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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Geologic Provinces of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A look into the forces of plate tectonics, weathering and erosion. A clickable, digital shaded relief map of the United States divides the continental states into 10 regions: Pacific Mountain System, Columbia Plateau, Basin and Range, Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountain System, Laurentian Upland, Interior Plains, Interior Highlands, Appalachian Highlands, and Atlantic Plain. Each link takes the viewer to a descriptive page that tells of the geologic history of the region and the forces that produced the current landscape. The site is currently under construction; each specific region will soon have links to Sub provinces, Maps and Illustrations (enabled), and an Image Gallery. Links to two other United States Geological Survey (USGS) learning web sites are available: Geologic time and Plate tectonics. Other links are also provided to a list of parks by province or plate tectonic setting, USGS Geology in the Parks home, and National Park Service Park Geology Tour home.

2

Geologic Provinces of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides all information, instructions, downloadable materials, and links to online materials for an exercise developed for use in a Geology of the National Parks course. Using the provided maps, groups of 3 to 6 students are asked to identify between 8 and 12 geologic provinces based on topography, the age of rocks, and the rock types. As a result of this exercise, students will become familiar and comfortable with reading maps and legends, learn basic rock types and how geologic time is divided, define geologic provinces that will form an outline for learning the geology of the U.S., and be able to discuss the maps they create based on what they've learned. This exercise is intended for one of the first class meetings of the quarter or semester and ideally students will approach this exercise without much or any prior knowledge of the geology of the United States.

Leech, Mary

3

United States Geological Survey yearbook  

SciTech Connect

This yearbook of the U.S. Geological Survey describes results of a number of USGS research efforts in such diverse areas as studying the quality of the nation's surface-and ground-water resources, assessing the nation's oil and gas resources, and applying cartographic and remote sensing techniques to aid legislators, policymakers, and the public in solving land-and resources-management problems. Specific issues discussed in this yearbook include erosion of Louisiana's coastal barrier islands, transport of pollutants in sediment in the Mississippi River, primary mapping economic analysis, and probabilities of large earthquakes in California.

Not Available

1988-01-01

4

State Geological Surveys and Related Agencies in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is part of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Web site. It provides a list of state geological surveys and related organizations in the United States (and Puerto Rico). For all of these agencies, mail addresses as well as known e-mail and Internet links are provided. Links are also provided to pages on geologic mapping, geologic hazards, earthquake engineering, mineral resources, and technical information and publications.

5

Generalized Geologic Map of the Conterminous United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features a geologic map of the United States using data prepared for publication in the National Atlas of the United States. There are explanations, documentations, and PDF files presenting the geologic map and a map unit chart, plus archives of ArcInfo files in several formats.

Usgs

6

Development of engineering geology in western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic concepts and scientific-technical guidance for the planning-design and construction of engineered works was recognized in Europe by the 1800s and by the early 1900s in North America. This early geologic knowledge and experience provided the rudimentary principles that guided practitioners of the 19th century in serving the emerging projects in western United States. Case studies review the scientific-technical lessons

George A Kiersch

2001-01-01

7

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the research activities of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The activities include: borehole geophysics and rock mechanics, crustal deformation, earthquake information, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, hazards, seismology and earth structure, and strong motion seismology, site response, and ground motion. Other links include: earthquake activity, earthquake facts and education, earthquake products, hazards and preparedness, regional websites, and seismic networks.

8

Quantitative bedrock geology of the conterminous United States of America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of bedrock based on data from the most recent geologic map of the conterminous United States of America [, 1974a, 1974b], made available in digital form by the United States Geologic Survey. The area-age distribution agrees surprisingly well with older data [, 1949] but provides much higher temporal resolution. The mean stratigraphic age of all sedimentary bedrock is ˜134 Myr; that of Tertiary-Cambrian sediments is ˜104 Myr. The analysis also reveals area coverage of some minor lithologies, such as ultramafic rocks that cover ˜0.15% of the conterminous United States. Area coverage of 162 lithostratigraphic units is made available as an Excel data sheet.

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

2002-10-01

9

United States Geological Survey: Research on Invasive Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Invasive Species Program. Materials include information about the program, news articles, and information on research projects arranged by species, project, or region. There is also contact information for researchers and experts, as well as links to publications, events, and other sites with related information.

2011-07-12

10

United States Geological Survey: Research on Invasive Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Invasive Species Program. Materials include information about the program, news articles, and information on research projects arranged by species, project, or region. There is also contact information for researchers and experts, as well as links to publications, events, and other sites with related information.

11

The United States Geological Survey National Mapping Program Fact Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a collection of United States Geological Survey (USGS) factsheets that introduce and explain a vast array of topics related to mapping. Each subject covers the history and development of that particular topic and includes any software or instruments that may be requried to utilize the information sources described. The topics covered on this site include: GIS, UTM, aerial photographs, map projections, map accuracy measurements, digital elevation models (DEM), satellite imagery, landcover mapping, hydrography, and numerous other components of maps. Information is available in several different formats (paper, html and pdf) and includes links back to other USGS services.

12

United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is not very often that a single event is so overwhelming that it changes public perceptions of natural hazards for generations. Perhaps for the U.S. Geological Survey, the explosive volcanic activity of Mount St. Helens began such a change. After 101 years of careful science of the Earth's past and meticulous observations and assessments of the present, predictive earth science was in full public view. However vague and faint the glimpse of the future made possible by earth science, it was enough. Warnings were issued, thousands of lives were saved, and the age of real-time geology began. The Survey's basic mission has not changed, but the power of our analytical tools has increased by several orders of magnitude. The Survey's efforts to understand Earth processes and hydrologic principles continued with the collection, during fiscal year 1980, of valuable new data on the geologic origin and framework, seismicity, and mineral and energy resources of the United States. The Survey is also responsible for classification of the leasable minerals on Federal lands and the regulation of mineral exploration and development activities on Federal and Indian lands. As the principal earth science fact-gathering agency, the Survey provides information for sound decisionmaking by government and private industry. Industry uses the Survey's information in exploring for energy and minerals and improving their efforts to make development of energy and minerals compatible with environmental protection standards. Government uses the Survey's information in conducting leasing operations on public lands, in regulating the safe design and siting of nuclear plants, and in establishing guidelines for determining and locating areas that are subject to geologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and provides an overview of future directions. Many of the topics covered will continue to be important natural resource and earth science issues of the 1980's.

U.S. Geological Survey

1981-01-01

13

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

Edited by Blean, Kathleen M.

1977-01-01

14

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

Edited by Johnson, Kathleen M.

1978-01-01

15

United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In March 1979, the U.S. Geological Survey celebrated its 100th year of service to the Nation and 10 decades of stewardship of the land and its resources. During this year, as in the previous 99, the Survey discharged its national trust by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating earth science information and by continuing its somewhat more recent responsibilities of supervising the development of energy and mineral resources on Federal lands. The basic mission of the Survey has changed over the years, and the scope of its activities and the power of analytic tools have also increased by several orders of magnitude from the early surveys of then "remote" western areas of the United States to surveying and mapping the mountains of the Moon and the polar caps of Mars and from the use of surveyor's transits, picks, the travelling chemistry kits to interpretation of Earth imagery. These representative advances illustrate important and continuing trends for at no previous time have our earth resources been so precious or our consciousness of their finiteness so acute. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and offers an overview of its future. Many of the topics touched on below will continue to be important resource issues in the coming decade.

U.S. Geological Survey

1980-01-01

16

77 FR 11565 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [GX12GC009PLSG0] Agency Information...Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS), Interior ACTION: Notice of...Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS...

2012-02-27

17

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies during 1984. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest.

Edited by Bartsch-Winkler, S.

1985-01-01

18

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies during 1983. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest.

Edited by Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Reed, K. M.

1985-01-01

19

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short topical and summary articles about the results of 1982 geologic studies on a wide range of subjects of economic and scientific interest. Included are lists of references cited for each article and a compilation of reports about Alaska written by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and published by the Geological Survey and other organizations.

Edited by Reed, Katherine M.; Bartsch-Winkler, Susan

1984-01-01

20

Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1975. Geological Survey Circular 765.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States Geological Survey has compiled data on water use in this country every fifth year since 1950. This document is the most recent of this series and presents data on water withdrawn for use in the United States in 1975. In the introduction, recent and present water use studies are discussed along with a description of the…

Murray, C. Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

21

United States Geological Survey yearbook, fiscal year 1980  

SciTech Connect

The fiscal year 1980 Yearbook summarizes the activities of the US Geological Survey in response to its scientific and regulatory missions and its responsibility for exploration of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. The main sections of this Yearbook are: (1) the year in review - a brief overview of the significant events of the Geological Survey during fiscal year 1980; (2) perspectives - essays focusing on specific events (rather than scientific topics) and programs involving multi-division participation; (3) missions, organization, and budget - a description of the Geological Survey's major duties and assignments and of the organizational structure that supports its missions; (4) division chapters - a description on the significant accomplishments (rather than a comprehensive program by program discussion) of each of the eight operating divisions and offices; and (5) appendices - provide supplementary information regarding key personnel, cooperators, and selected summary budgetary tables and an index.

Not Available

1980-01-01

22

Abbreviations used in publications of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of abbreviations in publications of the Geological Survey is determined by several forces working in different directions. Pulling in the direction of greater condensation and the freer use of abbreviations and symbols is the desire to achieve greater economy in publications. Working in the opposite direction is the desire to have the publications used more conveniently by an increasingly heterogeneous public.

U.S. Geological Survey

1953-01-01

23

Geology of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las Vegas is one of the fastest growing cities in the US. Its regional geologic setting is in the Basin and Range geomorphic province and in the Sevier orogenic belt. The city itself lies in a broad north-south valley formed by coalescing alluvial fans and lake beds which give rise to several soil and foundation problems. Although destructive earthquakes have

R. V. Wyman; M. Karakouzian; V. Bax-Valentine; L. Peterson; S. Palmer; D. B. Slemmons

1993-01-01

24

United States Geological Survey Yearbook, fiscal year 1987  

SciTech Connect

The 1987 US Geological Survey yearbook describes the results of a number of Survey research efforts in such diverse areas as assessing the Nation's strategic and critical mineral resources studying the quality of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources, and applying cartographic and remote sensing techniques to aid legislators, policy makers, and the public in solving land- and resource-management problems.

Not Available

1988-01-01

25

United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fiscal year 1978 saw the U.S. Geological Survey continuing to perform its basic historical missions of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information about the Earth, its processes, and its water and mineral resources. Classifying Federal lands and supervising lessee mineral extraction operations on those lands were also major Survey concerns during the year. In addition, substantial progress was made in the exploration and assessment of the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, a recently assigned mission. These basic missions found expression in a wide range of program activities and interests as diverse as the sands of Mars and the volcanoes of Hawaii. Programs included assessment of numerous potential energy and mineral resources, study of earthquakes and other geologic hazards, appraisal of the magnitude and quality of the Nation's water resources, and supervision of lease operations on Federal lands. The Survey also was involved in developing data on land use and producing topographic, geologic, and hydrologic maps for public and private use. In cooperation with other Federal agencies, the Survey participated in studies under the U.S. Climate Program and continued its analysis of data received from the two Viking landers on the surface of Mars. On April 3, 1978, Dr. H. William Menard became the 10th Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. Menard, who, until his appointment, was Professor of Geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., brings to the Director's post the experience gained in a long and successful career as a marine geologist and oceanographer. He succeeds Dr. Vincent E. McKelvey, who continues with the Survey as a senior research scientist.

U.S. Geological Survey

1979-01-01

26

Geology of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America  

SciTech Connect

Las Vegas is one of the fastest growing cities in the US. Its regional geologic setting is in the Basin and Range geomorphic province and in the Sevier orogenic belt. The city itself lies in a broad north-south valley formed by coalescing alluvial fans and lake beds which give rise to several soil and foundation problems. Although destructive earthquakes have not occurred in the Las Vegas area in modern times, the record is very short. Major earthquakes could have taken place in the past when the area was unoccupied except for a few nomadic tribes. Studies are underway to better define the seismicity. Although the climate is hot and dry, flash flooding occurs frequently from late summer thunderstorms and torrential rains. The Regional Flood Control District is actively constructing retention basins and drainage improvements for diversion and protection from such floods. Water supply is a problem for the increasing population. The groundwater supply has long been overdrawn, and the allotment to Nevada under the Colorado River Compact will be completely utilized in the near future. Las Vegas has faced the problems of solid waste disposal, water treatment, rational water use, flooding and earthquakes - all of which are related to the unique geologic and geomorphic setting.

Wyman, R.V.; Karakouzian, M. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States)); Bax-Valentine, V. (Clark County Regional Flood Control District, Las Vegas, NV (United States)); Peterson, L.; Palmer, S. (Kleinfelder, Las Vegas, NV (United States)); Slemmons, D.B.

1993-03-01

27

United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fiscal 1977 marked the 98th year the U.S. Geological Survey has endeavored in the unceasing task of providing information about the Earth and its physical resources, and regulating the activities of lessees engaged in extracting petroleum and other minerals from the public domain. The past year also marked the beginning of a third and challenging mission, drawing upon the Survey's scientific talents, to explore and assess the petroleum potential of a vast 37,000 square miles expanse of Alaska's North Slope known as the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. The first two missions require detailed and continuing investigations of the location, character, and extent of the Nation's land, water, mineral, and energy resources; a continuing National Topographic Mapping Program; the classification of Federal lands for mineral and waterpower potential; and a continuing program of technical review, safety inspection and royalty auditing of the operations of private parties engaged in mineral development on Federal lands to assure standards of safety, environmental protection, resource conservation, and a fair market return to the public for the development of their resources.

U.S. Geological Survey

1978-01-01

28

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the geology of southeast Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set of 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Gehrels, George E.; Berg, Henry C.

2006-01-01

29

Quaternary geologic map of the Chicago 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Chicago 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

State compilations by Lineback, Jerry A.; Bleuer, Ned K.; Mickelson, David M.; Farrand, William R.; Goldthwait, Richard P.; Edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald M.; Fullerton, David S.

1983-01-01

30

Quaternary geologic map of the Florida Keys 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1986. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Florida Keys 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

Compilations: Scott, Thomas M.; Knapp, Michael S.; Weide, David L.; Edited and integrated by: Richmond, Gerald M.; Fullerton, David S.; Weide, David L.; Digital Edition by Bush, Charles A.

2010-01-01

31

The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska is organized in four parts (1) services and responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey; (2) organization of the U.S. Geological Survey; 13) current U.S. Geological Survey activities; and (4) cooperative projects with Federal, State, and local agencies.

Edited by Cobb, Edward Huntington

1976-01-01

32

About the Geologic Map in the National Atlas of the United States of America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The geologic map in the National Atlas of the United States of America shows the age, distribution, and general character of the rocks that underlie the Nation, including Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (but excluding other small island possessions). (The National Atlas of the United States can be accessed at URL http://nationalatlas.gov/natlas/Natlasstart.asp.) The map depicts the bedrock that lies immediately beneath soils or surficial deposits except where these deposits are so thick and extensive that the type of bedrock beneath them can only be inferred by deep drilling or geophysical methods, or both. Thus, it does not show the extensive glacial deposits of the North Central and Northeastern States, the deep residuum of the Southeastern and South Central States, the relatively thin alluvium along many major rivers and basins, and extensive eolian deposits on the high plains. However, it does show, in a general way, the thick alluvial deposits along the lower Mississippi River and on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, and in the deep basins of the western cordillera. The rocks are classified as either sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, or metamorphic, and their geologic ages are given in terms using a simplified version of the 1999 Geological Society of America geologic time scale. In some places rocks depicted as sedimentary are interlayered with volcanic rocks, including tuff, volcanic breccia, and volcanic flows. Conversely, many of the rocks shown as volcanic include interlayered sedimentary rocks. Plutonic rocks are classified by age and as granitic, intermediate, mafic, or ultramafic, but no similar classification has been attempted for the volcanic rocks in this version of the map. Where sedimentary or volcanic rocks have been metamorphosed but still retain clear evidence of their depositional age and origin, the extent of the metamorphism is shown by a pattern. Where the metamorphism has been so intense that the rocks bear little resemblance to the rocks from which they were derived, they are mapped as gneiss, but the age given is generally the age of the original rocks. The map in the National Atlas is a generalization of a new geologic map of North America that has recently been published by the Geological Society of America. The original compilation was prepared at a scale of 1:2,500,000 for publication at a scale of 1:5,000,000. This generalized version is intended for viewing at scales between about 1:10,000,000 and 1:7,500,000.

Reed, John C.; Bush, Charles A.

2007-01-01

33

United States Geological Survey: International Polar Year Resources (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the upcoming International Polar Year (IPY) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiatives and resources that help support the observance. Topics include a history of IPY (this will be the third IPY) and the role of the USGS in polar research. The education section provides links to USGS resources on glaciation, the North and South Pole, Alaska, climate change, and other topics of interest for IPY investigations. Materials include information on atlases and databases, polar research projects, maps, photos, digital datasets, booklets, and educational guides.

34

Forty-first annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The appropriations for the public work under the United States Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1919-20 comprised items amounting to $1,586,353.50. In general the results of the varied activities of the Geological Survey may be regarded as meeting with a constantly increasing measure of public approval, as shown by the larger use that is being made of this branch of the public service. Correspondence with all classes of citizens—ranchers and corporation officials, school children and university professors, prospectors and mining engineers—has continued to increase, and this gain has been evident in the requests both for specific information and for publications. Ten years ago a telegraphic request for a map or report was a notable incident; now telegrams of this kind are of daily occurrence. Especially gratifying has been the popular demand for topographic maps, the increase in sales this year being 70 per cent. The number of all publications—books and maps—distributed during the year exceeded the number printed this year, this disproving the common assertion that Government publications simply accumulate until they become only waste paper. Indeed, an embarrassing feature of much of the correspondence during the year has been the thousands of requests for reports that were out of print, and more reprints than usual of exhausted editions have been authorized to meet an insistent demand. The public is making use of the publications of the Geological Survey as never before.

Smith, George Otis

1920-01-01

35

Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rapid growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for regional and national scale digital geologic maps that have standardized information about geologic age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. Although two digital geologic maps (Schruben and others, 1994; Reed and Bush, 2004) of the United States currently exist, their scales (1:2,500,000 and 1:5,000,000) are too general for many regional applications. Most states have digital geologic maps at scales of about 1:500,000, but the databases are not comparably structured and, thus, it is difficult to use the digital database for more than one state at a time. This report describes the result for a seven state region of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to produce a series of integrated and standardized state geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. In 1997, the United States Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program initiated the National Surveys and Analysis (NSA) Project to develop national digital databases. One primary activity of this project was to compile a national digital geologic map database, utilizing state geologic maps, to support studies in the range of 1:250,000- to 1:1,000,000-scale. To accomplish this, state databases were prepared using a common standard for the database structure, fields, attribution, and data dictionaries. For Alaska and Hawaii new state maps are being prepared and the preliminary work for Alaska is being released as a series of 1:250,000 scale quadrangle reports. This document provides background information and documentation for the integrated geologic map databases of this report. This report is one of a series of such reports releasing preliminary standardized geologic map databases for the United States. The data products of the project consist of two main parts, the spatial databases and a set of supplemental tables relating to geologic map units. The datasets serve as a data resource to generate a variety of stratigraphic, age, and lithologic maps. This documentation is divided into four main sections: (1) description of the set of data files provided in this report, (2) specifications of the spatial databases, (3) specifications of the supplemental tables, and (4) an appendix containing the data dictionaries used to populate some fields of the spatial database and supplemental tables.

Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Horton, John D.; Foose, Michael P.; Mueller, Julia A. L.; Hon, Rudi

2006-01-01

36

Regulating geologic sequestration in the United States: early rules take divergent approaches.  

PubMed

Regulations for geological sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been adopted in the state of Washington and proposed by the state of Kansas and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. These three sets of rules take significantly different approaches to regulating GS of CO2. This paper compares these rules, focusing on elements where their differences highlight the choices that must be made to create a regulatory framework for GS in the United States. Consensus is emerging in some areas, but there is still substantial disagreement regarding the allowable composition of the CO2 stream, the size of the area of review, reservoir performance goals, and management of risks other than those to groundwater. Gaps include issues related to ownership of subsurface pore space, greenhouse gas accounting, and long-term stewardship. The divergent approaches of these rules raise two overarching questions: (1) Should policy makers create GS regulations by modifying and supplementing UIC rules or through new enabling legislation? (2) What should be the relative roles of state and federal governments in GS regulation? We outline trade-offs between the consistency and coordination that federal involvement could offer and the reality that states need to be heavily involved with implementation of GS regulations. We conclude that federal involvement above and beyond the proposed EPA Class VI rules is needed to create effective GS regulation in the United States. PMID:19534110

Pollak, Melisa F; Wilson, Elizabeth J

2009-05-01

37

Geologic studies of deep natural-gas resources in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Deep parts of sedimentary basins in the United States contain large volumes of natural gas. Deep producing reservoirs, accounted for 7 percent of the total cumulative gas production in the United States through 1989 (50 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of 698 Tcf). The distribution and character of undiscovered deep gas accumulations can be better understood through the following: (1) Internally sourced hydrocarbons contribute to porosity preservation in some reservoirs at depth in the Anadarko Basin and Rocky Mountain Basins. (2) Measurements of capillary pressure, which are very sensitive to confining stress, suggest that small-pore throats (<0.1 micrometer), common in fine-grained clastic rocks, limit the flow of gas to the well bore. (3) In selected basins of the Rocky Mountain region, structural partitioning prior to thrusting, and sequential breakup of the foreland during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene may have strongly affected the volume and distribution of deep natural-gas accumulations. (4) In flanking basins of the Mid-continent Rift and the Grand Canyon region, Middle Proterozoic source rocks, active hydrocarbon seeps, and favorable thermal maturities for generating and preserving natural gas, indicate a potential for economic gas accumulations. (5) Methane generation by thermal decomposition of C[sub 15+] hydrocarbons takes place at very high maturation ranks. (6) Significant amounts of carbon dioxide and the presence of hydrogen sulfide indicate that thermochemical sulfate reduction and simultaneous oxidation of hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide may be the dominant control on nonhydrocarbon gas composition in deep carbonate reservoirs. (7) Where geologic information is available concerning known or suspected accumulations of deep gas, a [open quotes]deposit simulation[close quotes] based on a geologic model of reservoir volumes is the most appropriate assessment methodology. 54 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

Dyman, T.S.; Rice, D.D.; Schmoker, J.W.; Wandrey, C.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Crovelli, R.A.; Dolton, G.L.; Hester, T.C.; Keighin, C.W.; Palacas, J.G. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)) (and others)

1993-01-01

38

The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

VanGosen, B. S.

2009-01-01

39

Fortieth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fortieth annual report of the United States Geological Survey is an appropriate place in which to compare the present scope of the work with that of the work done during the first year of this organization. The growth of the Survey is suggested by a comparison of the appropriations for 1918-19, which comprise items amounting to $1,437,745, with the total appropriation of $106,000 for the first year, 1879-80. During the 40 years the personnel has been increased from 39 to 967. The corresponding growth in public functions of the organization, which is one of the oldest of the Federal scientific bureaus, can be inferred from the detailed report of activities which makes up the greater part of this volume. The past year has been the most notable in the Survey's history, as it marked the completion of the period of its largest national contribution, and the later half of the year was largely a time of readjustment of program. It seems opportune, therefore, that the special topics discussed in the pages immediately following should be forward-looking and suggestive of the larger usefulness planned for the Geological Survey in the future.

Smith, George Otis

1919-01-01

40

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance bedrock geologic map for the northern Alaska peninsula area, southwest Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

he growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

41

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance geologic map of the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO Exportfiles/ and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2006-01-01

42

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the generalized bedrock geologic map, Yukon Flats region, east-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Stanley, Richard G.; Crews, Jessie

2006-01-01

43

Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States : Central states : Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for regional and national digital geologic maps attributed with age and lithology information. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for purposes including mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This Open-File Report is a preliminary version of part of a series of integrated state geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. The only national-scale digital geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States for the conterminous U.S. are the digital version of the King and Beikman (1974a, b) map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, as digitized by Schruben and others (1994) and the digital version of the Geologic Map of North America (Reed and others, 2005a, b) compiled at a scale of 1:5,000,000 which is currently being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. In a few cases, new digital compilations were prepared (e.g. OH, SC, SD) or existing paper maps were digitized (e.g. KY, TX). For Alaska and Hawaii, new regional maps are being compiled and ultimately new state maps will be produced. The digital geologic maps are presented in standardized formats as ARC/INFO (.e00) export files and as ArcView shape (.shp) files. Accompanying these spatial databases are a set of five supplemental data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information. The maps for the CONUS have been fitted to a common set of state boundaries based on the 1:100,000 topographic map series of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). When the individual state maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps. No attempt has been made to reconcile differences in mapped geology across state lines. This is the first version of this product and it will be subsequently updated to include four additional states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa)

Stoeser, Douglas B.; Green, Gregory N.; Morath, Laurie C.; Heran, William D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Moore, David W.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2005-01-01

44

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

45

Geological and hydrochemical sensitivity of the eastern United States to acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

A new analysis of bedrock geology maps of the eastern US constitutes a simple model for predicting areas which might be impacted by acid precipitation and it allows much greater resolution for detecting sensitivity than has previously been available for the region. Map accuracy has been verified by examining current alkalinities and pH's of waters in several test states, including Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia and North Carolina. In regions predicted to be highly sensitive, alkalinities in upstream sites were generally low. Many areas of the eastern US are pinpointed in which some of the surface waters, especially upstream reaches, may be sensitive to acidification. Pre-1970 data were compared to post-1975 data, revealing marked declines in both alkalinity and pH of sensitive waters of two states tested, North Carolina, where pH and alkalinity have decreased in 80% of 38 streams and New Hampshire, where pH in 90% of 49 streams and lakes has decreased since 1949. These sites are predicted to be sensitive by the geological map on the basis of their earlier alkalinity values. The map is to be improved by the addition of a soils component.

Hendrey, G.R.; Galloway, J.N.; Norton, S.A.; Schofield, C.L.; Shaffer, P.W.; Burns, D.A.

1980-03-01

46

Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System  

SciTech Connect

Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

Dahowski, Robert T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

2001-10-19

47

United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

Warner, P.J.

1997-03-01

48

The Secularization of Geology Textbooks in the United States in the Nineteenth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This historical study traces in detail the gradual change in point of view in nineteenth century geology textbooks from religious fundamentalism to secularism. Scientific progress is identified as a major factor in bringing about this change. In the early decades of the nineteenth century authors stressed that geology was in accord with Christian…

Wittmer, Paul William

49

Geology, Hydrology, and Mineral Resources of Crystalline Rock Areas of the Northeastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which includes a series of maps, is a compendium of the available information on several topics of importance in defining the geologic setting of crystalline rocks in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern New York (the Adirondack Mounta...

W. Harrison D. Edgar P. Barosh J. Ebel G. Kuecher

1983-01-01

50

Analysis of Geologic Sequestration Costs for the United States and Implications for Climate Change Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through work with the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, ICF has developed a costing model for geologic sequestration of CO2 by geologic setting in the U.S. The GeoCAT model is being used by the EPA Office of Air and Radiation to assist in analyzing the impact of potential climate change legislation. GeoCAT includes an assessment of sequestration capacity

Harry Vidas; Robert Hugman; Christa Clapp

2009-01-01

51

Forty-second annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1921 comprised items amounting to $1,730,700. In addition $140,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey.

