 FR 28545 - United States Climate Change Science Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STATE [Public Notice 5798] United States Climate Change Science Program The United States Climate Change Science Program requests expert review...volume of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment...

2007-05-21

347

71 FR 17942 - United States Climate Change Science Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STATE [Public Notice 5369] United States Climate Change Science Program The United States Climate Change Science Program requests expert review of the Working Group I contribution (``Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science...

2006-04-07

348

United States Military's Role in Combating Transnational Organized Crime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis looks at United States policy towards countering transnational organized crime and targeting transnational criminal networks that pose a clear and present danger to the United States, its allies, or key partner states. Using the President's ...

G. A. Boston

2013-01-01

349

Copper Mineralization Geology of Mandacaru, State of Piaui, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mandacaru area, Sao Juliao county, Piaui, comprises a Precambrian crystalline basement of granitic to quartaz dioritic gneisses overlain by several younger units of low grade metamorphics, volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The late Proterozoic Sao Julia...

C. V. Parente

1984-01-01

350

78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs...provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United...signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter...

2013-05-30

351

Hardwood timber supplies in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Long recognized for their wildlife, watershed, and nesthetic value, hardwoods are becoming increasingly important from the standpoint of timber production. The abundance of hardwood inventory volume, technological advances allowing greater substitution into softwood markets, and relatively low stumpage prices have generated a growing interest in increased utilization of the hardwood resource. The objective of this paper is to provide a broad overview of present and expected future hardwood timber supplies in the United States. In order to monitor the nation's forest resources and develop policies for their management, Congress has directed the Secretary of Agriculture through the Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA) to assess periodically the current and anticipated forest resources in the United States. Timber data presented in the 1989 Assessment were gathered from two main sources: the National Forest System and the regional Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Work Units of the USDA Forest Service. The first half of this paper is devoted primarily to the current hardwood resource as it exists today. Since there are timing differences among the various surveys feeding into the RPA assessment, all current resource data were adjusted to common years: 1987 for area and inventory volume statistics and 1986 for growth, removals, and mortality. The second half of the paper describes past trends and future projections.

Bechtold, W.A.; Sheffield, R.M. (USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC (US))

1991-05-01

352

Indian Entrepreneurial Success in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian immigrants in the United States and other wealthy countries are successful in entrepreneurship. Using census data from the three largest developed countries in the world receiving Indian immigrants-the United States, United Kingdom and Canada-the authors examine the performance of Indian entrepreneurs and the causes of their success. In the United States, Indian entrepreneurs have average business income that is

Robert W. Fairlie; Harry Krashinsky; Julie Zissimopoulos; Krishna B. Kumar

2009-01-01

353

Geological Consequences of Unequal Loading of Sedimentary Units, at Passive, Transform, and Convergent Margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the effects of unequal loading of permeable sedimentary units and potential lateral flow was a primary objective of IODP Exp. 308 in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to occurrence at passive margins, the geological consequences of unequal loading of aquifers is prominent at transform and at convergent margins. The development of a pull-apart basin along the San Andreas Transform Fault system resulted in a large difference in sedimentary loading in the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone near Santa Cruz CA. The overlying diatomaceous mudstone shows a variation in thickness from about 3 km at the basin center to several hundred meters at the basin margin. At the basin margin the underlying sandstone injects the overlying mudstone as dikes and sills and also flowed onto the Miocene seafloor as a sand volcano. In the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Great Valley Forearc Basin Sequence, similar sandstone dikes and sills occur at the basin margin where the overlying sedimentary cover is minimized. However the lateral variation in thickness of the overlying mudstone sequence (1100m to ~ 800 m) is less dramatic than in the San Andreas Fault system example. The abundance of sills in both the Great Valley and San Andreas Fault system examples unequivocally indicate that the fluid pressures reached lithostatic values. In both examples, hydrocarbons reduced the density of fluids and assisted in reaching fluid pressures equal to the overburden. In the Ursa Basin Exp. 308 measured fluid pressures of ~ 0.6 of effective vertical stress in the muds overlying the unequally loaded permeable sandy "Blue Unit". Drilling and preliminary investigation of the seismic and borehole imaging data indicate no evidence of dikes or sills emanating from the Blue Unit. Therefore, the fluid pressure conditions in the Blue Unit and the overlying muds apparently define a lower limit for the formation of clastic intrusions.

Moore, C.; Dugan, B.; Flemings, P.; Iturrino, G.; Sawyer, D.; Behrmann, J.; John, C.

2005-12-01

354

Depression Care in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the prevalence and adequacy of depression care among different ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Design: Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) data were analyzed to calculate nationally representative estimates of depression care. Setting: The 48 coterminous United States. Participants: Household residents 18 years and older (N=15 762) participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Past-year depression pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy using American Psychiatric Association guideline-concordant therapies. Depression severity was assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report. Primary predictors were major ethnic/racial groups (Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Caribbean black, African American, and non-Latino white) and World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria for 12-month major depressive episode. Results: Mexican American and African American individuals meeting 12-month major depression criteria consistently and significantly had lower odds for any depression therapy and guideline-concordant therapies despite depression severity ratings not significantly differing between ethnic/racial groups. All groups reported higher use of any past-year psychotherapy and guideline-concordant psychotherapy compared with pharmacotherapy; however, Caribbean black and African American individuals reported the highest proportions of this use. Conclusions: Few Americans with recent major depression have used depression therapies and guideline-concordant therapies; however, the lowest rates of use were found among Mexican American and African American individuals. Ethnic/racial differences were found despite comparable depression care need. More Americans with recent major depression used psychotherapy over pharmacotherapy, and these differences were most pronounced among Mexican American and African American individuals. This report underscores the importance of disaggregating ethnic/racial groups and depression therapies in understanding and directing efforts to improve depression care in the United States.

Gonzalez, Hector M.; Vega, William A.; Williams, David R.; Tarraf, Wassim; West, Brady T.; Neighbors, Harold W.

2010-01-01

355

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the Proterozoic rocks. The Inner Piedmont contains noncarbonate metasedimentary rocks and amphibolite of medium to high metamorphic grades. These rocks are intruded by the Toluca Granite and Henderson Gneiss of Cambrian and Ordovician(?) age. The Charlotte belt consists largely of Late Proterozoic to Late Paleozoic granitic and gabbroic plutonic rocks and intervening enclaves of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The narrow Kings Mountain belt is located between the Charlotte and the Inner Piedmont belts and contains mainly Late Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks and plutonic rocks similar to those of the Charlotte belt. The Carolina slate belt, flanking the Charlotte belt on the east, contains weakly metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks. East of this belt, at the southeast corner of the quadrangle, is the Wadesboro basin, which has continental sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. Layered rocks westward from and in the Charlotte belt are complexly folded, are steeply dipping, and in the Blue Ridge and Inner Piedmont are contained within major thrust slices. Rocks of the Carolina slate belt are gently folded. Rocks of the Wadesboro basin occur in downfaulted blocks. The geophysical surveys of the Charlotte quadrangle consisted of Bouguer gravity, aeromagnetic, and aeroradioactivity surveys and used both newly obtained data and information from prior work. The gravity survey disclosed a distinct northeast-trending, northwest-decreasing gradient, which is part of the major gravity gradient that extends the length of the Appalachian Mountains. Granitic plutons of the Charlotte belt, in particular, are marked by gravity lows, and gabbro plutons, by highs. Several of the geologic belts display distinct magnetic character. The aeroradioactivity surveys showed a swath of consistently high gamma-ray intensities along the central part of the Inner Piedmont belt; these high intensities correspond to the so-called monazite belt. Oval patterns of high gamma-ray readi

Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D. L.; Griffitts, W. R.; DeYoung, J. H.; Lee, M. P.

