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Sample records for univariate cox regression

  1. Calibration transfer employing univariate correction and robust regression.

    PubMed

    Galvo, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Soares, Sfacles Figueredo Carreiro; Martins, Marcelo Nascimento; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Arajo, Mrio Csar Ugulino

    2015-03-15

    This paper proposes a new method for calibration transfer, which was specifically designed to work with isolated variables, rather than the full spectrum or spectral windows. For this purpose, a univariate procedure is initially employed to correct the spectral measurements of the secondary instrument, given a set of transfer samples. A robust regression technique is then used to obtain a model with low sensitivity with respect to the univariate correction residuals. The proposed method is employed in two case studies involving near infrared spectrometric determination of specific mass, research octane number and naphthenes in gasoline, and moisture and oil in corn. In both cases, better calibration transfer results were obtained in comparison with piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The proposed method should be of a particular value for use with application-targeted instruments that monitor only a small set of spectral variables. PMID:25732421

  2. Univariate Nonparametric Analysis of Variance Through Multiple Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.

    1978-01-01

    Many methodologists are aware that parametric tests associated with the analysis of variance and the analysis of covariance can be computed using regression procedures. It is shown that multiple linear regression can also be employed to compute the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance. (Author)

  3. Simultaneous confidence bands for Cox regression from semiparametric random censorship.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shoubhik; Subramanian, Sundarraman

    2016-01-01

    Cox regression is combined with semiparametric random censorship models to construct simultaneous confidence bands (SCBs) for subject-specific survival curves. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed SCBs with the SCBs that are based only on standard Cox. The new SCBs provide correct empirical coverage and are more informative. The proposed SCBs are illustrated with two real examples. An extension to handle missing censoring indicators is also outlined. PMID:25691289

  4. Robust Regression Analysis of Copy Number Variation Data based on a Univariate Score

    PubMed Central

    Satten, Glen A.; Allen, Andrew S.; Ikeda, Morna; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Warren, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation The discovery that copy number variants (CNVs) are widespread in the human genome has motivated development of numerous algorithms that attempt to detect CNVs from intensity data. However, all approaches are plagued by high false discovery rates. Further, because CNVs are characterized by two dimensions (length and intensity) it is unclear how to order called CNVs to prioritize experimental validation. Results We developed a univariate score that correlates with the likelihood that a CNV is true. This score can be used to order CNV calls in such a way that calls having larger scores are more likely to overlap a true CNV. We developed cnv.beast, a computationally efficient algorithm for calling CNVs that uses robust backward elimination regression to keep CNV calls with scores that exceed a user-defined threshold. Using an independent dataset that was measured using a different platform, we validated our score and showed that our approach performed better than six other currently-available methods. Availability cnv.beast is available at http://www.duke.edu/~asallen/Software.html. PMID:24516529

  5. Factors Associated with Methadone Treatment Duration: A Cox Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ching-Yi; Chao, En; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    This study examined retention rates and associated predictors of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) duration among 128 newly admitted patients in Taiwan. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and drug use history. Daily records of methadone taken and test results for HIV, HCV, and morphine toxicology were taken from a computerized medical registry. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with MMT duration. MMT retention rates were 80.5%, 68.8%, 53.9%, and 41.4% for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Excluding 38 patients incarcerated during the study period, retention rates were 81.1%, 73.3%, 61.1%, and 48.9% for 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months, respectively. No participant seroconverted to HIV and 1 died during the 18-months follow-up. Results showed that being female, imprisonment, a longer distance from house to clinic, having a lower methadone dose after 30 days, being HCV positive, and in the New Taipei city program predicted early patient dropout. The findings suggest favorable MMT outcomes of HIV seroincidence and mortality. Results indicate that the need to minimize travel distance and to provide programs that meet womens requirements justify expansion of MMT clinics in Taiwan. PMID:25875531

  6. Regression Is a Univariate General Linear Model Subsuming Other Parametric Methods as Special Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Sherry

    Although the concept of the general linear model (GLM) has existed since the 1960s, other univariate analyses such as the t-test and the analysis of variance models have remained popular. The GLM produces an equation that minimizes the mean differences of independent variables as they are related to a dependent variable. From a computer printout…

  7. Mortality Prediction in ICUs Using A Novel Time-Slicing Cox Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Wenlin; Heard, Kevin; Kollef, Marin H.; Bailey, Thomas C.; Cui, Zhicheng; He, Yujie; Lu, Chenyang; Chen, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, machine learning and data mining have been increasingly used for clinical prediction in ICUs. However, there is still a huge gap in making full use of the time-series data generated from ICUs. Aiming at filling this gap, we propose a novel approach entitled Time Slicing Cox regression (TS-Cox), which extends the classical Cox regression into a classification method on multi-dimensional time-series. Unlike traditional classifiers such as logistic regression and support vector machines, our model not only incorporates the discriminative features derived from the time-series, but also naturally exploits the temporal orders of these features based on a Cox-like function. Empirical evaluation on MIMIC-II database demonstrates the efficacy of the TS-Cox model. Our TS-Cox model outperforms all other baseline models by a good margin in terms of AUC_PR, sensitivity and PPV, which indicates that TS-Cox may be a promising tool for mortality prediction in ICUs. PMID:26958269

  8. Understanding cow evaluations in univariate and multivariate animal and random regression models.

    PubMed

    Mrode, R; Coffey, M

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between cow evaluations from a 305-d lactation yield animal model [i.e., lactation model (LM)] and a random regression model (RRM) were studied using the first-lactation milk yield of 2,477,807 Holstein heifers. In the LM analysis, 2 values of heritability were used, 0.35 (LM1-H) or 0.57 (LM2-H), the latter being equal to that used in the random regression model for the analysis of the Holstein test-day records (RRM-H). The relative weights on parent average (PA) and yield deviations (YD) were computed and studied to understand factors contributing to reranking of cows' predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) from the various models. The degree of relatedness and inbreeding were calculated for the top 2,000 cows from the various models. Analyses of Jersey milk yield in the first 3 parities was implemented using 305-d lactation yield multivariate animal (MLM-J) and random regression models (MRRM-J). The ability of both models using only first-parity yield records to predict evaluations in second and third parities when records for these later parities were excluded was studied in a sample of cows. The correlations of cow PTA between LM1-H or LM2-H and RRM-H were 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, in the Holstein data. The data sets used were identical in this case for all models in terms of number of cows and yield records. The correlations were slightly lower at 0.89, 0.87, and 0.88 for parities 1, 2, and 3 in the Jersey analyses, where the data sets were not identical. The relative weights on PA and YD were 0.28 (0.11) and 0.72 (0.89), respectively, from the LM2-H (RRM-H). The RRM-H placed more emphasis on YD and therefore on Mendelian sampling deviations. Thus, the top 2,000 cows from the RRM-H were less related and inbred. The average additive genetic relationship was 22% greater in the LM2-H and average inbreeding coefficients were 0.68 and 0.43% for the LM2-H and RRM-H, respectively. When records were initially available in the first parity, the MRRM-J predicted PTA in parities 2 and 3 with about 2 to 7% greater accuracy compared with the MLM-J. PMID:18218767

  9. NETWORK-REGULARIZED HIGH-DIMENSIONAL COX REGRESSION FOR ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DATA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hokeun; Lin, Wei; Feng, Rui; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-01-01

    We consider estimation and variable selection in high-dimensional Cox regression when a prior knowledge of the relationships among the covariates, described by a network or graph, is available. A limitation of the existing methodology for survival analysis with high-dimensional genomic data is that a wealth of structural information about many biological processes, such as regulatory networks and pathways, has often been ignored. In order to incorporate such prior network information into the analysis of genomic data, we propose a network-based regularization method for high-dimensional Cox regression; it uses an ?1-penalty to induce sparsity of the regression coefficients and a quadratic Laplacian penalty to encourage smoothness between the coefficients of neighboring variables on a given network. The proposed method is implemented by an efficient coordinate descent algorithm. In the setting where the dimensionality p can grow exponentially fast with the sample size n, we establish model selection consistency and estimation bounds for the proposed estimators. The theoretical results provide insights into the gain from taking into account the network structural information. Extensive simulation studies indicate that our method outperforms Lasso and elastic net in terms of variable selection accuracy and stability. We apply our method to a breast cancer gene expression study and identify several biologically plausible subnetworks and pathways that are associated with breast cancer distant metastasis. PMID:26316678

  10. Network regularised Cox regression and multiplex network models to predict disease comorbidities and survival of cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haoming; Moni, Mohammad Ali; Li, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    In cancer genomics, gene expression levels provide important molecular signatures for all types of cancer, and this could be very useful for predicting the survival of cancer patients. However, the main challenge of gene expression data analysis is high dimensionality, and microarray is characterised by few number of samples with large number of genes. To overcome this problem, a variety of penalised Cox proportional hazard models have been proposed. We introduce a novel network regularised Cox proportional hazard model and a novel multiplex network model to measure the disease comorbidities and to predict survival of the cancer patient. Our methods are applied to analyse seven microarray cancer gene expression datasets: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer and osteosarcoma. Firstly, we applied a principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality of original gene expression data. Secondly, we applied a network regularised Cox regression model on the reduced gene expression datasets. By using normalised mutual information method and multiplex network model, we predict the comorbidities for the liver cancer based on the integration of diverse set of omics and clinical data, and we find the diseasome associations (disease-gene association) among different cancers based on the identified common significant genes. Finally, we evaluated the precision of the approach with respect to the accuracy of survival prediction using ROC curves. We report that colon cancer, liver cancer and renal cancer share the CXCL5 gene, and breast cancer, ovarian cancer and renal cancer share the CCND2 gene. Our methods are useful to predict survival of the patient and disease comorbidities more accurately and helpful for improvement of the care of patients with comorbidity. Software in Matlab and R is available on our GitHub page: https://github.com/ssnhcom/NetworkRegularisedCox.git. PMID:26611766

  11. Pathway-gene identification for pancreatic cancer survival via doubly regularized Cox regression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent global genomic analyses identified 69 gene sets and 12 core signaling pathways genetically altered in pancreatic cancer, which is a highly malignant disease. A comprehensive understanding of the genetic signatures and signaling pathways that are directly correlated to pancreatic cancer survival will help cancer researchers to develop effective multi-gene targeted, personalized therapies for the pancreatic cancer patients at different stages. A previous work that applied a LASSO penalized regression method, which only considered individual genetic effects, identified 12 genes associated with pancreatic cancer survival. Results In this work, we integrate pathway information into pancreatic cancer survival analysis. We introduce and apply a doubly regularized Cox regression model to identify both genes and signaling pathways related to pancreatic cancer survival. Conclusions Four signaling pathways, including Ion transport, immune phagocytosis, TGFβ (spermatogenesis), regulation of DNA-dependent transcription pathways, and 15 genes within the four pathways are identified and verified to be directly correlated to pancreatic cancer survival. Our findings can help cancer researchers design new strategies for the early detection and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24565114

  12. Univariate splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopotun, Kirill A.

    2007-06-01

    Several results on equivalence of moduli of smoothness of univariate splines are obtained. For example, it is shown that, for any 1leq kleq r+1 , 0leq mleq r-1 , and 1leq pleqinfty , the inequality n^{-nu} omega_{k-nu }(s^{(nu)}, n^{-1})_p sim omega_{k} (s, n^{-1})_p , 1leq nu leq min\\{ k, m+1\\} , is satisfied, where sin mathbb{C}^m[-1,1] is a piecewise polynomial of degree leq r on a quasi-uniform (i.eE, the ratio of lengths of the largest and the smallest intervals is bounded by a constant) partition of an interval. Similar results for Chebyshev partitions and weighted Ditzian-Totik moduli of smoothness are also obtained. These results yield simple new constructions and allow considerable simplification of various known proofs in the area of constrained approximation by polynomials and splines.

  13. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  14. Maximum Likelihood Inference for the Cox Regression Model with Applications to Missing Covariates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Shao, Qi-Man

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we carry out an in-depth theoretical investigation for existence of maximum likelihood estimates for the Cox model (Cox, 1972, 1975) both in the full data setting as well as in the presence of missing covariate data. The main motivation for this work arises from missing data problems, where models can easily become difficult to estimate with certain missing data configurations or large missing data fractions. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of the maximum partial likelihood estimate (MPLE) for completely observed data (i.e., no missing data) settings as well as sufficient conditions for existence of the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) for survival data with missing covariates via a profile likelihood method. Several theorems are given to establish these conditions. A real dataset from a cancer clinical trial is presented to further illustrate the proposed methodology. PMID:19802375

  15. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V.; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigation. In this paper, we consider a partially linear single index proportional hazard model, which includes a linear component for covariates of interest to yield easily interpretable results and a nonparametric single index component to adjust for multiple confounders effectively. We propose to approximate the nonparametric single index function by polynomial splines and estimate the parameters of interest using an iterative algorithm based on the partial likelihood. Asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators are established. The proposed methods are evaluated using simulations and applied to an NCC study of ovarian cancer.

  16. Prediction of Early Breast Cancer Metastasis from DNA Microarray Data Using High-Dimensional Cox Regression Models

    PubMed Central

    Zemmour, Christophe; Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Chetrit, Bernard; Birnbaum, Daniel; Filleron, Thomas; Boher, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND DNA microarray studies identified gene expression signatures predictive of metastatic relapse in early breast cancer. Standard feature selection procedures applied to reduce the set of predictive genes did not take into account the correlation between genes. In this paper, we studied the performances of three high-dimensional regression methods – CoxBoost, LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator), and Elastic net – to identify prognostic signatures in patients with early breast cancer. METHODS We analyzed three public retrospective datasets, including a total of 384 patients with axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer. The Amsterdam van’t Veer’s training set of 78 patients was used to determine the optimal gene sets and classifiers using sensitivity thresholds resulting in mis-classification of no more than 10% of the poor-prognosis group. To ensure the comparability between different methods, an automatic selection procedure was used to determine the number of genes included in each model. The van de Vijver’s and Desmedt’s datasets were used as validation sets to evaluate separately the prognostic performances of our classifiers. The results were compared to the original Amsterdam 70-gene classifier. RESULTS The automatic selection procedure reduced the number of predictive genes up to a minimum of six genes. In the two validation sets, the three models (Elastic net, LASSO, and CoxBoost) led to the definition of genomic classifiers predicting the 5-year metastatic status with similar performances, with respective 59, 56, and 54% accuracy, 83, 75, and 83% sensitivity, and 53, 52, and 48% specificity in the Desmedt’s dataset. In comparison, the Amsterdam 70-gene signature showed 45% accuracy, 97% sensitivity, and 34% specificity. The gene overlap and the classification concordance between the three classifiers were high. All the classifiers added significant prognostic information to that provided by the traditional prognostic factors and showed a very high overlap with respect to gene ontologies (GOs) associated with genes overexpressed in the predicted poor-prognosis vs. good-prognosis classes and centred on cell proliferation. Interestingly, all classifiers reported high sensitivity to predict the 4-year status of metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS High-dimensional regression methods are attractive in prognostic studies because finding a small subset of genes may facilitate the transfer to the clinic, and also because they strengthen the robustness of the model by limiting the selection of false-positive predictive genes. With only six genes, the CoxBoost classifier predicted the 4-year status of metastatic disease with 93% sensitivity. Selecting a few genes related to ontologies other than cell proliferation might further improve the overall sensitivity performance. PMID:25983547

  17. Updating prognosis and therapeutic effect evaluation in cirrhosis with Cox's multiple regression model for time-dependent variables.

    PubMed

    Christensen, E; Schlichting, P; Andersen, P K; Fauerholdt, L; Schou, G; Pedersen, B V; Juhl, E; Poulsen, H; Tygstrup, N

    1986-03-01

    A multivariate Cox regression analysis with time-dependent variables has been performed on the data of 415 patients with cirrhosis included in a controlled clinical trial of 10-15 mg prednisone daily versus placebo. The analysis showed that a poor prognosis was associated with a low prothrombin index, marked ascites, GI bleeding, high age, high daily alcohol consumption, high bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase and low albumin values, little liver connective tissue inflammation, and poor nutritional status. Prothrombin index and ascites showed significant interaction with the treatment in such a manner that high prothrombin index and absence of ascites were associated with a beneficial effect of prednisone, whereas low prothrombin index and presence of ascites were associated with a harmful effect of prednisone treatment. The final model was validated in independent patients by comparing their actual survival with that predicted from the model, using a split-sample testing technique. The prognostic factors were combined with an index that can be used to update prognosis whenever changes occur in the clinical status of a patient during the course of the disease. The probability of surviving the next 3 or 6 months can be estimated from the prognostic index at any time during the course. The index may be of value for the correct timing of special therapeutic procedures such as liver transplantation. PMID:3520795

  18. Five Years Survival of Patients After Liver Transplantation and Its Effective Factors by Neural Network and Cox Poroportional Hazard Regression Models

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Bahareh; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Bahreini, Amin; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Mehrdad, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transplantation is the only treatment for patients with liver failure. Since the therapy imposes high expenses to the patients and community, identification of effective factors on survival of such patients after transplantation is valuable. Objectives: The current study attempted to model the survival of patients (two years old and above) after liver transplantation using neural network and Cox Proportional Hazards (Cox PH) regression models. The event is defined as death due to complications of liver transplantation. Patients and Methods: In a historical cohort study, the clinical findings of 1168 patients who underwent liver transplant surgery (from March 2008 to march 2013) at Shiraz Namazee Hospital Organ Transplantation Center, Shiraz, Southern Iran, were used. To model the one to five years survival of such patients, Cox PH regression model accompanied by three layers feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) method were applied on data separately and their prediction accuracy was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival probabilities in different years. Results: The estimated survival probability of one to five years for the patients were 91%, 89%, 85%, 84%, and 83%, respectively. The areas under the ROC were 86.4% and 80.7% for ANN and Cox PH models, respectively. In addition, the accuracy of prediction rate for ANN and Cox PH methods was equally 92.73%. Conclusions: The present study detected more accurate results for ANN method compared to those of Cox PH model to analyze the survival of patients with liver transplantation. Furthermore, the order of effective factors in patients survival after transplantation was clinically more acceptable. The large dataset with a few missing data was the advantage of this study, the fact which makes the results more reliable. PMID:26500682

  19. Novel spectrophotometric determination of chloramphenicol and dexamethasone in the presence of non labeled interfering substances using univariate methods and multivariate regression model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Rezk, Mamdouh R.; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2015-04-01

    Smart and novel spectrophotometric and chemometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of chloramphenicol (CPL) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) in presence of interfering substances without prior separation. The first method depends upon derivative subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The second one is ratio difference method at optimum wavelengths which were selected after applying derivative transformation method via multiplying by a decoding spectrum in order to cancel the contribution of non labeled interfering substances. The third method relies on partial least squares with regression model updating. They are so simple that they do not require any preliminary separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of these methods were determined. Moreover, specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were successfully applied for analysis of both drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation. The obtained results have been statistically compared to that of an official spectrophotometric method to give a conclusion that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the official ones with respect to accuracy and precision.

  20. Novel spectrophotometric determination of chloramphenicol and dexamethasone in the presence of non labeled interfering substances using univariate methods and multivariate regression model updating.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Maha A; Lotfy, Hayam M; Rezk, Mamdouh R; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2015-04-01

    Smart and novel spectrophotometric and chemometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of chloramphenicol (CPL) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) in presence of interfering substances without prior separation. The first method depends upon derivative subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The second one is ratio difference method at optimum wavelengths which were selected after applying derivative transformation method via multiplying by a decoding spectrum in order to cancel the contribution of non labeled interfering substances. The third method relies on partial least squares with regression model updating. They are so simple that they do not require any preliminary separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of these methods were determined. Moreover, specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were successfully applied for analysis of both drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation. The obtained results have been statistically compared to that of an official spectrophotometric method to give a conclusion that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the official ones with respect to accuracy and precision. PMID:25659506

  1. Univariate Probability Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leemis, Lawrence M.; Luckett, Daniel J.; Powell, Austin G.; Vermeer, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a web-based interactive graphic that can be used as a resource in introductory classes in mathematical statistics. This interactive graphic presents 76 common univariate distributions and gives details on (a) various features of the distribution such as the functional form of the probability density function and cumulative distribution

  2. Univariate time series forecasting algorithm validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Suzilah; Zakaria, Rohaiza; Muda, Tuan Zalizam Tuan

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting is a complex process which requires expert tacit knowledge in producing accurate forecast values. This complexity contributes to the gaps between end users and expert. Automating this process by using algorithm can act as a bridge between them. Algorithm is a well-defined rule for solving a problem. In this study a univariate time series forecasting algorithm was developed in JAVA and validated using SPSS and Excel. Two set of simulated data (yearly and non-yearly); several univariate forecasting techniques (i.e. Moving Average, Decomposition, Exponential Smoothing, Time Series Regressions and ARIMA) and recent forecasting process (such as data partition, several error measures, recursive evaluation and etc.) were employed. Successfully, the results of the algorithm tally with the results of SPSS and Excel. This algorithm will not just benefit forecaster but also end users that lacking in depth knowledge of forecasting process.

  3. A comparison of Poisson regression models fitted to multiway summary tables and Cox's survival model using data from a blood pressure screening in the city of Bergen, Norway.

    PubMed

    Selmer, R

    1990-10-01

    Multiplicative models for the association between blood pressure and coronary heart disease mortality in 5201 men aged 40-49 years at time of examination were compared. Piecewise exponential models fitted to summary tables formed by cross-classification by three systolic and three diastolic blood pressure groups, two age groups and three time intervals gave results close to the Cox model for continuous data. The parametric integrated baseline hazard functions estimated from grouped data were close to Breslow's nonparametric estimate in the Cox model. PMID:2247716

  4. Univariate and Multivariate Tests: ANOVA versus MANOVA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance methods (MANOVA and ANOVA, respectively) are compared for their relative value in educational research. The favoritism shown multivariate techniques is questioned. Criteria for the selection of the appropriate technique are outlined. The relationships among research hypotheses, statistical

  5. Univariant assessment of the quality of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mathieu; Leger, Dominique; Gazalet, Marc G.

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the quality of images, most methods compare a degraded image to a perfect reference. Nevertheless in many cases, a reference does not exist. We propose an original univariant (i.e., without a reference) method based on the use of artificial neural networks. The principle behind it is to first teach a neural network to assess image quality using images taken from a pool of known examples, then use it to assess the quality of unknown images. The defects considered are compression artifacts, ringing, local singularities, etc. To simplify, only images with defects that are not mixed with one another were first used. Two illustrative examples are presented: assessment of the quality of JPEG compressed images and detection of local defects. The quality of the images is assessed without a reference and with error less than 6% - 7% compared to the bivariant method that was learned. Our method can even be used to model some very simple visual comportment.

  6. Dennis Cox, USGS Volunteer

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dennis Cox, a volunteer with the USGS Menlo Park Campus, helps visitors pan for gold at the 2009 Open House in Menlo Park. The 2012 Open House, to be held May 19-20, will include gold panning among its many activities. ...

  7. Multivariate Multiple Regression in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge, Peter R.

    This paper examines the multivariate multiple regression model and explores its applicability to communication research. The first section discusses partitioning of a data matrix, as a heuristic device for distinguishing among alternative regression models. Section two examines various aspects of univariate multiple regression, including the form

  8. A GENERAL PURPOSE UNIVARIATE PROBABILITY MODEL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of environmental quality data for decision making purposes (evaluation of compliance with standards, examination of environmental trends, determination of confidence intervals) generally requires a suitable univariate probability model. It sometimes is difficult, when ma...

  9. The Moxie of Kathy Cox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Kathy Cox, the superintendent of schools for Georgia, believes "excellence is not an accident". She made a name for herself by winning $1 million proving she was smarter than a fifth-grader on a popular television show. This article presents a profile of Cox, her family, her role as school superintendent, and her accomplishments. Although she

  10. Validated univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of pharmaceuticals mixture in complex wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riad, Safaa M.; Salem, Hesham; Elbalkiny, Heba T.; Khattab, Fatma I.

    2015-04-01

    Five, accurate, precise, and sensitive univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture containing Trimethoprim (TMP), Sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and Oxytetracycline (OTC) in waste water samples collected from different cites either production wastewater or livestock wastewater after their solid phase extraction using OASIS HLB cartridges. In univariate methods OTC was determined at its λmax 355.7 nm (0D), while (TMP) and (SMZ) were determined by three different univariate methods. Method (A) is based on successive spectrophotometric resolution technique (SSRT). The technique starts with the ratio subtraction method followed by ratio difference method for determination of TMP and SMZ. Method (B) is successive derivative ratio technique (SDR). Method (C) is mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR). The developed multivariate methods are principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). The specificity of the developed methods is investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of the three drugs. The obtained results are statistically compared with those obtained by the official methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  11. Comparison of Univariate and Multivariate Models of (13)C SSNMR and XRPD Techniques for Quantification of Nimodipine Polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Mohammad, Adil; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-12-01

    The focus of the present investigation was to explore the use of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C ssNMR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) for quantification of nimodipine polymorphs (form I and form II) crystallized in a cosolvent formulation. The cosolvent formulation composed of polyethylene glycol 400, glycerin, water, and 2.5% drug, and was stored at 5C for the drug crystallization. The (13)C ssNMR and XRPD data of the sample matrices containing varying percentages of nimodipine form I and form II were collected. Univariate and multivariate models were developed using the data. Least square method was used for the univariate model generation. Partial least square and principle component regressions were used for the multivariate models development. The univariate models of the (13)C ssNMR were better than the XRPD as indicated by statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient, R (2), root mean square error, and standard error. On the other hand, the XRPD multivariate models were better than the (13)C ssNMR as indicated by precision and accuracy parameters. Similar values were predicted by the univariate and multivariate models for independent samples. In conclusion, the univariate and multivariate models of (13)C ssNMR and XRPD can be used to quantitate nimodipine polymorphs. PMID:25956485

  12. Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2000-01-01

    Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient

  13. Univariate Analysis of Multivariate Outcomes in Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The author examined the prevalence of multiple operational definitions of outcome constructs and an estimate of the incidence of Type I error rates when univariate procedures were applied to multiple variables in educational psychology. Multiple operational definitions of constructs were advocated and wider use of multivariate analysis was

  14. Evaluating Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Normality Using Graphical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    This paper reviews graphical and nongraphical procedures for evaluating multivariate normality by guiding the reader through univariate and bivariate procedures that are necessary, but insufficient, indications of a multivariate normal distribution. A data set using three dependent variables for two groups provided by D. George and P. Mallery

  15. Maximum Likelihood and Minimum Distance Applied to Univariate Mixture Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuh-Yin Wu; Schafer, William D.

    This Monte-Carlo study compared modified Newton (NW), expectation-maximization algorithm (EM), and minimum Cramer-von Mises distance (MD), used to estimate parameters of univariate mixtures of two components. Data sets were fixed at size 160 and manipulated by mean separation, variance ratio, component proportion, and non-normality. Results

  16. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis COX9, COX12, and COX16 respiratory genes.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Simone C B; Nbrega, Marina P

    2008-12-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomyicosis (PCM), a human systemic granulomatous mycosis found in Latin America. Dimorphic transition from mycelium to yeast is required for establishing pathogenicity. Dimorphism is marked by changes in mitochondrial physiology, including modulation of respiration rate. In this work, we present the identification of three P. brasiliensis nuclear genes PbCOX9, PbCOX12, and PbCOX16 that code for structural subunits and a putative assembly facilitator (PbCOX16) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. We measured their expression pattern during the dimorphic transition from mycelium to yeast and back by real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-qPCR). Our results show that messages from these genes increase during the mycelium to yeast transition and decrease during the opposite conversion. This result supports active mitochondrial participation in the transition. Heterologous complementation of the corresponding Saccharomyces cerevisiae null mutant with the PbCOX9 gene was successfully obtained. PMID:18672058

  17. Immunohistochemical and morphometric evaluation of COX-1 and COX-2 in the remodeled lung in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis* ,**

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Lin, Flavia; Martins, Vanessa; Rangel, Maristela Peres; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the remodeled lung in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients, correlating that expression with patient survival. METHODS: We examined open lung biopsy specimens from 24 SSc patients and 30 IPF patients, using normal lung tissue as a control. The histological patterns included fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) in SSc patients and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in IPF patients. We used immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry to evaluate the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in alveolar septa, vessels, and bronchioles. We then correlated that expression with pulmonary function test results and evaluated its impact on patient survival. RESULTS: The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in alveolar septa was significantly higher in IPF-UIP and SSc-NSIP lung tissue than in the control tissue. No difference was found between IPF-UIP and SSc-NSIP tissue regarding COX-1 and COX-2 expression. Multivariate analysis based on the Cox regression model showed that the factors associated with a low risk of death were younger age, high DLCO/alveolar volume, IPF, and high COX-1 expression in alveolar septa, whereas those associated with a high risk of death were advanced age, low DLCO/alveolar volume, SSc (with NSIP), and low COX-1 expression in alveolar septa. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that strategies aimed at preventing low COX-1 synthesis will have a greater impact on SSc, whereas those aimed at preventing high COX-2 synthesis will have a greater impact on IPF. However, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed in order to confirm that. PMID:24473763

  18. Multivariate and univariate neuroimaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Christian; Foster, Norman L.; Perneczky, Robert; Kurz, Alexander; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Koeppe, Robert A.; Drzezga, Alexander; Stern, Yaakov

    2008-01-01

    We performed univariate and multivariate discriminant analysis of FDG-PET scans to evaluate their ability to identify Alzheimers disease (AD). FDG-PET scans came from two sources: 17 AD patients and 33 healthy elderly controls were scanned at the University of Michigan; 102 early AD patients and 20 healthy elderly controls were scanned at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. We selected a derivation sample of 20 AD patients and 20 healthy controls matched on age with the remainder divided into 5 replication samples. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic AD-markers and threshold criteria from the derivation sample were determined in the replication samples. Although both univariate and multivariate analyses produced markers with high classification accuracy in the derivation sample, the multivariate markers diagnostic performance in the replication samples was superior. Further, supplementary analysis showed its performance to be unaffected by the loss of key regions. Multivariate measures of AD utilize the covariance structure of imaging data and provide complementary, clinically relevant information that may be superior to univariate measures. PMID:18343688

  19. Proportional hazards regression for the analysis of clustered survival data from case-cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Schaubel, Douglas E.; Kalbeisch, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Case-cohort sampling is a commonly used and efficient method for studying large cohorts. Most existing methods of analysis for case-cohort data have concerned the analysis of univariate failure time data. However, clustered failure time data are commonly encountered in public health studies. For example, patients treated at the same center are unlikely to be independent. In this article, we consider methods based on estimating equations for case-cohort designs for clustered failure time data. We assume a marginal hazards model, with a common baseline hazard and common regression coefficient across clusters. The proposed estimators of the regression parameter and cumulative baseline hazard are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal, and consistent estimators of the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. The regression parameter estimator is easily computed using any standard Cox regression software that allows for offset terms. The proposed estimators are investigated in simulation studies, and demonstrated empirically to have increased efficiency relative to some existing methods. The proposed methods are applied to a study of mortality among Canadian dialysis patients. PMID:20560939

  20. COX-2 and PPAR-? confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Robert; Heinemann, Katharina; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Salamon, Achim; Linnebacher, Michael; Hinz, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The antitumorigenic mechanism of cannabidiol is still controversial. This study investigates the role of COX-2 and PPAR-? in cannabidiol's proapoptotic and tumor-regressive action. In lung cancer cell lines (A549, H460) and primary cells from a patient with lung cancer, cannabidiol elicited decreased viability associated with apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death by cannabidiol was suppressed by NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor), GW9662 (PPAR-? antagonist), and siRNA targeting COX-2 and PPAR-?. Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis was paralleled by upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-? mRNA and protein expression with a maximum induction of COX-2 mRNA after 8 hours and continuous increases of PPAR-? mRNA when compared with vehicle. In response to cannabidiol, tumor cell lines exhibited increased levels of COX-2-dependent prostaglandins (PG) among which PGD(2) and 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) caused a translocation of PPAR-? to the nucleus and induced a PPAR-?-dependent apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in A549-xenografted nude mice, cannabidiol caused upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-? in tumor tissue and tumor regression that was reversible by GW9662. Together, our data show a novel proapoptotic mechanism of cannabidiol involving initial upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-? and a subsequent nuclear translocation of PPAR-? by COX-2-dependent PGs. PMID:23220503

  1. Bayesian random threshold estimation in a Cox proportional hazards cure model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Feng, Dai; Bellile, Emily L; Taylor, Jeremy M G

    2014-02-20

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian approach to estimate a Cox proportional hazards model that allows a threshold in the regression coefficient, when some fraction of subjects are not susceptible to the event of interest. A data augmentation scheme with latent binary cure indicators is adopted to simplify the Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. Given the binary cure indicators, the Cox cure model reduces to a standard Cox model and a logistic regression model. Furthermore, the threshold detection problem reverts to a threshold problem in a regular Cox model. The baseline cumulative hazard for the Cox model is formulated non-parametrically using counting processes with a gamma process prior. Simulation studies demonstrate that the method provides accurate point and interval estimates. Application to a data set of oropharynx cancer patients suggests a significant threshold in age at diagnosis such that the effect of gender on disease-specific survival changes after the threshold. PMID:24009083

  2. Detection of synchronization from univariate data using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.

    2007-05-01

    A method is proposed for detecting from univariate data the presence of synchronization of a self-sustained oscillator by external driving with varying frequency. The method is based on the analysis of difference between the oscillator instantaneous phases calculated using continuous wavelet transform at time moments shifted by a certain constant value relative to each other. We apply our method to a driven asymmetric van der Pol oscillator, experimental data from a driven electronic oscillator with delayed feedback and human heartbeat time series. In the latest case, the analysis of the heart rate variability data reveals synchronous regimes between the respiration and slow oscillations in blood pressure.

  3. Selectivity in analytical chemistry: two interpretations for univariate methods.

    PubMed

    Dork, Zsanett; Verbi?, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-01-01

    Selectivity is extremely important in analytical chemistry but its definition is elusive despite continued efforts by professional organizations and individual scientists. This paper shows that the existing selectivity concepts for univariate analytical methods broadly fall in two classes: selectivity concepts based on measurement error and concepts based on response surfaces (the response surface being the 3D plot of the univariate signal as a function of analyte and interferent concentration, respectively). The strengths and weaknesses of the different definitions are analyzed and contradictions between them unveiled. The error based selectivity is very general and very safe but its application to a range of samples (as opposed to a single sample) requires the knowledge of some constraint about the possible sample compositions. The selectivity concepts based on the response surface are easily applied to linear response surfaces but may lead to difficulties and counterintuitive results when applied to nonlinear response surfaces. A particular advantage of this class of selectivity is that with linear response surfaces it can provide a concentration independent measure of selectivity. In contrast, the error based selectivity concept allows only yes/no type decision about selectivity. PMID:25476364

  4. Prognostic models in coronary artery disease: Cox and network approaches.

    PubMed

    Mora, Antonio; Sicari, Rosa; Cortigiani, Lauro; Carpeggiani, Clara; Picano, Eugenio; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Predictive assessment of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is usually provided by computational approaches centred on Cox models. The complex interdependence structure underlying clinical data patterns can limit the performance of Cox analysis and complicate the interpretation of results, thus calling for complementary and integrative methods. Prognostic models are proposed for studying the risk associated with patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress echocardiography, an established technique for CAD detection and prognostication. In order to complement standard Cox models, network inference is considered a possible solution to quantify the complex relationships between heterogeneous data categories. In particular, a mutual information network is designed to explore the paths linking patient-associated variables to endpoint events, to reveal prognostic factors and to identify the best possible predictors of death. Data from a prospective, multicentre, observational study are available from a previous study, based on 4313 patients (2532 men; 6411 years) with known (n=1547) or suspected (n=2766) CAD, who underwent high-dose dipyridamole (0.84?mg?kg(-1) over 6?min) stress echocardiography with coronary flow reserve (CFR) evaluation of left anterior descending (LAD) artery by Doppler. The overall mortality was the only endpoint analysed by Cox models. The estimated connectivity between clinical variables assigns a complementary value to the proposed network approach in relation to the established Cox model, for instance revealing connectivity paths. Depending on the use of multiple metrics, the constraints of regression analysis in measuring the association strength among clinical variables can be relaxed, and identification of communities and prognostic paths can be provided. On the basis of evidence from various model comparisons, we show in this CAD study that there may be characteristic factors involved in prognostic stratification whose complexity suggests an exploration beyond the analysis provided by the still fundamental Cox approach. PMID:26064595

  5. Prognostic models in coronary artery disease: Cox and network approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Antonio; Sicari, Rosa; Cortigiani, Lauro; Carpeggiani, Clara; Picano, Eugenio; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Predictive assessment of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is usually provided by computational approaches centred on Cox models. The complex interdependence structure underlying clinical data patterns can limit the performance of Cox analysis and complicate the interpretation of results, thus calling for complementary and integrative methods. Prognostic models are proposed for studying the risk associated with patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress echocardiography, an established technique for CAD detection and prognostication. In order to complement standard Cox models, network inference is considered a possible solution to quantify the complex relationships between heterogeneous data categories. In particular, a mutual information network is designed to explore the paths linking patient-associated variables to endpoint events, to reveal prognostic factors and to identify the best possible predictors of death. Data from a prospective, multicentre, observational study are available from a previous study, based on 4313 patients (2532 men; 6411 years) with known (n=1547) or suspected (n=2766) CAD, who underwent high-dose dipyridamole (0.84?mg?kg?1 over 6?min) stress echocardiography with coronary flow reserve (CFR) evaluation of left anterior descending (LAD) artery by Doppler. The overall mortality was the only endpoint analysed by Cox models. The estimated connectivity between clinical variables assigns a complementary value to the proposed network approach in relation to the established Cox model, for instance revealing connectivity paths. Depending on the use of multiple metrics, the constraints of regression analysis in measuring the association strength among clinical variables can be relaxed, and identification of communities and prognostic paths can be provided. On the basis of evidence from various model comparisons, we show in this CAD study that there may be characteristic factors involved in prognostic stratification whose complexity suggests an exploration beyond the analysis provided by the still fundamental Cox approach. PMID:26064595

  6. Allan Cox 19261987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Rob; Dalrymple, Brent

    More than 1000 friends, students, and colleagues from all over the country filled Stanford Memorial Chapel (Stanford, Calif.) on February 3, 1987, to join in A Celebration of the Life of Allan Cox. Allan died early on the morning of January 27 while bicycling, the sport he had come to love the most. Between pieces of his favorite music by Bach and Mozart, Stanford administrators and colleagues spoke in tribute of Allan's unique qualities as friend, scientist, teacher, and dean of the School of Earth Sciences. James Rosse, Vice President and Provost of Stanford University, struck a particularly resonant chord with his personal remarks: "Allan reached out to each person he knew with the warmth and attention that can only come from deep respect and affection for others. I never heard him speak ill of others, and I do not believe he was capable of doing anything that would harm another being. He cared too much to intrude where he was not wanted, but his curiosity about people and the loving care with which he approached them broke down reserve to create remarkable friendships. His enthusiasm and good humor made him a welcome guest in the hearts of the hundreds of students and colleagues who shared the opportunity of knowing Allan Cox as a person."

  7. Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    The logistic regression originally is intended to explain the relationship between the probability of an event and a set of covariables. The model's coefficients can be interpreted via the odds and odds ratio, which are presented in introduction of the chapter. The observations are possibly got individually, then we speak of binary logistic regression. When they are grouped, the logistic regression is said binomial. In our presentation we mainly focus on the binary case. For statistical inference the main tool is the maximum likelihood methodology: we present the Wald, Rao and likelihoods ratio results and their use to compare nested models. The problems we intend to deal with are essentially the same as in multiple linear regression: testing global effect, individual effect, selection of variables to build a model, measure of the fitness of the model, prediction of new values . The methods are demonstrated on data sets using R. Finally we briefly consider the binomial case and the situation where we are interested in several events, that is the polytomous (multinomial) logistic regression and the particular case of ordinal logistic regression.

  8. Dynamic treatment of invariant and univariant reactions in metamorphic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lasaga, A.C.; Luettge, A.; Rye, D.M.; Bolton, E.W.

    2000-03-01

    A simple model is presented that incorporates the essential dynamics of metamorphic processes leading to reactions along univariant curves and up to and beyond the invariant point. The model includes both heat flow by conduction and convection as well as fluid flow in and out of a representative volume. Overall mineral reactions can then take place within this rock volume in response to internal and external factors. The paper derives a simple back-of-the-envelope expression for the steady state reached by the system. The steady state composition of the fluid and the steady state temperature are then compared with the composition and temperature predicted by the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. Expressions for the amount of fluid passing through the system based on the kinetic model are compared with previous calculations of the mass of fluid added to the system using the equilibrium assumptions. The approach to this steady state is also analyzed and an analytical solution is obtained for the time evolution up to the steady state. Both the steady state and the time evolution solution are then applied to an understanding of the dynamics involved in obtaining T-X-t paths in nature. The results of the kinetic approach lead to major revisions in many of the previously held concepts used in petrologic fluid flow models. These include the expected reaction pathway, the role of metastable reactions, the calculation of fluid flux, the role of the invariant point, and the interpretation of mineral textures and modal abundances of minerals.

  9. Univariant assessment of the visual quality of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mathieu; Leger, Dominique

    2000-06-01

    In order to evaluate the visual quality of images, most methods compare a degraded image to a perfect reference. We propose an original univariant (i.e. without reference) method based on the use of artificial neural networks. The principle is first to use a neural network to learn the quality of images taken from a pool of known examples, then use it to assess the quality of unknown images. The considered defects are compression artefacts, ringing or local singularities. To simplify, only images with defects that are not mixed with each other were first used. The method follows four steps. Observers are first required to mark degraded images to establish a pool of examples. Then, a characterization of the defect is extracted mathematically from the image. Then, the neural network learns how to establish a relation between the mathematical characterization of the defect and the visual mark. Finally, it can be used to assess the visual quality of an unknown image from the mathematical characterization of its defects. Two illustrative examples are presented: the assessment of the quality of JPEG compressed images and the detection of local defects.

  10. Autistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Autistic regression is one of the many mysteries in the developmental course of autism and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Various definitions of this phenomenon have been used, further clouding the study of the topic. Despite this problem, some efforts at establishing prevalence have been made. The purpose of…

  11. Robust Regression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Cabral, Ricardo; Torre, Fernando Dela

    2016-02-01

    Discriminative methods (e.g., kernel regression, SVM) have been extensively used to solve problems such as object recognition, image alignment and pose estimation from images. These methods typically map image features ( X) to continuous (e.g., pose) or discrete (e.g., object category) values. A major drawback of existing discriminative methods is that samples are directly projected onto a subspace and hence fail to account for outliers common in realistic training sets due to occlusion, specular reflections or noise. It is important to notice that existing discriminative approaches assume the input variables X to be noise free. Thus, discriminative methods experience significant performance degradation when gross outliers are present. Despite its obvious importance, the problem of robust discriminative learning has been relatively unexplored in computer vision. This paper develops the theory of robust regression (RR) and presents an effective convex approach that uses recent advances on rank minimization. The framework applies to a variety of problems in computer vision including robust linear discriminant analysis, regression with missing data, and multi-label classification. Several synthetic and real examples with applications to head pose estimation from images, image and video classification and facial attribute classification with missing data are used to illustrate the benefits of RR. PMID:26761740

  12. Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors predisposing to auditory toxicity in patients receiving aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Gatell, J M; Ferran, F; Araujo, V; Bonet, M; Soriano, E; Traserra, J; SanMiguel, J G

    1987-01-01

    Risk factors predisposing to auditory toxicity of aminoglycosides were analyzed from records of 187 patients enrolled in three prospective randomized trials comparing the toxicity of netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin. Patients were eligible if they received three or more days of therapy and at least two serial audiograms were available. The overall auditory toxicity rate was 9.6% (18 of 187). Auditory toxicity was detected in 4.4, 10.8, and 23.5% of patients given netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin, respectively (P = 0.05). In the univariate analysis, patients who developed auditory toxicity were significantly older (P = 0.01) and had a significantly higher (P = 0.04) percentage of trough levels of netilmicin or tobramycin above 2 mg/liter or amikacin above 5 mg/liter. In the final logistic regression model, only age was retained as independently influencing the development of auditory toxicity (P less than 0.00001). Conversely, factors that did not add significantly to the prediction of auditory toxicity were aminoglycoside serum levels, total aminoglycoside dose, duration of therapy, sex, peak temperature, presence of bacteremia, shock, liver cirrhosis, dehydration, previous otic pathology or renal failure, and development of renal toxicity. At least in certain populations, age is the most important predisposing factor for the development of auditory toxicity in patients receiving aminoglycosides. PMID:3674849

  13. COX-2 verexpression in pretreatment biopsies predicts response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fraser M.; Reynolds, John V. . E-mail: reynoldsjv@stjames.ie; Kay, Elaine W.; Crotty, Paul; Murphy, James O.; Hollywood, Donal; Gaffney, Eoin F.; Stephens, Richard B.; Kennedy, M. John

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of COX-2 expression as a response predictor for patients with rectal cancer who are undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment biopsies (PTB) from 49 patients who underwent RCT were included. COX-2 and proliferation in PTB were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL stain. Response to treatment was assessed by a 5-point tumor-regression grade (TRG) based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. Results: Good response (TRG 1 + 2), moderate response (TRG 3), and poor response (TRG 4 + 5) were seen in 21 patients (42%), 11 patients (22%), and 17 patients (34%), respectively. Patients with COX-2 overexpression in PTB were more likely to demonstrate moderate or poor response (TRG 3 + 4) to treatment than were those with normal COX-2 expression (p = 0.026, chi-square test). Similarly, poor response was more likely if patients had low levels of spontaneous apoptosis in PTBs (p = 0.0007, chi-square test). Conclusions: COX-2 overexpression and reduced apoptosis in PTB can predict poor response of rectal cancer to RCT. As COX-2 inhibitors are commercially available, their administration to patients who overexpress COX-2 warrants assessment in clinical trials in an attempt to increase overall response rates.

  14. Analyzing Repeated Measures Designs Using Univariate and Multivariate Methods: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanguma, Jesus

    Similarities and differences in the univariate and multivariate analysis of repeated measures designs are discussed, using a hypothetical data set studying the effects of practice on the algebra performance of four students to illustrate both methods. When data are analyzed through the univariate approach and the homogeneity assumption is…

  15. Bootstrapping to Test for Nonzero Population Correlation Coefficients Using Univariate Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, William Howard; DeShea, Lise; Toothaker, Larry E.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Bard, David E.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes 2 new approaches to test a nonzero population correlation ([rho]): the hypothesis-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (HI) and the observed-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (OI). The authors simulated correlated populations with various combinations of normal and skewed variates. With [alpha[subscript "set"

  16. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitors and the Newborn Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Francine G.; Wade, Andrew W.; Lewis, Megan L.; Qi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI) in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2) plays a more important role in during fetal development and influences kidney function early in life is not known, though evidence points to a predominant role for COX-2. Clinical implications of the use of COXI in pregnancy and in the newborn infant are also evaluated herein, with specific reference to the potential effects of COXI on nephronogenesis as well as newborn kidney function. PMID:24281306

  17. Observational Studies: Matching or Regression?

    PubMed

    Brazauskas, Ruta; Logan, Brent R

    2016-03-01

    In observational studies with an aim of assessing treatment effect or comparing groups of patients, several approaches could be used. Often, baseline characteristics of patients may be imbalanced between groups, and adjustments are needed to account for this. It can be accomplished either via appropriate regression modeling or, alternatively, by conducting a matched pairs study. The latter is often chosen because it makes groups appear to be comparable. In this article we considered these 2 options in terms of their ability to detect a treatment effect in time-to-event studies. Our investigation shows that a Cox regression model applied to the entire cohort is often a more powerful tool in detecting treatment effect as compared with a matched study. Real data from a hematopoietic cell transplantation study is used as an example. PMID:26712591

  18. Bayesian Random Threshold Estimation in a Cox Proportional Hazards Cure Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lili; Feng, Dai; Bellile, Emily L.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian approach to estimate a Cox proportional hazards model that allows a threshold in the regression coefficient based on a threshold in a covariate, when some fraction of subjects are not susceptible to the event of interest. A data augmentation scheme with latent binary cure indicators is adopted to simplify the Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. Given the binary cure indicators, the Cox cure model reduces to a standard Cox model and a logistic regression model. Furthermore, the threshold detection problem reverts to a threshold problem in a regular Cox model. The baseline cumulative hazard for the Cox model is formulated non-parametrically using counting processes with a gamma process prior. Simulation studies demonstrate that the method provides accurate point and interval estimates. Application to a data set of Oropharynx cancer patients suggests a significant threshold in age at diagnosis such that the effect of gender on disease-specific survival changes after the threshold. PMID:24009083

  19. Viscum album-mediated COX-2 inhibition implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1β-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  20. Viscum album-Mediated COX-2 Inhibition Implicates Destabilization of COX-2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1?-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  1. Analysis of the correlation between P53 and Cox-2 expression and prognosis in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JUN; WU, FANG; PEI, HONG-LEI; GU, WEN-DONG; NING, ZHONG-HUA; SHAO, YING-JIE; HUANG, JIN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the importance of P53 and Cox-2 protein expression in esophageal cancer and assess their influence on prognosis. The expression of P53 and Cox-2 was assessed in esophageal cancer samples from 195 patients subjected to radical surgery at Changzhou First People's Hospital (Changzhou, China) between May 2010 and December 2011. Expression of P53 and Cox-2 proteins were detected in 60.5% (118/195) and 69.7% (136/195) of the samples, respectively, and were co-expressed in 43.1% (84/195) of the samples. A correlation was identified between P53 expression and overall survival (OS) (P=0.0351) as well as disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.0307). In addition, the co-expression of P53 and Cox-2 also correlated with OS (P=0.0040) and DFS (P=0.0042). P53 expression (P=0.023), TNM staging (P<0.001) and P53/Cox-2 co-expression (P=0.009) were identified as independent factors affecting OS in patients with esophageal cancer via a Cox multivariate regression model analysis. A similar analysis also identified P53 expression (P=0.020), TNM staging (P<0.001) and P53/Cox-2 co-expression (P=0.008) as independent prognostic factors influencing DFS in these patients. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated a correlation between P53 expression (P=0.012), TNM staging (P<0.001), tumor differentiation level (P=0.023) and P53/Cox-2 co-expression (P=0.021), and local recurrence or distant esophageal cancer metastasis. The results of the present study indicate that P53 and Cox-2 proteins may act synergistically in the development of esophageal cancer, and the assessment of P53/Cox-2 co-expression status in esophageal cancer biopsies may become an important diagnostic criterion to evaluate the prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:26622818

  2. A counterexample to theorems of Cox and Fine

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Cox`s well-known theorem justifying the use of probability is shown not to hold in finite domains. The counterexample also suggests that Cox`s assumptions are insufficient to prove the result even in infinite domains. The same counterexample is used to disprove a result of Fine on comparative conditional probability.

  3. Suppression mechanisms of COX assembly defects in yeast and human: Insights into the COX assembly process

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Antoni; Gouget, Karine; Horn, Darryl; Soto, Ileana C.; Fontanesi, Flavia

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. COX is a multimeric enzyme formed by subunits of dual genetic origin whose assembly is intricate and highly regulated. In addition to the structural subunits, a large number of accessory factors are required to build the holoenzyme. The function of these factors is required in all stages of the assembly process. They are relevant to human health because devastating human disorders have been associated with mutations in nuclear genes encoding conserved COX assembly factors. The study of yeast strains and human cell lines from patients carrying mutations in structural subunits and COX assembly factors has been invaluable to attain the current state of knowledge, even if still fragmentary, of the COX assembly process. After the identification of the genes involved, the isolation and characterization of genetic and metabolic suppressors of COX assembly defects, reviewed here, have become a profitable strategy to gain insight into their functions and the pathways in which they operate. Additionally, they have the potential to provide useful information for devising therapeutic approaches to combat human disorders associated with COX deficiency. PMID:18522805

  4. Regression: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Regression, another mechanism studied by Sigmund Freud, has had much research, e.g., hypnotic regression, frustration regression, schizophrenic regression, and infra-human-animal regression (often directly related to fixation). Many investigators worked with hypnotic age regression, which has a long history, going back to Russian reflexologists.…

  5. Regression: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Regression, another mechanism studied by Sigmund Freud, has had much research, e.g., hypnotic regression, frustration regression, schizophrenic regression, and infra-human-animal regression (often directly related to fixation). Many investigators worked with hypnotic age regression, which has a long history, going back to Russian reflexologists.

  6. Oxidative switches in functioning of mammalian copper chaperone Cox17

    PubMed Central

    Voronova, Anastassia; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Meyer, Thomas; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, Bernt; Kazantseva, Jekaterina; Sillard, Rannar; Palumaa, Peep

    2007-01-01

    Cox17, a copper chaperone for cytochrome-c oxidase, is an essential and highly conserved protein in eukaryotic organisms. Yeast and mammalian Cox17 share six conserved cysteine residues, which are involved in complex redox reactions as well as in metal binding and transfer. Mammalian Cox17 exists in three oxidative states, each characterized by distinct metal-binding properties: fully reduced mammalian Cox170SS binds co-operatively to four Cu+; Cox172SS, with two disulfide bridges, binds to one of either Cu+ or Zn2+; and Cox173SS, with three disulfide bridges, does not bind to any metal ions. The Em (midpoint redox potential) values for two redox couples of Cox17, Cox173SS?Cox172SS (Em1) and Cox172SS?Cox170SS (Em2), were determined to be ?197mV and ?340mV respectively. The data indicate that an equilibrium exists in the cytosol between Cox170S-S and Cox172SS, which is slightly shifted towards Cox170S-S. In the IMS (mitochondrial intermembrane space), the equilibrium is shifted towards Cox172SS, enabling retention of Cox172SS in the IMS and leading to the formation of a biologically competent form of the Cox17 protein, Cox172SS, capable of copper transfer to the copper chaperone Sco1. XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy) determined that Cu4Cox17 contains a Cu4S6-type copperthiolate cluster, which may provide safe storage of an excess of copper ions. PMID:17672825

  7. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2) in ovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokwoon; Choi, Youngsok; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2003-01-01

    In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2? (PGF) on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL). These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR) and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1) and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFN?), produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) (directly) and OTR (indirectly) genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFN? increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFN? in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFN? has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFN? are to inhibit ER? and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus. PMID:12956885

  8. Anandamide and decidual remodelling: COX-2 oxidative metabolism as a key regulator.

    PubMed

    Almada, M; Piscitelli, F; Fonseca, B M; Di Marzo, V; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N

    2015-11-01

    Recently, endocannabinoids have emerged as signalling mediators in reproduction. It is widely accepted that anandamide (AEA) levels must be tightly regulated, and that a disturbance in AEA levels may impact decidual stability and regression. We have previously characterized the endocannabinoid machinery in rat decidual tissue and reported the pro-apoptotic action of AEA on rat decidual cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that plays a crucial role in early pregnancy, and is also a key modulator in the crosstalk between endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. On the other hand, AEA-oxidative metabolism by COX-2 is not merely a mean to inactivate its action, but it yields the formation of a new class of mediators, named prostaglandin-ethanolamides, or prostamides. In this study we found that AEA-induced apoptosis in decidual cells involves COX-2 metabolic pathway. AEA induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK, resulting in the formation of prostamide E2 (PME2). Our findings also suggest that AEA-induced effect is associated with NF-kB activation. Finally, we describe the involvement of PME2 in the induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat decidual cells. Altogether, our findings highlight the role of COX-2 as a gatekeeper in the uterine environment and clarify the impact of the deregulation of AEA levels on the decidual remodelling process. PMID:26335727

  9. Weighted scores method for regression models with dependent data.

    PubMed

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K; Joe, Harry; Chaganty, N Rao

    2011-10-01

    There are copula-based statistical models in the literature for regression with dependent data such as clustered and longitudinal overdispersed counts, for which parameter estimation and inference are straightforward. For situations where the main interest is in the regression and other univariate parameters and not the dependence, we propose a "weighted scores method", which is based on weighting score functions of the univariate margins. The weight matrices are obtained initially fitting a discretized multivariate normal distribution, which admits a wide range of dependence. The general methodology is applied to negative binomial regression models. Asymptotic and small-sample efficiency calculations show that our method is robust and nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood for fully specified copula models. An illustrative example is given to show the use of our weighted scores method to analyze utilization of health care based on family characteristics. PMID:21436109

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Arachidonic Acid Complexes with COX-1 and COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Furse, Kristina E.; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Lybrand, Terry P.

    2008-01-01

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are responsible for the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis, the generation of prostaglandin H2. As a result, these enzymes are pharmacologically important targets for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and newer COX-2 selective inhibitors. The cyclooxygenases are functional homodimers, and each subunit contains both a cyclooxygenase and a peroxidase active site. These enzymes are quite interesting mechanistically, as the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 requires two oxygenation and two cyclization reactions, resulting in the formation of five new chiral centers with nearly absolute regio- and stereochemical fidelity. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the equilibrium behavior of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme isoforms with bound arachidonate. These simulations were compared with reference simulations of arachidonate in solution to explore the effect of enzyme on substrate conformation and positioning in the active site. The simulations suggest that the substrate has greater conformational freedom in the COX-2 active site, consistent with the larger COX-2 active site volume observed in X-ray crystal structures. The simulations reveal different conformational behavior for arachidonate in each subunit over the course of extended equilibrium MD simulations. The simulations also provide detailed information for several protein channels that might be important for oxygen and water transport to or from active sites, or for intermediate trafficking between the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase active sites. The detailed comparisons for COX-1 versus COX-2 active site structural fluctuations may also provide useful information for design of new isozyme-selective inhibitors. PMID:16519514

  11. Cox-2 is needed but not sufficient for apoptosis induced by Cox-2 selective inhibitors in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, B; Swaroop, P; Protiva, P; Raj, S V; Shirin, H; Holt, P R

    2003-12-01

    The role of Cox-2 in NSAID-induced apoptosis is debated. We studied the role of Cox-2 inhibition in apoptosis induced by a selective Cox-2 inhibitor, SC236 (a structural analogue of celecoxib) in two colon cancer cell lines, HT29 (expressing Cox-2 protein) and HCT116 (not expressing Cox-2 protein). Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. SC236 0-75 microM decreased cell numbers and induced apoptosis to identical levels in HT29 and HCT116 cells. However, SC236, concentrations >75 microM reduced Cox-2 protein expression in HT29 cells and induced greater levels of apoptosis in HT29 than in HCT116 cells. In contrast, sulindac sulfide (SSD) (which inhibits Cox-1 and Cox-2) 0-200 microM or sulindac sulfone (SSN) 0-500 microM (without significant activity against Cox-1 or Cox-2) caused identical decreases in cell number and increases in apoptosis in HT29 and HCT116 cells. Neither SSD nor SSN altered the expression of Cox-2 in HT29 cells. To determine that the higher levels of apoptosis in HT29 cells with SC236 >75 microM were related to decreased Cox-2 protein levels, we decreased Cox-2 protein expression in HT29 cells with curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and studied its effect on SC236-induced apoptosis. Curcumin augmented apoptosis induced by SC236 in HT29 cells but not in Cox-2 lacking HCT116 cells. In conclusion, selective Cox-2 inhibitors can induce apoptosis independent of Cox-2 expression. However they may selectively target cells that express Cox-2 by decreasing their Cox-2 protein expression. PMID:14739610

  12. Covariate analysis of survival data: a small-sample study of Cox's model

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Tolley, H.D.; Bryson, M.C.; Goldman, A.S.