Smith, George Otis

1921-01-01

52

Forty-fourth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1922 comprised items amounting to $1,450,940. In addition $119,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $8,000 and $5,050.93 for miscellaneous printing and binding and miscellaneous supplies, respectively, were made from Interior Department appropriations.

Smith, George Otis

1923-01-01

53

Geodetic vs. Geologic Measures of Fault Slip Rates in the Northern Walker Lane, Basin and Range Province, Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying faults slip rates and styles is an important objective in the study of crustal deformation. Fault slip rates are used to quantify seismic hazard associated with active faults, and are an important input into the U.S.G.S. seismic hazard maps. However, when multiple types of data (e.g. geologic, seismic and geodetic) are used to measure slip rates, results from the different techniques can be corroborative, complementary, or in direct conflict. Geologic methods provide some of the only constraints on slip rates of individual faults over hundreds to tens of thousands of years, time scales that are significant with respect to observed deformation patterns, and likely representative of modern hazard. On the other hand geodetic measurements provide strong constraints on the medium to long spatial wavelength (>50 km) budgets of deformation, and on geographic changes in deformation style, and have the potential to provide geographically complete measurements of surface deformation. However, geodetic measurements can be influenced by earthquake cycle effects, e.g. owing to interseismic fault locking and postseismic relaxation, which limit their ability to resolve individual slip rates, especially in complex systems with many closely spaced faults. The northern Walker Lane (NWL), in the western Basin and Range Province (BRP) of the United States, is an example of a complex system of dextral, normal and sinestral faults that work together to accommodate approximately 10 mm/yr of relative motion between the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley block and the central part of the BRP. To exploit the strengths of each dataset, we have built a detailed model of NWL crustal blocks and are using geodetic and geologic data to resolve patterns of crustal deformation. We use a block modeling technique that incorporates the strengths of both targeted geologic investigations of slip rates on individual faults and longer wavelength constraints offered by GPS geodesy. To constrain these models we use a compilation of GPS data from our own 163-site MAGNET GPS network plus regional continuous GPS sites from the Plate Boundary Observatory and BARGEN networks, and published USGS campaign velocities. For geologic data we have tabulated slip rate estimates into two categories, 1) published studies with quantitative rates valid in the Quaternary, and 2) the USGS Quaternary Fault and Fold Database that is a comprehensive web-available database with many reconnaissance level estimates of fault slip rate. Our modeling helps unravel the slip rate debate by distinguishing between system-wide discrepancies in integrated moment rate across the NWL, and point-wise discrepancies in individual fault slip rates. Our modeling shows that on the systemic level, even a single reliable geologic slip rate can improve the condition of the modeling, and on the individual fault level geodetic constraints can eliminate feasibility of some very high slip rates allowed by the geologic data. We conclude that for the NWL, the rate disagreement is attributable to an incomplete catalog of geologic slip rates and not to systematic underestimation of slip rates in the individual studies.

Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

2008-05-01

54

Geology, hydrology, and mineral resources of crystalline rock areas of the northeastern United States  

SciTech Connect

This report, which includes a series of maps, is a compendium of the available information on several topics of importance in defining the geologic setting of crystalline rocks in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern New York (the Adirondack Mountains), Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, southeastern New York, northern New Jersey, and southeastern Pennsylvania. Crystalline rocks are defined herein as bodies of medium- to coarse-grained igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. The study was undertaken to provide background information to assist in evaluating the geologic suitability of such rocks for isolating high-level radioactive waste. Topics covered include the geologic history of the region; patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes and horizontal ground accelerations, crustal stress, regional fault domains, and Holocene faulting and vertical crustal movements; surface processes, anticipated climatic changes, and possible effects of renewed glaciation; landforms and surficial deposits; regional surface-water and ground-water hydrology; and the commercial potential of rock and mineral prospects and mines located within or near crystalline-rock complexes. 68 figures, 35 tables.

Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.; Barosh, P.; Ebel, J.; Kuecher, G.; Tisue, M.; Tsai, S.; Winters, M.; Flower, M.; Sood, M.

1983-10-01

55

Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

1994-12-01

56

OPTIMAL GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE DISPOSAL IN SALINE AQUIFERS IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.

Susan D. Hovorka

1999-02-01

57

The geology of asbestos in the United States and its practical applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently, naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) has drawn the attention of numerous health and regulatory agencies and citizen groups. NOA can be released airborne by (1) the disturbance of asbestos-bearing bedrocks through human activities or natural weathering, and (2) the mining and milling of some mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral(s). Because asbestos forms in specific rock types and geologic conditions, this information can be used to focus on areas with the potential to contain asbestos, rather than devoting effort to areas with minimal NOA potential. All asbestos minerals contain magnesium, silica, and water as essential constituents, and some also contain major iron and/or calcium. Predictably, the geologic environments that host asbestos are enriched in these components. Most asbestos deposits form by metasomatic replacement of magnesium-rich rocks. Asbestos-forming environments typically display shear or evidence for a significant influx of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Asbestos-forming processes can be driven by regional metamorphism, contact metamorphism, or magmatic hydrothermal systems. Thus, asbestos deposits of all sizes and styles are typically hosted by magnesium-rich rocks (often also iron-rich) that were altered by a metamorphic or magmatic process. Rock types known to host asbestos include serpentinites, altered ultramafic and some mafic rocks, dolomitic marbles and metamorphosed dolostones, metamorphosed iron formations, and alkalic intrusions and carbonatites. Other rock types appear unlikely to contain asbestos. These geologic insights can be used by the mining industry, regulators, land managers, and others to focus attention on the critical locales most likely to contain asbestos.

Van Gosen, B. S.

2007-01-01

58

Geologic framework and petroleum potential of United States Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

A reconnaissance grid of 24-channel seismic-reflection data indicates that most of the United States Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope, Alaska, is prospective for petroleum. The prospective rocks, which consist of four stratigraphic sequences, rest on the Arctic platform, a regional erosional surface cut across mildly metamorphosed lower Paleozoic rocks in Late Devonian time. The northern Chukchi shelf contains seven provinces of contrasting tectonic origin and structural style. Nuwuk basin, a progradational clastic prism containing 12 + km (39,500 ft) of lower and upper Brookian strata and numerous growth faults, overlies a rifted margin of Neocomian age beneath the outer shelf and slope of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. North Chukchi basin, which underlies the outer shelf west of Nuwuk basin, contains Ellesmerian beds and 12 + km (39,500 ft) of lower and upper Brookian strata. In the central part of the shelf, the platform is somewhat faulted and folded and descends to a depth of 10 + km (33,000 ft) to form the north-trending Hanna trough. West of the trough the platform rises to within 1 km (3300 ft) of the seabed and is broken by numerous normal faults. The southern part of the platform contains a thick lower Brookian section with numerous northwest-striking, northeast-verging detachment folds. The seismic and extrapolated onshore data suggest that Nuwuk and North Chukchi basins, Hanna trough, and the Arctic platform east and west of the trough could contain significant deposits of oil or gas. The potential of the fold belt, however, is modest, and of Herald arch slight. Small areas on Barrow arch and the Arctic platform west of Hanna trough lack potential because they are underlain by less than 1 km (3300 ft) of prospective section.

Grantz, A.; May, S.D.

1983-03-01

59

Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia  

SciTech Connect

Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

Dyman, T.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Belonin, M.D. (All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)) (and others)

1996-01-01

60

United States Geological Survey (USGS) FM cassette seismic-refraction recording system  

SciTech Connect

In this two chapter report, instrumentation used to collect seismic data is described. This data acquisition system has two parts: (1) portable anolog seismic recorders and related ``hand-held-testers`` (HHT) and (2) portable digitizing units. During the anolog recording process, ground motion is sensed by a 2-Hz vertical-component seismometer. The voltage output from the seismometer is split without amplification and sent to three parallel amplifier circuit boards. Each circuit board amplifiers the seismic signal in three stages and then frequency modulates the signal. Amplification at the last two stages can be set by the user. An internal precision clock signal is also frequency modulated. The three data carrier frequencies, the clock carrier frequency, and a tape-speed compensation carrier frequency are summed and recorded on a recorded on a cassette tape. During the digitizing process, the cassette tapes are played back and the signals are demultiplexed and demodulated. An anolog-to-digital converter converts the signals to digital data which are stored on 8-inch floppy disks. 7 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Murphy, J.M.

1988-12-31

61

Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by rise is very low, (3) where a possible return of glacial or pluvial climate will not cause potentially hazardous changes in surface- or ground-water regimens, and (4) where danger of exhumation by erosion is nil. The geographic location for an optimum site is one that is far removed from major drainages, lakes, and oceans, where population density is low, and where the topographic relief is gentle in order to avoid steep surface-water drainage gradients that would allow rapid distribution of contaminants in case of accident. The most suitable medium for the unproven deep drill-hole, matrix-holes, and exploded-cavity methods appears to be crystalline rocks, either intrusive igneous or metamorphic because of their potentially low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Salt (either in thick beds or stable domes), tuff, and possibly shale appear to be suitable for mined chambers and cavities with separate manmade structures. Salt appears to be suitable because of its very low permeability, high thermal conductivity, and natural plasticity. Tuff and shale appear suitable because of their very low permeabilities and high ion-exchange capacities. Sedimentary rocks other than shale and volcanic rocks, exclusive of tuff, are considered to be generally unsuitable for waste emplacement because of their potentially high permeabilities. Areas that appear to satisfy most geohydrologic requirements for the deep drill hole and the matrix holes include principally (1) the stable continental interior where the sedimentary cover is thin or absent, (2) the shield area of the North-Central States, and (3) the metamorphic belt of Eastern United States--primarily the Piedmont. These areas are possibly suitable also for the exploded cavity and the mined chamber because the possibility of finding rock with very- permeability at depths from 1,000? feet (305? m) to 20,000 feet (6,100 m) appears to be high. The Basin and Range province of Western United States, particula

Ekren, E. B.; Dinwiddie, G. A.; Mytton, J. W.; Thordarson, William; Weir Jr., J. E.; Hinrichs, E. N.; Schroder, L. J.

1974-01-01

62

Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

Robinson, Terry

63

Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

Robinson, Terry

64

Application of geologic map information to water quality issues in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Maryland and Virginia, eastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high acidity and high nitrate concentrations in streams and rivers, tend to be mitigated by some rock and sediment types and not by others. Carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-cemented rocks) have the greatest capacity to neutralize acidic ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments having high carbon or sulfur contents (such as peat and black shale) potentially contribute the most toward denitrification of ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments that are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar, and light-colored clay (rocks such as granite and sandstone, sediments such as sand and gravel) tend not to alter the chemistry of waters that are in contact with them. The testing of relationships between regionally mapped geologic units and water chemistry is in a preliminary stage, and initial results are encouraging.Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high acidity and high nitrate concentrations in streams and rivers, tend to be mitigated by some rock and sediment types and not by others. Carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-cemented rocks) have the greatest capacity to neutralize acidic ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments having high carbon or sulfur contents (such as peat and black shale) potentially contribute the most toward denitrification of ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments that are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar, and light-colored clay (rocks such as granite and sandstone, sediments such as sand and gravel) tend not to alter the chemistry of waters that are in contact with them. The testing of relationships between regionally mapped geologic units and water chemistry is in a preliminary stage, and initial results are encouraging.

McCartan, L.; Peper, J. D.; Bachman, L. J.; Horton, Jr. , J. W.

1999-01-01

65

Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and

T. S. Dyman; M. D. Belonin

1996-01-01

66

Geology, Hydrology, and Mineral Resources of Crystalline Rock Areas of the Lake Superior Region, United States. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which includes a series of maps, is a compendium of the available information on several topics of importance in defining the geologic setting of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of ...

W. Harrison D. Edgar A. Van Luik W. Hinze L. Braile

1983-01-01

67

Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides an introduction to geologic maps. Topics covered include what is a geologic map, unique features of geologic maps, letter symbols, faults, and strike and dip. Users may click to view colored geologic maps, the geologic map of the United States and the geologic relief map of the United States.

Graymer, Russell

68

Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a

Neeraj Gupta

2009-01-01

69

Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf Gas and Oil (50470120), (2) Lower Claiborne Expanded Fault Zone Gas (50470121), (3) Lower Claiborne Slope and Basin Floor Gas (50470122), (4) Lower Claiborne Cane River (50470123), (5) Upper Claiborne Stable Shelf Gas and Oil (50470124), (6) Upper Claiborne Expanded Fault Zone Gas (50470125), and (7) Upper Claiborne Slope and Basin Floor Gas (50470126). Total estimated mean undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources in the seven assessment units combined are 52 million barrels of oil, 19.145 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.205 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. A recurring theme that emerged from the evaluation of the seven Claiborne AUs is that the great bulk of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources comprise non-associated gas and condensate contained in deep (mostly >12,000 feet), overpressured, structurally complex outer shelf or slope and basin floor reservoirs. The continuing development of these downdip objectives is expected to be the primary focus of exploration activity for the onshore Middle Eocene Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

Hackley, Paul C.

2012-01-01

70

Geology, hydrology, and mineral resources of crystalline rock areas of the Lake Superior region, United States. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This report, which includes a series of maps, is a compendium of the available information on several topics of importance in defining the geologic setting of crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan). Crystalline rocks are defined herein as bodies of medium; and coarse-grained igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. The study was undertaken to provide background information to assist in evaluating the suitability of such rocks for isolating high-level radioactive waste. Topics covered include geologic history of the region; patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes and horizontal ground accelerations, crustal stress, regional fault domains, and Holocene faulting and vertical crustal movements; surface processes, anticipated climatic changes, and effects of renewed glaciation; landforms and surficial deposits; regional surface; and ground-water hydrology; and commercial potential of rock and mineral prospects of mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies. References, 117 figures, 36 tables.

Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.; Van Luik, A.; Hinze, W.; Braile, L.; Kalliokoski, J.; Pfannkuch, H.; Wright, H. Jr.; Tisue, M.; Sood, M.

1983-10-01

71

Eighth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1886-1887: Part 1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geological Survey was organized, with Mr. Clarence King as Director, in March, 1879. In March, 1881, Mr. King resigned and the present Director was appointed. From its organization to the present time the Survey has steadily grown as Congress has enlarged its functions and increased its appropriations. During this time the scientific organization has gradually developed to the condition set forth in the last annual report. It seems advisable now to describe fully the business organization and methods of the Survey, which has heretofore been done only in part. Under the act of July 7, 1884, a joint commission was created to consider the organization of certain scientific bureaus. In the volume of testimony prepared by that commission the business operations of the Geological Survey were in part set forth; but this partial presentation was unsystematic, the facts recorded being elicited in irregular order by interrogatories arising in the course of a long investigation. It is designed here to make a more thorough exposition oi the subject. The business system of the Geological Survey is subordinate to the scientific organization and its character is dependent thereon. The development of the divisions of the Survey whose function is the transaction of business has therefore followed the development of the purely scientific divisions, and overy modification of plan for the scientific work may carry with it some modification of the business organization.

Powell, J. W.

1889-01-01

72

Geophysical and Geological Evidence of Neotectonic Deformation Along the Hovey Lake Fault, Lower Wabash Valley Fault System, Central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic (shear-wave) reflection profiles were collected over a segment of the Hovey Lake fault, a known Paleozoic fault within a system of faults in the southernmost Wabash River valley of the central United States. Although the system of faults, called the Wabash Valley fault system, lie in an area of recognized prehistoric and contemporary seismicity, their seismogenic potential remain poorly defined, however. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to assess the Hovey Lake fault, one of the more prominent fault strands in the system, for neotectonic reactivation, and if present, collect sediment samples for dateable material from the disrupted horizons to provide an age constraint for the movement. The resultant stacked profiles show high-angle deformation extending above the Paleozoic bedrock, and into Upper Quaternary sediment. Time displacement calculations from the data show approximately 10.5 m of offset on the top-of-bedrock horizon, and 2 m of inverted displacement along the earliest-arriving Quaternary soil reflector at a depth of 5 m. Preliminary correlative coring found organic material in a disrupted soil horizon located 7.7 m below ground surface. Subsequent carbon-14 testing of the deeper horizon allows us to place a maximum age constraint at this site of approximately 37,000 YBP.

Woolery, E. W.; Rutledge, F. A.; Wang, Z.

2004-12-01

73

Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

Joel Sminchak

2011-09-30

74

Geology, drill holes, and geothermal energy potential of the basal Cambrian rock units of the Appalachian Basin of New York State  

SciTech Connect

The published geologic and geophysical records plus data gathered from deep wells during hydrocarbon exploration were inventoried, discussed and summarized to evaluate hydro-geothermal energy potential in the western counties of New York, south of the 42/sup 0/ latitude. An assessment is provided of local geothermal energy potential based on these data. The assessed potential is a function of the geothermal gradient, the depth of porous Cambrian age sedimentary units and a variety of features thought to be related to deep fracturing and hence enhanced porosity and permeability. The completion history of a selected set of plugged and abandoned deep wells was examined to determine the feasibility and advisability of re-entering these holes for geothermal development. All wells showed extensive cement plugging and uncertain materials introduced for bridging. It was recommended that no attempt be made to re-enter these wells. The hydro-geothermal energy potential in Western New York State is largely comparable to that of other regions possessing porous/permeable units of sedimentary rock at sufficient depth to contain formation waters of useful temperatures (>140/sup 0/F). A comparison of geothermal reservoirs in New York to similar sites now under development in Canada and France has revealed that potential resources in New York State are slightly hotter, though somewhat thicker and less permeable with significantly higher proportions of dissolved constituents.

Pferd, J.W.

1981-06-01

75

Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: South America: United States Geological Society Professional Paper 1386-I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey has recently posted this detailed chapter on South American glaciers as part of the Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. Edited by Richard Williams and Jane Ferrigno, this ambitious project incorporates LANDSAT images, aerial photographs, and maps "to produce glacier inventories, define glacier locations, support on-going field studies of glacier dynamics, and monitor the extensive glacier recession that has taken place and is continuing in many parts of South America." Based on an impressive collection of images from the 1970s, this resource provides a permanent historic record of the glacial coverage of the planet. Further, the atlas may be used as a standard for comparison with current and future data. Specific sections of the resource cover the glaciers of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.

76

Groundwater Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey describes the location, extent, and geologic and hydrologic characteristics of major aquifers in the United States in the Groundwater Atlas of the United States Website. The groundwater resources of the US are broken down into specific regions, which are described in chapters. Some of the chapters are not available online, but the chapters that are available include regional geology and aquifer systems summaries, figures (.eps), and illustrations.

1999-01-01

77

Geothermal resources of the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resouces considered are exclusively hydrothermal, and the study was confined to the 35 states east of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the Dakotas. Resource definition in these areas is based entirely on data found in the literature and in the files of a number of state geological offices. The general geology of the eastern United States is outlined. Since the

J. L. Renner; T. L. Vaught

1979-01-01

78

United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. higher education borrows its structure from both the British undergraduate college and German research university, but\\u000a its character is profoundly influenced by three major philosophical beliefs that shape American public life.1 Shaped by the\\u000a Jeffersonian ideals of limited government and freedom of expression, states, religious communities, and individuals established\\u000a and maintain a range of higher education institutions and continue

Peter D. Eckel; Jacqueline E. King

79

Block kinematics of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS, seismological, and geologic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active deformation of the southwestern United States (30°-41°N) is represented by a finite number of rotating, elastic-plastic spherical caps. GPS-derived horizontal velocities, geologic fault slip rates, transform fault azimuths, and earthquake-derived fault slip vector azimuths are inverted for block angular velocities, creep on block-bounding faults, permanent strain rates within the blocks, and the rotations of 11 published GPS velocity fields into to a common North American reference frame. GPS velocities are considered to be a combination of rigid block rotations, recoverable elastic strain rates resulting from friction on block-bounding faults, and nonrecoverable strain rates resulting from slip on faults within the blocks. The resulting Pacific-North America angular velocity is similar to some published estimates and satisfies transform azimuths and one spreading rate in the Gulf of California, earthquake slip vectors in the Gulf of California and Alaska, and GPS velocities along coastal California and within the Pacific Basin. Published fault slip rates are satisfied except in the southern Mojave Desert where the motion of the Mohave block relative to North America is faster than can be explained by mapped faults. The largest blocks, the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley and the eastern Basin and Range, show permanent strain rates, after removing elastic strain, of only a few nanostrain per year, demonstrating approximately rigid behavior. Observed horizontal strain rates correlate strongly with predicted strain rates from known faults suggesting that the short-term strains evident in GPS velocities are largely elastic. In only about 20% of the region is distributed deformation needed to match the data, indicating that a plate tectonic style description of the deformation of the western United States is plausible. Most blocks rotate about vertical axes at approximately the same rate as the Pacific (relative to North America), suggesting that locally, spin rates are communicated from block to block, arguing against both floating block and ball-bearing mechanisms of block rotation. The similarities of the blocks' spin rates to that of the Pacific suggests that the Pacific strongly influences their motions through edge tractions. However, it is shown that the blocks cannot rotate about the Pacific-North America pole without spinning counter to the sense of Pacific-North America shear. Unlike some other broad plate boundaries, in the western United States, vertical axis rotations take up very little of the slip rate budget across the region.

McCaffrey, Robert

2005-07-01

80

Liquefaction Probability Curves for Surficial Geologic Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefaction probability curves that predict the probability of surface manifestations of earthquake-induced liquefaction are developed for 14 different surficial geologic deposits. The geologic units include alluvial fan, beach ridge, river delta, eolian dune, point bar, floodbasin, natural river levee, abandoned river channel, deep-water lake, lagoonal, sandy artificial fill, and valley train deposits. Probability is conditioned on earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. Curves are developed for water table depths of 1.5 and 5.0 m. Probabilities were derived from complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) that were computed from 935 cone penetration tests. Most of the curves can be fit with a 3-parameter logistic function, which facilitates computations of probability. For natural deposits with a water table at 1.5 m depth and subjected to an M7.5 earthquake with a PGA = 0.25 g, probabilities range from <0.03 for alluvial fan and lacustrine deposits to >0.5 for fluvial point bar, barrier island beach ridge, and deltaic deposits. Retrospective predictions of liquefaction during historical earthquakes based on the curves compare favorably to post-earthquake observations. We also have used the curves to assign ranges of liquefaction probabilities to the susceptibility categories proposed by Youd and Perkins (1978) for different geologic deposits. For the earthquake loading and conditions described above, probabilities range from 0-0.08 for low, 0.09-0.30 for moderate, 0.31-0.62 for high, to 0.63-1.00 for very high susceptibility. Liquefaction probability curves have two primary practical applications. First, the curves can be combined with seismic source characterizations to transform surficial geologic maps into probabilistic liquefaction hazard maps. Geographic specific curves are clearly desirable, but in the absence of such information, generic liquefaction probability curves provide a first approximation of liquefaction hazard. Such maps are useful both to delineate regional liquefaction hazard and to develop regulatory hazard zones. Second, the curves enable preliminary estimates of liquefaction hazard along paths of lifelines. Lifelines typically cross multiple types of surficial geologic deposits. Liquefaction probability curves can be used to estimate the likelihood of liquefaction during the lifetimes of these structures.

Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

2009-12-01

81

Illinois State Geological Survey: Teacher Resources for Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) has worked hard to create this vast array of materials designed for teachers working in geology and the earth sciences. The site is divided into two primary areas: "ISGS Teacher Resources" and "Other Teacher Resources." The "Ask An Expert" section is a good place to start, and it contains an A to Z archive of questions (and answers) that have been posed so far. Visitors are welcome to explore topics here like isotope geochemistry, limestone petrography, and also "Gold in Illinois." Also, this area contains links to teaching geology, which are quite useful. The "Other Teacher Resources" area brings together links to germane sites, such as the Denver Earth Science Project, NASA's meteorology home page, and online guides to landforms from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

82

Supervised Classification of Surficial Geology Units Using Local Statistics from Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles as Input into an Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the arid southwestern United States a U.S. Geological Survey project is underway to create 100,000 scale surficial geologic maps. Surficial geologic deposits are classified according to process of deposition using geomorphic and sedimentologic features. Geomorphic position, surface roughness, pavement maturity, pedogenesis, and inset relations are used to establish relative deposit ages. Geologic mapping is conducted using field methods and

G. A. Phelps; D. M. Miller

2003-01-01

83

Water Resources of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage for the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. It offers links to a variety of issues concerning water resources. The main links include: news, features, water data, publications and products, technical resources, programs, local information, and contacts. Also featured are links to other divisions within the United States Geological Survey, and FirstGov, a clearinghouse for all branches of the federal government.

84

Health, United States, 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... NCHS Home Publications & Information Products Health, United States, 2012 Health, United States is an annual report on trends in health statistics. 2012 Edition What's New! Complete Report At a Glance ...

85

United States Business Responds  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States business abroad is a show case for the values, policies, and practices of the United States. To build friendly and profitable relations in Latin America, United States private enterprise active there has followed the practices of staying out of local politics, employing local people to the fullest extent possible, and assimilating the local customs and language. An atmosphere

J. Peter Grace

1961-01-01

86

CVLC: United States Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the major rivers, mountain ranges, and plains of the United States? Follow the directions in each section carefully to fill in and label a blank map of the United States. You will use only one map. Or in other words complete each section on the same map. 1. Mountain Ranges of the United States With ...

Cade

2008-09-04

87

Role of environmental geology in US Department of Energy's advanced research and development programs to promote energy security in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe the research programs and program activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that most directly relate to topics in the field of environmental geology. In this light, the mission of the DOE and the definition of environmental geology will be discussed. In a broad sense, environmental geology is that branch of

C. E. Brown

1995-01-01

88

Plan for locating, selecting, and conducting reservoir verification tests in Devonian shale gas wells in seven geologic regions of the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This researh effort calls for the production evaluation of 14 to 21 shale gas wells in selected areas where geologic factors are known to be favorable. The objective of this contract work is to test for gas production in geologic target regions identified by EGSP geology team data from the Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin. This effort will be

P. G. OConnor; J. H. Goodrich

1981-01-01

89

Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892  

SciTech Connect

Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

1983-12-15

90

Modeling the impacts of climate policy on the deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geologic storage across electric power regions in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of a first-of-its-kind holistic, integrated economic analysis of the potential role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies across the regional segments of the United States (U.S.) electric power sector, over the time frame 2005–2045, in response to two hypothetical emissions control policies analyzed against two potential energy supply futures that include updated

Marshall Wise; James Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

2007-01-01

91

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the Geological Survey from students, teachers, writers, editors, publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs and other reference books, and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. Some of this information, compiled from older maps, will be revised as new surveys are completed. For further information, write to the U. S. Geological Survey, 507 National Center.Reston,Virginia 22092.

U.S. Geological Survey

1980-01-01

92

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ... We have control. We commit to ... the company looked at controlling for algorithm variations based on ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

93

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 317 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION + + + ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

94

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

95

Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO{sub 2} injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

None

2011-06-30

96

Role of environmental geology in US Department of Energy's advanced research and development programs to promote energy security in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to describe the research programs and program activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that most directly relate to topics in the field of environmental geology. In this light, the mission of the DOE and the definition of environmental geology will be discussed. In a broad sense, environmental geology is that branch of earth science that emphasizes the entire spectrum of human interactions with the physical environment that include environmental health, mineral exploration and exploitation, waste management, energy use and conservation, global change, environmental law, natural and man-made hazard assessment, and land-use planning. A large number of research, development, and demonstration programs are under DOE's administration and guidance that directly or indirectly relate to topics in environmental geology. The primary mission of the DOE is to contribute to the welfare of the nation by providing the scientific foundation, technology, policy, and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The research and development funding effort has most recently been redirected toward greater utilization of clean fossil fuels, especially natural gas, weatherization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, fusion energy, and high-energy physics. This paper will summarize the role that environmental geology has played and will continue to play in the execution of DOE's mission and the energy options that DOE has investigated closely. The specific options are those that center around energy choices, such as alternative-fueled transportation, building technologies, energy-efficient lighting, and clean energy.