1986-01-01

356

Contraceptive failure in the United States  

PubMed Central

This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

Trussell, James

2013-01-01

357

Race and Poverty in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was developed for use in a introductory sociology course. Students will use data to look at racial groups and income/poverty in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 2005 Current Populations Survey and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Morgan, Susanne

358

Poverty in the United States: 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has released this report based on the March 1998 Current Population Survey. For the third consecutive year, households in the United States experienced an annual increase in their real median income while the poverty rate fell from 13.7 percent in 1996 to 13.3 percent in 1997. The statistical number of poor and the degree of income inequality, however, remain unchanged. The report offers several tables and the text of press releases which highlight national-level findings as well as income and poverty statistics for African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and people of Hispanic Origin.

1998-01-01

359

Tritium technology programs in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Tritium technology in the United States has advanced considerably since the 1988 Tritium Conferences in Toronto. This advance has come in facilities, processing and safety related technologies and in an ever increasing commitment to compliance related issues. The major laboratories in the US tritium programs continue to be (Westinghouse) Savannah River Site, EG G Mound, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Each of these Laboratories have made some significant changes in their programs and/or facilities in the past four years. 11 refs, 1 fig.

Anderson, J.L.

1991-01-01

360

United States Council for Automotive Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is a joint operation between Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors. The council lets the companies combine their resources to develop better non-competitive technologies, such as safety, fuel efficiency, and emissions. Many new innovations in vehicle design are described on the USCAR Web site. For example, the 21st Century section outlines some major advances that will shape the future of the automobile, while Specific Technologies examines various new manufacturing practices and vehicle components. There are also many articles and technical accomplishments listed on the site, giving some insight into what is currently being done to make driving a better experience.

361

Mobile satellite service in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

1988-01-01

362

United States transportation fuel economics (1975 - 1995)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States transportation fuel economics in terms of fuel resources options, processing alternatives, and attendant economics for the period 1975 to 1995 are evaluated. The U.S. energy resource base is reviewed, portable fuel-processing alternatives are assessed, and selected future aircraft fuel options - JP fuel, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen - are evaluated economically. Primary emphasis is placed on evaluating future aircraft fuel options and economics to provide guidance for future strategy of NASA in the development of aviation and air transportation research and technology.

Alexander, A. D., III

1975-01-01

363

Human Intestinal Nematodiasis in the United States  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal nematodes, all of which can be acquired in the continental United States, can cause a variety of ills including iron deficiency anemia, surgical emergencies, eosinophilic pneumonia, malabsorption, dysentery, myositis, and death. The severity of illness is related to the number of parasites acquired exogenously or the ability of the parasite to multiply within the host. Diagnosis of clinically significant infection can usually be made by stool examination, and appropriate treatment requires an understanding of the life-span and pathogenic potential of the parasite.

Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

1972-01-01

364

National Geologic Map Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.

1997-01-01

365

Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered, Technically Recoverable Coalbed-Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks, North Slope and Adjacent State Waters, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed-gas resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks underlying the North Slope and adjacent State waters of Alaska (USGS Northern Alaska Province 5001). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Northern Alaska Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one composite coalbed gas total petroleum system and three coalbed gas assessment units within the petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered coalbed-gas resources within each assessment unit.

Compiled by Roberts, Stephen B.

2008-01-01

366

Crime in the United States, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 22, the Federal Bureau of Investigation released Crime in the United States, 1997 (preliminary data discussed in the May 29, 1998 Scout Report). This annual report presents the most recent US crime data based on statistics from the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. Over 17,000 city, county, and state law enforcement agencies nationwide submit data to the UCR each year. The 1997 report, a comprehensive document, contains over 80 data tables in seven discrete sections: Summary of the UCR Program, Crime Index Offenses Reported, Crime Index Offenses Cleared, Persons Arrested, Juvenile Female Crime: A Special Study, Law Enforcement Personnel, and an extensive appendix. The report is bundled with the annual reports for 1995 and 1996 and is available in .pdf format only.

367

National geochemical data base; PLUTO geochemical data base for the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The PLUTO CD-ROM data base contains inorganic geothermal data obtained by the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska, in support of USGS program activities requiring chemical data. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with the ISO 9660 standard and can be accessed by any computer system that has the appropriate software to read the ISO 9660 discs; however, the disc is intended for use in a DOS environment.

Baedecker, Philip A.; Grossman, Jeffrey N.; Buttleman, Kim P.

1998-01-01

368

Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States  

EIA Publications

Final issue of this report. Provides annual aggregate statistics on generating units operated by nonutilities in the United States and the District of Columbia. Provides a 5-year outlook for generating unit additions and changes.

Information Center

2003-01-01

369

Origin, Extent, and Thickness of Quaternary Geologic Units in the Willamette Valley, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stratigraphic and chronologic information collected for Quaternary deposits in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, provides a revised stratigraphic framework that serves as a basis for a 1:250,000-scale map, as well as for thickness estimates of widespread Quaternary geologic units. We have mapped 11 separate Quaternary units that are differentiated on the basis of stratigraphic, topographic, pedogenic, and hydrogeologic properties. In summation, these units reflect four distinct episodes in the Quaternary geologic development of the Willamette Valley: 1) Fluvial sands and gravels that underlie terraces flanking lowland margins and tributary valleys were probably deposited between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago. They are the oldest widespread surficial Quaternary deposits in the valley. Their present positions and preservation are undoubtedly due to postdepositional tectonic deformation - either by direct tectonic uplift of valley margins, or by regional tectonic controls on local base level. 2) Tertiary and Quaternary excavation or tectonic lowering of the Willamette Valley accommodated as much as 500 m (meters) of lacustrine and fluvial fill. Beneath the lowland floor, much of the upper 10 to 50 m of fill is Quaternary sand and gravel deposited by braided channel systems in subhorizontal sheets 2 to 10 m thick. These deposits grade to gravel fans 40 to 100 m thick where major Cascade Range rivers enter the valley and are traced farther upstream as much thinner valley trains of coarse gravel. The sand and gravel deposits have ages that range from greater than 420,000 to about 12,000 years old. A widely distributed layer of sand and gravel deposited at about 12 ka (kiloannum, thousands of years before the present) is looser and probably more permeable than older sand and gravel. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this late Pleistocene unit is mostly between 5 and 20 m thick where it has not been subsequently eroded by the Willamette River and its major tributaries. 3) Between 15,000 and 12,700 years ago, dozens of floods from Glacial Lake Missoula flowed up the Willamette Valley from the Columbia River, depositing up to 35 m of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. 4) Subsequent to 12,000 years ago, Willamette River sediment and flow regimes changed significantly: the Pleistocene braided river systems that had formed vast plains of sand and gravel evolved to incised and meandering rivers that are constructing today's fine-grained floodplains and gravelly channel deposits. Sub-surface channel facies of this unit are loose and unconsolidated and are highly permeable zones of substantial groundwater flow that is likely to be well connected to surface flow in the Willamette River and major tributaries. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this unit is mostly between 5 and 15 m thick.