    1982-09-01

    Cox's proportional-hazards model is frequently used to adjust for covariate effects in survival-data analysis. The small-sample performances of the maximum partial likelihood estimators of the regression parameters in a two-covariate hazard function model are evaluated with respect to bias, variance, and power in hypothesis tests. Previous Monte Carlo work on the two-sample problem is reviewed.

  13. Ridge Regression: A Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Joseph M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Ridge regression is an approach to the problem of large standard errors of regression estimates of intercorrelated regressors. The effect of ridge regression on the estimated squared multiple correlation coefficient is discussed and illustrated. (JKS)

  14. Selection Strategies for Univariate Loglinear Smoothing Models and Their Effect on Equating Function Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared 12 statistical strategies proposed for selecting loglinear models for smoothing univariate test score distributions and for enhancing the stability of equipercentile equating functions. The major focus was on evaluating the effects of the selection strategies on equating function accuracy. Selection strategies' influence

  15. Gene-Based Association Analysis for Censored Traits Via Fixed Effect Functional Regressions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Yan, Qi; Ding, Ying; Weeks, Daniel E; Lu, Zhaohui; Ren, Haobo; Cook, Richard J; Xiong, Momiao; Swaroop, Anand; Chew, Emily Y; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Genetic studies of survival outcomes have been proposed and conducted recently, but statistical methods for identifying genetic variants that affect disease progression are rarely developed. Motivated by our ongoing real studies, here we develop Cox proportional hazard models using functional regression (FR) to perform gene-based association analysis of survival traits while adjusting for covariates. The proposed Cox models are fixed effect models where the genetic effects of multiple genetic variants are assumed to be fixed. We introduce likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistics to test for associations between the survival traits and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed Cox RF LRT statistics have well-controlled type I error rates. To evaluate power, we compare the Cox FR LRT with the previously developed burden test (BT) in a Cox model and sequence kernel association test (SKAT), which is based on mixed effect Cox models. The Cox FR LRT statistics have higher power than or similar power as Cox SKAT LRT except when 50%/50% causal variants had negative/positive effects and all causal variants are rare. In addition, the Cox FR LRT statistics have higher power than Cox BT LRT. The models and related test statistics can be useful in the whole genome and whole exome association studies. An age-related macular degeneration dataset was analyzed as an example. PMID:26782979

  16. Epileptic Seizure Prediction based on Ratio and Differential Linear Univariate Features

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhi, Jalil; Mollaei, Mohammad Reza Karami; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Teixeira, Csar A.; Dourado, Antnio

    2015-01-01

    Bivariate features, obtained from multichannel electroencephalogram recordings, quantify the relation between different brain regions. Studies based on bivariate features have shown optimistic results for tackling epileptic seizure prediction problem in patients suffering from refractory epilepsy. A new bivariate approach using univariate features is proposed here. Differences and ratios of 22 linear univariate features were calculated using pairwise combination of 6 electroencephalograms channels, to create 330 differential, and 330 relative features. The feature subsets were classified using support vector machines separately, as one of the two classes of preictal and nonpreictal. Furthermore, minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance feature reduction method is employed to improve the predictions and reduce the number of false alarms. The studies were carried out on features obtained from 10 patients. For reduced subset of 30 features and using differential approach, the seizures were on average predicted in 60.9% of the cases (28 out of 46 in 737.9 h of test data), with a low false prediction rate of 0.11 h?1. Results of bivariate approaches were compared with those achieved from original linear univariate features, extracted from 6 channels. The advantage of proposed bivariate features is the smaller number of false predictions in comparison to the original 22 univariate features. In addition, reduction in feature dimension could provide a less complex and the more cost-effective algorithm. Results indicate that applying machine learning methods on a multidimensional feature space resulting from relative/differential pairwise combination of 22 univariate features could predict seizure onsets with high performance. PMID:25709936

  17. Mitochondrial disease genes COA6, COX6B and SCO2 have overlapping roles in COX2 biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Alok; Pratt, Anthony T; Soma, Shivatheja; Theriault, Sarah G; Griffin, Aaron T; Trivedi, Prachi P; Gohil, Vishal M

    2016-02-15

    Biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a complex process facilitated by several assembly factors. Pathogenic mutations were recently reported in one such assembly factor, COA6, and our previous work linked Coa6 function to mitochondrial copper metabolism and expression of Cox2, a copper-containing subunit of CcO. However, the precise role of Coa6 in Cox2 biogenesis remained unknown. Here we show that yeast Coa6 is an orthologue of human COA6, and like Cox2, is regulated by copper availability, further implicating it in copper delivery to Cox2. In order to place Coa6 in the Cox2 copper delivery pathway, we performed a comprehensive genetic epistasis analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that simultaneous deletion of Coa6 and Sco2, a mitochondrial copper metallochaperone, or Coa6 and Cox12/COX6B, a structural subunit of CcO, completely abrogates Cox2 biogenesis. Unlike Coa6 deficient cells, copper supplementation fails to rescue Cox2 levels of these double mutants. Overexpression of Cox12 or Sco proteins partially rescues the coa6? phenotype, suggesting their overlapping but non-redundant roles in copper delivery to Cox2. These genetic data are strongly corroborated by biochemical studies demonstrating physical interactions between Coa6, Cox2, Cox12 and Sco proteins. Furthermore, we show that patient mutations in Coa6 disrupt Coa6-Cox2 interaction, providing the biochemical basis for disease pathogenesis. Taken together, these results place COA6 in the copper delivery pathway to CcO and, surprisingly, link it to a previously unidentified function of CcO subunit Cox12 in Cox2 biogenesis. PMID:26669719

  18. Towards a universal barcode of oomycetes--a comparison of the cox1 and cox2 loci.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Beakes, Gordon; Glockling, Sally; Kruse, Julia; Nam, Bora; Nigrelli, Lisa; Ploch, Sebastian; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Shivas, Roger G; Telle, Sabine; Voglmayr, Hermann; Thines, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Oomycetes are a diverse group of eukaryotes in terrestrial, limnic and marine habitats worldwide and include several devastating plant pathogens, for example Phytophthora infestans (potato late blight). The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene (cox2) has been widely used for identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of various oomycete groups. However, recently the cox1 gene was proposed as a DNA barcode marker instead, together with ITS rDNA. The cox1 locus has been used in some studies of Pythium and Phytophthora, but has rarely been used for other oomycetes, as amplification success of cox1 varies with different lineages and sample ages. To determine which out of cox1 or cox2 is best suited as a universal oomycete barcode, we compared these two genes in terms of (i) PCR efficiency for 31 representative genera, as well as for historic herbarium specimens, and (ii) sequence polymorphism, intra- and interspecific divergence. The primer sets for cox2 successfully amplified all oomycete genera tested, while cox1 failed to amplify three genera. In addition, cox2 exhibited higher PCR efficiency for historic herbarium specimens, providing easier access to barcoding-type material. Sequence data for several historic type specimens exist for cox2, but there are none for cox1. In addition, cox2 yielded higher species identification success, with higher interspecific and lower intraspecific divergences than cox1. Therefore, cox2 is suggested as a partner DNA barcode along with ITS rDNA instead of cox1. The cox2-1 spacer could be a useful marker below species level. Improved protocols and universal primers are presented for all genes to facilitate future barcoding efforts. PMID:25728598

  19. An approach to the estimation of growth standards: the univariate case.

    PubMed

    Fryer, J G; Karlberg, J; Hayes, M

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows how reference values can be determined when the underlying characteristic (say, weight) follows a distribution that is not too distant from the Gaussian. Application of the normalizing Box-Cox power transformation is the basis of our approach. This transformation is monotonic and hence invertible, so offering the choice of two scales of measurement on which to work--the original and the Gaussian. Modified versions of the procedure are provided allowing use of the basic transformation in the presence of certain deficiencies in the data, principally measurement error and misclassification. It is shown that application of Box-Cox to a cohort at several points in time can be quite revealing. When the data are already symmetrical the Box-Cox transformation has no effect: in this case the John-Draper modulus transformation and modifications of it are shown to be helpful. All of this is illustrated by using data from the Swedish Longitudinal Growth Study. PMID:2801103

  20. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. I - Univariate distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1985-01-01

    The statistical treatment of univariate censored data is discussed. A heuristic derivation of the Kaplan-Meier maximum-likelihood estimator from first principles is presented which results in an expression amenable to analytic error analysis. Methods for comparing two or more censored samples are given along with simple computational examples, stressing the fact that most astronomical problems involve upper limits while the standard mathematical methods require lower limits. The application of univariate survival analysis to six data sets in the recent astrophysical literature is described, and various aspects of the use of survival analysis in astronomy, such as the limitations of various two-sample tests and the role of parametric modelling, are discussed.

  1. Treatment effect heterogeneity for univariate subgroups in clinical trials: Shrinkage, standardization, or else.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Ravi; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Treatment effect heterogeneity is a well-recognized phenomenon in randomized controlled clinical trials. In this paper, we discuss subgroup analyses with prespecified subgroups of clinical or biological importance. We explore various alternatives to the naive (the traditional univariate) subgroup analyses to address the issues of multiplicity and confounding. Specifically, we consider a model-based Bayesian shrinkage (Bayes-DS) and a nonparametric, empirical Bayes shrinkage approach (Emp-Bayes) to temper the optimism of traditional univariate subgroup analyses; a standardization approach (standardization) that accounts for correlation between baseline covariates; and a model-based maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach. The Bayes-DS and Emp-Bayes methods model the variation in subgroup-specific treatment effect rather than testing the null hypothesis of no difference between subgroups. The standardization approach addresses the issue of confounding in subgroup analyses. The MLE approach is considered only for comparison in simulation studies as the "truth" since the data were generated from the same model. Using the characteristics of a hypothetical large outcome trial, we perform simulation studies and articulate the utilities and potential limitations of these estimators. Simulation results indicate that Bayes-DS and Emp-Bayes can protect against optimism present in the nave approach. Due to its simplicity, the nave approach should be the reference for reporting univariate subgroup-specific treatment effect estimates from exploratory subgroup analyses. Standardization, although it tends to have a larger variance, is suggested when it is important to address the confounding of univariate subgroup effects due to correlation between baseline covariates. The Bayes-DS approach is available as an R package (DSBayes). PMID:26485117

  2. Univariate time series modeling and an application to future claims amount in SOCSO's invalidity pension scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chek, Mohd Zaki Awang; Ahmad, Abu Bakar; Ridzwan, Ahmad Nur Azam Ahmad; Jelas, Imran Md.; Jamal, Nur Faezah; Ismail, Isma Liana; Zulkifli, Faiz; Noor, Syamsul Ikram Mohd

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to forecast the future claims amount of Invalidity Pension Scheme (IPS). All data were derived from SOCSO annual reports from year 1972 - 2010. These claims consist of all claims amount from 7 benefits offered by SOCSO such as Invalidity Pension, Invalidity Grant, Survivors Pension, Constant Attendance Allowance, Rehabilitation, Funeral and Education. Prediction of future claims of Invalidity Pension Scheme will be made using Univariate Forecasting Models to predict the future claims among workforce in Malaysia.

  3. The Mitochondrial Genome of Conus textile, coxI-coxII Intergenic Sequences and Conoidean Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Stevenson, Bradford J.; Ownby, John-Paul; Cady, Matthew T.; Watkins, Maren; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2009-01-01

    The cone snails belong to the superfamily Conoidea, comprising ?10,000 venomous marine gastropods. We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Conus textile. The gene order is identical in Conus textile, Lophiotoma cerithiformis (another Conoidean gastropod), and the neogastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta, (not in the superfamily Conoidea). However, the intergenic interval between the coxI/coxII genes, was much longer in C. textile (165 bp) than in any other previously analyzed gastropod. We used the intergenic region to evaluate evolutionary patterns. In most neogastropods and three conidean families the intergenic interval is small (<30 nucleotides). Within Conus, the variation is from 130-170 bp, and each different clade within Conus has a narrower size distribution. In Conasprella, a subgenus traditionally assigned to Conus, the intergenic regions vary between 200-500 bp, suggesting that the species in Conasprella are not congeneric with Conus. The intergenic region was used for phylogenetic analysis of a group of fish-hunting Conus, despite the short length resolution was better than using standard markers. Thus, the coxI/coxII intergenic region can be used both to define evolutionary relationships between species in a clade, and to understand broad evolutionary patterns across the large superfamily Conoidea. PMID:17936021

  4. Univariate and Bivariate Linkage Analysis Identifies Pleiotropic Loci Underlying Lipids and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hasstedt, Sandra J; Hanis, Craig L; Elbein, Steven C

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dyslipidemia frequently co-occurs with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with obesity. To investigate whether the co-occurrence is due to pleiotropic genes, we performed univariate linkage analysis of lipid levels and bivariate linkage analysis of pairs of lipid levels and of lipid levels paired with T2D, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in the African American subset of the Genetics of NIDDM (GENNID) sample. We obtained significant evidence for a pleiotropic low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)T2D locus on chromosome 1 at 1619 megabases (MB) (bivariate lod = 4.41), as well as a non-pleiotropic triglyceride (TG) locus on chromosome 20 at 2834 MB (univariate lod = 3.57). In addition, near-significant evidence supported TGT2D loci on chromosome 2 at 81101 MB (bivariate lod = 4.23) and 232239 MB (bivariate lod = 4.27) and on chromosome 7 at 147151 MB (univariate lod = 3.08 for TG with P = 0.041 supporting pleiotropy with T2D), as well as an LDL-CBMI locus on chromosome 3 at 137147 MB (bivariate lod score = 4.25). These finding provide evidence that at least some of the co-occurrence of dyslipidemia with T2D and obesity is due to common underlying genes. PMID:20597901

  5. Binding Energy Calculation of Patchouli Alcohol Isomer Cyclooxygenase Complexes Suggested as COX-1/COX-2 Selective Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Chanif; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Kikuchi, Takheshi; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2014-01-01

    To understand the structural features that dictate the selectivity of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS/COX), the three-dimensional (3D) structure of COX-1/COX-2 was assessed by means of binding energy calculation of virtual molecular dynamic with using ligand alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomers. Molecular interaction studies with COX-1 and COX-2 were done using the molecular docking tools by Hex 8.0. Interactions were further visualized by using Discovery Studio Client 3.5 software tool. The binding energy of molecular interaction was calculated by AMBER12 and Virtual Molecular Dynamic 1.9.1 software. The analysis of the alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomer compounds showed that all alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomers were suggested as inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2. Collectively, the scoring binding energy calculation (with PBSA Model Solvent) of alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomer compounds (CID442384, CID6432585, CID3080622, CID10955174, and CID56928117) was suggested as candidate for a selective COX-1 inhibitor and CID521903 as nonselective COX-1/COX-2. PMID:25484897

  6. Projection pursuit regression

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.H.; Jacobson, M.; Stuetzle, W.

    1980-02-01

    A new method for nonparametric multiple regression is presented. The procedure models the regression surface as a sum of general smooth functions of linear combinations of the predictor variables in an iterative manner. This procedure is more general than standard stepwise and stagewise regression procedures, is affine invariant, does not require the definition of a metric, and lends itself to graphical interpretation. 3 figures.

  7. Projection pursuit regression

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.H.; Stuetzle, W.

    1981-12-01

    A new method for nonparametric multiple regression is presented. The procedure models the regression surface as a sum of general smooth functions of linear combinations of the predictor variables in an iterative manner. It is more general than standard stepwise and stagewise regression procedures, does not require the definition of a metric in the predictor space, and lends itself to graphical interpretation.

  8. NCCS Regression Test Harness

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-09

    The NCCS Regression Test Harness is a software package that provides a framework to perform regression and acceptance testing on NCCS High Performance Computers. The package is written in Python and has only the dependency of a Subversion repository to store the regression tests.

  9. COX-2 expression and tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Wen; Gu, Jin; Li, Zhen-Fu; Ji, Jia-Fu; Xu, Guang-Wei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in metabolism of arachidonic acid, and COX-2 inhibitors demonstrate preventive effects on cancer, especially on colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to illustrate the relationship between angiogenesis and COX-2 in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. METHODS: One hundred and seventy patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled in our study from January 1993 to September 2001 in School of Oncology, Peking University. COX-2 and VEGF expression were detected with the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique. IHC assays were carried out with the aid of tissue microarray (TMA) procedure. Specimens from 35 of these patients were examined with reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). RESULTS: COX-2 and VEGF expressions were stronger in colorectal cancer than those in the corresponding normal tissues, at both protein and mRNA levels. One hundred patients were eligible for analysis after IHC assay of COX-2 and VEGF. The positive rate of VEGF was much higher in COX-2 positive group (47/85) than in COX-2 negative group (?2 = 4.181, P = 0.041). The result was further verified by the result of RT-PCR (?2 = 8.517, P = 0.003). Correlation coefficient was 0.409 after Spearman correlation analysis (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: COX-2 may be involved in the course of tumor angiogenesis of colorectal cancer and acts through VEGF. PMID:15285012

  10. COX-2 signaling and cancer: new players in old arena.

    PubMed

    Misra, Shashank; Sharma, Kulbhushan

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The expression of COX-2 and prostaglandins has not only been associated with various types of cancer but is also directly proportional to their aggressiveness including metastasis. Thus, inhibition of COX-2 activity has been one of the preferred targets for cancer reduction. Broad spectrum inhibition of all forms of COX (using NSAIDs) is associated with various side effects ranging from gastric ulceration to renal problems. Even specific COX-2 inhibitors (COXIBs) are associated with side effects like myocardial infarction. Alternative strategies including siRNA technology are also not very victorious due to their off-target associated problems. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of strategies where COX-2 activity may be reduced without inducing any side effects. One of the approaches for designing novel inhibitors may be to target various molecules downstream of COX-2. In this review, we have tried to cover the basic biology of COX-2 and its association with different types of cancer. Various generations of COX-2 inhibitors have been covered with their merits and demerits. Possible exploitation of novel targets like EP receptors, mPGES and various other downstream molecules which can be utilized for a better COX-2 signaling inhibition and thus efficient cancer reduction with minimal side effects has been discussed. PMID:24467618

  11. Comparison of univariate and multivariate aspects of estuarine meiobenthic community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austen, M. C.; Warwick, R. M.

    1989-07-01

    In a survey of ten sites in the Tamar estuary in January 1984, spatial variability in the species composition and structure of nematode and copepod species assemblages was greater between sites over a range of 1-3 km than between replicates at the same site. Two aspects of meiofauna community structure were studied: (1) the multivariate information: the identities of the species or nematode feeding types are retained and used integrally with data on abundances during comparison of assemblages using multivariate analyses [multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS)] and (2) the univariate information: taxonomic identity is not retained during comparisons of assemblage structure; data analyzed includes numberical abundances, species counts and diversity. Multivariate aspects of species assemblage structure were closely correlated with salinity for both copepods and nematodes. For nematode assemblages sediment disturbance may also have been important and other unidentified factors have clear secondary effects on multivariate copepod assemblage structure. Univariate aspects of nematode assemblage structure did not appear to be correlated with the salinity gradient in the Tamar, sites at the mouth and head of the estuary had a more even nematode species distribution than those in the middle reaches. Nematode univariate assemblage structure may have been more strongly influenced by sediment disturbance caused by hydrographic processes, macrofauna, food resource availability or some combination of all three. Copepod abundances and species numbers were variable but assemblages became more dominated and less diverse with increasing distance away from the mouth of the estuary. Data from 1984 were compared with data from 1982 collected at three of the sites by Warwick and Gee (1984). Persistence of assemblage structure varied from site to site and according to the attribute of community structure under consideration.

  12. Expression of COX-2 proteins in gastric mucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lian-Zhen; Gao, Heng-Jun; Bai, Jian-Feng; Sun, Gu; Zhao, Han-Lin; Sun, Liang; Miu, Kun; Zhao, Zhi-Quan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of COX-2 proteins in gastric mucosal lesions and to assess the relationship between COX-2 expression and type, pathologic stage, differentiation, or lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer and the relationship between COX-2 expression and H pylori infection in gastric mucosal lesions. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric carcinoma underwent surgical resection. Samples were taken from tumor site and paracancerous tissues, and ABC immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of COX-2 proteins. H pylori was determined by rapid urea test combined with pathological stating/14C urea breath test. RESULTS: The positive rate and staining intensity of mutant COX-2 gene expression in gastric cancer were significantly higher than those in paracancerous tissues (66.7% vs 26.7%) (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and pathologic stage or lymph node metastasis type of gastric carcinoma (76.0% vs 20.0%, 79.2% vs 16.7%) (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between COX-2 expression and type or grade of differentiation (P > 0.05). COX-2 expression of intestinal metaplasia (IM) or dysplasia (DYS) with positive H pylori was significantly higher than that with negative H pylori (50.6% vs 18.1%, 60.0% vs 33.3%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: COX-2 overexpression was found in a large proportion of gastric cancer tissues compared with matched non-cancerous tissues and was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of COX-2 plays an important role in tumor progression of gastric cancer. COX-2 may also play a role in the early development/promotion of gastric carcinoma and is associated with H pylori infection. PMID:14716842

  13. Evaluation dam overtopping risk based on univariate and bivariate flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, E.; Mirzaei, M.; Shui, L. T.; Ziaei, M.

    2011-11-01

    There is a growing tendency to assess the safety levels of existing dams based on risk and uncertainty analysis using mathematical and statistical methods. This research presents the application of risk and uncertainty analysis to dam overtopping based on univariate and bivariate flood frequency analyses by applying Gumbel logistic distribution for the Doroudzan earth-fill dam in south of Iran. The bivariate frequency analysis resulted in six inflow hydrographs with a joint return period of 100-yr. The overtopping risks were computed for all of those hydrographs considering quantile of flood peak discharge (in particular 100-yr), initial depth of water in the reservoir, and discharge coefficient of spillway as uncertain variables. The maximum height of the water, as most important factor in the overtopping analysis, was evaluated using reservoir routing and the Monte Carlo and Latin hypercube techniques were applied for uncertainty analysis. Finally, the achieved results using both univariate and bivariate frequency analysis have been compared to show the significance of bivariate analyses on dam overtopping.

  14. A Formally-Verified Decision Procedure for Univariate Polynomial Computation Based on Sturm's Theorem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    Sturm's Theorem is a well-known result in real algebraic geometry that provides a function that computes the number of roots of a univariate polynomial in a semiopen interval. This paper presents a formalization of this theorem in the PVS theorem prover, as well as a decision procedure that checks whether a polynomial is always positive, nonnegative, nonzero, negative, or nonpositive on any input interval. The soundness and completeness of the decision procedure is proven in PVS. The procedure and its correctness properties enable the implementation of a PVS strategy for automatically proving existential and universal univariate polynomial inequalities. Since the decision procedure is formally verified in PVS, the soundness of the strategy depends solely on the internal logic of PVS rather than on an external oracle. The procedure itself uses a combination of Sturm's Theorem, an interval bisection procedure, and the fact that a polynomial with exactly one root in a bounded interval is always nonnegative on that interval if and only if it is nonnegative at both endpoints.

  15. Automatic procedures for river reach delineation: Univariate and multivariate approaches in a fluvial context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Fernández, V.; Solana-Gutiérrez, J.; González del Tánago, M.; García de Jalón, D.

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting the continuum of rivers into homogeneous reaches is an important issue in river research and management. Automatic procedures provide significance, objectivity, and repeatability. Although univariate techniques are frequently used to identify river reaches, multivariate approaches offer a more integrative context. Three nonparametric methods (multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) with an advance in the significance level estimation, the Pettitt and Mann-Kendall tests) are applied for segmenting the river based on three geomorphic variables (valley width, active channel width, and channel slope) systematically measured in a GIS environment. The cited techniques have been applied to the Curueño River (NW Spain) to illustrate the methods, we analyse reach distribution along the river longitudinal profile. The methods successfully characterize the evident transitions along fluvial systems and also others less noticeable. The three methods provide more reaches according to valley width and less reaches according to channel slope (18.0 and 3.7 reaches on average, respectively). In contrast to the Mann-Kendall test, MRPP and Pettitt tests provide more stable segmentations when significance level varies. However, the Pettitt test provides irregular segmentations for regular patterns. The MRPP both univariate and multivariate applications enables a wider scope for the segmentation issue, which is useful in diverse aspects of fluvial domain.

  16. Morse-Smale Regression

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Samuel; Rbel, Oliver; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio; Whitaker, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel partition-based regression approach that incorporates topological information. Partition-based regression typically introduce a quality-of-fit-driven decomposition of the domain. The emphasis in this work is on a topologically meaningful segmentation. Thus, the proposed regression approach is based on a segmentation induced by a discrete approximation of the Morse-Smale complex. This yields a segmentation with partitions corresponding to regions of the function with a single minimum and maximum that are often well approximated by a linear model. This approach yields regression models that are amenable to interpretation and have good predictive capacity. Typically, regression estimates are quantified by their geometrical accuracy. For the proposed regression, an important aspect is the quality of the segmentation itself. Thus, this paper introduces a new criterion that measures the topological accuracy of the estimate. The topological accuracy provides a complementary measure to the classical geometrical error measures and is very sensitive to over-fitting. The Morse-Smale regression is compared to state-of-the-art approaches in terms of geometry and topology and yields comparable or improved fits in many cases. Finally, a detailed study on climate-simulation data demonstrates the application of the Morse-Smale regression. Supplementary materials are available online and contain an implementation of the proposed approach in the R package msr, an analysis and simulations on the stability of the Morse-Smale complex approximation and additional tables for the climate-simulation study. PMID:23687424

  17. Prediction in Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of prediction via multiple regression (MR) and discusses the assumptions underlying multiple regression analyses. Also discusses shrinkage, cross-validation, and double cross-validation of prediction equations and describes how to calculate confidence intervals around individual predictions. (SLD)

  18. Dynamics of intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from epilepsy patients using univariate and bivariate recurrence networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniyam, Narayan Puthanmadam; Hyttinen, Jari

    2015-02-01

    Recently Andrezejak et al. combined the randomness and nonlinear independence test with iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (iAAFT) surrogates to distinguish between the dynamics of seizure-free intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded from epileptogenic (focal) and nonepileptogenic (nonfocal) brain areas of epileptic patients. However, stationarity is a part of the null hypothesis for iAAFT surrogates and thus nonstationarity can violate the null hypothesis. In this work we first propose the application of the randomness and nonlinear independence test based on recurrence network measures to distinguish between the dynamics of focal and nonfocal EEG signals. Furthermore, we combine these tests with both iAAFT and truncated Fourier transform (TFT) surrogate methods, which also preserves the nonstationarity of the original data in the surrogates along with its linear structure. Our results indicate that focal EEG signals exhibit an increased degree of structural complexity and interdependency compared to nonfocal EEG signals. In general, we find higher rejections for randomness and nonlinear independence tests for focal EEG signals compared to nonfocal EEG signals. In particular, the univariate recurrence network measures, the average clustering coefficient C and assortativity R , and the bivariate recurrence network measure, the average cross-clustering coefficient Ccross, can successfully distinguish between the focal and nonfocal EEG signals, even when the analysis is restricted to nonstationary signals, irrespective of the type of surrogates used. On the other hand, we find that the univariate recurrence network measures, the average path length L , and the average betweenness centrality BC fail to distinguish between the focal and nonfocal EEG signals when iAAFT surrogates are used. However, these two measures can distinguish between focal and nonfocal EEG signals when TFT surrogates are used for nonstationary signals. We also report an improvement in the performance of nonlinear prediction error N and nonlinear interdependence measure L used by Andrezejak et al., when TFT surrogates are used for nonstationary EEG signals. We also find that the outcome of the nonlinear independence test based on the average cross-clustering coefficient Ccross is independent of the outcome of the randomness test based on the average clustering coefficient C . Thus, the univariate and bivariate recurrence network measures provide independent information regarding the dynamics of the focal and nonfocal EEG signals. In conclusion, recurrence network analysis combined with nonstationary surrogates can be applied to derive reliable biomarkers to distinguish between epileptogenic and nonepileptogenic brain areas using EEG signals.

  19. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  20. A consistent framework for Horton regression statistics that leads to a modified Hack's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furey, P.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical framework is introduced that resolves important problems with the interpretation and use of traditional Horton regression statistics. The framework is based on a univariate regression model that leads to an alternative expression for Horton ratio, connects Horton regression statistics to distributional simple scaling, and improves the accuracy in estimating Horton plot parameters. The model is used to examine data for drainage area A and mainstream length L from two groups of basins located in different physiographic settings. Results show that confidence intervals for the Horton plot regression statistics are quite wide. Nonetheless, an analysis of covariance shows that regression intercepts, but not regression slopes, can be used to distinguish between basin groups. The univariate model is generalized to include n > 1 dependent variables. For the case where the dependent variables represent ln A and ln L, the generalized model performs somewhat better at distinguishing between basin groups than two separate univariate models. The generalized model leads to a modification of Hack's law where L depends on both A and Strahler order ??. Data show that ?? plays a statistically significant role in the modified Hack's law expression. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Towards a More General Type of Univariate Constrained Interpolation with Fractal Splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, A. K. B.; Viswanathan, P.; Reddy, K. M.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, in [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 41 (2014) 420-442] authors introduced a new class of rational cubic fractal interpolation functions with linear denominators via fractal perturbation of traditional nonrecursive rational cubic splines and investigated their basic shape preserving properties. The main goal of the current paper is to embark on univariate constrained fractal interpolation that is more general than what was considered so far. To this end, we propose some strategies for selecting the parameters of the rational fractal spline so that the interpolating curves lie strictly above or below a prescribed linear or a quadratic spline function. Approximation property of the proposed rational cubic fractal spine is broached by using the Peano kernel theorem as an interlude. The paper also provides an illustration of background theory, veined by examples.

  2. Spatiotemporal Linear Mixed Effects Modeling for the Mass-univariate Analysis of Longitudinal Neuroimage Data

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L.; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N.; Fischl, Bruce; Sabuncu, Mert R.

    2013-01-01

    We present an extension of the Linear Mixed Effects (LME) modeling approach to be applied to the mass-univariate analysis of longitudinal neuroimaging (LNI) data. The proposed method, called spatiotemporal LME or ST-LME, builds on the flexible LME framework and exploits the spatial structure in image data. We instantiated ST-LME for the analysis of cortical surface measurements (e.g. thickness) computed by FreeSurfer, a widely-used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We validate the proposed ST-LME method and provide a quantitative and objective empirical comparison with two popular alternative methods, using two brain MRI datasets obtained from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) and Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Our experiments revealed that ST-LME offers a dramatic gain in statistical power and repeatability of findings, while providing good control of the false positive rate. PMID:23702413

  3. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Analysis for Monitoring Disease Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Delfino, Ines; Perna, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vito; Lepore, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a very promising tool for medical applications, thanks to its sensitivity to subtle changes in the chemical and structural characteristics of biological specimens. To fully exploit these promises, building a method of data analysis properly suited for the case under study is crucial. Here, a linear or univariate approach using a R2 determination coefficient is proposed for discriminating Raman spectra even with small differences. The validity of the proposed approach has been tested using Raman spectra of high purity glucose solutions collected in the 600 to 1,600 cm?1 region and also from solutions with two known solutes at different concentrations. After this validation step, the proposed analysis has been applied to Raman spectra from oral human tissues affected by Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV), a rare life-threatening autoimmune disease, for monitoring disease follow-up. Raman spectra have been obtained in the wavenumber regions from 1,050 to 1,700 cm?1 and 2,700 to 3,200 cm?1 from tissues of patients at different stages of pathology (active PV, under therapy and PV in remission stage) as confirmed by histopathological and immunofluorescence analysis. Differences in the spectra depending on tissue illness stage have been detected at 1,1501,250 cm?1 (amide III) and 1,4201,450 cm?1 (CH3 deformation) regions and around 1,650 cm?1 (amide I) and 2,930 cm?1 (CH3 symmetric stretch). The analysis of tissue Raman spectra by the proposed univariate method has allowed us to effectively differentiate tissues at different stages of pathology. PMID:22164077

  4. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and univariate analysis for monitoring disease follow-up.

    PubMed

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Delfino, Ines; Perna, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vito; Lepore, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a very promising tool for medical applications, thanks to its sensitivity to subtle changes in the chemical and structural characteristics of biological specimens. To fully exploit these promises, building a method of data analysis properly suited for the case under study is crucial. Here, a linear or univariate approach using a R2 determination coefficient is proposed for discriminating Raman spectra even with small differences. The validity of the proposed approach has been tested using Raman spectra of high purity glucose solutions collected in the 600 to 1,600 cm(-1) region and also from solutions with two known solutes at different concentrations. After this validation step, the proposed analysis has been applied to Raman spectra from oral human tissues affected by Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV), a rare life-threatening autoimmune disease, for monitoring disease follow-up. Raman spectra have been obtained in the wavenumber regions from 1,050 to 1,700 cm(-1) and 2,700 to 3,200 cm(-1) from tissues of patients at different stages of pathology (active PV, under therapy and PV in remission stage) as confirmed by histopathological and immunofluorescence analysis. Differences in the spectra depending on tissue illness stage have been detected at 1,150-1,250 cm(-1) (amide III) and 1,420-1,450 cm(-1) (CH3 deformation) regions and around 1,650 cm(-1) (amide I) and 2,930 cm(-1) (CH3 symmetric stretch). The analysis of tissue Raman spectra by the proposed univariate method has allowed us to effectively differentiate tissues at different stages of pathology. PMID:22164077

  5. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  6. Censored quantile regression with recursive partitioning-based weights.

    PubMed

    Wey, Andrew; Wang, Lan; Rudser, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Censored quantile regression provides a useful alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model for analyzing survival data. It directly models the conditional quantile of the survival time and hence is easy to interpret. Moreover, it relaxes the proportionality constraint on the hazard function associated with the popular Cox model and is natural for modeling heterogeneity of the data. Recently, Wang and Wang (2009. Locally weighted censored quantile regression. Journal of the American Statistical Association 103, 1117-1128) proposed a locally weighted censored quantile regression approach that allows for covariate-dependent censoring and is less restrictive than other censored quantile regression methods. However, their kernel smoothing-based weighting scheme requires all covariates to be continuous and encounters practical difficulty with even a moderate number of covariates. We propose a new weighting approach that uses recursive partitioning, e.g. survival trees, that offers greater flexibility in handling covariate-dependent censoring in moderately high dimensions and can incorporate both continuous and discrete covariates. We prove that this new weighting scheme leads to consistent estimation of the quantile regression coefficients and demonstrate its effectiveness via Monte Carlo simulations. We also illustrate the new method using a widely recognized data set from a clinical trial on primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:23975800

  7. Does Cox analysis of a randomized survival study yield a causal treatment effect?

    PubMed

    Aalen, Odd O; Cook, Richard J; Rysland, Kjetil

    2015-10-01

    Statistical methods for survival analysis play a central role in the assessment of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and many other fields. The most common approach to analysis involves fitting a Cox regression model including a treatment indicator, and basing inference on the large sample properties of the regression coefficient estimator. Despite the fact that treatment assignment is randomized, the hazard ratio is not a quantity which admits a causal interpretation in the case of unmodelled heterogeneity. This problem arises because the risk sets beyond the first event time are comprised of the subset of individuals who have not previously failed. The balance in the distribution of potential confounders between treatment arms is lost by this implicit conditioning, whether or not censoring is present. Thus while the Cox model may be used as a basis for valid tests of the null hypotheses of no treatment effect if robust variance estimates are used, modeling frameworks more compatible with causal reasoning may be preferrable in general for estimation. PMID:26100005

  8. Effect of structural modification of enol-carboxamide-type nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on COX-2/COX-1 selectivity.

    PubMed

    Lazer, E S; Miao, C K; Cywin, C L; Sorcek, R; Wong, H C; Meng, Z; Potocki, I; Hoermann, M; Snow, R J; Tschantz, M A; Kelly, T A; McNeil, D W; Coutts, S J; Churchill, L; Graham, A G; David, E; Grob, P M; Engel, W; Meier, H; Trummlitz, G

    1997-03-14

    Meloxicam (5), an NSAID in the enol-carboxamide class, was developed on the basis of its antiinflammatory activity and relative safety in animal models. In subsequent screening in microsomal assays using human COX-1 and COX-2, we discovered that it possessed a selectivity profile for COX-2 superior to piroxicam and other marketed NSAIDs. We therefore embarked on a study of enol-carboxamide type compounds to determine if COX-2 selectivity and potency could be dramatically improved by structural modification. Substitution at the 6- and 7-positions of the 4-oxo-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, alteration of the N-methyl substituent, and amide modification were all examined. In addition we explored several related systems including the isomeric 3-oxo-1,2-benzothiazine-4-carboxamides, thienothiazines, indolothizines, benzothienothiazines, naphthothiazines, and 1,3- and 1,4-dioxoisoquinolines. While a few examples were found with greater potency in the COX-2 assay, no compound tested had a better COX-2/COX-1 selectivity profile than that of 5. PMID:9083488

  9. p50-associated COX-2 extragenic RNA (PACER) activates COX-2 gene expression by occluding repressive NF-?B complexes

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Michal; Emerson, Beverly M

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated expression of COX-2 has been causally linked to development, progression, and outcome of several types of human cancer. We describe a novel fundamental level of transcriptional control of COX-2 expression. Using primary human mammary epithelial cells and monocyte/macrophage cell lines, we show that the chromatin boundary/insulator factor CTCF establishes an open chromatin domain and induces expression of a long non-coding RNA within the upstream promoter region of COX-2. Upon induction of COX-2 expression, the lncRNA associates with p50, a repressive subunit of NF-?B, and occludes it from the COX-2 promoter, potentially facilitating interaction with activation-competent NF-?B p65/p50 dimers. This enables recruitment of the p300 histone acetyltransferase, a domain-wide increase in histone acetylation and assembly of RNA Polymerase II initiation complexes. Our findings reveal an unexpected mechanism of gene control by lncRNA-mediated repressor occlusion and identify the COX-2-lncRNA, PACER, as a new potential target for COX-2-modulation in inflammation and cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01776.001 PMID:24843008

  10. Role of LKB1-CRTC1 on Glycosylated COX-2 and Response to COX-2 Inhibition in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chunxia; Gao, Ruli; Zhang, Min; Amelio, Antonio L.; Fallahi, Mohammad; Chen, Zirong; Gu, Yumei; Hu, Chengbin; Welsh, Eric A.; Engel, Brienne E.; Haura, Eric B.; Cress, W. Douglas; Wu, Lizi; Zajac-Kaye, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) directs the synthesis of prostaglandins including PGE-2 linking inflammation with mitogenic signaling. COX-2 is also an anticancer target, however, treatment strategies have been limited by unreliable expression assays and by inconsistent tumor responses to COX-2 inhibition. Methods: We analyzed the TCGA and Directors Challenge lung cancer datasets (n = 188) and also generated an LKB1-null lung cancer gene signature (n = 53) to search the Broad Institute/Connectivity-MAP (C-MAP) dataset. We performed ChIP analyses, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and drug testing of tumor cell lines (n = 8) and primary lung adenocarcinoma surgical resections (n = 13). Results: We show that COX-2 is a target of the cAMP/CREB coactivator CRTC1 signaling pathway. In addition, we detected a correlation between LKB1 status, CRTC1 activation, and presence of glycosylated, but not inactive hypoglycosylated COX-2 in primary lung adenocarcinoma. A search of the C-MAP drug database discovered that all high-ranking drugs positively associated with the LKB1-null signature are known CRTC1 activators, including forskolin and six different PGE-2 analogues. Somatic LKB1 mutations are present in 20.0% of lung adenocarcinomas, and we observed growth inhibition with COX-2 inhibitors in LKB1-null lung cancer cells with activated CRTC1 as compared with LKB1-wildtype cells (NS-398, P = .002 and Niflumic acid, P = .006; two-tailed t test). Conclusion: CRTC1 activation is a key event that drives the LKB1-null mRNA signature in lung cancer. We also identified a positive feedback LKB1/CRTC1 signaling loop for COX-2/PGE2 regulation. These data suggest a role for LKB1 status and glycosylated COX-2 as specific biomarkers that provide a framework for selecting patients for COX-2 inhibition studies. PMID:25465874

  11. Bayesian isotonic density regression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianming; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Density regression models allow the conditional distribution of the response given predictors to change flexibly over the predictor space. Such models are much more flexible than nonparametric mean regression models with nonparametric residual distributions, and are well supported in many applications. A rich variety of Bayesian methods have been proposed for density regression, but it is not clear whether such priors have full support so that any true data-generating model can be accurately approximated. This article develops a new class of density regression models that incorporate stochastic-ordering constraints which are natural when a response tends to increase or decrease monotonely with a predictor. Theory is developed showing large support. Methods are developed for hypothesis testing, with posterior computation relying on a simple Gibbs sampler. Frequentist properties are illustrated in a simulation study, and an epidemiology application is considered. PMID:22822259

  12. George: Gaussian Process regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman-Mackey, Dan

    2015-11-01

    George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.

  13. 32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE AT CONTROL PANEL, ABOUT 1965. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  14. Relationship of the Topological Distances and Activities between mPGES-1 and COX-2 versus COX-1: Implications of the Different Post-Translational Endoplasmic Reticulum Organizations of COX-1 and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Hironari; So, Shui-Ping; Ruan, Ke-He

    2015-06-16

    In vascular inflammation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) is largely biosynthesized by microsomal PGE₂ synthase-1 (mPGES-1), competing with other downstream eicosanoid-synthesizing enzymes, such as PGIS, a synthase of a vascular protector prostacyclin (PGI₂), to isomerize the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived prostaglandin H2 (PGH₂). In this study, we found that a majority of the product from the cells co-expressing human COX-2, mPGES-1, and PGIS was PGE₂. We hypothesize that the molecular and cellular mechanisms are related to the post-translational endoplasmic reticulum (ER) arrangement of those enzymes. A set of fusion enzymes, COX-2-linker [10 amino acids (aa)]-PGIS and COX-2-linker (22 amino acids)-PGIS, were created as "The Bioruler", in which the 10 and 22 amino acids are defined linkers with known helical structures and distances (14.4 and 30.8 Å, respectively). Our experiments have shown that the efficiency of PGI₂ biosynthesis was reduced when the separation distance increased from 10 to 22 amino acids. When COX-2-10aa-PGIS (with a 14.4 Å separation) was co-expressed with mPGES-1 on the ER membrane, a major product was PGE₂, but not PGI₂. However, expression of COX-2-10aa-PGIS and mPGES-1 on a separated ER with a distance of ≫30.8 Å reduced the level of PGE₂ production. These data indicated that the mPGES-1 is "complex-likely" colocalized with COX-2 within a distance of 14.4 Å. In addition, the cells co-expressing COX-1-10aa-PGIS and mPGES-1 produced PGI₂ mainly, but not PGE₂. This indicates that mPGES-1 is expressed much farther from COX-1. These findings have led to proposed models showing the different post-translational ER organization between COX-2 and COX-1 with respect to the topological arrangement of the mPGES-1 during vascular inflammation. PMID:25988363

  15. COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: current status.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, A; Sharma, Rashmi

    2005-03-01

    Since, their introduction, COX (cyclooxygenase enzyme)-2 specific inhibitors have become a rapidly growing segment of the prescription drug market. Researchers have recently focused on the potentially lethal side effects associated with their. FDA has banned the use of nimesulide (hepatotoxic) in pediatric patients and rofecoxib (cardiovascular complications) in both adults and children. COX-2 inhibitors may decrease vascular prostacyclin production and may tip the balance in favour of prothrombotic eicosanoids (thromboxane A2) and lead to increased cardiovascular thrombotic events. COX-2 inhibitors can also result into increase blood pressure, macular eruptions, urticaria, pseudoporphyria, erythema multiforme, oedema, worsening of heart failure, fatal allergic vasculitis and aggravation of doxorubicin-mediated cardiac injury. The COX-2 enzyme is also involved in the development of many organ systems, and its inhibition may lead to various congenital defects in neonates. It has been reported that COX-2 inhibitors also interfere with implantation, hence their use should be avoided in sexually active women at risk of pregnancy. However, presently the choice of COX-2 selective inhibitors for a particular patient should be based upon their relative efficacy, toxicity, concomitant drug use, concurrent disease states, hepatic and renal function and relative cost. PMID:15926604

  16. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: a comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E; Saad, Ziad S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance-covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within-subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT) with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt) with MVT-WS. To validate the MVM methodology, we performed simulations to assess the controllability for false positives and power achievement. A real FMRI dataset was analyzed to demonstrate the capability of the MVM approach. The methodology has been implemented into an open source program 3dMVM in AFNI, and all the statistical tests can be performed through symbolic coding with variable names instead of the tedious process of dummy coding. Our data indicates that the severity of sphericity violation varies substantially across brain regions. The differences among various modeling methodologies were addressed through direct comparisons between the MVM approach and some of the GLM implementations in the field, and the following two issues were raised: a) the improper formulation of test statistics in some univariate GLM implementations when a within-subject factor is involved in a data structure with two or more factors, and b) the unjustified presumption of uniform sphericity violation and the practice of estimating the variance-covariance structure through pooling across brain regions. PMID:24954281

  17. Analysis of meteorological droughts for the Saskatchewan River Basin using univariate and bivariate approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, M. B.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-03-01

    This study is focused on the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) that spans southern parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the three Prairie Provinces of Canada, where most of the country's agricultural activities are concentrated. The SRB is confronted with immense water-related challenges and is now one of the ten GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Regional Hydroclimate Projects in the world. In the past, various multi-year droughts have been observed in this part of Canada that impacted agriculture, energy and socio-economic sectors. Therefore, proper understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of historical droughts is important for many water resources planning and management related activities across the basin. In the study, observed gridded data of daily precipitation and temperature and conventional univariate and copula-based bivariate frequency analyses are used to characterize drought events in terms of drought severity and duration on the basis of two drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Within the framework of univariate and bivariate analyses, drought risk indicators are developed and mapped across the SRB to delineate the most vulnerable parts of the basin. Based on the results obtained, southern parts of the SRB (i.e., western part of the South Saskatchewan River, Seven Persons Creek and Bigstick Lake watersheds) are associated with a higher drought risk, while moderate risk is noted for the North Saskatchewan River (except its eastern parts), Red Deer River, Oldman River, Bow River, Sounding Creek, Carrot River and Battle River watersheds. Lower drought risk is found for the areas surrounding the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border (particularly, the Saskatchewan River watershed). It is also found that the areas characterized with higher drought severity are also associated with higher drought duration. A comparison of SPI- and SPEI-based analyses suggests only little effect of considering temperature, in the form of evapotranspiration, on identifying drought vulnerable areas. It is expected that the findings of the study will be helpful in the management and efficient utilization of the water resources of this important river basin in Canada.

  18. Investigating univariate temporal patterns for intrinsic connectivity networks based on complexity and low-frequency oscillation: a test-retest reliability study.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Jiao, Y; Tang, T; Wang, H; Lu, Z

    2013-12-19

    Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are composed of spatial components and time courses. The spatial components of ICNs were discovered with moderate-to-high reliability. So far as we know, few studies focused on the reliability of the temporal patterns for ICNs based their individual time courses. The goals of this study were twofold: to investigate the test-retest reliability of temporal patterns for ICNs, and to analyze these informative univariate metrics. Additionally, a correlation analysis was performed to enhance interpretability. Our study included three datasets: (a) short- and long-term scans, (b) multi-band echo-planar imaging (mEPI), and (c) eyes open or closed. Using dual regression, we obtained the time courses of ICNs for each subject. To produce temporal patterns for ICNs, we applied two categories of univariate metrics: network-wise complexity and network-wise low-frequency oscillation. Furthermore, we validated the test-retest reliability for each metric. The network-wise temporal patterns for most ICNs (especially for default mode network, DMN) exhibited moderate-to-high reliability and reproducibility under different scan conditions. Network-wise complexity for DMN exhibited fair reliability (ICC<0.5) based on eyes-closed sessions. Specially, our results supported that mEPI could be a useful method with high reliability and reproducibility. In addition, these temporal patterns were with physiological meanings, and certain temporal patterns were correlated to the node strength of the corresponding ICN. Overall, network-wise temporal patterns of ICNs were reliable and informative and could be complementary to spatial patterns of ICNs for further study. PMID:24042040

  19. Regression versus No Regression in the Autistic Disorder: Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernabei, P.; Cerquiglini, A.; Cortesi, F.; D' Ardia, C.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental regression is a complex phenomenon which occurs in 20-49% of the autistic population. Aim of the study was to assess possible differences in the development of regressed and non-regressed autistic preschoolers. We longitudinally studied 40 autistic children (18 regressed, 22 non-regressed) aged 2-6 years. The following developmental…

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of arachidonic acid complexes with COX-1 and COX-2: insights into equilibrium behavior.

    PubMed

    Furse, Kristina E; Pratt, Derek A; Porter, Ned A; Lybrand, Terry P

    2006-03-14

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are responsible for the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis, the generation of prostaglandin H(2). As a result, these enzymes are pharmacologically important targets for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and newer COX-2 selective inhibitors. The cyclooxygenases are functional homodimers, and each subunit contains both a cyclooxygenase and a peroxidase active site. These enzymes are quite interesting mechanistically, as the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H(2) requires two oxygenation and two cyclization reactions, resulting in the formation of five new chiral centers with nearly absolute regio- and stereochemical fidelity. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the equilibrium behavior of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme isoforms with bound arachidonate. These simulations were compared with reference simulations of arachidonate in solution to explore the effect of enzyme on substrate conformation and positioning in the active site. The simulations suggest that the substrate has greater conformational freedom in the COX-2 active site, consistent with the larger COX-2 active site volume observed in X-ray crystal structures. The simulations reveal different conformational behavior for arachidonate in each subunit over the course of extended equilibrium MD simulations. The simulations also provide detailed information for several protein channels that might be important for oxygen and water transport to or from active sites or for intermediate trafficking between the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase active sites. The detailed comparisons for COX-1 versus COX-2 active site structural fluctuations may also provide useful information for design of new isozyme-selective inhibitors. PMID:16519514

  1. Selective COX-2 inhibition affects fatty acids, but not COX mRNA expression in patients with FAP.

    PubMed

    Almendingen, Kari; Larsen, Laila N; Fausa, Olav; Bratlie, Jorunn; Hstmark, Arne T; Aabakken, Lars

    2010-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) provides a model for sporadic colorectal cancer development. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition may ameliorate polyp development, but rofecoxib was withdrawn due to cardiovascular side effects. Although this selective COX-2 inhibitor, like diet, may alter the fatty acid and eicosanoid pattern, data on the potential alteration in tissues after use, are scarce. The aims were to study if rofecoxib might influence the fatty acid distribution in serum phospholipids and duodenal lesions, mRNA for COX-1 and COX-2 in leucocytes and duodenal lesions, and finally plasma levels of PGE(2) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study (n = 38). Significant reductions were found for essential fatty acid index both in serum phospholipids (P = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.9; -0.1), and in duodenal lesions (P = 0.04, 95 CI % = -0.9; -0.1) after treatment. No treatment effects were found on the COX mRNA expression, or in the plasma PGE(2) levels. Dietary AA/EPA ratio was inversely associated with all the indicators of EFA status (all P < 0.01). These findings suggest that the effects of COX chemoprevention should be further investigated in FAP and that dietary needs should be included in the treatment of FAP. PMID:20593240

  2. Recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a clinical, univariate and multivariate analysis of response and survival with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Recondo, G; Armand, J P; Tellez-Bernal, E; Domenge, C; Belehradek, M; De Vathaire, F; Wibault, P; Richard, J M; Cvitkovic, E

    1991-05-01

    One hundred two patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer were entered into four consecutive phase II trials, all cisplatinum (C-DDP, 100 mg/m2/cycle)-based. The two combinations tried were C-DDP, bleomycin, and fluorouracil (CFB) on 54 patients, and cisplatinum and vindesin in 36 patients (CV). The CFB combination was given with C-DDP by continuous infusion over 96 hours (23 patients) or on day 1 (31 patients). The CV regimen was also given in two different schedules, with VDS at 3 mg/m2/g weekly (12 patients) or by a 96-hour continuous infusion (0.6 to 1.0 mg/m2/d) in 24 patients. The following variables: sex, age, performance status, previous therapy, local recurrence, length of disease-free interval (DFI), distant metastases, weight loss, primary site, histological differentiation, type of chemotherapy, previous chemotherapy, evaluable/measurable disease, erythrosedimentation rate, and their relation with response to chemotherapy (WHO) and survival were submitted to both univariate and multivariate analysis (Cox). Overall response rate (RR:CR + PR) was 25 (28%) of 90. In the CFB protocols, RR was 12 (22%) of 54 vs. 13 (38%) of 36 (P = 0.15, NS) in the CV combination group. For the four different combinations the RR was CFB C-DDPci 7 (30%) of 23, CFB C-DDP 1 hour 5 (16%) of 31, CV VDS weekly 2 (17%) of 12, CV VDSci 11 (45%) of 24. The patient populations were very different, with the latest combination consisting of metastatic patients exclusively. Univariate analysis of multiple variables showed age less than 60 years, PS:0 or 1, no previous therapy, absence of local relapse, metastatic disease, long DFI, and that measurable disease was significant for the probability of response. Median survival was 7 months for the 90 evaluated patients, 5 months for nonresponders, and 9 months for responders (P = 0.01). In the univariate analysis, significant factors for survival were PS:0 or 1, a weight loss below 10%, long DFI, response to chemotherapy, erythrosedimentation rate (ESR) of less than 30 mm/1st hr, presence of bone metastasis, and the number of metastases. Multivariate analysis shows PS, the absence of local relapse, and disease-free interval as significant prognostic factors for response. Multivariate analysis factors of significance for survival were PS, weight loss, and response to chemotherapy. The analysis of the clinical pattern showed an evolution in RR from 3 (8%) of 36 on previously irradiated local recurrent disease to 8 (73%) of 11 in previously untreated patients with metastatic disease at presentation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1709437

  3. Univariate and default standard unit biases in estimation of body weight and caloric content.

    PubMed

    Geier, Andrew B; Rozin, Paul

    2009-06-01

    College students estimated the weight of adult women from either photographs or a live presentation by a set of models and estimated the calories in 1 of 2 actual meals. The 2 meals had the same items, but 1 had larger portion sizes than the other. The results suggest: (a) Judgments are biased toward transforming the example in question to the size and/or properties of a "standard" unit. For estimates of body weight, students assigned weights assuming a standard height, even though height information was provided in the photographs or directly present with live models. (b) There is an inclination to focus on 1 aspect or dimension of the stimulus (e.g., for female figures, their width, for meals the identity of the components as opposed to their size) and either devalue or completely ignore another parameter critical for accurate judgment (height, for the case of body weight estimations). That is, students defaulted to a normative unit size and thus treated the stimulus as a representative, categorical, and unvarying example, and focused on only 1 dimension (univariate bias) in making judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19586254

  4. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measures.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J F; Romero, S; Ballester, M R; Antonijoan, R M; Maanas, M A

    2015-07-01

    The biological response to stress originates in the brain but involves different biochemical and physiological effects. Many common clinical methods to assess stress are based on the presence of specific hormones and on features extracted from different signals, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, skin temperature, or galvanic skin response. The aim of this paper was to assess stress using EEG-based variables obtained from univariate analysis and functional connectivity evaluation. Two different stressors, the Stroop test and sleep deprivation, were applied to 30 volunteers to find common EEG patterns related to stress effects. Results showed a decrease of the high alpha power (11 to 12?Hz), an increase in the high beta band (23 to 36?Hz, considered a busy brain indicator), and a decrease in the approximate entropy. Moreover, connectivity showed that the high beta coherence and the interhemispheric nonlinear couplings, measured by the cross mutual information function, increased significantly for both stressors, suggesting that useful stress indexes may be obtained from EEG-based features. PMID:26015439

  5. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: Evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  6. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: A comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E.; Saad, Ziad S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, RobertW.