Brown, C. E.

1995-12-01

97

Petroleum geology of the state of Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

1997-01-01

98

Geothermal resource assessment of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal resource assessment is the broadly based appraisal of the quantities of heat that might be extracted from the earth and used economically at some reasonable future time. In the United States, the Geological Survey is responsible for preparing geothermal assessments based on the best available data and interpretations. Updates are required every few years owing to increasing knowledge, enlarging

L. J. Patrick Muffler; Robert L. Christiansen

1978-01-01

99

Prospecting for Gold in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses gold prospecting in the US. The history of prospecting is covered, as well as where in the US gold can still be found and accounts of successful gold mining. Deposits of gold are also explained, including placer deposits and lode gold. Selected references for additional reading are given.

Kirkemo, Harold

100

United States Travel Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Your task is to create a brochure or video that will entice people to come to your school. We will be presenting these to another grade level. Those students ...

Glover, Mrs.

2008-10-01

101

Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation high-level radioactive waste; evaluation of the region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines geology and hydrologic characteristics of six regions in the Basin and Range Province, ranging in size from 21,6000 to 80,000 square kilometers to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Six regions selected were evaluated with respect to: occurrence of potential repository media; prospects for tectonic

M. S. Bedinger; K. A. Sargent; W. H. Langer

1990-01-01

102

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using surveys and topographic maps, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has determined distances between points and elevations of features, and put them into a data format at this website. Elevations of the 50 largest cities, highest and lowest points in each state, summits over 14,000 feet, summits east of the Rocky Mountains, geographic centers of each state, length of US boundaries, and extreme distances are covered at this site.

103

Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation high-level radioactive waste; evaluation of the region  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines geology and hydrologic characteristics of six regions in the Basin and Range Province, ranging in size from 21,6000 to 80,000 square kilometers to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Six regions selected were evaluated with respect to: occurrence of potential repository media; prospects for tectonic stability; climatic change and geomorphic processes; ground-water flow conditions providing long flow times; and occurrence of mineral and energy resources.

Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

1990-01-01

104

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

Larry Myer

2005-09-29

105

The British Geological Survey Lexicon of Named Rock Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can search this database of British rock units by rock unit, preferred map code, maximum age of rock unit, and database status code (described at site) and retrieve information about which British Geological Survey (BGS) maps and publications cover those units. For example, a search for Stockdale Group and Ashgil leads to a record citing the lithology, upper and lower boundary definitions, unit thickness, geographic extent, parent unit, previous name, stratotype, and bibliographic reference for the Paleozoic Stockdale Group of Northern England. The Lexicon is intended foremost as a reference source and dictionary for the use of BGS geoscientists, but the basic information on the stratigraphical framework and rock terminology of the UK is useful for non-BGS geologists visiting the site.

106

Progress report of new state geologic maps for Washington state  

SciTech Connect

Geologic maps of Washington were previously published in 1936 and 1961 by predecessors to the Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER), Department of Natural Resources. These maps were printed at a scale of 1:500,000 and depicted the entire state on a single map sheet. The new state map will be at a scale of 1:250,000 and will be published as four quadrants with boundaries at 47/sup 0/15'N latitude and 120/sup 0/30'W longitude. Compilation and original mapping for the four quadrants are being conducted at a scale of 1:100,000, using recently released US Geological Survey matric 1:100,000 sheets as base maps. the 1:100,000-scale maps are reduced and simplified to produce final, 1:250,000-scale quadrant maps. The 1:100,000-scale geologic maps will be available to the public as DGER open-file reports. The southwest-quadrant geologic map is the first of the series to be published, and is supported by 32 new K-Ar age determinations and approximately 200 geochemical analyses. Preliminary 1:100,000 compilation maps of the northeast quadrant are complete. The 16 maps include new mapping or interpretations in the following areas: (1) Okanogan and Kettle domes, (2) Cambrian miogeoclinal and Ordovician eugeoclinal metasediments and metavolcanics of the Kootenay Arc, (3) southern segment of the Ross Lake fault zone, (4) Eocene volcanics in the Okanogan Range, (5) Eocene plutonic rocks near Republic, and (6) Quaternary sediments north of Spokane. K-Ar age determinations, geochemical analyses, and conodont biostratigraphy are being used to refine the maps. Publication of the northeast quadrant is planned for late 1988.

Joseph, N.; Stoffel, K.; Phillips, W.

1987-08-01

107

The United States and the United Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations is in a period of peril. Soviet disruptions threaten to destroy its effectiveness. The West and its friends are not united in their support of it or in their advocacy of policies. Many newly admitted members have yet to demonstrate international political responsibility. The fiscal basis upon which the organization operates is not sound. The United States

Francis O. Wilcox

1961-01-01

108

Geology of the Crust and Mantle, Western United States: Geophysical data reveal a thin crust and anomalous upper mantle characteristic of active regions.  

PubMed

Seismic refraction, gravity, phase velocity, and magnetic data, coupled with the geologic record, are all approximately satisfied by the structure shown in Fig. 9. A 20-kilometer crust under the Coast Ranges and Great Valley thickens to more than 30 kilometers under the Sierra Nevada and parts of the Basin and Range province; this whole area is underlain by an anomalous upper mantle with a velocity and density about 3 percent less than normal. It is not likely that the anomalous mantle extends much deeper than 50 kilometers, and the lower boundary may be gradational. The thicker crust or "root" under the Sierran highland region (Sierra Nevada and western Basin Ranges) is not limited to the Sierra Nevada proper. The root and the voluminous plustonic rocks originated in the Mesozoic era, and they constitute the now consolidated core of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. But it must not be supposed that the root has persisted unchanged. The great mountain-building uplifts in the Cenozoic era must have been accompanied by large changes in the root and adjacent mantle. A zone of positive gravity and magnetic anomalies extending the length of the Great Valley is associated with mafic rocks of the western Sierra greenstone belt, an element of the Cordilleran eugeosyncline. Belts of maficto-intermediate lavas, accompanied by mafic and ultramafic intrusions, are marked by similar anomalies in other ancient geosynclines. An anomalous upper mantle of plagioclase peridotite, an expanded phase of the normal mantle, could explain about 1 kilometer of the uplift that took place over much of the region in Cenozoic time. To explain all of the Cenozoic uplift in the Sierra Nevada and Basin Ranges by this means would require the hypothesis of a separation of the anomalous mantle into crust and normal mantle fractions, followed by a renewal of the anomalous mantle through the action of regional convection currents or local overturning in the upper mantle. The low-velocity zones for compressional and transverse waves in the upper mantle may be related to this problem. Whatever its origin and composition, an anomalous upper mantle characterizes many regions of present or recent tectonic activity, such as Japan and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (39). The anomalous mantle of western North America might form a continuous belt to the south, with anomalous mantle beneath the crest of the East Pacific Rise (40). The anomalous upper mantle may thus be an essential part of the heat engine driving the tectonic activity of these regions. The Basin and Range region was broken into blocks and laterally extended during the Cenozoic uplift, so that some blocks lagged behind, or sank. Some of the intricate disruption of the upper crust may be related to shallow Cenozoic volcanism. The relatively large and rigid Sierra Nevada block may have been tilted westward during Basin-Range deformation because of the high density of greenstones on the west side and the lower density of granitic rocks to the east. Man's environment, in the longer view of geologic time, is strongly influenced by mountain-building processes originating in the earth's crust and mantle. In the scale of a few lifetimes, climate, sea level, and the shape of the land are appreciably altered. How this comes about, and whether man can hope to influence the processes, are challenging, unsolved problems. But enough has now been learned about the crust and mantle to suggest precisely what questions must be answered and what critical experiments performed. Note added in proof: Osborne (42) has directed our attention to the possibility that the granitic rocks and also the andesites and dacites were formed by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma under conditions of high oxygen pressure. This possibility in no way conflicts with the geophysical data. In fact, such direct additions to the silicic upper crust from the mantle or lower crust would simplify the perplexing problem of how the crust is replenished in areas of great erosion. PMID:17775979

Thompson, G A; Talwani, M

1964-12-18

109

AIRPORT GEOMAGNETIC SURVEYS IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction\\u000a of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS)\\u000a personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150\\/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military\\u000a documents, such as Handbook 1021\\/1, but the major

ALAN BERARDUCCI

110

Dickerson v. United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the summer of 2000, the high court released a number of momentous decisions, ruling on "partial birth abortions," the Boy Scouts's ban on gays, the Miranda warning, California's "Blanket" primary, and hate crime sentencing standards. In Dickerson v. United States, the court ruled 7-2 to uphold the Miranda warning and strike down a previously little-known 1968 law that allowed "voluntary confessions" even if they were obtained before a suspect was read their rights. (For more on this decision see the In the News from this week's Scout Report for Social Sciences). As always, the full text of the syllabi and both opinions in all of these cases can be read in HTML or .pdf format at the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection site.

2000-01-01

111

National Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the United States Geological Survey and its partners, the National Atlas of the United States is a predominantly digital collection of maps serving to update the 1970 version and providing a reliable summary of national-scale geographic information on the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American life. The compilation (found under Atlas Maps) includes sections for interactive map browsing, multimedia maps, map layers data, and printed maps. The Interactive Map Browser provides easy-to-use tools to display, manipulate, print, and query National Atlas data using an overlay approach with layers selected from agriculture, biology, boundaries, climate, environment, geology, demography, transportation, water, and general reference categories. The multimedia maps use animation and/or clickable interfaces to explore a number of topics from geologic history to invasive species to vegetation growth. The map layers data warehouse contains a series of authoritative national geospatial and geostatistical datasets for use in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) or computer-aided design systems. Both data types are tied to specific geographic areas and are categorized and indexed using such parameters as county, State, and zip code boundaries or geographic coordinate systems. The printed map section includes reference and thematic maps (for ordering) reprinted from the 1970 version of the Atlas. In addition to the collection, links are provided to federal and business partners, Atlas News with links to relevant federal sites, an Atlas FAQ page, and a feedback page.

112

Creating the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As with other countries, the United States is very much a "work in progress". Of course, the nation's founders made a concerted effort to form a republic that would be able to govern effectively across a large geographic region and a plethora of different cultural traditions. This thoughtful and introspective online exhibit from the Library of Congress brings together a set of interactive resources and activities organized around themes that include "Creating the Declaration of Independence" and "Creating the Bill of Rights". Clicking on these themes will bring visitors to a brief narrative essay that sets the tone for the primary and secondary historical documents within each area. Here visitors will find such gems as an early map of the Appalachians, woodcuts of early Presidents, and the musings of Thomas Paine, among many others. Moving on, visitors should not miss the "Interactives" area. Here they can test their mettle by connecting particular phrases and ideas set down in the Declaration of Independence with the key texts that preceded it. And if visitors aren't stumped there (or even if they are), they can try the same tasks with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. After a visit to this site, some may even find themselves dusting off their old civics textbooks or at least planning a trip to a local government facility for further edification.

113

Teaching Geology at San Quentin State Prison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The students enrolled in our Geology 215 class are about as on-traditional as it gets. They range in age from about 20 - 50 years old, they are all male, all from under-represented ethnic groups, and they are all serving time in one of the country's most notorious prisons. We teach in a degree-granting community college program inside California's San

M. A. D'Alessio; J. Pehl; K. L. Ferrier; C. W. Pehl

2004-01-01

114

Elevations and distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the U.S. Geological Survey from students, teachers, writers, editors, publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs, and other reference books, and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. In most cases, the elevations were determined from surveys and from 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In Alaska, information was taken from 1:63,360-scale, 15-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In a few cases, data were obtained from older, 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute maps; these maps have been replaced with larger scale 7.5-minute coverage. Further information about U.S. Geological Survey products can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 or phone 1-888-ASK-USGS, E-mail: ask@usgs.gov, TTY: 703-648-4119.

2001-01-01

115

UNITED STATES RENAL DATA SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is a national data system that collects, analyzes, and distributes information about end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. The USRDS is funded directly by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseas...

116

Climates of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is designed to provide basic information about the climates of the United States and the causes of these climates. Events of interest in the climatological history of the United States are described and illustrated by many maps, charts and diagrams. The booklet has three major parts. Part I discusses climate and climate control in…

Baldwin, John L.

117

National Atlas of the United States Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 'National Atlas of the United States of America?', published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1970, is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. Maps dated after 1970 and before 1997 are either revisions of original atlas maps or new maps published in the original atlas format. The USGS and its partners in government and industry began work on a new 'National Atlas' in 1997. Though most new atlas products are designed for the World Wide Web, we are continuing our tradition of printing high-quality maps of America. In 1998, the first completely redesigned maps of the 'National Atlas of the United States?' were published.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2001-01-01

118

Desertification of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an extensive and growing body of scientific literature on desertification. The purposes of the report, therefore, are: To synthesize the available scientific information on desertification in the United States and; To identify federal policies th...

D. Sheridan

1981-01-01

119

Mental Health, United States, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data presented in the fifth edition of 'Mental Health, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...

R. W. Manderscheid M. A. Sonnenschein

1992-01-01

120

Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react adversely when used as concrete aggregate. In areas where suitable natural aggregate is not available or accessible, it may become necessary to improve the quality of existing aggregate, to import aggregate from outside the area, or to substitute artificial aggregate for natural aggregate. In most cases, all of these alternatives add substantially to the cost of the final product. Even though an area may be blessed with an abundance of aggregate suitable for the intended purpose, existing land uses, zoning, or regulations may preclude commercial exploitation of the aggregate. This report also discusses the aggregate industry in general terms, including exploration, mining, and processing, as well as aggregate production rates. Proper long-range planning based on an understanding of the aggregate industry can help assure adequate supplies of aggregate.

Langer, William H.

1988-01-01

121

7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220...SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request... Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United...

2013-01-01

122

Chronology and References of Volcanic Eruptions and Selected Unrest in the United States, 1980-2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring volcanic activity in the United States is the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and is accomplished with academic, Federal, and State partners. The VHP supports five Volcano Observatoriesthe Alask...

A. K. Diefenbach J. W. Ewert M. Guffanti

2009-01-01

123

Introduction to the Cretaceous Geology of Texas and Other States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this site is to form a database for Cretaceous rocks of North America. The site provides a discussion of Cretaceous stratigraphy with maps and cross sections that illustrate Cretaceous formations of Texas and an extensive bibliography for additional information. Diagrams and discussions of Cretaceous geology in several states can also be accessed by clicking on the appropriate state in the navigation bar to the left.

Minor, Keith; Cretaceousfossils.com

124

1991 USGS DLG HYDROGRAPHY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Digital Line Graph (DLG) H layer in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) National 1:2,000,000-scale library, provides the stream and canal data, derived from a subset of the 1991 United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:2,000,000-Scale...

125

Base-Flow Index Grid for the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages. Base flow is the component of streamflow that can be attributed to ground-water discharge into streams.

Wolock, David M.

2003-01-01

126

Daily Streamflow Conditions Map of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time data of streamflow conditions as measured at USGS gauging stations around the country. By selecting areas within a state on the map, users receive daily provisional data (which may be subject to revision) on current conditions and flood thresh-holds, as well as streamflow, stage, and rainfall graphs. Historic data and tabulated summaries are also available for the entire state as well as individual stations.

127

7 CFR 1217.30 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false United States. 1217.30 Section...RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY...Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry...Definitions § 1217.30 United States. United States...

2013-01-01

128

1991 USGS DLG INTERSTATE AND PRIMARY STATE HIGHWAYS FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Digital Line Graph (DLG) A layer in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) National 1:2,000,000 scale library, provides the interstate and primary state highway data, derived from a subset of the 1991 United States Geological Survey (USG...

129

U.S. Geological Survey: Science in Your State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of scientific reference materials for the 50 states and some territories in the U.S. For each state, there is a section of real-time data that includes current stream flow conditions, drought and flood watches, ground water data, and current natural hazards information. A facts section provides basic geographic and demographic information such as land area, highest and lowest points, population, capital, and others. There is also a selection of links to maps and tools, and additional information on each state's geology, ecology, natural resources, and natural hazards.

130

7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture...Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States...

2012-01-01

131

7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture...Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of...

2012-01-01

132

Prostate cancer screening (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, there will be 244,000 new cases of prostate cancer, and 40,400 deaths from prostate cancer, among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society reports that the incidence rate of prostate cancer is increasing at an accelerated pace, and was 21 percent higher in 1994 than in 1993. The major reason for this steep rise is likely

John W. Waterbor; Anton J. Bueschen

1995-01-01

133

United States National Seismographic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.,

Buland

1993-01-01

134

Mental Health, United States, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald…

National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

135

Arson in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arson is a serious problem in the United States. It is the number one cause of all fires, and it annually kills hundreds of Americans, injures thousands more, and causes over $3 billion in damage to property. In each of the past ten years there have been ...

1997-01-01

136

United States and El Salvador.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report looks at the relationship between the United States and El Salvador from two perspectives: first, it examines the internal social, political and economic dynamics which brought El Salvador to its present crisis; then it looks at how U.S. polic...

M. A. Lovelace

1985-01-01

137

Multiple Births, United States 1964.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report statistics are presented for sets of multiple births occurring in the United States in 1964. The report discusses trends in the incidence of multiple births and variations in rates for twin and triplet births by age of mother, number of prev...

R. Heuser

1967-01-01

138

Entrepreneurship in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine changes in self-employment that have occurred since the early 1980s in the United States. It is a companion paper to a recent equivalent paper relating to the UK. Data on random samples of twenty million US workers are examined taken from the Basic Monthly files of the CPS (BMCPS), the 2000 Census and the 2005

David G. Blanchflower

2007-01-01

139

United States IOOS - Program update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) is a user-driven, coordinated network of people, organizations, and technology that generate and disseminate continuous data about our coastal waters, Great Lakes, and oceans. IOOS is intended to be a major shift in approach to ocean observing, drawing together the vast network of disparate, federal and non-federal observing systems to produce a

Z. S. Willis

2008-01-01

140

United States Life Tables, 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents period life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2000. Data used to prepare these life tables are 2000 final mortality statistics; July 1, 2000, population estimates based on the 1990 decennial census; and data from the Medicare program. Presented are complete life tables by age, race, and sex. In 2000 the overall

Elizabeth Arias

2002-01-01

141

Health disparities between the United States mainland and Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands (United States territories)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health disparities have been documented for the United States mainland. No literature was found comparing the mainland population to that of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands (United States territories). Using Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics of non-smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, consuming fruits\\/vegetables daily, and exercising regularly, the health of the mainland was compared to United States territories.

Dena Shugart

2010-01-01

142

Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic history and geographic distribution of Central New York's surface and subsurface mineral resources are described. Present and potential economic uses are identified; abandoned, semi-active, and active extraction sites are depicted; and resources ...

J. F. Davis

1970-01-01

143

7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220...SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion... Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State...

2013-01-01

144

Crater-based dating of geological units on Mars: Methods and application for the new global geological map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new, post-Viking generation of Mars orbital imaging and topographical data provide significant higher-resolution details of surface morphologies, which induced a new effort to photo-geologically map the surface of Mars at 1:20,000,000 scale. Although from unit superposition relations a relative stratigraphical framework can be compiled, it was the ambition of this mapping project to provide absolute unit age constraints through crater statistics. In this study, the crater counting method is described in detail, starting with the selection of image data, type locations (both from the mapper's and crater counter's perspectives) and the identification of impact craters. We describe the criteria used to validate and analyse measured crater populations, and to derive and interpret crater model ages. We provide examples of how geological information about the unit's resurfacing history can be retrieved from crater size-frequency distributions. Three cases illustrate short-, intermediate, and long-term resurfacing histories. In addition, we introduce an interpretation-independent visualisation of the crater resurfacing history that uses the reduction of the crater population in a given size range relative to the expected population given the observed crater density at larger sizes. From a set of potential type locations, 48 areas from 22 globally mapped units were deemed suitable for crater counting. Because resurfacing ages were derived from crater statistics, these secondary ages were used to define the unit age rather than the base age. Using the methods described herein, we modelled ages that are consistent with the interpreted stratigraphy. Our derived model ages allow age assignments to be included in unit names. We discuss the limitations of using the crater dating technique for global-scale geological mapping. Finally, we present recommendations for the documentation and presentation of crater statistics in publications.

Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

2013-07-01

145

Mapping and attribution of change in streamflow in the coterminous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing trend in global streamflow has been variously attributed to global warming, land use, and a reduction in plant transpiration under higher CO2 levels. To separate these influences for the coterminous United States, we use a set of over 1000 United States Geological Survey stream gauges primarily from small, minimally disturbed watersheds to estimate annual streamflow per unit area

N. Y. Krakauer; I. Fung

2008-01-01

146

A 4-state unit definition for the unit commitment problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new state definition for the thermal generator units. Being different from the classic On\\/Off state definition, a model that considers four possible states in order to commit a unit is proposed. The main difference in the classic UC is that in the on-state mode, the unit can be committed to a maximum or minimum power according

Boris J. Pavez-Lazo; Claudio A. Roa-Sepulveda

2007-01-01

147

United States National seismograph network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

Masse, R. P.; Filson, J. R.; Murphy, A.

1989-01-01

148

SHARAD Penetrates Only the Youngest Geological Units on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was intended to receive echoes from up to 1 km deep in the rocky martian subsurface. Such deep penetration only occurs in the icy polar caps and in certain ice-rich units. In fact, over the majority of the rocky units of Mars, only surface echoes are detected. Therefore, rocky units

D. Stillman; R. E. Grimm

2009-01-01

149

7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section...RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY...Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry...Definitions § 1212.31 United States. âUnited...

2013-01-01

150

31 CFR 551.309 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.309 United States. The term United States means the United...

2013-07-01

151

31 CFR 541.310 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United...

2013-07-01

152

31 CFR 546.310 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.310 United States. The term United States means the United...

2013-07-01

153

Method for Estimating Pesticide Use for County Areas of the Conterminous United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the amount and distribution of pesticide compounds used throughout the United States is essential to evaluate the relation between water quality and pesticide use. This information is the basis of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water...

G. P. Thelin L. P. Gianessi

2000-01-01

154

Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database summarizes geologic, geomorphic, and geographic information for about 2,000 Quaternary faults and folds in the United States. These structures are believed to be sources of magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes during the Quaternary Period (the past 1,600,000 years). Maps of these geologic structures are linked to detailed descriptions, including geologic setting, fault orientation, fault type, sense of movement, slip rate, recurrence (repeat) interval, and the time of the most recent surface-faulting event. The database is searchable by using an interactive map viewer, a state/regional interactive map, or a text-based search. There is also a link to a fact sheet that provides information about the database.

155

Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database summarizes geologic, geomorphic, and geographic information for about 2,000 Quaternary faults and folds in the United States. These structures are believed to be sources of magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes during the Quaternary Period (the past 1,600,000 years). Maps of these geologic structures are linked to detailed descriptions, including geologic setting, fault orientation, fault type, sense of movement, slip rate, recurrence (repeat) interval, and the time of the most recent surface-faulting event. The database is searchable by using an interactive map viewer, a state/regional interactive map, or a text-based search. There is also a link to a fact sheet that provides information about the database.

2011-06-16

156

Mayflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of several groups of flying insects. Mayflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of all three sites. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

157

Sterilization in the United States  

PubMed Central

Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options.

Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

2008-01-01

158

Masturbation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18–60, 38% (CI, 35–41) of women and 61% (CI, 57–65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with

Aniruddha Das

2007-01-01

159

Malnourishment In The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, there were approximately 34.6 million Americans who were going to bed hungry, which was up 1.7 million from 2001 (Dole n.pag.). More than 25% of all families in the United States with children are single parent families, with the majority of these being led by female head of households (Fraser n.pag.). The days of Leave It to Beaver

Matthew Christensen

160

Geologic mapping of the northern leading hemisphere of Europa from Galileo solid-state imaging data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern leading hemisphere of Europa was imaged at regional mapping resolution (~230 m\\/pixel) by the Galileo spacecraft SSI camera. We produced geologic maps from a regional-scale mosaic and a high resolution inset of this region. Twelve geologic units were sufficient to produce correlative geologic maps at both regional and local scales. Stratigraphic relationships indicate four major episodes in the

Patricio H. Figueredo; Ronald Greeley

2000-01-01

161

Use of multispectral images for revealing landscape and geological characteristics of Uronai ore unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In offered paper experience of application of multispectral space images ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflector Radiometer) for revealing landscape and geological features of Uronai ore unit (East Transbaikalia) is considered. This territory is perspective on tungsten - molybdenum mineralization. For the decision of geological and hydrogeological problems day time and night ASTER images have been used. By results of research are created geoinformation models of hydrogeochemical conditions and ore controlling factors are created.

Glushkova, Nadezhda V.; Balandis, Victoria A.

2004-02-01

162

Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants. Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capt...

K. Fisher R. McKaskle

2006-01-01

163

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

John, David A.; Stewart, J. H.; Hendricks, J. D.; Rowan, L. C.; Plouff, Donald.

1992-01-01

164

Radar penetrates only the youngest geological units on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signals from the Shallow Radar were intended to penetrate hundreds of meters or more into Mars, but subsurface reflections are abundant only in known or inferred ice-rich units and young (middle to late Amazonian), apparently pristine, volcanic units. As volcanic units age, fewer subsurface reflections are detected. Also, no subsurface reflections are detected from any northern hemisphere units inferred to be altered by water. We suggest that the general lack of subsurface reflections on Mars is not likely an indication that the shallow interior is devoid of structure and stratigraphy but rather an indication that dielectric contrasts cannot be detected due to signal attenuation originating from scattering and/or absorption. We constrained the attenuation rate in regions with no subsurface reflections to 0.065-0.27 dB/m. This corresponds to scattering losses from meter-scale fractures and/or lithologic density variations of 0.27-1.03 g/cm3. Alternatively, our laboratory measurements have shown that three monolayers of adsorbed water on 2.2-14 vol % smectite clays can completely absorb radar energy and would be equivalent to a global water layer just ˜0.2-0.6 m thick. We suggest that the increased attenuation in volcanic units comes from an increase in fracture density. Attenuation in water-altered units may be due to the greater heterogeneity in sedimentary units and/or chemical alteration that has formed high-surface-area smectites capable of holding the necessary amount of adsorbed water. Overall, the lack of widespread, deep subsurface reflections is due to the more Earth-like radar properties of Mars, as compared to the Moon-like properties that were anticipated.

Stillman, David E.; Grimm, Robert E.

2011-03-01

165

United States Society on Dams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Society on Dams (USSD) is a professional organization that promotes the advancement of dam engineering and technology, and fosters public awareness of the importance of dams. The best feature on the society's home page is its excellent introduction to dams and their benefits. First, a short definition of a dam is given, and then some reasons for their construction are outlined with specific examples. There are many pictures of dams across the country, and most have explanations for their importance. Hydroelectric power as a renewable resource is discussed in detail. This Web site is a good learning resource for both kids and adults.