O'Connor, Jim E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Polette, Danial J.; Fleck, Robert J.

2001-01-01

370

Renewable energy atlas of the United States.  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

2012-05-01

371

Search for uranium in western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The search for uranium in the United States is one of the most intensive ever made for any metal during our history. The number of prospectors and miners involved is difficult to estimate but some measure of the size of the effort is indicated by the fact that about 500 geologists are employed by government and industry in the work--more than the total number of geologists engaged in the study of all other minerals together except oil. The largest part of the effort has been concentrated in the western states. No single deposit of major importance by world standards has been discovered but the search has led to the discovery of important minable deposits of carnotite and related minerals on the Colorado Plateau; of large, low grade deposits of uranium in phosphates in the northwestern states and in lignites in the Dakotas, Wyoming, Idaho and New Mexico; and of many new and some promising occurrences of uranium in carnotite-like deposits and in vein deposits. Despite the fact that a large number of the districts considered favorable for the occurrence of uranium have already been examined, the outlook for future discoveries is bright, particularly for uranium in vein and in carnotite-like deposits in the Rocky Mountain States.

McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

1953-01-01

372

The Geologic Story of the Ocoee River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) highlights the geology of the Ocoee River, in the scenic Cherokee National Forest of southeastern Tennessee. This report covers the geologic history of the area, from 750 million years ago (Precambrian) to the present. Uses of the river, from dams to mining, are also discussed.

373

United States and Brazil: Opening a New Dialogue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The United States and Brazil: The Past; 'Itamaraty' and Brazilian External Policy; The Brazilian Economy: Boom or Bust; 'Abertura': The Political Opening; Military Policy Issues; The United States and Brazil: Future Challenges.

R. J. Branco

1984-01-01

374

Importance of United States Naval Forward Presence in Mediterranean Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes the benefits of maintaining United States Naval Forward Presence in the Mediterranean. It encompasses several themes to justify its point of view. It argues that the Mediterranean has been important to the United States for over 200 ...

T. E. Kalley

2001-01-01

375

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

376

68 FR 748 - United States Climate Change Science Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...030102001-3001-01] United States Climate Change Science Program AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The United States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is announcing...document ``Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program.'' The...

2003-01-07

377

United States Military Strategy in the Persian Gulf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security inte...

E. E. Whitehead

1989-01-01

378

15 CFR 2011.103 - Entry into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Entry into the United States. 2011.103 Section 2011.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.103 Entry into the United States. (a)...

2009-01-01

379

15 CFR 2011.103 - Entry into the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Entry into the United States. 2011.103 Section 2011.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.103 Entry into the United States. (a)...

2010-01-01

380

Health, United States, 2013 Includes Special Section on Prescription Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Statistics 301-458-4800 Health, United States, 2013 includes special section on prescription drugs Most common ... five or more, according to Health, United States, 2013, the government’s annual, comprehensive report on the nation’s ...

381

United States of America: health system review.  

PubMed

This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. PMID:24025796

Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

2013-01-01

382

Thorium Deposits of the United States - Energy Resources for the Future?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many nations are exploring new ways to meet their growing energy supply needs, with a particular focus upon methods that produce lower carbon dioxide emissions compared to traditional oil, natural gas, and coal power plants. As a result, thorium-based nuclear power has experienced renewed attention as a potential energy source. Thus, it benefits the United States and other countries to identify and evaluate their indigenous thorium resources. This report describes the geology and resources of the principal thorium districts of the United States.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Gillerman, Virginia S.; Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.

2009-01-01

383

Geology of Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geology of the Mojave National Preserve in California. It includes a field trip describing areas of interest at the preserve, as well as a geologic time scale describing the history and development of this area. Processes that shaped this region include volcanism, tectonics, faulting, erosion, deposition, spreading, intrusions, and glaciation. There is a geologic map of the area with units and a legend, and links to maps and technical papers.

384

Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United States, 2010  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Brief Number 134, November 2013 Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United States, 2010 On This Page Key ... of Residential Care Facilities Seventeen percent of residential care communities had dementia special care units. Figure 1. ...

385

Petroleum exploration plays and resource estimates, 1989, onshore United States. Region 1, Alaska; region 2, pacific coast. Bulletin  

SciTech Connect

This study provides brief discussions of the petroleum geology, play descriptions, and resource estimates of 220 individually assessed exploration plays in all 80 onshore geologic provinces within nine assessment regions of the continental United States in 1989; these 80 onshore provinces were assessed in connection with the determination of the Nation`s estimated undiscovered resources of oil and gas. The present report covers the 25 provinces that make up Region 1, Alaska, and Region 2, Pacific Coast.

Powers, R.B.

1993-12-31

386

County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure for the conterminous United States, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

County-level nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from animal manure for the conterminous United States for 2002 were estimated from animal populations from the 2002 Census of Agriculture by using methods described in U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5012. These estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure were compiled in support of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

Mueller, David K.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

2013-01-01

387

The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type concept was dropped and replaced by the soil phase in the 1950s in a modification of the 1938 Baldwin et al. classification (Simonson, 1997). When Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975, soil series became the most detailed (lowest) level of the classification system, and the only term maintained throughout all U.S. classifications to date. While the number of recognized soil series have increased steadily throughout the history of U.S. soil survey, there was a rapid increase in the recognition of new soil series following the introduction of Soil Taxonomy (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). References Brevik, E.C., and A.E. Hartemink. 2013. Soil maps of the United States of America. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:1117-1132. doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0390. Simonson, R.W. 1997. Evolution of soil series and type concepts in the United States. Advances in Geoecology 29:79-108.

Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

2014-05-01

388

Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.  

PubMed

'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. PMID:22542604

Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

2012-06-01

389

Report on Personal Searches by the United States Customs Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the mission of the United States Customs Service to ensure that all goods and persons entering and exiting the United States do so in compliance with all United States laws and regulations. Specifically, the Customs Service is responsible for collec...

2002-01-01

390

77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-18] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U...customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Final...customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA)....

2012-10-18

391

76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11-19] RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S...customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule effective...

2011-10-21

392

26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3) In connection with the lives or health of residents of...or in connection with the lives or health of citizens of...the United States, within the meaning of subparagraph (2) of this...the United States. (d) Lives or health of United States...