    2014-01-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variancecovariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within- subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT)with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (GreenhouseGeisser and HuynhFeldt) with MVT-WS. PMID:24954281

  7. A Mixed-Effects Model with Time Reparametrization for Longitudinal Univariate Manifold-Valued Data.

    PubMed

    Schiratti, J B; Allassonnire, S; Routier, A; Durrleman, S

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-effects models provide a rich theoretical framework for the analysis of longitudinal data. However, when used to analyze or predict the progression of a neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease, these models usually do not take into account the fact that subjects may be at different stages of disease progression and the interpretation of the model may depend on some implicit reference time. In this paper, we propose a generative statistical model for longitudinal data, described in a univariate Riemannian manifold setting, which estimates an average disease progression model, subject-specific time shifts and acceleration factors. The time shifts account for variability in age at disease-onset time. The acceleration factors account for variability in speed of disease progression. For a given individual, the estimated time shift and acceleration factor define an affine reparametrization of the average disease progression model. This statistical model has been used to analyze neuropsychological assessments scores and cortical thickness measurements from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The numerical results showed that we can distinguish between slow versus fast progressing and early versus late-onset individuals. PMID:26221703

  8. Ridge Regression: A Regression Procedure for Analyzing correlated Independent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Ridge regression is a technique used to ameliorate the problem of highly correlated independent variables in multiple regression analysis. This paper explains the fundamentals of ridge regression and illustrates its use. (JKS)

  9. Practical Session: Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    An exercise is proposed to illustrate the logistic regression. One investigates the different risk factors in the apparition of coronary heart disease. It has been proposed in Chapter 5 of the book of D.G. Kleinbaum and M. Klein, "Logistic Regression", Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer Science Business Media, LLC (2010) and also by D. Chessel and A.B. Dufour in Lyon 1 (see Sect. 6 of http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/R/pdf/tdr341.pdf). This example is based on data given in the file evans.txt coming from http://www.sph.emory.edu/dkleinb/logreg3.htm#data.

  10. Partial covariate adjusted regression.

    PubMed

    Sentrk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V

    2009-02-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (?entrk and Mller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  11. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  12. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of

  13. Explorations in Statistics: Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.

  14. Local Modal Regression.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weixin; Lindsay, Bruce G; Li, Runze

    2012-01-01

    A local modal estimation procedure is proposed for the regression function in a non-parametric regression model. A distinguishing characteristic of the proposed procedure is that it introduces an additional tuning parameter that is automatically selected using the observed data in order to achieve both robustness and efficiency of the resulting estimate. We demonstrate both theoretically and empirically that the resulting estimator is more efficient than the ordinary local polynomial regression estimator in the presence of outliers or heavy tail error distribution (such as t-distribution). Furthermore, we show that the proposed procedure is as asymptotically efficient as the local polynomial regression estimator when there are no outliers and the error distribution is a Gaussian distribution. We propose an EM type algorithm for the proposed estimation procedure. A Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed method. The simulation results confirm the theoretical findings. The proposed methodology is further illustrated via an analysis of a real data example. PMID:23049230

  15. Physiological COX-2 expression in breast epithelium associates with COX-2 levels in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer in young women.

    PubMed

    Fornetti, Jaime; Jindal, Sonali; Middleton, Kara A; Borges, Virginia F; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is implicated in increased risk and poorer outcomes in breast cancer in young women. We investigated COX-2 regulation in normal premenopausal breast tissue and its relationship to malignancy in young women. Quantitative COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed on adjacent normal and breast cancer tissues from 96 premenopausal women with known clinical reproductive histories, and on rat mammary glands with distinct ovarian hormone exposures. COX-2 expression in the normal breast epithelium varied more than 40-fold between women and was associated with COX-2 expression levels in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer. Normal breast COX-2 expression was independent of known breast cancer prognostic indicators, including tumor stage and clinical subtype, indicating that factors regulating physiological COX-2 expression may be the primary drivers of COX-2 expression in breast cancer. Ovarian hormones, particularly at pregnancy levels, were identified as modulators of COX-2 in normal mammary epithelium. However, serial breast biopsy analysis in nonpregnant premenopausal women suggested relatively stable baseline levels of COX-2 expression, which persisted independent of menstrual cycling. These data provide impetus to investigate how baseline COX-2 expression is regulated in premenopausal breast tissue because COX-2 levels in normal breast epithelium may prove to be an indicator of breast cancer risk in young women, and predict the chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors in this population. PMID:24518566

  16. Failure time regression with continuous informative auxiliary covariates

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Lipika; Jiang, Jiancheng; Sun, Yanqing; Zhou, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use Coxs regression model to fit failure time data with continuous informative auxiliary variables in the presence of a validation subsample. We first estimate the induced relative risk function by kernel smoothing based on the validation subsample, and then improve the estimation by utilizing the information on the incomplete observations from non-validation subsample and the auxiliary observations from the primary sample. Asymptotic normality of the proposed estimator is derived. The proposed method allows one to robustly model the failure time data with an informative multivariate auxiliary covariate. Comparison of the proposed approach with several existing methods is made via simulations. Two real datasets are analyzed to illustrate the proposed method. PMID:26594610

  17. Female children with autism spectrum disorder: an insight from mass-univariate and pattern classification analyses.

    PubMed

    Calderoni, Sara; Retico, Alessandra; Biagi, Laura; Tancredi, Raffaella; Muratori, Filippo; Tosetti, Michela

    2012-01-16

    Several studies on structural MRI in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mainly focused on samples prevailingly consisting of males. Sex differences in brain structure are observable since infancy and therefore caution is required in transferring to females the results obtained for males. The neuroanatomical phenotype of female children with ASD (ASDf) represents indeed a neglected area of research. In this study, we investigated for the first time the anatomic brain structures of a sample entirely composed of ASDf (n=38; 2-7 years of age; mean=53 months; SD=18) with respect to 38 female age and non verbal IQ matched controls, using both mass-univariate and pattern classification approaches. The whole brain volumes of each group were compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure, allowing us to build a study-specific template. Significantly more gray matter (GM) was found in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in ASDf subjects compared to controls. The GM segments obtained in the VBM-DARTEL preprocessing are also classified with a support vector machine (SVM), using the leave-pair-out cross-validation protocol. Then, the recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) approach allows for the identification of the most discriminating voxels in the GM segments and these prove extremely consistent with the SFG region identified by the VBM analysis. Furthermore, the SVM-RFE map obtained with the most discriminating set of voxels corresponding to the maximum Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC(max)=0.80) highlighted a more complex circuitry of increased cortical volume in ASDf, involving bilaterally the SFG and the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The SFG and TPJ abnormalities may be relevant to the pathophysiology of ASDf, since these structures participate in some core atypical features of autism. PMID:21896334

  18. Univariate and multivariate methods for chemical mapping of cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of cells and subcellular organelles are currently carried out using available microscopy methods such as cryoelectron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. These methods require external labeling using fluorescent dyes and extensive sample preparations to access the subcellular structures. However, Raman micro-spectroscopy provides a non-invasive, label-free method for imaging the cells with chemical specificity at sub-micrometer spatial resolutions. The scope of this paper is to image the biochemical/molecular distributions in cells associated with cancerous changes. Raman map data sets were acquired from the human cervical carcinoma cell lines (HeLa) after fixation under 785 nm excitation wavelength. The individual spectrum was recorded by raster-scanning the laser beam over the sample with 1μm step size and 10s exposure time. Images revealing nucleic acids, lipids and proteins (phenylalanine, amide I) were reconstructed using univariate methods. In near future, the small pixel to pixel variations will also be imaged using different multivariate methods (PCA, clustering (HCA, K-means, FCM)) to determine the main cellular constitutions. The hyper-spectral image of cell was reconstructed utilizing the spectral contrast at different pixels of the cell (due to the variation in the biochemical distribution) without using fluorescent dyes. Normal cervical squamous cells will also be imaged in order to differentiate normal and cancer cells of cervix using the biochemical changes in different grades of cancer. Based on the information obtained from the pseudo-color maps, constructed from the hyper-spectral cubes, the primary cellular constituents of normal and cervical cancer cells were identified.

  19. Pleiotropic locus for emotion recognition and amygdala volume identified using univariate and bivariate linkage

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Emma E. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Kent, Jack W.; Sprooten, Emma; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Gring, Harald H. H.; Olvera, Rene; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David. C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the amygdala in emotion recognition is well established and separately each trait has been shown to be highly heritable, but the potential role of common genetic influences on both traits has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the pleiotropic influences of amygdala and emotion recognition in a sample of randomly selected, extended pedigrees (N = 858). Using a combination of univariate and bivariate linkage we found a pleiotropic region for amygdala and emotion recognition on 4q26 (LOD = 4.34). Association analysis conducted in the region underlying the bivariate linkage peak revealed a variant meeting the corrected significance level (pBonferroni = 5.0110?05) within an intron of PDE5A (rs2622497, ?2 =16.67, p = 4.410?05) as being jointly influential on both traits. PDE5A has been implicated previously in recognition-memory deficits and is expressed in subcortical structures that are thought to underlie memory ability including the amygdala. The present paper extends our understanding of the shared etiology between amygdala and emotion recognition by showing that the overlap between the two traits is due, at least in part, to common genetic influences. Moreover, the present paper identifies a pleiotropic locus for the two traits and an associated variant, which localizes the genetic signal even more precisely. These results, when taken in the context of previous research, highlight the potential utility of PDE5-inhibitors for ameliorating emotion-recognition deficits in populations including, but not exclusively, those individuals suffering from mental or neurodegenerative illness. PMID:25322361

  20. Univariate and Multivariate Omnibus Hypothesis Tests Selected to Control Type I Error Rates When Population Variances Are Not Necessarily Equal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, William T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Methods to compare population means in the univariate case and population mean vectors in the multivariate case are presented in terms of hypotheses tested by various procedures. Tests relevant to each hypothesis are described and compared in terms of maximizing power while controlling Type I error rates over the widest variety of conditions. (SLD)

  1. On computing standard errors for marginal structural Cox models.

    PubMed

    Ali, R Ayesha; Ali, M Adnan; Wei, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, marginal structural models have gained popularity for proper adjustment of time-dependent confounders in longitudinal studies through time-dependent weighting. When the marginal model is a Cox model, using current standard statistical software packages was thought to be problematic because they were not developed to compute standard errors in the presence of time-dependent weights. We address this practical modelling issue by extending the standard calculations for Cox models with case weights to time-dependent weights and show that the coxph procedure in R can readily compute asymptotic robust standard errors. Through a simulation study, we show that the robust standard errors are rather conservative, though corresponding confidence intervals have good coverage. A second contribution of this paper is to introduce a Cox score bootstrap procedure to compute the standard errors. We show that this method is efficient and tends to outperform the non-parametric bootstrap in small samples. PMID:23595535

  2. In vitro COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of iridoids from Penstemon barbatus, Castilleja tenuiflora, Cresentia alata and Vitex mollis.

    PubMed

    Ramrez-Cisneros, M ngeles; Rios, Mara Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, A Berenice; Rao, Praveen P N; Aburto-Amar, Rola; Rodrguez-Lpez, Vernica

    2015-10-15

    A group of sixteen iridoids isolated from plants used as anti-inflammatory remedies in Mexican folk medicine were evaluated for their potential to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes. From these assays, loganic acid (10) was identified as the most promising compound with both COX-1 (36.0 0.6%) and COX-2 (80.8 4.0%) inhibition at 10 ?M. Compound 10 shows a better inhibition against the COX-2 enzyme. Other iridoids tested in the present study showed weak or no inhibition against these enzymes. Furthermore, herein are presented key interactions of iridoid 10 with COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes through molecular docking studies. These studies suggest that 10 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity due to COX inhibition. PMID:26351040

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Arachidonic Acid-Derived Pentadienyl Radical Intermediate Complexes with COX-1 and COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Furse, Kristina E.; Pratt, Derek A.; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R.; Porter, Ned A.; Lybrand, Terry P.

    2008-01-01

    The two cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, are responsible for the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and are the targets of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs aspirin, ibuprofen and the COX-2 selective inhibitors, Celebrex™, Vioxx™ and Bextra™. The enzymes are remarkable in that they catalyze two dioxygenations and two cyclizations of the native substrate, arachidonic acid, with near absolute regio- and stereoselectivity. Several theories have been advanced to explain the nature of enzymatic control over this series of reactions, including suggestions of steric shielding and oxygen channeling. As proposed here, selective radical trapping and spin localization in the substrate-derived pentadienyl radical intermediate can also be envisioned. Herein we describe the results of explicit, 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations of both COX-1 and COX-2 with the substrate-derived pentadienyl radical intermediate bound in the active site. The enzymes’ influence on the conformation of the pentadienyl radical was investigated, along with the accessible space above and below the radical plane, and the width of several channels to the active site that could function as access routes for molecular oxygen. Additional simulations demonstrated the extent of molecular oxygen mobility within the active site. The results suggest that spin localization is unlikely to play a role in enzymatic control of this reaction. Instead, a combination of oxygen channeling, steric shielding and selective radical trapping appears to be responsible. This work adds a dynamic perspective to the strong foundation of static structural data available for these enzymes. PMID:16519515

  4. Ridge Regression: A Regression Procedure for Analyzing Correlated Independent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Ernest A.

    Ridge regression is presented as an analytic technique to be used when predictor variables in a multiple linear regression situation are highly correlated, a situation which may result in unstable regression coefficients and difficulties in interpretation. Ridge regression avoids the problem of selection of variables that may occur in stepwise

  5. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and artificial neural network approaches for modelling wild oat (Avena fatua) field emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-linear regression techniques are used widely to fit weed field emergence patterns to soil microclimatic indices using S-type functions. Artificial neural networks present interesting and alternative features for such modeling purposes. In this work, a univariate hydrothermal-time based Weibull m...

  6. Ridge Regression Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) necessitates the development of Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) techniques. In order to guarantee a certain level of integrity, a thorough understanding of modern estimation techniques applied to navigational problems is required. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is derived and analyzed under poor geometry conditions. It was found that the performance of the EKF is difficult to predict, since the EKF is designed for a Gaussian environment. A novel approach is implemented which incorporates ridge regression to explain the behavior of an EKF in the presence of dynamics under poor geometry conditions. The basic principles of ridge regression theory are presented, followed by the derivation of a linearized recursive ridge estimator. Computer simulations are performed to confirm the underlying theory and to provide a comparative analysis of the EKF and the recursive ridge estimator.

  7. Redox-regulated dynamic interplay between Cox19 and the copper-binding protein Cox11 in the intermembrane space of mitochondria facilitates biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Manuela; Woellhaf, Michael W.; Bohnert, Maria; van der Laan, Martin; Sommer, Frederik; Jung, Martin; Zimmermann, Richard; Schroda, Michael; Herrmann, Johannes M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the twin Cx9C protein family constitute the largest group of proteins in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria. Despite their conserved nature and their essential role in the biogenesis of the respiratory chain, the molecular function of twin Cx9C proteins is largely unknown. We performed a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis to identify interaction partners of the conserved twin Cx9C protein Cox19. We found that Cox19 interacts in a dynamic manner with Cox11, a copper transfer protein that facilitates metalation of the Cu(B) center of subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase. The interaction with Cox11 is critical for the stable accumulation of Cox19 in mitochondria. Cox19 consists of a helical hairpin structure that forms a hydrophobic surface characterized by two highly conserved tyrosine-leucine dipeptides. These residues are essential for Cox19 function and its specific binding to a cysteine-containing sequence in Cox11. Our observations suggest that an oxidative modification of this cysteine residue of Cox11 stimulates Cox19 binding, pointing to a redox-regulated interplay of Cox19 and Cox11 that is critical for copper transfer in the IMS and thus for biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:25926683

  8. Adaptation of a one-step worst-case optimal univariate algorithm of bi-objective Lipschitz optimization to multidimensional problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ilinskas, Antanas; ilinskas, Julius

    2015-04-01

    A bi-objective optimization problem with Lipschitz objective functions is considered. An algorithm is developed adapting a univariate one-step optimal algorithm to multidimensional problems. The univariate algorithm considered is a worst-case optimal algorithm for Lipschitz functions. The multidimensional algorithm is based on the branch-and-bound approach and trisection of hyper-rectangles which cover the feasible region. The univariate algorithm is used to compute the Lipschitz bounds for the Pareto front. Some numerical examples are included.

  9. Nonidentical twins: Comparison of frequentist and Bayesian lasso for Cox models.

    PubMed

    Zucknick, Manuela; Saadati, Maral; Benner, Axel

    2015-11-01

    One important task in translational cancer research is the search for new prognostic biomarkers to improve survival prognosis for patients. The use of high-throughput technologies allows simultaneous measurement of genome-wide gene expression or other genomic data for all patients in a clinical trial. Penalized likelihood methods such as lasso regression can be applied to such high-dimensional data, where the number of (genomic) covariables is usually much larger than the sample size. There is a connection between the lasso and the Bayesian regression model with independent Laplace priors on the regression parameters, and understanding this connection has been useful for understanding the properties of lasso estimates in linear models (e.g. Park and Casella, 2008). In this paper, we study the lasso in the frequentist and Bayesian frameworks in the context of Cox models. For the Bayesian lasso we extend the approach by Lee et al. (2011). In particular, we impose the lasso penalty only on the genome features, but not on relevant clinical covariates, to allow the mandatory inclusion of important established factors. We investigate the models in high- and low-dimensional simulation settings and in an application to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:26417963

  10. Orthogonal Regression: A Teaching Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A well-known approach to linear least squares regression is that which involves minimizing the sum of squared orthogonal projections of data points onto the best fit line. This form of regression is known as orthogonal regression, and the linear model that it yields is known as the major axis. A similar method, reduced major axis regression, is

  11. Orthogonal Regression: A Teaching Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A well-known approach to linear least squares regression is that which involves minimizing the sum of squared orthogonal projections of data points onto the best fit line. This form of regression is known as orthogonal regression, and the linear model that it yields is known as the major axis. A similar method, reduced major axis regression, is…

  12. Calculating a Stepwise Ridge Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Although methods for using ordinary least squares regression computer programs to calculate a ridge regression are available, the calculation of a stepwise ridge regression requires a special purpose algorithm and computer program. The correct stepwise ridge regression procedure is given, and a parallel FORTRAN computer program is described.

  13. Novel Harmonic Regularization Approach for Variable Selection in Cox's Proportional Hazards Model

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ge-Jin; Liang, Yong; Wang, Jia-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Variable selection is an important issue in regression and a number of variable selection methods have been proposed involving nonconvex penalty functions. In this paper, we investigate a novel harmonic regularization method, which can approximate nonconvex Lq  (1/2 < q < 1) regularizations, to select key risk factors in the Cox's proportional hazards model using microarray gene expression data. The harmonic regularization method can be efficiently solved using our proposed direct path seeking approach, which can produce solutions that closely approximate those for the convex loss function and the nonconvex regularization. Simulation results based on the artificial datasets and four real microarray gene expression datasets, such as real diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DCBCL), the lung cancer, and the AML datasets, show that the harmonic regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than existing Lasso series methods. PMID:25506389

  14. Regression Models: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    This brief introduction, without pretension, aims to give some help to non-specialists of statistics to find their way in regression models. What are the basic notions of a regression? A regression model can be linear, generalized linear, nonlinear. Statisticians speak also of parametric, semiparametric, nonparametric regression models. We hope that what is behind these terms will be made clearer after the reading of chapters devoted to simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, logistic regression, survival data and regression, kernel methods... But it can be interesting to have a global view, before reading these chapters, on a rather wide range of regression methods, and to have a first sight on what type of question a particular regression model is answering and what can be expected from such a model on the ground of modelling the data we have in hand.

  15. Geographical variation of persistent organochlorine concentrations in blubber of ringed seal (Phoca hispida) from the Canadian Arctic: univariate and multivariate approaches.

    PubMed

    Weis, I M; Muir, D C

    1997-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine (OC) concentrations in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in the Canadian Arctic was studied using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The dataset consisted of 80 individual OC components (58 PCB congeners plus DDT- and chlordane (CHL)-related compounds, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes (CBz), and dieldrin) determined in 221 ringed seal blubber samples from 13 locations throughout the Canadian Arctic from the period 1983 to 1989. Mean concentrations of the major OC groups in ringed seal blubber (SigmaPCBs, SigmaDDT, SigmaCHL and toxaphene), adjusted for the age and sex of the seals, showed few significant geographical differences. Principal components analysis was used to examine geographical trends. Significant differences in mean factor scores for three of four principal components were found between sampling locations. Locations in the western and high Arctic could be distinguished from those in Hudson Bay by highest scores along principal component two which was associated principally with CBz. PCB congeners with six or more chlorine substitutions declined with increasing north latitude, whereas more volatile OCs (CBz, HCH, less chlorinated PCBs) increased in the proportion of total OCs with latitude. Proportions of less chlorinated PCBs also decreased with increasing longitude, whereas slopes of regressions for more highly chlorinated PCBs increased significantly. The results were generally consistent with the 'cold condensation' hypothesis of increasing proportions of more volatile OCs with increasing latitude and distance from sources. PMID:15093398

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of spectral resolution of univariate methods manipulating ratio spectra and comparing to multivariate methods: an application to ternary mixture in common cold preparation.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Azza Aziz; Salem, Hesham; Hegazy, Maha; Ali, Omnia

    2015-02-25

    Simple, accurate, and selective methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture of Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), Pseudoephedrine HCl (PSE) and Ibuprofen (IBF), in tablet dosage form. Four univariate methods manipulating ratio spectra were applied, method A is the double divisor-ratio difference spectrophotometric method (DD-RD). Method B is double divisor-derivative ratio spectrophotometric method (DD-RD). Method C is derivative ratio spectrum-zero crossing method (DRZC), while method D is mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). Two multivariate methods were also developed and validated, methods E and F are Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). The proposed methods have the advantage of simultaneous determination of the mentioned drugs without prior separation steps. They were successfully applied to laboratory-prepared mixtures and to commercial pharmaceutical preparation without any interference from additives. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with the official methods where no significant difference was observed regarding both accuracy and precision. PMID:25306132

  17. Evaluating the efficiency of spectral resolution of univariate methods manipulating ratio spectra and comparing to multivariate methods: An application to ternary mixture in common cold preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Azza Aziz; Salem, Hesham; Hegazy, Maha; Ali, Omnia

    2015-02-01

    Simple, accurate, and selective methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture of Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), Pseudoephedrine HCl (PSE) and Ibuprofen (IBF), in tablet dosage form. Four univariate methods manipulating ratio spectra were applied, method A is the double divisor-ratio difference spectrophotometric method (DD-RD). Method B is double divisor-derivative ratio spectrophotometric method (DD-RD). Method C is derivative ratio spectrum-zero crossing method (DRZC), while method D is mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). Two multivariate methods were also developed and validated, methods E and F are Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). The proposed methods have the advantage of simultaneous determination of the mentioned drugs without prior separation steps. They were successfully applied to laboratory-prepared mixtures and to commercial pharmaceutical preparation without any interference from additives. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with the official methods where no significant difference was observed regarding both accuracy and precision.

  18. Molecular Docking of Bioactive Compounds Against BRCA and COX Proteins.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The focus of molecular docking is to computationally simulate the molecular recognition process. A binding interaction between a small molecule ligand and protein may result in activation or inhibition of the protein. The docking method using BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes and COX proteins is carefully texted in this chapter to check docking of the best inhibitor molecule. PMID:26939289

  19. Role of COX-2 in microcirculatory disturbance in experimental pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen-Wei; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Chen, You-Dai; Gao, Hong-Kai

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the role of COX-2 in the development of capillary leakage in rats with acute interstitial pancreatitis. METHODS: Rats with acute interstitial pancreatitis were induced by caerulein subcutaneous injection. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the gene expression of COX-2 in pancreatic tissues, spectrophotometry was used to assay the parameters of acute pancreatitis such as the serum amylase and plasma myeloperoxidase, and determination of capillary permeability in the pancreas by quantifying the permeability index (PI) assisted response of pancreatic microvascular via intravital fluorescence microscope video image analysis system. RESULTS: A significant increase of COX-2 expression, elevation of serum amylase, and plasma myeloperoxidase were detected in rats with acute edematous pancreatitis compared with control rats. The changes of pancreatic microvascular after caerulein injection were as following: (a) the decrease of pancreatic capillary blood flow (4th h, 0.56 0.09 nL/min, P < 0.05; 8 th h, 0.34 0.10 nL/min, P < 0.001); (b) reduction of functional capillary density (4 th h, 381 9 cm-1, P > 0.05; 8th h, 277 13 cm-1, P < 0.001); (c) irregular and intermittent capillary perfusion was observed at the 8th h and these vessels were also prone to permeation. CONCLUSION: COX-2 plays an important role in mediating capillary permeability in pancreatitis, thereby contributing to capillary leakage. PMID:15237442

  20. Neuroinflammation, COX-2, and ALS--a dual role?

    PubMed

    Consilvio, Christopher; Vincent, Andrea M; Feldman, Eva L

    2004-05-01

    Although the root cause of many neurodegenerative diseases is unknown, neuroinflammation may play a key role in these types of disease, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the context of neurodegeneration, it is unclear if the disease is propagated through inflammation, or whether in contrast, evidence of inflammation reflects an attempt to protect against further cellular injury. Inflammatory pathways involving the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and subsequent generation of prostaglandins are potential target sites for treatments to halt the progression of ALS. In the CNS, COX enzymes are localized to neurons, astrocytes, and microglia and can be induced under various conditions. In addition, there appears to be a dual role for the prostaglandin products of COX enzymes in the nervous system. Some prostaglandins promote the survival of neurons, while others promote apoptosis. In this review, the pathways of COX activity and prostaglandin production form the center of the debate regarding the dual nature of neuroinflammation. We will also discuss how this duality may affect future treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS. PMID:15081582

  1. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  2. HIF-1?/COX-2 expression and mouse brain capillary remodeling during prolonged moderate hypoxia and subsequent re-oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Benderro, Girriso F.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic microvascular remodeling maintains an optimal continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain to account for prolonged environmental variations. The objective of this study was to determine the relative time course of capillary regression during re-oxygenation after exposure to prolonged moderate hypoxia and expression of the primary signaling factors involved in the process. Four-month old male C57BL/6 mice were housed and maintained in a hypobaric chamber at 290 torr (0.4 ATM) for 21 days and allowed to recover at normoxia (room air) for up to 21 days. The mice were either decapitated or perfused in-situ and brain samples collected were either homogenized for Western blot analysis or fixed and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry. Hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) expression were increased during hypoxic exposure and diminished during subsequent re-oxygenation. However, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) were both elevated during hypoxia as well as subsequent re-oxygenation. Significantly increased capillary density at the end of the 3rd week of hypoxia regressed back toward normoxic baseline as the duration of re-oxygenation continued. In conclusion, elevated COX-2 and Ang-2 expression during hypoxia where angiogenesis occurs and re-oxygenation, when microvessels regress, identifies these proteins as vascular remodeling molecules crucial for angioplasticity. PMID:24796880

  3. HIF-1?/COX-2 expression and mouse brain capillary remodeling during prolonged moderate hypoxia and subsequent re-oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Benderro, Girriso F; LaManna, Joseph C

    2014-06-20

    Dynamic microvascular remodeling maintains an optimal continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain to account for prolonged environmental variations. The objective of this study was to determine the relative time course of capillary regression during re-oxygenation after exposure to prolonged moderate hypoxia and expression of the primary signaling factors involved in the process. Four-month old male C57BL/6 mice were housed and maintained in a hypobaric chamber at 290 Torr (0.4 atm) for 21 days and allowed to recover at normoxia (room air) for up to 21 days. The mice were either decapitated or perfused in-situ and brain samples collected were either homogenized for Western blot analysis or fixed and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry. Hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) expression were increased during hypoxic exposure and diminished during subsequent re-oxygenation. However, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) were both elevated during hypoxia as well as subsequent re-oxygenation. Significantly increased capillary density at the end of the 3rd week of hypoxia regressed back toward normoxic baseline as the duration of re-oxygenation continued. In conclusion, elevated COX-2 and Ang-2 expression during hypoxia where angiogenesis occurs and re-oxygenation, when micro-vessels regress, identifies these proteins as vascular remodeling molecules crucial for angioplasticity. PMID:24796880

  4. Steganalysis using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenko, Ivans; Ker, Andrew D.

    2011-02-01

    We advocate Logistic Regression (LR) as an alternative to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers commonly used in steganalysis. LR offers more information than traditional SVM methods - it estimates class probabilities as well as providing a simple classification - and can be adapted more easily and efficiently for multiclass problems. Like SVM, LR can be kernelised for nonlinear classification, and it shows comparable classification accuracy to SVM methods. This work is a case study, comparing accuracy and speed of SVM and LR classifiers in detection of LSB Matching and other related spatial-domain image steganography, through the state-of-art 686-dimensional SPAM feature set, in three image sets.

  5. Cox Models Survival Analysis Based on Breast Cancer Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Alireza; Yavari, Parvin; Dehghani-Arani, Monireh; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Ghasemi, Erfan; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Bajdik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between different treatments and survival time of breast cancer patients using either standard Cox model or stratified Cox model. Methods The study was conducted on 15830 women diagnosed with breast cancer in British Columbia, Canada. They were divided into eight groups according to patients ages and stage of disease Either Coxs PH model or stratified Cox model was fitted to each group according to the PH assumption and tested using Schoenfeld residuals. Results The data show that in the group of patients under age 50 years old and over age 50 with stage I cancer, the highest hazard was related to radiotherapy (HR= 3.15, CI: 1.85-5.35) and chemotherapy (HR= 3, CI: 2.29- 3.93) respectively. For both groups of patients with stage II cancer, the highest risk was related to radiotherapy (HR=3.02, CI: 2.26-4.03) (HR=2.16, CI:1.85-2.52). For both groups of patients with stage III cancer, the highest risk was for surgery (HR=0.49, CI: 0.33-0.73), (HR=0.45, CI: 0.36-0.57). For patients of age 50 years or less with stage IV cancer, none of the treatments were statistically significant. In group of patients over age 50 years old with stage IV cancer, the highest hazard was related to surgery (HR=0.64, CI: 0.53-0.78). Conclusion The results of this study show that for patients with stage I and II breast cancer, radiotherapy and chemotherapy had the highest hazard; for patients with stage III and IV breast cancer, the highest hazard was associated with treatment surgery. PMID:25250162

  6. Structural regression trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.

    1996-12-31

    In many real-world domains the task of machine learning algorithms is to learn a theory for predicting numerical values. In particular several standard test domains used in Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) are concerned with predicting numerical values from examples and relational and mostly non-determinate background knowledge. However, so far no ILP algorithm except one can predict numbers and cope with nondeterminate background knowledge. (The only exception is a covering algorithm called FORS.) In this paper we present Structural Regression Trees (SRT), a new algorithm which can be applied to the above class of problems. SRT integrates the statistical method of regression trees into ILP. It constructs a tree containing a literal (an atomic formula or its negation) or a conjunction of literals in each node, and assigns a numerical value to each leaf. SRT provides more comprehensible results than purely statistical methods, and can be applied to a class of problems most other ILP systems cannot handle. Experiments in several real-world domains demonstrate that the approach is competitive with existing methods, indicating that the advantages are not at the expense of predictive accuracy.

  7. Ridge regression processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    Current navigation requirements depend on a geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) criterion. As long as the GDOP stays below a specific value, navigation requirements are met. The GDOP will exceed the specified value when the measurement geometry becomes too collinear. A new signal processing technique, called Ridge Regression Processing, can reduce the effects of nearly collinear measurement geometry; thereby reducing the inflation of the measurement errors. It is shown that the Ridge signal processor gives a consistently better mean squared error (MSE) in position than the Ordinary Least Mean Squares (OLS) estimator. The applicability of this technique is currently being investigated to improve the following areas: receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM), coverage requirements, availability requirements, and precision approaches.

  8. Hierarchical Regression without Phantom Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; Satorra, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Shows that phantom factors are unnecessary to achieve the objectives of a hierarchical regression and gives a direct approach to computing hierarchical or fixed-order regressions that is equivalent to that proposed by P. de Jong (1999).(SLD)

  9. The Arabidopsis COX11 Homolog is Essential for Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Ivan; Mansilla, Natanael; Rödel, Gerhard; Steinebrunner, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Members of the ubiquitous COX11 (cytochrome c oxidase 11) protein family are involved in copper delivery to the COX complex. In this work, we characterize the Arabidopsis thaliana COX11 homolog (encoded by locus At1g02410). Western blot analyses and confocal microscopy identified Arabidopsis COX11 as an integral mitochondrial protein. Despite sharing high sequence and structural similarities, the Arabidopsis COX11 is not able to functionally replace the Saccharomyces cerevisiae COX11 homolog. Nevertheless, further analysis confirmed the hypothesis that Arabidopsis COX11 is essential for COX activity. Disturbance of COX11 expression through knockdown (KD) or overexpression (OE) affected COX activity. In KD lines, the activity was reduced by ~50%, resulting in root growth inhibition, smaller rosettes and leaf curling. In OE lines, the reduction was less pronounced (~80% of the wild type), still resulting in root growth inhibition. Additionally, pollen germination was impaired in COX11 KD and OE plants. This effect on pollen germination can only partially be attributed to COX deficiency and may indicate a possible auxiliary role of COX11 in ROS metabolism. In agreement with its role in energy production, the COX11 promoter is highly active in cells and tissues with high-energy demand for example shoot and root meristems, or vascular tissues of source and sink organs. In COX11 KD lines, the expression of the plasma-membrane copper transporter COPT2 and of several copper chaperones was altered, indicative of a retrograde signaling pathway pertinent to copper homeostasis. Based on our data, we postulate that COX11 is a mitochondrial chaperone, which plays an important role for plant growth and pollen germination as an essential COX complex assembly factor. PMID:26734017

  10. Cox rings, semigroups and automorphisms of affine algebraic varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhantsev, Ivan V; Gaifullin, Sergei A

    2010-02-28

    We study the Cox realization of an affine variety, that is, a canonical representation of a normal affine variety with finitely generated divisor class group as a quotient of a factorially graded affine variety by an action of the Neron-Severi quasitorus. The realization is described explicitly for the quotient space of a linear action of a finite group. A universal property of this realization is proved, and some results in the divisor theory of an abstract semigroup emerging in this context are given. We show that each automorphism of an affine variety can be lifted to an automorphism of the Cox ring normalizing the grading. It follows that the automorphism group of an affine toric variety of dimension {>=}2 without nonconstant invertible regular functions has infinite dimension. We obtain a wild automorphism of the three-dimensional quadratic cone that rises to the Anick automorphism of the polynomial algebra in four variables. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  11. LIRA: LInear Regression in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    LIRA (LInear Regression in Astronomy) performs Bayesian linear regression that accounts for heteroscedastic errors in both the independent and the dependent variables, intrinsic scatters (in both variables), time evolution of slopes, normalization and scatters, Malmquist and Eddington bias, and break of linearity. The posterior distribution of the regression parameters is sampled with a Gibbs method exploiting the JAGS (ascl:1209.002) library.

  12. COX inhibitors directly alter gene expression: role in cancer prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingya; Baek, Seung Joon; Eling, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the development and progression of human cancers. Inflammatory lipid metabolites, prostaglandins, formed from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin H synthases commonly called cyclooxygenases (COXs) bind to specific receptors that activate signaling pathways driving the development and progression of tumors. Inhibitors of prostaglandin formation, COX inhibitors, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are well documented as agents that inhibit tumor growth and with long-term use prevent tumor development. NSAIDs also alter gene expression independent of COX inhibition and these changes in gene expression also appear to contribute to the anti-tumorigenic activity of these drugs. Many NSAIDs, as illustrated by sulindac sulfide, alter gene expressions by altering the expression or phosphorylation status of the transcription factors specificity protein 1 and early growth response-1 with the balance between these two events resulting in increases or decreases in specific target genes. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the various genes altered by this mechanism after NSAID treatment and how these changes in expression relate to the anti-tumorigenic activity. A major focus of the review is on NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1) or growth differentiation factor 15. This unique member of the TGF-? superfamily is highly induced by NSAIDs and numerous drugs and chemicals with anti-tumorigenic activities. Investigations with a transgenic mouse expressing the human NAG-1 suggest it acts to suppress tumor development in several mouse models of cancer. The biochemistry and biology of NAG-1 were discussed as potential contributor to cancer prevention by COX inhibitors. PMID:22020924

  13. Multiple Use One-Sided Hypotheses Testing in Univariate Linear Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Kulkarni, Pandurang M.; Mathew, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Consider a normally distributed response variable, related to an explanatory variable through the simple linear regression model. Data obtained on the response variable, corresponding to known values of the explanatory variable (i.e., calibration data), are to be used for testing hypotheses concerning unknown values of the explanatory variable. We consider the problem of testing an unlimited sequence of one sided hypotheses concerning the explanatory variable, using the corresponding sequence of values of the response variable and the same set of calibration data. This is the situation of multiple use of the calibration data. The tests derived in this context are characterized by two types of uncertainties: one uncertainty associated with the sequence of values of the response variable, and a second uncertainty associated with the calibration data. We derive tests based on a condition that incorporates both of these uncertainties. The solution has practical applications in the decision limit problem. We illustrate our results using an example dealing with the estimation of blood alcohol concentration based on breath estimates of the alcohol concentration. In the example, the problem is to test if the unknown blood alcohol concentration of an individual exceeds a threshold that is safe for driving.

  14. Risk Factors of Graft Survival After Diagnosis of Post-kidney Transplant Malignancy: Using Cox Proportional Hazard Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Salesi, Mahmoud; Rostami, Zohreh; Mehrazmay, Ali Reza; Mohammadi, Jamile; Einollahi, Behzad; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: All recipients of kidney transplantation, especially those with posttransplant malignancy, are at risk of long-term graft failure. Objectives: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with graft survival after diagnosis of malignancy. Patients and Methods: To reach this purpose, we conducted a historical cohort study in Iran and 266 cases with posttransplant malignancy were followed up from diagnosis of malignancy until long-term graft loss or the date of last visit. These patients were taken as a census from 16 Transplant Centers in Iran during 22 years follow-up period since October 1984 to December 2008. A Cox proportional hazards model was performed to determine the important independent predictors of graft survival after malignancy. Results: At the end of the study, long-term graft failure was seen in 27 (10.2%) cases. One-year and 2-year graft survival after diagnosis of cancer were 93.6% and 91.7%, respectively. The univariate analysis showed that the incidence of chronic graft loss was significantly higher in male patients with solid cancers, withdrawal of immunosuppressant regimen, no response to treatment, and tumor metastasis. In continuation, the Cox model indicated that the significant risk factors associated with graft survival were type of cancer (P < 0.0001), response to treatment (P < 0.0001, HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.32), metastasis (P < 0.0001, HR = 5.68, 95% CI: 2.24 - 14.42), and treatment modality (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: By controlling the modifiable risk factors and modality of treatment in our study, physicians can reach more effective treatment. PMID:26734477

  15. COX-2 in cancer: Gordian knot or Achilles heel?

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Shah, Tariq; Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2013-01-01

    The networks of blood and lymphatic vessels and of the extracellular matrix and their cellular and structural components, that are collectively termed the tumor microenvironment, are frequently co-opted and shaped by cancer cells to survive, invade, and form distant metastasis. With an enviable capacity to adapt to continually changing environments, cancer represents the epitome of functional chaos, a stark contrast to the hierarchical and organized differentiation processes that dictate the development and life of biological organisms. The consequences of changing landscapes such as hypoxia and acidic extracellular pH in and around tumors create a cascade of changes in multiple pathways and networks that become apparent only several years later as recurrence and metastasis. These molecular and phenotypic changes, several of which are mediated by COX-2, approach the complexities of a Gordian Knot. We review evidence from our studies and from literature suggesting that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) biology presents a nodal point in cancer biology and an Achilles heel of COX-2-dependent tumors. PMID:23579438

  16. Association Between COX-2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Fan, Xinyun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yi; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple relevant risk factors for lung cancer have been reported in different populations, but results of previous studies were not consistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is necessary to summarize these outcomes and reach a relatively comprehensive conclusion. Material/Methods STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical of the relationship between COX-2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Inter-study heterogeneity was examined with the Q statistic (significance level at P<0.1). The publication bias among studies in the meta-analysis was analyzed with Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in all controls of the studies. Results COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism had a significant association with reduced risk of lung cancer under homozygous and recessive models, and similar results were observed in white and population-based subgroups under 2 and 3 contrasts, respectively. Additionally, rs2066826 polymorphism manifested a strong correlation with increased risk of lung cancer under 5 genetic models. Conclusions In COX-2 gene, rs20417 may have a certain relationship with reduced risk of lung cancer, while rs2066826 may increase the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26624903

  17. Limitations to benzene cancer risk assessment by Cox and Ricci

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, K.; Allen, B.; Clewell, H. )

    1993-04-01

    Cox and Ricci estimated human cancer risks from exposure to benzene by applying the linearized multi-stage model (LMS) to data on tumor responses in male mice. The unique feature of their analysis was their use of internal measures of dose estimated using a physiologically based pharmokinetic (PBPK) model. It is the authors' opinion that the inclusion of all squamous cell carcinomas in the Cox and Ricci experiment was not the most appropriate animal tumor category for the analysis. In addition, the authors' feel that to develop a dose-response curve for humans, it is reasonable to model a tumor that is more closely related to the observed human cancer endpoint, which is leukemia. To determine how robust the risk estimates made by Cox and Ricci were to different animal endpoints, in this work their methods were applied to two additional endpoints in mice: malignant lymphoma and alveolar/bronchial carcinoma. The methodology produced a good statistical fit to both sets of data.

  18. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized. PMID:14558211

  19. Penalized Functional Regression

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Bobb, Jennifer; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Caffo, Brian; Reich, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We develop fast fitting methods for generalized functional linear models. The functional predictor is projected onto a large number of smooth eigenvectors and the coefficient function is estimated using penalized spline regression; confidence intervals based on the mixed model framework are obtained. Our method can be applied to many functional data designs including functions measured with and without error, sparsely or densely sampled. The methods also extend to the case of multiple functional predictors or functional predictors with a natural multilevel structure. The approach can be implemented using standard mixed effects software and is computationally fast. The methodology is motivated by a study of white-matter demyelination via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of this study is to analyze differences between various cerebral white-matter tract property measurements of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. While the statistical developments proposed here were motivated by the DTI study, the methodology is designed and presented in generality and is applicable to many other areas of scientific research. An online appendix provides R implementations of all simulations. PMID:22368438

  20. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Nrregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Pernille B L; Bie, Peter; Thavalingam, Sugarna; Frkir, Jrgen; Jensen, Boye L

    2011-12-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP mRNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 11 vs. 70 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex-outer medulla), AQP3 (all regions), and UT-A1 (inner medulla) protein abundances were elevated in COX-2(-/-) at baseline and further increased after WD. COX-2(-/-) mice had elevated plasma urea and creatinine and accumulation of small subcapsular glomeruli. In conclusion, hypothalamic COX-2 activity is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins. PMID:21880835

  1. Myeloid Cell COX-2 deletion reduces mammary tumor growth through enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edward P.; Markosyan, Nune; Connolly, Emma; Lawson, John A.; Li, Xuanwen; Grant, Gregory R.; Grosser, Tilo; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Smyth, Emer M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with poor prognosis across a range of human cancers, including breast cancer. The contribution of tumor cell-derived COX-2 to tumorigenesis has been examined in numerous studies; however, the role of stromal-derived COX-2 is ill-defined. Here, we examined how COX-2 in myeloid cells, an immune cell subset that includes macrophages, influences mammary tumor progression. In mice engineered to selectively lack myeloid cell COX-2 [myeloid-COX-2 knockout (KO) mice], spontaneous neu oncogene-induced tumor onset was delayed, tumor burden reduced, and tumor growth slowed compared with wild-type (WT). Similarly, growth of neu-transformed mammary tumor cells as orthotopic tumors in immune competent syngeneic myeloid-COX-2 KO host mice was reduced compared with WT. By flow cytometric analysis, orthotopic myeloid-COX-2 KO tumors had lower tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration consistent with impaired colony stimulating factor-1-dependent chemotaxis by COX-2 deficient macrophages in vitro. Further, in both spontaneous and orthotopic tumors, COX-2-deficient TAM displayed lower immunosuppressive M2 markers and this was coincident with less suppression of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in myeloid-COX-2 KO tumors. These studies suggest that reduced tumor growth in myeloid-COX-2 KO mice resulted from disruption of M2-like TAM function, thereby enhancing T-cell survival and immune surveillance. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+ cells, restored tumor growth in myeloid-COX-2 KO to WT levels, indicating that CD8+ CTLs are dominant antitumor effectors in myeloid-COX-2 KO mice. Our studies suggest that inhibition of myeloid cell COX-2 can potentiate CTL-mediated tumor cytotoxicity and may provide a novel therapeutic approach in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24590894

  2. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  3. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature. PMID:20637802

  4. Suppressing the charged coupled device noise in univariate thin-layer videoscans: a comparison of several algorithms.

    PubMed

    Komsta, Lukasz

    2009-03-20

    The digital processing of chromatographic thin-layer plate images has increasing popularity among last years. When using a camera instead of flatbed scanner, the charged coupled device (CCD) noise is a well-known problem-especially when scanning dark plates with weakly fluorescing spots. Various techniques are proposed to denoise (smooth) univariate signals in chemometric processing, but the choice could be difficult. In the current paper the classical filters (Savitzky-Golay, adaptive degree polynomial filter, Fourier denoising, Butterworth and Chebyshev infinite impulse response filters) were compared with the wavelet shrinkage (31 mother wavelets, 3 thresholding techniques and 8 decomposition levels). The signal obtained from 256 averaged videoscans was treated as the reference signal (with noise naturally suppressed, which was found to be almost white one). The best choice for denoising was the Haar mother wavelet with soft denoising and any decomposition level larger than 1. Satisfying similarity to reference signal was also observed in the case of Butterworth filter, Savitzky-Golay smoothing, ADPF filter, Fourier denoising and soft-thresholded wavelet shrinkage with any mother wavelet and middle to high decomposition level. The Chebyshev filters, Whittaker smoother and wavelet shrinkage with hard thresholding were found to be less efficient. The results obtained can be used as general recommendations for univariate denoising of such signals. PMID:19187937

  5. COX-2 inhibition in schizophrenia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

    2008-01-01

    In schizophrenia and depression, opposite patterns of type-1 - type-2 immune response seem to be associated with differences in the activation of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and in the tryptophan - kynurenine metabolism resulting in increased production of kynurenic acid in schizophrenia and decreased production of kynurenic acid in depression. These differences are associated with an imbalance in the glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may contribute to an overweight of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonism in depression and of NMDA antagonism in schizophrenia. The differential activation of microglia cells and astrocytes may be an additional mechanism contributing to this imbalance. The immunological imbalance results both in schizophrenia and in depression in an increased Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production and probably also in an increased Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Although there is strong evidence for the view, that the interactions of the immune system, IDO, the serotonergic system, and the glutamatergic neurotransmission play a key role in schizophrenia and in depression, several gaps, e.g. the roles of genetics, disease course, sex, different psychopathological states, etc. have to be bridged by intense further research. There are already hints that anti-inflammatory therapy may have beneficial effects in schizophrenia and major depression. COX-2 inhibititors have been tested in animal models of depression and in preliminary clinical trials, the latter showing favourable effects compared to placebo, both, in schizophrenia and in major depression. The effects of COX-2 inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the different components of the inflammatory system, the kynurenine-metabolism and the glutamatergic neurotransmission, however, still need careful further validation including clinical studies with sufficient sample size. PMID:18537668

  6. Error bounds in cascading regressions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  7. Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their

  8. Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their…

  9. A General Semiparametric Hazards Regression Model: Efficient Estimation and Structure Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xingwei; Zhu, Liang; Leng, Chenlei; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a general semiparametric hazards regression model that encompasses Coxs proportional hazards model and the accelerated failure time model for survival analysis. To overcome the nonexistence of the maximum likelihood, we derive a kernel-smoothed profile likelihood function, and prove that the resulting estimates of the regression parameters are consistent and achieve semiparametric efficiency. In addition, we develop penalized structure selection techniques to determine which covariates constitute the accelerate failure time model and which covariates constitute the proportional hazards model. The proposed method is able to estimate the model structure consistently and model parameters efficiently. Furthermore, variance estimation is straightforward. The proposed estimation performs well in simulation studies and is applied to the analysis of a real data set. Copyright PMID:23824784

  10. COX-2 active agents in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Sarah; Naumov, Inna; Arber, Nadir

    2013-01-01

    Chemopreventive strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC) have been extensively studied to prevent the recurrence of adenomas and/or delay their development in the gastrointestinal tract. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors have been proven as promising and the most attractive candidates for CRC clinical chemoprevention. The preventive efficacy of these agents is supported by a large number of animal and epidemiological studies which have clearly demonstrated that NSAID consumption prevents adenoma formation and decreases the incidence of, and mortality from CRC. On the basis of these studies, aspirin chemoprevention may be effective in preventing CRC within the general population, while aspirin and celecoxib may be effective in preventing adenomas in patients after polypectomy. Nevertheless, the consumption of NSAID and COX-2 inhibitors is not toxic free. Well-known serious adverse events to the gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular systems have been reported. These reports have led to some promising studies related to the use of lower doses and in combination with other chemopreventive agents and shown efficacy. In the intriguing jigsaw puzzle of cancer prevention, we now have a definite positive answer for the basic question "if", but several other parts of the equation-proper patient selection, the ultimate drug, optimal dosage and duration are still missing. PMID:22893201

  11. Multiple Regression Assumptions. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Waters, Elaine

    This Digest presents a discussion of the assumptions of multiple regression that is tailored to the practicing researcher. The focus is on the assumptions of multiple regression that are not robust to violation, and that researchers can deal with if violated. Assumptions of normality, linearity, reliability of measurement, and homoscedasticity are

  12. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  13. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous

  14. The cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis factor AtCOX17 modulates stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lucila; Welchen, Elina; Gey, Uta; Arce, Agustn L; Steinebrunner, Iris; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2016-03-01

    COX17 is a soluble protein from the mitochondrial intermembrane space that participates in the transfer of copper for cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly in eukaryotic organisms. In this work, we studied the function of both Arabidopsis thaliana AtCOX17 genes using plants with altered expression levels of these genes. Silencing of AtCOX17-1 in a cox17-2 knockout background generates plants with smaller rosettes and decreased expression of genes involved in the response of plants to different stress conditions, including several genes that are induced by mitochondrial dysfunctions. Silencing of either of the AtCOX17 genes does not affect plant development or COX activity but causes a decrease in the response of genes to salt stress. In addition, these plants contain higher reactive oxygen and lipid peroxidation levels after irrigation with high NaCl concentrations and are less sensitive to abscisic acid. In agreement with a role of AtCOX17 in stress and abscisic acid responses, both AtCOX17 genes are induced by several stress conditions, abscisic acid and mutation of the transcription factor ABI4. The results indicate that AtCOX17 is required for optimal expression of a group of stress-responsive genes, probably as a component of signalling pathways that link stress conditions to gene expression responses. PMID:26436309

  15. Ku80 cooperates with CBP to promote COX-2 expression and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Xuan, Yang; Jia, Yunlu; Hu, Wenxian; Yu, Wendan; Dai, Meng; Li, Zhenglin; Yi, Canhui; Zhao, Shilei; Li, Mei; Du, Sha; Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Taihua; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shusen; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX-2 gene promoter. Overexpression of Ku80 up-regulated COX-2 promoter activation and COX-2 expression in lung cancer cells. Silencing of Ku80 by siRNA down-regulated COX-2 expression and inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Ku80 knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, resulting in an inactivation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, CBP, a transcription co-activator, interacted with and acetylated Ku80 to co-regulate the activation of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of CBP increased Ku80 acetylation, thereby promoting COX-2 expression and cell growth. Suppression of CBP by a CBP-specific inhibitor or siRNA inhibited COX-2 expression as well as tumor cell growth. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX-2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers. We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX-2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:25797267

  16. Characterization of the Cytochrome C Oxidase Assembly Factor Cox19 of 'Saccharomyces Cerevisiae'

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, K.; Zhang, L.; Cobine, P.A.; George, G.N.; Winge, D.R.; /Utah U. /Saskatchewan U.

    2007-07-12

    Cox19 is an important accessory protein in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase in yeast. The protein is functional when tethered to the mitochondrial inner membrane, suggesting its functional role within the intermembrane space. Cox19 resembles Cox17 in having a twin CX{sub 9}C sequence motif that adopts a helical hairpin in Cox17. The function of Cox17 appears to be a Cu(I) donor protein in the assembly of the copper centers in cytochrome c oxidase. Cox19 also resembles Cox17 in its ability to coordinate Cu(I). Recombinant Cox19 binds 1 mol eq of Cu(I) per monomer and exists as a dimeric protein. Cox19 isolated from the mitochondrial intermembrane space contains variable quantities of copper, suggesting that Cu(I) binding may be a transient property. Cysteinyl residues important for Cu(I) binding are also shown to be important for the in vivo function of Cox19. Thus, a correlation exists in the ability to bind Cu(I) and in vivo function.

  17. Stretch-induced myoblast proliferation is dependent on the COX2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, Jeffrey S.; Burkholder, Thomas J.; Pavlath, Grace K. . E-mail: gpavlat@emory.edu

    2005-11-01

    Skeletal muscle increases in size due to weight bearing loads or passive stretch. This growth response is dependent in part upon myoblast proliferation. Although skeletal muscles are responsive to mechanical forces, the effect on myoblast proliferation remains unknown. To investigate the effects of mechanical stretch on myoblast proliferation, primary myoblasts isolated from Balb/c mice were subjected to 25% cyclical uniaxial stretch for 5 h at 0.5 Hz. Stretch stimulated myoblast proliferation by 32% and increased cell number by 41% 24 and 48 h after stretch, respectively. COX2 mRNA increased 3.5-fold immediately poststretch. Prostaglandin E2 and F{sub 2{alpha}} increased 2.4- and 1.6-fold 6 h after stretch, respectively. Because COX2 has been implicated in regulating muscle growth and regeneration, we hypothesized that stretched myoblasts may proliferate via a COX2-dependent mechanism. We employed two different models to disrupt COX2 activity: (1) treatment with a COX2-selective drug, and (2) transgenic mice null for COX2. Treating myoblasts with a COX2-specific inhibitor blocked stretch-induced proliferation. Likewise, stretched COX2{sup -/-} myoblasts failed to proliferate compared to controls. However, supplementing stretched, COX2{sup -/-} myoblasts with prostaglandin E2 or fluprostenol increased proliferation. These data suggest that the COX2 pathway is critical for myoblast proliferation in response to stretch.

  18. Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  19. A Modified Adaptive Lasso for Identifying Interactions in the Cox Model with the Heredity Constraint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Shen, Jincheng; Thall, Peter F

    2014-10-01

    In many biomedical studies, identifying effects of covariate interactions on survival is a major goal. Important examples are treatment-subgroup interactions in clinical trials, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genomic studies. A common problem when implementing a variable selection algorithm in such settings is the requirement that the model must satisfy the strong heredity constraint, wherein an interaction may be included in the model only if the interaction's component variables are included as main effects. We propose a modified Lasso method for the Cox regression model that adaptively selects important single covariates and pairwise interactions while enforcing the strong heredity constraint. The proposed method is based on a modified log partial likelihood including two adaptively weighted penalties, one for main effects and one for interactions. A two-dimensional tuning parameter for the penalties is determined by generalized cross-validation. Asymptotic properties are established, including consistency and rate of convergence, and it is shown that the proposed selection procedure has oracle properties, given proper choice of regularization parameters. Simulations illustrate that the proposed method performs reliably across a range of different scenarios. PMID:25071299

  20. Aberrant over-expression of COX-1 intersects multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Fadare, Oluwole; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Son, Deok-Soo; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Shilin; Saskowski, Jeanette; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Daniel, Cristina; Crews, Brenda; Lehmann, Brian D.; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.; Crispens, Marta A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Khabele, Dineo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is implicated in ovarian cancer. However, patterns of COX expression and function have been unclear and controversial. In this report, patterns of COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression were obtained from RNA-seq data through The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our analysis revealed markedly higher COX-1 mRNA expression than COX-2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) and higher COX-1 expression in HGSOC tumors than 10 other tumor types. High expression of COX-1 in HGSOC tumors was confirmed in an independent tissue microarray. In contrast, lower or similar expression of COX-1 compared to COX-2 was observed in endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors. Stable COX-1 knockdown in HGSOC-representative OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells reduced gene expression in multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways. Functional cell viability, clonogenicity, and migration/invasion assays were consistent with transcriptomic changes. These effects were reversed by stable over-expression of COX-1 in SKOV-3 cells. Our results demonstrate a distinct pattern of COX-1 over-expression in HGSOC tumors and strong association of COX-1 with multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in ovarian cancer cells. These findings provide additional insight into the role of COX-1 in human ovarian cancer and support further development of methods to selectively target COX-1 in the management of HGSOC tumors. PMID:25972361

  1. Activation of prophage P4 by the P2 Cox protein and the sites of action of the Cox protein on the two phage genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S; Haggrd-Ljungquist, E; Nordstrm, K

    1989-01-01

    Phage P2 induces the unrelated prophage P4. In this paper we show that this is due to the activation of the P4 late promoter PII by the P2 Cox protein. This is in contrast to the effects of Cox on P2, for which it is known from previous work that it acts as a repressor of the promoter Pc, which is responsible for expression of the immunity repressor C. The activator role of Cox was revealed by its effect on replication of P4 DNA and on the formation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase when a promoterless cat gene was inserted downstream of the P4 PII promoter. DNase I protection studies revealed that the Cox protein binds to the repressor promoter Pc of phage P2 and to the promoter PII of phage P4. In the latter case the Cox protein binds upstream of the -35 region, in analogy to several other activators of promoters. A weak binding was found in the promoters Pe of phage P2 and Ple of phage P4. The Cox protein is a case of viral transactivation of the replication genes of one phage by a control protein of the other. However, the effects of the Cox protein are totally different in the two phages, repressive in one case and activating in the other. Images PMID:2657731

  2. (R)-Profens Are Substrate-Selective Inhibitors of Endocannabinoid Oxygenation by COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Kelsey C.; Hermanson, Daniel J.; Musee, Joel; Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J.; Scheib, Jami L.; Carter, Bruce D.; Banerjee, Surajit; Oates, J.A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the oxygenation of arachidonic acid and the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamide. Evaluation of a series of COX-2 inhibitors revealed that many weak, competitive inhibitors of arachidonic acid oxygenation are potent inhibitors of endocannabinoid oxygenation. (R)-Enantiomers of ibuprofen, naproxen, and flurbiprofen, which are considered to be inactive as COX-2 inhibitors, are potent “substrate-selective inhibitors” of endocannabinoid oxygenation. Crystal structures of the COX-2-(R)-naproxen and COX-2-(R)-flurbiprofen complexes verified this unexpected binding and defined the orientation of the (R)-enantiomers relative to (S)-enantiomers. (R)-Profens selectively inhibited endocannabinoid oxygenation by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dorsal root ganglion cells. Substrate-selective inhibition provides novel tools for investigating the role of COX-2 in endocannabinoid oxygenation and a possible explanation for the ability of (R)-profens to maintain endocannabinoid tone in models of neuropathic pain. PMID:22053353

  3. Developing Stochastic Deep Drainage Surfaces In Cox's Creek Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S.; Vervoort, R. W.; Bishop, T. F.; Hydrology Research Lab

    2010-12-01

    Deep drainage (DD) can contribute to water table rise and salinity, and is a complex function of rainfall, land management and soil hydraulic properties. Because each of these components is uncertain and variable in time and space, this study developed a method to estimate DD risk based on the mechanistic soil water model SWAP using 50 realisations of stochastic rainfall, land use and soil hydraulic properties using a Monte Carlo approach. DD was predicted at 143 soil points in the Coxs Creek catchment in northern NSW Australia. Realisations of the stochastic daily rainfall were generated at each soil point using an annual mean adjusted Poisson model, DD values were subsequently translated to probabilities of exceeding 100mm/year and spatially predicted over the study area to produce risk maps for the different scenarios. The results showed that DD is episodic with the predominantly summer rainfall in the area, the monthly variability of DD is extremely high depending on when heavy rainfall occurred in relation to different land uses. As expected, the highest probability exceeding 100mm/year DD was for irrigated crop rotations (99%) followed by continuous wheat (59%), then opportunity cropping (46%) and the least for native vegetation (12.5%). Opportunity cropping with sorghum (42%) had the lowest probability to exceed 100mm/year compared to continuous wheat and other opportunity cropping systems and could be one of options for reducing DD in the area. Variation in soil hydraulic properties had less impact on probability of exceeding 100mm/year than variations in land use, which might be explained by soil properties determining the suitability for a certain land use.