2002-01-01

166

Geophysical Imaging of Large Dams in the Central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing subsurface configuration and locating unfavorable geological features (e.g., faults, cavities, etc.) are the most common problems in engineering geophysics. These issues are particularly acute for high- capacity structures such as navigation and flood-control dams, because a large part of this major infrastructure in the United States was designed and constructed in the early- to mid-twentieth century, and as they

E. W. Woolery

2008-01-01

167

Stoneflies of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with its excellent reputation, the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (first described in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has posted this useful, work-in-progress resource, one of several on the distribution of flying insects. This site, Stoneflies of the United States, contains information on the known distribution of Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the US, including distribution maps, county checklists, published references, photo thumbnails, and numerous links to related sites. Dr. Boris Kondratieff of Colorado State University coordinated the production of this site, with collaboration by Dr. Richard Baumann of Brigham Young University. While the authors stress the "work-in-progress" nature of this site, it represents an excellent and useful contribution.

168

Agrichemicals in surface water and birth defects in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate if live births conceived in months when surface water agrichemicals are highest are at greater risk for birth defects. Methods: Monthly concentrations during 1996-2002 of nitrates, atrazine and other pesticides were calculated using United States Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment data. Monthly United States birth defect rates were calculated for live births from 1996 to 2002

Paul D Winchester; Jordan Huskins; Jun Ying

2009-01-01

169

Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published annually since 1878, is the standard summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. It is designed to serve as a convenient volume for statistical re...

W. Lerner S. S. Berger M. K. Moreland E. C. Jagers E. M. Ewell

1974-01-01

170

7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the...

2012-01-01

171

31 CFR 539.312 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States...

2013-07-01

172

United States Intervention: The Case of Chad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Motivation for United States intervention with military assistance in the Chadian Civil War is an intriguing question. It is significant because the United States did not make this intervention until 1981, sixteen years after the Civil War began. The reas...

J. A. Taylor

1990-01-01

173

31 CFR 592.311 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the...

2013-07-01

174

United States: Taking Action on Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change threatens the United States and all nations. To help address this threat, the United States is taking significant new steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. During the past year, President Clinton launched initiatives on bioenergy, wind ...

1999-01-01

175

Immigration Enforcement Within the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimated 11 million unauthorized aliens reside in the United States, and this population is estimated to increase by 500,000 annually. Each year, approximately 1 million aliens are apprehended trying to enter the United States illegally. Although most...

A. Siskin A. Bruno B. Nunez-Neto L. M. Seghetti R. E. Wasem

2006-01-01

176

Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

177

7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...United States means all of the States. Popcorn...

2012-01-01

178

7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...United States means all of the States. Popcorn...

2013-01-01

179

Russia and China View the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet Russia and Communist China see the United States in significantly different ways. The present divergence can be related to antecedents such as the enmity between the United States and the Chinese Communists before their seizure of power and the nonrecognition of the present regime by the United States. More important, the quest of the Peking re gime for national

Alexander Dallin

1963-01-01

180

The United States Lighthouse Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Twenty-five years strong, and with an interest in lighthouses throughout the world, the United States Lighthouse Society (USLHS) has a website that informs the public about restoration projects, tours of lighthouses, and the complete subject index to the Society's magazine, the Keeper's Log. The USHLS is a "non-profit historical and educational organization incorporated to educate, inform, and entertain those who are interested in lighthouses, past and present." The "Projects" section of the website is a must-see for visitors, as it contains the history, old and new photos, and restorative needs of each lighthouse, or lightship, as the case may be. The project "LV605" is the restoration effort for one of the few remaining lightships, which were floating lighthouses in waters where a lighthouse was impractical, because of depth, cost, or currents. There are many pictures of these lightships, and a history of these unique vessels is also included.

181

Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 26 natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Central U.S. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which began with U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.

2006-01-01

182

The development and implementation of a sixth grade geology unit through collabrative action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2000, a researcher from the Al-Qattan Centre for Research and Educational Development, five pre-service teachers from the UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency) Educational Science Faculty (ESF), and one in-service teacher collaborated through action research to implement the curriculum inquiry cycle to a sixth grade geology unit for the purpose of improving both the teaching and learning

Maha Al-Quran; Abu A. Haikal; Abdel M. Razeq; M. Shalabi; N. Fathi; Abu S. Ghoush; T. Majdalawi

2001-01-01

183

Surficial deposits of the United States  

SciTech Connect

This volume is the culmination of efforts to provide an explanation for the 1:7,500,000 scale (1 inch = 120 miles) overview map of the country's surficial deposits prepared by the US Geological Survey for the National Atlas of the United States of America. Because the scale is small, the map is of only limited use to specialists. The map information is technical and nonspecialist needs an explanation that is more complete than can appear on the map. In this book surficial deposits are divided into four major categories: (1) untransported deposits - those formed more or less in place by weathering (residuum) or by organic activity) as in marshes and swamps); (2) transitional deposits - those displaced by gravity, such as colluvium, landslides, debris, avalanches, or mudflows; (3) transported deposits, which include shore, glacial, stream, lake, and wind deposits; and (4) miscellaneous kinds of deposits including basalt, clinker due to the burning of coal beds, hot spring deposits, and small patches of bedrock shown on the overview map.

Hunt, C.

1986-01-01

184

Flooding in the United States Midwest, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2008, record precipitation amounts, coupled with already saturated soils, resulted in flooding along many rivers in the United States Midwest. Separate flooding events occurred in January, February, March, April, May, June, July, and September of 2008. The June floods were by far the most severe and widespread with substantial (and in places record) flooding and damage occurring in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Indiana had the most recurrent flooding during 2008, with peak-of-record streamflows occurring during January, February, March, June, and September. During 2008, peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at more than 147 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages. The annual exceedance probability of the peak streamflows at 25 streamgages was less than 0.2 percent and between 0.2 and 1 percent at 68 streamgages. Trends in flood magnitudes were computed for USGS Midwest streamgages that had no regulation. No Midwest-wide systematic trends upward or downward were evident, although clusters of consistent trends (both upward and downward) were detected in parts of the Midwest.

Holmes, Robert R., Jr.; Koenig, Todd A.; Karstensen, Krista A.

2010-01-01

185

Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.

Bodzin, Alec M.

2001-01-01

186

Death in the United States, 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Briefs NCHS Data Brief Number 115, March 2013 Death in the United States, 2011 On This Page ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

187

A national survey of observation units in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to survey the use of observation units (OUs) in the United States. A written survey was mailed to every third hospital (sequential by zip code) in the United States. There was a 32.9% response to the survey (522 of 1588 hospitals). A total of 18.8% of hospitals had an OU with another 11.6% planning

Sharon E. Mace; Louis Graff; Michael Mikhail; Michael Ross

2003-01-01

188

Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes,

C A Smith; A J Simon; R D Belles

2011-01-01

189

New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services: State Geologic Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a bibliography of the published reports of the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, including: 15-Minute Quadrangle Reports (designed for the nonprofessional with simple text and few scientific names), bulletins (designed to appeal to professional and amateur geologists seeking further information about the geology of the region), geologic maps, mineral resources, Geology of New Hampshire series, mineral and water resource studies, and open-file reports released by the U.S. Geological Survey. Links to web-based free Fact Sheets, Pamphlets and Booklets on subjects of general interest to the public are provided.

190

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

2006-01-01

191

Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with support from NatureServe, has modeled the potential distribution of 419 terrestrial ecosystems for the conterminous United States using a comprehensive biophysical stratification approach that identifies distinct biophysical environments and associates them with known vegetation distributions (Sayre and others, 2009). This standardized ecosystem mapping effort used an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe (Comer and others, 2003). The ecosystem mapping methodology was developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and is now being implemented globally (Sayre and others, 2007). The biophysical stratification approach is based on mapping the major structural components of ecosystems (land surface forms, topographic moisture potential, surficial lithology, isobioclimates and biogeographic regions) and then spatially combining them to produce a set of unique biophysical environments. These physically distinct areas are considered as the fundamental structural units ('building blocks') of ecosystems, and are subsequently aggregated and labeled using the NatureServe classification. The structural footprints were developed from the geospatial union of several base layers including biogeographic regions, isobioclimates (Cress and others, 2009a), land surface forms (Cress and others, 2009b), topographic moisture potential (Cress and others, 2009c), and surficial lithology (Cress and others, in press). Among the 49,168 unique structural footprint classes that resulted from the union, 13,482 classes met a minimum pixel count threshold (20,000 pixels) and were aggregated into 419 NatureServe ecosystems using a semiautomated labeling process based on rule-set formulations for attribution of each ecosystem. The resulting ecosystems are those that are expected to occur based on the combination of the bioclimate, biogeography, and geomorphology. Where land use by humans has not altered land cover, natural vegetation assemblages are expected to occur, and these are described in the ecosystems classification. The map does not show the distribution of urban and agricultural areas - these will be masked out in subsequent analyses to depict the current land cover in addition to the potential distribution of natural ecosystems. This map depicts the smoothed and generalized image of the terrestrial ecosystems dataset. Additional information about this map and any data developed for the ecosystems modeling of the conterminous United States is available online at: http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/ecosystems/.

Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Cress, Jill; Warner, Harumi

2010-01-01

192

Study of uranium oxidation states in geological material.  

PubMed

A wet chemical method to determine uranium (U) oxidation states in geological material has been developed and tested. The problem faced in oxidation state determinations with wet chemical methods is that U redox state may change when extracted from the sample material, thereby leading to erroneous results. In order to quantify and monitor U redox behavior during the acidic extraction in the procedure, an analysis of added isotopic redox tracers, (236)U(VI) and (232)U(IV), and of variations in natural uranium isotope ratio ((234)U/(238)U) of indigenous U(IV) and U(VI) fractions was performed. Two sample materials with varying redox activity, U bearing rock and U-rich clayey lignite sediment, were used for the tests. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox-pair of the mineral phases was postulated as a potentially disturbing redox agent. The impact of Fe(III) on U was studied by reducing Fe(III) with ascorbic acid, which was added to the extraction solution. We observed that ascorbic acid protected most of the U from oxidation. The measured (234)U/(238)U ratio in U(IV) and U(VI) fractions in the sediment samples provided a unique tool to quantify U oxidation caused by Fe(III). Annealing (sample heating) to temperatures above 500 °C was supposed to heal ionizing radiation induced defects in the material that can disturb U redox state during extraction. Good agreement between two independent methods was obtained for DL-1a material: an average 38% of U(IV) determined by redox tracer corrected wet chemistry and 45% for XANES. PMID:23727766

Pidchenko, I; Salminen-Paatero, S; Rothe, J; Suksi, J

2013-05-29

193

Geothermal energy development in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on geothermal energy utilization is discussed. Topics include: developing a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis; establishing the marketability of geothermal energy; colocating users with resources; the transfer of technology; and establishing the beginnings of a geothermal industry infrastructure. Legal, institutional, and economic issues were addressed, as well as information exchange and assistance in state planning through the development of state prospectuses and scenarios.

1981-10-01

194

Potato production in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

195

Ecological Subregions of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The electronic (interactive) version of a 1994 publication by the US Forest Service (USFS), this companion site is based on the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units, designed to provide "a standardized method for classifying, mapping, and describing ecological units" in the US. Ecological Subregions of the United States, contains the biophysical descriptions for the color-coded maps. This is a solid resource for anyone seeking broad ecosystem classifications for the United States.

196

Ecological Subregions of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An electronic (interactive) version of a 1994 publication by the US Forest Service (USFS), this site is based on the National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units, designed to provide "a standardized method for classifying, mapping, and describing ecological units" in the US. Ecological Subregions of the United States, contains the biophysical descriptions for the color-coded maps. This is a solid resource for anyone seeking broad ecosystem classifications for the United States.

1994-01-01

197

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 2001 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States ... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 2001 This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

198

Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999  

NSF Publications Database

... United States: 1999 Hypertext Format Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the United States ... Engineers, and Technicians in the United States: 1999 This report is available in hypertext (.htm ...

199

Mapping the radon potential of the united states: Examples from the Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic radon potential of the United States was recently assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Results indicate that approximately 33% of the U.S. population lives within geologic provinces where the average indoor radon levels have the potential to be greater than 4 pCi/L (147 Bq/m3). Rock types most commonly associated with high indoor radon include: 1) Uraniferous metamorphosed sediments, volcanics, and granite intrusives, especially those that are highly deformed or sheared. 2) Glacial deposits derived from uranium-bearing rocks and sediments. 3) Carboniferous, black shales. 4) Soils derived from carbonate rock, especially in karstic terrain. 5) Uraniferous fluvial, deltaic, marine, and lacustrine deposits. Different geologic terrains of the eastern United States illustrate some of the problems inherent in correlating indoor radon with geology. The Central and Southern Appalachian Highlands of the eastern United States have not been glaciated and most soils there are saprolitic, derived directly from the underlying bedrock. Regression analyses of bedrock geologic and radon parameters yield positive correlations (R > 0.5 to 0.9) and indicate that bedrock geology can account for a significant portion of the indoor radon variation. In glaciated areas of the United States such as the northern Appalachian Highlands and Appalachian Plateau, the correlation of bedrock geology to indoor radon is obscured or is positive only in certain cases. In these glaciated areas of the country, it is the type, composition, thickness, and permeability of glacial deposits, rather than the bedrock geology, that controls the radon source.

Gundersen, L. C. S.; Schumann, R. R.

1997-01-01

200

7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

2012-01-01

201

7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

2013-01-01

202

7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...possessions of the United States. National Peanut...

2012-01-01

203

7 CFR 1214.24 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order...possessions of the United States. Christmas Tree Promotion...

2013-01-01

204

Page 1 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Page 1 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA + + + + + DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES + + + + + ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

205

Geologic Time: Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

1997-10-09

206

Hydraulic Research in the United States 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current and recently concluded research projects in hydraulics and hydrodynamics for the years 1967-1968 are summarized. Projects from more than 200 university, industrial, state and federal government laboratories in the United States and Canada are repo...

1969-01-01

207

Investigation of background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in Durango, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed radiological surveys on 435 vicinity properties (VPs) in the Durango area. This study was undertaken to establish the background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in the Durango VP area. During the months of May through June, 1986, extensive radiometric measurements and surface soil samples were collected in the Durango VP area by personnel from ORNL's Grand Junction Office. A majority of the Durango VP surveys were conducted at sites underlain by Quaternary alluvium, older Quaternary gravels, and Cretaceous Lewis and Mancos shales. These four geologic units were selected to be evaluated. The data indicated no formation anomalies and established regional background radiation levels. Durango background radionuclide concentrations in surface soil were determined to be 20.3 {plus minus} 3.4 pCi/g for {sup 40}K, 1.6 {plus minus} 0.5 pCi/g for {sup 226}Ra, and 1.2 {plus minus} 0.3 pCi/g for {sup 232}Th. The Durango background gamma exposure rate was found to be 16.5 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}R/h. Average gamma spectral count rate measurements for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were determined to be 553, 150, and 98 counts per minute (cpm), respectively. Geologic unit profiles and Durango background radiation measurements are presented and compared with other areas. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

Triplett, G.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Foutz, W.L.; Lesperance, L.R. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA))

1989-11-01

208

Intraplate seismicity in the eastern United States  

SciTech Connect

Causes for intraplate earthquakes in the eastern United States are indeed complex. Spatially, the seismicity occurs in distinct zones superposed on a less active regional background level. Epicentral patterns tend to be linear within the Valley and Ridge Province (Giles County and eastern Tennessee), diffuse in the Piedmont (central Virginia), and cluster in the Coastal Plain Province (Charleston, South Carolina area). Historically, moderate to large earthquakes have occurred within the seismic zones as defined by microseismicity. Recent paleoseismicity studies suggest that these larger earthquakes can reasonably be expected to occur into the future. Earthquake focal depths in the eastern US tend to occur within the upper crust with little relation to the surficial features. Most hypotheses on the causes for seismicity invoke the idea of preexisting zones of weakness favorably oriented with respect to the ambient stress field. Because most eastern US seismic zones are buried in the subsurface, geophysical methods are used to infer the presence of possible causal geologic structures at depth. Gravity data are useful in locating density (lithologic) changes within the crust and seismic activity tends to concentrate within gravity saddles formed at the intersection of northeast and northwest trending gravity anomalies. Seismically important plutons and Triassic basins which are associated with seismic activity have been located by their magnetic signatures. The eastern US is interpreted to be composed of a mosaic of allochthonous suspect terranes. This hypothesis suggests that block boundaries are zones of crustal weakness. Seismicity tends to concentrate along the Avalon-Piedmont boundary in the southeastern US. Many earthquakes in the eastern US occur in paleorift zones and/or at the intersection of multiple tectonic features.

Bollinger, G.A.; Ehlers, E.G. Jr.; Moses, M.J.

1987-07-01

209

Evaluation and Targeting of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Southeastern United States. Progress Report, May 1, 1976--October 31, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the development of procedures for the evaluation of low-temperature radiogenically-derived geothermal resources in the eastern United States utilizing geological geochemical, and geophysical data. An optimum site for geothermal dev...

J. K. Costain L. Glover A. K. Sinha

1976-01-01

210

NEW STATE AND UNITED STATES RECORDS FOR ANTHOCORIDAE (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We summarize new state and United States records for species of Anthocoridae (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) that we have collected from the western and north-eastern United States. New U.S. records include Macrotrachelia sp. (apparently M. nigronitens (Stål)), collected in southern California, represe...

211

Criminal Procedure - Parretti v. United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Parretti v. United States, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, addressed two constitutional claims: (1) whether Giancarlo Parretti's arrest pursuant to an Extradition Treaty with France violated the Fourth Amendment; and (2) whether his detention without bail prior to the French government's request for his extradition violated the Due Process Clause of

Nedia L. DeSouza

2010-01-01

212

Pharmacy student training in United States hospices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospice is a quickly growing field in health care in the United States. As the pharmacist’s role in providing patient care to persons at the end of life increases, considerations should be given for training pharmacy students in this area. The objectives of this study were to examine the frequency of pharmacy student education and training among United States hospice

Christopher M. Herndon; David S. Fike; Allan C. Anderson; Ernest J. Dole

2001-01-01

213

Egypt, Morocco, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political importance of the Middle East to the United States is evident from the willingness of the United States to wage a war in Iraq, the polit- ical capital some US administrations have invested in resolving the Pales- tinian-Israeli conflict, and the amount of aid extended to such countries as Egypt and Israel. It is not surprising, therefore, that

AHMED GALAL; ROBERT Z. LAWRENCE

2003-01-01

214

Covering the Uninsured in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major social policy issues facing the United States in the first decade of the twenty-first century is the large number of Americans lacking health insurance. This article surveys the major economic issues around covering the uninsured. I review the facts on insurance coverage and the nature of the uninsured; explore explanations for why the United States has

Jonathan Gruber

2008-01-01

215

Helium Resources of the United States, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical Note 429, Helium Resources of the United States2007, is an assessment of the total estimated helium reserves and resources of the United States. This assessment is made using estimates of natural gas resources from the Potential Gas Committee (P...

N. Pacheco S. F. Ali

2008-01-01

216

Communication of information about the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three assumptions behind the desire of the United States Government to publicize itself abroad: (1) the more people know about us, the more they will like us; (2) increased understanding will discourage warlike tendencies and encourage economic contacts; and (3) people in foreign countries do not think much about the United States. The function of a government information

L. W. Doob

1946-01-01

217

The United States as a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the United States is in crucial respects the history of a developing country, not only in its transition from agricultural and commercial colonies to an industrial nation, but in modern times and the foreseeable future as well. The seven studies are primarily concerned with the United States as a developing country in the early twentieth century, evolving

Martin J. Sklar

218

Analysis of United States' Utility Conservation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the United States' experience with utility sponsored energy conservation programs. Such programs are central to the recent discussions about electric utility regulation in the United States and elsewhere. First it is shown that these programs are exposed to three problems on the consumers' side – rebound, adverse selection and moral hazard – which lower the effectiveness of

Franz Wirl; Wolfgang Orasch

1998-01-01

219

United States v. Klein, Then and Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States v. Klein, decided during Reconstruction, was the first Supreme Court case to invalidate a statutory restriction on federal courts’ jurisdiction. It is the only one to do so by finding a violation of Article III of the Constitution. Klein has been cited in thirty-three United States Supreme Court opinions, and roughly five hundred times each by lower federal

Gordon G. Young

2012-01-01

220

Aeronautics in the United States, 1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major General George O. Squier, Chief Signal Officer of the United States Army, reviews in this address the development of Military Aeronautics in the United States up to the date of the armistice, 11 November 1918. The US War Department's first heavier-than-air flying machine was produced approximately ten years ago, but for the eight years that followed, the development lagged

George O. Squier

1919-01-01

221

Cultural Wage Differentials Among United States Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One ofthe most debated political and social issues in contemporary America is that of immigration. As a nation ofimmigrants and descendants ofimmigrants, the United States is grappling with the conflict over whether or not continued immigration will prove to be beneficial or detrimental to the economy and society. Immigration is an issue as old as the United States itself, yet

William J. Takahashi

1996-01-01

222

United States Petroleum Situation Through 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper examines the current and projected United States petroleum and natural gas requirements through 1980. These two resources account for three-fourths of all the energy consumed in the United States. The unprecedented rate at which they are being c...

R. W. Huebner

1973-01-01

223

Health care technology in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has the largest economy in the world, driven by a free enterprise system concentrated in manufacturing and service; agriculture, mining, fishing, and tourism also make sub- stantial contributions. The per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) in the United States is second highest among Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries (after Switzerland); at $21,399 in 19911 (84),

Sean R. Tunis; Hellen Gelband

1994-01-01

224

Great Seal of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Before it adjourned on July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress of the newly independent United States passed a resolution: Resolved, that Dr. Franklin, Mr. J. Adams and Mr. Jefferson, be a committee, to bring in a device for a seal for the United States of...

2003-01-01

225

Competitor and Supporter for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan competes with the United States economically while acting as a supporter, not a challenger, in world politics. Japan is America's number one ally in Asia. It has made economically based contributions. How cooperative has Japan been in the use of economic power for the United States? The answer to this question depends on three questions. First, does Japan intend

Ming Wan

1998-01-01

226

Soft Balancing against the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The George W. Bush administration's national security strategy, which asserts that the United States has the right to attack and conquer sovereign countries that pose no observable threat, and to do so without international support, is one of the most aggressively unilateral U.S. postures ever taken. Recent international relations scholarship has wrongly promoted the view that the United States, as

Robert A. Pape

2005-01-01

227

United States Immigration Policy: Three Theoretical Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to globalization theorists, the state is not becoming obsolete in an interdependent world, but redefining its role. The substantive influence of the state in the creation of immigration policy bears out the heightened role of the state. In fact, changes in United States immigration policy can only be explained using different theoretical frameworks. The liberal, realist, and Marxist paradigms

Andrea Silva

228

Comparing the United States and United Kingdom: contrasts and correspondences.  

PubMed

The conventionally antithetical stereotypes of the United Kingdom and United States health care systems needs to be modified in the case of the elderly. Relative to the rest of the population, the over-65s in the United States are more satisfied with their medical care than their UK counterparts. There is also much common ground: shared worries about the quality of elderly care and similar attitudes towards assisted death. Comparison is further complicated by within country variations: comparative studies should take account of the fact that even seemingly polar models may have pools of similarity. PMID:23079298

Klein, Rudolf

2012-10-01

229

Terrestrial Ecosystems-Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification of the lithology of surficial materials to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States. The ecosystems classification used in this effort was developed by NatureServe. A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. This ecosystem mapping methodology is transparent, replicable, and rigorous. Surficial lithology strongly influences the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, and is one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. These surficial lithology classes were derived from the USGS map 'Surficial Materials in the Conterminous United States,' which was based on texture, internal structure, thickness, and environment of deposition or formation of materials. This original map was produced from a compilation of regional surficial and bedrock geology source maps using broadly defined common map units for the purpose of providing an overview of the existing data and knowledge. For the terrestrial ecosystem effort, the 28 lithology classes of Soller and Reheis (2004) were generalized and then reclassified into a set of 17 lithologies that typically control or influence the distribution of vegetation types.

Cress, Jill; Soller, David; Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

2010-01-01

230

The North Carolina Coastal Geology Cooperative-a Model of Federal, State, and Academic Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1999, The U.S. and N.C. Geological Surveys hosted a meeting of coastal geologists and engineers to identify coastal geological issues of greatest importance to North Carolina and to explore the possibility of initiating a cooperative research program to address these issues. Several factors came together to allow a coordinated program to develop: keen state interest in coastal hazards

C. W. Hoffman; E. R. Thieler; S. R. Riggs; W. C. Schwab

2002-01-01

231

Crystal subdivisions of the eastern and central United States and a seismic boundary hypothesis for eastern seismicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential field and surface geologic data may be used to subdivide the Precambrian and Phanerozoic crust of the eastern and central United States into several blocks. These subdivisions are made by using the trends, amplitudes, and frequencies of magnetic anomalies in conjunction with gravity and surface geologic data. Most blocks appear unrelated to historical seismicity, but between New Mexico and

Robert D. Hatcher Jr.; Isidore Zietz; Joe J. Litehiser

1987-01-01

232

Characteristics of the Mars North Polar Basal Unit and Its Role in the Geologic History of the Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the characteristics of the dark, layered unit beneath the north polar cap which could represent part of the "missing" geologic history between the Late Hesperian and Late Amazonian and may currently act as basal ice.

Fishbaugh, K. E.; Head, J. W., III

2003-03-01

233

Statistical assessment of Persistent Scatterers location in different landslide prone geological units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has been applied to measure with an accuracy of a fraction of a centimetre terrain deformations induced by different geological phenomena. In particular, approaches have been developed, within the framework of InSAR techniques, to detect pixels characterized by a stable interferometric phase where it is possible to get very accurate estimation of deformation. These pixels correspond to terrain patches (Persistent Scatterers) with well behaved scattering properties in the microwave domain. The occurrence of Persistent Scatterers (PS) is related to the vegetation coverage, the presence of man-made structures, as well as to the lithological and geological properties of the observed area. Generally, a high number of PS are found in urban areas whereas vegetation causes temporal de-correlation which destroys interferometric phase stability. An interesting research issue is to study how the probability to find a PS are related to the lithology/geology and slope angle. Knowing more about those issues could be of major importance when trying to apply InSAR as a support for landslide inventory at a regional scale. For this study two regions at north of Lisbon, Portugal (Arruda dos Vinhos and Fanhões-Trancão/Lousa) were chosen as test sites due to the presence of a high number of landslides previously identified and mapped at the scale 1:2000 through detailed field geomorphological mapping. Moreover, the landslide inventorying for the two regions allows the recognition of more than 500 slope movements (deep and shallow) of rotational and translational types. However, due to the dimension (in some cases, less than 50 m2) of the smaller landslides, essentially shallow translational, only a part of the landslide data base was used to compare with the correlation between PS and lithological units and slope angle. The geomorphological settings of the test sites are in the essential controlled by an alternation of rocks with different resistance to erosion, permeability and plasticity and by a geological structure favourable to slope instability. Furthermore, those test sites presents only sparsely vegetated areas over which the current space-borne interferometric SAR missions have limitations due to temporal de-correlation. A dataset of 58 ERS-1/2 SAR images was processed. They were acquired along both from 1992 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2002. The map with the location of Persistent Scatterers was overlaid to the lithological/geological and to the slope map, slopes maps and the frequency distribution of PS per squared kilometres in the different lithological/geological units and slope angle classes were obtained. This distribution can be used too as a means to characterize the capability of a given lithological/geological unit or a particular slope value to generate PS when not covered by huge vegetation. Furthermore, PS where terrain displacements were detected were selected and the corresponding frequency distribution of PS per square kilometres in the different lithological/geological units and by slope angle values were obtained. This distribution was compared to that of landslides mapped to statistically assess the map of landslides detected by SAR inteferometry. This research is part of the Project Maprisk (PTDC/GEO/68227/2006) supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

Nico, G.; Oliveira, S.; Catalão, J.; Zêzere, J. L.