2013-04-01

393

TOUR BY UNITED STATE SENATOR GEORGE BENDER - GENERAL LEMUEL C SHEPHERD JUNIOR COMMANDANT UNITED STA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TOUR BY UNITED STATE SENATOR GEORGE BENDER - GENERAL LEMUEL C SHEPHERD JUNIOR COMMANDANT UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS - COLONEL WEST AIDE TO GENERAL SHEPHERD - MR CURTIS L SMITH PRESIDENT OF CLEVELAND OHIO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE -

1955-01-01

394

Gloria mosaic of the deep sea floor off the Atlantic coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This mosaic is a GLORIA (Geological LOng Range Inclined Asdic) view of the deep sea floor off the East Coast of the United States. It covers a surveyed region (fig. 1) of 195,000 square miles, an area nearly as large as Texas. The survey is part of a program to map the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States and its island territories (also including Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands) carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS). A detailed atlas of the East Coast data has been published (EEZ-SCAN 87 Scientific Staff, 1991), and, along with this report, provides an overall view of the morphology and texture of the sea floor in the EEZ beyond the Continental Shelf.

Schlee, John S.; Dillon, William P.; Popenoe, Peter; Robb, James M.; O'Leary, Dennis W.

1992-01-01

395

Sensitivity of the eastern United States to acid precipitation impacts on surface waters  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to identify areas of the United States where soils and freshwaters might be sensitive to acidification have proceeded from analyses of large scale geologic maps. These are useful in a general way but a finer scale analysis has been needed. We have carried out such an analysis for the eastern United States based primarily on geologic maps of scales 1:250,000 to 1:500,000. This report is a synopsis of and excerpted from that effort. Other workers have prepared maps on a similar scale of the soils to a depth of 25 cm, and we anticipate that both sets of maps will be merged into a combined analysis of sensitivity. Other factors important in controlling acidification of soils and freshwaters include hydrologic charcteristics of the terrain, such as: soil porosity or permeability; water residence time in soil; temporal variation in precipitation rate, chemistry and volume; regional temperature patterns; and topography.

Hendrey, G R; Galloway, J N; Norton, S A; Schofield, C L

1980-03-01

396

Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in the conterminous United States, excluding the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The data set represents the areas to be studied during the second decade of the NAWQA Program, from 2001-2012 ("cycle 2"). The coverage is intended only for drawing ILLUSTRATIONS, NOT for spatial analysis.

Hitt, K.J.

2006-01-01

397

78 FR 52822 - United States Department of Energy and United States Department of Defense v. Baltimore & Ohio...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Defense v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, et al.; and United States Department of Energy and United States Department of Defense v. Aberdeen & Rockfish Railroad Company, et al. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION:...

2013-08-26

398

HIV infection - United States, 2008 and 2010.  

PubMed

At the end of 2009, approximately 1.1 million persons in the United States were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with approximately 50,000 new infections annually. The prevalence of HIV continues to be greatest among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), who comprised approximately half of all persons with new infections in 2009. Disparities also exist among racial/ethnic minority populations, with blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos accounting for approximately half of all new infections and deaths among persons who received an HIV diagnosis in 2009. Improving survival of persons with HIV and reducing transmission involve a continuum of services that includes diagnosis, linkage to and retention in HIV medical care, and ongoing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24264500

Johnson, Anna Satcher; Beer, Linda; Sionean, Catlainn; Hu, Xiaohong; Furlow-Parmley, Carolyn; Le, Binh; Skarbinski, Jacek; Hall, H Irene; Dean, Hazel D

2013-11-22

399

Adult immunization priorities in the United States.  

PubMed

Pneumonia and influenza (P&I) are the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Despite universal coverage under Medicare, one-half to three-quarters of elderly adults fail to get vaccinated against P&I disease. Hepatitis B vaccine is also widely underutilized by adults. Although more than 100 times as many adults as children die from vaccine-preventable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently allocates the vast majority of federal immunization funds to childhood programs. Top CDC officials say this is in accordance with the will of the Congress and the President. However, analysis of legislative documents shows that there is no legal bar or restriction to the use of federal funds to support adult immunization. CDC has the authority to use federal immunization funds to enhance adult immunization services, but the agency has yet to make adult immunization a priority. A commentary follows. PMID:8632737

Lee, J S

1996-01-01

400

United States Department of Justice: Environmental Justice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Justice Office within the United States Department of Justice brings together resources that staff members use in the quest to secure environmental justice for all. On the homepage, visitors can look over the latest "Environmental Justice Implementation Progress Report" that details its commitment to this ongoing task. Moving on, the right-side of the page contains additional links of note. Under Selected Resources visitors can explore Executive Orders related to the Department's work, along with official documents such as "DOJ Guidance Concerning Environmental Justice" and the coordinating group documents from the Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice. The site is rounded out by a selection of social media links and RSS feed.

2013-01-01

401

Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: ? A description of each of the components of the Atlas; ? Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and ? A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: ? A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ? ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division] [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-12-13

402

Money Income in the United States: 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has released this report based on the March 1998 Current Population Survey. Given all the press in 1998 on America's booming economy, it should come as no surprise that the report contains good news. For the third consecutive year, households in the United States experienced an annual increase in their real median income while the poverty rate fell from 13.7 percent in 1996 to 13.3 percent in 1997. The statistical number of poor and the degree of income inequality, however, remain unchanged. The report offers several tables and the text of press releases which highlight national-level findings as well as income and poverty statistics for African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and people of Hispanic Origin.

1998-01-01

403

Principal lakes of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States has about 250 fresh-water lakes that are known to have surface areas of 10 square miles or more. Nearly 100 of these are in Alaska, and 100 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York,. and Maine. Thirty-four fresh-water lakes, exclusive of the Great Lakes, are known to have maximum depths of 250 feet or more. Twenty of these are in Alaska, and Alaska undoubtedly has more lakes of that depth which have not been sounded. The amount of water stored in natural lakes--even exclusive of the Great Lakes--is much greater than the amount stored in artificial reservoirs. With the exception of the Great Lakes, however, the economic value of natural lakes is surpassed by that of artificial reservoirs. Natural lakes are best known for the recreational advantages they afford.

Bue, Conrad D.

1963-01-01

404

Nuclear material control in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions.

Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

1995-09-01

405

United States Weather Research Program (USWRP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After more than a decade of development by a broad cross-section of the U.S. atmospheric research community involved in planning for the National STORM Program, the Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research (SAR) of the Committee on Earth and Environmental Science (CEES) led the development of a strategic plan to realize the objectives of STORM so as to improve our nation's capability to provide accurate short-term forecasts of weather. This strategic plan will guide the planning and implementation of what is now called the United States Weather Research Program (USWRP). The USWRP is charged with achieving operational atmospheric prediction based on mesoscale observations and model results and establishing the scientific and technological basis for global atmospheric mesoscale prediction by the year 2000. The key scientific questions that are addressed under USWRP are discussed.