  4. Box-Cox Mixed Logit Model for Travel Behavior Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orro, Alfonso; Novales, Margarita; Benitez, Francisco G.

    2010-09-01

    To represent the behavior of travelers when they are deciding how they are going to get to their destination, discrete choice models, based on the random utility theory, have become one of the most widely used tools. The field in which these models were developed was halfway between econometrics and transport engineering, although the latter now constitutes one of their principal areas of application. In the transport field, they have mainly been applied to mode choice, but also to the selection of destination, route, and other important decisions such as the vehicle ownership. In usual practice, the most frequently employed discrete choice models implement a fixed coefficient utility function that is linear in the parameters. The principal aim of this paper is to present the viability of specifying utility functions with random coefficients that are nonlinear in the parameters, in applications of discrete choice models to transport. Nonlinear specifications in the parameters were present in discrete choice theory at its outset, although they have seldom been used in practice until recently. The specification of random coefficients, however, began with the probit and the hedonic models in the 1970s, and, after a period of apparent little practical interest, has burgeoned into a field of intense activity in recent years with the new generation of mixed logit models. In this communication, we present a Box-Cox mixed logit model, original of the authors. It includes the estimation of the Box-Cox exponents in addition to the parameters of the random coefficients distribution. Probability of choose an alternative is an integral that will be calculated by simulation. The estimation of the model is carried out by maximizing the simulated log-likelihood of a sample of observed individual choices between alternatives. The differences between the predictions yielded by models that are inconsistent with real behavior have been studied with simulation experiments.

  5. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  6. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  7. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  8. Basis Selection for Wavelet Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A wavelet basis selection procedure is presented for wavelet regression. Both the basis and the threshold are selected using cross-validation. The method includes the capability of incorporating prior knowledge on the smoothness (or shape of the basis functions) into the basis selection procedure. The results of the method are demonstrated on sampled functions widely used in the wavelet regression literature. The results of the method are contrasted with other published methods.

  9. Regulation of COX-2 expression by miR-146a in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cornett, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins are a class of molecules that mediate cellular inflammatory responses and control cell growth. The oxidative conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 is carried out by two isozymes of cyclooxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is constitutively expressed, while COX-2 can be transiently induced by external stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, COX-2 is overexpressed in numerous cancers, including lung cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that function to regulate gene expression. Previous studies have implicated an important role for miRNAs in human cancer. We demonstrate here that miR-146a expression levels are significantly lower in lung cancer cells as compared with normal lung cells. Conversely, lung cancer cells have higher levels of COX-2 protein and mRNA expression. Introduction of miR-146a can specifically ablate COX-2 protein and the biological activity of COX-2 as measured by prostaglandin production. The regulation of COX-2 by miR-146a is mediated through a single miRNA-binding site present in the 3? UTR. Therefore, we propose that decreased miR-146a expression contributes to the up-regulation and overexpression of COX-2 in lung cancer cells. Since potential miRNA-mediated regulation is a functional consequence of alternative polyadenylation site choice, understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate COX-2 mRNA alternative polyadenylation and miRNA targeting will give us key insights into how COX-2 expression is involved in the development of a metastatic condition. PMID:25047043

  10. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Timoshenko, A V; Chakraborty, C; Wagner, G F; Lala, P K

    2006-01-01

    Increased expression of COX-2 or VEGF-C has been correlated with progressive disease in certain cancers. Present study utilized several human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, Hs578T and MDA-MB-231, varying in COX-2 expression) as well as 10 human breast cancer specimens to examine the roles of COX-2 and prostaglandin E (EP) receptors in VEGF-C expression or secretion, and the relationship of COX-2 or VEGF-C expression to lymphangiogenesis. We found a strong correlation between COX-2 mRNA expression and VEGF-C expression or secretion levels in breast cancer cell lines and VEGF-C expression in breast cancer tissues. Expression of LYVE-1, a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium, was also positively correlated with COX-2 or VEGF-C expression in breast cancer tissues. Inhibition of VEGF-C expression and secretion in the presence of COX-1/2 or COX-2 inhibitors or following downregulation of COX-2 with COX-2 siRNA established a stimulatory role COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis by breast cancer cells. EP1 as well as EP4 receptor antagonists inhibited VEGF-C production indicating the roles of EP1 and EP4 in VEGF-C upregulation by endogenous PGE2. Finally, VEGF-C secretion by MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited in the presence of kinase inhibitors for Her-2/neu, Src and p38 MAPK, indicating a requirement of these kinases for VEGF-C synthesis. These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. PMID:16570043

  11. Corticosteroids induce COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes: role of glucocorticoid receptor and C/EBP-β

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haipeng; Sheveleva, Elena; Xu, Beibei; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Bowden, Tim G.; Chen, Qin M.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological stress increases the level of glucocorticoids in the circulating system. We found that dexamethasone administration in adult mice elevates the expression of COX-2 in the myocardium. With isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes, corticosterone (CT) at physiologically relevant doses (0.01–1 μM) induces the expression of COX-2 gene. The induction first appeared at 4 h and remained for at least 24 h with 1 μM CT treatment. This response is likely cardiomyocyte cell type specific since CT did not induce COX-2 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and glucocorticoids are known to suppress the expression of COX-2 in lymphocytes and several organs. Corticosteroids, but not estrogen or progesterone, induce COX-2 expression. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone (MF) prevented CT from inducing COX-2 gene, suggesting a GR-dependent induction in cardiomyocytes. COX-2 gene promoter deletion and mutation studies indicate a role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β) in CT-induced COX-2 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that CT caused the binding of both GR and C/EBP-β to COX-2 promoter, while MF pretreatment blocked such binding. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that CT treatment induced the interaction of GR with C/EBP-β. Small interfering RNA against C/EBP-β prevented CT from activating COX-2 promoter or elevating COX-2 protein. Our data suggest that the interaction between GR and C/EBP-β contributes to elevated COX-2 gene transcription by CT in cardiomyocytes. PMID:18650268

  12. Mutational Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytochrome c Oxidase Assembly Protein Cox11p

    PubMed Central

    Banting, Graham S.; Glerum, D. Moira

    2006-01-01

    Cox11p is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that is essential for cytochrome c oxidase assembly. The bulk of the protein is located in the intermembrane space and displays high levels of evolutionary conservation. We have analyzed a collection of site-directed and random cox11 mutants in an effort to further define essential portions of the molecule. Of the alleles studied, more than half had no apparent effect on Cox11p function. Among the respiration deficiency-encoding alleles, we identified three distinct phenotypes, which included a set of mutants with a misassembled or partially assembled cytochrome oxidase, as indicated by a blue-shifted cytochrome aa3 peak. In addition to the shifted spectral signal, these mutants also display a specific reduction in the levels of subunit 1 (Cox1p). Two of these mutations are likely to occlude a surface pocket behind the copper-binding domain in Cox11p, based on analogy with the Sinorhizobium meliloti Cox11 solution structure, thereby suggesting that this pocket is crucial for Cox11p function. Sequential deletions of the matrix portion of Cox11p suggest that this domain is not functional beyond the residues involved in mitochondrial targeting and membrane insertion. In addition, our studies indicate that ?cox11, like ?sco1, displays a specific hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Our studies provide the first evidence at the level of the cytochrome oxidase holoenzyme that Cox1p is the in vivo target for Cox11p and suggest that Cox11p may also have a role in the response to hydrogen peroxide exposure. PMID:16524911

  13. Exposure to diesel exhaust upregulates COX-2 expression in ApoE knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ni; Tranfield, Erin M.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation caused progression of atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesize that exposure to DE upregulates cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and activity, which could play a role in DE-induced atherosclerosis. Methods ApoE knockout mice (30-week old) fed with regular chow were exposed to DE (at 200 ?g/m3 of particulate matter) or filtered air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The protein and mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry analysis and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. To examine COX activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated vasoconstriction was measured with and without the presence of COX antagonists (indomethacin). COX-2 activity was further assessed by urine 2,3-dinor-6-keto PGF1? level, a major metabolite of prostacyclin I2 (PGI2). Results Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrates that DE exposure enhanced COX-2 expression in both thoracic aorta (p < 0.01) and aortic root (p < 0.03), with no modification of COX-1 expression. The increased COX-2 expression was positively correlated with smooth muscle cell content in aortic lesions (R2 = 0.4081, p < 0.008). The fractional changes of maximal vasoconstriction in the presence of indomethacin was attenuated by 3-fold after DE exposure (p < 0.02). Urine 2,3-dinor-6-keto PGF1? level was 15-fold higher in DE group than the control (p < 0.007). The mRNA expression of COX-2 (p < 0.006) and PGI synthase (p < 0.02), but not COX-1, was significantly augmented after DE exposure. Conclusion We show that DE inhalation enhanced COX-2 expression, which is also associated with phenotypic changes of aortic lesion. PMID:22746401

  14. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Brnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (20072011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/?L CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.450.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

  15. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Sun Xiaofeng . E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

  16. Chapter 2: Mechanistic Aspects of COX-2 Expression in Colorectal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Dan A.; Blanco, Fernando F.; Bruno, Annalisa; Patrignani, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin formation in pathogenic states and a large amount of evidence has demonstrated constitutive COX-2 expression to be a contributing factor promoting colorectal cancer (CRC). Various genetic, epigenetic, and inflammatory pathways have been identified to be involved in the etiology and development of CRC. Alteration in these pathways can influence COX-2 expression at multiple stages of colon carcinogenesis allowing for elevated prostanoid biosynthesis to occur in the tumor microenvironment. In normal cells, COX-2 expression levels are potently regulated at the post-transcriptional level through various RNA sequence elements present within the mRNA 3′-untranslated region(3′UTR). A conserved AU-rich element(ARE) functions to target COX-2 mRNA for rapid decay and translational inhibition through association with various RNA-binding proteins to influence the fate of COX-2 mRNA. Specific microRNAs bind regions within the COX-2 3′UTR and control COX-2 expression. In this chapter, we discuss novel insights in the mechanisms of altered posttranscriptional regulation of COX-2 in CRC and how this knowledge may be used to develop novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22893198

  17. 5-methoxyindole metabolites of L-tryptophan: control of COX-2 expression, inflammation and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) overexpression promotes inflammation and tumorigenesis. COX-2 expression in response to diverse stimuli is tightly controlled to avoid persistent overexpression. 5-methoxyindole metabolites of L-tryptophan represent a new class of compounds that control COX-2 expression at the transcriptional level. Two of the metabolites, the newly discovered 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP, also known as cytoguardin) and N-acetyl 5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) are the focus of this review. 5-MTP is produced by mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts via 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). It inhibits COX-2 transcriptional activation induced by diverse proinflammatory and mitogenic factors. Cancer cells are deficient in cytoguardin production which contributes to COX-2 overexpression. Fibroblast-generated 5-MTP is capable of restoring the control of COX-2 overexpression in cancer cells. 5-MTP blocks cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and inhibits tumor growth and cancer metastasis in a xenograft model. Melatonin possesses similar COX-2 suppressing and anti-cancer properties albeit at supra-pharmacological concentrations. By contrast, 5-hydroxyindole metabolites of L-tryptophan such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxytryptophol and other serotonin catabolites do not control COX-2 expression. 5-hydroxytryptophan inhibits COX-2 expression through conversion to 5-MTP. The physiological relevance of 5-MTP as an endogenous regulator of inflammation and cancer metastasis remains to be investigated. On the other hand, 5-methoxyindole metabolites of tryptophan are valuable lead compounds for development of new anti-inflammatory drugs and cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24589238

  18. Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2

    PubMed Central

    Berntsson, Ronnie P.-A.; Odegrip, Richard; Sehln, Wilhelmina; Skaar, Karin; Svensson, Linda M.; Massad, Tariq; Hgbom, Martin; Haggrd-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; Stenmark, Pl

    2014-01-01

    The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. It is involved in site-specific recombination leading to P2 prophage excision and functions as a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter. Furthermore, it transcriptionally activates the unrelated, defective prophage P4 that depends on phage P2 late gene products for lytic growth. In this article, we have investigated the structural determinants to understand how P2 Cox performs these different functions. We have solved the structure of P2 Cox to 2.4 resolution. Interestingly, P2 Cox crystallized in a continuous oligomeric spiral with its DNA-binding helix and wing positioned outwards. The extended C-terminal part of P2 Cox is largely responsible for the oligomerization in the structure. The spacing between the repeating DNA-binding elements along the helical P2 Cox filament is consistent with DNA binding along the filament. Functional analyses of alanine mutants in P2 Cox argue for the importance of key residues for protein function. We here present the first structure from the Cox protein family and, together with previous biochemical observations, propose that P2 Cox achieves its various functions by specific binding of DNA while wrapping the DNA around its helical oligomer. PMID:24259428

  19. Molecular docking analysis of known flavonoids as duel COX-2 inhibitors in the context of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Raju; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Hosen, S.M. Zahid; Rahim, Zahed Bin; Dinar, Abu Mansur; Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Sultan, Ramiz Ahmed; Islam, Ashekul; Hossain, Md Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzed synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and it associates with tumor growth, infiltration, and metastasis in preclinical experiments. Known inhibitors against COX-2 exhibit toxicity. Therefore, it is of interest to screen natural compounds like flavanoids against COX-2. Molecular docking using 12 known flavanoids against COX-2 by FlexX and of ArgusLab were performed. All compounds showed a favourable binding energy of >-10 KJ/mol in FlexX and > -8 kcal/mol in ArgusLab. However, this data requires in vitro and in vivo verification for further consideration. PMID:26770028

  20. Selective COX-2 Inhibitors: A Review of Their Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Zarghi, Afshin; Arfaei, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme which mediates the bioconversion of arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs). Their use is associated with the side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs is produced by the inhibition of COX-2, while the undesired side effects arise from inhibition of COX-1 activity. Thus, it was though that more selective COX-2 inhibitors would have reduced side effects. Based upon a number of selective COX-2 inhibitors (rofecoxib, celecoxib, valdecoxibetc.) were developed as safer NSAIDs with improved gastric safety profile. However, the recent market removal of some COXIBs such as rofecoxib due to its adverse cardiovascular side effects clearly encourages the researchers to explore and evaluate alternative templates with COX-2 inhibitory activity. Recognition of new avenues for selective COX-2 inhibitors in cancer chemotherapy and neurological diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimers diseases still continues to attract investigations on the development of COX-2 inhibitors. This review highlights the various structural classes of selective COX-2 inhibitors with special emphasis on their structure-activity relationships. PMID:24250402

  1. What Do Differences Between Multi-voxel and Univariate Analysis Mean? How Subject-, Voxel-, and Trial-level Variance Impact fMRI Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tyler; LaRocque, Karen F.; Mumford, Jeanette; Norman, Kenneth A.; Wagner, Anthony D.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has led to major changes in how fMRI data are analyzed and interpreted. Many studies now report both MVPA results and results from standard univariate voxel-wise analysis, often with the goal of drawing different conclusions from each. Because MVPA results can be sensitive to latent multidimensional representations and processes whereas univariate voxel-wise analysis cannot, one conclusion that is often drawn when MVPA and univariate results differ is that the activation patterns underlying MVPA results contain a multidimensional code. In the current study, we conducted simulations to formally test this assumption. Our findings reveal that MVPA tests are sensitive to the magnitude of voxel-level variability in the effect of a condition within subjects, even when the same linear relationship is coded in all voxels. We also find that MVPA is insensitive to subject-level variability in mean activation across an ROI, which is the primary variance component of interest in many standard univariate tests. Together, these results illustrate that differences between MVPA and univariate tests do not afford conclusions about the nature or dimensionality of the neural code. Instead, targeted tests of the informational content and/or dimensionality of activation patterns are critical for drawing strong conclusions about the representational codes that are indicated by significant MVPA results. PMID:24768930

  2. Estimating Regression Parameters in an Extended Proportional Odds Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying Qing; Hu, Nan; Cheng, Su-Chun; Musoke, Philippa; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2012-01-01

    The proportional odds model may serve as a useful alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model to study association between covariates and their survival functions in medical studies. In this article, we study an extended proportional odds model that incorporates the so-called external time-varying covariates. In the extended model, regression parameters have a direct interpretation of comparing survival functions, without specifying the baseline survival odds function. Semiparametric and maximum likelihood estimation procedures are proposed to estimate the extended model. Our methods are demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations, and applied to a landmark randomized clinical trial of a short course Nevirapine (NVP) for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Additional application includes analysis of the well-known Veterans Administration (VA) Lung Cancer Trial. PMID:22904583

  3. Improving Your Data Transformations: Applying the Box-Cox Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    Many of us in the social sciences deal with data that do not conform to assumptions of normality and/or homoscedasticity/homogeneity of variance. Some research has shown that parametric tests (e.g., multiple regression, ANOVA) can be robust to modest violations of these assumptions. Yet the reality is that almost all analyses (even nonparametric

  4. Reversible Suppression of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) Expression In Vivo by Inducible RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Anne K.; Zuber, Johannes; Chu, Chun; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Jiao, Jing; Catapang, Arthur B.; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Gil, Jose S.; Lowe, Scott W.; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), plays a critical role in many normal physiological functions and modulates a variety of pathological conditions. The ability to turn endogenous COX-2 on and off in a reversible fashion, at specific times and in specific cell types, would be a powerful tool in determining its role in many contexts. To achieve this goal, we took advantage of a recently developed RNA interference system in mice. An shRNA targeting the Cox2 mRNA 3′untranslated region was inserted into a microRNA expression cassette, under the control of a tetracycline response element (TRE) promoter. Transgenic mice containing the COX-2-shRNA were crossed with mice encoding a CAG promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator, which activates the TRE promoter in the presence of tetracycline/doxycycline. To facilitate testing the system, we generated a knockin reporter mouse in which the firefly luciferase gene replaces the Cox2 coding region. Cox2 promoter activation in cultured cells from triple transgenic mice containing the luciferase allele, the shRNA and the transactivator transgene resulted in robust luciferase and COX-2 expression that was reversibly down-regulated by doxycycline administration. In vivo, using a skin inflammation-model, both luciferase and COX-2 expression were inhibited over 80% in mice that received doxycycline in their diet, leading to a significant reduction of infiltrating leukocytes. In summary, using inducible RNA interference to target COX-2 expression, we demonstrate potent, reversible Cox2 gene silencing in vivo. This system should provide a valuable tool to analyze cell type-specific roles for COX-2. PMID:24988319

  5. Pathophysiology of motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction: role of stretch-induced COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, You-Min; Powell, Don W.; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2011-01-01

    In gastrointestinal conditions such as bowel obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, and idiopathic megacolon, the lumen of affected bowel segments is distended and its motility function impaired. Our hypothesis is that mechanical stretch of the distended segments alters gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which impairs motility function. Partial obstruction was induced with a silicon band in the distal colon of rats for up to 7 days, and wild-type and COX-2 gene-deficient mice for 4 days. Mechanical stretch was mimicked in vitro in colonic circular muscle strips and in primary culture of colonic circular smooth muscle cells (SMC) with a Flexercell system. The rat colonic circular muscle contractility was significantly decreased in the distended segment oral to obstruction, but not in the aboral segment. This change started as early as day 1 and persisted for at least 7 days after obstruction. The expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein increased dramatically also in the oral, but not aboral, segment. The upregulation of COX-2 expression started at 12 h and the effect persisted for 7 days. At 24 h after obstruction, the COX-2 mRNA level in the oral segment increased 26-fold compared with controls. This was not accompanied by any significant increase of myeloperoxidase or inflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemical studies showed that COX-2 was selectively induced in the colonic SMC. In vitro stretch of colonic muscle strips or cultured SMC drastically induced COX-2 expression. Incubation of circular muscle strips from obstructed segment with COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 restored the contractility. The impairment of muscle contractility in obstructed colon was attenuated in the COX-2 gene-deficient mice. In conclusion, mechanical stretch in obstruction induces marked expression of COX-2 in the colonic SMC, and stretch-induced COX-2 plays a critical role in the suppression of smooth muscle contractility in bowel obstruction. PMID:21051526

  6. Cluster-based computational methods for mass univariate analyses of event-related brain potentials/fields: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, C.R.; Latinus, M.; Nichols, T.E.; Rousselet, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, analyses of event related potentials/fields have moved from the selection of a few components and peaks to a mass-univariate approach in which the whole data space is analyzed. Such extensive testing increases the number of false positives and correction for multiple comparisons is needed. Method Here we review all cluster-based correction for multiple comparison methods (cluster-height, cluster-size, cluster-mass, and threshold free cluster enhancement TFCE), in conjunction with two computational approaches (permutation and bootstrap). Results Data driven Monte-Carlo simulations comparing two conditions within subjects (two sample Student's t-test) showed that, on average, all cluster-based methods using permutation or bootstrap alike control well the family-wise error rate (FWER), with a few caveats. Conclusions (i) A minimum of 800 iterations are necessary to obtain stable results; (ii) below 50 trials, bootstrap methods are too conservative; (iii) for low critical family-wise error rates (e.g. p=1%), permutations can be too liberal; (iv) TFCE controls best the type 1 error rate with an attenuated extent parameter (i.e. power<1). PMID:25128255

  7. Neural Univariate Activity and Multivariate Pattern in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Differentially Encode Facial Expression and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zetian; Zhen, Zonglei; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiang-zhen; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Faces contain a variety of information such as one’s identity and expression. One prevailing model suggests a functional division of labor in processing faces that different aspects of facial information are processed in anatomically separated and functionally encapsulated brain regions. Here, we demonstrate that facial identity and expression can be processed in the same region, yet with different neural coding strategies. To this end, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine two types of coding schemes, namely univariate activity and multivariate pattern, in the posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTS) - a face-selective region that is traditionally viewed as being specialized for processing facial expression. With the individual difference approach, we found that participants with higher overall face selectivity in the right pSTS were better at differentiating facial expressions measured outside of the scanner. In contrast, individuals whose spatial pattern for faces in the right pSTS was less similar to that for objects were more accurate in identifying previously presented faces. The double dissociation of behavioral relevance between overall neural activity and spatial neural pattern suggests that the functional-division-of-labor model on face processing is over-simplified, and that coding strategies shall be incorporated in a revised model. PMID:26997104

  8. Neural Univariate Activity and Multivariate Pattern in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Differentially Encode Facial Expression and Identity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zetian; Zhen, Zonglei; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Faces contain a variety of information such as one's identity and expression. One prevailing model suggests a functional division of labor in processing faces that different aspects of facial information are processed in anatomically separated and functionally encapsulated brain regions. Here, we demonstrate that facial identity and expression can be processed in the same region, yet with different neural coding strategies. To this end, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine two types of coding schemes, namely univariate activity and multivariate pattern, in the posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTS) - a face-selective region that is traditionally viewed as being specialized for processing facial expression. With the individual difference approach, we found that participants with higher overall face selectivity in the right pSTS were better at differentiating facial expressions measured outside of the scanner. In contrast, individuals whose spatial pattern for faces in the right pSTS was less similar to that for objects were more accurate in identifying previously presented faces. The double dissociation of behavioral relevance between overall neural activity and spatial neural pattern suggests that the functional-division-of-labor model on face processing is over-simplified, and that coding strategies shall be incorporated in a revised model. PMID:26997104

  9. Genetic regulation of plasma and red blood cell magnesium concentrations in man. I. Univariate and bivariate path analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Darlu, P; Rao, D C; Henrotte, J G; Lalouel, J M

    1982-01-01

    This paper concerns an analysis of family resemblance for magnesium concentrations, based on data from nuclear families and twins. Neither red blood cell magnesium nor plasma magnesium varies with age in children (under 20 years of age). Whereas adult plasma magnesium varies linearly with age, the red cell magnesium clearly showed a nonlinear trend: quadratic for males and a fifth-degree polynomial for females. Transformed magnesium concentrations generated six correlations in nuclear families and twins for each of the two traits. Separate univariate analyses, using a simple linear model with four parameters, strongly suggested that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the observed family resemblance. Both traits were then analyzed simultaneously using a simple bivariate model. We found that one common genetic factor alone could not explain all the 24 correlations generated for the bivariate analysis. The most parsimonious model involved only three parameters: genetic heritability for red blood cell magnesium (.922 +/- .014), genetic heritability for plasma magnesium (.721 +/- .040), and the genetic correlation between the two traits (.233 +/- .040). PMID:6891178

  10. Regressive Evolution in Astyanax Cavefish

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    A diverse group of animals, including members of most major phyla, have adapted to life in the perpetual darkness of caves. These animals are united by the convergence of two regressive phenotypes, loss of eyes and pigmentation. The mechanisms of regressive evolution are poorly understood. The teleost Astyanax mexicanus is of special significance in studies of regressive evolution in cave animals. This species includes an ancestral surface dwelling form and many con-specific cave-dwelling forms, some of which have evolved their recessive phenotypes independently. Recent advances in Astyanax development and genetics have provided new information about how eyes and pigment are lost during cavefish evolution; namely, they have revealed some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in trait modification, the number and identity of the underlying genes and mutations, the molecular basis of parallel evolution, and the evolutionary forces driving adaptation to the cave environment. PMID:19640230

  11. Spontaneous regression of neonatal fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, N. P.; Spicer, R. D.; Allibone, E. B.; Lewis, I. J.

    1992-01-01

    We report a case of fibrosarcoma, which presented in a two week old boy. Excision was not performed because it would have required mutilating surgery. The tumour regressed and was impalpable by 7 months of age. The patient is tumour free at 4 years of age. This is the first reported case of spontaneous regression of a fibrosarcoma. The literature is reviewed. We conclude that the chances of metastasis are low, tumours are likely to respond to chemotherapy, and mutilating surgery is not appropriate initial treatment for infantile fibrosarcomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1503930

  12. Loss of COX5B inhibits proliferation and promotes senescence via mitochondrial dysfunction in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Lin; Li, Liang-Dong; Hu, Xin; Xu, Xiao-En; Jin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    COX5B, a peripheral subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, has previously been reported to maintain the stability of this complex. However, its functions and mechanisms involved in breast cancer progression remain unclear. Here, by performing SILAC assays in breast cancer cell models and detecting COX5B expression in tissues, we found that COX5B expression was elevated in breast cancer. Down-regulation of COX5B in breast cancer cell lines can suppress cell proliferation and induced cell senescence which was accompanied by elevating production of IL-8 and other cytokines. Interestingly, conditioned medium from COX5B knockdown cells could promote breast cancer cell migration. Mechanistic studies reveal that COX5B silence induces an increase in production of ROS, depolarization of MMP and a decrease in ATP. What's more, silence of COX5B leads to metabolic disorders, such as increased glucose uptake and decreased lactate secretion. Collectively, our study shows that loss of COX5B induces mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequently leads to cell growth suppression and cell senescence. Cytokines such as IL-8 secreted by senescent cells may in turn alter the microenvironment which could enhance cell migration. These findings may provide a novel paradigm for the treatment which combined anti-cancer drugs with particular cytokine inhibitors such as IL-8 blockers. PMID:26506233

  13. Design and Synthesis of Imidazopyrazolopyridines as Novel Selective COX-2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Badrey, Mohamed G; Abdel-Aziz, Hassan M; Gomha, Sobhi M; Abdalla, Mohamed M; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is hampered by their gastrointestinal side effects. Non-selective cyclooxygenases inhibitors interfere with both COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes. Since COX-1 mediates cytoprotection of gastric mucosa, its inhibition leads to the undesirable side effects. On the other hand, COX-2 is undetectable in normal tissues and selectively induced by inflammatory stimuli. Therefore, it is strongly believed that the therapeutic benefits derive from inhibition of COX-2 only. The presence of a strong connection between reported COX-2 inhibitors and cardiac toxicity encourages medicinal chemists to explore new scaffolds. In the present study, we introduced imidazopyrazolopyridines as new potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors that lack the standard pharmacophoric binding features to hERG. Starting from our lead compound 5a, structure-based drug-design was conducted and more potent analogues were obtained with high COX-2 selectivity and almost full edema protection, in carrageenan-induced edema assay, in case of compound 5e. Increased bulkiness around imidazopyrazolopyridines by adding a substituted phenyl ring(s) afforded less active compounds. PMID:26307959

  14. Loss of COX5B inhibits proliferation and promotes senescence via mitochondrial dysfunction in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shui-Ping; Sun, He-Fen; Jiang, Hong-Lin; Li, Liang-Dong; Hu, Xin; Xu, Xiao-En; Jin, Wei

    2015-12-22

    COX5B, a peripheral subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, has previously been reported to maintain the stability of this complex. However, its functions and mechanisms involved in breast cancer progression remain unclear. Here, by performing SILAC assays in breast cancer cell models and detecting COX5B expression in tissues, we found that COX5B expression was elevated in breast cancer. Down-regulation of COX5B in breast cancer cell lines can suppress cell proliferation and induced cell senescence which was accompanied by elevating production of IL-8 and other cytokines. Interestingly, conditioned medium from COX5B knockdown cells could promote breast cancer cell migration. Mechanistic studies reveal that COX5B silence induces an increase in production of ROS, depolarization of MMP and a decrease in ATP. What's more, silence of COX5B leads to metabolic disorders, such as increased glucose uptake and decreased lactate secretion. Collectively, our study shows that loss of COX5B induces mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequently leads to cell growth suppression and cell senescence. Cytokines such as IL-8 secreted by senescent cells may in turn alter the microenvironment which could enhance cell migration. These findings may provide a novel paradigm for the treatment which combined anti-cancer drugs with particular cytokine inhibitors such as IL-8 blockers. PMID:26506233

  15. Glutathione selectively modulates the binding of platinum drugs to human copper chaperone Cox17.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linhong; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Han; Xi, Zhaoyong; Liu, Yangzhong

    2015-12-01

    The copper chaperone Cox17 (cytochrome c oxidase copper chaperone) has been shown to facilitate the delivery of cisplatin to mitochondria, which contributes to the overall cytotoxicity of the drug [Zhao et al. (2014) Chem. Commun. 50: , 2667-2669]. Kinetic data indicate that Cox17 has reactivity similar to glutathione (GSH), the most abundant thiol-rich molecule in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we found that GSH significantly modulates the reaction of platinum complexes with Cox17. GSH enhances the reactivity of three anti-cancer drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) to Cox17, but suppresses the reaction of transplatin. Surprisingly, the pre-formed cisplatin-GSH adducts are highly reactive to Cox17; over 90% platinum transfers from GSH to Cox17. On the other hand, transplatin-GSH adducts are inert to Cox17. These different effects are consistent with the drug activity of these platinum complexes. In addition, GSH attenuates the protein aggregation of Cox17 induced by platination. These results indicate that the platinum-protein interactions could be substantially influenced by the cellular environment. PMID:26399480

  16. COX-2 inhibitors: a story of greed, deception and death.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Georges M

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, drug manufacturers introduced a class of NSAIDs called COX-2 inhibitors or coxibs. The drugs were avidly promoted directly to the consumers and became bestsellers from the start. Arthritis sufferers were eager to take medications that eased joint pain with less risk of causing gastrointestinal pain, bleeding and other side-effects. In the year after their introduction, doctors wrote over 100 million prescriptions for celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx). Celebrex is the sixth best-selling drug, with sales of more than US$ 4 billion since its debut in 1999. Vioxx had sales of US$ 2.6 billion in 2001. However, the coxibs increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes, and their price, in the USA, is obscene. The manufacturers faced a possibly complicit, toothless and bloodless FDA, and used every maneuvering to fleece the patients. We must now reflect on attitudes that we thought only belong to the tobacco industry. Fortunately, safe and active alternatives exist. PMID:16354394

  17. Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-07-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

  18. Reactive oxygen species induce Cox-2 expression via TAK1 activation in synovial fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Yuta; Teramura, Takeshi; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Shigi, Kanae; Fukuda, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress within the arthritis joint has been indicated to be involved in generating mediators for tissue degeneration and inflammation. COX-2 is a mediator in inflammatory action, pain and some catabolic reactions in inflamed tissues. Here, we demonstrated a direct relationship between oxidative stress and Cox-2 expression in the bovine synovial fibroblasts. Furthermore, we elucidated a novel mechanism, in which oxidative stress induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-?B through TAK1 activation and resulted in increased Cox-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that ROS-induced Cox-2 expression was inhibited by supplementation of an antioxidant such as N-acetyl cysteamine and hyaluronic acid in vitro and in vivo. From these results, we conclude that oxidative stress is an important factor for generation of Cox-2 in synovial fibroblasts and thus its neutralization may be an effective strategy in palliative therapy for chronic joint diseases. PMID:26110105

  19. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  20. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting

  1. Cactus: An Introduction to Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2008-01-01

    When the author first used "VisiCalc," the author thought it a very useful tool when he had the formulas. But how could he design a spreadsheet if there was no known formula for the quantities he was trying to predict? A few months later, the author relates he learned to use multiple linear regression software and suddenly it all clicked into

  2. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating

  3. Ridge Regression for Interactive Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are favorable to

  4. The HMGA1-COX-2 axis: A key molecular pathway and potential target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Joelle; Smail, Shamayra S.; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Belton, Amy; Shah, Sandeep; Huso, Tait; Schuldenfrei, Andrew; Nelson, Dwella Moton; Cope, Leslie; Campbell, Nathaniel; Karikari, Collins; Aderinto, Abimbola; Maitra, Anirban; Huso, David L.; Resar, Linda M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Although pancreatic cancer is a common, highly lethal malignancy, the molecular events that enable precursor lesions to become invasive carcinoma remain unclear. We previously reported that the high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein is overexpressed in >90% of primary pancreatic cancers, with absent or low levels in early precursor lesions. Methods Here, we investigate the role of HMGA1 in reprogramming pancreatic epithelium into invasive cancer cells. We assessed oncogenic properties induced by HMGA1 in non-transformed pancreatic epithelial cells expressing activated K-RAS. We also explored the HMGA1-cyclooxygenase (COX-2) pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells and the therapeutic effects of COX-2 inhibitors in xenograft tumorigenesis. Results HMGA1 cooperates with activated K-RAS to induce migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent cell growth in a cell line derived from normal human pancreatic epithelium. Moreover, HMGA1 and COX-2 expression are positively correlated in pancreatic cancer cell lines (r2=0.93; p<0.001). HMGA1 binds directly to the COX-2 promoter at an AT-rich region in vivo in three pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, HMGA1 induces COX-2 expression in pancreatic epithelial cells, while knock-down of HMGA1 results in repression of COX-2 in pancreatic cancer cells. Strikingly, we also discovered that Sulindac (a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) or Celecoxib (a more specific COX-2 inhibitor) block xenograft tumorigenesis from pancreatic cancer cells expressing high levels of HMGA1. Conclusions Our studies identify for the first time an important role for the HMGA1-COX-2 pathway in pancreatic cancer and suggest that targeting this pathway could be effective to treat, or even prevent, pancreatic cancer. PMID:22898640

  5. Functional expression cloning identifies COX-2 as a suppressor of antigen-specific cancer immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gbel, C; Breitenbuecher, F; Kalkavan, H; Hhnel, P S; Kasper, S; Hoffarth, S; Merches, K; Schild, H; Lang, K S; Schuler, M

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of immune surveillance and antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy equally depends on the activation of a sustained immune response targeting cancer antigens and the susceptibility of cancer cells to immune effector mechanisms. Using functional expression cloning and T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice, we have identified cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) as resistance factor against the cytotoxicity induced by activated, antigen-specific T cells. Expressing COX-2, but not a catalytically inactive COX-2 mutant, increased the clonogenic survival of E1A-transformed murine cancer cells when cocultured with lymphocytes from St42Rag2?/? mice harboring a transgenic TCR directed against an E1A epitope. COX-2 expressing tumors established in immune-deficient mice were less susceptible to adoptive immunotherapy with TCR transgenic lymphocytes in vivo. Also, immune surveillance of COX-2-positive tumor cells in TCR transgenic mice was less efficient. The growth of murine MC-GP tumors, which show high endogenous COX-2 expression, in immunocompetent mice was effectively suppressed by treatment with a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib. Mechanistically, COX-2 expression blunted the interferon-gamma release of antigen-specific T cells exposed to their respective cellular targets, and increased the expression of interleukin-4 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by tumor cells. Addition of interferon-gamma sensitized COX-2 expressing cancer cells to tumor suppression by antigen-specific T cells. In conclusion, COX-2, which is frequently induced in colorectal cancer, contributes to immune evasion and resistance to antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy by local suppression of T-cell effector functions. PMID:25501829

  6. Structural and Electronic Factors Influencing the Selective Inhibition of COX-2.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Fatma; Shvets, Natali; Khairullina, Veronika; Dimoglo, Anatholy

    2016-01-01

    Structural and electronic factors influencing the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1/COX-2) were studied by means of Electronic-Topological Method combined with Neural Networks (ETM-NN), molecular docking and Density Functional Theory (DFT). A series of structurally diverse compounds containing 209 molecules were classified in accordance with their inhibiting properties, as selectively inhibiting and non-selectively inhibiting COX-2 receptor agents (110 and 99 molecules, correspondingly). The results obtained from the ETM-NN calculations gave us possibility of selecting those pharmacophoric molecular fragments, which allow for the search of new selective inhibitors of COX-2 with high probability of realization. The final selection of pharmacophores and anti-pharmacophores found was taken as a basis for a system designed for the COX-2 inhibitory activity prediction. Analysis of the electron density distribution showed that more effective binding with COX-2 receptor was observed for selective inhibitors. To make an assessment of these interactions, calculations of stabilization energies were carried out for the ligand-receptor complexes. From the results of the docking and from the analysis of electronic structures of active sites of enzymes, some peculiarities of ligand-receptor binding and its influence on the selectivity of the COX-2 relative to COX-1 inhibition were elucidated. 95% of compounds were recognized correctly, as the most active ones, by the system of prediction designed. Thus, the system being the result of the study is capable of predicting the selective inhibitory activity of COX-2 successfully. As a consequence, it can be used both for computer screening and synthesis of potent inhibitors of COX-2 with molecular skeletons that may vary considerably. PMID:26471968

  7. Preconditioning stress prevents cold restraint stress-induced gastric lesions in rats: roles of COX-1, COX-2, and PLA2.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hatazawa, Ryo; Takahira, Yuka; Izumi, Nahoko; Filaretova, Ludmila; Takeuchi, Koji

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the protective effect of mild stress on gastric lesions induced by cold-restraint stress, especially concerning prostaglandins (PGs)/cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isozymes. Rats were exposed to severe stress (cold-restraint stress at 10 degrees C for 6 hr) or mild stress (cold-restraint stress at 10 degrees C for 30 min and kept at room temperature for 60 min) followed by severe stress. Severe stress induced gastric lesions, with a concomitant decrease in body temperature (BT). The ulcerogenic response was inhibited by atropine but worsened by indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib, although none of these agents had any effect on the change in BT. Mild stress suppressed the gastric ulceration and the decrease in BT induced by severe stress, and these effects were reversed by both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. The expression of COX-2 in the stomach was up-regulated from 4 hr after severe stress and this response was slightly expedited by mild stress. COX-2 was also expressed in the hypothalamus under normal and stressed conditions. Quinacrine (phospholipase A(2) inhibitor) attenuated the protective effect of mild stress on the ulceration and decrease in BT caused by severe stress. TA-0910 (TRH analogue) at a low dose also prevented the gastric ulceration and the decrease in BT induced by severe stress. These results suggest that mild stress protects against cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration, and the effect is peripherally and centrally mediated by PGs derived from both COX-1 and COX-2 through the activation of phospholipase A(2). TRH may also be involved in the protective effect of mild stress, probably through regulation of the thermogenic system. PMID:17226073

  8. Hierarchical Adaptive Regression Kernels for Regression with Functional Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Dawn B.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Ruppert, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method for regression using a parsimonious and scientifically interpretable representation of functional predictors. Our approach is designed for data that exhibit features such as spikes, dips, and plateaus whose frequency, location, size, and shape varies stochastically across subjects. We propose Bayesian inference of the joint functional and exposure models, and give a method for efficient computation. We contrast our approach with existing state-of-the-art methods for regression with functional predictors, and show that our method is more effective and efficient for data that include features occurring at varying locations. We apply our methodology to a large and complex dataset from the Sleep Heart Health Study, to quantify the association between sleep characteristics and health outcomes. Software and technical appendices are provided in online supplemental materials. PMID:24293988

  9. Bayesian dynamic regression models for interval censored survival data with application to children dental health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Ming-Hui; Yan, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Cox models with time-varying coefficients offer great flexibility in capturing the temporal dynamics of covariate effects on event times, which could be hidden from a Cox proportional hazards model. Methodology development for varying coefficient Cox models, however, has been largely limited to right censored data; only limited work on interval censored data has been done. In most existing methods for varying coefficient models, analysts need to specify which covariate coefficients are time-varying and which are not at the time of fitting. We propose a dynamic Cox regression model for interval censored data in a Bayesian framework, where the coefficient curves are piecewise constant but the number of pieces and the jump points are covariate specific and estimated from the data. The model automatically determines the extent to which the temporal dynamics is needed for each covariate, resulting in smoother and more stable curve estimates. The posterior computation is carried out via an efficient reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Inference of each coefficient is based on an average of models with different number of pieces and jump points. A simulation study with three covariates, each with a coefficient of different degree in temporal dynamics, confirmed that the dynamic model is preferred to the existing time-varying model in terms of model comparison criteria through conditional predictive ordinate. When applied to a dental health data of children with age between 7 and 12 years, the dynamic model reveals that the relative risk of emergence of permanent tooth 24 between children with and without an infected primary predecessor is the highest at around age 7.5, and that it gradually reduces to one after age 11. These findings were not seen from the existing studies with Cox proportional hazards models. PMID:23389549

  10. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  11. Regression Verification Using Impact Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, John; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha; Thachuk, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Regression verification techniques are used to prove equivalence of syntactically similar programs. Checking equivalence of large programs, however, can be computationally expensive. Existing regression verification techniques rely on abstraction and decomposition techniques to reduce the computational effort of checking equivalence of the entire program. These techniques are sound but not complete. In this work, we propose a novel approach to improve scalability of regression verification by classifying the program behaviors generated during symbolic execution as either impacted or unimpacted. Our technique uses a combination of static analysis and symbolic execution to generate summaries of impacted program behaviors. The impact summaries are then checked for equivalence using an o-the-shelf decision procedure. We prove that our approach is both sound and complete for sequential programs, with respect to the depth bound of symbolic execution. Our evaluation on a set of sequential C artifacts shows that reducing the size of the summaries can help reduce the cost of software equivalence checking. Various reduction, abstraction, and compositional techniques have been developed to help scale software verification techniques to industrial-sized systems. Although such techniques have greatly increased the size and complexity of systems that can be checked, analysis of large software systems remains costly. Regression analysis techniques, e.g., regression testing [16], regression model checking [22], and regression verification [19], restrict the scope of the analysis by leveraging the differences between program versions. These techniques are based on the idea that if code is checked early in development, then subsequent versions can be checked against a prior (checked) version, leveraging the results of the previous analysis to reduce analysis cost of the current version. Regression verification addresses the problem of proving equivalence of closely related program versions [19]. These techniques compare two programs with a large degree of syntactic similarity to prove that portions of one program version are equivalent to the other. Regression verification can be used for guaranteeing backward compatibility, and for showing behavioral equivalence in programs with syntactic differences, e.g., when a program is refactored to improve its performance, maintainability, or readability. Existing regression verification techniques leverage similarities between program versions by using abstraction and decomposition techniques to improve scalability of the analysis [10, 12, 19]. The abstractions and decomposition in the these techniques, e.g., summaries of unchanged code [12] or semantically equivalent methods [19], compute an over-approximation of the program behaviors. The equivalence checking results of these techniques are sound but not complete-they may characterize programs as not functionally equivalent when, in fact, they are equivalent. In this work we describe a novel approach that leverages the impact of the differences between two programs for scaling regression verification. We partition program behaviors of each version into (a) behaviors impacted by the changes and (b) behaviors not impacted (unimpacted) by the changes. Only the impacted program behaviors are used during equivalence checking. We then prove that checking equivalence of the impacted program behaviors is equivalent to checking equivalence of all program behaviors for a given depth bound. In this work we use symbolic execution to generate the program behaviors and leverage control- and data-dependence information to facilitate the partitioning of program behaviors. The impacted program behaviors are termed as impact summaries. The dependence analyses that facilitate the generation of the impact summaries, we believe, could be used in conjunction with other abstraction and decomposition based approaches, [10, 12], as a complementary reduction technique. An evaluation of our regression verification technique shows that our approach is capable of leveraging similarities between program versions to reduce the size of the queries and the time required to check for logical equivalence. The main contributions of this work are: - A regression verification technique to generate impact summaries that can be checked for functional equivalence using an off-the-shelf decision procedure. - A proof that our approach is sound and complete with respect to the depth bound of symbolic execution. - An implementation of our technique using the LLVMcompiler infrastructure, the klee Symbolic Virtual Machine [4], and a variety of Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solvers, e.g., STP [7] and Z3 [6]. - An empirical evaluation on a set of C artifacts which shows that the use of impact summaries can reduce the cost of regression verification.

  12. Late postoperative hemorrhage in a patient with undiagnosed COX-1 deficiency after third molar extractions.

    PubMed

    Doscher, Jesse C; Volpe, Fedele N

    2014-04-01

    Oral maxillofacial surgeons direct invasive procedures that often cause significant bleeding. Uncontrolled hemorrhage is a rare, yet serious, complication that can be seen in patients with thrombocytopathy. Platelets have 3 distinct roles in coagulation: initial adhesion, phospholipid externalization, and platelet aggregation.(1) Several types of platelet deficiencies, including defects of adhesion (Bernard-Soulier syndrome), defects of aggregation (Glanzmann thrombasthenia), and disorders of platelet secretion due to a deficiency of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1).(2-4) COX has 2 isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2.(5,6) COX-1 is expressed constitutively in most tissues, and COX-2 is induced primarily by inflammatory mediators.(7,8) Although both isoforms are present in platelets, COX-1 is the major isoform that contributes to coagulation, because it is critically important in the formation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by way of the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway.(9) AA is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation.(1,3,4) When AA is exposed to an activating agent, such as ADP, it undergoes a series of enzymatic reactions that culminates in the production of TXA2.(10) TXA2 is the predominant product of the COX-1 pathway and is a major metabolite of AA in platelets. TXA2 is necessary for normal platelet function. Therefore, the inhibition of, or a deficiency in, COX-1 will compromise the AA pathway, thereby reducing platelet secretion and altering normal platelet aggregatory function.(1,3) COX-1 deficiencies are usually caused by drug interactions with the enzyme itself. In addition, studies have identified genetic mutations that can result in COX-1 deficiency.(2) We present the hospital course, management, and diagnosis of a patient with an undiagnosed COX-1 deficiency who had had third molars removed in a private office. To our knowledge, this is the first case of COX-1 deficiency diagnosed after exodontia documented in English studies. In addition, we reviewed the published data of this rare disorder that has significant clinical implications. PMID:24480756

  13. Regression Analysis and 2-Group Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that in the special case of just two criterion groups the predictor variables may be equivalently ordered (with respect to contribution to prediction or discrimination) by the univariate F-ratios and by estimates of the predictor versus the linear discriminant function correlations. (Author)

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of arachidonic acid-derived pentadienyl radical intermediate complexes with COX-1 and COX-2: insights into oxygenation regio- and stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Furse, Kristina E; Pratt, Derek A; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R; Porter, Ned A; Lybrand, Terry P

    2006-03-14

    The two cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, are responsible for the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis and are the targets of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs aspirin and ibuprofen and the COX-2 selective inhibitors, Celebrex, Vioxx, and Bextra. The enzymes are remarkable in that they catalyze two dioxygenations and two cyclizations of the native substrate, arachidonic acid, with near absolute regio- and stereoselectivity. Several theories have been advanced to explain the nature of enzymatic control over this series of reactions, including suggestions of steric shielding and oxygen channeling. As proposed here, selective radical trapping and spin localization in the substrate-derived pentadienyl radical intermediate can also be envisioned. Herein we describe the results of explicit, 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations of both COX-1 and COX-2 with the substrate-derived pentadienyl radical intermediate bound in the active site. The enzymes' influence on the conformation of the pentadienyl radical was investigated, along with the accessible space above and below the radical plane and the width of several channels to the active site that could function as access routes for molecular oxygen. Additional simulations demonstrated the extent of molecular oxygen mobility within the active site. The results suggest that spin localization is unlikely to play a role in enzymatic control of this reaction. Instead, a combination of oxygen channeling, steric shielding, and selective radical trapping appears to be responsible. This work adds a dynamic perspective to the strong foundation of static structural data available for these enzymes. PMID:16519515

  15. Human airway smooth muscle cells secrete amphiregulin via bradykinin/COX-2/PGE2, inducing COX-2, CXCL8, and VEGF expression in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC) contribute to asthma pathophysiology through an increased smooth muscle mass and elevated cytokine/chemokine output. Little is known about how HASMC and the airway epithelium interact to regulate chronic airway inflammation and remodeling. Amphiregulin is a member of the family of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agonists with cell growth and proinflammatory roles and increased expression in the lungs of asthma patients. Here we show that bradykinin (BK) stimulation of HASMC increases amphiregulin secretion in a mechanism dependent on BK-induced COX-2 expression, increased PGE2 output, and the stimulation of HASMC EP2 and EP4 receptors. Conditioned medium from BK treated HASMC induced CXCL8, VEGF, and COX-2 mRNA and protein accumulation in airway epithelial cells, which were blocked by anti-amphiregulin antibodies and amphiregulin siRNA, suggesting a paracrine effect of HASMC-derived amphiregulin on airway epithelial cells. Consistent with this, recombinant amphiregulin induced CXCL8, VEGF, and COX-2 in airway epithelial cells. Finally, we found that conditioned media from amphiregulin-stimulated airway epithelial cells induced amphiregulin expression in HASMC and that this was dependent on airway epithelial cell COX-2 activity. Our study provides evidence of a dynamic axis of interaction between HASMC and epithelial cells that amplifies CXCL8, VEGF, COX-2, and amphiregulin production. PMID:26047642

  16. Comparative molecular modeling study of the three-dimensional structures of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2).

    PubMed

    Filizola, M; Perez, J J; Palomer, A; Maulen, D

    1997-10-01

    To understand the structural features that dictate the selectivity of diverse nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the two isoforms of the human prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS), the three-dimensional (3D) structure of human COX-2 was assessed by means of sequence homology modeling. The ovine COX-1 structure, solved by X-ray diffraction methods and sharing a 61% sequence identity with human COX-2, was used as template. Both structures were energy minimized using the AMBER 4.0 force field with a dielectric constant of 4r. (S)-Flurbiprofen, a nonselective COX inhibitor, and SC-558, a COX-2-selective ligand, were docked at the cyclooxygenase binding site in both isozymes, evidencing the role of different residues in the ligand-protein interaction. The 3D structures of the constructed four ligand-enzyme complexes were refined by energy minimization. Molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out, to understand more deeply the structural origins of the selectivity. Distances calculated during the dynamics process between the different ligands and the interacting residues of the two PGHS isozymes provided evidence of the flexible nature of the cyclooxygenase active site, permitting the identification of different conserved and nonconserved residues as responsible for ligand selectivity. PMID:9640560

  17. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ying; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Regression quantiles can be substantially biased when the covariates are measured with error. In this paper we propose a new method that produces consistent linear quantile estimation in the presence of covariate measurement error. The method corrects the measurement error induced bias by constructing joint estimating equations that simultaneously hold for all the quantile levels. An iterative EM-type estimation algorithm to obtain the solutions to such joint estimation equations is provided. The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a longitudinal study with an unusual measurement error structure. PMID:20305802

  18. Leukemic cells modulate induction of COX-2 in human stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Egyudova, K; Siltanen, A; Kankuri, E; Bizik, J

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of cancer cells with surrounding normal tissue cells is of utmost importance for their survival and tumor progression. For these purposes the cancer cells exploit normal tissue responses associated with inflammation and tissue repair. In the immediate tumor microenvironment one of the early stromal markers is cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In this study we evaluated the effect of leukemia cell lines on nemosis-induced COX-2 expression in stromal fibroblasts. We found that THP-1 cells were the most potent leukemic cells (IC50=746) to suppress COX-2 expression. The U-937 cell line exhibited similar suppressive potency (IC50=921), whereas the KG-1 cell line (IC50=3519) was the least potent to affect COX-2 expression in the stromal cells. Our study shows that human leukemic cells can actively participate in modulation of stromal inflammation via inhibition of COX-2 expression. In a co-culture model of leukemia cell lines and stromal fibroblasts, our data suggest that the tumor-stromal interactions are complexly regulated, and the straightforward association of COX-2 expression with tumor progression may require re-evaluation since some tumor cells, e.g. from hematologic malignancies, may differentially modulate inflammation and COX-2 expression. PMID:21895406

  19. Expression and Significance of COX-2 and Ki-67 in Hepatolithiasis with Bile Duct Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; He, Yu; Ma, Xiaodong; Sun, Beiwang; Huang, Binyuan; Zhu, Canhua; Liu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Background As an induced enzyme, COX-2 expression is elevated under stimuli from inflammatory mediator or growth factor product. Ki-67, a cell cycle-related proliferative antigen, reflects the tissue proliferative activity. This study analyzed the expressional profile of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Ki-67 in hepatolithiasis and bile duct carcinoma tissues, in an attempt to provide evidence for diagnosis and prognosis prediction of disease. Material/Methods A cohort of tissue samples from hepatolithiasis with bile duct carcinoma (N=47) patients were analyzed using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining method for the expression of COX-2 and Ki-67, in parallel with hepatolithiasis (N=44) and normal bile duct tissues (N=30). The relationship between expression pattern of COX-2 and Ki-67 and pathological conditions was also analyzed, in addition to the correlation with positive expression in hepatolithiasis samples. Results The positive expression rate of COX-2 and Ki-67 in bile duct carcinoma was 76.6% and 80.9%, respectively, and was significantly higher than those in the hepatolithiasis group, which was also higher than the control group. Expression of both COX-2 and Ki-67 is closely related to TNM staging, lymph node metastasis, and differentiation stage. They were also correlated with the mortality rate of patients. Conclusions Both COX-2 and Ki-67 are abundantly expressed in hepatolithiasis and bile duct carcinoma tissues and may play an important role in the disease occurrence, progression, and metastasis. PMID:26423666

  20. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPAR? and ? and suppresses COX-2 expression[S

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Mariko; Nakata, Rieko; Katsukawa, Michiko; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and are involved in the control of COX-2 expression, and vice versa. Here, we show that COX-2 promoter activity was suppressed by essential oils derived from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel, and bergamot in cell-based transfection assays using bovine arterial endothelial cells. Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression and an activator of PPAR? and ?. PPAR?-dependent suppression of COX-2 promoter activity was observed in response to carvacrol treatment. In human macrophage-like U937 cells, carvacrol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 expression through its agonistic effect on PPAR?. These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol. PMID:19578162

  1. UVB Radiation-Induced ?-catenin Signaling is Enhanced by COX-2 Expression in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly A.; Tong, Xin; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Mikulec, Carol C.; Gottardi, Cara J.; Fischer, Susan M.; Pelling, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    UVB radiation is the major carcinogen responsible for skin carcinogenesis, thus elucidation of the molecular pathways altered in skin in response to UVB would reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention. It is well established that UVB leads to upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the skin which contributes to skin carcinogenesis. Overexpression of COX-2 has been shown to promote colon cancer cell growth through ?-catenin signaling, however, little is known about the connection between UVB, COX-2 and ?-catenin in the skin. In the present study, we have identified a novel pathway in which UVB induces ?-catenin signaling in keratinocytes, which is modulated by COX-2 expression. Exposure of the mouse 308 keratinocyte cell line (308 cells) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) to UVB resulted in increased protein levels of both N-terminally unphosphorylated and total ?-catenin. In addition, we found that UVB enhanced ?-catenin-dependent TOPflash reporter activity and expression of a downstream ?-catenin target gene. We demonstrated that UVB-induced ?-catenin signaling is modulated by COX-2, as treatment of keratinocytes with the specific COX-2 inhibitor NS398 blocked UVB induction of ?-catenin. Additionally, ?-catenin target gene expression was reduced in UVB-treated COX-2 knockout (KO) MEFs compared to wild-type (WT) MEFs. Furthermore, epidermis from UVB-exposed SKH-1 mice exhibited increased N-terminally unphosphorylated and total ?-catenin protein levels and increased staining for total ?-catenin, and both responses were reduced in COX-2 heterozygous mice. Taken together, these results suggest a novel pathway in which UVB induces ?-catenin signaling in keratinocytes which is enhanced by COX-2 expression. PMID:21853475

  2. Soman increases neuronal COX-2 levels: possible link between seizures and protracted neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Prez, Mariana; Kreipke, Christian W; Thomas, David M; Van Shura, Kerry E; Lyman, Megan; McDonough, John H; Kuhn, Donald M

    2010-12-01

    Nerve agent-induced seizures cause neuronal damage in brain limbic and cortical circuits leading to persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits. Without aggressive anticholinergic and benzodiazepine therapy, seizures can be prolonged and neuronal damage progresses for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the nerve agent soman on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the initial enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the proinflammatory prostaglandins and a factor that has been implicated in seizure initiation and propagation. Rats were exposed to a toxic dose of soman and scored behaviorally for seizure intensity. Expression of COX-2 was determined throughout brain from 4h to 7 days after exposure by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Microglial activation and astrogliosis were assessed microscopically over the same time-course. Soman increased COX-2 expression in brain regions known to be damaged by nerve agents (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala, piriform cortex and thalamus). COX-2 expression was induced in neurons, and not in microglia or astrocytes, and remained elevated through 7 days. The magnitude of COX-2 induction was correlated with seizure intensity. COX-1 expression was not changed by soman. Increased expression of neuronal COX-2 by soman is a late-developing response relative to other signs of acute physiological distress caused by nerve agents. COX-2-mediated production of prostaglandins is a consequence of the seizure-induced neuronal damage, even after survival of the initial cholinergic crisis is assured. COX-2 inhibitors should be considered as adjunct therapy in nerve agent poisoning to minimize nerve agent-induced seizure activity. PMID:20600289

  3. Multiple Origins of Eukaryotic cox15 Suggest Horizontal Gene Transfer from Bacteria to Jakobid Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    He, Ding; Fu, Cheng-Jie; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The most gene-rich and bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes known are those of Jakobida (Excavata). Of these, the most extreme example to date is the Andalucia godoyi mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including a cox15 gene encoding the respiratory enzyme heme A synthase (HAS), which is nuclear-encoded in nearly all other mitochondriate eukaryotes. Thus cox15 in eukaryotes appears to be a classic example of mitochondrion-to-nucleus (endosymbiotic) gene transfer, with A. godoyi uniquely retaining the ancestral state. However, our analyses reveal two highly distinct HAS types (encoded by cox15-1 and cox15-2 genes) and identify A. godoyi mitochondrial cox15-encoded HAS as type-1 and all other eukaryotic cox15-encoded HAS as type-2. Molecular phylogeny places the two HAS types in widely separated clades with eukaryotic type-2 HAS clustering with the bulk of ?-proteobacteria (>670 sequences), whereas A. godoyi type-1 HAS clusters with an eclectic set of bacteria and archaea including two ?-proteobacteria missing from the type-2 clade. This wide phylogenetic separation of the two HAS types is reinforced by unique features of their predicted protein structures. Meanwhile, RNA-sequencing and genomic analyses fail to detect either cox15 type in the nuclear genome of any jakobid including A. godoyi. This suggests that not only is cox15-1 a relatively recent acquisition unique to the Andalucia lineage but also the jakobid last common ancestor probably lacked both cox15 types. These results indicate that uptake of foreign genes by mtDNA is more taxonomically widespread than previously thought. They also caution against the assumption that all ?-proteobacterial-like features of eukaryotes are ancient remnants of endosymbiosis. PMID:26412445

  4. Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Rakhlin, N.; Habib, A.; Maclouf, J.; Goldyne, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal expression of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H-generating cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated both by immunohistochemistry performed on human and mouse skin biopsy sections and by Western blotting of protein extracts from cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. In normal human skin, COX-1 immunostaining is observed throughout the epidermis whereas COX-2 immunostaining increases in the more differentiated, suprabasilar keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinomas express little if any COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining whereas both isozymes are strongly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas deriving from a more differentiated layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocyte cultures, raising the extracellular calcium concentration, a recognized stimulus for keratinocyte differentiation, leads to an increased expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA; expression of COX-1 protein, however, shows no significant alteration in response to calcium. Because of a recent report that failed to show COX-2 in normal mouse epidermis, we also looked for COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining in sections of normal and acetone-treated mouse skin. In agreement with a previous report, some COX-1, but no COX-2, immunostaining is seen in normal murine epidermis. However, following acetone treatment, there is a marked increase in COX-1 expression as well as the appearance of significant COX-2 immunostaining in the basal layer. These data suggest that in human epidermis as well as in human keratinocyte cultures, the expression of COX-2 occurs as a part of normal keratinocyte differentiation whereas in murine epidermis, its constitutive expression is absent, but inducible as previously published.