2009-04-01

234

75 FR 41279 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United...submitted to the Congress amendments to the sentencing guidelines and official commentary, which become...

2010-07-15

235

Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs.

Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

1985-06-01

236

Health career education: the United State's system.  

PubMed

To understand the role of United States hospitals in health career education, it is important to understand several contexts in which that education takes place. Most significantly, education for health career is not directed by a unified, national policy on workforce needs for health care. Rather, it is based (1) on incremental decisions made by individual educational institutions, hospitals, legislature, insurance companies, and (2) on policies made to encourage cost containment. This decentralized system reflects a provision in the US Constitution that states: "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." PMID:21155430

Bentley, James D

2010-01-01

237

Supervised Classification of Surficial Geology Units Using Local Statistics from Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles as Input into an Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the arid southwestern United States a U.S. Geological Survey project is underway to create 100,000 scale surficial geologic maps. Surficial geologic deposits are classified according to process of deposition using geomorphic and sedimentologic features. Geomorphic position, surface roughness, pavement maturity, pedogenesis, and inset relations are used to establish relative deposit ages. Geologic mapping is conducted using field methods and interpretation of remote-sensing images, primarily stereo-pair aerial photographs viewed through a stereoscope. Recently the project has been investigating methods of classification based on remote sensing data to improve the mapping process. A supervised classification method has been developed to distinguish alluvial geomorphic units ranging in age from active to Pleistocene. The remote sensing technique makes use of spatially autocorrelated information contained in digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs) and the classification power of a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network. The DOQs are processed by examining local statistics of the DOQ gray-scale values in moving-window neighborhoods across the image (mean, median, range, and standard deviation) as a function of distance for each point on the image. For example, at a given point the mean is examined in a 3x3 square neighborhood, a 5x5 square neighborhood, and so on. An empirical function of the mean vs. the window length is then generated. The shapes of the resulting functions for points within a given geomorphic unit, when considered together, are distinct for each generalized geomorphic unit. Each unit is represented not by a single function, however, but rather by a family of functions. The family of functions generated is complex, yet almost every function belonging to a given geomorphic unit is at least 5% different, most much more so, than those belonging to any other unit. A sample set of functions, 1000 for each of three geomorphic units, was used to train a three-layer multilayer feedforward network. Multilayer feedforward networks are reasonably immune to noise and correlation of input variables, and so are ideal for distinguishing inputs that interact in complex ways. The method produced results consistent with recent mapping. The method was further tested by applying it to a test area, roughly 20 km southwest of the training area. This test also produced results consistent with recent mapping. The method has several advantages compared to training using other common remote sensing data sets: (1) it uses 1-m resolution DOQs, so classifies at higher resolution than possible with many data sets; (2) it examines neighbors to classify pixels, thus honoring spatial patterns, an advantage for mapping spatially-dependent features such as geomorphology and vegetation, and (3) it allows for both mixed classification and rejection of classification of the given classes on an individual pixel level, which allows for the identification of mixed geomorphic units and new (unclassified) geomorphic units.

Phelps, G. A.; Miller, D. M.

2003-12-01

238

United States' National Interests in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central Asia consists of five newly independent states situated between Russia, China, and Iran halfway around the world from the United States. For the last eight years, the Central Asian States (CAS) have been the object of considerable attention from t...

R. B. Stephens

2000-01-01

239

Remote state preparation with unit success probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote state preparation is a secure and faithful method for transmitting known quantum states by means of local operation and classical communication. Existing protocols in the general case succeed just with probabilities of less than 100%. In this paper, we design a protocol to remotely prepare the most general single-qubit state that always succeeds. To achieve unit success probability, the

Ba An Nguyen; Thi Bich Cao; Van Don Nung; Jaewan Kim

2011-01-01

240

Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Geology of North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Geology of North America course is intended as an application of tectonic theory to the North American continent. The goals of the course include (1) the application of scientific principles to the study of North American continent; (2) the examinatio

1900-01-01

241

The State of Groundfish Resources off the Northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the early 1960s to 1977, fishing vessels from 13 nations fished heavily off the northeastern United States. Landings of principal groundfish species rose to 780,000 tonnes in 1965 and abundance declined rapidly. Most species of groundfish were being underfished by the United States. With the passage of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1976, fishing by foreign

Vaughn C. Anthony

1993-01-01

242

Pennsylvania Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.

243

United States Health Workforce Personnel Factbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States health Workforce Personnel Factbook is a compilation of data from secondary sources, such as the American Medical Association and the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. It includes information on the supply of health personnel in severa...

2002-01-01

244

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The unauthorized alien (illegal alien) population in the United States is a key and controversial immigration issue. In recent years, competing views on how to address this population have proved to be a major obstacle to enacting comprehensive immigratio...

A. Bruno

2010-01-01

245

United States Bone and Joint Decade  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases in the United States: Prevalence, Societal and Economic Cost - Presenting a compelling argument for greater understanding and expanding research Global Burden of Disease Data, published in The Lancet, ...

246

United States Cancer Statistics: 2000 Incidence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR), are pleased to release the second annual United States Cancer Statist...

2003-01-01

247

United States Policy on Weapons in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Commission Report identifies the United States' ever- growing reliance on space and space technology both militarily and economically. It outlines the vulnerabilities of its systems and warns that it must be prepared to prevent a 'Space Pearl Ha...

D. P. Christy

2006-01-01

248

Crayfish Farming in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of crayfishing in the United States is discussed. The general biology, diseases, and parasites of crayfish are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon commercial crayfish farming including methods of marketing and processing. Sport crayfishing in th...

J. W. Avault

1972-01-01

249

Engineering Psychology in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper traces the origins and history of engineering psychology in the United States and describes this field of psychology as it exists today. The description has intentionally accentuated the successes but also notes the failures.

W. F. Grether

1967-01-01

250

31 CFR 544.310 - United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term...

2013-07-01

251

United States Court of International Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1980 the United States Customs Court was renamed the United States Court of International Trade and given expanded status, jurisdiction, and powers. The court's powers include the exclusive subject matter jurisdiction over "any civil action against the United States, its officers, or its agencies arising out of any law pertaining to international trade," as well as "certain civil actions brought by the United States under the laws governing import transactions." While considerable attention has been paid to the World Trade Organization and other international trade bodies, little notice is given to the role and function of this court. At the site, visitors can learn about the Court's procedures, calendar, personnel, and its judges. Best of all, they can read the full text of the Court's slip opinions from 1999 and 2000 in .pdf format.

252

Earthquake History of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a history of the prominent earthquakes in the United States from historical times through 1970. It supersedes all previous editions with the same or similar titles and, in addition to updating earthquake listings through 1970, contains ...

J. L. Coffman C. A. Von Hake

1973-01-01

253

United States Mint, 2010 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Mint launched the 12-year America the Beautiful Quarters(Trade Name) Program in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 with four beautiful quarters honoring Hot Springs, Yellowstone, Yosemite and Grand Canyon National Parks. We continued the Native Ameri...

2010-01-01

254

The United States Requirements for Polar Icebreakers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was performed to determine the requirements for United States Coast Guard icebreakers in polar regions for the time period 1973-2000. Of the organizations queried that were associated with economic resources and planning, none could provide any...

1967-01-01

255

Viral Hepatitis Surveillance - United States, 2010  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Viral Hepatitis Surveillance – United States, 2010 Entire report in a ... C Outbreaks Related to Healthcare Reported to CDC Hepatitis A virus PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

256

United States Marine Corps Performance Pricing Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Marine Corps Installations & Logistics Department, located at the Navy Annex in Washington D.C., conducts the Sustainment Program Evaluation Board as part of the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution Process. One of the functio...

P. J. Kelly

2009-01-01

257

Summary of Notifiable Diseases - United States, 2011.  

PubMed

The Summary of Notifiable Diseases - United States, 2011 contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases in the United States for 2011. Unless otherwise noted, the data are final totals for 2011 reported as of June 30, 2012. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by state health departments and territories to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). PMID:23820934

Adams, Deborah A; Gallagher, Kathleen M; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Kriseman, Jeffrey; Sharp, Pearl; Anderson, Willie J; Aranas, Aaron E; Mayes, Michelle; Wodajo, Michael S; Onweh, Diana H; Abellera, John P

2013-07-01

258

Energy resources of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates are made of United States resources of coal, petroleum liquids, natural gas, uranium, geothermal energy, and oil from oil shale. Accuracy of the estimates probably ranges from 20 to 50 percent for identified-recoverable resources to about an order of magnitude for undiscovered-submarginal resources. The total cost resource base in the United States is estimated to be about 3,200 billion

P. K. Theobald; S. P. Schweinfurth; D. C. Duncan

1972-01-01

259

The view from the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Although there will be challenges and problems, the United States has developed a sound and strong long-term approach to the\\u000a transfer of nuclear technology to Asia under appropriate nonproliferation assurances and guarantees. The U.S. has played a\\u000a leading role in the development of peaceful nuclear programs in several Asian nations. The United States looks forward to\\u000a continued close peaceful nuclear

Lewis A. Dunn

1986-01-01

260

Natality Statistics Analysis, United States - 1963.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report statistics are presented for births in the United States in 1963 with an analysis of these data. Birth rates of the white and nonwhite population are compared by states, metropolitan areas, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. There is also d...

A. Campbell A. Calgue F. Godley H. Rosenberg

1966-01-01

261

Childhood Vaccination Providers in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to provide a characterization of US childhood vaccination providers. Methods. The state was used as the analytic unit in examining 1997 data from the National Immu- nization Survey and the Vaccines for Children program, state immunization reports, and natality records. Results. Overall, 57% of children were vaccinated in the private sector, 18% were vaccinated in the

Charles W. LeBaron; Bridget Lyons; Mehran Massoudi; John Stevenson

262

Food Chain Defense in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting the United States food and agricultural critical infrastructure and key resources is an important responsibility shared by Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial governments and private industry partners. Interference with the food or agricultural infrastructure could have a devastating impact on the Nation's public health and economy. Adequate protection and resiliency of infrastructure in the Food and Agriculture Sector requires a number of integrated processes and procedures undertaken by all sector partners. A number of tools, guidance documents, educational materials, and regulations are available to aid in protecting the United States Food and Agriculture Sector.

Jackson, Leeanne

263

Reconnaissance geology of the Central Mastuj Valley, Chitral State, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mastuj Valley in Chitral State is a part of the Hindu Kush Range, and is one of the structurally most complicated areas in northern Pakistan. Sedimentary rocks ranging from at least Middle Devonian to Cretaceous, and perhaps Early Tertiary age lie between ridge-forming granodiorite intrusions and are cut by thrust faults. The thrust planes dip 10? to 40? to the north- west. Movement of the upper thrust plates has been toward the southeast relative to the lower blocks. If this area is structurally typical of the Hindu-Kush and Karakoram Ranges, then these mountains are much more tectonically disturbed than previously recorded, and suggest compression on a scale compatible with the hypothesis that the Himalayan, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush Ranges form part of a continental collision zone. The thrust faults outline two plates consisting of distinctive sedimentary rocks. The lower thrust plate is about 3,000 feet thick and consists of the isoclinally folded Upper Cretaceous to perhaps lower Tertiary Reshun Formation. It has overridden the Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Chitral Slate unit. This thrust plate is, in turn, overridden by an 8,000-foot thick sequence consisting largely of Devonian to Carboniferous limestones and quartzites. A key factor in the tectonic processes has been the relatively soft and plastic lithology of the siltstone layers in the Reshun Formation which have acted as lubricants along the principal thrust faults, where they are commonly found today as fault slices and smears. The stratigraphic sequence, in the central Mastuj Valley was tentatively divided into 9 mapped units. The fossiliferous shales and carbonates of the recently defined Shogram Formation and the clastlcs of the Reshun Formation have been fitted into a sequence of sedimentary rocks that has a total thick- ness of at least 13,000 feet and ranges in age from Devonian to Neogene. Minerals of potential economic significance include antimony sulfides which have been mined elsewhere in Chitral, the tungstate, scheelite, which occurs in relatively high concentrations in heavy-mineral fractions of stream sands, and an iron-rich lateritic rock.

Stauffer, Karl W.

1975-01-01

264

Foreign Relations of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the very official title of "Foreign Relations of the United States" (FRUS), this important United States government series serves as the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions. Produced by the State Department's Office of the Historian, many of these printed volumes have been digitized and placed online here as part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections project. Working with collaborators at the University of Illinois at Chicago, this archive includes those volumes published from 1861 to the year 1960. It is easy to search through the volumes, and visitors may also want to just browse through different volumes at their leisure. Users should also be mindful that the organization of FRUS, while generally chronological, does not always correspond to the dates of documentary history. Fortunately, each volume has a subject and author index available for consultation. Students of political science, United States history, and international relations will find this website indispensable.

265

INTEGRATING DATA LAYERS TO SUPPORT THE NATIONAL MAP OF THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of geographic data layers in multiple raster and vector formats, from many different organizations and at a variety of resolutions and scales, is a significant problem for The National Map of the United States being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Our research has examined data integration from a layer-based approach for five of The National Map data

E. Lynn Usery; Michael P. Finn; Michael Starbuck

266

Predicted Nitrate and Arsenic Concentrations in Basin-Fill Aquifers of the Southwestern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States (Lapham and others, 2005). The Southwest Principal Aqui...

A. P. Paul D. W. Anning J. M. Huntington L. M. Bexfield T. S. McKinney

2012-01-01

267

Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the nat...

D. W. Anning M. E. Flynn N. J. Bauch S. J. Gerner S. N. Hamlin

2006-01-01

268

Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review

H. W. Jr. Bledsoe; I. W. Marine

1980-01-01

269

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Network in the PNW region of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest Region (PNW) of the United States contains a variety of geologic regions and tectonic problems. These include the Cascadia Subduction Zone, Mt. St. Helens and the transition to the Basin and Range province. Since September of 2003, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, has been installing a network of

K. Hafner; K. Austin; K. Feaux; M. Jackson; K. Fengler; S. Doelger

2007-01-01

270

Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks

R. L. Wimer; M. A. Adams; D. M. Jurich

1981-01-01

271

Shear-wave splitting beneath western United States in relation to plate tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined shear wave splitting in teleseismic shear waves from 26 broadband stations in the western United States. Fast polarization directions (varphi) and delay times (deltat) show spatial variations that are coherent within geologic provinces. Stations located near the San Andreas fault show clear evidence for fault-parallel anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle (115-125 km thickness). This can

Serdar Özalaybey; Martha K. Savage

1995-01-01

272

Tree planting in the United States, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The annual report summarizes tree planting, timber stand improvement and nursery production activities across all ownerships of forest land in the United States. It includes State-by-State and ownership breakdowns, regional totals, as well as analysis of the trends in the data. It does not include tree planting in urban and community environments. Because some of the data are estimated, caution must be used in drawing inferences.

Moulton, R.J.; Mangold, R.D.; Snellgrove, J.D.; Nisley, R.

1993-05-01

273

Estimates of undiscovered recoverable resources of conventionally producible oil and gas in the United States: a summary  

SciTech Connect

In 1975 the US Geological Survey published estimates of the undiscovered recoverable oil and gas resources of the United States (Miller and others, 1975). These estimates were a produce of the geologic knowledge of US petroleum provinces and of methods of resource appraisal at that time. A new appraisal was made in 1980 to incorporate new geologic information, new technology, economic changes, and new or refined methods of resource appraisal. This brief open-fiel report represents the final resource estimates but does not include detailed discussions of geology and methodology.

Dolton, G.L.; Carlson, K.H.; Charpentier, R.R.

1981-01-01

274

National Geologic Map Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.

1997-01-01

275

Landslide overview map of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accompanying landslide overview map of the conterminous United States is one of a series of National Environmental Overview Maps that summarize geologic, hydrogeologic, and topographic data essential to the assessment of national environmental problems. The map delineates areas where large numbers of landslides exist and areas which are susceptible to landsliding. It was prepared by evaluating the geologic map of the United States and classifying the geologic units according to high, medium, or low landslide incidence (number) and high, medium, or low susceptibility to landsliding. Rock types, structures, topography, precipitation, landslide type, and landslide incidence are mentioned for each physical subdivision of the United States. The differences in slope stability between the Colorado Plateau, the Appalachian Highlands, the Coast Ranges of California, and the Southern Rocky Mountains are compared in detail, to illustrate the influence of various natural factors on the types of landsliding that occur in regions having different physical conditions. These four mountainous regions are among the most landslide-prone areas in the United States. The Colorado Plateau is a deformed platform where interbedded sedimentary rocks of varied lithologic properties have been gently warped and deeply eroded. The rocks are extensively fractured. Regional fracture systems, joints associated with individual geologic structures, and joints parallel to topographic surfaces, such as cliff faces, greatly influence slope stability. Detached blocks at the edges of mesas, as well as columns, arched recesses, and many natural arches on the Colorado Plateau, were formed wholly or in part by mass movement. In the Appalachian Highlands, earth flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches predominate in weathered bedrock and colluvium. Damaging debris avalanches result when persistent steady rainfall is followed by a sudden heavy downpour. Landsliding in unweathered bedrock is controlled locally by joint systems similar to those on the Colorado Plateau. In some places, outward gravitational movement of valley walls due to stress release has formed anticlines and caused thrusting in the center of valleys. In the Coast Ranges of California, slopes are steep, and rocks are varied and extensively deformed. One of the most slide-prone terrains of the Coast Ranges is the tectonic melange of the Franciscan assemblage, on which huge masses of debris are moving slowly downslope. In southern California, debris flows generated by soil slips are particularly damaging. Similar flows are common in poorly consolidated Tertiary rocks of the central part of the State. Like the debris avalanches of the Appalachian Highlands, the flows form during intense rainfall after previous steady rain. The Southern Rocky Mountains are complex in rock type and climate, so that the landslides there are also complex. Slides range from rock-falls at one extreme to slumps and debris flows at the other. They include ?sackungen,? which are distinguished by ridgetop grabens associated with uphill-facing scarps on ridge sides, both features of gravitational origin. Extensive regional joint patterns have not been recognized, and shallow soil slips are only a minor hazard.

Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.; Colton, Roger B.; Davies, William E.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Skipp, Betty A.; Varnes, David J.

1982-01-01

276

45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Repayment to the United States. (a) An individual...such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it...partnership, corporation, or government shall be considered, and assignment to the United States of such claims...

2012-10-01

277

45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Repayment to the United States. (a) An individual...such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it...partnership, corporation, or government shall be considered, and assignment to the United States of such claims...

2011-10-01

278

39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an independent...establishment within the executive branch of the government of the United States under the Postal Reorganization Act of...

2013-07-01

279

Copyright Law of the United States of America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contents of this publication of the United States copyright law include: (1) prefatory note; (2) Constitutional provision respecting copyright; (3) Copyright Law of the United States of America (Title 17, United States Code); (4) schedule of laws repo...

1969-01-01

280

32 CFR 809a.11 - Procedures outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Disturbance Intervention and Disaster...outside the United States.] 32 ...Disturbance Intervention and Disaster...outside the United States. It is Air...resources. Intervention by United States military...

2009-07-01

281

32 CFR 809a.11 - Procedures outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance...Procedures outside the United States. It is Air Force...confrontation between United States military forces...Force resources. Intervention by United States military...

2013-07-01

282

32 CFR 809a.11 - Procedures outside the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance...Procedures outside the United States. It is Air Force...confrontation between United States military forces...Force resources. Intervention by United States military...

2010-07-01

283

43 CFR 3733.2 - Liability of United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Liability of United States. 3733.2 Section 3733...Operation § 3733.2 Liability of United States. The Act in section 3 provides...follows: Provided, That the United States, its permittees and...

2012-10-01

284

The United States Government Manual -- 2001/ 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) released the latest edition of the United States Government Manual on the US Government Printing Office Website September 5 (last year's edition is discussed in the September 15, 2000 Scout Report). The 693-page manual covers agencies in all three branches of the government as well as "quasi-official agencies; international organizations in which the United States participates; and boards, commissions, and committees." Agency descriptions include main officials, the agency's purpose and history, its activities, and a section entitled "Sources of Interest," which gives information such as employment, publications, and other

2001-01-01

285

Copper Mineralization Geology of Mandacaru, State of Piaui, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mandacaru area, Sao Juliao county, Piaui, comprises a Precambrian crystalline basement of granitic to quartaz dioritic gneisses overlain by several younger units of low grade metamorphics, volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The late Proterozoic Sao Julia...

C. V. Parente

1984-01-01

286

Comparison of the USGS 2001 NLCD to the 2002 USDA Census of Agriculture for the Upper Midwest United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2002 Census of Agriculture. We compared areal estimates for cropland at the state and county level for 14 States in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Absolute differences between the NLCD and Census cropland areal estimates at the

S. K. Maxwell; E. C. Wood; A. Janus

2008-01-01

287

Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered, Technically Recoverable Coalbed-Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks, North Slope and Adjacent State Waters, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed-gas resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks underlying the North Slope and adjacent State waters of Alaska (USGS Northern Alaska Province 5001). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Northern Alaska Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one composite coalbed gas total petroleum system and three coalbed gas assessment units within the petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered coalbed-gas resources within each assessment unit.

Compiled by Roberts, Stephen B.

2008-01-01

288

Effects of the 1972 United States - Soviet Trade Agreement on United States Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper is meant to analyze changes in trade between the United States and the Soviet Union, due to the Trade Agreement signed October 18, 1972. This paper will cover the effects on United States businesses dealing in industrial machinery, plant and equipment, and industrial products, with the exception of consumer and agricultural products. Capital goods contracts which are

Bryan Floyd Smith

1975-01-01

289

Color Landform Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an on-line warehouse of maps of the United States. For each state there are maps and images local to the site, and links to external web sites. Currently the following maps are available for most of the states: a shaded relief topographic map optimized to show the landforms; a map showing counties in a state; a black and white version of the shaded relief map; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR satellite images of the state; an 1895 map of each state from an old Rand McNally Atlas of the World; and a PostScript map of counties in the state intended for download and printing on a PostScript printer. The shaded relief maps were created from arrays of elevation data. The elevation data were derived from contour maps elsewhere.

Sterner, Ray

290

Bioaccumulation of selenium from natural geologic sources in western states and its potential consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological impacts of water-quality problems have developed in the western United States resulting from the disposal of seleniferous agricultural wastewater in wetland areas. Overt effects of selenium toxicosis occurred at five areas where deformities of wild aquatic birds were similar to those first observed at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California. These areas are: Tulare Lake Bed Area, California, Middle Green River Basin, Utah, Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, Sun River Basin, Montana, and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada. Potential for ecological damage is indicated at six more sites in Oregon, Colorado, the Colorado/Kansas border, and South Dakota out of 16 areas in 11 states where biological tissue data were collected. This conclusion is based on the fact that selenium bioaccumulated in bird livers to median levels that had exceeded or were in the range associated with adverse reproductive effects. Selenium concentrations in samples of fish and bird eggs support these conclusions at a majority of these areas. Reason for concern is also given for the lower Colorado River Valley, although this is not exclusively a conclusion from these reconnaissance data. Biogeochemical conditions and the extent of selenium contamination of water, bottom sediment, and biota from which this assessment was made are given here. In a companion paper, the biogeochemical pathway postulated for selenium contamination to take place from natural geologic sources to aquatic wildlife is defined.

Presser, Theresa S.; Sylvester, Marc A.; Low, Walton H.

1994-05-01

291

31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of another agency of the United States Government and the granting of such...of another agency of the United States Government and the granting of such...of other agencies of the United States Government) in a legal...

2013-07-01

292

78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International...for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

2013-01-16

293

77 FR 43573 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States Section of the United States-Turkey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Section of the United States-Turkey Business Council AGENCY: International Trade...2009, the Governments of the United States and Turkey agreed to establish a U.S.-Turkey Business Council. This notice announces...

2012-07-25

294

Regionalization of ground motion attenuation in the conterminous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation results from geometric spreading and from absorption. The former is almost independent of crustal geology or physiographic region. The latter depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high-frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation

D. H. Chung; D. L. Bernreuter

1979-01-01

295

The United States Show Caves Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information about caves in the United States which are open to the public. The directory is arranged by state and provides locations, operating hours, and telephone numbers for all caves in the U. S. which are developed for public access. Other materials include tips for visitors, a tutorial on cave photography, and a link to the "Virtual Cave," which includes maps and photos of different types of caves.

296

United States: The Allocation of Surface Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The English settlers in North America brought with them the common law, which, while well developed in many respects, had\\u000a little to say about the allocation of surface waters. With courts generally, but not always, taking the lead, the states of\\u000a the United States developed over three centuries three very different legal regimes for the allocation of water: riparian\\u000a rights

Joseph W. Dellapenna

297

Food Chain Defense in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Protecting the United States food and agricultural critical infrastructure and key resources is an important responsibility\\u000a shared by Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial governments and private industry partners. Interference with the\\u000a food or agricultural infrastructure could have a devastating impact on the Nation’s public health and economy. Adequate protection\\u000a and resiliency of infrastructure in the Food and Agriculture Sector

Leeanne Jackson

2010-01-01

298

Geologic Controls on the Growth of Petroleum Reserves. Chapter I of Geologic, Engineering and Assessment Studies of Reserve Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geologic characteristics of selected siliciclastic (largely sandstone) and carbonate (limestone and dolomite) reservoirs in North America (largely the continental United States) were investigated to improve our understanding of the role of geology in ...

C. E. Turner F. Peterson N. S. Fishman T. Cook T. S. Dyman

2008-01-01

299

Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

300

Air quality management in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

2005-01-01

301

Health, United States, 1981. [Sixth Annual Report].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides the sixth annual report on the health status of the citizens of the United States. Submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Services Act, the report presents statistics concerning recent trends in the health care sector along…

National Center for Health Services Research (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

302

Population Pyramids for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chart of Population Pyramids for the United States by Robert Hutchens, PhD, School of Industrial and Labor Relations Cornell University, on behalf of the event: What an Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility held on July 18, 2005 by Workplace Flexibility 2010.

HutchensRobert

2011-01-01

303

Health Care Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of improvements, on various measures of health outcomes the United States appears to rank relatively poorly among OECD countries. Health expenditures, in contrast, are significantly higher than in any other OECD country. While there are factors beyond the health-care system itself that contribute to this gap in performance, there is also likely to be scope to improve the

David Carey; Bradley Herring; Patrick Lenain

2009-01-01

304

Analytical chemistry in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more than 20 % of the 150,000 members of the American Chemical Society identifying themselves as analytical chemists, the staggering size of the analytical establishment in the United States becomes readily apparent. Indeed, this estimate is probably much too low since many workers in the field are members of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, the clinical chemistry groups,

G. A. Rechnitz

1983-01-01

305

Undergraduate nursing education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing education in the United States began in the 1870s with hospital training schools modeled after the Nightingale plan. Presently there are three educational paths that students may take to become a registered nurse (RN). These are the baccalaureate degree (BS), the associate degree (AD) and the diploma. Accelerated nursing programs are also available for people who have a baccalaureate

Susan A. LaRocco

2010-01-01

306

Regional Wave Propagation in Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad band seismograms from the April 29, 2003, M4.6 Fort Payne, Alabama earthquake are analyzed to infer mechanisms of crustal wave propagation, crust and upper mantle velocity structure in southeastern United States, and source parameters of the event. In particular, we are interested in producing deterministic models of the distance attenuation of earthquake ground motions through computation of synthetic seismograms.