Bhumralkar, Chandrakant

1993-01-01

406

Electric trade in the United States 1994  

SciTech Connect

Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

NONE

1998-08-01

407

Early Marriage in the United States  

PubMed Central

Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and early marriage varies widely across a number of characteristics. Individuals who marry earlier are more likely to be from disadvantaged families, from conservative Protestant or Mormon families, to value their religious faith more highly, to have a high-school diploma but a lower educational trajectory, and to cohabit before marriage. Scholars and policymakers interested in marriage should pay adequate attention to understanding and supporting these individuals' marriages.

Uecker, Jeremy E.; Stokes, Charles E.

2010-01-01

408

Early Marriage in the United States.  

PubMed

Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and early marriage varies widely across a number of characteristics. Individuals who marry earlier are more likely to be from disadvantaged families, from conservative Protestant or Mormon families, to value their religious faith more highly, to have a high-school diploma but a lower educational trajectory, and to cohabit before marriage. Scholars and policymakers interested in marriage should pay adequate attention to understanding and supporting these individuals' marriages. PMID:20305796

Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

2008-11-01

409

United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs.

Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

1991-06-01

410

The Presidents of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presidents of the United States, an extension of the White House Web site, offers a list of every President that ever served this country. Listed by date of service, this site features a picture along with a brief biography of each American President. Also available are quizzes and interesting trivia facts such as July 4, 1826 --- 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence --- is the day of both President John Adamss and President Thomas Jeffersons death. Equally important, accessible on this page are hyperlinks to the First Ladies site, where pictures and historical data is provided for all of the women who served as First Ladies of the U.S.; and the White House home page, where, among other things, viewers can receive up-to-date information concerning the President, Vice-President, and the latest happenings in Congress.

2001-01-01

411

United States Department of Transportation: Briefing Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Transportation's Briefing Room is a one-stop center for journalists, policy scholars, and members of the general public to obtain the latest news, multimedia, and other updates from this government agency. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Latest News, view the Featured Video, or look through the recent Speeches. Along the right-hand side of the home page, visitors can make their way through specialized sites that look at various initiatives, such as open government and the implementation of the Recovery Act at the DOT. For those people looking for updates on pressing transportation policy matters, the Videos area has features on distracted driving, surface transportation initiatives, and the future of publicly-funded rail projects.

2012-08-10

412

Unmanned Spacecraft of the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1957 the first earth satellite ushered in the age of space flight. Since that historic event, space exploration has become a major national objective of both the United States and the Soviet Union. These two nations have attempted a total of well over 200 space flight missions. Other nations are also participating in various degrees in what will continue to grow as a cooperative world effort. In the years since 1957, man has successfully flown in earth orbit. He has initiated programs to land on the moon and return. He has made dramatic applications of earth satellites in meteorology, communications, navigation, and geodesy. A host of scientific satellites.continue to advance understanding of the earth's environment, the sun, and the stars. Automated spacecraft are being flown to the moon, deep into interplanetary space, and to the near planets, Mars and Venus. One of the most exciting technological aspects of space exploration has been the development of automated spacecraft. Most of the scientific exploration of space and the useful applications of space flight thus far have been made possible by automated spacecraft. Development of these spacecraft and their many complex subsystems is setting the pace today for many branches of science and technology. Guidance, computer, attitude control, power, telecommunication, instrumentation, and structural subsystems are being subjected to new standards of light weight, high efficiency, extreme accuracy, and unsurpassed reliability and quality. This publication reviews the automated spacecraft which have been developed and flown, or which are under active development in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. From the facts and statistics contained herein, certain observations can be made and certain conclusions drawn.

Cortright, Edgar M.

1964-01-01

413

Climatic controls on Pennsylvanian sequences, United States  

SciTech Connect

Temporal and spatial paleoclimate changes were primary controls on changes in sediment supply, both siliciclastic and chemical, in Pennsylvanian deposystems of the United States. Tectonic and eustatic processes, as well as climatically induced changes in sediment supply, controlled accommodation space and sequence stratigraphy within these deposystems. Interbasinal correlations of lithologies sensitive to climate, such as coeval paleosols, provide continental-scale records of climatic and eustatic conditions. Pennsylvanian bio- and lithostratigraphy are indicative of climate change at time scales that range from long-term (tens of millions of years) as Pangea formed and North America moved northward through the paleoequator, to intermediate-term hundred thousand year cycles controlled by orbital forcing, to very short-term events perhaps analogous to El Nino. Because of proximity to the humid tropics, the long-term climate of eastern basins of the United States was generally wetter than western basins. In the east, pluvial parts of climate cycles occur during low-stand events and are recorded by intense chemical weathering, high terrestrial organic productivity, restricted erosion, and siliciclastic sediment starvation. These conditions resulted in highly leached mineral paleosols (Ultisols) and coal beds (Histosols) of interbasinal extent. Drier parts of climate cycles in the east occurred during highstands of sea level when erosion and siliciclastic transport were maximum. In the western basins pluvial periods are generally indicated by shifts from eolian to fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary regimes in continental environments and from evaporate and carbonate to siliciclastic deposition, including black shale petroleum source rocks, in marine environments. Tectonics controlled basin development and glacial eustasy controlled sea level cycles. Climate, however, was the primary control on sediment supply and lithostratigraphy.

Cecil, C.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Edgar, N.T. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1996-08-01

414

Tetanus surveillance --- United States, 2001-2008.  

PubMed

Tetanus is a life-threatening but preventable disease caused by the toxin of Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous, spore-forming, gram-positive bacillus found in high concentrations in soil and animal excrement. Reported tetanus cases have declined >95%, and deaths from tetanus have declined >99% in the United States since 1947, when the disease became reportable nationally. To update a previous report and to determine the populations at greatest risk for the disease, CDC analyzed cases reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2001--2008. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that 233 tetanus cases were reported during 2001--2008; among the 197 cases with known outcomes, the case-fatality rate was 13.2%. Average annual incidence during that period was 0.10 per 1 million population overall and 0.23 among persons aged ?65 years. Incidence among Hispanics was nearly twice that among non-Hispanics, a difference accounted for by 16 cases among Hispanic injection drug users (IDUs). Among the 92 patients for whom tetanus toxoid-containing (TT) vaccination status was available, 37 (40.2%) had received no doses of TT vaccine. Thirty (15.4%) of 195 patients had diabetes, and 27 (15.3%) of 176 were IDUs. Of 51 patients with an acute wound and a surveillance report complete enough to evaluate tetanus prophylaxis, 49 (96.1%) had not received appropriate prophylaxis. Tetanus remains a rare but life-threatening disease in the United States. Health-care providers should ensure up-to-date TT vaccination of all their patients, especially persons aged ?65 years, persons with diabetes, and injection drug users. PMID:21451446

2011-04-01

415

New results for geologic units mapping of Utah test sites using Landsat TM data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper continues a study on the accuracy of geological mapping using Landsat Thematic Mapper data (Short, 1984). In June 1976, both the White Mountain alteration zone and the Waterpocket Fold sedimentary rock sites in Utah were surveyed by the Bendix 24-band scanner on a NASA NC-130B aircraft. Mid-June 1984 TM data for these two sites have been processed like the 1976 data to test the quality of simulation of TM data. Principal-components (PC) color composite images for White Mountain show close correspondence to the Bendix PC images. At this site carbonate strata are uniquely discriminated in both Bendix and TM composites that use an inverted PC 3 image. Alunite/kaolinite and hematite/limonite alteration zones developed on volcanic flows are also sharply separated, but iron oxide and silicified zones are less so. The accuracy of rock-units mapping at the Waterpocket Fold site by supervised classification of the June TM data is significantly better, reaching 70 percent in the best case, than for January 1983 data for that site.