  5. Synthesis and SAR of heteroaryl-phenyl-substituted pyrazole derivatives as highly selective and potent canine COX-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hengmiao; Lundy DeMello, Kristin M; Li, Jin; Sakya, Subas M; Ando, Kazuo; Kawamura, K; Kato, Tomoki; Rafka, Robert J; Jaynes, Burton H; Ziegler, Carl B; Stevens, Rod; Lund, Lisa A; Mann, Donald W; Kilroy, Carolyn; Haven, Michelle L; Nimz, Erik L; Dutra, Jason K; Li, Chao; Minich, Martha L; Kolosko, Nicole L; Petras, Carol; Silvia, Annette M; Seibel, Scott B

    2006-04-15

    The discovery of heteroaryl-phenyl-substituted pyrazole derivatives as canine selective COX-2 inhibitors is described. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of this class of compounds led to the identification of compound 1 which demonstrated a canine whole blood COX-2 inhibitory IC50 of 12 nM and selectivity ratio of COX-1/COX-2 greater than 4000-fold. PMID:16464588

  6. PSHREG: a SAS macro for proportional and nonproportional subdistribution hazards regression.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Maria; Plischke, Max; Leffondr, Karen; Heinze, Georg

    2015-02-01

    We present a new SAS macro %pshreg that can be used to fit a proportional subdistribution hazards model for survival data subject to competing risks. Our macro first modifies the input data set appropriately and then applies SAS's standard Cox regression procedure, PROC PHREG, using weights and counting-process style of specifying survival times to the modified data set. The modified data set can also be used to estimate cumulative incidence curves for the event of interest. The application of PROC PHREG has several advantages, e.g., it directly enables the user to apply the Firth correction, which has been proposed as a solution to the problem of undefined (infinite) maximum likelihood estimates in Cox regression, frequently encountered in small sample analyses. Deviation from proportional subdistribution hazards can be detected by both inspecting Schoenfeld-type residuals and testing correlation of these residuals with time, or by including interactions of covariates with functions of time. We illustrate application of these extended methods for competing risk regression using our macro, which is freely available at: http://cemsiis.meduniwien.ac.at/en/kb/science-research/software/statistical-software/pshreg, by means of analysis of a real chronic kidney disease study. We discuss differences in features and capabilities of %pshreg and the recent (January 2014) SAS PROC PHREG implementation of proportional subdistribution hazards modelling. PMID:25572709

  7. PSHREG: A SAS macro for proportional and nonproportional subdistribution hazards regression

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Maria; Plischke, Max; Leffondr, Karen; Heinze, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We present a new SAS macro %pshreg that can be used to fit a proportional subdistribution hazards model for survival data subject to competing risks. Our macro first modifies the input data set appropriately and then applies SAS's standard Cox regression procedure, PROC PHREG, using weights and counting-process style of specifying survival times to the modified data set. The modified data set can also be used to estimate cumulative incidence curves for the event of interest. The application of PROC PHREG has several advantages, e.g., it directly enables the user to apply the Firth correction, which has been proposed as a solution to the problem of undefined (infinite) maximum likelihood estimates in Cox regression, frequently encountered in small sample analyses. Deviation from proportional subdistribution hazards can be detected by both inspecting Schoenfeld-type residuals and testing correlation of these residuals with time, or by including interactions of covariates with functions of time. We illustrate application of these extended methods for competing risk regression using our macro, which is freely available at: http://cemsiis.meduniwien.ac.at/en/kb/science-research/software/statistical-software/pshreg, by means of analysis of a real chronic kidney disease study. We discuss differences in features and capabilities of %pshreg and the recent (January 2014) SAS PROC PHREG implementation of proportional subdistribution hazards modelling. PMID:25572709

  8. The relative importance of imaging markers for the prediction of Alzheimer's disease dementia in mild cognitive impairment Beyond classical regression

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Kurth, Jens; Krause, Bernd; Grothe, Michel J.

    2015-01-01

    Selecting a set of relevant markers to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a challenging task given the wealth of regional pathologic information that can be extracted from multimodal imaging data. Here, we used regularized regression approaches with an elastic net penalty for best subset selection of multiregional information from AV45-PET, FDG-PET and volumetric MRI data to predict conversion from MCI to AD. The study sample consisted of 127 MCI subjects from ADNI-2 who had a clinical follow-up between 6 and 31months. Additional analyses assessed the effect of partial volume correction on predictive performance of AV45- and FDG-PET data. Predictor variables were highly collinear within and across imaging modalities. Penalized Cox regression yielded more parsimonious prediction models compared to unpenalized Cox regression. Within single modalities, time to conversion was best predicted by increased AV45-PET signal in posterior medial and lateral cortical regions, decreased FDG-PET signal in medial temporal and temporobasal regions, and reduced gray matter volume in medial, basal, and lateral temporal regions. Logistic regression models reached up to 72% cross-validated accuracy for prediction of conversion status, which was comparable to cross-validated accuracy of non-linear support vector machine classification. Regularized regression outperformed unpenalized stepwise regression when number of parameters approached or exceeded the number of training cases. Partial volume correction had a negative effect on the predictive performance of AV45-PET, but slightly improved the predictive value of FDG-PET data. Penalized regression yielded more parsimonious models than unpenalized stepwise regression for the integration of multiregional and multimodal imaging information. The advantage of penalized regression was particularly strong with a high number of collinear predictors. PMID:26199870

  9. Regression analysis of cytopathological data

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McLarty, J.W.; Fortson, N.; Anderson, K.

    1982-12-01

    Epithelial cells from the human body are frequently labelled according to one of several ordered levels of abnormality, ranging from normal to malignant. The label of the most abnormal cell in a specimen determines the score for the specimen. This paper presents a model for the regression of specimen scores against continuous and discrete variables, as in host exposure to carcinogens. Application to data and tests for adequacy of model fit are illustrated using sputum specimens obtained from a cohort of former asbestos workers.

  10. Students Speak With Gary Cox, EPIC Project Manager - Duration: 19 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Gary Cox EPIC Project Manager, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at South Effingham Middle School...

  11. Celebration of the contributions of Art Cox to stellar pulsation interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.

    1997-10-02

    A roughly chronological account is given of Arthur N. Coxs published work of 1953-1996 in, mostly, stellar pulsation theory, with a digression into stellar opacity. When possible, his work is placed in the context of the contemporary efforts.

  12. COX-2 expression induced by diesel particles involves chromatin modification and degradation of HDAC1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the inflammatory response induced by physiologic and stress stimuli. Exposure to diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEP) has been shown to induce pulmonary inflammation and exacerbate asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary dis...

  13. Robust, Adaptive Functional Regression in Functional Mixed Model Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongxiao; Brown, Philip J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Functional data are increasingly encountered in scientific studies, and their high dimensionality and complexity lead to many analytical challenges. Various methods for functional data analysis have been developed, including functional response regression methods that involve regression of a functional response on univariate/multivariate predictors with nonparametrically represented functional coefficients. In existing methods, however, the functional regression can be sensitive to outlying curves and outlying regions of curves, so is not robust. In this paper, we introduce a new Bayesian method, robust functional mixed models (R-FMM), for performing robust functional regression within the general functional mixed model framework, which includes multiple continuous or categorical predictors and random effect functions accommodating potential between-function correlation induced by the experimental design. The underlying model involves a hierarchical scale mixture model for the fixed effects, random effect and residual error functions. These modeling assumptions across curves result in robust nonparametric estimators of the fixed and random effect functions which down-weight outlying curves and regions of curves, and produce statistics that can be used to flag global and local outliers. These assumptions also lead to distributions across wavelet coefficients that have outstanding sparsity and adaptive shrinkage properties, with great flexibility for the data to determine the sparsity and the heaviness of the tails. Together with the down-weighting of outliers, these within-curve properties lead to fixed and random effect function estimates that appear in our simulations to be remarkably adaptive in their ability to remove spurious features yet retain true features of the functions. We have developed general code to implement this fully Bayesian method that is automatic, requiring the user to only provide the functional data and design matrices. It is efficient enough to handle large data sets, and yields posterior samples of all model parameters that can be used to perform desired Bayesian estimation and inference. Although we present details for a specific implementation of the R-FMM using specific distributional choices in the hierarchical model, 1D functions, and wavelet transforms, the method can be applied more generally using other heavy-tailed distributions, higher dimensional functions (e.g. images), and using other invertible transformations as alternatives to wavelets. PMID:22308015

  14. Transport Properties of Mn2-xCoxSb (x?0.30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Hasebe, Y.; Mori, S.; Nishimura, K.; Kanomata, T.; Kaneko, T.

    The electrical resistivity ? and the thermoelectric power S of Mn2-xCoxSb(x?0.3) are studied. The abrupt change of ? and S (0CoxSb (0?x?0.3) is positive in the ferrimagnetic region and negative in the paramagnetic region. we have discussed these behaviour of ? and S on the basis of the band structure of Mn2sb.

  15. Hypoxia promotes 786-O cells invasiveness and resistance to sorafenib via HIF-2?/COX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiong; Luo, Chun-Li; Wu, Xiao-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences indicated that hypoxia-induced factors and COX-2 play a important role in tumorigenesis in various human cancer. Yet, the relationship between HIFs and COX-2 in human renal cancer remains unclear. The present study was to examine the role of HIFs and COX-2 in the invasiveness and the resistance to target agent in renal cancer cell line (786-O). In 786-O cells, hypoxia induced the increase in the protein expression of HIF1 and HIF2. We also demonstrate that hypoxia up-regulated the protein expression of COX-2 and Snail, but down-regulation of E-cadherin expression in 786-O cells promoted the invasiveness of 786-O cells and enhanced the resistance of 786-O cells to sorafenib. siRNA target to HIF1?, HIF2? and NS398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, were used in this study. Only siRNA-HIF2? significantly suppressed the protein expression of HIF2 and COX-2, then decreased the invasive ability and resistance of 786-O cells to sorafenib under hypoxia. NS398 attenuated the increase in invasive cells number and the IC50 value of sorafenib induced by hypoxia. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that hypoxia promoted the invasiveness and resistance of 786-O cells to sorafenib via HIF2 and COX-2 and induced the activation of Snail/E-cadherin, suggesting that a signalling mechanism involving HIF2/COX2 modulates invasiveness and resistance to sorafenib in 786-O cells under hypoxia. PMID:25487445

  16. Single crystal growth and superconductivity of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Rongwei; Ran, Sheng; Budko, Serguei; Straszheim, Warren E.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2012-05-18

    We report the single crystal growth of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (0 <= x <= 0.082) from Sn flux. The temperature-composition phase diagram is mapped out based on the magnetic susceptibility and electrical transport measurements. Phase diagram of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2 is qualitatively different from those of Sr and Ba, it could be due to both the charge doping and structural tuning effects associated with Co substitution.

  17. Post-Training Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibition Impairs Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Teather, Lisa A.; Packard, Mark G.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence indicates that prostanoids, such as prostaglandins, play a regulatory role in several forms of neural plasticity, including long-term potentiation, a cellular model for certain forms of learning and memory. In these experiments, the significance of the COX isoforms cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in post-training memory processes was assessed. Adult male Long-Evans rats underwent an eight-trial (30-sec intertrial interval) training session on a hippocampus-dependent (hidden platform) or dorsal striatal–dependent (visible platform) tasks in a water maze. After the completion of training, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin, the COX-1–specific inhibitor piroxicam, the COX-2–specific inhibitor N-[2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS-398), vehicle (45% 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in distilled water), or saline. On a two-trial retention test session 24 h later, latency to mount the escape platform was used as a measure of memory. In the hidden platform task, the retention test escape latencies of rats administered indomethacin (5 and 10 mg/kg) or NS-398 (2 and 5 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those of vehicle-treated rats, indicating an impairment in retention. Injections of indomethacin or NS-398 that were delayed 2 h post-training had no effect on retention. Post-training indomethacin or NS-398 had no influence on retention of the visible platform version of the water maze at any of the doses administered. Furthermore, selective inhibition of COX-1 via post-training piroxicam administration had no effect on retention of either task. These findings indicate that COX-2 is a required biochemical component mediating the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. PMID:11917005

  18. Multiatlas Segmentation as Nonparametric Regression

    PubMed Central

    Awate, Suyash P.; Whitaker, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel theoretical framework to model and analyze the statistical characteristics of a wide range of segmentation methods that incorporate a database of label maps or atlases; such methods are termed as label fusion or multiatlas segmentation. We model these multiatlas segmentation problems as nonparametric regression problems in the high-dimensional space of image patches. We analyze the nonparametric estimators convergence behavior that characterizes expected segmentation error as a function of the size of the multiatlas database. We show that this error has an analytic form involving several parameters that are fundamental to the specific segmentation problem (determined by the chosen anatomical structure, imaging modality, registration algorithm, and label-fusion algorithm). We describe how to estimate these parameters and show that several human anatomical structures exhibit the trends modeled analytically. We use these parameter estimates to optimize the regression estimator. We show that the expected error for large database sizes is well predicted by models learned on small databases. Thus, a few expert segmentations can help predict the database sizes required to keep the expected error below a specified tolerance level. Such cost-benefit analysis is crucial for deploying clinical multiatlas segmentation systems. PMID:24802528

  19. Expression of COX-2 and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus lesions and lichenoid reactions

    PubMed Central

    Arreaza, Alven J; Rivera, Helen; Correnti, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions are autoimmune type inflammatory conditions of the oral mucosa with similar clinical and histological characteristics. Recent data suggest that oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) present a greater percentage of malignant transformation than oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective To compare the expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 in OLP and OLR. Methods The study population consisted of 65 cases; 34 cases diagnosed as OLR and 31 as OLP. A retrospective study was done, and bcl-2 and COX-2 expression was semiquantitatively analysed. Results Fifty-three per cent (18/34) of the ORL samples tested positive for COX-2, whereas in the OLP group, 81% of the samples (25/31) immunostained positive for COX-2. The Fishers exact test for the expression of COX-2 revealed that there are significant differences between the two groups, P = 0.035. With respect to the expression of the bcl-2 protein, 76% (26/34) of the samples were positive in OLR, while 97% (30/31) were positive in the group with OLP. The Fishers exact test for the expression of bcl-2 revealed that there are significant statistical differences between the two groups, P = 0.028. Conclusions The expression of bcl-2 and COX-2 was more commonly expressed in OLP when compared with OLR. PMID:24834112

  20. Substrate-selective COX-2 inhibition decreases anxiety via endocannabinoid activation

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, Daniel J.; Hartley, Nolan D.; Gamble-George, Joyonna; Brown, Naoko; Shonesy, Brian C.; Kingsley, Phillip J.; Colbran, Roger J.; Reese, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling represents an emerging approach to the treatment of affective disorders. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid to form prostaglandins, but also inactivates eCBs in vitro. However, the viability of COX-2 as a therapeutic target for in vivo eCB augmentation has not been explored. Here we utilized medicinal chemistry and in vivo analytical and behavioral pharmacological approaches to demonstrate a key role for COX-2 in the regulation of endocannabinoid (eCB) levels in vivo. A novel pharmacological strategy involving “substrate-selective” inhibition of COX-2 was used to augment eCB signaling without affecting related non-eCB lipids or prostaglandin synthesis. Behaviorally, substrate-selective inhibition of COX-2reducedanxiety-like behaviors in mice via increasede CB signaling. These data elucidate a key role for COX-2 in the regulation of eCB signaling and suggest substrate-selective pharmacology represents a viable approach for eCB augmentation with broad therapeutic potential. PMID:23912944

  1. Functional Polymorphisms in COX-2 Gene Are Correlated with the Risk of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Hao, Shu-Hong; Sun, Yan; Hu, Chun-Mei; Ma, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Zhi Ming; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hong Bo; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Yu Fei; Yang, Dong Sheng; Shi, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background. This meta-analysis investigated the association between functional COX-2 gene polymorphisms and the risk of oral cancer. Methods. Several electronic databases were searched for published studies using combinations of keywords related to COX-2 gene polymorphisms and oral cancer. After selection of relevant studies, following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, data was performed using STATA 12.0 software. Results. We retrieved 83 studies from database search using specific search terms. After multiple rounds of selection and elimination, 7 studies were finally identified as suitable to be included in our present meta-analysis, based on their relevance and data integrity. These 7 studies contained a combined total of 2,296 oral cancer patients and 3,647 healthy controls. Our findings demonstrated that +837 T > C (rs5275) polymorphism in COX-2 showed statistically significant differences in gene frequencies in case and control groups in allele model and dominant model. Similar results were obtained with COX-2 gene polymorphism 765 G > C (rs20417). On the other hand, 1195 A > G (rs689466) polymorphism in COX-2 did not confer susceptibility to oral cancers. Conclusion. Based on our results, COX-2 gene polymorphisms, +837 T > C (rs5275) and ?765G > C (rs20417), showed clear links with oral cancer susceptibility, and the 1195A > G (rs689466) polymorphism did not show such a correlation. PMID:25977924

  2. The prognostic significance of COX-2 and survivin expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Athanassiadou, Pauline; Grapsa, Dimitra; Athanassiades, Peter; Gonidi, Maria; Athanassiadou, Anna-Maria; Tsipis, Angelos; Patsouris, Efstratios

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and survivin in ovarian carcinoma. Imprint smears were obtained from 100 ovarian carcinoma specimens and were studied immunocytochemically for the expression of COX-2 and survivin. The results were correlated with several clinicopathological parameters, including 5-year survival. Increased COX-2 staining pattern correlated with a non-mucinous histological type (p=0.008), increased stage (p<0.0001), high histological grade (p<0.0001), and reduced survival rates (p<0.00001). Survivin expression was strongly associated with increased stage (p<0.0001), increased histological grade (p<0.0001), and reduced survival (p<0.00001). Elevated survivin expression also correlated significantly with pre-menopausal status (p=0.033). In addition, COX-2 and survivin staining patterns correlated strongly with one another (p<0.0001). However, on multivariate analysis, an independent prognostic value was found only for tumor stage and grade. The findings of our study indicate that the increased expression of COX-2 and survivin in ovarian cancer is associated with one another and with several adverse clinicopathologic parameters, including reduced survival, thus suggesting a role of these molecules in disease progression. Further investigations of the exact prognostic and therapeutic implications of COX-2 and survivin expression are strongly warranted. PMID:18171606

  3. COX-Independent Mechanisms of Cancer Chemoprevention by Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Gurpinar, Evrim; Grizzle, William E.; Piazza, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors, reduce the risk of developing cancer. Experimental studies in human cancer cell lines and rodent models of carcinogenesis support these observations by providing strong evidence for the antineoplastic properties of NSAIDs. The involvement of COX-2 in tumorigenesis and its overexpression in various cancer tissues suggest that inhibition of COX-2 is responsible for the chemopreventive efficacy of these agents. However, the precise mechanisms by which NSAIDs exert their antiproliferative effects are still a matter of debate. Numerous other studies have shown that NSAIDs can act through COX-independent mechanisms. This review provides a detailed description of the major COX-independent molecular targets of NSAIDs and discusses how these targets may be involved in their anticancer effects. Toxicities resulting from COX inhibition and the suppression of prostaglandin synthesis preclude the long-term use of NSAIDs for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, chemopreventive efficacy is incomplete and treatment often leads to the development of resistance. Identification of alternative NSAID targets and elucidation of the biochemical processes by which they inhibit tumor growth could lead to the development of safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23875171

  4. ?9-THC-caused synaptic and memory impairments are mediated through COX-2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongqing; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Ni; Teng, Zhao-Qian; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hongwei; Tang, Ya-Ping; Sun, Hao; Song, Yunping; Chen, Chu

    2013-11-21

    Marijuana has been used for thousands of years as a treatment for medical conditions. However, untoward side effects limit its medical value. Here, we show that synaptic and cognitive impairments following repeated exposure to ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) are associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids in thebrain. COX-2 induction by ?(9)-THC is mediated via CB1 receptor-coupled G protein ?? subunits. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of COX-2 blocks downregulation and internalization of glutamate receptor subunits and alterations of the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons induced by repeated ?(9)-THC exposures. Ablation of COX-2 also eliminates ?(9)-THC-impaired hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, working, and fear memories. Importantly, the beneficial effects of decreasing ?-amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration by ?(9)-THC in Alzheimer's disease animals are retained in the presence of COX-2 inhibition. These results suggest that the applicability of medical marijuana would be broadened by concurrent inhibition of COX-2. PMID:24267894

  5. Simultaneous targeting of 5-LOX-COX and EGFR blocks progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Madka, Venkateshwar; Devarkonda, Vishal; Brewer, Misty; Biddick, Laura; Lightfoot, Stan; Steele, Vernon E.; Mohammed, Altaf

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGRF) are over-expressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, we show significant increase in COX-2, 5-LOX, and EGFR expression during PDAC progression. Targeting complementary pathways will achieve better treatment efficacy than a single agent high-dose strategy that could increase risk of side effects and tumor resistance. To target COX-2, 5-LOX, and EGFR simultaneously, we tested effects of licofelone (dual 5-LOX-COX inhibitor), and gefitinib (EGFR inhibitor), individually and in combination, on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to PDAC using genetically engineered mice. Individually, licofelone (L) and gefitinib (G) significantly inhibited incidence of PDAC in male (72% L, 90% G, p < 0.0001) and female (90% L, 85% G, p < 0.0001) mice. The combination drug treatment produced complete inhibition of PDAC in both genders. Pancreata of mice receiving combination treatment showed significantly fewer Dclk1-positive cancer stem-like cells, inhibition of COX-2, 5-LOX, PCNA, EGFR and β-catenin expression (p < 0.05–0.0002), increased p21 expression. Significant changes in tumor immune responses and desmoplastic reaction was observed by NGS analysis in combination treatment (p < 0.05). In summary, early simultaneous targeting of 5-LOX-COX- and EGFR pathways may provide additive inhibitory effects leading to complete suppression of PDAC. PMID:26429877

  6. ?9-THC-caused synaptic and memory impairments are mediated through COX-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongwei; Tang, Ya-ping; Sun, Hao; Song, Yunping; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Marijuana has been used for thousands of years as a treatment for medical conditions. However, untoward side effects limit its medical value. Here we show that synaptic and cognitive impairments following repeated exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) are associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids, in the brain. COX-2 induction by ?9-THC is mediated via CB1 receptor-coupled G-protein ?? subunits. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of COX-2 blocks down-regulation and internalization of glutamate receptor subunits and alterations of the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons induced by repeated ?9-THC exposures. Ablation of COX-2 also eliminates ?9-THC-impaired hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial, and fear memories. Importantly, the beneficial effects of decreasing ?-amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration by ?9-THC in Alzheimers disease animals are retained in the presence of COX-2 inhibition. These results suggest that the applicability of medical marijuana would be broadened by concurrent inhibition of COX-2. PMID:24267894

  7. Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Pandey, Mitali; Gupta, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Aims Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) has been implicated in the process of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate whether chamomile interferes with the COX-2 pathway. Main Methods We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model for our studies. Key Findings Chamomile treatment inhibited the release of LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This effect was found to be due to inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity by chamomile. In addition, chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, without affecting COX-1 expression. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, sulindac and a specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS398, were shown to act similarly in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Our data suggest that chamomile works by a mechanism of action similar to that attributed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Significance These findings add a novel aspect to the biological profile of chamomile which might be important for understanding the usefulness of aqueous chamomile extract in the form of tea in preventing inflammation and cancer. PMID:19788894

  8. DPPC regulates COX-2 expression in monocytes via phosphorylation of CREB

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.H.K. Tonks, A.J.; Jones, K.P.; Ahluwalia, M.K.; Thomas, A.W.; Tonks, A.; Jackson, S.K.

    2008-05-23

    The major phospholipid in pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) has been shown to modulate inflammatory responses. Using human monocytes, this study demonstrates that DPPC significantly increased PGE{sub 2} (P < 0.05) production by 2.5-fold when compared to untreated monocyte controls. Mechanistically, this effect was concomitant with an increase in COX-2 expression which was abrogated in the presence of a COX-2 inhibitor. The regulation of COX-2 expression was independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Further, DPPC increased the phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB; an important nuclear transcription factor important in regulating COX-2 expression). In addition, we also show that changing the fatty acid groups of PC (e.g. using L-{alpha}-phosphatidylcholine {beta}-arachidonoyl-{gamma}-palmitoyl (PAPC)) has a profound effect on the regulation of COX-2 expression and CREB activation. This study provides new evidence for the anti-inflammatory activity of DPPC and that this activity is at least in part mediated via CREB activation of COX-2.

  9. Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by cannabidiolic acid in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Eriko; Abe, Satomi; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Metastases are known to be responsible for approximately 90% of breast cancer-related deaths. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved not only in inflammatory processes, but also in the metastasis of cancer cells; it is expressed in 40% of human invasive breast cancers. To comprehensively analyze the effects of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a selective COX-2 inhibitor found in the fiber-type cannabis plant (Takeda et al., 2008), on COX-2 expression and the genes involved in metastasis, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which are invasive breast cancer cells that express high levels of COX-2, treated with CBDA for 48 hr at 25 µM. The results obtained revealed that COX-2 and Id-1, a positive regulator of breast cancer metastasis, were down-regulated (0.19-fold and 0.52-fold, respectively), while SHARP1 (or BHLHE41), a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis, was up-regulated (1.72-fold) and CHIP (or STUB1) was unaffected (1.03-fold). These changes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analyses. Taken together, the results obtained here demonstrated that i) CBDA had dual inhibitory effects on COX-2 through down-regulation and enzyme inhibition, and ii) CBDA may possess the ability to suppress genes that are positively involved in the metastasis of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:25242400

  10. Isomeric methoxy analogs of nimesulide for development of brain cyclooxygense-2 (COX-2)-targeted imaging agents: Synthesis, in vitro COX-2-inhibitory potency, and cellular transport properties.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Hisa, Takuya; Arai, Jun; Saito, Yohei; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Mukai, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Maeda, Minoru; Ohkubo, Yasuhito

    2015-11-01

    Nimesulide analogs bearing a methoxy substituent either at the ortho-, meta- or para-position on the phenyl ring, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for potential as radioligands for brain cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) imaging. The synthesis of nimesulide and regioisomeric methoxy analogs was based on the copper-mediated arylation of phenolic derivatives for the construction of diaryl ethers. These isomeric methoxy analogs displayed lipophilicity similar to that of nimesulide itself, as evidenced by their HPLC logP7.4 values. In vitro inhibition studies using a colorimetric COX (ovine) inhibitor-screening assay demonstrated that the para-methoxy substituted analog retains the inhibition ability and selectivity observed for parent nimesulide toward COX-2 enzyme, whereas the meta- and ortho-methoxy substituents detrimentally affected COX-2-inhibition activity, which was further supported by molecular docking studies. Bidirectional transport cellular studies using Caco-2 cell culture model in the presence of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, verapamil, showed that P-gp did not have a significant effect on the efflux of the para-methoxy substituted analog. Further investigations using the radiolabeled form of the para-methoxy substituted analog is warranted for in vivo characterization. PMID:26455657

  11. Assessment of brown trout habitat suitability in the Jucar River Basin (SPAIN): comparison of data-driven approaches with fuzzy-logic models and univariate suitability curves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Schneider, Matthias; Mouton, Ans M

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive implies the determination of an environmental flow (E-flow) in each running water body. In Spain, many of the minimum flow assessments were determined with the physical habitat simulation system based on univariate habitat suitability curves. Multivariate habitat suitability models, widely applied in habitat assessment, are potentially more accurate than univariate suitability models. This article analyses the microhabitat selection by medium-sized (10-20 cm) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in three streams of the Jucar River Basin District (eastern Iberian Peninsula). The data were collected with an equal effort sampling approach. Univariate habitat suitability curves were built with a data-driven process for depth, mean velocity and substrate classes; three types of data-driven fuzzy models were generated with the FISH software: two models of presence-absence and a model of abundance. FISH applies a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the fuzzy rules. A hydraulic model was calibrated with the tool River-2D in a segment of the Cabriel River (Jucar River Basin). The fuzzy-logic models and three methods to produce a suitability index from the three univariate curves were applied to evaluate the river habitat in the tool CASiMiR©. The comparison of results was based on the spatial arrangement of habitat suitability and the curves of weighted usable area versus discharge. The differences were relevant in different aspects, e.g. in the estimated minimum environmental flow according to the Spanish legal norm for hydrological planning. This work demonstrates the impact of the model's selection on the habitat suitability modelling and the assessment of environmental flows, based on an objective data-driven procedure; the conclusions are important for the water management in the Jucar River Basin and other river systems in Europe, where the environmental flows are a keystone for the achievement of the goals established in the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:22909786

  12. Inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 Increases Tendon Healing and Reduces Muscle Fibrosis and Lipid Accumulation After Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Oak, Nikhil R.; Gumucio, Jonathan P.; Flood, Michael D.; Saripalli, Anjali L.; Davis, Max E.; Harning, Julie A.; Lynch, Evan B.; Roche, Stuart M.; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The repair and restoration of function after chronic rotator cuff tears are often complicated by muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration of the diseased muscle. The inflammatory response has been implicated in the development of fatty degeneration after cuff injuries. Licofelone is a novel anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes, which play important roles in inducing inflammation after injuries. While previous studies have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective inhibitors of COX-2 (coxibs) may prevent the proper healing of muscles and tendons, studies about bone and cartilage have demonstrated that drugs that inhibit 5-LOX concurrently with COX-1 and COX-2 may enhance tissue regeneration. Hypothesis After the repair of a chronic rotator cuff tear in rats, licofelone would increase the load to failure of repaired tendons and increase the force production of muscle fibers. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Rats underwent supraspinatus release followed by repair 28 days later. After repair, rats began a treatment regimen of either licofelone or a vehicle for 14 days, at which time animals were euthanized. Supraspinatus muscles and tendons were then subjected to contractile, mechanical, histological, and biochemical analyses. Results Compared with controls, licofelone-treated rats had a grossly apparent decrease in inflammation and increased fibro-cartilage formation at the enthesis, along with a 62% increase in the maximum load to failure and a 51 % increase in peak stress to failure. Licofelone resulted in a marked reduction in fibrosis and lipid content in supraspinatus muscles as well as reduced expression of several genes involved in fatty infiltration. Despite the decline in fibrosis and fat accumulation, muscle fiber specific force production was reduced by 23%. Conclusion The postoperative treatment of cuff repair with licofelone may reduce fatty degeneration and enhance the development of a stable bone-tendon interface, although decreases in muscle fiber specific force production were observed, and force production in fact declined. Clinical Relevance This study demonstrates that the inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 modulates the healing process of repaired rotator cuff tendons. Although further studies are necessary, the treatment of patients with licofelone after cuff repair may improve the development of a stable enthesis and enhance postoperative outcomes. PMID:25245131

  13. Comparative study between univariate spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration as analytical tools for simultaneous quantitation of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawakkol, Shereen M.; Farouk, M.; Elaziz, Omar Abd; Hemdan, A.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2014-12-01

    Three simple, accurate, reproducible, and selective methods have been developed and subsequently validated for the simultaneous determination of Moexipril (MOX) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is the new extended ratio subtraction method (EXRSM) coupled to ratio subtraction method (RSM) for determination of both drugs in commercial dosage form. The second and third methods are multivariate calibration which include Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). A detailed validation of the methods was performed following the ICH guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 10-60 and 2-30 for MOX and HCTZ in EXRSM method, respectively, with well accepted mean correlation coefficient for each analyte. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits.

  14. Comparative study between univariate spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration as analytical tools for simultaneous quantitation of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Tawakkol, Shereen M; Farouk, M; Elaziz, Omar Abd; Hemdan, A; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2014-12-10

    Three simple, accurate, reproducible, and selective methods have been developed and subsequently validated for the simultaneous determination of Moexipril (MOX) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is the new extended ratio subtraction method (EXRSM) coupled to ratio subtraction method (RSM) for determination of both drugs in commercial dosage form. The second and third methods are multivariate calibration which include Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). A detailed validation of the methods was performed following the ICH guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 10-60 and 2-30 for MOX and HCTZ in EXRSM method, respectively, with well accepted mean correlation coefficient for each analyte. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits. PMID:24954754

  15. hCOA3 Stabilizes Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COX1) and Promotes Cytochrome c Oxidase Assembly in Human Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Paula; Peralta, Susana; Cruz-Bermudez, Alberto; Echevarra, Luca; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni; Fernandez-Moreno, Miguel A.; Garesse, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) or complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain plays a fundamental role in energy production of aerobic cells. In humans, COX deficiency is the most frequent cause of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Human COX is composed of 13 subunits of dual genetic origin, whose assembly requires an increasing number of nuclear-encoded accessory proteins known as assembly factors. Here, we have identified and characterized human CCDC56, an 11.7-kDa mitochondrial transmembrane protein, as a new factor essential for COX biogenesis. CCDC56 shares sequence similarity with the yeast COX assembly factor Coa3 and was termed hCOA3. hCOA3-silenced cells display a severe COX functional alteration owing to a decreased stability of newly synthesized COX1 and an impairment in the holoenzyme assembly process. We show that hCOA3 physically interacts with both the mitochondrial translation machinery and COX structural subunits. We conclude that hCOA3 stabilizes COX1 co-translationally and promotes its assembly with COX partner subunits. Finally, our results identify hCOA3 as a new candidate when screening for genes responsible for mitochondrial diseases associated with COX deficiency. PMID:23362268

  16. Estimation of green grass/herb biomass from airborne hyperspectral imagery using spectral indices and partial least squares regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew; Corsi, Fabio; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2007-12-01

    The main objective was to determine whether partial least squares (PLS) regression improves grass/herb biomass estimation when compared with hyperspectral indices, that is normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red-edge position (REP). To achieve this objective, fresh green grass/herb biomass and airborne images (HyMap) were collected in the Majella National Park, Italy in the summer of 2005. The predictive performances of hyperspectral indices and PLS regression models were then determined and compared using calibration ( n = 30) and test ( n = 12) data sets. The regression model derived from NDVI computed from bands at 740 and 771 nm produced a lower standard error of prediction (SEP = 264 g m -2) on the test data compared with the standard NDVI involving bands at 665 and 801 nm (SEP = 331 g m -2), but comparable results with REPs determined by various methods (SEP = 261 to 295 g m -2). PLS regression models based on original, derivative and continuum-removed spectra produced lower prediction errors (SEP = 149 to 256 g m -2) compared with NDVI and REP models. The lowest prediction error (SEP = 149 g m -2, 19% of mean) was obtained with PLS regression involving continuum-removed bands. In conclusion, PLS regression based on airborne hyperspectral imagery provides a better alternative to univariate regression involving hyperspectral indices for grass/herb biomass estimation in the Majella National Park.

  17. Recognition of caudal regression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boulas, Mari M

    2009-04-01

    Caudal regression syndrome, also referred to as caudal dysplasia and sacral agenesis syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation characterized by varying degrees of developmental failure early in gestation. It involves the lower extremities, the lumbar and coccygeal vertebrae, and corresponding segments of the spinal cord. This is a rare disorder, and true pathogenesis is unclear. The etiology is thought to be related to maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition, and vascular hypoperfusion, but no true causative factor has been determined. Fetal diagnostic tools allow for early recognition of the syndrome, and careful examination of the newborn is essential to determine the extent of the disorder. Associated organ system dysfunction depends on the severity of the disease. Related defects are structural, and systematic problems including respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, urinary, orthopedic, and neurologic can be present in varying degrees of severity and in different combinations. A multidisciplinary approach to management is crucial. Because the primary pathology is irreversible, treatment is only supportive. PMID:19363325

  18. Semiparametric regression during 2003–2007*

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, David; Wand, M.P.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Semiparametric regression is a fusion between parametric regression and nonparametric regression that integrates low-rank penalized splines, mixed model and hierarchical Bayesian methodology – thus allowing more streamlined handling of longitudinal and spatial correlation. We review progress in the field over the five-year period between 2003 and 2007. We find semiparametric regression to be a vibrant field with substantial involvement and activity, continual enhancement and widespread application. PMID:20305800

  19. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD2 by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Alamuddin, Naji; Ibrahim, Salam; Crichton, Irene; Prempeh, Maxwell; Lawson, John A.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Pur, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1dependent formation of PGD2 and PGE2 followed by COX-2dependent production of PGE2. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined with an antagonist of the PGD2 receptor DP1. NSAID-mediated suppression of COX-2derived PGI2 has negative cardiovascular consequences, yet little is known about the cardiovascular biology of PGD2. Here, we show that PGD2 biosynthesis is augmented during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1derived PGD2 biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD2 was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD2, like PGI2, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular relevance as a constraint on platelets during niacin therapy. PMID:22406532

  20. Quantification of Burkholderia coxL Genes in Hawaiian Volcanic Deposits▿

    PubMed Central

    Weber, C. F.; King, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Isolation of multiple carbon monoxide (CO)-oxidizing Burkholderia strains and detection by culture-independent approaches suggest that Burkholderia may be an important component of CO-oxidizing communities in Hawaiian volcanic deposits. The absolute and relative abundance of the bacteria in these communities remains unknown, however. In this study, a quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) approach has been developed to enumerate Burkholderia coxL genes (large subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase). This represents the first attempt to enumerate coxL genes from CO oxidizers in environmental samples. coxL copy numbers have been determined for samples from three sites representing a vegetation gradient on a 1959 volcanic deposit that included unvegetated cinders (bare), edges of vegetated sites (edge), and sites within tree stands (canopy). Q-PCR has also been used to estimate copy numbers of Betaproteobacteria 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and total Bacteria 16S rRNA. coxL genes could not be detected in the bare site (detection limit, ≥4.7 × 103 copies per reaction) but average 1.0 × 108 ± 2.4 × 107 and 8.6 × 108 ± 7.6 ×107 copies g−1 (dry weight) in edge and canopy sites, respectively, which differ statistically (P = 0.0007). Average Burkholderia coxL gene copy numbers, expressed as a percentage of total Bacteria 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, are 6.2 and 0.7% for the edge and canopy sites, respectively. Although the percentage of Burkholderia coxL is lower in the canopy site, significantly greater gene copy numbers demonstrate that absolute abundance of coxL increases in vegetated sites and contributes to the expansion of CO oxidizer communities during biological succession on volcanic deposits. PMID:20139318

  1. Staurosporine synergistically potentiates the deoxycholate?mediated induction of COX?2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Tohru; Inui, Haruka; Fujioka, Saya; Fukuda, Suguru; Nomura, Ayumi; Nakamura, Yasushi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Kanamoto, Ryuhei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer?related death in western countries, and thus there is an urgent need to elucidate the mechanism of colorectal tumorigenesis. A diet that is rich in fat increases the risk of colorectal tumorigenesis. Bile acids, which are secreted in response to the ingestion of fat, have been shown to increase the risk of colorectal tumors. The expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)?2, an inducible isozyme of cyclooxygenase, is induced by bile acids and correlates with the incidence and progression of cancers. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in the bile?acid?mediated induction of COX?2 expression. We found that staurosporine (sts), a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, synergistically potentiated the deoxycholate?mediated induction of COX?2 expression. Sts did not increase the stabilization of COX?2 mRNA. The sts? and deoxycholate?mediated synergistic induction of COX?2 expression was suppressed by a membrane?permeable Ca2+ chelator, a phosphoinositide 3?kinase inhibitor, a nuclear factor??B pathway inhibitor, and inhibitors of canonical and stress?inducible mitogen?activated protein kinase pathways. Inhibition was also observed using PKC inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of certain PKC isozymes (?, ?, ?, ?, or ?). Our results indicate that sts exerts its potentiating effects via the phosphorylation of p38. However, the effects of anisomycin did not mimic those of sts, indicating that although p38 activation is required, it does not enhance deoxycholate?induced COX?2 expression. We conclude that staurosporine synergistically enhances deoxycholate?induced COX?2 expression in RCM?1 colon cancer cells. PMID:25168879

  2. Convergent synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled azulenic COX2 probes for cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Donald D.; Nickels, Michael; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Yu, James Y. H.; Xie, Jingping; Peterson, Todd E.; Crews, Brenda C.; Marnett, Larry; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2013-01-01

    The overall objectives of this research are to (i) develop azulene-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes and (ii) image COX2 as a potential biomarker of breast cancer. Several lines of research have demonstrated that COX2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and that its presence correlates with poor prognoses. While other studies have reported that COX2 inhibition can be modulated and used beneficially as a chemopreventive strategy in cancer, no viable mechanism for achieving that approach has yet been developed. This shortfall could be circumvented through in vivo imaging of COX2 activity, particularly using sensitive imaging techniques such as PET. Toward that goal, our laboratory focuses on the development of novel 18F-labled COX2 probes. We began the synthesis of the probes by transforming tropolone into a lactone, which was subjected to an [8 + 2] cycloaddition reaction to yield 2-methylazulene as the core ring of the probe. After exploring numerous synthetic routes, the final target molecule and precursor PET compounds were prepared successfully using convergent synthesis. Conventional 18F labeling methods caused precursor decomposition, which prompted us to hypothesize that the acidic protons of the methylene moiety between the azulene and thiazole rings were readily abstracted by a strong base such as potassium carbonate. Ultimately, this caused the precursors to disintegrate. This observation was supported after successfully using an 18F labeling strategy that employed a much milder phosphate buffer. The 18F-labeled COX2 probe was tested in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model. The data obtained via successive whole-body PET/CT scans indicated probe accumulation and retention in the tumor. Overall, the probe was stable in vivo and no defluorination was observed. A biodistribution study and Western blot analysis corroborate with the imaging data. In conclusion, this novel COX2 PET probe was shown to be a promising agent for cancer imaging and deserves further investigation. PMID:23316477

  3. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a

  4. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sook Fen; Harden, Michael; Irandoust, Shabnam; Lee, Richard Wai Wing

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous regression of metastatic melanoma is a rare event with only 76 cases having been reported since 1866. The precise mechanism of regression remains unknown. We present a case of a man with spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastatic melanoma confirmed on histopathology accompanied by reduction in fluorodeoxyglucose-activity on serial positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan. PMID:26839692

  5. Developmental Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of developmental regression in autism is one of the more puzzling features of this disorder. Although several studies have documented the validity of parental reports of regression using home videos, accumulating data suggest that most children who demonstrate regression also demonstrated previous, subtle, developmental differences.

  6. Developmental Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of developmental regression in autism is one of the more puzzling features of this disorder. Although several studies have documented the validity of parental reports of regression using home videos, accumulating data suggest that most children who demonstrate regression also demonstrated previous, subtle, developmental differences.…

  7. Applying Robust Regression Techniques to Institutional Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingen, Franz; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Regression techniques are used frequently to analyze the relationships between university activity variables and the needs for different categories of resources. The least median of squares (LMS) technique is discussed. The parameters of some regression equations are reestimated by means of this robust regression technique. (Author/MLW)

  8. An Interactive Approach to Ridge Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquette, J. F.; Dufala, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    Ridge regression is an approach to ameliorating the problem of large standard errors of regression estimates when predictor variables are highly intercorrelated. An interactive computer program is presented which allows for investigation of the effects of using various ridge regression adjustment values. (JKS)

  9. Bayesian Unimodal Density Regression for Causal Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabatsos, George; Walker, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Karabatsos and Walker (2011) introduced a new Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) regression model. Through analyses of real and simulated data, they showed that the BNP regression model outperforms other parametric and nonparametric regression models of common use, in terms of predictive accuracy of the outcome (dependent) variable. The other,…

  10. Role of COX-2 in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer and its relationship with tumor biological characteristics and patients prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Wen; Gu, Jin; Ji, Jia-Fu; Li, Zhen-Fu; Xu, Guang-Wei

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Recent clinical epidemiological studies have demonstrated the preventive effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanism might be the inhibition of rate-limiting enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in metabolism of arachidonic acid. The role of COX-2 in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer and its relationship with tumor biological characteristics and patients prognosis still remain unclear. This study was to investigate the role of COX-2 expression in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer and its relationship with tumor biological characteristics and patients prognosis. METHODS: A total of 139 colorectal cancers and 19 adenomas surgically treated in School of Oncology, Peking University, from January 1993 to September 2001 were retrospectively studied. COX-2 expression was detected with tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. The association between COX-2 expression and clinicopathological features and its influence on patients prognosis were studied. RESULTS: COX-2 expression was strong in colorectal cancer, moderate in adenoma and weak in normal mucosa, which demonstrated statistically significant difference (?2 = 46.997, P < 0.001). COX-2 expression had no association with clinicopathological features such as gross type, differentiation, invasion depth, vessel emboli and TNM staging. Cox proportional hazards modeling analysis and Log rank test revealed no prognostic role of COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer patients. CONCLUSION: COX-2 may play an important role in the early stage of carcinogenesis, and its expression in colorectal cancer is not associated with clinicopathological features and patients prognosis. PMID:12970891

  11. Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, caused by mutated COX6B1, is associated with encephalomyopathy, hydrocephalus and cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Abdulhag, Ulla Najwa; Soiferman, Devorah; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Miller, Chaya; Shaag, Avraham; Elpeleg, Orly; Edvardson, Simon; Saada, Ann

    2015-02-01

    Isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is a prevalent cause of mitochondrial disease and is mostly caused by nuclear-encoded mutations in assembly factors while rarely by mutations in structural subunits. We hereby report a case of isolated COX deficiency manifesting with encephalomyopathy, hydrocephalus and hypertropic cardiomyopathy due to a missense p.R20C mutation in the COX6B1 gene, which encodes an integral, nuclear-encoded COX subunit. This novel mutation was predicted to be severe in silico. In accord, enzymatic activity was undetectable in muscle and fibroblasts, was severely decreased in lymphocytes and the COX6B1 protein was barely detectable in patient's muscle mitochondria. Complementation with the wild-type cDNA by a lentiviral construct restored COX activity, and mitochondrial function was improved by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, resveratrol and ascorbate in the patient's fibroblasts. We suggest that genetic analysis of COX6B1should be included in the investigation of isolated COX deficiency, including patients with cardiac defects. Initial measurement of COX activity in lymphocytes may be useful as it might circumvent the need for invasive muscle biopsy. The evaluation of ascorbate supplementation to patients with mutated COX6B1 is warranted. PMID:24781756

  12. The potential role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell-mediated canine mammary tumor initiation: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Di; Xie, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Additionally, it is becoming apparent that cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling is associated with canine mammary tumor development. The goals of the present study were to investigate COX-2 expression patterns and their effect on CSC-mediated tumor initiation in primary canine mammary tissues and tumorsphere models using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of COX-2, CD44, octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct)-3/4, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were examined in malignant mammary tumor (MMT) samples and analyzed in terms of clinicopathological characteristics. COX-2 and Oct-3/4 expression was higher in MMTs compared to other histological samples with heterogeneous patterns. In MMTs, COX-2 expression correlated with tumor malignancy features. Significant associations between COX-2, CD44, and EGFR were observed in low-differentiated MMTs. Comparative analysis showed that the levels of COX-2, CD44, and Oct-3/4 expression varied significantly among TSs of three histological grades. Enhanced COX-2 staining was consistently observed in TSs. Similar levels of staining intensity were found for CD44 and Oct-3/4, but EGFR expression was weak. Our findings indicate the potential role of COX-2 in CSC-mediated tumor initiation, and suggest that COX-2 inhibition may help treat canine mammary tumors by targeting CSCs. PMID:26124697

  13. In vitro import and assembly of the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox3).

    PubMed

    Vzquez-Acevedo, Miriam; Rubalcava-Gracia, Diana; Gonzlez-Halphen, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The cox3 gene, encoding subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox3) is in mitochondrial genomes except in chlorophycean algae, where it is localized in the nucleus. Therefore, algae like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Polytomella sp. and Volvox carteri, synthesize the Cox3 polypeptide in the cytosol, import it into mitochondria, and integrate it into the cytochrome c oxidase complex. In this work, we followed the in vitro internalization of the Cox3 precursor by isolated, import-competent mitochondria of Polytomella sp. In this colorless alga, the precursor Cox3 protein is synthesized with a long, cleavable, N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) of 98 residues. In an import time course, a transient Cox3 intermediate was identified, suggesting that the long MTS is processed more than once. The first processing step is sensitive to the metalo-protease inhibitor 1,10-ortophenantroline, suggesting that it is probably carried out by the matrix-located Mitochondrial Processing Protease. Cox3 is readily imported through an energy-dependent import pathway and integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, becoming resistant to carbonate extraction. Furthermore, the imported Cox3 protein was assembled into cytochrome c oxidase, as judged by the presence of a labeled band co-migrating with complex IV in Blue Native Electrophoresis. A model for the biogenesis of Cox3 in chlorophycean algae is proposed. This is the first time that the in vitro mitochondrial import of a cytosol-synthesized Cox3 subunit is described. PMID:24561572

  14. Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, caused by mutated COX6B1, is associated with encephalomyopathy, hydrocephalus and cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhag, Ulla Najwa; Soiferman, Devorah; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Miller, Chaya; Shaag, Avraham; Elpeleg, Orly; Edvardson, Simon; Saada, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is a prevalent cause of mitochondrial disease and is mostly caused by nuclear-encoded mutations in assembly factors while rarely by mutations in structural subunits. We hereby report a case of isolated COX deficiency manifesting with encephalomyopathy, hydrocephalus and hypertropic cardiomyopathy due to a missense p.R20C mutation in the COX6B1 gene, which encodes an integral, nuclear-encoded COX subunit. This novel mutation was predicted to be severe in silico. In accord, enzymatic activity was undetectable in muscle and fibroblasts, was severely decreased in lymphocytes and the COX6B1 protein was barely detectable in patient's muscle mitochondria. Complementation with the wild-type cDNA by a lentiviral construct restored COX activity, and mitochondrial function was improved by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, resveratrol and ascorbate in the patient's fibroblasts. We suggest that genetic analysis of COX6B1should be included in the investigation of isolated COX deficiency, including patients with cardiac defects. Initial measurement of COX activity in lymphocytes may be useful as it might circumvent the need for invasive muscle biopsy. The evaluation of ascorbate supplementation to patients with mutated COX6B1 is warranted. PMID:24781756

  15. Structure-based design of phthalimide derivatives as potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Amer M; El-Azab, Adel S; Al-Suwaidan, Ibrahim A; ElTahir, Kamal Eldin H; Asiri, Yousif A; Abdel-Aziz, Naglaa I; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M

    2015-03-01

    A group of 30 cyclic imides (1-10a-c) was designed for evaluation as a selective COX-2 inhibitor and investigated invivo for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Compounds 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b exhibit optimal COX-2 inhibitory potency (IC50=0.18, 0.24, 0.28 and 0.36?M; respectively) and selectivity index (SI) range of 363-668. Invitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibition structure-activity studies identified compound 6a as a highly potent (IC50=0.18?M), and an extremely selective [COX-2 (SI)=668] comparable to celecoxib [COX-2 (SI)>384], COX-2 inhibitor that showed superior anti-inflammatory activity (ED50=54.0mg/kg) relative to diclofenac (ED50=114mg/kg).Molecular Docking study of the synthesized compound 6a into the active site of COX-2 revealed a similar binding mode to SC-558, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Docking study showed that the methoxy moeities of 6a inserted deep inside the 2-pocket of the COX-2 active site, where the O-atoms of such groups underwent an H-bonding interaction with His(90) (3.02?), Arg(513) (1.94, 2.83?), and Gln(192) (3.25?). PMID:25549551

  16. Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness; Cook-Moreau, Jeanne; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Liagre, Bertrand

    2013-04-15

    Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effect on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-κB dependent. Inhibition of NF-κB reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ► Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ► Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ► COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ► Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-κB pathway activation. ► PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression.

  17. Mechanisms of Vessel Pruning and Regression.

    PubMed

    Korn, Claudia; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-07-01

    The field of angiogenesis research has primarily focused on the mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis. Yet vascular networks formed by vessel sprouting subsequently undergo extensive vascular remodeling to form a functional and mature vasculature. This "trimming" includes distinct processes of vascular pruning, the regression of selected vascular branches. In some situations complete vascular networks may undergo physiological regression. Vessel regression is an understudied yet emerging field of research. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art of vessel pruning and regression with a focus on the cellular processes and the molecular regulators of vessel maintenance and regression. PMID:26151903

  18. Role of COX-2 in cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin in patients with sinobronchial syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sinobronchial syndrome is a cause of chronic productive cough. Inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic productive cough. Accumulating evidences indicate that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, one of the inducible isoforms of COX, is a key element in the pathophysiological process of a number of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the role of COX-2 in chronic productive cough in patients with sinobronchial syndrome known as neutrophilic bronchial inflammation. Methods The effect of etodolac, a potent COX-2 inhibitor, on cough response to inhaled capsaicin was examined in 15 patients with sinobronchial syndrome in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Capsaicin cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin eliciting five or more coughs, was measured as an index of airway cough reflex sensitivity. Results The cough threshold was significantly (p < 0.03) increased after two-week treatment with etodolac (200 mg twice a day orally) compared with placebo [37.5 (GSEM 1.3) vs. 27.2 (GSEM 1.3) μM]. Conclusions These findings indicate that COX-2 may be a possible modulator augmenting airway cough reflex sensitivity in patients with sinobronchial syndrome. PMID:20696045

  19. The Characterization And Role of Zinc Binding in Yeast Cox4

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, H.J., III; Ciofi-Baffoni, S.; Banci, L.; Bertini, I.; Zhang, L.; George, G.N.; Winge, D.R.; /Utah U. /Florence U. /Saskatchewan U.