A. L. Jemberie; C. A. Langston

2003-01-01

307

Intraplate seismicity in the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes for intraplate earthquakes in the eastern United States are indeed complex. Spatially, the seismicity occurs in distinct zones superposed on a less active regional background level. Epicentral patterns tend to be linear within the Valley and Ridge Province (Giles County and eastern Tennessee), diffuse in the Piedmont (central Virginia), and cluster in the Coastal Plain Province (Charleston, South Carolina

G. A. Bollinger; E. G. Jr. Ehlers; M. J. Moses

1987-01-01

308

The United States, Secessionist Movements, and Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores an enduring struggle in American foreign policy between principles of international stability and secessionist self-determination. At the dawn of the 21st century, secessionist conflicts remain a challenge to the United States and to the international community. Recent studies indicate that claims for secession are now proliferating. In this context, this research attempts to explain the behavior of

Jonathan Paquin

309

Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

Jeffery, Charles F.

310

Global Communication: Role of United States Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities of the Carter Center that focus on helping developing countries and suggests mutually beneficial roles universities in the United States could play. Topics discussed include the involvement of business in schools; the use of technology; foreign aid; planning for the future; and linking major universities with developing…

Carter, Jimmy

1990-01-01

311

Emergency War Surgery. Third United States Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although called the Third United States Revision, this issue of Emergency War Surgery represents an entirely new Handbook. Format, intent, and much of the content are new. None of the chapters of the Second Revision has been preserved verbatim. All materi...

2004-01-01

312

Community Colleges in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue discusses the importance of the community college to higher education in the United States. Contained are six articles: (1) "America's Community Colleges: On the Ascent," by Arthur M. Cohen, which places the strengths and challenges of the American community college within a historical context; (2) "Lamps Beside the Golden Door," by…

Lundberg, Richard, Ed.

2002-01-01

313

Homosexuality, Manliness and the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph investigates the nature of the resistance within the United States Army to the inclusion of homosexuals into the wider force and the preparation necessary at the macro level for potential social change should Congress repeal US Code Title 1...

J. C. Dayhoff

2010-01-01

314

Homosexuality, Manliness, and the United States Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph investigates the following: (1) the nature of the resistance within the United States Army to the inclusion of openly homosexual service members into the force, and (2) the preparation for social change that would be necessary at the macro ...

J. C. Dayhoff

2010-01-01

315

America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

Toro, Leonor; And Others

316

Modernizing Vertical Datums in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and maintains the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). Additionally, NGS has a definitive role in providing direct access to the NSRS. An important aspect of the NSRS is the vertical datum, to which geodetic control of elevations is referred. The current official vertical datum for the United States is the North American Vertical Datum

D. B. Zilkoski; D. A. Smith

2006-01-01

317

Managed care in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Medical care in the United States continues to consume an increasing amount of the Gross Domestic Product. To control the rising costs of health care many industries have turned to a controlled form of financing and delivery of health care - often referred to as managed care. Many types of managed care exist, including preferred provider organizations (PPO), exclusive

F. Douglas Scutchfield; Joel Lee; Dana Patton

2010-01-01

318

Malaria among United States troops in Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

purpose: United States military personnel deployed to Somalia were at risk for malaria, including chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This report details laboratory, clinical, preventive, and therapeutic aspects of malaria in this cohort.patients and methods: The study took place in US military field hospitals in Somalia, with US troops deployed to Somalia between December 1992 and May 1993. Centralized clinical care

Mark R Wallace; Trueman W Sharp; Bonnie Smoak; Craig Iriye; Patrick Rozmajzl; Scott A Thornton; Roger Batchelor; Alan J Magill; Hans O Lobel; Charles F Longer; James P Burans

1996-01-01

319

United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

Carter, Julie H.

2004-01-01

320

Terrorism in the United States 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This special retrospective issue of Terrorism in the United States provides both a summary of terrorism-related activity in 1999 and a broad overview of U.S.-based terrorism during the past three decades. It discusses notable cases, trends, emerging threa...

1999-01-01

321

Multicultural Teacher Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies for schooling which reflect the cultural diversity of the United States were examined. To discern the role of teacher education in this process, a survey was conducted of 3,038 postsecondary institutions. The initial query sought to identify multicultural teacher education programs. Statistical data is provided on the groups studied,…

Washburn, David E.

322

United States Mint: 2004 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During FY 2004, we pursued excellence in artistry through varied methods. For example, the United States Mint made history by releasing two new nickels in the Westward Journey Nickel Series(trademark) - the nation's first new nickels in 66 years. In addit...

2005-01-01

323

Adolescent Suicide Myths in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, teen suicide rates tripled over several decades, but have declined slightly since the mid-1990s. Suicide, by its nature, is a complex problem. Many myths have developed about individuals who complete suicide, suicide risk factors, current prevention programs, and the treatment of at-risk youth. The purpose of this article is to address these myths, to separate fact

Michelle Ann Moskos; Jennifer Achilles; Doug Gray

2004-01-01

324

Reconfiguring Administrative Geographies In The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most significant social, political, ethical, and economic implications of GIS-based technologies show themselves in changing modes of governance. Administrative geographies in the United States, with some peculiarities resulting from their historical development, are analyzed in this paper as boundary objects that loosely organize local practices. Boundary objects bring together technologies, people, institutions, programs, and policies in an

Francis Harvey

2006-01-01

325

Light rail transit in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years interest in light rail transit has grown substantially in the United States. The concept of LRT is increasingly viewed as a possible answer to the search for a less costly rail transit technology that could reduce America's dependency on the private automobile and put the country on the road to a more secure, self-sufficient energy future. The

Stewart F. Taylor

1980-01-01

326

Synfuels era for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for liquid fuels in the future is surveyed, and it is proposed that for the United States the emerging alternative liquid fuel option appears to be a synfuel industry based on coal or oil shale. Specifically, methanol from coal is forecasted to be able to supply fuel for a sizeable alcohol-powered automobile population by the year 2000. This

Goodrich

2009-01-01

327

AED in the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) work in the United States includes programs with many of the nation's major foundations on issues of education reform, parental involvement in the schools, youth development and bridging the distance between school, work, and successful university education. The projects described here cover a…

Academy for Educational Development, 2007

2007-01-01

328

The accuracy of United States precipitation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation measurements in the United States (as well as all other countries) are adversely affected by the gauge undercatch bias of point precipitation measurements. When these measurements are used to obtain areal averages, particularly in mountainous terrain, additional biases may be introduced because most stations are at lower elevations in exposed sites. Gauge measurements tend to be underestimates of the

Pavel Ya. Groisman; David R. Legates

1994-01-01

329

Bilingual Education in the United States, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of European immigrants to the United States was characterized by the "melting pot" image up until the late 1960's. Then a trend of revival of the identity of ethnic minorities changed the slogan to "from the melting pot to the salad bowl." Cultural pluralism and maintenance of native languages became the goals of the movement. The…

Paulston, Christina Bratt

330

Political Science 165 United States Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE This course surveys the diplomacy and national security strategies of the United States from the nineteenth century to today. We will use various international relations (IR) theories—defensive realism, offensive realism, liberal (or democratic) peace theory, among others—to explain the sources, goals, and consequences, of the policies adopted by successive presidential administrations (from Theodore Roosevelt to George W. Bush). Topics

Nichola Minott

331

Bilingual Education in the United States, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of European immigrants to the United States was characterized by the "melting pot" image up until the late 1960's. Then a trend of revival of the identity of ethnic minorities changed the slogan to "from the melting pot to the salad bowl." Cultural pluralism and maintenance of native languages became the goals of the movement. The massive…

Paulston, Christina Bratt

332

Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

333

Renewable energy atlas of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the

J. A. Kuiper; Hlava; H. K. Greenwood; A. Carr

2012-01-01

334

Delayed childbearing in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the phenomenon of delayed childbearing in the United States. It begins by exploring problems associated with the definition and measurement of delayed childbearing. Existing empirical evidence of the phenomenon is reviewed and some new evidence is presented. A general theoretical framework for analyzing delayed childbearing is outlined and discussed in relation to existing theories. The article also

David E. Bloom

1984-01-01

335

National security strategy of the United States  

SciTech Connect

The report describes some of the past accomplishments, present situations and future plans of the United States in international affairs. It focuses primarily on the U.S.'s role in promoting better international relations and economic progress as well as describing some of the challenges the U.S. faces in the coming years.

Not Available

1993-01-01

336

Where Immigrants Settle in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the location of immigrants in the United States, as reported in the 1990 Census. Where they settle has implications for the economic, social and political impact of immigrants. Immigrants are highly geographically concentrated. Compared to the native born they are more likely to live in the central parts of Metropolitan Areas in “gateway (major international

Barry R. Chiswick; Paul W. Miller

2004-01-01

337

Comparing Australian and United States productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Despite a series of broad and deep macroeconomic and microeconomic reforms boosting Australia's productivity growth, the level of Australia's GDP per capita remains well below that of the United States. A continuing gap in the levels of productivity plays a central role in explaining Australia's GDP per capita relative to the US. This paper reviews various explanations for the

Jyoti Rahman

338

Japan's Economic Impact on the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has become increasingly competitive rather than complementary in relations with the United States. Its impact on the U.S. economy stems from structural and policy sources. An important structural source is the vertical anatomy of Japan's for eign trade, which in turn is largely determined by its unbalanced physical endowment. On the policy plane, Japan has pursued a supply-side strategy

Leon Hollerman

1982-01-01

339

Managing nuclear weapons in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

Miller, G.

1993-03-16

340

United States Security Policy in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter how friendly or well intentioned the ele...

S. R. Nichols H. J. Wiarda

1993-01-01

341

United States Coast Guard Recycling Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, the United States Coast Guard (CG) is committed to a pollution prevention program that will improve the quality of the environment. A key element of this program is the minimization of municipal, in...

1996-01-01

342

The United States Uranium Industry, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low prices and foreign competition continue to plague the United States uranium industry. For eight years (1984-1991) the Secretary of Energy has declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected late in 1993 for 1992. Surface drilling for uranium in 1993 is expected to be about 1 million ft., because deposits are developed prior to mining. Drilling

1993-01-01

343

Coastal Storms of the Eastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Storms resulting in damage to the East Coast of the United States over the past 42 years have been classified into eight different synoptic situations: hurricanes; wave developments well east of the southeast coast or in the vicinity of Cuba; wave develop...

J. R. Mather H. Adams G. A. Yoshioka

1964-01-01

344

Managing nuclear weapons in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy...

G. Miller

1993-01-01

345

United States Council on Geotechnical Engineering Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council on Geotechnical Engineering Research provides this website to "provide advocacy for the continued development and expansion of high quality geotechnical engineering research and education by US academic institutions." The site features many different items, these include things such as, images, animations and interactive resources.

2008-10-08

346

United States and world energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and

L. L. Berg; L. M. Baird; E. E. Varanini

1982-01-01

347

Partner notification in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To conduct an evidence-based review of the literature on the effectiveness of partner notification strategies for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States.Methods: Systematic literature searches of available databases yielded 212 English language articles on partner notification, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria. These 13 articles were systematically reviewed, abstracted, and rated for

Beth A Macke; Julie E Maher

1999-01-01

348

Classical Linguistics in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of classical linguistic studies in the United States. Cites many of the important American classicists from the nineteenth century to the present. Also gives the history of some scholarly organizations, including the Linguistic Society of America and the American Philological Association. (LMO)

Poultney, James W.

1988-01-01

349

The Industrial Revolution in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than three decades now I have been exploring the industrialization and deindustrialization of the United States across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Over the course of two hundred years the work and family lives of typical Americans have undergone dramatic changes. Between 1800 and 1900, for instance, farming as the major occupation of Americans gave way to a

Thomas Dublin

350

Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists and policy analysts have long expressed concern about the extent of intergenerational income mobility in the United States, but remarkably little empirical evidence is available. The few existing estimates of the intergenerational correlation in income have been biased downward by measurement error, unrepresentative samples, or both. New estimates based on intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income

Gary Solon

1992-01-01

351

United States Postwar Policy in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States faced its greatest postwar op portunities for constructive leadership toward peace not in Eu rope but in Asia—it held the future of most of Asia in its hands and dropped it. The Truman administration had no Asian policy at all, except with respect to China and Japan. Its China policy was disastrously wrong. Its policy in Japan

James P. Warburg

1958-01-01

352

Drug Trafficking in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world. As such, it attracts the most ruthless, sophisticated, and aggressive drug traffickers. Drug law enforcement agencies face an enormous challenge in protecting the cou...

2001-01-01

353

Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As countries become increasingly interdependent, student populations in the United States are becoming more culturally diverse. These students' transnational perspectives present significant challenges to teachers, but a disconnect exists between the skills teachers need and those provided to them by colleges of education. As teacher preparation…

Shaklee, Beverly D., Ed.; Baily, Supriya, Ed.

2012-01-01

354

Forestry Schools in the United States, Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 24-page booklet compiled by the U.S. Forest Service lists 49 colleges and universities in the United States which offer forestry curriculums leading to an undergraduate and/or graduate degree in forestry or related areas. Brief descriptions of each program are included. Schools accredited by the Society of American Foresters are indicated…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

355

Ambulatory Surgery in the United States, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—This report presents estimates of surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed on an ambulatory basis in hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers in the United States during 1996. Data are presented by types of facilities, age and sex of the patient, and geographic region. Major categories of procedures and diagnoses are shown by age, sex, and region. Methods—The estimates are based

Linda Lawrence

356

Late blight in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter is specific to late blight in the United States and will include a review and discussion of the history of late blight on potato and tomato crops, changes in grower attitudes towards late blight, present status of the disease in the US, methods for identification, management, and c...

357

The Accuracy of United States Precipitation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation measurements in the United States (as well as all other countries) are adversely affected by the gauge undercatch bias of point precipitation measurements. When these measurements are used to obtain areas averages, particularly in mountainous terrain, additional biases may be introduced because most stations are at lower elevations in exposed sites.Gauge measurements tend to be underestimates of the true

Pavel Ya. Groisman; David R. Legates

1994-01-01

358

AIDS Pandemic in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

2010-01-01

359

Cohousing Association of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site lists cohousing communities in the United States and abroad with links to their web sites. It also lists products, such as books and videos; services, including professional consulting; and other resources for those interested in developing a cohousing community or learning more about them.

2007-02-08

360

United States Leverage in Sri Lanka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the ethnic conflict facing the island nation of Sri Lanka. The topic is developed by tracing the history of the conflict, the current position of all parties involved, the United States relations with Sri Lanka, and the important issue...

R. A. Huddleston

1987-01-01

361

Unauthorized Aliens in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The unauthorized alien (illegal alien) population in the United States is a key and controversial immigration issue. In recent years, competing views on how to address this population have proved to be a major obstacle to enacting comprehensive immigration reform legislation. The unauthorized alien issue is likely to be a key challenge if, as the Senate Majority Leader and

2010-01-01

362

Contemporary African Immigrants to The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe economic difficulties, increased poverty and the political instability that have plagued many African countries in the last two decades have resulted in the large scale migration of Africans Europe and the United States. Unlike their counterparts in the 1960s and 70s who were anxious to return home after acquiring an American education in order to contribute in the

Joseph Takougang

363

America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

Toro, Leonor; And Others

364

Student Unrest in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student movements in the United States, since the year 1905, have shown roughly phases of activity for ten years alternating with phases of calmness. The decline in student activism has been marked by the tragic suicides of several of its leaders. These have reflected the alienation and bitter factionalism engendered among student activists within their movement itself. The last half

Lewis S. Feuer

1972-01-01

365

Health, United States, 1981. [Sixth Annual Report].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides the sixth annual report on the health status of the citizens of the United States. Submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Services Act, the report presents statistics concerning recent trends in the health care sector along…

National Center for Health Services Research (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

366

Utilization of geothermal resources at United States Air Force bases  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force installations on the continental United States as well as Alaska and Hawaii, were evaluated as to the possibility of utilizing geothermal energy to develop electricity, produce process steam, or heat and/or cool buildings. Twenty-five bases have suspected geothermal resources available. Because of either need or available technology seven installations were rated priority I, six were rated priority II and priority III and IV totaled ten. Geological and geophysical data indicated further investigation of the priority I installations, Saylor Creek Range, Idaho, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, Charleston AFB, South Carolina, Kirkland AFB, New Mexico, Vandenberg AFB, California, Luke AFB, Arizona, and Williams AFB, Arizona, should be accomplished as soon as possible. The use of geothermal energy will decrease the need for fossil fuels by the USAF and during times of short supply allow such fuels to be used for the Air Force's primary mission, military defense.

Grogger, P.K.

1980-09-01

367

The magnetic charts of the United States for Epoch 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 24,000 measurements taken from 1900 to 1974 were analyzed by least-squares methods to produce a series of five magnetic charts of the United States for 1975. A feature of the analysis, differing from techniques used for previous editions of the national chart, is that analytic models define the regional magnetic field and are used to contour the magnetic charts. An overall rms (root mean square) fit of less than 235 nT was obtained for the horizontal and vertical intensities; for the chart of magnetic declination, the rms deviation was on the order of 0.5 degrees. The models of annual change, derived from data at repeat stations and observatories operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, yielded an rms deviation of approximately 6 nT/yr in the force components and 0.7 min/yr in magnetic declination.

Fabiano, Eugene B.; Jones, W. J.; Peddie, Norman W.

1979-01-01

368

The Geographic Variability of Contemporary United States Land Cover Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with NASA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is conducing a study to document the rates, causes, and consequences of 1973 to 2000 land cover change for the eighty-four ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Estimates of change are based on the interpretation of five dates of Landsat MSS and TM data (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). Results from an analysis of the first twenty-five ecoregions indicate that the rates, causes, and consequences of change are relative consistent within ecoregions but there are significant differences in the rates of change and types of dominant land use and land cover conversions occurring between ecoregions. For example, high rates of cyclic change are found in ecoregions dominated by resource-based economies while lower but unidirectional change is more common in more urbanized ecoregions. The specific character of change in each ecoregion is shaped by the resource potential of each ecoregion and the historical settlement patterns. Land uses changes that determine changes in cover in a given ecoregion are typically based on the highest economic use enabled by the physical environment (i.e., climate, soils, geology, landforms, etc.) and the comparative advantages associate with resource, location, and history. The differences in rates of change combined with the prevailing land use practices and enduring environmental character of different regions have a significant impact on issues such as carbon dynamics. An assessment of the ecoregion carbon dynamics also shows significant differences in flux rates over time. Overall, the results of this study show that the fabric of change across the conterminous United States highly variable in time and space and understanding the geographic dimensions of change. This suggests that ecoregions offer a framework for projecting rates, types, and the subsequent consequences of change.

Loveland, T. R.

2004-12-01

369

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the Proterozoic rocks. The Inner Piedmont contains noncarbonate metasedimentary rocks and amphibolite of medium to high metamorphic grades. These rocks are intruded by the Toluca Granite and Henderson Gneiss of Cambrian and Ordovician(?) age. The Charlotte belt consists largely of Late Proterozoic to Late Paleozoic granitic and gabbroic plutonic rocks and intervening enclaves of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The narrow Kings Mountain belt is located between the Charlotte and the Inner Piedmont belts and contains mainly Late Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks and plutonic rocks similar to those of the Charlotte belt. The Carolina slate belt, flanking the Charlotte belt on the east, contains weakly metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks. East of this belt, at the southeast corner of the quadrangle, is the Wadesboro basin, which has continental sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. Layered rocks westward from and in the Charlotte belt are complexly folded, are steeply dipping, and in the Blue Ridge and Inner Piedmont are contained within major thrust slices. Rocks of the Carolina slate belt are gently folded. Rocks of the Wadesboro basin occur in downfaulted blocks. The geophysical surveys of the Charlotte quadrangle consisted of Bouguer gravity, aeromagnetic, and aeroradioactivity surveys and used both newly obtained data and information from prior work. The gravity survey disclosed a distinct northeast-trending, northwest-decreasing gradient, which is part of the major gravity gradient that extends the length of the Appalachian Mountains. Granitic plutons of the Charlotte belt, in particular, are marked by gravity lows, and gabbro plutons, by highs. Several of the geologic belts display distinct magnetic character. The aeroradioactivity surveys showed a swath of consistently high gamma-ray intensities along the central part of the Inner Piedmont belt; these high intensities correspond to the so-called monazite belt. Oval patterns of high gamma-ray readi

Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D. L.; Griffitts, W. R.; DeYoung, J. H.; Lee, M. P.

1986-01-01

370

78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-16] RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U...customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective...November 22, 2006, the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia...

2013-10-01

371

Uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites of the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program designed to identify criteria favorable for the occurrence of the world's significant uranium deposits. This project deals specifically with uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites in the United States and, in particular, their distribution and origin. From an extensive literature survey and field examination of 44 pegmatite localities in the United States and Canada, the authors have compiled an index to about 300 uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites in the United States, maps giving location of these deposits, and an annotated bibliography to some of the most pertinent literature on the geology of pegmatites. Pegmatites form from late-state magma differentiates rich in volatile constituents with an attendant aqueous vapor phase. It is the presence of an aqueous phase which results in the development of the variable grain size which characterizes pegmatites. All pegmatites occur in areas of tectonic mobility involving crustal material usually along plate margins. Those pegmatites containing radioactive mineral species show, essentially, a similar distribution to those without radioactive minerals. Criteria such as tectonic setting, magma composition, host rock, and elemental indicators among others, all serve to help delineate areas more favorable for uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites. The most useful guide remains the radioactivity exhibited by uranium- and thorium-bearing pegmatites. Although pegmatites are frequently noted as favorable hosts for radioactive minerals, the general paucity and sporadic distribution of these minerals and inherent mining and milling difficulties negate the resource potential of pegmatites for uranium and thorium.

Adams, J.W.; Arengi, J.T.; Parrish, I.S.

1980-04-01

372

State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

2012-03-30

373

Regional groundwater characteristics and hydraulic conductivity based on geological units in Korean peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, about 2,000 deep observation wells, stream and/or river distribution, and river's density were analyzed to identify regional groundwater flow trend, based on the regional groundwater survey of four major river watersheds including Geum river, Han river, Youngsan-Seomjin river, and Nakdong river in Korea. Hydrogeologial data were collected to analyze regional groundwater flow characteristics according to geological units. Additionally, hydrological soil type data were collected to estimate direct runoff through SCS-CN method. Temperature and precipitation data were used to quantify infiltration rate. The temperature and precipitation data were also used to quantify evaporation by Thornthwaite method and to evaluate groundwater recharge, respectively. Understanding the regional groundwater characteristics requires the database of groundwater flow parameters, but most hydrogeological data include limited information such as groundwater level and well configuration. In this study, therefore, groundwater flow parameters such as hydraulic conductivities or transmissivities were estimated using observed groundwater level by inverse model, namely PEST (Non-linear Parameter ESTimation). Since groundwater modeling studies have some uncertainties in data collection, conceptualization, and model results, model calibration should be performed. The calibration may be manually performed by changing parameters step by step, or various parameters are simultaneously changed by automatic procedure using PEST program. In this study, both manual and automatic procedures were employed to calibrate and estimate hydraulic parameter distributions. In summary, regional groundwater survey data obtained from four major river watersheds and various data of hydrology, meteorology, geology, soil, and topography in Korea were used to estimate hydraulic conductivities using PEST program. Especially, in order to estimate hydraulic conductivity effectively, it is important to perform in such a way that areas of same or similar hydrogeological characteristics should be grouped into zones. Keywords: regional groundwater, database, hydraulic conductivity, PEST, Korean peninsular Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Radioactive Waste Management of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (2011T100200152)

Kim, Y.; Suk, H.

2011-12-01

374

Geologic framework, petroleum potential, and environmental geology of the United States Beaufort and northeasternmost Chukchi Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beaufort and northeasternmost Chukchi Seas offer petroleum explorationists a promising terrane for medium to giant oil and gas accumulations, but the area is the most environmentally difficult region for petroleum exploration and development in the Nation. The region lies adjacent to the North Slope of Alaska, which is served by the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), a common carrier that

A. Grantz; S. D. May; D. A. Dinter

1989-01-01

375

Report upon United States geological surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, Volume III: Supplement -- geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The region examined during the seasons of 1878 and 1879 extends north to north latitude 37° 20, and embraces parts of North Central New Mexico, and South Central Colorado. It lies wholly east from the canon of the Rio Grande, includes the mountain area of the Spanish ranges to their southern termination, and takes in the eastern plains to west longitude 104° 7' 30". But of this region a strip between the Rio Grande and the mountains, lying south from north latitude 36° 40" was not visited; and the total area colored on the maps is not far from 10,000 square miles.

Wheeler, George Montague; Stevenson, John J.

1881-01-01

376

What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.

377

Origin, Extent, and Thickness of Quaternary Geologic Units in the Willamette Valley, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stratigraphic and chronologic information collected for Quaternary deposits in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, provides a revised stratigraphic framework that serves as a basis for a 1:250,000-scale map, as well as for thickness estimates of widespread Quaternary geologic units. We have mapped 11 separate Quaternary units that are differentiated on the basis of stratigraphic, topographic, pedogenic, and hydrogeologic properties. In summation, these units reflect four distinct episodes in the Quaternary geologic development of the Willamette Valley: 1) Fluvial sands and gravels that underlie terraces flanking lowland margins and tributary valleys were probably deposited between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago. They are the oldest widespread surficial Quaternary deposits in the valley. Their present positions and preservation are undoubtedly due to postdepositional tectonic deformation - either by direct tectonic uplift of valley margins, or by regional tectonic controls on local base level. 2) Tertiary and Quaternary excavation or tectonic lowering of the Willamette Valley accommodated as much as 500 m (meters) of lacustrine and fluvial fill. Beneath the lowland floor, much of the upper 10 to 50 m of fill is Quaternary sand and gravel deposited by braided channel systems in subhorizontal sheets 2 to 10 m thick. These deposits grade to gravel fans 40 to 100 m thick where major Cascade Range rivers enter the valley and are traced farther upstream as much thinner valley trains of coarse gravel. The sand and gravel deposits have ages that range from greater than 420,000 to about 12,000 years old. A widely distributed layer of sand and gravel deposited at about 12 ka (kiloannum, thousands of years before the present) is looser and probably more permeable than older sand and gravel. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this late Pleistocene unit is mostly between 5 and 20 m thick where it has not been subsequently eroded by the Willamette River and its major tributaries. 3) Between 15,000 and 12,700 years ago, dozens of floods from Glacial Lake Missoula flowed up the Willamette Valley from the Columbia River, depositing up to 35 m of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. 4) Subsequent to 12,000 years ago, Willamette River sediment and flow regimes changed significantly: the Pleistocene braided river systems that had formed vast plains of sand and gravel evolved to incised and meandering rivers that are constructing today's fine-grained floodplains and gravelly channel deposits. Sub-surface channel facies of this unit are loose and unconsolidated and are highly permeable zones of substantial groundwater flow that is likely to be well connected to surface flow in the Willamette River and major tributaries. Stratigraphic exposures and drillers' logs indicate that this unit is mostly between 5 and 15 m thick.