Short, N. M.; Marcell, R.

1986-01-01

416

Occurrence of Methyl tert Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates in Source Water and Drinking Water of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the United States (US) Geological Survey conducted\\u000a surveys of the occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other\\u000a fuel oxygenates in ground water used as a source of drinking water and in drinking water in the United\\u000a States (USA) from 1993 to 2001. MTBE was detected in about 4% of samples of source water collected

Michael Moran

417

An Assessment of the High-gain Streckeisen STS2 Seismometer for Routine Earthquake Monitoring in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

USGS Open-File report: DRAFT Summary Objective. In this document we report the results of a study to determine if the Streckeisen STS2 high-gain seismometer is appropriate for use by the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) for routine earthquake monitoring in the United States (US). Issue. At issue is whether the high-gain STS2, with a sensitivity

D. E. McNamara; R. P. Buland; H. M. Benz

418

Thickness of the upper permeable zone of the Tertiary limestone aquifer system, southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tertiary limestone aquifer system of the southeastern United States is a thick sequence of carbonate rocks that vary in age and that are hydraulically connected in varying degrees. A map is presented that shows the thickness of the upper permeable zone of the aquifer system. Several types of geologic structures have had an effect on the thickness of the upper permeable zone. The magnitude of this effect varies with the type and size of the structure. (USGS)

Miller, James A.

1982-01-01

419

Fossil fuel production from the southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southeastern states (VA, NC, SC, KY, TN, GA, FL, AL, and MS) are blessed with geologic diversity and a wealth of fossil fuels. Currently, only a fraction of these resources are being produced and utilized. The multitude of fossil fuel resources in the southeastern states includes significant oil and gas accumulations and prolific coal deposits. Oil and gas are

E. A. Mancini; B. L. Bearden

1993-01-01

420

2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

Petersen, M. D.; Others

2008-01-01

421

The methamphetamine problem in the United States.  

PubMed

Significant public health problems associated with methamphetamine (MA) production and use in the United States have emerged over the past 25 years; however, there has been considerable controversy about the size of the problem. Epidemiological indicators have provided a mixed picture. National surveys of the adult U.S. population and school-based populations have consistently been used to support the position that MA use is a relatively minor concern. However, many other data sources, including law-enforcement groups, welfare agencies, substance abuse treatment program admissions, criminal justice agencies, and state/county executives indicate that MA is a very significant public health problem for many communities throughout much of the country. In this article, we describe (a) the historical underpinnings of the MA problem, (b) epidemiological trends in MA use, (c) key subgroups at risk for MA problems, (d) the health and social factors associated with MA use, (e) interventions available for addressing the MA problem, and (f) lessons learned from past efforts addressing the MA problem. PMID:20070191

Gonzales, Rachel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A

2010-01-01

422

Candidate sites for future hot-dry-rock development in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Generalized geologic and other data are tabulated for 24 potential hot dry rock (HDR) sites in the contiguous United States. The data show that HDR resources occur in many geologic and tectonic settings. Potential reservoir rocks at each prospect are described and each system is cateogrized accoridng to inferred heat sources. The Fenton Hill area in New Mexico is discussed in detail because this region may be considered ideal for HDR development. Three other prospectively valuable localities are described: The Geysers-Clear lake region in California, the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah, and the White Mountains region in New Hampshire. These areas are singled out to illustrate the roles of significantly different geology and geophysics, reservoir rocks, and reservoir heat contents in possible HDR developments.

Goff, F.; Decker, E.R.

1982-12-01

423

Delineation of Magnesium-rich Ultramafic Rocks Available for Mineral Carbon Sequestration in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral carbon sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester CO2. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made covering the entire United States detailing their geographical distribution and extent, or evaluating their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the continental United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. The focus of the national-scale map is entirely on suitable ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine and serpentine minerals. By combining the map with digital datasets that show non-mineable lands (such as urban areas and National Parks), estimates on potential depth of a surface mine, and the predicted reactivities of the mineral deposits, one can begin to estimate the capacity for CO2 mineral sequestration within the United States. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Krevor, S. C.; Graves, C. R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A. E.

2009-01-01

424

United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential

Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

2008-12-01

425

Block versus continuum deformation in the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relative role of block versus continuum deformation of continental lithosphere is a current subject of debate. Continuous deformation is suggested by distributed seismicity at continental plate margins and by cumulative seismic moment sums which yield slip estimates that are less than estimates from plate motion studies. In contrast, block models are favored by geologic studies of displacement in places like Asia. A problem in this debate is a lack of data from which unequivocal conclusions may be reached. In this paper we apply the techniques of study used in regions such as the Alpine-Himalayan belt to an area with a wealth of instrumental data-the Western United States. By comparing plate rates to seismic moment release rates and assuming a typical seismogenic layer thickness of 15 km it appears that since 1850 about 60% of the Pacific-North America motion across the plate boundary in California and Nevada has occurred seismically and 40% aseismically. The San Francisco Bay area shows similar partitioning between seismic and aseismic deformation, and it can be shown that within the seismogenic depth range aseismic deformation is concentrated near the surface and at depth. In some cases this deformation can be located on creeping surface faults, but elsewhere it is spread over a several kilometer wide zone adjacent to the fault. These superficial creeping deformation zones may be responsible for the palaeomagnetic rotations that have been ascribed elsewhere to the surface expression of continuum deformation in the lithosphere. Our results support the dominant role of non-continuum deformation processes with the implication that deformation localization by strain softening must occur in the lower crust and probably the upper mantle. Our conclusions apply only to the regions where the data are good, and even within the Western United States (i.e., the Basin and Range) deformation styles remain poorly resolved. Nonetheless, we maintain that block motion is the deformation style of choice for those continental regions where the data are best. ?? 1994.

King, G.; Oppenheimer, D.; Amelung, F.