    2007-07-09

    Yeast Cox4 is a zinc binding subunit of cytochrome c oxidase. Cox4 is the only cofactor-containing subunit that is not directly part of the catalytic core of the enzyme located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. The Zn(II) site is shown to be distinct from the bovine ortholog, as it results from the x-ray structure of the entire cytochrome c oxidase in having a single histidyl residue and three conserved cysteines residues in the coordination sphere. Substitutions at the Cys ligand positions result in non-functional Cox4 proteins that fail to lead to cytochrome oxidase assembly. Limited function exists in His-119 mutants when overexpressed. Zn(II) binding in Cox4 is, therefore, important for the stability of the complex. The solution structure of yeast Cox4 elucidated by multidimensional NMR reveals a C-terminal globular domain consisting of two {beta} sheets analogous to the bovine ortholog except the loop containing the coordinating His in the yeast protein and the fourth Cys in the bovine protein are in different positions in the two structures. The conformation of this loop is dictated by the different sequence position of the fourth coordinating zinc ligand. The Zn(II) ion is buried within the domain, consistent with its role in structural stability. Potential functions of this matrix-facing subunit are discussed.

  20. Vitamin D inhibits COX-2 expression and inflammatory response by targeting thioesterase superfamily member 4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingsong; He, Yuhu; Shen, Yujun; Zhang, Qianqian; Chen, Di; Zuo, Caojian; Qin, Jing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Junwen; Yu, Ying

    2014-04-25

    Inadequate vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform COX-2 has been involved in the pathogenesis of such chronic inflammatory diseases. We found that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D produces dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 expression in murine macrophages under both basal and LPS-stimulated conditions and suppresses proinflammatory mediators induced by LPS. Administration of 1,25(OH)2D significantly alleviated local inflammation in a carrageenan-induced paw edema mouse model. Strikingly, the phosphorylation of both Akt and its downstream target I?B? in macrophages were markedly suppressed by 1,25(OH)2D in the presence and absence of LPS stimulation through up-regulation of THEM4 (thioesterase superfamily member 4), an Akt modulator protein. Knockdown of both vitamin D receptor and THEM4 attenuated the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D on COX-2 expression in macrophages. A functional vitamin D-responsive element in the THEM4 promoter was identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay. Our results indicate that vitamin D restrains macrophage-mediated inflammatory processes by suppressing the Akt/NF-?B/COX-2 pathway, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation might be utilized for adjunctive therapy for inflammatory disease. PMID:24619416

  1. Potent multitarget FAAH-COX inhibitors: Design and structure-activity relationship studies.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Marco; Habrant, Damien; Sasso, Oscar; Albani, Clara; Bertozzi, Sine Mandrup; Armirotti, Andrea; Piomelli, Daniele; Scarpelli, Rita

    2016-02-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their pharmacological effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Though widely prescribed for pain and inflammation, these agents have limited utility in chronic diseases due to serious mechanism-based adverse events such as gastrointestinal damage. Concomitant blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enhances the therapeutic effects of the NSAIDs while attenuating their propensity to cause gastrointestinal injury. This favorable interaction is attributed to the accumulation of protective FAAH substrates, such as the endocannabinoid anandamide, and suggests that agents simultaneously targeting COX and FAAH might provide an innovative strategy to combat pain and inflammation with reduced side effects. Here, we describe the rational design and structure-active relationship (SAR) properties of the first class of potent multitarget FAAH-COX inhibitors. A focused SAR exploration around the prototype 10r (ARN2508) led to the identification of achiral (18b) as well as racemic (29a-c and 29e) analogs. Absolute configurational assignment and pharmacological evaluation of single enantiomers of 10r are also presented. (S)-(+)-10r is the first highly potent and selective chiral inhibitor of FAAH-COX with marked invivo activity, and represents a promising lead to discover novel analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26774927

  2. In -silico molecular docking analysis of prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin as COX-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Pabba Shiva; Vani, Kompally; Prasad, Metuku Ram; Samatha, Burra; Bindu, Nidadavolu Shesha Venkata Sathya Siva Surya Laxmi Hima; Charya, Maringanti Alaha Singara; Reddy Shetty, Prakasham

    2013-12-01

    Prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin are tripyrrole red pigmented compounds with medical importance for their anticancer property. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were performed for both prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosins to evaluate the in- silico anti-inflammatory activity against Cycloxigenase-2 (COX-2) protein as model compound and the data compared with rofecoxib and celcoxid. Cycloprodigiosin showed higher initial potential, initial RMS gradient and potential energy values compared to prodigiosin. Analysis of COX-2 protein and ligand binding revealed that cyclprodigiosin interacted with COX-2 protein amino acid residues of Tyr(324), Phe(487) and Arg(89) while prodigiosin interaction was observed with two amino acids i.e. Leu(321) and Tyr(324). The computational ligand binding interaction suggested > 45% higher fitness score value for prodigiosin to that of cycloprodigiosin with COX-2 protein while the standard compounds rofecoxib and celecoxid revealed fitness score of 44 and 62, respectively. The prodigiosin ligand revealed the best fitness score compared with the standard drug rofecoxib suggesting the prodigiosin could be effective as the potential inhibitor compound against COX-2 protein and can be evaluated as anti-inflammatory drug molecule using clinical trials. PMID:23741639

  3. Differential accumulation of Phytophthora cambivora cox II gene transcripts in infected chestnut tissue.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vettraino, Anna M

    2014-04-01

    This study provides a novel qRT-PCR protocol for specific detection and proof of viability of Phytophthora in environmental samples based on differential accumulation of cox II transcripts. Chemical and physical treatments were tested for their ability to induce in vitro the accumulation of cytochrome oxidase genes encoding subunits II (cox II) transcripts in Phytophthora cambivora. Glucose 170mM, KNO3 0.25mM and K3 PO3 0.5 and 0.8mM induced the transcription of cox II in P.cambivora living mycelium while no transcription was observed in mycelium previously killed with 0.5% (p/v) RidomilGold() R WG. Living chestnut tissue was artificially infected with P.cambivora and treated with inducers. In vivo experiments confirmed the ability of glucose to induce the accumulation of P.cambivora cox II transcripts. Based on these results, pretreatment of environmental samples with glucose prior to nucleic acid extraction increased the accumulation of specific cox II transcripts, and therefore the sensitivity of qRT-PCR assay for detection of P.cambivora in living tissues. Furthermore, differential accumulation of transcripts between treated and untreated samples represents an unequivocal proof of inoculum viability. PMID:24527950

  4. STIM1 overexpression promotes colorectal cancer progression, cell motility and COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Sun, J; Huang, M-Y; Wang, Y-S; Hou, M-F; Sun, Y; He, H; Krishna, N; Chiu, S-J; Lin, S; Yang, S; Chang, W-C

    2015-08-13

    Tumor metastasis is the major cause of death among cancer patients, with >90% of cancer-related death attributable to the spreading of metastatic cells to secondary organs. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is the predominant Ca(2+) entry mechanism in most cancer cells, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor for store-operated channels. Here we reported that the STIM1 was overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. STIM1 overexpression in CRC was significantly associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis status and serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen. Furthermore, ectopic expression of STIM1 promoted CRC cell motility, while depletion of STIM1 with short hairpin RNA inhibited CRC cell migration. Our data further suggested that STIM1 promoted CRC cell migration through increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Importantly, ectopically expressed COX-2 or exogenous PGE2 were able to rescue migration defect in STIM1 knockdown CRC cells, and inhibition of COX-2 with ibuprofen and indomethacin abrogated STIM1-mediated CRC cell motility. In short, our data provided clinicopathological significance for STIM1 and SOCE in CRC progression, and implicated a role for COX-2 in STIM1-mediated CRC metastasis. Our studies also suggested a new approach to inhibit STIM1-mediated metastasis with COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:25381814

  5. The COX-2-Selective Antagonist (NS-398) Inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization and Subretinal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruoshuang; Liu, Zheli; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is an important pathologic component of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and CNV lesions later develop into fibrous scars, which contribute to the loss of central vision. Nowadays, the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying CNV and subretinal fibrosis have yet to be fully elucidated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has previously been implicated in angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, the role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of CNV and subretinal fibrosis is poorly understood. The present study reveals several important findings concerning the relationship of COX-2 signaling with CNV and subretinal fibrosis. Experimental CNV lesions were attenuated by the administration of NS-398, a COX-2-selective antagonist. NS-398-induced CNV suppression was found to be mediated by the attenuation of macrophage infiltration and down-regulation of VEGF in the retinal pigment epitheliumchoroid complex. Additionally, NS-398 attenuated subretinal fibrosis, in an experimental model of subretinal scarring observed in neovascular AMD, by down-regulation of TGF-?2 in the retinal pigment epitheliumchoroid complex. Moreover, we cultured mouse RPE cells and found that NS-398 decreased the secretion of VEGF and TGF-?2 in mouse RPE cells. The results of the present study provide new findings regarding the molecular basis of CNV and subretinal fibrosis, and provide a proof-of-concept approach for the efficacy of COX-2 inhibition in treating subretinal fibrosis. PMID:26760305

  6. Virtual screening of compounds from the patchouli oil of Pogostemon herba for COX-1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Raharjo, Sentot Joko; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2013-01-01

    Our interest is to identify compounds from the patchouli oil of Pogostemon herba to inhibit the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme activity. The data for the major compounds (alpha-patchouli alcohol isomer (CD521903, CD442384, and/or CD6432585), alphabulnusene, seychellene and alpha-guaiene) of patchouli oil were explored from the PubChem database. The compounds to COX-1 interactions were studied using the molecular docking tools Hex 6.12 and LeadIT2 Bisolve. The interactions were further visualized using the Chimera 1.7s viewer software tool. The analysis of the major compounds of patchouli oil showed that alpha-Patchouli alcohol (CD521903) binds to COX-1 at many active sites including: Leu223B, Asp228B, Leu237B, Arg332B, Trp138A, Glu139A, Ser142A, and Asn143A. Further analysis revealed that these binding sites are maintained by hydrogen bonds with Ser142A, Glu139A, and Asp228B. The interaction energy between COX-1 and alpha-patchouli alcohol (CD521903) is -6 kJ/mol (without solvent) and -15 kJ/ mol (with solvent DMSO). These theoretical data suggests alpha-patchouli alcohol as a potential inhibitor of the COX-1 enzyme. However, these observations should be investigated and confirmed using experimental evidence. PMID:23559751

  7. Antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions of COX2 inhibitors in the injured brain

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kenneth I.

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of COX2 appears to be both a marker and an effector of neural damage after a variety of acquired brain injuries, and in natural or pathological aging of the brain. COX2 inhibitors may be neuroprotective in the brain by reducing prostanoid and free radical synthesis, or by directing arachidonic acid down alternate metabolic pathways. The arachidonic acid shunting hypothesis proposes that COX2 inhibitors' neuroprotective effects may be mediated by increased formation of potentially beneficial eicosanoids. Under conditions where COX2 activity is inhibited, arachidonic acid accumulates or is converted to eicosanoids via lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases. Several P450 eicosanoids have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in the brain and/or periphery. We suspect that arachidonic acid shunting may be as important to functional recovery after brain injuries as altered prostanoid formation per se. Thus, COX2 inhibition and arachidonic acid shunting have therapeutic implications beyond the suppression of prostaglandin synthesis and free radical formation. PMID:17996418

  8. The COX-2-Selective Antagonist (NS-398) Inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization and Subretinal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoshuang; Liu, Zheli; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is an important pathologic component of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and CNV lesions later develop into fibrous scars, which contribute to the loss of central vision. Nowadays, the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying CNV and subretinal fibrosis have yet to be fully elucidated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has previously been implicated in angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, the role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of CNV and subretinal fibrosis is poorly understood. The present study reveals several important findings concerning the relationship of COX-2 signaling with CNV and subretinal fibrosis. Experimental CNV lesions were attenuated by the administration of NS-398, a COX-2-selective antagonist. NS-398-induced CNV suppression was found to be mediated by the attenuation of macrophage infiltration and down-regulation of VEGF in the retinal pigment epithelium-choroid complex. Additionally, NS-398 attenuated subretinal fibrosis, in an experimental model of subretinal scarring observed in neovascular AMD, by down-regulation of TGF-?2 in the retinal pigment epithelium-choroid complex. Moreover, we cultured mouse RPE cells and found that NS-398 decreased the secretion of VEGF and TGF-?2 in mouse RPE cells. The results of the present study provide new findings regarding the molecular basis of CNV and subretinal fibrosis, and provide a proof-of-concept approach for the efficacy of COX-2 inhibition in treating subretinal fibrosis. PMID:26760305

  9. Estimating equivalence with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence testing and corresponding confidence interval estimates are used to provide more enlightened statistical statements about parameter estimates by relating them to intervals of effect sizes deemed to be of scientific or practical importance rather than just to an effect size of zero. Equivalence tests and confidence interval estimates are based on a null hypothesis that a parameter estimate is either outside (inequivalence hypothesis) or inside (equivalence hypothesis) an equivalence region, depending on the question of interest and assignment of risk. The former approach, often referred to as bioequivalence testing, is often used in regulatory settings because it reverses the burden of proof compared to a standard test of significance, following a precautionary principle for environmental protection. Unfortunately, many applications of equivalence testing focus on establishing average equivalence by estimating differences in means of distributions that do not have homogeneous variances. I discuss how to compare equivalence across quantiles of distributions using confidence intervals on quantile regression estimates that detect differences in heterogeneous distributions missed by focusing on means. I used one-tailed confidence intervals based on inequivalence hypotheses in a two-group treatment-control design for estimating bioequivalence of arsenic concentrations in soils at an old ammunition testing site and bioequivalence of vegetation biomass at a reclaimed mining site. Two-tailed confidence intervals based both on inequivalence and equivalence hypotheses were used to examine quantile equivalence for negligible trends over time for a continuous exponential model of amphibian abundance. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Insulin Resistance: Regression and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sangho; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Hwu, Chii-Min; Rajaratnam, Bala; Olshen, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define insulin resistance (IR) precisely for a group of Chinese women. Our definition deliberately does not depend upon body mass index (BMI) or age, although in other studies, with particular random effects models quite different from models used here, BMI accounts for a large part of the variability in IR. We accomplish our goal through application of Gauss mixture vector quantization (GMVQ), a technique for clustering that was developed for application to lossy data compression. Defining data come from measurements that play major roles in medical practice. A precise statement of what the data are is in Section 1. Their family structures are described in detail. They concern levels of lipids and the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We apply GMVQ to residuals obtained from regressions of outcomes of an OGTT and lipids on functions of age and BMI that are inferred from the data. A bootstrap procedure developed for our family data supplemented by insights from other approaches leads us to believe that two clusters are appropriate for defining IR precisely. One cluster consists of women who are IR, and the other of women who seem not to be. Genes and other features are used to predict cluster membership. We argue that prediction with main effects is not satisfactory, but prediction that includes interactions may be. PMID:24887437

  11. Efficient methods for estimating constrained parameters with applications to lasso logistic regression

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Tang, Man-Lai; Fang, Hong-Bin; Tan, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Fitting logistic regression models is challenging when their parameters are restricted. In this article, we first develop a quadratic lower-bound (QLB) algorithm for optimization with box or linear inequality constraints and derive the fastest QLB algorithm corresponding to the smallest global majorization matrix. The proposed QLB algorithm is particularly suited to problems to which EM-type algorithms are not applicable (e.g., logistic, multinomial logistic, and Coxs proportional hazards models) while it retains the same EM ascent property and thus assures the monotonic convergence. Secondly, we generalize the QLB algorithm to penalized problems in which the penalty functions may not be totally differentiable. The proposed method thus provides an alternative algorithm for estimation in lasso logistic regression, where the convergence of the existing lasso algorithm is not generally ensured. Finally, by relaxing the ascent requirement, convergence speed can be further accelerated. We introduce a pseudo-Newton method that retains the simplicity of the QLB algorithm and the fast convergence of the Newton method. Theoretical justification and numerical examples show that the pseudo-Newton method is up to 71 (in terms of CPU time) or 107 (in terms of number of iterations) times faster than the fastest QLB algorithm and thus makes bootstrap variance estimation feasible. Simulations and comparisons are performed and three real examples (Down syndrome data, kyphosis data, and colon microarray data) are analyzed to illustrate the proposed methods. PMID:18443660

  12. Robust inhibitory effects of conjugated linolenic acids on a cyclooxygenase-related linoleate 10S-dioxygenase: Comparison with COX-1 and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Zahra; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    There are many reports of the anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-atherosclerotic activities of conjugated linolenic acids (cLNA). They constitute a small percentage of fatty acids in the typical human diet, although up to 80% of the fatty acids in certain fruits such as pomegranate. In the course of studying a bacterial fatty acid dioxygenase (Nostoc linoleate 10S-DOX, an ancient relative of mammalian cyclooxygenases), we detected strong inhibitory activity in a commercial sample of linoleic acid. We identified two cLNA isomers, ?-eleostearic (9E,11E,13E-18:3) and ?-calendic acid (8E,10E,12E-18:3), as responsible for that striking inhibition with a Ki of ~49nM and ~125nM, respectively, the most potent among eight cLNA tested. We also examined the effects of all eight cLNA on the activity of COX-1 and COX-2. Jacaric acid (8Z,10E,12Z-18:3) and its 12E isomer, 8Z,10E,12E-18:3, strongly inhibit the activity of COX-1 with a Ki of ~1.7 and ~1.1?M, respectively. By contrast, COX-2 was ?30% inhibited at 10?M concentrations of the cLNA. Identifying the activities of the naturally occurring fatty acids is of interest in terms of understanding their interaction with the enzymes, and for explaining the mechanistic basis of their biological effects. The study also highlights the potential presence of inhibitory fatty acids in commercial lipids prepared from natural sources. Analysis of seven commercial samples of linoleic acid by HPLC and UV spectroscopy is illustrated as supplementary data. PMID:26209563

  13. Combined therapy with COX-2 inhibitor and 20-HETE inhibitor reduces colon tumor growth and the adverse effects of ischemic stroke associated with COX-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Zheng, Xuan; Li, Weiguo; Luo, Pengcheng; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Seki, Tsugio; Ergul, Adviye; Wang, Mong-Heng

    2014-09-15

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), Cyp4a-derived eicosanoid, is a lipid mediator that promotes tumor growth, as well as causing detrimental effects in cerebral circulation. We determined whether concurrent inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 20-HETE affects colon tumor growth and ischemic stroke outcomes. The expression of Cyp4a and COXs and production of 20-HETE and PGE2 were determined in murine colon carcinoma (MC38) cells. We then examined the effects of combined treatment with rofecoxib, a potent COX-2 inhibitor, and HET0016, a potent Cyp4a inhibitor, on the growth and proliferation of MC38 cells. Subsequently, we tested the effects of HET0016 plus rofecoxib in MC38 tumor and ischemic stroke models. Cyp4a and COXs are highly expressed in MC38 cells. Respectively, HET0016 and rofecoxib inhibited 20-HETE and PGE2 formation in MC38 cells. Moreover, rofecoxib combined with HET0016 had greater inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of MC38 cells than did rofecoxib alone. Importantly, rofecoxib combined with HET0016 provided greater inhibition on tumor growth than did rofecoxib alone in MC38 tumor-bearing mice. Prolonged treatment with rofecoxib selectively induced circulating 20-HETE levels and caused cerebrovascular damage after ischemic stroke, whereas therapy with rofecoxib and HET0016 attenuated 20-HETE levels and reduced rofecoxib-induced cerebrovascular damage and stroke outcomes during anti-tumor therapy. Thus these results demonstrate that combination therapy with rofecoxib and HET0016 provides a new treatment of colon tumor, which can not only enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of rofecoxib, but also reduce rofecoxib-induced cerebrovascular damage and stroke outcomes. PMID:24990856

  14. Upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b1 (Cox6b1) and formation of mitochondrial supercomplexes: implication of Cox6b1 in the effect of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Eun; Mori, Ryoichi; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Chiba, Takuya; Hayashi, Hiroko; Park, Seongjoon; Sugawa, Michiru D; Dencher, Norbert A; Shimokawa, Isao

    2015-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), a non-genetic intervention that promotes longevity in animals, may exert anti-aging effects by modulating mitochondrial function. Based on our prior mitochondrial proteome analysis, we focused on the potential roles of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox or Complex IV) subunit 6b1 on formation of mitochondrial supercomplexes comprised of Complex I, III, and IV. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting showed that the amount of Cox6b1 and the proportion of high molecular weight supercomplexes (SCs) comprised of Complexes I, III, and IV were increased in the liver of mice subjected to 30 % CR, compared with the liver of mice fed ad libitum. In in vitro experiments, in Cox6b1-overexpressing NIH3T3 (Cox6b1-3T3) cells, Cox6b1 was increased in the SC, III2IV1, and III2IV2 complexes and Cox was concomitantly recruited abundantly into the SC, compared with control (Con)-3T3 cells. The proportions of III2IV1, and III2IV2, relative to IV monomer were also increased in Cox6b1-3T3 cells. Cox6b1-3T3 cells showed increased oxygen consumption rates, Cox activity, and intracellular ATP concentrations, indicating enhanced mitochondrial respiration, compared with Con-3T3 cells. Despite the increased basal level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell viability after inducing oxidative stress was greater in Cox6b1-3T3 cells than in Con-3T3 cells, probably because of prompt activation of protective mechanisms, such as nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2. These in vivo and in vitro studies show that Cox6b1 is involved in regulation of mitochondrial function by promoting the formation of SC, suggesting that Cox6b1 contributes to the anti-aging effects of CR. PMID:25929654

  15. Straight line fitting and predictions: On a marginal likelihood approach to linear regression and errors-in-variables models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Linear regression methods are without doubt the most used approaches to describe and predict data in the physical sciences. They are often good first order approximations and they are in general easier to apply and interpret than more advanced methods. However, even the properties of univariate regression can lead to debate over the appropriateness of various models as witnessed by the recent discussion about climate reconstruction methods. Before linear regression is applied important choices have to be made regarding the origins of the noise terms and regarding which of the two variables under consideration that should be treated as the independent variable. These decisions are often not easy to make but they may have a considerable impact on the results. We seek to give a unified probabilistic - Bayesian with flat priors - treatment of univariate linear regression and prediction by taking, as starting point, the general errors-in-variables model (Christiansen, J. Clim., 27, 2014-2031, 2014). Other versions of linear regression can be obtained as limits of this model. We derive the likelihood of the model parameters and predictands of the general errors-in-variables model by marginalizing over the nuisance parameters. The resulting likelihood is relatively simple and easy to analyze and calculate. The well known unidentifiability of the errors-in-variables model is manifested as the absence of a well-defined maximum in the likelihood. However, this does not mean that probabilistic inference can not be made; the marginal likelihoods of model parameters and the predictands have, in general, well-defined maxima. We also include a probabilistic version of classical calibration and show how it is related to the errors-in-variables model. The results are illustrated by an example from the coupling between the lower stratosphere and the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere winter.

  16. Substrate-selective COX-2 inhibition as a novel strategy for therapeutic endocannabinoid augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Daniel J; Gamble-George, Joyonna C; Marnett, Lawrence J; Patel, Sachin

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacologic augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling is an emerging therapeutic approach for the treatment of a broad range of pathophysiological conditions. Thus far, pharmacological approaches have focused on inhibition of the canonical eCB inactivation pathways - fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) for anandamide and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) for 2-arachidonoylglycerol. We review here the experimental evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated eCB oxygenation represents a third mechanism for terminating eCB action at cannabinoid receptors. We describe the development, molecular mechanisms, and in vivo validation of 'substrate-selective' COX-2 inhibitors (SSCIs) that prevent eCB inactivation by COX-2 without affecting prostaglandin (PG) generation from arachidonic acid (AA). Lastly, we review recent data on the potential therapeutic applications of SSCIs with a focus on neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24845457

  17. Substrate-selective COX-2 inhibition as a novel strategy for therapeutic endocannabinoid augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, Daniel J.; Gamble-George, Joyonna C.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Patel, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling is an emerging therapeutic approach for the treatment of a broad range of pathophysiological conditions. Thus far, pharmacological approaches have focused on inhibition of canonical eCB inactivation pathways, fatty acid amide hydrolase for anandamide and monoacylglycerol lipase for 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Here we review experimental evidence that cyclooxygenase-2-mediated eCB oxygenation represents a third mechanism for terminating eCB action at cannabinoid receptors. We describe the development, molecular mechanisms, and in vivo validation of “substrate-selective” COX-2 inhibitors that prevent eCB inactivation by COX-2 without affecting the prostaglandin generation from arachidonic acid. Lastly, we review recent data on the potential therapeutic applications of substrate-selective COX-2 inhibitors with a focus on neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24845457

  18. Identification and initial characterisation of a Plasmodium falciparum Cox17 copper metallochaperone.

    PubMed

    Choveaux, David L; Krause, Robert G E; Przyborski, Jude M; Goldring, J P Dean

    2015-01-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms as an important catalytic co-factor for key enzymes. In higher eukaryotes intracellular copper is distributed by copper metallochaperones. Copper chelators such as neocuproine and tetrathiomolybdate inhibit Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic development, indicating a requirement for copper by the parasite. A screen of the P. falciparum genome database identified eight potential copper-requiring protein orthologs, including four candidate copper metallochaperones implicated in the delivery of copper to cytochrome-c oxidase. A P. falciparum Cox17 ortholog (PfCox17) was recombinantly expressed and the purified protein bound reduced copper in vitro. PfCox17 was localised to the parasite cytoplasm. Characterisation of plasmodial proteins involved in copper metabolism will help us understand the role of this essential microelement in plasmodial homeostasis. PMID:25447123

  19. On Model Specification and Selection of the Cox Proportional Hazards Model*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Yen; Halabi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Prognosis plays a pivotal role in patient management and trial design. A useful prognostic model should correctly identify important risk factors and estimate their effects. In this article, we discuss several challenges in selecting prognostic factors and estimating their effects using the Cox proportional hazards model. Although a flexible semiparametric form, the Coxs model is not entirely exempt from model misspecification. To minimize possible misspecification, instead of imposing traditional linear assumption, flexible modeling techniques have been proposed to accommodate the nonlinear effect. We first review several existing nonparametric estimation and selection procedures and then present a numerical study to compare the performance between parametric and nonparametric procedures. We demonstrate the impact of model misspecification on variable selection and model prediction using a simulation study and a example from a phase III trial in prostate cancer. PMID:23784939

  20. Population impact of regulatory activity restricting prescribing of COX-2 inhibitors: ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Benedict W; Metcalfe, Chris; Gunnell, David; Stephens, Peter; Martin, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To investigate impacts of withdrawal and regulatory advice regarding cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors on UK population rates of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS Ecological time series study of prescribing, mortality and hospital admission trends in people aged ?55 years. RESULTS Withdrawal and regulatory advice limiting COX-2 inhibitor availability from 2004 were temporally associated with reversal of previously unfavourable trends in emergency MI admissions among people aged ?65 years. Annual admission rate trends changed from +4.6% to ?3.1% (P < 0.001) among women and from +2.1% to ?3.8% (P= 0.003) among men. Absolute changes in average annual trend in the number of individuals aged ?65 years admitted following MI were from +981 (19992004) to ?819 (20042006) per year for women and from +713 to ?995 for men. No change in trend was apparent among people aged 5564 years, or in MI mortality trends. There was some suggestion of an unfavourable change in admission trends for gastrointestinal haemorrhage among 55?64-year-olds, although this appeared to occur prior to COX-2 inhibitor withdrawal/regulation by up to 2 years. These trends were not apparent in older people, or in gastrointestinal haemorrhage mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS Withdrawal/regulation of COX-2 inhibitors was temporally associated with a favourable reversal of population-level hospital admission trends in MI among people aged ?65 years. Unfavourable reversal of previous declines in gastrointestinal haemorrhage admissions probably occurred before changes in COX-2 inhibitor availability. Withdrawal/ regulation of COX-2 inhibitors did not appear to have any adverse impact on population health and may have been beneficial. PMID:19917000

  1. Effects of prostaglandins and COX-inhibiting drugs on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sophia Z.

    2013-01-01

    It has been ∼40 yr since the discovery that PGs are produced by exercising skeletal muscle and since the discovery that inhibition of PG synthesis is the mechanism of action of what are now known as cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting drugs. Since that time, it has been established that PGs are made during and after aerobic and resistance exercise and have a potent paracrine and autocrine effect on muscle metabolism. Consequently, it has also been determined that orally consumed doses of COX inhibitors can profoundly influence muscle PG synthesis, muscle protein metabolism, and numerous other cellular processes that regulate muscle adaptations to exercise loading. Although data from acute human exercise studies, as well as animal and cell-culture data, would predict that regular consumption of a COX inhibitor during exercise training would dampen the typical muscle adaptations, the chronic data do not support this conjecture. From the studies in young and older individuals, lasting from 1.5 to 4 mo, no interfering effects of COX inhibitors on muscle adaptations to resistance-exercise training have been noted. In fact, in older individuals, a substantial enhancement of muscle mass and strength has been observed. The collective findings of the PG/COX-pathway regulation of skeletal muscle responses and adaptations to exercise are compelling. Considering the discoveries in other areas of COX regulation of health and disease, there is certainly an interesting future of investigation in this re-emerging area, especially as it pertains to older individuals and the condition of sarcopenia, as well as exercise training and performance of individuals of all ages. PMID:23539318

  2. Timosaponin AIII inhibits melanoma cell migration by suppressing COX-2 and in vivo tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Im, A-Rang; Kim, Seung Hyung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease, due in large part to its propensity to metastasize. We examined the effects of timosaponin AIII, a compound isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, on melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using B16-F10 and WM-115 melanoma cells lines. Overexpression of COX-2, its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4) promoted cell migration in vitro. Exposure to timosaponin AIII resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with reduced levels of COX-2, PGE2 , and PGE2 receptors. Transient transfection of COX-2 siRNA also inhibited cell migration. Exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate enhanced cell migration, whereas timosaponin AIII inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate-induced cell migration and reduced basal levels of EP2 and EP4. Moreover, timosaponin AIII inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), an upstream regulator of COX-2 in B16-F10 cells. Consistent with our in vitro findings, in vivo studies showed that timosaponin AIII treatment significantly reduced the total number of metastatic nodules in the mouse lung and improved histological alterations in B16-F10-injected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, C57BL/6 mice treated with timosaponin AIII showed reduced expression of COX-2 and NF-?B in the lung. Together, these results indicate that timosaponin AIII has the capacity to inhibit melanoma cell migration, an essential step in the process of metastasis, by inhibiting expression of COX-2, NF-?B, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors. PMID:26595378

  3. COX-2 dependent regulation of mechanotransduction in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, A-Rum; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Kim, Jae Hun; Yong, Hwan Mee; Kilic, Onur; Wirtz, Denis; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; An, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    The ability of living cells to exert physical forces upon their surrounding is a necessary prerequisite for diverse biological processes, such as local cellular migrations in wound healing to metastatic-invasion of cancer. How forces are coopted in metastasis has remained unclear, however, because the mechanical interplay between cancer cells and the various stromal components has not been experimentally accessible. Current dogma implicates inflammation in these mechanical processes. Using Fourier transform traction microscopy, we measured the force-generating capacity of human breast cancer cells occupying a spectrum of invasiveness as well as basal and inducible COX-2 expression (MCF-7COX-2. Both COX-2-silenced and COX-2-expressing cells expressed EP2 and EP4 receptors, but not EP1 and EP3. Exogenous addition of PGE2 increased cell tractions and stiffened the underlying cytoskeletal network. To our knowledge this is the first report linking the expression of COX-2 with mechanotransduction of human breast cancer cells, and the regulation of COX-2-PGE2-EP signaling with physical properties of the tumor microenvironment. Drug treatments aimed at reducing this mechanical interplay may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25701047

  4. Molecular docking and analgesic studies of Erythrina variegata?s derived phytochemicals with COX enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Emran, Talha Bin; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Dash, Raju

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from plants are a good source for the NSAID drug development. We studied the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) followed by molecular docking analysis. The analgesic activity of Erythrina variegata L. is evaluated by various methods viz., acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate and tail immersion test. Subsequently, molecular docking analysis has been performed to identify compounds having activity against COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by using GOLD docking fitness. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains alkaloids and flavonoids. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) produced a increase in pain threshold in a dose dependent manner. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the inhibitory effect was similar to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. The extract showed 18.89% writhing inhibitory effect at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w., whereas diclofenac sodium showed 79.42% inhibition of writhing at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. The results of tail immersion and hot plate test also showed potential analgesic activity of the extract which is also comparable to the standard drug morphine (5 mg/kg b.w.). Docking studies shows that phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. has the best fitness score against the COX-1 which is 56.64 and 59.63 for COX- 2 enzyme. Phaseollin of Erythrina variegata L. detected with significant fitness score and hydrogen bonding against COX-1 and COX-2 is reported for further validation. PMID:25489172

  5. Effusanin E Suppresses Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Growth by Inhibiting NF-?B and COX-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Qiu, Huijuan; Shi, Dingbo; Wang, Jingshu; Tian, Yun; Lin, Lianzhu; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-?B proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-?B to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-?B-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-?B/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides) abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-?B and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:25333664

  6. Effects of prostaglandins and COX-inhibiting drugs on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Todd A; Liu, Sophia Z

    2013-09-01

    It has been ?40 yr since the discovery that PGs are produced by exercising skeletal muscle and since the discovery that inhibition of PG synthesis is the mechanism of action of what are now known as cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting drugs. Since that time, it has been established that PGs are made during and after aerobic and resistance exercise and have a potent paracrine and autocrine effect on muscle metabolism. Consequently, it has also been determined that orally consumed doses of COX inhibitors can profoundly influence muscle PG synthesis, muscle protein metabolism, and numerous other cellular processes that regulate muscle adaptations to exercise loading. Although data from acute human exercise studies, as well as animal and cell-culture data, would predict that regular consumption of a COX inhibitor during exercise training would dampen the typical muscle adaptations, the chronic data do not support this conjecture. From the studies in young and older individuals, lasting from 1.5 to 4 mo, no interfering effects of COX inhibitors on muscle adaptations to resistance-exercise training have been noted. In fact, in older individuals, a substantial enhancement of muscle mass and strength has been observed. The collective findings of the PG/COX-pathway regulation of skeletal muscle responses and adaptations to exercise are compelling. Considering the discoveries in other areas of COX regulation of health and disease, there is certainly an interesting future of investigation in this re-emerging area, especially as it pertains to older individuals and the condition of sarcopenia, as well as exercise training and performance of individuals of all ages. PMID:23539318

  7. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-?B and COX-2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Qiu, Huijuan; Shi, Dingbo; Wang, Jingshu; Tian, Yun; Lin, Lianzhu; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-?B proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-?B to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-?B-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-?B/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides) abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-?B and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:25333664

  8. Regression From Pre-Diabetes to Normal Glucose Regulation in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Leigh; Kahn, Steven E.; Christophi, Costas A.; Knowler, William C.; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) randomized to intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin had a significantly reduced incidence of diabetes compared with those randomized to placebo, yet most were still at risk because they had pre-diabetes. We explored the effect of baseline characteristics, weight change, ILS, and metformin on regression from pre-diabetes to the lowest-risk state of normal glucose regulation (NGR) defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The DPP was a prospective randomized trial. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of regression from pre-diabetes to NGR over 3 years of follow-up. RESULTS Lower baseline fasting (hazard ratio 1.52, P < 0.01) and 2-h (1.24, P < 0.01) glucose predicted regression to NGR, as did younger age (1.07, P < 0.01) and greater insulin secretion (1.09, P = 0.04). ILS (2.05, P < 0.01) and weight loss (1.34, P < 0.01) had significant and independent effects on regression. A nonsignificant trend for regression was also observed for metformin (1.25, P = 0.06), male sex (1.17, P = 0.08), and insulin sensitivity (1.07, P = 0.09). In those entering the study with both impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), male sex and insulin sensitivity predicted regression to isolated IFG, whereas ILS, metformin, female sex, and greater insulin secretion predicted regression to isolated IGT. CONCLUSIONS Insulin secretion, and other biologic processes retained with younger age, are key in restoring NGR in people with pre-diabetes. However, NGR may also be attained through weight loss and additional aspects of ILS. PMID:19587364

  9. Synthesis of Deuterated Benzopyran Derivatives as Selective COX-2 Inhibitors with Improved Pharmacokinetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Tortorella, Micky D; Wang, Yican; Liu, Jianqi; Tu, Zhengchao; Liu, Xiaorong; Bai, Yang; Wen, Dingsheng; Lu, Xin; Lu, Yongzhi; Talley, John J

    2014-10-01

    We designed a series of specifically deuterated benzopyran analogues as new COX-2 inhibitors with the aim of improving their pharmacokinetic properties. As expected, the deuterated compounds retained potency and selectivity for COX-2. The new molecules possess improved pharmacokinetic profiles in rats compared to their nondeuterated congeners. Most importantly, the new compounds showed pharmacodynamic efficacy in several murine models of inflammation and pain. The benzopyran derivatives were separated into their enantiomers, and the activity was found to reside with the S-isomers. To streamline the synthesis of the desired S-isomers, an organocatalytic asymmetric domino oxa-Michael/aldol condensation reaction was developed for their preparation. PMID:25313331

  10. Atomic structure and magnetic properties of Fe1-xCox alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Ji, Min; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Harmon, Bruce; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-03-09

    Using genetic algorithm with first-principle calculations, we searched for low-energy crystal structures of Fe1?xCox alloys. We found that Fe1?xCox alloys are highly configurationally degenerate with many additional off-stoichiometric stable structures to the well-known B2 structure. The average magnetic moment of Fe atom increases with concentration of Co in the alloy, while that of Co atom is almost constant, which are consistent with experiments and earlier studies. The magnetic moment of Fe atom is strongly dependent on the number of Co nearest neighbor and it increases with this number.

  11. Discovery of potential and selective COX-1 inhibitory leads using pharmacophore modelling, in silico screening and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Bhaskar; Hariharan, Sivaram; Shah, Darshit B; Ramanathan, Muthiah

    2014-10-30

    Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) selective inhibitors are anticipated to be potential therapeutic agents for thrombosis, tumorigenesis, atherosclerosis, neuroprotection, and oxidative stress. In this study, a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model was developed for potent and selective COX-1 inhibition based on 44 compounds from four different scaffolds using Phase, Schrdinger. One (hydrogen-bond) acceptor, one hydrophobic, and two aromatic sites (AHRR) contribute to COX-1 inhibitory activity. Test and decoy sets were used to corroborate the best hypothesis and the validated hypothesis was used to screen the SPECS database. The resultant hits were filtered by standard precision (SP) and extra precision (XP) modes of docking using Glide, Schrdinger which yielded five hits. Free energy calculations were carried out to quantify the affinity differences of the hits towards COX enzymes. These five hits were subjected to invitro COX (ovine) inhibitory activity studies. The hits displayed potent COX-1 inhibitory activity and good selectivity versus COX-2 enzyme. The compounds also protected the nitric oxide (NO) induced cell death mediated by COX-1 in mouse macrophages cell line. Hence, we hypothesize that these compounds could be promising leads for the design of superior COX-1 inhibitors and insights gained from further exploration of the same could provide pertinent clues for the treatment of the conditions mentioned above. PMID:25203777

  12. The brown and brite adipocyte marker Cox7a1 is not required for non-shivering thermogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Stefanie F; Fromme, Tobias; Grossman, Lawrence I; Httemann, Maik; Klingenspor, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome c oxidase subunit isoform Cox7a1 is highly abundant in skeletal muscle and heart and influences enzyme activity in these tissues characterised by high oxidative capacity. We identified Cox7a1, well-known as brown adipocyte marker gene, as a cold-responsive protein of brown adipose tissue. We hypothesised a mechanistic relationship between cytochrome c oxidase activity and Cox7a1 protein levels affecting the oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue and thus non-shivering thermogenesis. We subjected wildtype and Cox7a1 knockout mice to different temperature regimens and tested characteristics of brown adipose tissue activation. Cytochrome c oxidase activity, uncoupling protein 1 expression and maximal norepinephrine-induced heat production were gradually increased during cold-acclimation, but unaffected by Cox7a1 knockout. Moreover, the abundance of uncoupling protein 1 competent brite cells in white adipose tissue was not influenced by presence or absence of Cox7a1. Skin temperature in the interscapular region of neonates was lower in uncoupling protein 1 knockout pups employed as a positive control, but not in Cox7a1 knockout pups. Body mass gain and glucose tolerance did not differ between wildtype and Cox7a1 knockout mice fed with high fat or control diet. We conclude that brown adipose tissue function in mice does not require the presence of Cox7a1. PMID:26635001

  13. The brown and brite adipocyte marker Cox7a1 is not required for non-shivering thermogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Stefanie F.; Fromme, Tobias; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Httemann, Maik; Klingenspor, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome c oxidase subunit isoform Cox7a1 is highly abundant in skeletal muscle and heart and influences enzyme activity in these tissues characterised by high oxidative capacity. We identified Cox7a1, well-known as brown adipocyte marker gene, as a cold-responsive protein of brown adipose tissue. We hypothesised a mechanistic relationship between cytochrome c oxidase activity and Cox7a1 protein levels affecting the oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue and thus non-shivering thermogenesis. We subjected wildtype and Cox7a1 knockout mice to different temperature regimens and tested characteristics of brown adipose tissue activation. Cytochrome c oxidase activity, uncoupling protein 1 expression and maximal norepinephrine-induced heat production were gradually increased during cold-acclimation, but unaffected by Cox7a1 knockout. Moreover, the abundance of uncoupling protein 1 competent brite cells in white adipose tissue was not influenced by presence or absence of Cox7a1. Skin temperature in the interscapular region of neonates was lower in uncoupling protein 1 knockout pups employed as a positive control, but not in Cox7a1 knockout pups. Body mass gain and glucose tolerance did not differ between wildtype and Cox7a1 knockout mice fed with high fat or control diet. We conclude that brown adipose tissue function in mice does not require the presence of Cox7a1. PMID:26635001

  14. Molecular modeling, synthesis and screening of some new 4-thiazolidinone derivatives with promising selective COX-2 inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Unsal-Tan, Oya; Ozadali, Keriman; Piskin, Kevser; Balkan, Ayla

    2012-11-01

    In order to develop new selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, a series of novel 2-aryl-3-(4-sulfamoyl/methylsulfonylphenylamino)-4-thiazolidinones were designed. Molecular modeling studies with COX-2 enzyme were performed by using MOE program. The designed compounds with reasonable binding modes and high docking scores were synthesized. Their COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro, using NS-398 and indomethacine as reference compounds. Compounds possessing methyl group (3d and 4d) on the phenyl ring exhibited highly COX-2 inhibitory selectivity and potency. PMID:23047224

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid suppresses Cox-2 expression in colon cancer: roles of Ras, p38, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Khare, Sharad; Mustafi, Reba; Cerda, Sonia; Yuan, Weihua; Jagadeeswaran, Sujatha; Dougherty, Urszula; Tretiakova, Maria; Samarel, Allen; Cohen, Greg; Wang, Julia; Moore, Christopher; Wali, Ramesh; Holgren, Cory; Joseph, Loren; Fichera, Alessandro; Li, Yan Chun; Bissonnette, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In the azoxymethane (AOM) model of experimental rodent colon cancer, cholic acid and its colonic metabolite deoxycholic acid (DCA) strongly promote tumorigenesis. In contrast, we showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a low abundance bile acid, inhibited AOM tumorigenesis. Dietary UDCA also blocked the development of tumors with activated Ras and suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) upregulation in AOM tumors. In this study, we compared the effect of dietary supplementation with tumor-promoting cholic acid to chemopreventive UDCA on Cox-2 expression in AOM tumors. Cholic acid enhanced Cox-2 upregulation in AOM tumors, whereas UDCA inhibited this increase and concomitantly decreased CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), a transcriptional regulator of Cox-2. In HCA-7 colon cancer cells, DCA activated Ras and increased C/EBPbeta and Cox-2 by a mechanism requiring the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. UDCA inhibited DCA-induced p38 activation and decreased C/EBPbeta and Cox-2 upregulation. Using transient transfections, UDCA inhibited Cox-2 promoter and C/EBP reporter activation by DCA. Transfection with dominant-negative (17)N-Ras abolished DCA-induced p38 activation and C/EBPbeta and Cox-2 upregulation. Taken together, these studies have identified a transcriptional pathway regulating Cox-2 expression involving Ras, p38, and C/EBPbeta that is inhibited by UDCA. These signal transducers are novel targets of UDCA's chemopreventive actions. PMID:18444174

  16. LRGS: Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Adam B.

    2016-02-01

    LRGS (Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling) implements a Gibbs sampler to solve the problem of multivariate linear regression with uncertainties in all measured quantities and intrinsic scatter. LRGS extends an algorithm by Kelly (2007) that used Gibbs sampling for performing linear regression in fairly general cases in two ways: generalizing the procedure for multiple response variables, and modeling the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process.

  17. Geodesic least squares regression on information manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2014-12-05

    We present a novel regression method targeted at situations with significant uncertainty on both the dependent and independent variables or with non-Gaussian distribution models. Unlike the classic regression model, the conditional distribution of the response variable suggested by the data need not be the same as the modeled distribution. Instead they are matched by minimizing the Rao geodesic distance between them. This yields a more flexible regression method that is less constrained by the assumptions imposed through the regression model. As an example, we demonstrate the improved resistance of our method against some flawed model assumptions and we apply this to scaling laws in magnetic confinement fusion.

  18. Quantile regression applied to spectral distance decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocchini, D.; Cade, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery has long been recognized as a powerful support for characterizing and estimating biodiversity. Spectral distance among sites has proven to be a powerful approach for detecting species composition variability. Regression analysis of species similarity versus spectral distance allows us to quantitatively estimate the amount of turnover in species composition with respect to spectral and ecological variability. In classical regression analysis, the residual sum of squares is minimized for the mean of the dependent variable distribution. However, many ecological data sets are characterized by a high number of zeroes that add noise to the regression model. Quantile regressions can be used to evaluate trend in the upper quantiles rather than a mean trend across the whole distribution of the dependent variable. In this letter, we used ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions to estimate the decay of species similarity versus spectral distance. The achieved decay rates were statistically nonzero (p < 0.01), considering both OLS and quantile regressions. Nonetheless, the OLS regression estimate of the mean decay rate was only half the decay rate indicated by the upper quantiles. Moreover, the intercept value, representing the similarity reached when the spectral distance approaches zero, was very low compared with the intercepts of the upper quantiles, which detected high species similarity when habitats are more similar. In this letter, we demonstrated the power of using quantile regressions applied to spectral distance decay to reveal species diversity patterns otherwise lost or underestimated by OLS regression. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  19. [Estimation of median regression from measured values].

    PubMed

    Schmerling, S; Peil, J

    1989-01-01

    The median regression function is defined and demonstrated by examples. A lemma with sufficient conditions for continuity and differentiation of the median regression function is proved. Its estimation from a random sample is deduced firstly based on the empirical distribution function and secondly based on a kernel estimation with Gaussian kernels. Both estimations are demonstrated by GALTONS historical example. A comparison between the empirical median regression function and the empirical regression of the first kind is made by an example. A hint for curve fitting with the median estimation equation is also given by an example. PMID:2806838

  20. Normalization Ridge Regression in Practice I: Comparisons Between Ordinary Least Squares, Ridge Regression and Normalization Ridge Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulcock, J. W.

    The problem of model estimation when the data are collinear was examined. Though the ridge regression (RR) outperforms ordinary least squares (OLS) regression in the presence of acute multicollinearity, it is not a problem free technique for reducing the variance of the estimates. It is a stochastic procedure when it should be nonstochastic and it…

  1. Normalization Ridge Regression in Practice I: Comparisons Between Ordinary Least Squares, Ridge Regression and Normalization Ridge Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulcock, J. W.

    The problem of model estimation when the data are collinear was examined. Though the ridge regression (RR) outperforms ordinary least squares (OLS) regression in the presence of acute multicollinearity, it is not a problem free technique for reducing the variance of the estimates. It is a stochastic procedure when it should be nonstochastic and it

  2. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. PMID:25770423

  3. Functional role of two interhelical disulfide bonds in human Cox17 protein from a structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Cefaro, Chiara; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Gallo, Angelo

    2011-09-30

    Human Cox17 is the mitochondrial copper chaperone responsible for supplying copper ions, through the assistance of Sco1, Sco2, and Cox11, to cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial energy-transducing respiratory chain. It consists of a coiled coil-helix-coiled coil-helix domain stabilized by two disulfide bonds and binds one copper(I) ion through a Cys-Cys motif. Here, the structures and the backbone mobilities of two Cox17 mutated forms with only one interhelical disulfide bond have been analyzed. It appears that the inner disulfide bond (formed by Cys-36 and Cys-45) stabilizes interhelical hydrophobic interactions, providing a structure with essentially the same structural dynamic properties of the mature Cox17 state. On the contrary, the external disulfide bond (formed by Cys-26 and Cys-55) generates a conformationally flexible ?-helical protein, indicating that it is not able to stabilize interhelical packing contacts, but is important for structurally organizing the copper-binding site region. PMID:21816817

  4. Simultaneous Targeting of COX-2 and AKT Using Selenocoxib-1-GSH to Inhibit Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Raghavendra; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly metastatic and deadly disease. An agent simultaneously targeting COX-2, PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways that are deregulated in up to 70% of sporadic melanoma might be an effective treatment but no agent of this type exists. To develop a single drug inhibiting COX-2 and PI3K/Akt signaling (and increasing MAPK pathway activity to inhibitory levels as a result of Akt inhibition), a selenium-containing glutathione (GSH) analog of celecoxib, called selenocoxib-1-GSH was synthesized. It killed melanoma cells with an average IC50 of 7.66 mol/L compared to control celecoxib at 55.6 mol/L. The IC50 range for normal cells was 36.341.2 mol/L compared to 7.66 mol/L for cancer cells. Selenocoxib-1-GSH reduced xenografted tumor development by ~70% with negligible toxicity by targeting COX-2, like celecoxib, and having new inhibitory properties acting as a PI3K/Akt inhibitor (and MAPK pathway activator to inhibitory levels due to Akt inhibition). The consequence of this inhibitory activity was an ~80% decrease in cultured cell proliferation and a ~200% increase in apoptosis following 24 hours treatment with 15.5 mol/L of drug. Thus, this study details development of selenocoxib-1-GSH, which is a non-toxic agent that targets the COX-2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in melanomas to inhibit tumor development. PMID:23112250

  5. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 ?M. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species. PMID:26669106

  6. Partial likelihood ratio tests for the Cox model under complex sampling.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Thomas; Scott, Alastair

    2013-01-15

    We develop an analog of the likelihood ratio test for Cox proportional hazards models fitted to sample survey data. We look at methods for computing the asymptotic distribution and at ways of improving the small-sample performance. The methods are illustrated with examples using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and from a stratified case-cohort study. PMID:22806928

  7. Elevated COX2 expression and PGE2 production by downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huimin; Ma, Feng; Hu, Xiaona; Jin, Ting; Xiong, Chuhui; Teng, Xiaochun

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Downregulation of RXRα in senescent macrophage. •RXRα suppresses NF-κB activity and COX2 expression. •Increased PGE2 production due to downregulation of RXRα. -- Abstract: Increased systemic level of inflammatory cytokines leads to numerous age-related diseases. In senescent macrophages, elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production contributes to the suppression of T cell function with aging, which increases the susceptibility to infections. However, the regulation of these inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 with aging still remains unclear. We have verified that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and PGE2 production are higher in LPS-stimulated macrophages from old mice than that from young mice. Downregulation of RXRα, a nuclear receptor that can suppress NF-κB activity, mediates the elevation of COX2 expression and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages. We also have found less induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by RXRα agonist in senescent macrophages, which partially accounts for high risk of atherosclerosis in aged population. Systemic treatment with RXRα antagonist HX531 in young mice increases COX2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression in splenocytes. Our study not only has outlined a mechanism of elevated NF-κB activity and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages, but also provides RXRα as a potential therapeutic target for treating the age-related diseases.

  8. COX-2 expression predicts prostate-cancer outcome: analysis of data from the RTOG 92-02 trial

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Li-Yan; Bae, Kyounghwa; Pollack, Alan; Hammond, M Elizabeth; Grignon, David J; Venkatesan, Varagur M; Rosenthal, Seth A; Ritter, Mark A; Sandler, Howard M; Hanks, Gerald E; Shipley, William U; Dicker, Adam P

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background COX-2 is overexpressed in some cancers, including prostate cancer; however, little is known about the effect of COX-2 overexpression on outcome in radiation-treated patients with prostate cancer. We aimed to study COX-2 overexpression and outcome in a well-defined cohort of men who received treatment with short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) plus radiotherapy or long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) plus radiotherapy. Methods Men with prostate cancer who had participated in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02 trial and for whom sufficient diagnostic tissue was available for immunohistochemical staining and image analysis of COX-2 expression were enrolled in this study. Patients in the 92-02 trial had been randomly assigned to treatment with STAD plus radiotherapy or LTAD plus radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses by Cox proportional hazards models were done to assess whether associations existed between COX-2 staining intensity and the RTOG 92-02 primary endpoints of biochemical failure (assessed by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] and Phoenix criteria), local failure, distant metastasis, cause-specific mortality, overall mortality, and any failure. Findings 586 patients with sufficient diagnostic tissue for immunohistochemical staining and image analysis of COX-2 expression were included in this study. In the multivariate analyses, the intensity of COX-2 staining as a continuous covariate was an independent predictor of distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.181 [95% CI 1.0771.295], p=0.0004); biochemical failure by two definitions (ASTRO HR 1.073 [1.0181.131], p=0.008; Phoenix HR 1.073 [1.0141.134], p=0.014); and any failure (HR 1.068 [1.0151.124], p=0.011). The higher the expression of COX-2, the greater the chance of failure. As a dichotomous covariate, COX-2 overexpression seemed to be most discriminating of outcome for those who received STAD compared with those who received LTAD. Interpretation To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish an association of COX-2 expression with outcome in patients with prostate cancer who have had radiotherapy. Increasing COX-2 expression was significantly associated with biochemical failure, distant metastasis, and any failure. COX-2 inhibitors might improve patient response to radiotherapy in those treated with or without androgen deprivation. Our findings suggest that LTAD might overcome the effects of COX-2 overexpression. Therefore, COX-2 expression might be useful in selecting patients who need LTAD. PMID:17881290

  9. The Tpl2 Kinase Regulates the COX-2/Prostaglandin E2 Axis in Adipocytes in Inflammatory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Berthou, Flavien; Ceppo, Franck; Dumas, Karine; Massa, Fabienne; Vergoni, Bastien; Alemany, Susana; Cormont, Mireille; Tanti, Jean-Franois

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive lipid mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have emerged as potent regulator of obese adipocyte inflammation and functions. PGE2 is produced by cyclooxygenases (COXs) from arachidonic acid, but inflammatory signaling pathways controlling COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in adipocytes remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrated that the MAP kinase kinase kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) controls COX-2 expression and PGE2 secretion in adipocytes in response to different inflammatory mediators. We found that pharmacological- or small interfering RNA-mediated Tpl2 inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased by 50% COX-2 induction in response to IL-1?, TNF-?, or a mix of the 2 cytokines. PGE2 secretion induced by the cytokine mix was also markedly blunted. At the molecular level, nuclear factor ?B was required for Tpl2-induced COX-2 expression in response to IL-1? but was inhibitory for the TNF-? or cytokine mix response. In a coculture between adipocytes and macrophages, COX-2 was mainly increased in adipocytes and pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 or its silencing in adipocytes markedly reduced COX-2 expression and PGE2 secretion. Further, Tpl2 inhibition in adipocytes reduces by 60% COX-2 expression induced by a conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages. Importantly, LPS was less efficient to induce COX-2 mRNA in adipose tissue explants of Tpl2 null mice compared with wild-type and Tpl2 null mice displayed low COX-2 mRNA induction in adipose tissue in response to LPS injection. Collectively, these data established that activation of Tpl2 by inflammatory stimuli in adipocytes and adipose tissue contributes to increase COX-2 expression and production of PGE2 that could participate in the modulation of adipose tissue inflammation during obesity. PMID:26020725

  10. COX-2-Derived PGE2 Promotes Injury-induced Vascular Neointimal Hyperplasia through the EP3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zou, Fangfang; Tang, Juan; Zhang, Qianqian; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Qingsong; Shen, Yujun; Xiong, Lixia; Breyer, Richard; Lararus, Michael; Funk, Colin D.; Yu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are the hallmarks of restenosis pathogenesis after angioplasty. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin (PG)E2 is implicated in the vascular remodeling response to injury. However, its precise molecular role remains unknown. Objective This study investigates the impact of COX-2-derived PGE2 on neointima formation after injury. Methods and Results Vascular remodeling was induced by wire-injury in femoral arteries of mice. Both neointima formation and the restenosis ratio were diminished in COX-2 KO mice as compared to controls, whereas these parameters were enhanced in COX-1>COX-2 mice where COX-1 is governed by COX-2 regulatory elements. PG profile analysis revealed that the reduced PGE2 by COX-2 deficiency, but not PGI2, could be rescued by COX-1 replacement, indicating COX-2-derived PGE2 enhanced neointima formation. Through multiple approaches, the EP3 receptor was identified to mediate the VSMC migration response to various stimuli. Disruption of EP3 impaired VSMC polarity for directional migration by depressing small GTPase activity and retarded vascular neointimal hyperplasia while overexpression of EP3α and EP3β aggravated neointima formation. Inhibition or deletion of EP3α/β, a Gαs protein-coupled receptor, activated thecAMP/PKA pathway and depressed activation of RhoA in VSMCs. PGE2 could stimulate PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling in VSMCs through Gβγ subunits upon EP3α/β activation. Abolition of EP3 suppressed PI3K signaling and reduced GTPase activity in VSMCs, and altered cell polarity and directional migration. Conclusions COX-2-derived PGE2 facilitated the neointimal hyperplasia response to injury through EP3α/β-mediated cAMP/PKA and PI3K pathways, indicating EP3 inhibition maybe a promising therapeutic strategy for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PMID:23595951

  11. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yingting; Tissue Tech Inc., Miami, FL 33173 ; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human colonic cancer associated fibroblasts are major sources of COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibroblasts interact with human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts affects behavior of the epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein Kinase C controls the activation of COX-2 signaling. -- Abstract: COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  12. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-{alpha}-treated A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xiao; Li, Han; Zhang, Luyong

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression and the half-life of COX-2 mRNA is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HuR protein shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm is inhibited by triptolide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited 3 Prime -UTR fluorescence reporter gene activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COX-2 mRNA binding to HuR is decreased by triptolide in pull-down experiments. -- Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression is frequently associated with human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of triptolide on COX-2 expression in A549 cells were investigated and triptolide was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression. In our further studies, it was found that triptolide decreased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA dramatically and that it inhibited 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) fluorescence reporter gene activity. Meanwhile, triptolide inhibited the HuR shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm. After triptolide treatment, decreased COX-2 mRNA in pull-down experiments with anti-HuR antibodies was observed, indicating that the decreased cytoplasmic HuR is responsible for the decreased COX-2 mRNA. Taken together, our results provided evidence for the first time that triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression by COX-2 mRNA stability modulation and post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer.