O'Connor, Jim E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Polette, Danial J.; Fleck, Robert J.

2001-01-01

378

Central United States Velocity Model Version 1: Description and Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and test via numerical simulations a velocity model of the Central United States (CUSVM Version 1). Our model covers an area of 650,000 km2 and includes parts of Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee. The model represents the compilation of research carried out for decades consisting of seismic refraction and reflection lines, geophysical logs, and inversions of the regional seismic properties. The CUSVM has a higher resolution description around Memphis and St. Louis, two of the largest urban areas in the Central United States. The density, p- and s-wave velocities are synthesized in a stand-alone spatial data base that can be queried to generate the required input for numerical simulations. We calibrate the CUSVM using three earthquakes located N, SW and SE of the zone encompassed by the model to sample different paths of propagation. The selected stations in the comparisons reflect different geological site conditions and cover distances ranging from 50 to 450 km away from the epicenters. The results indicate that both within and outside the Mississippi embayment, the CUSVM satisfactorily reproduces: a) the body wave arrival times and b) the observed regional variations in ground motion amplitude and duration in the frequency range 0-0.75Hz.

Ramirez Guzman, L.; Williams, R. A.; Boyd, O. S.; Hartzell, S.

2009-12-01

379

Climate Change Impacts on the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the US Global Change Research Project, this site contains the much-publicized draft report of the Climate Change Impacts on the United States National Assessment Project. This landmark project investigates the impacts of global climate change at a regional scale. The report includes an overview from the fourteen-member National Assessment Synthesis Team and the full text of the draft report containing information about the effects of climate change on specific regions of the United States and the future of the country's ecosystems. The text is in .pdf format and is accompanied by color figures and tables. The report has been put online for public review and a comments page with instructions for submitting responses via email is included.

380

Economic Survey of the United States, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offering the "assessments and recommendation of the 2000 OECD Economic Survey of the United States," this eight-page policy brief from the OECD presents an excellent overview of the status of the US economy. This document aims to answer eight main questions including, "Is the US economy on a higher growth path?" "What are the sources of tension in the economy?" "What monetary policy stance is called for?" and "Are budget surpluses at risk?" Each question is addressed in a compact answer, many with accompanying, easy-to-understand charts and graphs. Contact information and links to related OECD publications are also included at the end of the report. Economic Survey of the United States, 2000 is one in a series of policy briefs on several countries, including the recently released reports on the Netherlands and the Russian Federation.

381

United States Military Academy Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Military Academy Library is the oldest federal library in the United States. Recently, they have placed hundreds of rare items online on their very well-organized site. The site includes over twenty thematic collections, and visitors can also browse the collection by document type, such as books, manuscripts, maps, and photographs. There are some real gems here including an eighteen-minute silent movie on Army football, a collection of college yearbooks from the academy (the yearbook is appropriately named the "Howitzer"), and audio lectures from the West Point Distinguished Lecture Series. Finally, the site also includes 40 Civil War maps and a 21-minute film titled, "The MacArthur Story".

382

United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the United States policy for establishing overseas military bases, particularly in Central Asia. The major transformational trends in improving U.S. military capabilities over the past two decades and the changing international securi...

J. L. Dockery

2006-01-01

383

Statistical computing in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Recent history and developments related to the increase in statistical computing activities in the United States and by U.S. participants in international efforts are reviewed, with emphasis on important events, organizations, references, and products which contribute to informed selection and use of statistical programs. Three features matrices for major statistical packages are included as potential aids to Japanese statisticians in assessing the utility of these packages in biostatistical applications.

Milton, R C

1979-01-01

384

Increasing IQ in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Americans tend to feel smug about the health benefits of living in a developed nation, yet a great many people in the United\\u000a States are too poor to benefit from the advances in medical care that tend to grab the headlines. If tens of millions of people\\u000a lack medical insurance, then tens of millions will be denied necessary medical treatment.

R. Grant Steen

385

Firearms and suicide in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Regional United States suicide rates in the mid 1970s were associated with the household prevalence of all guns and of pistols. The term "regional" applies to the nine Census divisions of the four US census regions. A literature review suggests that the relation may be etiologic, and that more definitive studies and pilot programs are needed. Arming may be an etiologic factor common both to individual and to national self-destructive behaviors.

Markush, R E; Bartolucci, A A

1984-01-01

386

3 Branches of the United States Government  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Look through these sites and answer , in detail, What are the many duties and functions of the Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of the United States Government? There are many different duties and functions of the three branches of government. As you browse through these websites, record your findings in this chart Venn Diagram Follow the links below to assist you in gathering all the information about the three branches of government. These videos will help you with an overview of ...

Avery

2012-04-04

387

ASEAN Integration in 2030 : United States Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that United States (US) participation in the East Asia Summit (EAS)—regional integration architecture led by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)—was motivated by four changes in the regional economic landscape : (i) the Asian financial crisis of 1997 and emergence of the ASEAN+3 grouping; (ii) the rise of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the

Pek Koon Heng

2012-01-01

388

Environmental health collaboration: United States and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed nations share similar challenges to human health from commercial and agricultural chemicals that are released into the environment. Although Russia and the United States are historically distinct and unique, both countries are geographically large and economically dependent on emission-producing surface transportation. This paper describes U.S.-Russian collaborative activities that grew from a 1995 conference in Moscow that brought together environmental

C. H. Rubin; R. L. Jones; B. Revich; S. L. Avaliani; E. Gurvich

2003-01-01

389

Library technology trends in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing desktop computing revolution, major re?design and re?implementation by a number of vendors of integrated library systems, widespread public acceptance and use of the Internet\\/World?Wide Web, and the increasing use of the Internet to deliver digital content and access to electronic resources, have all combined to create the need for libraries in the United States to enhance and replace

Robert S. McGee; Patrick McClintock

1998-01-01

390

6 K solid state Energy Storage Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogen-free cold source for temperature below 6K without mechanical, thermal and electromagnetic perturbations would be welcome in many sensitive applications. This article describes such a device (Energy Storage Unit-ESU) built to store 36J between 3K and 6K. This ESU consists of a solid state enthalpy reservoir connected to a cryocooler by a heat switch. Its different parts as well

I. Catarino; J. Afonso; D. Martins; M. Linder; L. Duband; G. Bonfait

2010-01-01

391

National Atlas of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those interested in aerial photographs, satellite images, or maps as ways to conceptualize the world, will find this site interesting, entertaining, and educational. The US Dept. of Interior offers a National Atlas of the United States, an interactive resource that allows users to view part or all of the US and overlay layers of information including natural features, political boundaries, federal lands, roads, cities, or airports. These layers can be downloaded as compressed .tar.gz files.

1998-01-01

392

Unemployment in Canada and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced-form unemployment equations containing aggregate demand, structural, and frictional variables are estimated for Canada and the United States. Post-1981 increases in unemployment rates are explained almost entirely by aggr egate demand variables, although structural\\/sectoral variables make i mportant contributions to changes in the gap between the two countrie s' unemployment rates. For both countries, the results support the fo llowing

John McCallum

1987-01-01

393

United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides a Web page covering "Basic Facts About Registering A Trademark." Topics include establishing trademark rights, applications, who may apply, searching for conflicting marks, and use of the "TM," "SM" and "circled R" symbols. The information presented here has been quoted on the 'Net often recently with respect to the relationship (or lack thereof) between domain names and trademarks.

394

"Warming hole" in the midwestern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A regional climate model was used to estimate current and future climate scenarios to examine the effect of low-level circulation patterns in the midwestern United States on that part of the country's resistance to warming seen over the rest of North America at that time. A "warming hole" was found in the central U.S. during June-September that is not reflected in previously examined global climate models.

Al., Pan E.; Agu

395

The North Carolina Coastal Geology Cooperative-a Model of Federal, State, and Academic Cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 1999, The U.S. and N.C. Geological Surveys hosted a meeting of coastal geologists and engineers to identify coastal geological issues of greatest importance to North Carolina and to explore the possibility of initiating a cooperative research program to address these issues. Several factors came together to allow a coordinated program to develop: keen state interest in coastal hazards following several significant hurricanes, interest on the part of the USGS in combining work in North Carolina with a similar program in South Carolina, and recognition of the strong knowledge base that existed within the coastal scientific community in N.C. The meeting resulted in a strong consensus for comprehensive study of the entire coastal system and for initiating work in the northern coastal region (the Quaternary section east of the Suffolk Scarp, focusing on the barrier-island and estuarine system). Among the most important issues to be addressed by the data and knowledge developed from this program are: coastal and estuarine shoreline erosion (controls on erosion rates, sediment transport, response of wetlands to sea level rise); sand resources (location, quality, and quantity of offshore, estuarine, or onshore sand); storm impacts (barrier island/inlet migration, estuarine water movement, relative stability of barrier island segments); sea level change (history and potential impacts); water resources (surface and groundwater); habitat (ability to sustain uses, trends, threats). The cooperative will provide a strong science foundation for management of the N.C. coastal zone. Endorsements, support, and cooperation have come from the N.C. Coastal Resources Commission, several state and federal resource agencies, and local government units who all have an interest in information the program is producing. Supplemental federal appropriations have resulted from such support and the National Park Service has provided partnership funding. Additional partnership opportunities exist and are being pursued with the Army Corps of Engineers (two feasibility studies are active in the project area), the N.C. Outer Banks Task Force, and U.S. Minerals Management Service.

Hoffman, C. W.; Thieler, E. R.; Riggs, S. R.; Schwab, W. C.

2002-12-01

396

Civil Commitment in the United States  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States—from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry.

West, Sara G.

2010-01-01

397

The United States Uranium Industry, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Low prices and foreign competition continue to plague the United States uranium industry. For eight years (1984-1991) the Secretary of Energy has declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected late in 1993 for 1992. Surface drilling for uranium in 1993 is expected to be about 1 million ft., because deposits are developed prior to mining. Drilling for claim assessment purposes has ceased due to changes in the mining law. All conventional mining and milling in the United States ceased in early 1992 when the last open-pit mine closed. Underground mining ceased in late 1990. Current uranium production is from solution mining (in-situ leaching) in Wyoming, Texas, and Nebraska. Uranium is recovered from Florida phosphate rock processed in Louisiana and from mine water in New Mexico. Uranium concentrate production in 1993 is expected to be about 5 million lbs U[sub 3]O[sub 8]. The United States has large reserves of uranium, but a significant price increase is needed for the industry to rebound.

Chenoweth, W.L.

1993-08-01

398

Drought Reconstructions for the Continental United States*.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a 2° lat × 3° long grid of summer drought reconstructions for the continental United States estimated from a dense network of annual tree-ring chronologies is described. The drought metric used is the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The number of grid points is 154 and the reconstructions cover the common period 1700-1978. In producing this grid, an automated gridpoint regression method called `point-by-point regression' was developed and tested. In so doing, a near-optimal global solution was found for its implementation. The reconstructions have been thoroughly tested for validity using PDSI data not used in regression modeling. In general, most of the gridpoint estimates of drought pass the verification tests used. In addition, the spatial features of drought in the United States have been faithfully recorded in the reconstructions even though the method of reconstruction is not explicitly spatial in its design.The drought reconstructions show that the 1930s `Dust Bowl' drought was the most severe such event to strike the United States since 1700. Other more local droughts are also revealed in the regional patterns of drought obtained by rotated principal component analysis. These reconstructions are located on a NOAA Web site at the World Data Center-A in Boulder, Colorado, and can be freely downloaded from there.

Cook, Edward R.; Meko, David M.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.

1999-04-01

399

United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries  

SciTech Connect

The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries are unique human tissue research programs studying the distribution, dose, and possible biological effects of the actinide elements in man, with the primary goal of assuring the adequacy of radiation protection standards for these radionuclides. The Registries research is based on radiochemical analysis of tissues collected at autopsy from voluntary donors who have documented occupational exposure to the actinides. To date, tissues, or in some cases radioanalytical results only, have been obtained from approximately 300 individuals; another 464 living individuals have volunteered to participate in the Registries research programs and have signed premortem informed consent and autopsy permissions. The Registries originated at the National Plutonium Registry which was started in 1968 as a then Atomic Energy Commission project under the aegis of a prime contractor at the Hanford site. In 1970, the name was changed to the United States Transuranium Registry to reflect a broader involvement with the higher actinides. In 1978, an administratively separate parallel registry, the United States Uranium Registry, was formed to carry out similar studies among uranium fuel cycle workers.

Kathren, R.

1993-02-28

400

Abortion Surveillance - Legal Abortions, United States Annual Summary 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1969, the Center for Disease Control initiated surveillance of legal abortions in the United States. Since then, abortion laws, abortion reporting, and abortion ratios in the United States have changed dramatically. In 1969, there were 9 states with li...

1972-01-01

401

Petroleum exploration plays and resource estimates, 1989, onshore United States. Region 1, Alaska; region 2, pacific coast. Bulletin  

SciTech Connect

This study provides brief discussions of the petroleum geology, play descriptions, and resource estimates of 220 individually assessed exploration plays in all 80 onshore geologic provinces within nine assessment regions of the continental United States in 1989; these 80 onshore provinces were assessed in connection with the determination of the Nation`s estimated undiscovered resources of oil and gas. The present report covers the 25 provinces that make up Region 1, Alaska, and Region 2, Pacific Coast.

Powers, R.B.

1993-12-31

402

Taxation of United States general aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and injuries attributed to general aviation accidents in the United States, understanding the costs to society is of great importance. This chapter estimates the direct and indirect costs associated with general aviation accidents in the United States. The indirect costs are estimated via the human capital approach in addition to the willingness-to-pay approach. The average annual accident costs attributed to general aviation are found to be 2.32 billion and 3.81 billion (2006 US) utilizing the human capital approach and willingness-to-pay approach, respectively. These values appear to be fairly robust when subjected to a sensitivity analysis. These costs highlight the large societal benefits from accident and fatality reduction. The final chapter derives a second-best optimal aviation gasoline tax developed from previous general equilibrium frameworks. This optimal tax reflects both the lead pollution and accident externalities, as well as the balance between excise taxes and labor taxes to finance government spending. The calculated optimal tax rate is 4.07 per gallon, which is over 20 times greater than the current tax rate and 5 times greater than the Federal Aviation Administration proposed tax rate. The calculated optimal tax rate is also over 3 times greater than automobile gasoline optimal tax rates calculated by previous studies. The Pigovian component is 1.36, and we observe that the accident externality is taxed more severely than the pollution externality. The largest component of the optimal tax rate is the Ramsey component. At 2.70, the Ramsey component reflects the ability of the government to raise revenue aviation gasoline which is price inelastic. The calculated optimal tax is estimated to reduce lead emissions by over 10 percent and reduce accidents by 20 percent. Although unlikely to be adopted by policy makers, the optimal tax benefits are apparent and it sheds light on the need to reduce these negative externalities via policy changes.

Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

403

Water Use in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USGS National Water-Use Information Program is a cooperative program with State and local governments designed to collect, store, analyze, and disseminate water-use information, both nationally and locally, to a wide variety of government agencies and private organizations. Two reports detail the estimated water use in the United States in 1990 and 1995. The corresponding data for counties and watersheds is available in tab-delimited files for 1985, 1990 and 1995. A handbook for collecting water-use data provides standards and guidance in measuring, estimating, collecting, compiling, and analyzing water-use data. A series of color maps of water-use by State for 1990 illustrates water use for a variety of purposes. There is a link to Water Science for Schools, which offers information for students ages 9-90. A fact sheet includes water-use information for planners, managers, policy makers, educators, and the general public.

404

Analysis of thermoelectric water use in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with many other countries, the United States is relatively well endowed with water resources. Despite this abundance, water adequacy has emerged as one of America's primary resource issues. Thermoelectric power generation is the largest offstream water user in the United States. In spite of its large amount of water use and other associated adverse environmental impacts, fewer water use studies have been conducted for thermoelectric generation than for other water use sectors. Consequently, there is little understanding of the determinants of thermoelectric water use and the magnitude of their effects on water usage rates. The major objective of this study is to identify the main determinants of thermoelectric water use and quantify their impacts using multiple regression techniques. Multiple regression models have been developed at two levels: state level and plant level. State level thermoelectric water use data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey. The agency has been collecting state-level thermoelectric water use since 1960 at a five-year interval. Plant level thermoelectric water use data were obtained from the Department of Energy that has been conducting surveys on steam thermoelectric power plant operations including their water uses. Models on both thermoelectric withdrawals and consumptive use have been developed. The developed models have shown that thermoelectricity generation, types of cooling facilities, fuel types, generation types, operation conditions, and water sources can significantly influence the amount of thermoelectric water use. The developed thermoelectric water use models are used to forecast future thermoelectric withdrawals. The models predict increases of more than 25 bgd in thermoelectric withdrawals between 2000 and 2025, even when the national average unit thermoelectric withdrawals are projected to continue decreasing from 25.7 gallons/KWh in 1995 to 16.6 gallons/KWh in 2025. The main reason for this is the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)'s projections of large increase in thermoelectricity generation from 2694.4 BKWh in 1995 to 5073.5 BKWh in 2025. However, analysis of thermoelectric water use has revealed much variability in unit thermoelectric withdrawals in each type of power plant. The potential to increase water use efficiency in thermoelectric power generation may reverse the trend of increases in thermoelectric withdrawals.

Yang, Xiaoying

405

Indian Entrepreneurial Success in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian immigrants in the United States and other wealthy countries are successful in entrepreneurship. Using census data from the three largest developed countries in the world receiving Indian immigrants-the United States, United Kingdom and Canada-the authors examine the performance of Indian entrepreneurs and the causes of their success. In the United States, Indian entrepreneurs have average business income that is

Robert W. Fairlie; Harry Krashinsky; Julie Zissimopoulos; Krishna B. Kumar

2009-01-01

406

United States/Canada electricity exchanges  

SciTech Connect

The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

Not Available

1979-02-01

407

United States Census: K-4 Teaching Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teachers' guide provides lessons for younger students that use information derived from the 2000 census of the United States. Topics include map literacy, community involvement, and managing data. Students work with maps, use math to analyze data, identify demographic groups to which they belong, understand the use of census data in planning, and learn about collecting and organizing data. The guide is presented in individual chapters that can be downloaded and printed. Each lesson consists of two activities stepped to allow teaching to grades K-2 or 3-4. Other materials include downloadable, printable maps to be used in the lessons and a list of additional resources.

Bureau, United S.

408

Contraceptive failure in the United States  

PubMed Central

This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

Trussell, James

2013-01-01

409

United States Council for Automotive Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is a joint operation between Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors. The council lets the companies combine their resources to develop better non-competitive technologies, such as safety, fuel efficiency, and emissions. Many new innovations in vehicle design are described on the USCAR Web site. For example, the 21st Century section outlines some major advances that will shape the future of the automobile, while Specific Technologies examines various new manufacturing practices and vehicle components. There are also many articles and technical accomplishments listed on the site, giving some insight into what is currently being done to make driving a better experience.

410

Roadless space of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roads encroaching into undeveloped areas generally degrade ecological and watershed conditions and simultaneously provide access to natural resources, land parcels for development, and recreation. A metric of roadless space is needed for monitoring the balance between these ecological costs and societal benefits. We introduce a metric, roadless volume (RV), which is derived from the calculated distance to the nearest road. RV is useful and integrable over scales ranging from local to national. The 2.1 million cubic kilometers of RV in the conterminous United States are distributed with extreme inhomogeneity among its counties.

Watts, R. D.; Compton, R. W.; McCammon, J. H.; Rich, C. L.; Wright, S. M.; Owens, T.; Ouren, D. S.

2007-01-01

411

USIA United States Information Agency Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Information Agency its site online to help explain and advocate U.S. policies in terms that are credible and meaningful in foreign cultures, and to bring the benefits of international engagement to American citizens and institutions by helping them build strong long-term relationships with their counterparts overseas. Resources include information about the Fulbright Scholar programs, student exchanges, international broadcasting, press announcements, and a foreign media reaction section. American and overseas scholars seeking short and long-term grants will find it especially useful for learning about opportunities for travel abroad and travel to the U.S.

412

Is the United States ready for QALYs?  

PubMed

Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) are used in cost-effectiveness analyses to aid coverage and reimbursement decisions worldwide. QALYs provide a flexible and convenient metric for measuring and comparing health outcomes across diverse diseases and treatments. But their use has stirred controversy about how accurately they reflect preferences for health care and whether their use is fair. We review the debate and the use of QALYs in other countries and discuss prospects for using them in the U.S. health care system. Strict adherence to a QALY approach is likely to prove unacceptable in the United States, but a more flexible use of QALYs could be beneficial. PMID:19738253

Neumann, Peter J; Greenberg, Dan

413

The state of the unions: United States and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates that the Canadian labor movement has outperformed its American counterpart in terms of union growth,\\u000a union density, and certification outcomes. Labor and product market factors do not appear to be major contributing factors.\\u000a Public policy and increased employer resistance have played a critical role, particularly in the decline of unionization in\\u000a the United States. Union-related variables —

Joseph B. Rose; Gary N. Chaison

1985-01-01

414

Occurrence of Methyl tert Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates in Source Water and Drinking Water of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the United States (US) Geological Survey conducted\\u000a surveys of the occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other\\u000a fuel oxygenates in ground water used as a source of drinking water and in drinking water in the United\\u000a States (USA) from 1993 to 2001. MTBE was detected in about 4% of samples of source water collected

Michael Moran

415

Statistical sampling to characterize recent United States land-cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey, in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is conducting a study focused on developing methods for estimating changes in land-cover and landscape pattern for the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000. Eleven land-cover and land-use classes are interpreted from Landsat imagery for five sampling dates. Because of the high cost and potential effect of

S. V. Stehman; T. L. Sohl; T. R. Loveland

2003-01-01

416

Candidate sites for future hot-dry-rock development in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalized geologic and other data are tabulated for 24 potential hot dry rock (HDR) sites in the contiguous United States. The data show that HDR resources occur in many geologic and tectonic settings. Potential reservoir rocks at each prospect are described and each system is categorized according to inferred heat sources. The Fenton Hill area in New Mexico is discussed in detail because this region may be considered ideal for HDR development. Three other prospectively valuable localities are described: The Geysers-Clear lake region in California, the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah, and the White Mountains region in New Hampshire. These areas are singled out to illustrate the roles of significantly different geology and geophysics, reservoir rocks, and reservoir heat contents in possible HDR developments.

Goff, F.; Decker, E. R.

1982-12-01

417

Childhood Vaccination Providers in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study sought to provide a characterization of US childhood vaccination providers. Methods. The state was used as the analytic unit in examining 1997 data from the National Immunization Survey and the Vaccines for Children program, state immunization reports, and natality records. Results. Overall, 57% of children were vaccinated in the private sector, 18% were vaccinated in the public sector, and 25% were vaccinated by a mixture of providers. Of the 50 883 immunization sites, 81% were private and 19% public. Average patient load was 77 infants per site. Private-sector patient loads were lower than public-sector loads. Conclusions. US childhood vaccination provider capacity is adequate. Efforts to raise coverage rates should focus on increasing preventive care use among children, improving the vaccination performance of providers, and ensuring continuity of care.

LeBaron, Charles W.; Lyons, Bridget; Massoudi, Mehran; Stevenson, John

2002-01-01

418

Hydrologic projections for the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by a common interest in establishing data access for climate change impacts analysis, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (referred to hereinafter as Reclamation) has collaborated since 2007 with federal and nonfederal entities to provide monthly gridded precipitation and temperature data from 112 contemporary climate projections (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3)) over the contiguous United States. The grid size resolution of this downscaled data archive (publicly available at http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_cmip3_projections/) is 1/8° latitude x 1/8° longitude (approximately 12 x 12 kilometers) and covers the period 1950-2099 [Maurer et al., 2007]. Downscaling is necessary to develop hydroclimate data (e.g., precipitation and temperature) from a coarse- resolution climate model grid to a higher-resolution grid, and the CMIP3 archive was downscaled using the statistical method of bias correction. Although approximately 1000 unique users to date have downloaded the precipitation and temperature information contained within the archive (commonly referred to as the bias corrected spatially downscaled, or BCSD-CMIP3, archive), these temperature and precipitation projections have not been used to consistently generate hydrologic projections over the United States and at fine enough scale to perform hydrologic impacts analysis and support local adaptation assessments. Without available hydrologic projections, planners typically develop and apply their own site-specific and local hydrology models to fill this information gap. However, this makes consistent regional intercomparisons of hydrologic impacts of climate change difficult.

Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom; Brekke, Levi; Raff, David

2011-11-01

419

Annual hydroclimatology of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the annual hydroclimatology of the United States is provided. Time series of monthly streamflow, temperature, and precipitation are developed for 1337 watersheds in the United States. This unique data set is then used to evaluate several approaches for estimating the long-term water balance and the interannual variability of streamflow. Traditional relationships which predict either actual evapotranspiration or the interannual variability of streamflow from an aridity index $\\phi = {\\rm \\overline {PE}}/{\\bar P}$ are shown to perform poorly for basins with low soil moisture storage capacity. A water balance model is used to formulate new relationships for predicting actual evapotranspiration and the interannual variability of streamflow. These relationships depend on both the aridity index $\\phi = {\\rm \\overline {PE}}/{\\bar P}$ and a new soil moisture storage index. A physically based approach for estimating the soil moisture storage index is introduced which requires monthly time series of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and an estimate of maximum soil moisture holding capacity. The net results are improved expressions for the long-term water balance and the interannual variability of streamflow which do not require either calibration or streamflow data.

Sankarasubramanian, A.; Vogel, Richard M.

2002-06-01

420

12 CFR 1270.20 - Consolidated obligations are not obligations of the United States or guaranteed by the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Consolidated obligations are not obligations of the United States or guaranteed by the United States. 1270.20 Section 1270.20 Banks and...Consolidated obligations are not obligations of the United States or guaranteed by the United States....

2012-01-01

421

Improving the Magnetic Anomaly Map of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have improved magnetic anomaly map of the United States using National Uranium Reconnaissance & Evaluations (NURE) aeromagnetic surveys collected during the 1970s. Previous versions of these data processed using IGRF/DGRF do not mesh well at the survey boundaries because of leveling artifacts. Similarly, the U.S. component of the North American magnetic anomaly map has long wavelength errors caused by warping of hundreds of state and local aeromagnetic surveys during the merging process. The main difference in our processing that has allowed us to retain proper base levels is the use of the temporally continuous main field Comprehensive Model (CM4) by Sabaka et al. (2004, GJI, 159, 521-547). The advantage of using the NURE surveys is that most of these surveys have time information and diurnal variation observed with basestation magnetometers is removed from them. Furthermore, we have cleaned the NURE data by removing many spurious values through visual inspection. Some NURE surveys did not have total field values or time information. For these surveys, we reintroduced the IGRF for their approximate date and removed the core field determined by CM4. We compare the results of our processing and improvements with the U.S. aeromagnetic anomaly data prepared by different merging techniques. The improved map is more suitable for regional geologic and geodynamic interpretations.