1994-01-01

426

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States  

SciTech Connect

The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom`s parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United States, however, was designed to have a separation of powers, and this insures that the legislative and executive branches have opportunities for discord as well as cooperation. Currently the United Kingdom has operational weapons production facilities, whereas the United States does not. The United Kingdom has only one nuclear weapons program (the Trident missile) to maintain, whereas the United States has multiple delivery systems and warhead types to maintain. The United Kingdom`s nuclear deterrent provides for the country`s security needs, yet the United Kingdom is also covered by US nuclear commitments. Indeed, the United States provides extended deterrence protection for allies and security partners around the world. These responsibilities imply that the implications of the CTBT could be more momentous for the United States than for the United Kingdom.

Sironi, L.

1998-12-01

427

The United States celebrates National Library Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ALA Report: Poor Middle, High School Libraries Suffer the Most Budget Cutshttp://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/slj/home/890148-312/ala_report_poor_middle_high.html.cspClosing most Cobb libraries not realistichttp://www.ajc.com/opinion/closing-most-cobb-libraries-906121.htmlALA: 2011 State of America's Libraries Report [pdf]http://ala.org/ala/newspresscenter/mediapresscenter/americaslibraries2011/index.cfmThe Most Criticized Books! A Handy List From Your Libraryhttp://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/04/11/135316133/the-most-criticized-books-a-handy-list-from-your-library@Your Libraryhttp://www.atyourlibrary.org/It's National Library Week, and libraries around the United States have much to celebrate. More and more patrons are coming in to their area libraries to check out e-books, read the newspapers, search for jobs online, and to take advantage of unique programs, such as special presentations and concerts. Flush times indeed, but along with rising patronage, public libraries are also facing major cutbacks in terms of funding. This week, the American Library Association (ALA) released its annual "State of America's Libraries" report, and there were a number of troubling signs within its pages. Perhaps the most troubling revelation was that middle and high school libraries in high poverty areas of the US suffered average spending cuts on information resources and collection size of 25.5 percent. The report also noted that total library staff hours declined across the United States, but there was an average increase of 0.8 hours per week among certified school librarians. While most observers tend to agree that libraries will continue to serve as important community gathering centers in the future, it remains to be seen what will be contained within their walls 10 or 20 years in the future.The first link will take visitors to a recent piece of reporting from National Public Radio (NPR) about the future of libraries, with specific reference to the growing popularity of e-books. The second link leads to a piece from the School Library Journal about the budgets cuts among libraries in high poverty areas. Moving on, the third link will whisk users away to an opinion piece by writer Margaret Johnson-Hodge about the importance of libraries in Cobb County, Georgia. The fourth link leads to the full text of the 2011 State of America's Libraries Report from the ALA. The fifth link leads to a report from NPR on the most frequently challenged books of 2010. This list includes titles such as "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley and "Crank" by Ellen Hopkins. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the Campaign for America's Libraries, which provides information on local libraries, recommended books and music, and information on their mission and work.

Grinnell, Max

2011-04-15

428

Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950 and 0.512 in 1995, indicating increasing water scarcity over time as population and employment growth has placed greater demands on water resources. Additionally, our study revealed that in 1980, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey scarcity levels were 0.733, 0.790 and 0.857, respectively. Although the Northeastern United States is commonly perceived as a water rich region, moderate to heavily exploited levels of water stress were observed over the time period when a finer spatial scale is utilized. Water scarcity indicator values were disaggregated by state for each time period and illustrated using a series of maps. Additional descriptive statistics were used to elucidate the differences in water scarcity between states over time.

Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

2010-12-01

429

Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.  

SciTech Connect

Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the manner in which produced water is managed. This report presents an overview of produced water, summarizes the study, and presents results from the study at both the national level and the state level. Chapter 2 presents background information on produced water, describing its chemical and physical characteristics, where it is produced, and the potential impacts of produced water to the environment and to oil and gas operations. A review of relevant literature is also included. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to collect information, including outreach efforts to state oil and gas agencies and related federal programs. Because of the inconsistency in the level of detail provided by various state agencies, the approaches and assumptions used to extrapolate data values are also discussed. In Chapter 4, the data are presented, and national trends and observations are discussed. Chapter 5 presents detailed results for each state, while Chapter 6 presents results from federal sources for oil and gas production (i.e., offshore, onshore, and tribal lands). Chapter 7 summarizes the study and presents conclusions.

Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2009-09-01

430

What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.

431

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Samoans in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Samoans in the United States for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about Samoa, migration of Samoans to the United States, cultural background, and Samoan students. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

432

Terrestrial Ecosystems - Isobioclimates of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey has generated isobioclimate classes to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States, using an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe . A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. Bioclimate regimes strongly influence the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, and are therefore one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. The Rivas-Martinez methodology is based on the concept of establishing a quantifiable classification system which would closely relate the distribution of vegetation to climatic parameters and indices. This method first establishes bioclimatic indices calculated from various ranges of temperature and precipitation data, compares these indices to defined thresholds, and finally applies sets of decision rules to identify the climate classes. The climate classification is hierarchical with four levels: macrobioclimates, bioclimates, thermotypes, and ombrotypes. Thermotypes, which represent thermoclimatic belts, are identified using the positive annual temperature (Tp) thresholds or the compensated thermicity index (Itc) thresholds. Ombrotypes, which represent ombroclimatic belts, are based on the ombrothermic index (Io) which is calculated as a function of both the total positive precipitation and temperature . For this national implementation the source data used for establishing the bioclimatic indices was Daymet. Daymet temperature and precipitation data were developed from 18 years (1980-1997) of climatological records and is available at a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer . This implementation of the Rivas-Martinez methodology resulted in the generation of four climate layers for the conterminous United States: macroclimates, bioclimates, thermotypes, and ombrotypes. However, the biophysical stratification approach used for the ecosystems modeling effort required a single climate layer that accurately reflected regional variation in wet/dry gradients and hot/cold gradients, with a manageable number of classes. Therefore, the data layers for thermotypes and ombrotypes were combined, yielding 127 unique thermotype-ombrotype combinations.The isobioclimates image shows ombrotypic regions (dry/wet gradients) for each thermotypic (warm/cold) region. Additional information about this map and any of the data developed for the ecosystems modeling of the conterminous United States is available online at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/ecosystems/.

Cress, Jill J.; Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

2009-01-01

433

A new approach to the electrical conductivity anomalies in the Drauzug-Bakony geological unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major electrical conductivity anomaly has been detected in Transdanubia (West Hungary) in the eastern part of the Drauzug-Bakony geological unit (DBU), a collision zone of the Alpine orogeny. Assuming the source of the conductivity anomaly to be a characteristic formation of the whole DBU, long period magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were made in two regions of the western part of the DBU, in the Gail valley and in the Karawanken. The general features of this formation were studied also in order to elucidate the cause of the Transdanubian conductivity anomaly. The conductivity anomaly detected by long period MT in the Western DBU lies much deeper (12-17 km) than in Transdanubia (5-9 km). As the anomaly in both regions is associated with a well-known tectonic zone, its origin was initially explained by ionic conduction, arising from the presence of pore fluids. The very low resistivity values, the great anisotropy, the effect of charges on the H-polarized MT curves, and the anomalous magnetic field variations also indicated an increase of electronic conduction, possibly caused by graphitic rocks or ores nearer to the surface. In the Gail valley, audiomagnetotelluric measurements made in 1986 have led to the discovery of these standing blocks of graphitic shales lifted up gradually to the surface by tectonic forces from below the dolomites of the Carnic Alps. It is suggested that the same plate collision arranged the Paleozoic graphitic shales to narrow dikes in the Gail valley as well as in Transdanubia along the Balaton line and zones parallel to it.