  13. COX2 activity promotes organic osmolyte accumulation and adaptation of renal medullary interstitial cells to hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Gilbert W; Zhang, Li; Fogo, Agnes B; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Pozzi, Ambra; Breyer, Matthew D

    2003-05-23

    The mechanism by which COX2 inhibition decreases renal cell survival is poorly understood. In the present study we examined the effect of COX2 activity on organic osmolyte accumulation in renal medulla and in cultured mouse renal medullary interstitial cells (MMICs) and its role in facilitating cell survival. Hypertonicity increased accumulation of the organic osmolytes inositol, sorbitol, and betaine in cultured mouse medullary interstitial cells. Pretreatment of MMICs with a COX2-specific inhibitor (SC58236, 10 micromol/liter) dramatically reduced osmolyte accumulation (by 79 +/- 9, 57 +/- 12, and 96 +/- 10% for inositol, sorbitol, and betaine respectively, p < 0.05). Similarly, 24 h of dehydration increased inner medullary inositol, sorbitol, and betaine concentrations in vivo by 85 +/- 10, 197 +/- 28, and 190 +/- 24 pmol/microg of protein, respectively, but this increase was also blunted (by 100 +/- 5, 66 +/- 15, and 81 +/- 9% for inositol, sorbitol, and betaine, respectively, p < 0.05) by pretreatment with an oral COX2 inhibitor. Dehydrated COX2-/- mice also exhibited an impressive defect in sorbitol accumulation (88 +/- 9% less than wild type, p < 0.05) after dehydration. COX2 inhibition (COX2 inhibitor-treated or COX2-/- MMICs) dramatically reduced the expression of organic osmolyte uptake mechanisms including betaine (BGT1) and sodium-myo-inositol transporter and aldose reductase mRNA expression under hypertonic conditions. Importantly, preincubation of COX2 inhibitor-treated MMICs with organic osmolytes restored their ability to survive hypertonic stress. In conclusion, osmolyte accumulation in the kidney inner medulla is dependent on COX2 activity, and providing exogenous osmolytes reverses COX2-induced cell death. These findings may have implications for the pathogenesis of analgesic nephropathy. PMID:12637551

  14. Design and synthesis of benzimidazole analogs endowed with oxadiazole as selective COX-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ankita; Rahman, Mujeeb Ur; Siddiqui, Anees Ahamad; Ali, Abuzer; Shaharyar, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    New molecules of benzimidazole endowed with oxadiazole were designed and synthesized from 2-(2-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide as 1-((5-substituted alkyl/aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)-2-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (5a-r) with the aim to acquire selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor activity. The synthesized compounds were screened by in vitro cyclooxygenase assays to determine COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory potency and the results showed that they had good-to-remarkable activity with an IC50 range of 11.6-56.1?M. The most active compounds were further screened for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. In vitro anticancer activities of the hybrid compounds were assessed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA, against 60 human cell lines, and the results showed a good spectrum. Compound 5l exhibited significant COX-2 inhibition with an IC50 value of 8.2?M and a percent protection of 68.4%. Compound 5b evinced moderate cytotoxicity toward the UO-31 cell line of renal cancer. A docking study was performed using Maestro 9.0, to provide the binding mode into the binding sites of the cyclooxygenase enzyme. Hopefully, in the future, compound 5l could serve as a lead compound for developing new COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:25303727

  15. Antiproliferative effect of two novel COX-2 inhibitors on human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sticozzi, Claudia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Di Capua, Angela; Maioli, Emanuela; Cappelli, Andrea; Giordani, Antonio; Biava, Mariangela; Anzini, Maurizio; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-05-13

    Selective COX-2 inhibitors (COXib) belonging to the class of diaryl heterocycles (e.g., celecoxib, rofecoxib, etc.), are devoid of the undesirable effects due to their capacity to inhibit selectively inducible (COX-2), responsible for inflammatory effects but not constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)(COX); responsible for cytoprotective effects on gastric mucosa. In addition, several reports have identified an increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with the use of COXib. We have developed a new series of anti-inflammatory agents (1,5-diarylpyrrole-3-alkoxyethyl esters and ethers). To evaluate the effect of two 1,5-diarylpyrrole-3-alkoxyethyl ethers, VA441 and VA428 (up to 100 ?M), respectively, in comparison with two well known COXib, celecoxib and rofecoxib, on HaCaT cell (keratinocytes) proliferation and toxicity. Crucial molecules in cell cycle progression, i.e. NF?B and ERK as targets/mediators and cyclin D1 and p21 Cip1/Kip as final effectors were evaluated by Western blot, immunohystochemistry and q-PCR analysis. Both compounds, VA441 and VA428, showed a strong inhibition of cell proliferation, and did not exhibit cytotoxicity. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by a strong activation of ERK and induction of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. In addition, there was a clear inhibition of the transcription factor NF-?B and downregulation of cyclin D1, with enforced inhibition of the HaCaT cell cycle progression. These data suggest that compounds VA441 and VA428, along with their role in inhibiting COX-2 and inflammation, could have a possible therapeutic (topical and systemic) use against skin proliferative disorders, such as psoriasis. PMID:23454135

  16. Association between COX-2 gene polymorphisms and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Si-Cong; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Tan, Jun-Tao; Tang, Hua-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Xiang, Bang-De; Li, Le-Qun; Peng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphism and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of COX-2 polymorphism and risk of HCC development among people with or without HCC. Data sources EMBASE, PubMed, Public Library of Science, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for all clinical and experimental casecontrol studies of COX-2 polymorphism and HCC risk. Studies published up to March 2015 were included. Review method Ten studies were included for data extraction, which were mainly from Asian countries. Results 2538 people with HCC and 3714 without HCC were found to satisfy the inclusion criteria and included in the review. The associations of specific genotypes in the eight polymorphic variants of COX-2 and the risk of HCC development were analysed. GG genotype at the A-1195G polymorphism may be associated with a reduced risk of HCC development: the OR across all studies was 0.87 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.02) for the G allele versus the A allele, 0.72 (0.53 to 0.97) for GG versus AA, 0.72 (0.57 to 0.92) for GG versus GA+AA and 1.05 (0.77 to 1.44) for AA versus GA+GG. Similar results were found when the meta-analysis was repeated separately for the Chinese subgroup. However, more reliable data are needed to demonstrate associations between variants in G-765C, T+8473C, A-1290G, G-899C and introns 1, 5 and 6 polymorphisms and the risk of HCC development. Conclusions Only the COX-2 A-1195G gene polymorphism may be associated with a decreased risk of HCC development. These conclusions should be verified in further studies. PMID:26438136

  17. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. PMID:25945055

  18. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin Vfluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. PMID:25945055

  19. Principles of Quantile Regression and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fang; Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2014-01-01

    Newer statistical procedures are typically introduced to help address the limitations of those already in practice or to deal with emerging research needs. Quantile regression (QR) is introduced in this paper as a relatively new methodology, which is intended to overcome some of the limitations of least squares mean regression (LMR). QR is more

  20. Assumptions of Multiple Regression: Correcting Two Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Matt N.; Gomez Grajales, Carlos Alberto; Kurkiewicz, Dason

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, an article entitled "Four assumptions of multiple regression that researchers should always test" by Osborne and Waters was published in "PARE." This article has gone on to be viewed more than 275,000 times (as of August 2013), and it is one of the first results displayed in a Google search for "regression

  1. Illustration of Regression towards the Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindaraju, K.; Haslett, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for generating a sequence of data sets which will yield exactly the same fitted simple linear regression equation y = a + bx. Unless rescaled, the generated data sets will have progressively smaller variability for the two variables, and the associated response and covariate will "regress" towards their…

  2. HPV Vaccine Triggers Regression of Precancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    According to a phase IIb clinical trial, an investigational DNA vaccine that targets the human papillomavirus caused precancerous cervical lesions to regress or disappear. The vaccine stimulated production of CD8+ T cells that make perforin, a protein that helps kill infected cervical cells, and eliminated the virus in 81% of women whose lesions regressed. PMID:26487304

  3. Regression Analysis: Legal Applications in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizell, Julie A.; Shippen, Benjamin S., Jr.; Luna, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews multiple regression analysis, describes how its results should be interpreted, and instructs institutional researchers on how to conduct such analyses using an example focused on faculty pay equity between men and women. The use of multiple regression analysis will be presented as a method with which to compare salaries of…

  4. A Regression-Based Linear Classification Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMotte, Lynn Roy; McWhorter, Archer, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A linear regression function is developed for use in a classification procedure. The procedure is applied to faculty merit review data, resulting in an interpretable regression function and within-sample classifications as good as a four-funtion discriminant analysis. (Author/BW)

  5. Illustration of Regression towards the Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindaraju, K.; Haslett, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for generating a sequence of data sets which will yield exactly the same fitted simple linear regression equation y = a + bx. Unless rescaled, the generated data sets will have progressively smaller variability for the two variables, and the associated response and covariate will "regress" towards their

  6. A measure to identify regression outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaboa, Kutlwano K. K. M.; Underhill, Les G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe a measure that can be used to detect regression outliers. Observations that deviate from the bulk of the data can easily influence the fit of the least squares regression line, and the residuals, which take the response variable,y, into account, are often examined to determine the observations that may have influenced the fit of the least squares regression line, hence affecting other regression estimates. One drawback of using transformed residuals such as the Studentized residuals is that they may fail to identify the regression outliers when these observations are being accommodated by the least squares fit, thus we propose a measure that is based on the role that each observation plays in the displacement of other observations from the fitted least squares regression line. The proposed measure is based on the off-diagonal values of the hat matrix, and illustrated on three data sets that have appeared in the literature on regression diagnostics. A comparison is also made using popular MM estimator used to obtain robust regression estimates to illustrate the value of the proposed measure.

  7. Deriving the Regression Equation without Using Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

    2004-01-01

    Probably the one "new" mathematical topic that is most responsible for modernizing courses in college algebra and precalculus over the last few years is the idea of fitting a function to a set of data in the sense of a least squares fit. Whether it be simple linear regression or nonlinear regression, this topic opens the door to applying the…

  8. Regression Analysis and the Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Maio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Regression analysis is an important aspect of most introductory statistics courses in sociology but is often presented in contexts divorced from the central concerns that bring students into the discipline. Consequently, we present five lesson ideas that emerge from a regression analysis of income inequality and mortality in the USA and Canada.

  9. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence

  10. Regions of Significance in Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio; Cramer, Elliott M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper considers the case of two predictor variables. Figures are obtained which show the regions of significance of joint regression coefficients, regression coefficients considered separately, and the multiple correlation. The intersection of these regions of significance and non-significance illustrates how the various apparent…

  11. Deriving the Regression Equation without Using Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

    2004-01-01

    Probably the one "new" mathematical topic that is most responsible for modernizing courses in college algebra and precalculus over the last few years is the idea of fitting a function to a set of data in the sense of a least squares fit. Whether it be simple linear regression or nonlinear regression, this topic opens the door to applying the

  12. Developmental regression in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sally J

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of developmental regression in autism is one of the more puzzling features of this disorder. Although several studies have documented the validity of parental reports of regression using home videos, accumulating data suggest that most children who demonstrate regression also demonstrated previous, subtle, developmental differences. Counter to clinical intuition, the earlier development of social, language, and attachment behaviors followed by regression does not seem to support later recovery of skills or better developmental outcomes compared to children who never had speech or typical social responsivity. In fact, this regressive group may have somewhat greater developmental impairment than the nonregressive group, though the two groups do not appear to present different behavioral phenotypes. Although autism is not the only condition in which regression occurs, it appears to be the most frequent condition. Other disorders that demonstrate an early regression with no known etiology include total blindness from birth and childhood disintegrative disorder, both of which demonstrate behavioral relations to autism. In addition, two biological conditions with known etiologies also involve regression with some behaviors resembling autism behavioral phenotype: Rett syndrome (a genetic disorder; see Glaze, this issue) and Landau-Kleffner syndrome (see McVicar and Shinnar, this issue), which involves a seizure disorder. PMID:15362172

  13. Dealing with Outliers: Robust, Resistant Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Least-squares linear regression is the best of statistics and it is the worst of statistics. The reasons for this paradoxical claim, arising from possible inapplicability of the method and the excessive influence of "outliers", are discussed and substitute regression methods based on median selection, which is both robust and resistant, are

  14. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are

  15. Regression Analysis: Legal Applications in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizell, Julie A.; Shippen, Benjamin S., Jr.; Luna, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews multiple regression analysis, describes how its results should be interpreted, and instructs institutional researchers on how to conduct such analyses using an example focused on faculty pay equity between men and women. The use of multiple regression analysis will be presented as a method with which to compare salaries of

  16. Rate of and Risks for Regression of CIN-2 in adolescents and young women

    PubMed Central

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Wibbelsman, Charles; Darragh, Teresa M.; Powers, Adaleen; Farhat, Sepideh; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of CIN-2 in a prospective study of young women and to examine the behavioral and biologic factors associated with regression and progression. Methods Women aged 13 to 24 years referred for abnormal cytology and were found to have CIN-2 on histology were followed at 4-month intervals. Risks for regression defined as 3 consecutive negative cytology and histology visits and progression to CIN-3 were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Findings Ninety-five women with a mean age of 20.4 years ( 2.3) were entered into the analysis. Thirty-eight percent cleared by year 1, 63% by year 2 and 68% by year 3. Multivariable analysis found that recent N. gonorrhoeae infection (H.R. = 25.27 [95% C.I. 3.11, 205.42]) and medroxyprogesterone acetate use (per month) (H.R. = 1.02 [95% C.I. 1.003, 1.04]) were associated with regression. Factors associated with non-regression included combined hormonal contraception use (per month) (H.R. = 0.85 [95% C.I. 0.75, 0.97]) and persistence of HPV of any type (H.R. = 0.40 [95% C.I. 0.22, 0.72]). Fifteen percent of women showed progression by year 3. HPV 16/18 persistence (H.R. = 25.27 [95% C.I.2.65, 241.2, p = 0.005]) and HPV 16/18 status at last visit (H.R. = 7.25 [95% C.I. 1.07, 49.36); p < 0.05]) was associated with progression Because of the small sample size, other co-variates were not examined. Conclusion The high regression rate of CIN-2 supports clinical observation of this lesion in young women. PMID:21099605

  17. Regression of environmental noise in LIGO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V.; Drago, M.; Frolov, V.; Klimenko, S.; Mitselmakher, G.; Necula, V.; Prodi, G.; Re, V.; Salemi, F.; Vedovato, G.; Yakushin, I.

    2015-08-01

    We address the problem of noise regression in the output of gravitational-wave (GW) interferometers, using data from the physical environmental monitors (PEM). The objective of the regression analysis is to predict environmental noise in the GW channel from the PEM measurements. One of the most promising regression methods is based on the construction of Wiener-Kolmogorov (WK) filters. Using this method, the seismic noise cancellation from the LIGO GW channel has already been performed. In the presented approach the WK method has been extended, incorporating banks of Wiener filters in the time-frequency domain, multi-channel analysis and regulation schemes, which greatly enhance the versatility of the regression analysis. Also we present the first results on regression of the bi-coherent noise in the LIGO data.

  18. Angiotensin-(1-7)-Induced Plasticity Changes in the Lateral Amygdala Are Mediated by COX-2 and NO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Doris

    2007-01-01

    It is known from studies outside the brain that upon binding to its receptor, angiotensin-(1-7) elicits the release of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Since there are no data available so far on the role of COX-2 in the amygdala, in a first step we

  19. 1,2-Diaryl-2-hydroxyiminoethanones as dual COX-1 and ?-amyloid aggregation inhibitors: biological evaluation and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Irannejad, Hamid; Unsal Tan, Oya; Ozadali, Keriman; Dadashpour, Sakineh; Tuylu Kucukkilinc, Tuba; Ahangar, Nematollah; Ahmadnejad, Mahsa; Emami, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    To find out new agents for treating inflammatory-involved diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, a series of 1,2-diaryl-2-hydroxyiminoethanones containing vicinal diaryl pharmacophore of COX inhibitors were tested by a set of in vitro, in vivo, and computational studies. The in vivo study of compounds indicated their prominent anti-inflammatory ability at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg comparable to celecoxib (10 mg/kg). Further in vitro COX-1/COX-2 evaluations revealed that 4-methoxy derivative 3 had a high selective COX-1 inhibitory activity (COX-1, IC50=0.12 ?m, SI>833). To evaluate their potential use against Alzheimer's disease, in vitro evaluation of ?-amyloid fibril formation using A?(1-40) and A?(1-42) peptides was performed. The evaluation of their antiaggregation ability gave impressive results and comparable to rifampicin and indomethacin. Conformational study of compound 3 and subsequent docking of its restrained analogs on both active sites of COX-1 and COX-2 could provide a proof of its COX-1 selectivity as well as molecular dynamic simulation could elucidate and give more insight into the amyloid disaggregation mechanisms leading to rational design of inhibitors. PMID:25227162

  20. Design of Fluorine-Containing 3,4-Diarylfuran-2(5H)-ones as Selective COX-1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Elleman, Anna V; Ghebreselasie, Kebreab; Daniel, Cristina K; Crews, Brenda C; Nance, Kellie D; Huda, Tamanna; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2014-11-13

    We report the design and synthesis of fluorine-containing cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-selective inhibitors to serve as prototypes for the development of a COX-1-targeted imaging agent. Deletion of the SO2CH3 group of rofecoxib switches the compound from a COX-2- to a COX-1-selective inhibitor, providing a 3,4-diarylfuran-2(5H)-one scaffold for structure-activity relationship studies of COX-1 inhibition. A wide range of fluorine-containing 3,4-diarylfuran-2(5H)-ones were designed, synthesized, and tested for their ability to selectively inhibit COX-1 in purified protein and human cancer cell assays. Compounds containing a fluoro-substituent on the C-3 phenyl ring and a methoxy-substituent on the C-4 phenyl ring of the 3,4-diarylfuran-2(5H)-one scaffold were the best COX-1-selective agents of those evaluated, exhibiting IC50s in the submicromolar range. These compounds provide the foundation for development of an agent to facilitate radiologic imaging of ovarian cancer expressing elevated levels of COX-1. PMID:25408841

  1. Angiotensin-(1-7)-Induced Plasticity Changes in the Lateral Amygdala Are Mediated by COX-2 and NO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Doris

    2007-01-01

    It is known from studies outside the brain that upon binding to its receptor, angiotensin-(1-7) elicits the release of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Since there are no data available so far on the role of COX-2 in the amygdala, in a first step we…

  2. Cox17 Protein Is an Auxiliary Factor Involved in the Control of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-06-12

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a recently discovered protein complex that is crucial for establishing and maintaining the proper inner membrane architecture and contacts with the outer membrane of mitochondria. The ways in which the MICOS complex is assembled and its integrity is regulated remain elusive. Here, we report a direct link between Cox17, a protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase, and the MICOS complex. Cox17 interacts with Mic60, thereby modulating MICOS complex integrity. This interaction does not involve Sco1, a partner of Cox17 in transferring copper ions to cytochrome c oxidase. However, the Cox17-MICOS interaction is regulated by copper ions. We propose that Cox17 is a newly identified factor involved in maintaining the architecture of the MICOS complex. PMID:25918166

  3. Synthesis, cyclooxygenase inhibition, anti-inflammatory evaluation and ulcerogenic liability of novel triarylpyrazoline derivatives as selective COX-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Abdelgawad, Mohamed A; Labib, Madlen B; Zidan, Taha H

    2015-12-15

    A new series of triarylpyrazoline derivatives 8a-p containing the most important COX-2 pharmacophore (SO2CH3 or/and SO2NH2) were synthesized by reaction of propen-1-one derivatives 6a-h with different phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride derivatives 7a-b in aqueous ethanol. All prepared compounds were evaluated for their in vitro COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory activity and the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. All compounds were more selective for COX-2 isozyme than COX-1 isozyme and showed good in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 8g, 8j and 8o showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity and were less ulcerogenic (Ulcer Index=6.85, 7.7, 5.92, respectively) than indomethacin (Ulcer Index=12.3) and comparable to celecoxib (Ulcer Index=4.85). PMID:26546221

  4. A comparison of regression and regression-kriging for soil characterization using remote sensing imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In precision agriculture regression has been used widely to quality the relationship between soil attributes and other environmental variables. However, spatial correlation existing in soil samples usually makes the regression model suboptimal. In this study, a regression-kriging method was attemp...

  5. Some Applied Research Concerns Using Multiple Linear Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Fraas, John

    1979-01-01

    Issues in the application of multiple regression analysis as a data analytic tool are discussed at some length. Included are discussions on component regression, factor regression, ridge regression, and systems of equations. (JKS)

  6. Increased Dietary Sodium Induces COX2 Expression by activating NFκB in Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Davis, Linda S.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Yull, Fiona; Breyer, Matthew D.; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    High salt diet induces renal medullary COX2 expression. Selective blockade of renal medullary COX2 activity in rats causes salt sensitive hypertension, suggesting a role for renal medullary COX2 in maintaining systemic sodium balance. The present study characterized the cellular location of COX2 induction in the kidney of mice following high salt diet and examined the role of NFκB in mediating this COX2 induction in response to increased dietary salt. High salt diet (8% NaCl) for 3 days markedly increased renal medullary COX2 expression in C57Bl/6J mice. Co-immunofluorescence using a COX2 antibody and antibodies against AQP2, ClC-K, AQP1 and CD31 showed that high salt diet-induced COX2 was selectively expressed in renal medullary interstitial cells. By using NFκB reporter transgenic mice, we observed a 7 fold increase of luciferase activity in the renal medulla of the NFκB-luciferase reporter mice following high salt diet, and a robust induction of EGFP expression mainly in renal medullary interstitial cells of the NFκB-EGFP reporter mice following high salt diet. Treating high salt diet fed C57Bl/6J mice with selective IκB kinase inhibitor IMD-0354 (8mg/kg bw) substantially suppressed COX2 induction in renal medulla, and also significantly reduced urinary PGE2. These data therefore suggest that renal medullary interstitial cell NFκB plays an important role in mediating renal medullary COX2 expression and promoting renal PGE2 synthesis in response to increased dietary sodium. PMID:23900806

  7. IL1{beta}-mediated Stromal COX-2 signaling mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yingting; Tissue Tech Inc, Miami, FL 33173 ; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-11-15

    COX-2 is a major inflammatory mediator implicated in colorectal inflammation and cancer. However, the exact origin and role of COX-2 on colorectal inflammation and carcinogenesis are still not well defined. Recently, we reported that COX-2 and iNOS signalings interact in colonic CCD18Co fibroblasts. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by IL1{beta} in primary colonic fibroblasts obtained from normal and cancer patients play a critical role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that COX-2 level was significantly higher in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts with or without stimulation of IL-1{beta}, a powerful stimulator of COX-2. Using in vitro assays for estimating proliferative and invasive potential, we discovered that the proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts than with normal fibroblasts, with or without stimulation of IL1{beta}. Further analysis indicated that the major COX-2 product, prostaglandin E{sub 2}, directly enhanced proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells in the absence of fibroblasts. Moreover, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, blocked the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts on the epithelial cancer cells, with or without stimulation of IL-1{beta}. Those results indicate that activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts plays a major role in promoting proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells. In this process, PKC is involved in the activation of COX-2 signaling induced by IL-1{beta} in the fibroblasts.

  8. NOS and COX isoforms and abnormal microvessel responses to CO2 and H+ in hyperoxia-injured lungs.

    PubMed

    Naoki, K; Kudo, H; Suzuki, K; Takeshita, K; Miyao, N; Ishii, M; Sato, N; Suzuki, Y; Tsumura, H; Yamaguchi, K

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare microvessel responses to hypercapnic and isocapnic acidosis in hyperoxia-injured lungs and to assess the role of constitutive and inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX). Real-time confocal luminescence microscopy was used to measure changes in the diameter of acinar arterioles, venules and capillaries in response to stimulation with hypercapnic and isocapnic acidosis in isolated rat lungs injured by 90% oxygen exposure for 48 h. Observations were made with and without inhibition of constitutive (endothelial constitutive NOS (ecNOS) and COX-1) and inducible isoforms (iNOS and COX-2) of NOS and COX. Upregulation of NOS was assessed by measuring enzyme levels in lung homogenates by Western blot analysis and enhancement of the COX-related pathway was judged from perfusate concentrations of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha. ecNOS and COX-1, but not iNOS and COX-2, were upregulated in hyperoxia-injured lungs. The nitric oxide produced by ecNOS attenuated COX-1 activity in injured arterioles and venules, but carbon dioxide enhanced it, leading to paradoxical dilatation of these microvessels under hypercapnic conditions with ecNOS inhibition. Although a high hydrogen ion concentration was unnecessary for excitation of COX-1, venule constriction in response to H+ was enhanced by COX-1 inhibition. Constitutive, but not inducible, isoforms of cyclo-oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase play an important role in abnormal microvessel responses to carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in hyperoxia-injured lungs. PMID:12166580

  9. Role of cox-2 mediated neuroinflammation on the neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments in colchicine induced rat model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sil, Susmita; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-02-15

    The neurodegeneration in colchicine induced AD (cAD) rats is linked with neuroinflammation. The inducible cox-2 present in the brain may participate in the neuroinflammatory process related to progressive neurodegeneration in cAD rats. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cox-2 in the neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments in cAD rats. The parameters of memory (working and reference memory), inflammatory markers [IL-1?, TNF-?, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cox-2 level] and histopathology of hippocampus were measured after 21-day of i.c.v. colchicine injection in rats and compared with that of control and sham operated rats. These parameters were also measured in these 3 different groups of rats after p.o. administration of 3 different doses of etoricoxib, a cox 2 inhibitor. The impairments of working and reference memory were associated with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and increased cox-2 and PGE2 levels in hippocampus in cAD. Administration of etoricoxib in cAD rats resulted in recovery of memory impairments, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in hippocampus and inhibition of cox-2 and PGE2 levels in hippocampus. It appears from the results that activation of cox-2 in cAD is related to neuroinflammation involved in neurodegeneration. Colchicine induced initial neurodegeneration may trigger cascade of events for a progressive neurodegeneration where cox-2 activation plays a critical role. Moreover, this cox-2 mediated neurodegeneration is related to impairments of memory parameters. Thus, the present study showed that the impairments of memory and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of cAD in 21-day study are mediated by cox-2 induced neuroinflammation. PMID:26857505

  10. The cytosol-synthesized subunit II (Cox2) precursor with the point mutation W56R is correctly processed in yeast mitochondria to rescue cytochrome oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Torres, Valentn; Vzquez-Acevedo, Miriam; Garca-Villegas, Rodolfo; Prez-Martnez, Xochitl; Mendoza-Hernndez, Guillermo; Gonzlez-Halphen, Diego

    2012-12-01

    Deletion of the yeast mitochondrial gene COX2 encoding subunit 2 (Cox2) of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) results in loss of respiration (?cox2 strain). Supekova et al. (2010) [1] transformed a ?cox2 strain with a vector expressing Cox2 with a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) and the point mutation W56R (Cox2(W56R)), restoring respiratory growth. Here, the CcO carrying the allotopically-expressed Cox2(W56R) was characterized. Yeast mitochondria from the wild-type (WT) and the ?cox2+Cox2(W56R) strains were subjected to Blue Native electrophoresis. In-gel activity of CcO and spectroscopic quantitation of cytochromes revealed that only 60% of CcO is present in the complemented strain, and that less CcO is found associated in supercomplexes as compared to WT. CcOs from the WT and the mutant exhibited similar subunit composition, although activity was 20-25% lower in the enzyme containing Cox2(W56R) than in the one with Cox2(WT). Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that W(56) was substituted by R(56) in Cox2(W56R). In addition, Cox2(W56R) exhibited the same N-terminus than Cox2(WT), indicating that the MTS of Oxa1 and the leader sequence of 15 residues were removed from Cox2(W56R) during maturation. Thus, Cox2(W56R) is identical to Cox2(WT) except for the point mutation W56R. Mitochondrial Cox1 synthesis is strongly reduced in ?cox2 mutants, but the Cox2(W56R) complemented strain led to full restoration of Cox1 synthesis. We conclude that the cytosol-synthesized Cox2(W56R) follows a rate-limiting process of import, maturation or assembly that yields lower steady-state levels of CcO. Still, the allotopically-expressed Cox2(W56R) restores CcO activity and allows mitochondrial Cox1 synthesis to advance at WT levels. PMID:22985601

  11. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

  12. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  13. Expression of STAT5, COX-2 and PIAS3 in Correlation with NSCLC Histhopathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka, Karolina H.; Kordiak, Jacek; Migdalska-S?k, Monika; Nawrot, Ewa; Kisza?kiewicz, Justyna; Antczak, Adam; Grski, Pawe?; Brzezia?ska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), their inhibitors and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) participate in transformations of many various types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between STAT5A/B, COX-2, and PIAS3 mRNA expression and tumor staging, metastasis status, and histopathological subtype in 71 patients with confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosis. Total RNA was isolated from NSCLC tissue samples and the expression of the studied genes was assessed using TaqMan probes in real-time PCR assay. The expression levels of STAT5A, STAT5B, and COX-2 genes were increased in 69%, 79%, and 71% NSCLC samples respectively, while PIAS3 expression was decreased in the majority (69%) of the studied tissues. Statistically significant differences were observed between STAT5 isoforms (P?=?0.0008), with higher expression of STAT5B. We found statistically significant positive correlation between STAT5B and COX-2 (rho?=?0.045), and significant negative correlation between STAT5B and PIAS3 (rho?=??0.049). The negative correlation between STAT5B and PIAS3 (rho?=??0.43) was also observed in T2a+T2b tumor group. Additionally, STAT5B and COX-2 expression levels were significantly different between T1a+T1b and T2a+T2b tumors (P?=?0.002 and P?=?0.041, respectively), with higher expression of both genes in T2 tumor stage. PIAS3 expression was significantly lower in NSCC subtype as compared with SCC subtype (P?=?0.017). Also, STAT5A and STAT5B immunoexpression was assessed, and the results indicated significantly higher protein levels in NSCLC patients as compared with controls (P?=?0.048 and P?=?0.034, respectively). High STAT5B immunoexpression was positively correlated with STAT5B gene expression in tumors (rho?=?0.755). STAT5B protein level was also significantly higher in T2a+T2b tumors, reflecting high STAT5B gene expression in this group. There was no statistically significant association between mRNA and protein expression levels of the studied genes and patients' characteristics: age, gender, smoking. The obtained results highlight the importance of the genes STAT5B and COX-2 in lung cancer progression. PMID:25137041

  14. Spontaneous Regression of Primitive Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin tumor that mainly occurs in the elderly with a generally poor prognosis. Like all skin cancers, its incidence is rising. Despite the poor prognosis, a few reports of spontaneous regression have been published. We describe the case of a 89-year-old male patient who presented two MCC lesions of the scalp. Following biopsy the lesions underwent complete regression with no clinical evidence of residual tumor up to 24 months. The current knowledge of MCC and the other cases of spontaneous regression described in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26788270

  15. TWSVR: Regression via Twin Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Reshma; Goyal, Keshav; Chandra, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Taking motivation from Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) formulation, Peng (2010) attempted to propose Twin Support Vector Regression (TSVR) where the regressor is obtained via solving a pair of quadratic programming problems (QPPs). In this paper we argue that TSVR formulation is not in the true spirit of TWSVM. Further, taking motivation from Bi and Bennett (2003), we propose an alternative approach to find a formulation for Twin Support Vector Regression (TWSVR) which is in the true spirit of TWSVM. We show that our proposed TWSVR can be derived from TWSVM for an appropriately constructed classification problem. To check the efficacy of our proposed TWSVR we compare its performance with TSVR and classical Support Vector Regression(SVR) on various regression datasets. PMID:26624223

  16. REGRESSION ESTIMATES FOR TOPOLOGICAL-HYDROGRAPH INPUT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, Michael R.; Guertin, D. Phillip; Troutman, Brent M.

    1988-01-01

    Physiographic, hydrologic, and rainfall data from 18 small drainage basins in semiarid, central Wyoming were used to calibrate topological, unit-hydrograph models for celerity, the average rate of travel of a flood wave through the basin. The data set consisted of basin characteristics and hydrologic data for the 18 basins and rainfall data for 68 storms. Calibrated values of celerity and peak discharges subsequently were regressed as a function of the basin characteristics and excess rainfall volume. Predicted values obtained in this way can be used as input for estimating hydrographs in ungaged basins. The regression models included ordinary least-squares and seemingly unrelated regression. This latter regression model jointly estimated the celerity and peak discharge.

  17. A new bivariate negative binomial regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faroughi, Pouya; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a new form of bivariate negative binomial (BNB-1) regression which can be fitted to bivariate and correlated count data with covariates. The BNB regression discussed in this study can be fitted to bivariate and overdispersed count data with positive, zero or negative correlations. The joint p.m.f. of the BNB1 distribution is derived from the product of two negative binomial marginals with a multiplicative factor parameter. Several testing methods were used to check overdispersion and goodness-of-fit of the model. Application of BNB-1 regression is illustrated on Malaysian motor insurance dataset. The results indicated that BNB-1 regression has better fit than bivariate Poisson and BNB-2 models with regards to Akaike information criterion.

  18. Skin tight: macrophage-specific COX-2 induction links salt handling in kidney and skin.

    PubMed

    Stegbauer, Johannes; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between dietary salt intake and the associated risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease is an important public health concern. In this issue of the JCI, a study by Zhang and associates shows that consumption of a high-sodium diet induces expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophages, resulting in enhanced levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), autocrine activation of the macrophage E-prostanoid 4 (EP4) receptor, and subsequent triggering of parallel pathways in the kidney and in skin that help dispose of excess sodium. The authors found that blockade or genetic elimination of the COX-2/PGE2/EP4 receptor pathway in hematopoietic cells causes salt-sensitive hypertension in mice. These studies illuminate an unexpected central role for the macrophage in coordinating homeostatic responses to dietary salt intake and suggest a complex pathophysiology for hypertension associated with NSAID use. PMID:26495835

  19. CG100649, a novel COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits colorectal adenoma and carcinoma growth in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Margalit, Ofer; Katoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Dingzhi; Wu, Hong; Xia, Dianren; Holla, Vijaykumar R; Yang, Peiying; DuBois, Raymond N

    2014-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (COXIBs) can reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and are being considered for use as adjuvant therapy for treatment of CRC patients. However, long-term use of most NSAIDs, except aspirin, increases cardiovascular risk, hampering use of these drugs in CRC prevention and possibly for treatment. CG100649 is a new member of the COXIB family, which is proposed to inhibit both COX-2 and carbonic anhydrase-I/-II (CA-I/-II) activity. Using mouse models, we show here that CG100649 inhibits premalignant and malignant colorectal lesions in mouse models, partly through inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. These pre-clinical findings suggest a need for further exploration of CG100649 for CRC prevention and treatment. The long-term safety profile of CG100649, particularly regarding its effect on cardiovascular risk, is yet to be determined. PMID:25085205

  20. COX-2 inhibition does not reverse the increased sympathetic modulation in MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Natlia Veronez; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Barbosa Neto, Octvio; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    We evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in obese rats induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG). The animals were treated with celecoxib or saline for 30 days (from the 60th to the 90th day of age). On the 90th day, the MSG obesity induced an increase in the low-frequency (LF) component (CTR=5.6918.30ms(2), MSG=38.496.27ms(2)) and a decrease in the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV (CTR=71.486.22ms(2), MSG=50.947.03ms(2)), which were unchanged by celecoxib treatment. We suggest that HRV in MSG obesity involves a greater sympathetic modulation not related with COX-2 products. PMID:21824825

  1. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines.

    PubMed

    Kadiri, M Al; Carroll, R J; Wand, M P

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models. PMID:21037941

  2. The Geometry of Enhancement in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2011-01-01

    In linear multiple regression, "enhancement" is said to occur when R[superscript 2] = b[prime]r greater than r[prime]r, where b is a p x 1 vector of standardized regression coefficients and r is a p x 1 vector of correlations between a criterion y and a set of standardized regressors, x. When p = 1 then b [is congruent to] r and enhancement cannot

  3. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  4. Hemodynamic sequelae of regression of experimental atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M L; Heistad, D D; Marcus, M L; Piegors, D J; Abboud, F M

    1983-01-01

    Regression of experimental atherosclerosis is characterized by decreased intimal thickness and luminal enlargement, but intimal fibrosis becomes more dense. We tested the hypothesis that fibrosis of arteries during regression might limit vasodilator capacity and restrict hemodynamic improvement despite luminal improvement. We studied limb, coronary, and cerebral hemodynamics in 11 normal cynomolgus monkeys, 10 monkeys given an atherogenic diet for 20 mo and 8 monkeys given a regression diet for an additional 18 mo. The atherogenic diet induced lesions of moderate severity (50-60% stenosis); owing to characteristic vessel growth during the atherogenic period, luminal size did not decrease correspondingly. Regression monkeys showed typical changes of regression with luminal enlargement but increased fibrosis. The iliac artery was perfused at constant blood flow and maximal vasodilatation was produced with papaverine. Blood flow was measured with microspheres during maximal vasodilatation in the coronary bed (adenosine) and cerebral bed (hypercapnia). In normal monkeys, minimal vascular resistances were 1.95 +/- 0.19 mm Hg/ml/min X 100 g (mean +/- SE) (limb), 0.13 +/- 0.01 (coronary), and 0.44 +/- 0.02 (cerebral). In atherosclerotic monkeys minimal resistance increased (P less than 0.05) 108, 62, and 166% in the limb, coronary, and cerebral beds, respectively. In regression monkeys, minimal resistance increased from values found in atherosclerotic animals in the limb (+22%), decreased inconsistently in the coronary bed (-19%), and decreased significantly in the cerebral bed (-44%, P less than 0.05). Thus morphologic regression was accompanied by significant hemodynamic improvement during maximal dilatation only in cerebral vessels. We conclude that increases in luminal size during regression of atherosclerotic lesions may not be associated with increases in vasodilator capacity, as intimal fibrosis may limit physiologically important hemodynamic improvement. PMID:6848553

  5. Raman scattering spectra and magnetic properties of polycrystalline Zn1-xCoxO ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Nghia, N. X.; Yu, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Six polycrystalline ceramic samples of Zn1-xCoxO (x=0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) prepared by conventional solid-state reaction have been studied the structural characterization, and optical and magnetic properties at room-temperature. Analyses of x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the substitution of Co2+ for Zn2+ in the ZnO-wurtzite structure, and the presence of a secondary phase of ZnCo2O4 spinel. These factors directly influenced the features of Raman spectra of the samples in both the cases of non-resonant and resonant scattering, corresponding to excitation wavelengths of 488 and 325 nm, respectively. Besides conventional Raman scattering (RS) modes associated with the ZnO structure, there are additional modes associated with the incorporation of Co dopants into the ZnO host lattice, and with ZnCo2O4 spinel. Particularly, under the resonant condition we have observed the longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon and its overtones up to the seventh order in the samples doped with high Co concentrations. This indicates the existence of a large-deformation potential caused by the displacement of atoms from their equilibrium positions due to Co dopants, which affects the electronic band structure of Zn1-xCoxO. Magnetic measurements revealed the ferromagnetic order in Zn1-xCoxO as x?0.2. Basing on the results obtained from the XRD and RS analyses, and from magnetic studies of reference samples ZnCo2O4 and Co3O4, we believe that the ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO with x?0.2 is related to exchange interactions between Co2+ ions mediated by extrinsic defects.

  6. Frequent, Phylogenetically Local Horizontal Transfer of the cox1 Group I Intron in Flowering Plant Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yangrae; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is surprisingly common among plant mitochondrial genomes. The first well-established case involves a homing group I intron in the mitochondrial cox1 gene shown to have been frequently acquired via horizontal transfer in angiosperms. Here, we report extensive additional sampling of angiosperms, including 85 newly sequenced introns from 30 families. Analysis of all available data leads us to conclude that, among the 640 angiosperms (from 212 families) whose cox1 intron status has been characterized thus far, the intron has been acquired via roughly 70 separate horizontal transfer events. We propose that the intron was originally seeded into angiosperms by a single transfer from fungi, with all subsequent inferred transfers occurring from one angiosperm to another. The pattern of angiosperm-to-angiosperm transfer is biased toward exchanges between plants belonging to the same family. Illegitimate pollination is proposed as one potential factor responsible for this pattern, given that aberrant, cross-species pollination is more likely between close relatives. Other potential factors include shared vectoring agents or common geographic locations. We report the first apparent cases of loss of the cox1 intron; losses are accompanied by retention of the exonic coconversion tract, which is located immediately downstream of the intron and which is a product of the intron's self-insertion mechanism. We discuss the many reasons why the cox1 intron is so frequently and detectably transferred, and rarely lost, and conclude that it should be regarded as the canary in the coal mine with respect to horizontal transfer in angiosperm mitochondria. PMID:18524785

  7. cPLA2 Is Protective Against COX Inhibitor–Induced Intestinal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Montrose, David C.; Kadaveru, Krishna; Ilsley, Jillian N. M.; Root, Sierra H.; Rajan, Thiruchanduri V.; Ramesh, Manish; Nichols, Frank C.; Liang, Bruce T.; Sonin, Dmitry; Hand, Arthur R.; Zarini, Simona; Murphy, Robert C.; Belinsky, Glenn S.; Nakanishi, Masako; Rosenberg, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the generation of prostaglandins (PGs), which are bioactive lipids that play critical roles in maintaining gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis. There has been a long-standing association between administration of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors and GI toxicity. GI injury is thought to be induced by suppressed production of GI-protective PGs as well as direct injury to enterocytes. The present study sought to determine how pan-suppression of PG production via a genetic deletion of cPLA2 impacts the susceptibility to COX inhibitor–induced GI injury. A panel of COX inhibitors including celecoxib, rofecoxib, sulindac, and aspirin were administered via diet to cPLA2− / − and cPLA2+ / + littermates. Administration of celecoxib, rofecoxib, and sulindac, but not aspirin, resulted in acute lethality (within 2 weeks) in cPLA2− / − mice, but not in wild-type littermates. Histomorphological analysis revealed severe GI damage following celecoxib exposure associated with acute bacteremia and sepsis. Intestinal PG levels were reduced equivalently in both genotypes following celecoxib exposure, indicating that PG production was not likely responsible for the differential sensitivity. Gene expression profiling in the small intestines of mice identified drug-related changes among a panel of genes including those involved in mitochondrial function in cPLA2− / − mice. Further analysis of enterocytic mitochondria showed abnormal morphology as well as impaired ATP production in the intestines from celecoxib-exposed cPLA2− / − mice. Our data demonstrate that cPLA2 appears to be an important component in conferring protection against COX inhibitor–induced enteropathy, which may be mediated through affects on enterocytic mitochondria. PMID:20562220

  8. NSAIDs and serious cardiovascular disorders: especially cox-2 inhibitors and diclofenac.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used as analgesics expose patients to cardiovascular risks that can be predicted from their pharmacological properties. As of mid-2015, what is known about the cardiovascular harms of the NSAIDs of choice, ibuprofen and naproxen? Most of the data from comparative trials of NSAIDs concern cox-2 inhibitors, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen. Few studies have addressed the serious cardiovascular effects of other NSAIDs. In 2013, a U.K. team published a large meta-analysis of hundreds of randomised trials comparing NSAIDs with placebo or one NSAID with another NSAID. Compared with placebo, a statistically significant increase in the risk of serious cardiovascular adverse effects was demonstrated with cox-2 inhibitors and with diclofenac (about +40%). This risk is mainly due to an increase in myocardial infarctions and vascular deaths. Another meta-analysis found similar results in terms of cardiovascular deaths. The results of epidemiological studies are consistent with those of randomised clinical trials. According to meta-analyses of randomised trials, high-dose ibuprofen increases cardiovascular risks to the same degree as diclofenac or cox-2 inhibitors. The risk seems to mainly apply to daily doses of 2400 mg, a finding borne out by epidemiological studies that showed no increased risk with ibuprofen 1200 mg. Two meta-analyses of clinical trials showed that all NSAIDs roughly double the risk of heart failure. One meta-analysis showed a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation. In practice, from a cardiovascular perspective, the NSAIDs of choice are ibuprofen, on condition that the dose does not exceed 1200 mg per day, and naproxen. In contrast, it would appear from the study data that cox-2 inhibitors, diclofenac and high-dose ibuprofen (2400 mg per day) are best avoided. As for other NSAIDs, the clinical data are too sparse to allow a meaningful comparison with the better studied NSAIDs. It is advisable to avoid using these other drugs. PMID:26942254

  9. Involvement of PLA2, COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bhler, Marta Ins; Zelarayn, Liliana Isabel

    2014-11-01

    In Rhinella arenarum, progesterone is the physiological nuclear maturation inducer that interacts with the oocyte surface and starts a cascade of events that leads to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites produced through cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways play an important role in reproductive processes. In amphibians, to date, the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in progesterone (P4)-induced oocyte maturation has not been clarified. In this work we studied the participation of three enzymes involved in AA metabolism - phospholipase A2 (PLA2), COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. PLA2 activation induced maturation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Oocytes when treated with 0.08 ?M melittin showed the highest response (78 6% GVBD). In follicles, PLA2 activation did not significantly induce maturation at the assayed doses (12 3% GVBD). PLA2 inhibition with quinacrine prevented melittin-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, however PLA2 inactivation did not affect P4-induced maturation. This finding suggests that PLA2 is not the only phospholipase involved in P4-induced maturation in this species. P4-induced oocyte maturation was inhibited by the COX inhibitors indomethacin and rofecoxib (65 3% and 63 3% GVBD, respectively), although COX activity was never blocked by their addition. Follicles showed a similar response following the addition of these inhibitors. Participation of LOX metabolites in maturation seems to be correlated with seasonal variation in ovarian response to P4. During the February to June period (low P4 response), LOX inhibition by nordihydroguaiaretic acid or lysine clonixinate increased maturation by up to 70%. In contrast, during the July to January period (high P4 response), LOX inhibition had no effect on hormone-induced maturation. PMID:23443017

  10. Testosterone induces leucocyte migration by NADPH oxidase-driven ROS- and COX2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Debbas, Victor; Dull, Randal O; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Touyz, Rhian M; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms whereby testosterone increases cardiovascular risk are not clarified. However, oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be determinants. Herein, we sought to determine whether exogenous testosterone, at physiological levels, induces leucocyte migration, a central feature in immune and inflammatory responses and the mediating mechanisms. We hypothesized that testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-driven reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent mechanisms. Sixteen-week-old Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection (5 ml) of either testosterone (10(-7) mol/l) or saline. Rats were pre-treated with 5 ml of sodium salicylate (SS, non-selective COX inhibitor, 1.25 10(-3) mol/l, 1 h prior to testosterone or saline), flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist, 10(-5) mol/l), apocynin (NADPHox inhibitor, 3 10(-4) mol/l), N-[2-Cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide (NS398, COX2 inhibitor, 10(-4) mol/l) or saline, 4 h before testosterone or saline administration. Leucocyte migration was assessed 24 h after testosterone administration by intravital microscopy of the mesenteric bed. Serum levels of testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. NADPHox activity was assessed in membrane fractions of the mesenteric bed by dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by HPLC. NADPHox subunits and VCAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule) expression were determined by immunoblotting. Testosterone administration did not change serum levels of endogenous testosterone, but increased venular leucocyte migration to the adventia, NADPHox activity and expression (P < 0.05). These effects were blocked by flutamide. SS inhibited testosterone-induced leucocyte migration (P<0.05). Apocynin and NS398 abolished testosterone-induced leucocyte migration and NADPHox activity (P<0.05). Testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPHox- and COX2-dependent mechanisms and may contribute to inflammatory processes and oxidative stress in the vasculature potentially increasing cardiovascular risk. PMID:25700020

  11. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  12. Cox11p is required for stable formation of the Cu(B) and magnesium centers of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hiser, L; Di Valentin, M; Hamer, A G; Hosler, J P

    2000-01-01

    Assembly of the core subunits of the aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria and aerobic bacteria such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides requires the association of three subunits and the formation of five to seven metal centers. Several assembly proteins are required for the late stages of oxidase assembly in eukaryotes; some of these are also present in Rb. sphaeroides. To investigate the role of one of these proteins, Cox11p, the mitochondrial-like oxidase of Rb. sphaeroides was overexpressed and purified from cells that lacked cox11, the gene for Cox11p. The oxidase that assembled in the absence of Cox11p lacked Cu(B) at the active site and contained greatly reduced amounts of metal at the magnesium/manganese-binding site between subunits I and II. This inactive oxidase, however, did contain hemes a and a(3), Cu(A), and all three subunits. These results indicate that Cox11p is required at a late, perhaps final, step in the assembly of cytochrome oxidase, most likely the insertion of Cu(B). Oxidase which assembled in a strain with a low copy number of cox11 appeared nearly wild type, suggesting that Cox11p is required in substoichiometric amounts for its role in oxidase assembly. PMID:10617659

  13. LincRNA-Cox2 Promotes Late Inflammatory Gene Transcription in Macrophages through Modulating SWI/SNF-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoku; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Ma, Shibin; Chen, Xiqiang; Chen, Jing; Su, Chun-Jen; Shibata, Annemarie; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Drescher, Kristen M; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2016-03-15

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. One of the most highly induced lincRNAs in macrophages upon TLR ligation is lincRNA-Cox2, which was recently shown to mediate the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes in innate immune cells. We report that lincRNA-Cox2, located at chromosome 1 proximal to the PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox2) gene, is an early-primary inflammatory gene controlled by NF-κB signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA-Cox2 is required for the transcription of NF-κB-regulated late-primary inflammatory response genes stimulated by bacterial LPS. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 is assembled into the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex in cells after LPS stimulation. This resulting lincRNA-Cox2/SWI/SNF complex can modulate the assembly of NF-κB subunits to the SWI/SNF complex, and ultimately, SWI/SNF-associated chromatin remodeling and transactivation of the late-primary inflammatory-response genes in macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role for NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Cox2 as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of late-primary response genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling. PMID:26880762

  14. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples. PMID:26537044

  15. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency, Dyserythropoeitic Anemia, and Calvarial Hyperostosis Are Caused by a Mutation in the COX4I2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Shteyer, Eyal; Saada, Ann; Shaag, Avraham; Al-Hijawi, Fida' Aziz; Kidess, Rojette; Revel-Vilk, Shoshanah; Elpeleg, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Steatorrhea and malabsorption of lipid-soluble vitamins due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are common in patients with cystic fibrosis and are predominant in Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond, Pearson, and Johanson-Blizzard syndromes. In four patients who suffered from congenital exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, dyserythropoeitic anemia, and calvarial hyperostosis, we excluded these disorders and identified, by using homozygosity mapping, a mutation in the COX4I2 gene. The COX4 protein is an essential structural subunit of cytochrome c oxidase complex and has two isoforms, encoded by two different genes. We show that the ratio of COX4I2 to COX4I1 mRNA is relatively high in human acinar cells. The mutation is associated with marked reduction of COX4I2 expression and with striking attenuation of the physiologic COX4I2 response to hypoxia. Mutation analysis of COX4I2 is warranted in patients with malabsorption due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and in patients with dyserythropoeitic anemia. PMID:19268275

  16. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, dyserythropoeitic anemia, and calvarial hyperostosis are caused by a mutation in the COX4I2 gene.

    PubMed

    Shteyer, Eyal; Saada, Ann; Shaag, Avraham; Al-Hijawi, Fida' Aziz; Kidess, Rojette; Revel-Vilk, Shoshanah; Elpeleg, Orly

    2009-03-01

    Steatorrhea and malabsorption of lipid-soluble vitamins due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are common in patients with cystic fibrosis and are predominant in Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond, Pearson, and Johanson-Blizzard syndromes. In four patients who suffered from congenital exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, dyserythropoeitic anemia, and calvarial hyperostosis, we excluded these disorders and identified, by using homozygosity mapping, a mutation in the COX4I2 gene. The COX4 protein is an essential structural subunit of cytochrome c oxidase complex and has two isoforms, encoded by two different genes. We show that the ratio of COX4I2 to COX4I1 mRNA is relatively high in human acinar cells. The mutation is associated with marked reduction of COX4I2 expression and with striking attenuation of the physiologic COX4I2 response to hypoxia. Mutation analysis of COX4I2 is warranted in patients with malabsorption due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and in patients with dyserythropoeitic anemia. PMID:19268275

  17. A Mutation of COX6A1 Causes a Recessive Axonal or Mixed Form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Gen; Makino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Makiko; Abe, Akiko; Numakura, Chikahiko; Ueki, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Ito, Chizuru; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Terashima, Tomoya; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Tooyama, Ikuo; Tada, Masayoshi; Onodera, Osamu; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although more than 30 loci harboring CMT-causing mutations have been identified, many other genes still remain to be discovered for many affected individuals. For two consanguineous families with CMT (axonal and mixed phenotypes), a parametric linkage analysis using genome-wide SNP chip identified a 4.3 Mb region on 12q24 showing a maximum multipoint LOD score of 4.23. Subsequent whole-genome sequencing study in one of the probands, followed by mutation screening in the two families, revealed a disease-specific 5bp deletion (c.247?10_247?6delCACTC) in a splicing element (pyrimidine tract) of intron 2 adjacent to the third exon of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 1 (COX6A1), which is a component of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase [COX]), within the autozygous linkage region. Functional analysis showed that expression of COX6A1 in peripheral white blood cells from the affected individuals and COX activity in their EB-virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines were significantly reduced. In addition, Cox6a1-null mice showed significantly reduced COX activity and neurogenic muscular atrophy leading to a difficulty in walking. Those data indicated that COX6A1 mutation causes the autosomal-recessive axonal or mixedCMT. PMID:25152455

  18. Inhibition of constitutive and inducible cyclooxygenase activity in human platelets and mononuclear cells by NSAIDs and Cox 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Grossman, C J; Wiseman, J; Lucas, F S; Trevethick, M A; Birch, P J

    1995-06-01

    A range of NSAIDs and reported Cox 2 selective compounds were tested in human freshly isolated platelets and LPS-stimulated mononuclear cells to determine their potency and selectivity as inhibitors of constitutive (presumably Cox 1) and inducible (presumably Cox 2) cyclooxygenase respectively. All compounds tested were either equipotent at inhibiting constitutive and inducible cyclooxygenase or were selective for the inducible form. The most selective compound was Dup697 and the least selective, ketoprofen. Several compounds only produced a partial inhibition of constitutive cyclooxygenase as the maximum inhibitor concentration achievable in the assay was limited to 1 mM. With the exception of paracetamol, all compounds were able to produce full inhibition curves against the inducible form. Potency estimates against constitutive Cox compare closely with published data but most compounds were consistently more potent against the inducible isoform than in published data for human cloned, microsomal Cox 2. These data suggest that human mononuclear cells are either exquisitely sensitive to some NSAIDs or they may contain another Cox isoform as yet indistinguishable from Cox 2. PMID:7583521

  19. Homocysteine induces COX-2 expression in macrophages through ROS generated by NMDA receptor-calcium signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y S; Lee, S J; Seo, K W; Bae, J U; Park, S Y; Kim, C D

    2013-05-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is a putative risk factor for many cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in murine macrophages and the mechanisms involved. Hcy increased the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in dose- and time-dependent manners, but did not affect COX-1 expression. Hcy-induced COX-2 expression was attenuated not only by the calcium chelators, EGTA and BAPTA-AM, but also by an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Calcium chelators also attenuated Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages, indicating that Hcy-induced COX-2 expression might be mediated through ROS generated by calcium-dependent signaling pathways. In another series of experiments, Hcy increased the intracellular concentration of calcium in a dose-dependent manner, which was attenuated by MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitor, but not by bicuculline, a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor inhibitor. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor using small interfering RNA also attenuated Hcy-induced increases in intracellular calcium. Furthermore, both ROS production and Hcy-induced COX-2 expression were also inhibited by MK-801 as well as by molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances COX-2 expression in murine macrophages by ROS generated via NMDA receptor-mediated calcium signaling pathways. PMID:23485152

  20. COX-2 gene promoter DNA methylation status in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of Egyptian women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Haidy E; Rezk, Noha A; Alnemr, Amr Abd Almohsen; Abd El Ghany, Amany M

    2015-11-01

    The pathophysiology of COX-2 expression in endometriosis is a matter of debate. The aim was to investigate the role of DNA methylation of the NF-IL6 site within the promoter of COX-2 gene in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The endometrial tissues (ectopic and eutopic) were collected from 60 women with endometriosis and 30 women without endometriosis (control group). The methylation status of COX-2 was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to measure COX-2 mRNA levels in endometrial tissues. We found significantly higher levels of COX-2 in ectopic endometriotic tissue compared with eutopic tissue. Also, we found that the frequencies of methylation status of the NF-IL6 site within the COX-2 promoter in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues of endometriosis groups were significantly decreased in comparison to controls (P=0.002, P=0.000 respectively). Our study demonstrated that DNA hypomethylation of the NF-IL6 site within the promoter of COX-2 gene could be a key mechanism for its elevated expression in the eutopic and ectopic tissues of endometriosis. PMID:26276091

  1. The Spatiotemporal Role of COX-2 in Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Periosteum-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitors in Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunlan; Xue, Ming; Chen, Hongli; Jiao, Jing; Herschman, Harvey R.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Zhang, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Periosteum provides a major source of mesenchymal progenitor cells for bone fracture repair. Combining cell-specific targeted Cox-2 gene deletion approaches with in vitro analyses of the differentiation of periosteum-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (PDMPCs), here we demonstrate a spatial and temporal role for Cox-2 function in the modulation of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of periosteal progenitors in fracture repair. Prx1Cre-targeted Cox-2 gene deletion in mesenchyme resulted in marked reduction of intramembraneous and endochondral bone repair, leading to accumulation of poorly differentiated mesenchyme and immature cartilage in periosteal callus. In contrast, Col2Cre-targeted Cox-2 gene deletion in cartilage resulted in a deficiency primarily in cartilage conversion into bone. Further cell culture analyses using Cox-2 deficient PDMPCs demonstrated reduced osteogenic differentiation in monolayer cultures, blocked chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy in high density micromass cultures. Gene expression microarray analyses demonstrated downregulation of a key set of genes associated with bone/cartilage formation and remodeling, namely Sox9, Runx2, Osx, MMP9, VDR and RANKL. Pathway analyses demonstrated dysregulation of the HIF-1, PI3K-AKT and Wnt pathways in Cox-2 deficient cells. Collectively, our data highlight a crucial role for Cox-2 from cells of mesenchymal lineages in modulating key pathways that control periosteal progenitor cell growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis in fracture repair. PMID:24988184

  2. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples. PMID:26537044

  3. Antioxidative effects of cinnamomi cortex: A potential role of iNOS and COX-II

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Won; Kim, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamomi cortex has wide varieties of pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory action, anti-platelet aggregation, and improving blood circulation. In this study, we tested to determine whether the Cinnamomi cortex extract has antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative actions were explored by measuring free radical scavenging activity, NO levels, and reducing power. The mechanism of antioxidative action of Cinnamomi cortex was determined by measuring iNOS and COX-II expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw cells. Results: Seventy percent methanolic extract of Cinnamomi cortex exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl--2--picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and NO scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner. More strikingly, the Cinnamomi cortex extract exerted dramatic reducing power activity (13-fold over control). Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly inhibited by the Cinnamomi cortex extract, suggesting that it inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Additionally, COX-2 induced by LPS was dramatically inhibited by the Cinnamomi cortex extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that 70% methanolic extract of Cinnamomi cortex exerts significant antioxidant activity via inhibiting iNOS and COX-II induction. PMID:22262934

  4. A Simulation Based Evaluation of the Asymptotic Power Formulae for Cox Models in Small Sample Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Mehmet; Onar-Thomas, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Cox proportional hazards (PH) models are commonly used in medical research to investigate the associations between covariates and time to event outcomes. It is frequently noted that with less than ten events per covariate, these models produce spurious results, and therefore, should not be used. Statistical literature contains asymptotic power formulae for the Cox model which can be used to determine the number of events needed to detect an association. Here we investigate via simulations the performance of these formulae in small sample settings for Cox models with 1- or 2-covariates. Our simulations indicate that, when the number of events is small, the power estimate based on the asymptotic formulae is often inflated. The discrepancy between the asymptotic and empirical power is larger for the dichotomous covariate especially in cases where allocation of sample size to its levels is unequal. When more than one covariate is included in the same model, the discrepancy between the asymptotic power and the empirical power is even larger, especially when a high positive correlation exists between the two covariates. PMID:24115780

  5. Potent, orally available, selective COX-2 inhibitors based on 2-imidazoline core.

    PubMed

    Sarnpitak, Pakornwit; Mujumdar, Prashant; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce; Iurchenko, Vladimir; Zozulya, Sergey; Gavalas, Antonis; Geronikaki, Athina; Ivanenkov, Yan; Krasavin, Mikhail

    2014-09-12

    A novel series of compounds containing a polar, non-flat 2-imidazoline core was designed based on the SAR information available for aromatic azole cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. While the majority of the compounds prepared using an earlier developed imidazoline N-arylation methodology turned out to be inferior to the known COX-2 inhibitors, one lead compound displayed potency (300 nM) comparable to clinically used Celecoxib and was shown to be more selective. The series represents the first example of selective COX-2 inhibitors built around a distinctly polar core, contradicting an earlier accepted view that a lipophilic scaffold is required for high inhibitor potency. The lead compound demonstrated very good oral bioavailability in mice, slow metabolic degradation, modest distribution into the brain and a remarkable anti-inflammatory efficacy in carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. A foundation has therefore been laid for a chemically novel series of COX-2 inhibitors that has a potential for diverse therapeutic applications in inflammatory disease area. PMID:25016374

  6. CoxFey@C Composites with Tunable Atomic Ratios for Excellent Electromagnetic Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hualiang; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Haiqian; Li, Meng; Zuo, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Du, Youwei

    2015-12-01

    The shell on the nano-magnetic absorber can prevent oxidation, which is very important for its practical utilization. Generally, the nonmagnetic shell will decrease the integral magnetic loss and thus weaken the electromagnetic absorption. However, maintaining the original absorption properties of the magnetic core is a major challenge. Here, we designed novel and facile CoxFey@C composites by reducing CoxFe3‑xO4@phenolic resin (x = 1, 0.5 and 0.25). High saturation magnetization value (Ms) of CoxFey particle, as a core, shows the interesting magnetic loss ability. Meanwhile, the carbon shell may increase the integral dielectric loss. The resulting composite shows excellent electromagnetic absorption properties. For example, at a coating thickness of 2 mm, the RLmin value can reach to ‑23 dB with an effective frequency range of 7 GHz (11–18 GHz). The mechanisms of the improved microwave absorption properties are discussed.