McIndoo, M.; Shaw, A.; Batir, J.; Ravat, D.; Milligan, P.; Kucks, R. P.; Hill, P.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

2007-05-01

422

Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several statistical compilations of mining claim activity on Federal land derived from the Bureau of Land Management's LR2000 database have previously been published by the U.S Geological Survey (USGS). The work in the 1990s did not include Arkansas or Florida. None of the previous reports included Alaska because it is stored in a separate database (Alaska Land Information System) and is in a different format. This report includes data for all states for which there are Federal mining claim records, beginning in 1976 and continuing to the present. The intent is to update the spatial and statistical data associated with this report on an annual basis, beginning with 2005 data. The statistics compiled from the databases are counts of the number of active mining claims in a section of land each year from 1976 to the present for all states within the United States. Claim statistics are subset by lode and placer types, as well as a dataset summarizing all claims including mill site and tunnel site claims. One table presents data by case type, case status, and number of claims in a section. This report includes a spatial database for each state in which mining claims were recorded, except North Dakota, which only has had two claims. A field is present that allows the statistical data to be joined to the spatial databases so that spatial displays and analysis can be done by using appropriate geographic information system (GIS) software. The data show how mining claim activity has changed in intensity, space, and time. Variations can be examined on a state, as well as a national level. The data are tied to a section of land, approximately 640 acres, which allows it to be used at regional, as well as local scale. The data only pertain to Federal land and mineral estate that was open to mining claim location at the time the claims were staked.

Causey, J. Douglas

2007-01-01

423

8 CFR 316.5 - Residence in the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the date of the applicant's return to the United States to resume permanent residence. An applicant described in this paragraph...the date of the applicant's return to the United States to resume permanent residence. (2) Claim of nonresident alien...

2013-01-01

424

7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212...RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY...Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry...Definitions § 1212.32 United States Customs Service....

2013-01-01

425

Homeschooling in the United States: 2003. Statistical Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents the latest survey information from the National Center for Education Statistics on the prevalence of homeschooling in the United States. Homeschooling in the United States: 2003 uses the Parent and Family Involvement Survey of the 2...

C. Chapman D. Princiotta S. Bielick

2006-01-01

426

Partners in Democracy: India and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background on the historical connections between India and the United States and compares their political systems. Offers a number of learning activities designed to promote better understanding between India and the United States. (BSR)

Turkovich, Marilyn

1987-01-01

427

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

428

United States Military Strategy in the Persian Gulf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of Persian Gulf oil, in the context of United States national security has been demonstrated in recent political, economic and military terms. Substantial United States military resources have been devoted to maintain national security inte...

E. E. Whitehead

1989-01-01

429

1 CFR 12.3 - The United States Government Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2005-01-01 true The United States Government Manual. 12.3 Section 12.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE... OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.3 The United States Government Manual. (a)...

2009-01-01

430

Is United States Participation in South Vietnam and Cambodia Legal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem is considered from the viewpoints of international law and United States constitutional law. Research included examination of the United States Constitution, treaties, judicial decisions, legal texts, books and articles which related to the su...

V. A. De Fiori

1970-01-01

431

26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...refrigerators exclusively in the United States and manufactures automobiles both in a foreign country and in the United States through substantial activity...of a part for one of the automobiles by the foreign branch,...

2009-04-01

432

26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...refrigerators exclusively in the United States and manufactures automobiles both in a foreign country and in the United States through substantial activity...of a part for one of the automobiles by the foreign branch,...

2010-04-01

433

Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980-2008  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Brief Number 81, December 2011 Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980–2008 On This ... File Poisoning is now the leading cause of death from injuries in the United States and nearly ...

434

Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States Are Safe  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Webinar Series Children FDA Basics Metrics - FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ... safety? How FDA Evaluates Regulated Products: Cosmetics FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ...

435

United States Naval Diplomacy in the Third World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper analyzes the unique capabilities of United States Navy carrier and surface forces to serve as military and diplomatic tools of United States national security policy towards Third World coastal nations in peacetime and in operations short of ge...

D. T. Gato

1988-01-01

436

Motivations for Nuclear Terrorism in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demise of bipolarity created new security concerns for the United States. Terrorism now thrives in the new world environment. While much has been written on terrorism, the specter of nuclear terrorism in the United States has received little attention...

P. J. DiPaolo

1995-01-01

437

Importance of United States Naval Forward Presence in Mediterranean Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes the benefits of maintaining United States Naval Forward Presence in the Mediterranean. It encompasses several themes to justify its point of view. It argues that the Mediterranean has been important to the United States for over 200 ...

T. E. Kalley

2001-01-01

438

7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards... General § 28.482 United States Cotton Futures Act. The cotton...

2013-01-01

439

Long-Term United States' Energy Policy Without Venezuelan Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current energy, economic, and political relationship between the United States and Venezuela can be characterized as mutually dependent. The United States is Venezuela's largest consumer of crude oil and associated refined products, accounting for 60%...

P. B. Reinhardt

2009-01-01

440

78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), proposes to revise the voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Okra by removing the ``Unclassified'' section from the...

2013-05-01

441

76 FR 58563 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts...conforming amendments to Federal sentencing guidelines effective November 1, 2011...Congress amendments to the sentencing guidelines and official...

2011-09-21

442

75 FR 54698 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts...conforming amendments to Federal sentencing guidelines effective November 1, 2010...Congress amendments to the sentencing guidelines and official...

2010-09-08

443

78 FR 51821 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts...conforming amendments to federal sentencing guidelines effective November 1, 2013...Congress amendments to the sentencing guidelines and official...

2013-08-21

444

Weather pattern climatology of the United States  

SciTech Connect

In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

1984-01-01

445

CHROMIUM USE BY MARKET IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, chromium has been consumed in three major markets: chemical, metallurgical, and refractory. The predominant end use for chromium in the United States is in the metallurgical market as an alloying element in the production of stainless steel. In addition to being a major stainless steel-producing country, the United States is a major world producer of chromium-containing

J. F. Papp

2004-01-01

446

The United States Supreme Court: Definitions of Obscenity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the activity of the United States Supreme Court in formulating and applying definitions of what constitutes obscenity. For almost ninety years, American courts applied a test of obscenity established by a British court in 1868. In 1957, after lower courts in the United States had expanded the British definition, the Supreme Court, in Roth v. United States,

Marc Schnall

1972-01-01

447

Has the United States Overextended Its Commitments to Resist Communism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States, given the present world situation, is undercommitted, not overcommitted, in foreign affairs. The United States has entered the twentieth century. With the help of the United States, West Europe has, also. Africa, Asia, China, Latin America remain in the nineteenth century, some areas in the eighteenth century. Japan is industrially and technologically in the twentieth century and

Louis Fischer

1962-01-01

448

Report on Personal Searches by the United States Customs Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the mission of the United States Customs Service to ensure that all goods and persons entering and exiting the United States do so in compliance with all United States laws and regulations. Specifically, the Customs Service is responsible for collec...

2002-01-01

449

The AIDS crisis in the United States is not over  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requested that the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, convene a committee to review current HIV-prevention efforts in the United States. The committee found that HIV-prevention efforts in the United States must be improved. This improvement will require a new way of thinking about cost effectiveness as a

Monica S. Ruiz

450

Confronting China: An Evaluation of Options for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great power competition never takes a holiday. Even during the Global War on Terror, the United States must prepare for confrontation with China. How should the United States confront the considerable growth of Chinese power? This article considers the advantages and risks of four major options available to the United States: 1) economic sanctions against key goods imported by China

BRADLEY A. THAYER

2005-01-01

451

Science Teacher Supply in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study was to describe the supply and potential shortages of science teachers in the United States. Ninety-six percent of the State Science Consultants of the 50 State Boards of Education responded to a 1992 survey to assess the supply of science teachers. This survey was modeled after Howe and Gerlovich's 1982 study to provide an assessment of changes in science teacher supply over the last 10 years. Although there were improvements in the supply of science teachers, shortages were reported in all science subjects and were particularly critical in physics, chemistry, and earth science. In addition to providing a needed update on science teacher supply, this study analyzed 45 previous studies of science teacher supply and found convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that there is a persistent but fluctuating long term shortage of science teachers. This shortage is attributed to competition with business and industry. To alleviate critical shortages of science teachers, it is recommended that salaries be raised to be more competitive with industry and a national database be established to facilitate monitoring the supply of science teachers.

Hudson, Sharon

2009-07-12

452

78 FR 52822 - United States Department of Energy and United States Department of Defense v. Baltimore & Ohio...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Defense v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, et al.; and United States Department of Energy and United States Department of Defense v. Aberdeen & Rockfish Railroad Company, et al. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION:...

2013-08-26

453

Regional planning in the United States and the United Kingdom: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choguill, C. L. (1977) Regional planning in the United States and the United Kingdom: a comparative analysis, Reg. Studies, 11, 135–145. Regional policies and planning in the United States are largely directed towards the problem of providing infrastructural support to the productive process. By contrast, in the United Kingdom effort is concentrated in the provision of employment opportunity. The policies

Charles L. Choguill

1977-01-01

454

Principal lakes of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States has about 250 fresh-water lakes that are known to have surface areas of 10 square miles or more. Nearly 100 of these are in Alaska, and 100 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York,. and Maine. Thirty-four fresh-water lakes, exclusive of the Great Lakes, are known to have maximum depths of 250 feet or more. Twenty of these are in Alaska, and Alaska undoubtedly has more lakes of that depth which have not been sounded. The amount of water stored in natural lakes--even exclusive of the Great Lakes--is much greater than the amount stored in artificial reservoirs. With the exception of the Great Lakes, however, the economic value of natural lakes is surpassed by that of artificial reservoirs. Natural lakes are best known for the recreational advantages they afford.

Bue, Conrad D.

1963-01-01

455

Environmental process tomography in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Government is supporting development of new technology and transfer of existing technology from other disciplines to apply to the problem. Part of this effort is development of geophysical tools used for underground imaging. These tools are closely related to many of those used in industrial process tomography. Both seismic and electromagnetic methods are used for underground imaging. In either case, sensitivity and resolution are greatly improved by making measurements from boreholes instead of only from the surface. Seismic signals are usually more sensitive to subsurface structure such as lithologic boundaries, but recent work has also shown seismic tomography to be sensitive to the degree of saturation. Electrical methods can be useful for delineation of aquitards such as clay layers. Electrical tomography is shown to be particularly sensitive to movement of fluids such as steam. Examples of both seismic and electromagnetic process tomography will be discussed in relation to environmental remediation of soils and ground water in the United States.

Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

1994-01-01

456

The Presidents of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presidents of the United States, an extension of the White House Web site, offers a list of every President that ever served this country. Listed by date of service, this site features a picture along with a brief biography of each American President. Also available are quizzes and interesting trivia facts such as July 4, 1826 --- 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence --- is the day of both President John Adamss and President Thomas Jeffersons death. Equally important, accessible on this page are hyperlinks to the First Ladies site, where pictures and historical data is provided for all of the women who served as First Ladies of the U.S.; and the White House home page, where, among other things, viewers can receive up-to-date information concerning the President, Vice-President, and the latest happenings in Congress.

2001-01-01

457

Patent reform in the United States.  

PubMed

The recent financial meltdown has muted the patent reform debate in the United States. But given that President Obama, as well as many members of Congress, support patent reform, we expect the debate to resurface. In this essay, we look carefully at reports from three prestigious organizations which have been enormously influential in the debate. We examine the empirical basis contained in these reports upon which proposed legislative changes are based. We conclude that the empirical data being used to justify the need for reform either has serious methodological limitations or is non-existent.  Moreover, we review recent court decisions which have already altered the patent environment calling into further question whether the limited data that exists is still applicable. The effect of these recent decisions has not been adequately evaluated or assessed. Thus, we recommend other empirical studies are needed to inform public policy as to whether patent reform is necessary. PMID:21415890

Mills, Ann; Tereskerz, Patti

2010-01-01

458

Population Profile of the United States: 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 is the first Internet-only version of this US Census Bureau product. It includes data from surveys conducted in the year 2000 and earlier, as well as some limited Census 2000 data. This report attempts to provide the public with updated information in the years in which a printed version has not been issued. Chapters include population dynamics, households and housing, social characteristics, household economics, and the facets of diversity. Primary sources for this report come from the Census Bureau's Decennial Census of Population and Housing, the Current Population Survey (CPS), the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and the American Housing Survey (AHS).

2002-01-01

459

Trauma care systems in the United States.  

PubMed

The trauma system in the United States is in the process of evolution. Although it is recognised that a systems approach to trauma care is ideal, this concept has yet to be realised fully due to political, financial and geographic considerations. The pre-hospital controversies of in-the-field care, resuscitation, and transport are still debated. In-hospital care is governed by a trauma service using the guidelines of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). Speciality care is usually delivered as a consultative service at the request of the trauma service. Co-ordination by the trauma surgeon assures appropriate timing and amount of care by the specialities. Problems facing the delivery of trauma care are malpractice, reimbursement for speciality trauma care call and the need to extend the system to all trauma patients. PMID:12951302

Blackwell, Thomas; Kellam, James F; Thomason, Michael

2003-09-01

460

Early Marriage in the United States.  

PubMed

Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and early marriage varies widely across a number of characteristics. Individuals who marry earlier are more likely to be from disadvantaged families, from conservative Protestant or Mormon families, to value their religious faith more highly, to have a high-school diploma but a lower educational trajectory, and to cohabit before marriage. Scholars and policymakers interested in marriage should pay adequate attention to understanding and supporting these individuals' marriages. PMID:20305796

Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

2008-11-01

461

Early Marriage in the United States  

PubMed Central

Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and early marriage varies widely across a number of characteristics. Individuals who marry earlier are more likely to be from disadvantaged families, from conservative Protestant or Mormon families, to value their religious faith more highly, to have a high-school diploma but a lower educational trajectory, and to cohabit before marriage. Scholars and policymakers interested in marriage should pay adequate attention to understanding and supporting these individuals' marriages.

Uecker, Jeremy E.; Stokes, Charles E.

2010-01-01

462

Climatic controls on Pennsylvanian sequences, United States  

SciTech Connect

Temporal and spatial paleoclimate changes were primary controls on changes in sediment supply, both siliciclastic and chemical, in Pennsylvanian deposystems of the United States. Tectonic and eustatic processes, as well as climatically induced changes in sediment supply, controlled accommodation space and sequence stratigraphy within these deposystems. Interbasinal correlations of lithologies sensitive to climate, such as coeval paleosols, provide continental-scale records of climatic and eustatic conditions. Pennsylvanian bio- and lithostratigraphy are indicative of climate change at time scales that range from long-term (tens of millions of years) as Pangea formed and North America moved northward through the paleoequator, to intermediate-term hundred thousand year cycles controlled by orbital forcing, to very short-term events perhaps analogous to El Nino. Because of proximity to the humid tropics, the long-term climate of eastern basins of the United States was generally wetter than western basins. In the east, pluvial parts of climate cycles occur during low-stand events and are recorded by intense chemical weathering, high terrestrial organic productivity, restricted erosion, and siliciclastic sediment starvation. These conditions resulted in highly leached mineral paleosols (Ultisols) and coal beds (Histosols) of interbasinal extent. Drier parts of climate cycles in the east occurred during highstands of sea level when erosion and siliciclastic transport were maximum. In the western basins pluvial periods are generally indicated by shifts from eolian to fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary regimes in continental environments and from evaporate and carbonate to siliciclastic deposition, including black shale petroleum source rocks, in marine environments. Tectonics controlled basin development and glacial eustasy controlled sea level cycles. Climate, however, was the primary control on sediment supply and lithostratigraphy.

Cecil, C.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Edgar, N.T. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1996-08-01

463

Soviet Diversion of United States Technology: The Circumvention of Cocom and the United States Reexport Controls, and Proposed Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note examines the Soviet diversions of United States technology and suggests possible countermeasures. Part I examines diversions and their impact on United States national security. Parts II and III review present United States and Western export and reexport controls and the problems with these controls. Parts IV and V introduct and evaluate proposals offered to modify Western export policy

James Plousadis

1983-01-01

464

Lunar topographic roughness maps from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data: Scale dependence and correlation with geologic features and units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present maps of the topographic roughness of the Moon at hectometer and kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. As roughness measures, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at several baselines, from 115 m to 1.8 km, and plotted these in a global map format. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures and utilize the exceptional ranging precision of the LOLA instrument. We found that hectometer-scale roughness poorly correlates with kilometer-scale roughness, because they reflect different sets of processes and time scales. Hectometer-scale roughness is controlled by regolith accumulation and modification processes and affected by the most recent events, primarily, geologically recent (1–2 Ga) meteoritic impacts. Kilometer-scale roughness reflects major geological (impact, volcanic and tectonic) events in earlier geological history. Young large impact craters are rough, and their roughness decreases with age. The global roughness maps revealed a few unusually dense clusters of hectometer- and decameter-size impact craters that differ in their morphology and settings from typical secondary crater clusters and chains; the origin of these features is enigmatic. The maps can assist in the geological mapping of the lunar maria by revealing contacts between volcanic plain units. The global roughness maps also clearly reveal cryptomaria, old volcanic plains superposed by younger materials, primarily crater and basin ejecta.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rosenburg, Margaret A.; Aharonson, Oded; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

2013-09-01

465

Geologic reconnaissance of an extensive clay unit in north-central Suffolk County, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent geologic data indicate an extensive lacustrine clay unit within the glacial deposits in the area between the Harbor Hill and Ronkonkoma moraines in north-central Suffolk County, New York. The unit, locally known as the ' Smithtown clay unit ' (informal usage), is an integral part of the glacial aquifer in this area. The clay occurs at depths varying from 90 ft above to 150 ft below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD) and attains a maximum thickness of 170 ft in the northern part of the Town of Smithtown. Its upper surface is mostly above NGVD and reaches a maximum altitude of 90 ft in the Town of Huntington. The unit is predominantly clay but locally contains lenses of sand, silt, and gravel. The upper part of the clay is generally light to dark brown; the lower part is light gray, which is characteristics of other clays in the glacial aquifer. (USGS)

Krulikas, R. K.; Koszalka, E. J.

1983-01-01

466

Variation in strontium isotope ratios of archaeological fauna in the Midwestern United States: a preliminary study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strontium isotope values (87Sr/86Sr) in bone and tooth enamel have been used increasingly to identify non-local individuals within prehistoric human populations worldwide. Archaeological research in the Midwestern United States has increasingly highlighted the role of population movement in affecting interregional cultural change. However, the comparatively low level of geologic variation in the Midwestern United States might suggest a corresponding low level of strontium variation, and calls into question the sensitivity of strontium isotopes to identify non-local individuals in this region. Using strontium isotopes of archaeological fauna, we explore the degree of variability in strontium ratios across this region. Our results demonstrate measurable variation in strontium ratios and indicate the potential of strontium analysis for addressing questions of origin and population movement in the Midwestern United States. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Hedman, K. M.; Curry, B. B.; Johnson, T. M.; Fullagar, P. D.; Emerson, T. E.

2009-01-01

467

Female genital mutilation outlawed in United States.  

PubMed

Effective March 29, 1997, under new Congressional legislation, female genital mutilation (FGM) will be outlawed in the United States. Federal authorities will be required to inform new immigrants from countries where FGM is prevalent that parents who arrange FGM for their daughters and those who perform it will face prison sentences of up to five years. US representatives to the World Bank and other international financial institutions will be required to oppose aid to countries that have not established educational programs to end the practice. FGM is most common in Africa; it is estimated that 99% of women in Somalia and Djibouti, 90% of women in Ethiopia, and 85% of women in Sudan have undergone it. More than 127 million African women have been mutilated, and each year 2 million girls, usually between 4 and 12 years old, undergo the ordeal. In the US, 168,000 girls either are at risk of being mutilated or have been already. Almost half of them live in urban areas with large immigrant populations, including New York; Washington, D.C.; Los Angeles; Houston; Chicago; Philadelphia; Atlanta; Oakland, California; Newark, New Jersey; Dallas; and Boston. Fourteen states have, or are considering, bills against the practice. PMID:8916692

Macready, N

1996-11-01

468

Geomorphology in North American Geology Departments, 1971  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a 1970-71 survey of 350 geomorphologists and geology departments to determine what sort of geomorphology is being taught in the colleges and universities of the United States and Canada. (PR)

White, Sidney E.; Malcolm, Marshall D.

1972-01-01

469

United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential

Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

2008-12-01

470

A Unified Flash Flood Database across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite flash flooding being one of the most deadly and costly weather-related natural hazards worldwide, individual datasets to characterize them in the United States are hampered by limited documentation and can be difficult to access. This study is the first of its kind to assemble, reprocess, describe, and disseminate a georeferenced U.S. database providing a long-term, detailed characterization of flash flooding in terms of spatiotemporal behavior and specificity of impacts. The database is composed of three primary sources: 1) the entire archive of automated discharge observations from the U.S. Geological Survey that has been reprocessed to describe individual flooding events, 2) flash-flooding reports collected by the National Weather Service from 2006 to the present, and 3) witness reports obtained directly from the public in the Severe Hazards Analysis and Verification Experiment during the summers 2008–10. Each observational data source has limitations; a major asset of the unified flash flood database is its collation of relevant information from a variety of sources that is now readily available to the community in common formats. It is anticipated that this database will be used for many diverse purposes, such as evaluating tools to predict flash flooding, characterizing seasonal and regional trends, and improving understanding of dominant flood-producing processes. We envision the initiation of this community database effort will attract and encompass future datasets.

Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang; Flamig, Zachary L.; Arthur, Ami; Clark, Robert; Calianno, Martin; Ruin, Isabelle; Ortel, Terry; Wieczorek, Michael E.; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clark, Edward; Krajewski, Witold F.

2013-01-01

471

Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can contribute to skin, bladder, and other cancers (National Research Council, 1999). Recently, the National Research Council (1999) recommended lowering the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed for arsenic in drinking water of 50 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), citing risks for developing bladder and other cancers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) will propose a new, and likely lower, arsenic MCL during 2000 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). This fact sheet provides information on where and to what extent natural concentrations of arsenic in ground water exceed possible new standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and analyzed arsenic in potable (drinkable) water from 18,850 wells in 595 counties across the United States during the past two decades. These wells are used for irrigation, industrial purposes, and research, as well as for public and private water supply. Arsenic concentrations in samples from these wells are similar to those found in nearby public supplies (see Focazio and others, 1999). The large number of samples, broad geographic coverage, and consistency of methods produce a more accurate and detailed picture of arsenic concentrations than provided by any previous studies.

Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Focazio, Michael J.

2000-01-01

472

Vermont Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vermont Geological Survey, also known as the Division of Geology and Mineral Resources in the Department of Environmental Conservation, conducts surveys and research relating to the geology, mineral resources and topography of the State. This site provides details about the states geology with a downloadable state geologic map and key, state rock information, gold in Vermont, fossils found in the state, bedrock mapping details, stream geomorphology, the Champlain thrust fault, earthquakes, radioactive waste and links for additional information.

473

Terrestrial Ecosystems - Isobioclimates of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey has generated isobioclimate classes to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States, using an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe . A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America (Sayre and others, 2008) and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. Bioclimate regimes strongly influence the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, and are therefore one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. The Rivas-Martinez methodology is based on the concept of establishing a quantifiable classification system which would closely relate the distribution of vegetation to climatic parameters and indices. This method first establishes bioclimatic indices calculated from various ranges of temperature and precipitation data, compares these indices to defined thresholds, and finally applies sets of decision rules to identify the climate classes. The climate classification is hierarchical with four levels: macrobioclimates, bioclimates, thermotypes, and ombrotypes. Thermotypes, which represent thermoclimatic belts, are identified using the positive annual temperature (Tp) thresholds or the compensated thermicity index (Itc) thresholds. Ombrotypes, which represent ombroclimatic belts, are based on the ombrothermic index (Io) which is calculated as a function of both the total positive precipitation and temperature . For this national implementation the source data used for establishing the bioclimatic indices was Daymet. Daymet temperature and precipitation data were developed from 18 years (1980-1997) of climatological records and is available at a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer . This implementation of the Rivas-Martinez methodology resulted in the generation of four climate layers for the conterminous United States: macroclimates, bioclimates, thermotypes, and ombrotypes. However, the biophysical stratification approach used for the ecosystems modeling effort required a single climate layer that accurately reflected regional variation in wet/dry gradients and hot/cold gradients, with a manageable number of classes. Therefore, the data layers for thermotypes and ombrotypes were combined, yielding 127 unique thermotype-ombrotype combinations.The isobioclimates image shows ombrotypic regions (dry/wet gradients) for each thermotypic (warm/cold) region. Additional information about this map and any of the data developed for the ecosystems modeling of the conterminous United States is available online at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/ecosystems/.

Cress, Jill J.; Sayre, Roger; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

2009-01-01

474

Syringe exchange programs --- United States, 2008.  

PubMed

Persons who inject drugs should use a new, sterile needle and syringe for each injection. Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users (IDUs) to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). As of March 2009, a total of 184 SEPs were known to be operating in 36 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico (North American Syringe Exchange Network [NASEN], unpublished data, 2009). Of these, 123 (67%) SEP directors participated in a mail/telephone survey conducted by NASEN and Beth Israel Medical Center (New York, New York) that covered program operations for the calendar year 2008. To characterize SEPs in the United States, this report summarizes the findings from that survey and compares them with previous SEP survey results from the period 1994-2007. In 2008, the 123 SEPs reported exchanging 29.1 million syringes and had budgets totaling $21.3 million, of which 79% came from state and local governments. Most of the SEPs reported offering preventive health and clinical services in addition to basic syringe exchange: 87% offered HIV counseling and testing, 65% offered hepatitis C counseling and testing, 55% offered sexually transmitted disease screening, and 31% offered tuberculosis screening; 89% provided referrals to substance abuse treatment. Providing comprehensive prevention services and referrals to IDUs, such as those offered by many SEPs, can help reduce the spread of bloodborne infections and should increase access to health care and substance abuse treatment, thus serving as an effective public health approach for this population. PMID:21085091

2010-11-19

475

Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950 and 0.512 in 1995, indicating increasing water scarcity over time as population and employment growth has placed greater demands on water resources. Additionally, our study revealed that in 1980, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Jersey scarcity levels were 0.733, 0.790 and 0.857, respectively. Although the Northeastern United States is commonly perceived as a water rich region, moderate to heavily exploited levels of water stress were observed over the time period when a finer spatial scale is utilized. Water scarcity indicator values were disaggregated by state for each time period and illustrated using a series of maps. Additional descriptive statistics were used to elucidate the differences in water scarcity between states over time.

Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

2010-12-01

476

Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

1995-03-01

477

California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

478

What the United States Needs to Learn from UNESCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States of America will soon rejoin the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. There is no question that the United States has much to contribute to UNESCO ? the quality of social science investigation, the technologies of educational evaluation, research in the learning sciences, educational technologies, education for the handicapped, comparative education and much research and development

Stephen P. Heyneman

2003-01-01

479

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Samoans in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These instructional materials on Samoans in the United States for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about Samoa, migration of Samoans to the United States, cultural background, and Samoan students. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

480

An overview of coastal land loss with emphasis on the southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report represents a general overview of the primary causes and consequences of coastal land loss. Most of the examples and references are from states bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean where the largest magnitudes and highest rates of coastal land losses in the United States are recorded (Dahl, 2000). The report serves as an introductory guide to the topics and literature on coastal land loss, and acts as a link to ongoing research being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Morton, Robert A.

2003-01-01

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