Ádám, A.; Duma, G.; Horváth, J.

434

The south-central United States magnetic anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A positive magnetic anomaly, which dominates the MAGSAT scalar field over the south-central United States, results from the superposition of magnetic effects from several geologic sources and tectonic structures in the crust. The highly magnetic basement rocks of this region show good correlation with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity and predominantly negative free-air gravity anomalies, all of which are useful constraints for modeling the magnetic sources. The positive anomaly is composed of two primary elements. The western-most segment is related to middle Proterozoic granite intrusions, rhyolite flows and interspersed metamorphic basement rocks in the Texas panhandle and eastern New Mexico. The anomaly and the magnetic crust are bounded to the west by the north-south striking Rio Grande Rift. The anomaly extends eastward over the Grenville age basement rocks of central Texas, and is terminated to the south and east by the buried extension of the Ouachita System. The northern segment of the anomaly extends eastward across Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi Embayment. It corresponds to a general positive magnetic region associated with the Wichita Mountains igneous complex in south-central Oklahoma and 1.2 to 1.5 Ga. felsic terrane to the north.

Starich, P. J.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

1985-01-01

435

Chlorinated solvents in groundwater of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four chlorinated solvents-methylene chloride, perchloroethene (PCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethene (TCE)-were analyzed in samples of groundwater taken throughout the conterminous United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. The samples were collected between 1985 and 2002 from more than 5,000 wells. Of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyzed in groundwater samples, solvents were among the most frequently detected. Mixtures of solvents in groundwater were common and may be the result of common usage of solvents or degradation of one solvent to another. Relative to other VOCs with Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs), PCE and TCE ranked high in terms of the frequencies of concentrations greater than or near MCLs. The probability of occurrence of solvents in groundwater was associated with dissolved oxygen content of groundwater, sources such as urban land use and population density, and hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The results reinforce the importance of understanding the redox conditions of aquifers and the hydraulic properties of the saturated and vadose zones in determining the intrinsic susceptibility of groundwater to contamination by solvents. The results also reinforce the importance of controlling sources of solvents to groundwater. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

Moran, M. J.; Zogorski, J. S.; Squillace, P. J.

2007-01-01

436

A Unified Flash Flood Database across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite flash flooding being one of the most deadly and costly weather-related natural hazards worldwide, individual datasets to characterize them in the United States are hampered by limited documentation and can be difficult to access. This study is the first of its kind to assemble, reprocess, describe, and disseminate a georeferenced U.S. database providing a long-term, detailed characterization of flash flooding in terms of spatiotemporal behavior and specificity of impacts. The database is composed of three primary sources: 1) the entire archive of automated discharge observations from the U.S. Geological Survey that has been reprocessed to describe individual flooding events, 2) flash-flooding reports collected by the National Weather Service from 2006 to the present, and 3) witness reports obtained directly from the public in the Severe Hazards Analysis and Verification Experiment during the summers 2008–10. Each observational data source has limitations; a major asset of the unified flash flood database is its collation of relevant information from a variety of sources that is now readily available to the community in common formats. It is anticipated that this database will be used for many diverse purposes, such as evaluating tools to predict flash flooding, characterizing seasonal and regional trends, and improving understanding of dominant flood-producing processes. We envision the initiation of this community database effort will attract and encompass future datasets.

Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang; Flamig, Zachary L.; Arthur, Ami; Clark, Robert; Calianno, Martin; Ruin, Isabelle; Ortel, Terry; Wieczorek, Michael E.; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clark, Edward; Krajewski, Witold F.

2013-01-01

437

Building the United States National Vegetation Classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

Franklin, S. B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

2012-01-01

438

Tetrapyrrole pigments in United States humic coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of forty-two United States humic coals have revealed a striking divergence between chlorophyll diagenesis in coals when compared to the more widely studied marine sediments, shales, asphalts and petroleums. Porphyrins of humic coals have been found to be dominated by the ETIO-series, to lack members above C-32, and, in lower ranked samples ( e.g. Sub-bituminous-B, high volatile C) to exhibit mass spectral envelopes with unique even-carbon number predominances. The weighted average mass, as well as the carbon number maximum ( viz. mode), of these coal porphyrin homologies has been found to decrease as rank increases. The generation of porphyrins of the ETIO-series is suggested as occurring both during early coal formation, including oxidative scission of the isocyclic ring at the phorbide stage, and later during the catagenic alteration of surviving DPEP-series porphyrins. A preliminary study of chlorophyll diagenesis in a South Florida peat partially substantiates this suggestion and has further shown that the coal porphyrins can be derived from bacterial, as well as higher plant, chlorophylls.

Palmer, S. E.; Baker, E. W.; Charney, L. S.; Louda, J. W.

1982-07-01

439

Explosive Cyclogenesis Over the Eastern United States.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cases of explosive cyclogenesis occurring over the east central United States are identified and analyzed. Other selected cases of weak or nonintensifying cyclones over the same area are identified and studied for comparative purposes. Signatures of explosively deepening cyclones (bombs) are derived from the analyses, including vertical profiles of vorticity, divergence, and latent heating, and also the relative importance of terms in the vorticity tendency equation and the relative importance of convective and stable latent heating. Composite analyses for the differing phases of bomb development and for regular cyclones are presented. Analyses of individual cases reveal the importance of a low-level jet streak, low-level moisture content, and moisture gradients in the lower troposphere. A numerical model is used to further examine the important processes in explosive cyclogenesis. A mesoscale feature is introduced to improve the prediction of sea -level pressure. This feature is based on the tendency of the large scale height field and vorticity field to adjust concurrently at each time step. The model is also used to provide air parcel trajectories to indicate the importance of parcels with high vorticity and moisture content as an ingredient in explosive cyclogenesis. Sensitivity studies are carried out with the model in order to determine the effect of changes in the initial vorticity and moisture field on cyclogenesis.

MacDonald, Bruce Calvin

440

The Lights of Earth: United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lights of Earth can be seen from space. Human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earths surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, and Japan. Many large cities are located near rivers or oceans so that they can exchange goods cheaply by boat. Particularly dark areas include the central parts of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The above image is actually a composite of hundreds of pictures made by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) currently operates four satellites carrying the Operational Linescan System (OLS) in low-altitude polar orbits. Three of these satellites record nighttime data. The DMSP-OLS has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible-near infrared (VNIR) radiance at night. With the OLS VIS band data it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas flares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning-illuminated clouds. The Nighttime Lights of the World data set is compiled from the October 1994 - March 1995 DMSP nighttime data collected when moonlight was low. Using the OL