  7. Influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene promoter polymorphism -765 on graft loss after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Courivaud, C; Bamoulid, J; Loupy, A; Deschamps, M; Ferrand, C; Le Corre, D; Tiberghien, P; Chalopin, J-M; Legendre, C; Thervet, E; Saas, P; Ducloux, D

    2009-12-01

    A G-->C polymorphism has been identified in the human cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene promoter at position -765 with C allele leading to a decreased promoter activity with low prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. PGE2 has strong immunomodulatory properties that could influence graft survival. We studied the association between this polymorphism and allograft failure in two independent cohorts of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) including a total of 603 patients. The functional effect of COX-2 gene promoter polymorphism was analyzed by measuring serum levels of PGE2. Median follow-up was 8.7 and 7.9 years for the first and second cohort, respectively. Analysis of 603 patients identified 20 CC (3.3%), 179 GC (29.7%) and 404 GG (67%) carriers. Patients with the GG genotype had significantly higher serum PGE2 concentrations than patients with the C allele. Carriers with a C allele have an independent increased risk of graft loss (hazard ratio (HR) 2.43 [95% CI 1.19-4.97], p = 0.015 for cohort 1; HR 1.72 [95% CI 0.99-3.77], p = 0.051 for cohort 2) compared to GG patients. COX-2 gene promoter polymorphism at position -765 (G-->C) is associated with a higher rate of graft loss in RTRs. Such findings may be used to influence immunosuppressive strategies and optimize patient management. PMID:19788502

  8. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of Ternary Alloy CoxNi1-xSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchene, S.; Kadri, M. T.; Baaouague, K.; Belkhir, H.

    2013-09-01

    First-principles calculations, by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), were carried out for the structural, electronic and elastic properties of transition metals disilicides alloy CoxNi1-xSi2 in the fluorite structure. The composition effect on lattice constants and bulk modulus has been analyzed. The deviations of the lattice constants from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence (LCD) were observed for CoxNi1-xSi2. We also calculated the densities of states for the distorted CoxNi1-xSi2 alloys as well as for the ordered phases CoSi2 and NiSi2. Theoretical values of Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature are estimated from the computed elastic constants. The analysis of the ratio of shear modulus to bulk modulus shows that the alloy is more brittle than the binary compounds. The calculated results are compared with other reported values.

  9. Genomic selection for slaughter age in pigs using the Cox frailty model.

    PubMed

    Santos, V S; Martins Filho, S; Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Glória, L S; Silva, F F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare genomic selection methodologies using a linear mixed model and the Cox survival model. We used data from an F2 population of pigs, in which the response variable was the time in days from birth to the culling of the animal and the covariates were 238 markers [237 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) plus the halothane gene]. The data were corrected for fixed effects, and the accuracy of the method was determined based on the correlation of the ranks of predicted genomic breeding values (GBVs) in both models with the corrected phenotypic values. The analysis was repeated with a subset of SNP markers with largest absolute effects. The results were in agreement with the GBV prediction and the estimation of marker effects for both models for uncensored data and for normality. However, when considering censored data, the Cox model with a normal random effect (S1) was more appropriate. Since there was no agreement between the linear mixed model and the imputed data (L2) for the prediction of genomic values and the estimation of marker effects, the model S1 was considered superior as it took into account the latent variable and the censored data. Marker selection increased correlations between the ranks of predicted GBVs by the linear and Cox frailty models and the corrected phenotypic values, and 120 markers were required to increase the predictive ability for the characteristic analyzed. PMID:26505412

  10. CoxFey@C Composites with Tunable Atomic Ratios for Excellent Electromagnetic Absorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Haiqian; Li, Meng; Zuo, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Du, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    The shell on the nano-magnetic absorber can prevent oxidation, which is very important for its practical utilization. Generally, the nonmagnetic shell will decrease the integral magnetic loss and thus weaken the electromagnetic absorption. However, maintaining the original absorption properties of the magnetic core is a major challenge. Here, we designed novel and facile CoxFey@C composites by reducing CoxFe3-xO4@phenolic resin (x = 1, 0.5 and 0.25). High saturation magnetization value (Ms) of CoxFey particle, as a core, shows the interesting magnetic loss ability. Meanwhile, the carbon shell may increase the integral dielectric loss. The resulting composite shows excellent electromagnetic absorption properties. For example, at a coating thickness of 2 mm, the RLmin value can reach to -23 dB with an effective frequency range of 7 GHz (11-18 GHz). The mechanisms of the improved microwave absorption properties are discussed. PMID:26659124

  11. CoxFey@C Composites with Tunable Atomic Ratios for Excellent Electromagnetic Absorption Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hualiang; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Haiqian; Li, Meng; Zuo, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Du, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    The shell on the nano-magnetic absorber can prevent oxidation, which is very important for its practical utilization. Generally, the nonmagnetic shell will decrease the integral magnetic loss and thus weaken the electromagnetic absorption. However, maintaining the original absorption properties of the magnetic core is a major challenge. Here, we designed novel and facile CoxFey@C composites by reducing CoxFe3−xO4@phenolic resin (x = 1, 0.5 and 0.25). High saturation magnetization value (Ms) of CoxFey particle, as a core, shows the interesting magnetic loss ability. Meanwhile, the carbon shell may increase the integral dielectric loss. The resulting composite shows excellent electromagnetic absorption properties. For example, at a coating thickness of 2 mm, the RLmin value can reach to −23 dB with an effective frequency range of 7 GHz (11–18 GHz). The mechanisms of the improved microwave absorption properties are discussed. PMID:26659124

  12. Lattice, band, and spin engineering in Zn1-xCoxO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    This work was conducted to investigate lattice, band, and spin engineering of magnetic Zn1-xCoxO layers towards quantum barriers in ZnO. Lattice distortions by doping with Co ions caused a flat tetrahedron in the host, leading to an increase of spontaneous polarization in Zn1-xCoxO compared to ZnO based on the point-charge model. The band-gap energy increased linearly with the Co concentrations, which was very similar to the band-gap widening in Zn1-xMgxO derived from sp hybridization. The Co (3d) states were located in the mid-gap, which remained unchanged following changes in Co concentrations. Large magneto-optical effects were induced at the band edge due to sp-d exchange interactions. However, magneto-optical activity was reduced in heavily doping concentrations above x = 0.16 because of antiferromagnetic coupling between nearest-neighbor Co ions. The high magnetic activity at x = 0.10 is related to competition between the complex Co-related configurations, such as singles, pairs, open and closed triples, in Co-doped ZnO layers. Magnetic Zn1-xCoxO therefore has an effective layer composition for applications of quantum barriers.

  13. Kaempferol inhibits UVB-induced COX-2 expression by suppressing Src kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Eun Jung; Heo, Yong-Seok; Bode, Ann M.; Lubet, Ronald A.; Lee, Hyong Joo; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary environmental risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and UVB in particular promotes tumor growth through various signaling pathways. Kaempferol, a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, has been studied as a chemopreventive agent; however, little is known regarding its effects on UVB-induced photo-carcinogenesis. Here, we examined the effect of kaempferol on UVB-induced skin inflammation. We found that kaempferol suppressed UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells and attenuated the UVB-induced transcriptional activities of cox-2 and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Kaempferol attenuated the UVB-induced phosphorylation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERKs, p38, and JNKs, but had no effect on the phosphorylation of the upstream MAPK regulator Src. However, in vitro and ex vivo kinase assays demonstrated that kaempferol suppressed Src kinase activity. Furthermore, in vivo data from mouse skin support the idea that kaempferol suppresses UVB-induced COX-2 expression by blocking Src kinase activity. A pull-down assay revealed that kaempferol competes with ATP for direct binding to Src. Docking data suggest that kaempferol docks easily into the ATP-binding site of Src, which is located between the N and C lobes of the kinase domain. Taken together, these results suggest that kaempferol is a potent chemopreventive agent against skin cancer through its inhibitory interaction with Src. PMID:20599768

  14. Cox Proportional Hazards Models for Modeling the Time to Onset of Decompression Sickness in Hypobaric Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Chhikara, Raj S.; Conkin, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we fit Cox proportional hazards models to a subset of data from the Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Databank. The data bank contains records on the time to decompression sickness (DCS) and venous gas emboli (VGE) for over 130,000 person-exposures to high altitude in chamber tests. The subset we use contains 1,321 records, with 87% censoring, and has the most recent experimental tests on DCS made available from Johnson Space Center. We build on previous analyses of this data set by considering more expanded models and more detailed model assessments specific to the Cox model. Our model - which is stratified on the quartiles of the final ambient pressure at altitude - includes the final ambient pressure at altitude as a nonlinear continuous predictor, the computed tissue partial pressure of nitrogen at altitude, and whether exercise was done at altitude. We conduct various assessments of our model, many of which are recently developed in the statistical literature, and conclude where the model needs improvement. We consider the addition of frailties to the stratified Cox model, but found that no significant gain was attained above a model that does not include frailties. Finally, we validate some of the models that we fit.

  15. The Pet309 pentatricopeptide repeat motifs mediate efficient binding to the mitochondrial COX1 transcript in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio-Ochoa, Anglica; Camacho-Villasana, Yolanda; Garca-Guerrero, Aldo E; Prez-Martnez, Xochitl

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial synthesis of Cox1, the largest subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, is controlled by Mss51 and Pet309, two mRNA-specific translational activators that act via the COX1 mRNA 5?-UTR through an unknown mechanism. Pet309 belongs to the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein family, which is involved in RNA metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts, and its sequence predicts at least 12 PPR motifs in the central portion of the protein. Deletion of these motifs selectively disrupted translation but not accumulation of the COX1 mRNA. We used RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays to show that Pet309 interacts with the COX1 mRNA in vivo and that this association is present before processing of the COX1 mRNA from the ATP8/6 polycistronic mRNA. This association was not affected by deletion of 8 of the PPR motifs but was undetectable after deletion of the entire 12-PPR region. However, interaction of the Pet309 protein lacking 12 PPR motifs with the COX1 mRNA was detected after overexpression of the mutated form of the protein, suggesting that deletion of this region decreased the binding affinity for the COX1 mRNA without abolishing it entirely. Moreover, binding of Pet309 to the COX1 mRNA was affected by deletion of Mss51. This work demonstrates an in vivo physical interaction between a yeast mitochondrial translational activator and its target mRNA and shows the cooperativity of the PPR domains of Pet309 in interaction with the COX1 mRNA. PMID:25181249

  16. LY294002 Inhibits Glucocorticoid Induced COX-2 Gene Expression in Cardiomyocytes through a Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haipeng; Xu, Beibei; Sheveleva, Elena; Chen, Qin M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT) induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K independent mechanisms in regulating CT induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes. PMID:18657281

  17. BMP-2 induces ATF4 phosphorylation in chondrocytes through a COX-2/PGE2 dependent signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian-Fang; Yukata, Kiminori; Yin, Guoyong; Sheu, Tzongjen; Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Hsu, Wei; Zhang, Xinping; Xiao, Guozhi; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; Chen, Di; O’Keefe, Regis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective BMP-2 is approved for fracture non-union and spine fusion. We aimed to further dissect its downstream signaling events in chondrocytes with the ultimate goal to develop novel therapeutics that can mimic BMP-2 effect but have less complications. Methods BMP-2 effect on COX-2 expression was examined using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Genetic approach was used to identify the signaling pathway mediating the BMP-2 effect. Similarly, the pathway transducing the PGE2 effect on ATF4 was investigated. Immunoprecipitation was performed to assess the complex formation after PGE2 binding. Results BMP-2 increased COX-2 expression in primary mouse costosternal chondrocytes (PMCSC). The results from the C9 Tet-off system demonstrated that endogenous BMP-2 also upregulated COX-2 expression. Genetic approaches using PMCSC from ALK2fx/fx, ALK3fx/fx, ALK6−/−, and Smad1fx/fx mice established that BMP-2 regulated COX-2 through activation of ALK3-Smad1 signaling. PGE-2 EIA showed that BMP-2 increased PGE2 production in PMCSC. ATF4 is a transcription factor that regulates bone formation. While PGE2 did not have significant effect on ATF4 expression, it induced ATF4 phosphorylation. In addition to stimulating COX-2 expression, BMP-2 also induced phosphorylation of ATF4. Using COX-2 deficient chondrocytes, we demonstrated that the BMP-2 effect on ATF4 was COX-2-dependent. Tibial fracture samples from COX-2−/− mice showed reduced phospho-ATF4 immunoreactivity compared to WT ones. PGE2 mediated ATF4 phosphorylation involved signaling primarily through the EP2 and EP4 receptors and PGE2 induced an EP4-ERK1/2-RSK2 complex formation. Conclusions BMP-2 regulates COX-2 expression through ALK3-Smad1 signaling, and PGE2 induces ATF4 phosphorylation via EP4-ERK1/2-RSK2 axis. PMID:24418675

  18. LY294002 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced COX-2 gene expression in cardiomyocytes through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Haipeng; Xu Beibei; Sheveleva, Elena; Chen, Qin M.

    2008-10-01

    Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K-independent mechanisms in regulating CT-induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), and DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes.

  19. c-Src-dependent EGF receptor transactivation contributes to ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated and participates in the regulation of several brain inflammatory disorders. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells remain unclear. Objective The goal of this study was to examine whether ET-1-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release were mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway in brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3 cells). Methods The expression of COX-2 induced by ET-1 was evaluated by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. The COX-2 regulatory signaling pathways were investigated by pretreatment with pharmacological inhibitors, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and promoter activity reporter assays. Finally, we determined the PGE2 level as a marker of functional activity of COX-2 expression. Results First, the data showed that ET-1-induced COX-2 expression was mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt cascade. Next, we demonstrated that ET-1 stimulated activation (phosphorylation) of c-Src/EGFR/Akt/MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2) and then activated the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) via Gq/i protein-coupled ETB receptors. The activated c-Jun/AP-1 bound to its corresponding binding sites within COX-2 promoter, thereby turning on COX-2 gene transcription. Ultimately, upregulation of COX-2 by ET-1 promoted PGE2 biosynthesis and release in bEnd.3 cells. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in bEnd.3 cells, c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt and MAPKs linking to c-Jun/AP-1 cascade is essential for ET-1-induced COX-2 upregulation. Understanding the mechanisms of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release regulated by ET-1/ETB system on brain microvascular endothelial cells may provide rational therapeutic interventions for brain injury and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22747786

  20. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling?

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P.N.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon cancer cells, belonging to the same histological subtype, but with different expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes; HT-29 express both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas HCT 15 is COX-null. We also analyzed the effect of these compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Since the parent compound aspirin, inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, we also evaluated the effects of these compounds on COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities and also performed modeling of the interactions between the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. We observed that the three positional isomers of NOSH aspirin inhibited the growth of both colon cancer cell lines with IC50s in the nano-molar range. In particular in HT-29 cells the IC50s for growth inhibition were: o-NOSH-ASA, 0.040.011M; m-NOSH-ASA, 0.240.11M; p-NOSH-ASA, 0.460.17M; and in HCT 15 cells the IC50s for o-NOSH-ASA, m-NOSH-ASA, and p-NOSH-ASA were 0.062 0.006M, 0.0920.004M, and 0.370.04M, respectively. The IC50 for aspirin in both cell lines was >5mM at 24h. The reduction of cell growth appeared to be mediated through inhibition of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. All 3 positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin preferentially inhibited COX-1 over COX-2. These results suggest that the three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin have the same biological actions, but that o-NOSH-ASA displayed the strongest anti-neoplastic potential. PMID:26319435

  1. Effects of COX-2 inhibition on spinal nociception: the role of endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Staniaszek, LE; Norris, LM; Kendall, DA; Barrett, DA; Chapman, V

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent studies suggest that the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition are mediated by cannabinoid receptor activation. However, some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, which regulates levels of some endocannabinoids. Whether COX-2 directly regulates levels of endocannabinoids in vivo is unclear. Here, the effect of the COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide, which does not inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase, on spinal nociceptive processing was determined. Effects of nimesulide on tissue levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds were measured and the role of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors was determined. Experimental approach: Effects of spinal and peripheral administration of nimesulide (1–100 µg per 50 µL) on mechanically evoked responses of rat dorsal horn neurones were measured, and the contribution of the CB1 receptor was determined with the antagonist AM251 (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(-4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), in anaesthetized rats. Effects of nimesulide on spinal levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Key results: Spinal, but not peripheral, injection of nimesulide (1–100 µg per 50 µL) significantly reduced mechanically evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones. Inhibitory effects of spinal nimesulide were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 µg per 50 µL), but spinal levels of endocannabinoids were not elevated. Indeed, both anandamide and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were significantly decreased by nimesulide. Conclusions and implications: Although the inhibitory effects of COX-2 blockade on spinal neuronal responses by nimesulide were dependent on CB1 receptors, we did not detect a concomitant elevation in anandamide or 2-AG. Further understanding of the complexities of endocannabinoid catabolism by multiple enzymes is essential to understand their contribution to COX-2-mediated analgesia. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID:20590570

  2. Inhibition of COX-2 expression by endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is mediated via PPAR-?

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huizhi; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chu

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endocannabinoids have both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties against harmful stimuli. We previously demonstrated that the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) protects hippocampal neurons by limiting the inflammatory response via a CB1 receptor-dependent MAPK/NF-?B signalling pathway. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PPAR?, an important nuclear receptor, mediates 2-AG-induced inhibition of NF-?B phosphorylation and COX-2 expression, and COX-2-enhanced miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH By using a whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological recording technique and immunoblot analysis, we determined mEPSCs, expression of COX-2 and PPAR?, and phosphorylation of NF-kB in mouse hippocampal neurons in culture. KEY RESULTS Exogenous and endogenous 2-AG-produced suppressions of NF-?B-p65 phosphorylation, COX-2 expression and excitatory synaptic transmission in response to pro-inflammatory interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and LPS were inhibited by GW9662, a selective PPAR? antagonist, in hippocampal neurons in culture. PPAR? agonists 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and rosiglitazone mimicked the effects of 2-AG on NF-?B-p65 phosphorylation, COX-2 expression and mEPSCs, and these effects were eliminated by antagonism of PPAR?. Moreover, exogenous application of 2-AG or elevation of endogenous 2-AG by inhibiting its hydrolysis with URB602 or JZL184, selective inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), prevented the IL-1?- and LPS-induced reduction of PPAR? expression. The 2-AG restoration of the reduced PPAR? expression was blocked or attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the CB1 receptor. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that CB1 receptor-dependent PPAR? expression is an important and novel signalling pathway in endocannabinoid 2-AG-produced resolution of neuroinflammation in response to pro-inflammatory insults. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21501147

  3. Bias correction for the proportional odds logistic regression model with application to a study of surgical complications.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Stuart R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Regenbogen, Scott E; Sinha, Debajyoti; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Gawande, Atul A

    2013-03-01

    The proportional odds logistic regression model is widely used for relating an ordinal outcome to a set of covariates. When the number of outcome categories is relatively large, the sample size is relatively small, and/or certain outcome categories are rare, maximum likelihood can yield biased estimates of the regression parameters. Firth (1993) and Kosmidis and Firth (2009) proposed a procedure to remove the leading term in the asymptotic bias of the maximum likelihood estimator. Their approach is most easily implemented for univariate outcomes. In this paper, we derive a bias correction that exploits the proportionality between Poisson and multinomial likelihoods for multinomial regression models. Specifically, we describe a bias correction for the proportional odds logistic regression model, based on the likelihood from a collection of independent Poisson random variables whose means are constrained to sum to 1, that is straightforward to implement. The proposed method is motivated by a study of predictors of post-operative complications in patients undergoing colon or rectal surgery (Gawande et al., 2007). PMID:23913986

  4. Bias correction for the proportional odds logistic regression model with application to a study of surgical complications

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Regenbogen, Scott E.; Sinha, Debajyoti; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Gawande, Atul A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The proportional odds logistic regression model is widely used for relating an ordinal outcome to a set of covariates. When the number of outcome categories is relatively large, the sample size is relatively small, and/or certain outcome categories are rare, maximum likelihood can yield biased estimates of the regression parameters. Firth (1993) and Kosmidis and Firth (2009) proposed a procedure to remove the leading term in the asymptotic bias of the maximum likelihood estimator. Their approach is most easily implemented for univariate outcomes. In this paper, we derive a bias correction that exploits the proportionality between Poisson and multinomial likelihoods for multinomial regression models. Specifically, we describe a bias correction for the proportional odds logistic regression model, based on the likelihood from a collection of independent Poisson random variables whose means are constrained to sum to 1, that is straightforward to implement. The proposed method is motivated by a study of predictors of post-operative complications in patients undergoing colon or rectal surgery (Gawande et al., 2007). PMID:23913986

  5. Hierarchical regression for analyses of multiple outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan B; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    In cohort mortality studies, there often is interest in associations between an exposure of primary interest and mortality due to a range of different causes. A standard approach to such analyses involves fitting a separate regression model for each type of outcome. However, the statistical precision of some estimated associations may be poor because of sparse data. In this paper, we describe a hierarchical regression model for estimation of parameters describing outcome-specific relative rate functions and associated credible intervals. The proposed model uses background stratification to provide flexible control for the outcome-specific associations of potential confounders, and it employs a hierarchical "shrinkage" approach to stabilize estimates of an exposure's associations with mortality due to different causes of death. The approach is illustrated in analyses of cancer mortality in 2 cohorts: a cohort of dioxin-exposed US chemical workers and a cohort of radiation-exposed Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Compared with standard regression estimates of associations, hierarchical regression yielded estimates with improved precision that tended to have less extreme values. The hierarchical regression approach also allowed the fitting of models with effect-measure modification. The proposed hierarchical approach can yield estimates of association that are more precise than conventional estimates when one wishes to estimate associations with multiple outcomes. PMID:26232395

  6. Symbolic Regression of Conditional Target Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines techniques for improving symbolic regression systems in cases where the target expression contains conditionals. In three previous papers we experimentedwith combining high performance techniques fromthe literature to produce a large scale, industrial strength, symbolic regression-classification system. Performance metrics across multiple problems show deterioration in accuracy for problems where the target expression contains conditionals. The techniques described herein are shown to improve accuracy on such conditional problems. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in accuracy. A previously published regression system combining standard genetic programming with abstract expression grammars, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution, context aware crossover and age-layered populations is tested on the nine base test cases. The regression system is enhanced with these additional techniques: pessimal vertical slicing, splicing of uncorrelated champions via abstract conditional expressions, and abstract mutation and crossover. The enhanced symbolic regression system is applied to the nine base test cases and an improvement in accuracy is observed.

  7. Assessing multivariate gene-metabolome associations with rare variants using Bayesian reduced rank regression

    PubMed Central

    Marttinen, Pekka; Pirinen, Matti; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Kettunen, Johannes; Surakka, Ida; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; OReilly, Paul; Kaakinen, Marika; Khnen, Mika; Lehtimki, Terho; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T.; Salomaa, Veikko; Jrvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ripatti, Samuli; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: A typical genome-wide association study searches for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a univariate phenotype. However, there is a growing interest to investigate associations between genomics data and multivariate phenotypes, for example, in gene expression or metabolomics studies. A common approach is to perform a univariate test between each genotypephenotype pair, and then to apply a stringent significance cutoff to account for the large number of tests performed. However, this approach has limited ability to uncover dependencies involving multiple variables. Another trend in the current genetics is the investigation of the impact of rare variants on the phenotype, where the standard methods often fail owing to lack of power when the minor allele is present in only a limited number of individuals. Results: We propose a new statistical approach based on Bayesian reduced rank regression to assess the impact of multiple SNPs on a high-dimensional phenotype. Because of the methods ability to combine information over multiple SNPs and phenotypes, it is particularly suitable for detecting associations involving rare variants. We demonstrate the potential of our method and compare it with alternatives using the Northern Finland Birth Cohort with 4702 individuals, for whom genome-wide SNP data along with lipoprotein profiles comprising 74 traits are available. We discovered two genes (XRCC4 and MTHFD2L) without previously reported associations, which replicated in a combined analysis of two additional cohorts: 2390 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study and 3659 individuals from the FINRISK study. Availability and implementation: R-code freely available for download at http://users.ics.aalto.fi/pemartti/gene_metabolome/. Contact: samuli.ripatti@helsinki.fi; samuel.kaski@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24665129

  8. Discovery and Replication of Gene Influences on Brain Structure Using LASSO Regression.

    PubMed

    Kohannim, Omid; Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Jahanshad, Neda; Hua, Xue; Rajagopalan, Priya; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Hansell, Narelle K; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    We implemented least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression to evaluate gene effects in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of brain images, using an MRI-derived temporal lobe volume measure from 729 subjects scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Sparse groups of SNPs in individual genes were selected by LASSO, which identifies efficient sets of variants influencing the data. These SNPs were considered jointly when assessing their association with neuroimaging measures. We discovered 22 genes that passed genome-wide significance for influencing temporal lobe volume. This was a substantially greater number of significant genes compared to those found with standard, univariate GWAS. These top genes are all expressed in the brain and include genes previously related to brain function or neuropsychiatric disorders such as MACROD2, SORCS2, GRIN2B, MAGI2, NPAS3, CLSTN2, GABRG3, NRXN3, PRKAG2, GAS7, RBFOX1, ADARB2, CHD4, and CDH13. The top genes we identified with this method also displayed significant and widespread post hoc effects on voxelwise, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) maps of the temporal lobes. The most significantly associated gene was an autism susceptibility gene known as MACROD2. We were able to successfully replicate the effect of the MACROD2 gene in an independent cohort of 564 young, Australian healthy adult twins and siblings scanned with MRI (mean age: 23.8??2.2 SD years). Our approach powerfully complements univariate techniques in detecting influences of genes on the living brain. PMID:22888310

  9. Uncertainty quantification in DIC with Kriging regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezhi; DiazDelaO, F. A.; Wang, Weizhuo; Lin, Xiaoshan; Patterson, Eann A.; Mottershead, John E.

    2016-03-01

    A Kriging regression model is developed as a post-processing technique for the treatment of measurement uncertainty in classical subset-based Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Regression is achieved by regularising the sample-point correlation matrix using a local, subset-based, assessment of the measurement error with assumed statistical normality and based on the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) criterion. This leads to a Kriging-regression model in the form of a Gaussian process representing uncertainty on the Kriging estimate of the measured displacement field. The method is demonstrated using numerical and experimental examples. Kriging estimates of displacement fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with 'true' values for the numerical cases and in the experimental example uncertainty quantification is carried out using the Gaussian random process that forms part of the Kriging model. The root mean square error (RMSE) on the estimated displacements is produced and standard deviations on local strain estimates are determined.

  10. Efficient image classification via multiple rank regression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chenping; Nie, Feiping; Yi, Dongyun; Wu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The problem of image classification has aroused considerable research interest in the field of image processing. Traditional methods often convert an image to a vector and then use a vector-based classifier. In this paper, a novel multiple rank regression model (MRR) for matrix data classification is proposed. Unlike traditional vector-based methods, we employ multiple-rank left projecting vectors and right projecting vectors to regress each matrix data set to its label for each category. The convergence behavior, initialization, computational complexity, and parameter determination are also analyzed. Compared with vector-based regression methods, MRR achieves higher accuracy and has lower computational complexity. Compared with traditional supervised tensor-based methods, MRR performs better for matrix data classification. Promising experimental results on face, object, and hand-written digit image classification tasks are provided to show the effectiveness of our method. PMID:22910112

  11. Efficient Regressions via Optimally Combining Quantile Information*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhibiao; Xiao, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    We develop a generally applicable framework for constructing efficient estimators of regression models via quantile regressions. The proposed method is based on optimally combining information over multiple quantiles and can be applied to a broad range of parametric and nonparametric settings. When combining information over a fixed number of quantiles, we derive an upper bound on the distance between the efficiency of the proposed estimator and the Fisher information. As the number of quantiles increases, this upper bound decreases and the asymptotic variance of the proposed estimator approaches the Cramr-Rao lower bound under appropriate conditions. In the case of non-regular statistical estimation, the proposed estimator leads to super-efficient estimation. We illustrate the proposed method for several widely used regression models. Both asymptotic theory and Monte Carlo experiments show the superior performance over existing methods. PMID:25484481

  12. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma with partial spontaneous regression.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Shimose, Shoji; Kubo, Tadahiko; Mikami, Yukio; Arihiro, Koji; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Resection for a mass in the proximal thigh was performed on a 57-year-old woman, the diagnosis of which was extraskeletal osteosarcoma. In pathological findings, tumor cells gradually decreased from the central area of the mass composed of spindle cell sarcoma and were replaced by fibrocollagenous tissue with no sarcoma cells. CD8(+), T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)(+), granzyme B(+) T lymphocytes appeared to infiltrate the mass lesion, so that we hypothesize that the immunological system was likely to be involved via T lymphocytes in triggering spontaneous regression in this case. One of the most unusual phenomena in cancer biology is the spontaneous regression of a tumor. Here, we report on the first case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma characterized by partial spontaneous regression of the primary lesion. PMID:20044636

  13. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P < 0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH2 asymmetric stretching peak height, CH2 symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  14. A tutorial on Bayesian Normal linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauenberg, Katy; Wübbeler, Gerd; Mickan, Bodo; Harris, Peter; Elster, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    Regression is a common task in metrology and often applied to calibrate instruments, evaluate inter-laboratory comparisons or determine fundamental constants, for example. Yet, a regression model cannot be uniquely formulated as a measurement function, and consequently the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and its supplements are not applicable directly. Bayesian inference, however, is well suited to regression tasks, and has the advantage of accounting for additional a priori information, which typically robustifies analyses. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future revisions of the GUM shall also embrace the Bayesian view. Guidance on Bayesian inference for regression tasks is largely lacking in metrology. For linear regression models with Gaussian measurement errors this tutorial gives explicit guidance. Divided into three steps, the tutorial first illustrates how a priori knowledge, which is available from previous experiments, can be translated into prior distributions from a specific class. These prior distributions have the advantage of yielding analytical, closed form results, thus avoiding the need to apply numerical methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Secondly, formulas for the posterior results are given, explained and illustrated, and software implementations are provided. In the third step, Bayesian tools are used to assess the assumptions behind the suggested approach. These three steps (prior elicitation, posterior calculation, and robustness to prior uncertainty and model adequacy) are critical to Bayesian inference. The general guidance given here for Normal linear regression tasks is accompanied by a simple, but real-world, metrological example. The calibration of a flow device serves as a running example and illustrates the three steps. It is shown that prior knowledge from previous calibrations of the same sonic nozzle enables robust predictions even for extrapolations.

  15. T-614, a novel antirheumatic drug, inhibits both the activity and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kawasaki, H; Kurata, K; Aikawa, Y; Tsukamoto, Y; Inaba, T

    1995-04-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for the selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in inflammatory tissue by T-614 (3-formylamino-7-methylsulfonylamino-6-phenoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-o ne), its effects on both the activity and the induction of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were investigated in vitro. T-614 inhibited the activity of purified COX-2 enzyme (IC50: 7.7 micrograms/ml), but was inactive against both COX-1 activities of microsomal and purified enzymes (IC50: > 300 micrograms/ml). On the other hand, when the inhibition of PGE2 production by T-614 was examined in the cultured fibroblasts stimulated with bradykinin, T-614 at 1 microgram/ml or less inhibited PGE2 release more effectively than that in the above cell-free system. Therefore, we examined which of the COX enzymes was expressed in bradykinin-stimulated fibroblasts by using both the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analyses. As a result, COX-1 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the cells, whereas COX-2 mRNA was not detected without stimulation with bradykinin, but was expressed within 30 min when stimulated. Furthermore, it was found that the addition of T-614 reduced the COX-2 mRNA levels in 30 min after stimulation. These studies suggest that at least some of inhibitory effects of T-614 on prostanoids production are mediated by the synergy of the inhibition of COX-2 activity and the inhibition of induction, and such an action of T-614 may explain the pharmacological properties of this drug. PMID:7650864

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in dentigerous cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Siadati, Sepideh; Moghaddam, Elham Alizadeh; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Najafi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an early response gene that is induced by growth factors, oncogenes and carcinogens and its expression is increased in various tumors. Increased expression of COX-2 plays a significant role in the development and growth of tumors by interfering in biological processes such as cell division, cellular immunity, cell adhesion, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) in comparison with ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst with regards to different clinical behavior and histopathological features of these lesions. Materials and Methods: Paraffined blocks of 45 cases including 15 cases of dentigerous cyst, 15 cases of KOT and 15 cases of ameloblastoma were stained with immunohistochemical method for COX-2. Five high-power fields of each sample were evaluated to determine the percentage of stained cells and the intensity of staining. Degree of immunoreactivity was obtained from the sum of two. Statistical evaluation was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). Results: Overexpression of COX-2 in ameloblastoma and KOT was observed compared with dentigerous cyst (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between the expression of COX-2 in ameloblastoma and KOT (P = 0.148). Conclusion: The COX-2 expression in odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma and cystic neoplasm with aggressive behavior such as KOT increases. However, it does not seem that COX-2 affects the development and growth of cysts with noninvasive behavior like dentigerous cyst. PMID:26005470

  17. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauridsen, Jrgen; Mur, Jess

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  18. Removing Malmquist bias from linear regressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verter, Frances

    1993-01-01

    Malmquist bias is present in all astronomical surveys where sources are observed above an apparent brightness threshold. Those sources which can be detected at progressively larger distances are progressively more limited to the intrinsically luminous portion of the true distribution. This bias does not distort any of the measurements, but distorts the sample composition. We have developed the first treatment to correct for Malmquist bias in linear regressions of astronomical data. A demonstration of the corrected linear regression that is computed in four steps is presented.

  19. Palbociclib inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer via c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ge; Xu, Fei; Qin, Tao; Zheng, Qiufan; Shi, Dingbo; Xia, Wen; Tian, Yun; Tang, Yanlai; Wang, Jingshu; Xiao, Xiangshen; Deng, Wuguo; Wang, Shusen

    2015-12-01

    Palbociclib, a highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, has been shown to be a novel anti-tumor agent that suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation. However, its anti-metastasis activity remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated whether palbociclib prevented breast cancer cell metastasis and revealed its regulatory mechanism. We found that palbociclib inhibited migration and invasion in the breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T47D. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, vimentin and Snail, were down-regulated with palbociclib treatment. Moreover, we revealed that this inhibition was mediated by the c-Jun/COX-2 pathway. COX-2 was decreased after palbociclib treatment. The production of PGE2 was also reduced along with COX-2. Additionally, our data showed that c-Jun, a crucial transcriptional regulator of COX-2, was down-regulated by palbociclib. We found that palbociclib weakened the COX-2 promoter binding activity of c-Jun and prevented its translocation from the cytoplasm to cell nuclei. Bioluminescence imaging and tail intravenous injection were used to evaluate the anti-metastasis effect of palbociclib in vivo. The data demonstrated that palbociclib reduced breast cancer metastasis to the lung. These results therefore demonstrated that the anti-metastasis activity of palbociclib is mediated via the c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway by inhibiting EMT in breast cancer cells. PMID:26540629

  20. Regulation of Cox-2 by cyclic AMP response element binding protein in prostate cancer: potential role for nexrutine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rita; Garcia, Gretchen E; Crosby, Katherine; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Thompson, Ian M; Troyer, Dean A; Kumar, Addanki P

    2007-11-01

    We recently showed that Nexrutine, a Phellodendron amurense bark extract, suppresses proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines and tumor development in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Our data also indicate that the anti-proliferative effects of Nexrutine are emediated in part by Akt and Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Cyclooxygenase (Cox-2), a pro-inflammatory mediator, is a CREB target that induces prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and suppresses apoptosis. Treatment of LNCaP cells with Nexrutine reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced enzymatic as well as promoter activities of Cox-2. Nexrutine also reduced the expression and promoter activity of Cox-2 in PC-3 cells that express high constitutive levels of Cox-2. Deletion analysis coupled with mutational analysis of the Cox-2 promoter identified CRE as being sufficient for mediating Nexrutine response. Immunohistochemical analysis of human prostate tumors show increased expression of CREB and DNA binding activity in high-grade tumors (three-fold higher in human prostate tumors compared to normal prostate; P = .01). We have identified CREB-mediated activation of Cox-2 as a potential signaling pathway in prostate cancer which can be blocked with a nontoxic, cost-effective dietary supplement like Nexrutine, demonstrating a prospective for development of Nexrutine for prostate cancer management. PMID:18030357

  1. COX-2, a synaptically induced enzyme, is expressed by excitatory neurons at postsynaptic sites in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, W E; Worley, P F; Pegg, J; Bremer, M; Isakson, P

    1996-01-01

    Postnatal development and adult function of the central nervous system are dependent on the capacity of neurons to effect long-term changes of specific properties in response to neural activity. This neuronal response has been demonstrated to be tightly correlated with the expression of a set of regulatory genes which include transcription factors as well as molecules that can directly modify cellular signaling. It is hypothesized that these proteins play a role in activity-dependent response. Previously, we described the expression and regulation in brain of an inducible form of prostaglandin synthase/cyclooxygenase, termed COX-2. COX-2 is a rate-limiting enzyme in prostanoid synthesis and its expression is rapidly regulated in developing and adult forebrain by physiological synaptic activity. Here we demonstrate that COX-2 immunoreactivity is selectively expressed in a subpopulation of excitatory neurons in neo-and allocortices, hippocampus, and amygdala and is compartmentalized to dendritic arborizations. Moreover, COX-2 immunoreactivity is present in dendritic spines, which are specialized structures involved in synaptic signaling. The developmental profile of COX-2 expression in dendrites follows well known histogenetic gradients and coincides with the critical period for activity-dependent synaptic remodeling. These results suggest that COX-2, and its diffusible prostanoid products, may play a role in postsynaptic signaling of excitatory neurons in cortex and associated structures. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8637870

  2. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Canine Osteosarcoma Stem Cells Reveals a Novel Role for COX-2 in Tumour Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Lisa Y.; Gatenby, Emma L.; Kamida, Ayako; Whitelaw, Bruce A.; Hupp, Ted R.; Argyle, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour of both children and dogs. It is an aggressive tumour in both species with a rapid clinical course leading ultimately to metastasis. In dogs and children distant metastasis occurs in >80% of individuals treated by surgery alone. Both canine and human osteosarcoma has been shown to contain a sub-population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may drive tumour growth, recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that naturally occurring canine osteosarcoma could act as a preclinical model for the human disease. Here we report the successful isolation of CSCs from primary canine osteosarcoma, as well as established cell lines. We show that these cells can form tumourspheres, and demonstrate relative resistance to chemotherapy. We demonstrate similar results for the human osteosarcma cell lines, U2OS and SAOS2. Utilizing the Affymetrix canine microarray, we are able to definitively show that there are significant differences in global gene expression profiles of isolated osteosarcoma stem cells and the daughter adherent cells. We identified 13,221 significant differences (p = 0.05), and significantly, COX-2 was expressed 141-fold more in CSC spheres than daughter adherent cells. To study the role of COX-2 expression in CSCs we utilized the COX-2 inhibitors meloxicam and mavacoxib. We found that COX-2 inhibition had no effect on CSC growth, or resistance to chemotherapy. However inhibition of COX-2 in daughter cells prevented sphere formation, indicating a potential significant role for COX-2 in tumour initiation. PMID:24416158

  3. AML1-ETO mediates hematopoietic self-renewal and leukemogenesis through a COX/?-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyun; Wang, Jianfeng; Wheat, Justin; Chen, Xi; Jin, Shan; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Fathi, Amir T.; Peterson, Randall T.; Kung, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Developing novel therapies that suppress self-renewal of leukemia stem cells may reduce the likelihood of relapses and extend long-term survival of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). AML1-ETO (AE) is an oncogene that plays an important role in inducing self-renewal of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), leading to the development of leukemia stem cells. Previously, using a zebrafish model of AE and a whole-organism chemical suppressor screen, we have discovered that AE induces specific hematopoietic phenotypes in embryonic zebrafish through a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and ?-catenindependent pathway. Here, we show that AE also induces expression of the Cox-2 gene and activates ?-catenin in mouse bone marrow cells. Inhibition of COX suppresses ?-catenin activation and serial replating of AE+ mouse HSPCs. Genetic knockdown of ?-catenin also abrogates the clonogenic growth of AE+ mouse HSPCs and human leukemia cells. In addition, treatment with nimesulide, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, dramatically suppresses xenograft tumor formation and inhibits in vivo progression of human leukemia cells. In summary, our data indicate an important role of a COX/?-catenindependent signaling pathway in tumor initiation, growth, and self-renewal, and in providing the rationale for testing potential benefits from common COX inhibitors as a part of AML treatments. PMID:23645839

  4. Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) enhances RCC cell motility through upregulation of ICAM-1 and COX-2 expression via Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Liping; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zheng; Ding, Sentai; Lu, Jiaju; Bi, Dongbin; Mei, Yikun; Niu, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carries a high risk of malignancy and metastasis. The inducible isoform of prostaglandin synthase, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and ICAM-1 may be involved in tumor metastasis. CCN3, also called nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV), has been found to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. The effects of NOV on RCC cell migration and expression of COX-2 and ICAM-1 have not described yet in detail. But here, NOV was found to promote the migration and expression of COX-2 and ICAM-1 in human RCC cells. Akt inhibitor was found to interfere with this NOV-induced migration and up-regulation of COX-2 and ICAM-1 in RCC cells. NOV stimulation was here found to promote the phosphorylation of Akt. RCC tissue chips were subjected to IHC staining, which showed COX-2 expression in RCC tissues to be a significantly closely correlated with NOV expression, with significance determined using Pearson correlation testing (P < 0.05). The results of the current work indicate that NOV activates COX-2 and ICAM-1 through Akt, promoting the migration of RCC cells. PMID:25973014

  5. Palbociclib inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer via c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiufan; Shi, Dingbo; Xia, Wen; Tian, Yun; Tang, Yanlai; Wang, Jingshu; Xiao, Xiangshen; Deng, Wuguo; Wang, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Palbociclib, a highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, has been shown to be a novel anti-tumor agent that suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation. However, its anti-metastasis activity remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated whether palbociclib prevented breast cancer cell metastasis and revealed its regulatory mechanism. We found that palbociclib inhibited migration and invasion in the breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T47D. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, vimentin and Snail, were down-regulated with palbociclib treatment. Moreover, we revealed that this inhibition was mediated by the c-Jun/COX-2 pathway. COX-2 was decreased after palbociclib treatment. The production of PGE2 was also reduced along with COX-2. Additionally, our data showed that c-Jun, a crucial transcriptional regulator of COX-2, was down-regulated by palbociclib. We found that palbociclib weakened the COX-2 promoter binding activity of c-Jun and prevented its translocation from the cytoplasm to cell nuclei. Bioluminescence imaging and tail intravenous injection were used to evaluate the anti-metastasis effect of palbociclib in vivo. The data demonstrated that palbociclib reduced breast cancer metastasis to the lung. These results therefore demonstrated that the anti-metastasis activity of palbociclib is mediated via the c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway by inhibiting EMT in breast cancer cells. PMID:26540629

  6. AML1-ETO mediates hematopoietic self-renewal and leukemogenesis through a COX/?-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyun; Wang, Jianfeng; Wheat, Justin; Chen, Xi; Jin, Shan; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Fathi, Amir T; Peterson, Randall T; Kung, Andrew L; Sweetser, David A; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna

    2013-06-13

    Developing novel therapies that suppress self-renewal of leukemia stem cells may reduce the likelihood of relapses and extend long-term survival of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). AML1-ETO (AE) is an oncogene that plays an important role in inducing self-renewal of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), leading to the development of leukemia stem cells. Previously, using a zebrafish model of AE and a whole-organism chemical suppressor screen, we have discovered that AE induces specific hematopoietic phenotypes in embryonic zebrafish through a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and ?-catenin-dependent pathway. Here, we show that AE also induces expression of the Cox-2 gene and activates ?-catenin in mouse bone marrow cells. Inhibition of COX suppresses ?-catenin activation and serial replating of AE(+) mouse HSPCs. Genetic knockdown of ?-catenin also abrogates the clonogenic growth of AE(+) mouse HSPCs and human leukemia cells. In addition, treatment with nimesulide, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, dramatically suppresses xenograft tumor formation and inhibits in vivo progression of human leukemia cells. In summary, our data indicate an important role of a COX/?-catenin-dependent signaling pathway in tumor initiation, growth, and self-renewal, and in providing the rationale for testing potential benefits from common COX inhibitors as a part of AML treatments. PMID:23645839

  7. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to provide localized, real-time monitoring of material regression rates in various applications has the potential to provide a new stream of data for development testing of various components and systems, as well as serving as a monitoring tool in flight applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the regression of a combusting solid fuel surface, the ablation of the throat in a chemical rocket or the heat shield of an aeroshell, and the monitoring of erosion in long-life plasma thrusters. The rate of regression in the first application is very fast, while the second and third are increasingly slower. A recent fundamental sensor development effort has led to a novel regression, erosion, and ablation sensor technology (REAST). The REAST sensor allows for measurement of real-time surface erosion rates at a discrete surface location. The sensor is optical, using two different, co-located fiber-optics to perform the regression measurement. The disparate optical transmission properties of the two fiber-optics makes it possible to measure the regression rate by monitoring the relative light attenuation through the fibers. As the fibers regress along with the parent material in which they are embedded, the relative light intensities through the two fibers changes, providing a measure of the regression rate. The optical nature of the system makes it relatively easy to use in a variety of harsh, high temperature environments, and it is also unaffected by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the sensor could be used to perform optical spectroscopy on the light emitted by a process and collected by fibers, giving localized measurements of various properties. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of material regression rates is useful in addressing a variety of physical issues in various applications. An in-situ measurement allows for real-time data regarding the erosion rates, providing a quick method for empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over an operating envelope could also be useful in the modeling detailed physical processes. The sensor has been embedded in many regressing media for the purposes of proof-of-concept testing. A gross demonstration of its capabilities was performed using a sanding wheel to remove layers of metal. A longer-term demonstration measurement involved the placement of the sensor in a brake pad, monitoring the removal of pad material associated with the normal wear-and-tear of driving. It was used to measure the regression rates of the combustable media in small model rocket motors and road flares. Finally, a test was performed using a sand blaster to remove small amounts of material at a time. This test was aimed at demonstrating the unit's present resolution, and is compared with laser profilometry data obtained simultaneously. At the lowest resolution levels, this unit should be useful in locally quantifying the erosion rates of the channel walls in plasma thrusters. .

  8. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  9. Mixed-Phase Icing Simulation and Testing at the Cox Icing Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel; Irani, Eddie; Miller, Dean

    2003-01-01

    A new capability was developed for indoor simulation of snow and mixed-phase icing conditions. This capability is useful for year-round testing in the Cox closed-loop Icing Wind Tunnel. Certification of aircraft for flight into these types of icing conditions is only required by the JAA in Europe. In an effort to harmonize certification requirements, the FAA in the US sponsored a preliminary program to study the effects of mixed-phase and fully glaciated icing conditions on the performance requirements of thermal ice protection systems. This paper describes the test program and the associated results.

  10. CoxC nanorod magnets: Highly magnetocrystalline anisotropy with lower Curie temperature for potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gendy, AA; Almugaiteeb, T; Carpenter, EE

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic CoxC nanorods with larger magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 5 x 10(5) J/m(3) as well as larger coercivity and lower Curie temperature are introduced. The particles have an average diameter of 8 nm and shows three different magnetic behaviors. The sample shows ferromagnetism up to 400 K, superparamagnetism at temperature > 400 K and

  11. A Modified Golgi-Cox Procedure for use in Undergraduate Courses.

    PubMed

    Wright, Katharine A; Zimmerman, Eliana L; Harrington, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi staining method has a long history in the field of neuroscience, and remains an important teaching tool in undergraduate laboratory settings. The ability to visualize a cell with all the processes makes the method useful when teaching introductory neuroscience courses. However, the amount of time required for post-stain tissue processing makes it a difficult procedure to use when teaching laboratory classes. We detail a modified Golgi-Cox method with a short incubation period and minimal post-stain processing that produces well differentiated cells, making it ideal for use in an undergraduate laboratory. PMID:23626498

  12. Fluorescence imaging of dendritic spines of Golgi-Cox-stained neurons using brightening background.

    PubMed

    Ai, Min; Xiong, Hanqing; Yang, Tao; Shang, Zhenhua; Chen, Muqing; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel fluorescence imaging approach to imaging nonfluorescence-labeled biological tissue samples. The method was demonstrated by imaging neurons in Golgi-Cox-stained and epoxy-resin-embedded samples through the excitation of the background fluorescence of the specimens. The dark neurons stood out clearly against background fluorescence in the images, enabling the tracing of a single dendritic spine using both confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy. The results suggest that the reported fluorescence imaging method would provide an effective alternative solution to image nonfluorescence-labeled samples, and it allows tracing the dendritic spine structure of neurons. PMID:25585023

  13. A complex of Cox4 and mitochondrial Hsp70 plays an important role in the assembly of the cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Bttinger, Lena; Guiard, Bernard; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Kulawiak, Bogusz; Zufall, Nicole; Wiedemann, Nils; Warscheid, Bettina; van der Laan, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the mature cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) involves the association of nuclear- and mitochondria-encoded subunits. The assembly of nuclear-encoded subunits like cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (Cox4) into the mature complex is poorly understood. Cox4 is crucial for the stability of complex IV. To find specific biogenesis factors, we analyze interaction partners of Cox4 by affinity purification and mass spectroscopy. Surprisingly, we identify a complex of Cox4, the mitochondrial Hsp70 (mtHsp70), and its nucleotide-exchange factor mitochondrial GrpE (Mge1). We generate a yeast mutant of mtHsp70 specifically impaired in the formation of this novel mtHsp70-Mge1-Cox4 complex. Strikingly, the assembly of Cox4 is strongly decreased in these mutant mitochondria. Because Cox4 is a key factor for the biogenesis of complex IV, we conclude that the mtHsp70-Mge1-Cox4 complex plays an important role in the formation of cytochrome c oxidase. Cox4 arrests at this chaperone complex in the absence of mature complex IV. Thus the mtHsp70-Cox4 complex likely serves as a novel delivery system to channel Cox4 into the assembly line when needed. PMID:23864706

  14. A complex of Cox4 and mitochondrial Hsp70 plays an important role in the assembly of the cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bttinger, Lena; Guiard, Bernard; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Kulawiak, Bogusz; Zufall, Nicole; Wiedemann, Nils; Warscheid, Bettina; van der Laan, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The formation of the mature cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) involves the association of nuclear- and mitochondria-encoded subunits. The assembly of nuclear-encoded subunits like cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (Cox4) into the mature complex is poorly understood. Cox4 is crucial for the stability of complex IV. To find specific biogenesis factors, we analyze interaction partners of Cox4 by affinity purification and mass spectroscopy. Surprisingly, we identify a complex of Cox4, the mitochondrial Hsp70 (mtHsp70), and its nucleotide-exchange factor mitochondrial GrpE (Mge1). We generate a yeast mutant of mtHsp70 specifically impaired in the formation of this novel mtHsp70-Mge1-Cox4 complex. Strikingly, the assembly of Cox4 is strongly decreased in these mutant mitochondria. Because Cox4 is a key factor for the biogenesis of complex IV, we conclude that the mtHsp70-Mge1-Cox4 complex plays an important role in the formation of cytochrome c oxidase. Cox4 arrests at this chaperone complex in the absence of mature complex IV. Thus the mtHsp70-Cox4 complex likely serves as a novel delivery system to channel Cox4 into the assembly line when needed. PMID:23864706

  15. A Constrained Linear Estimator for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Dana, Jason; Budescu, David V.

    2010-01-01

    "Improper linear models" (see Dawes, Am. Psychol. 34:571-582, "1979"), such as equal weighting, have garnered interest as alternatives to standard regression models. We analyze the general circumstances under which these models perform well by recasting a class of "improper" linear models as "proper" statistical models with a single predictor. We…

  16. Moving the Bar: Transformations in Linear Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Janet

    The assumption that is most important to the hypothesis testing procedure of multiple linear regression is the assumption that the residuals are normally distributed, but this assumption is not always tenable given the realities of some data sets. When normal distribution of the residuals is not met, an alternative method can be initiated. As an

  17. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-01-01

    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly

  18. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  19. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-01-01

    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…

  20. A Constrained Linear Estimator for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Dana, Jason; Budescu, David V.

    2010-01-01

    "Improper linear models" (see Dawes, Am. Psychol. 34:571-582, "1979"), such as equal weighting, have garnered interest as alternatives to standard regression models. We analyze the general circumstances under which these models perform well by recasting a class of "improper" linear models as "proper" statistical models with a single predictor. We