Sample records for unknown mixing angle

  1. Image Restoration with Mixed or Unknown Noises , Zuowei Shen

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuowei

    Image Restoration with Mixed or Unknown Noises Zheng Gong , Zuowei Shen , and Kim-Chuan Toh Abstract This paper proposes a simple model for image restoration with mixed or unknown noises. It can handle image restoration without assuming any prior knowledge of the noise distribution

  2. RHYTHMIXEARCH: SEARCHING FOR UNKNOWN MUSIC BY MIXING KNOWN MUSIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto P. Kato

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for searching for unknown music. RhythMiXearch is a music search system we de- veloped that can accept two music inputs and mix those inputs to search for music that could reasonably be a re- sult of the mixture. This approach expands the ability of Query-by-Example and allows greater flexibility for users in finding unknown music.

  3. Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.

    2009-11-01

    An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

  4. The neutrino mixing angle ?13: Reactor and accelerator experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Daniel A.

    2014-09-01

    Recent measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 cap a decade of observations which have clearly established the oscillation of neutrino flavor. Measurements of reactor ?bare disappearance over ? km distances have provided a precise value for this mixing angle. Detection of ?e in beams of ?? from particle accelerators also support a non-zero value of ?13, and comparisons between these two techniques are sensitive to the remaining unknowns of neutrino oscillation. The unexpectedly large value for ?13 allows for future tests of the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP-violation in neutrino oscillation. Measurement of the energy dependence of reactor ?bare disappearance has been used to determine the larger neutrino mass-squared difference, | ?m312 | ? | ?m322| . Consistency with observations of accelerator ?? disappearance supports the three-flavor model of neutrino flavor oscillation.

  5. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    E-print Network

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  6. Physical region for three-neutrino mixing angles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Latimer; D. J. Ernst

    2005-01-01

    We derive a set of symmetry relations for the three-neutrino mixing angles, including the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) matter effect. Though interesting in their own right, these relations are used to choose the physical region of the mixing angles such that oscillations are parametrized completely and uniquely. We propose that the preferred way of setting the bounds on the mixing angles should

  7. Generalized mixing angles in gauge theories with natural flavor conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, Arthur C.; Kang, Kyungsik

    1981-01-01

    A number of theorems, relating Natural Flavor Conservation and Calculability are proven for general gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions with an unbroken U(1) symmetry. The concept of nontriviality - a necessary condition that all naturally flavor conserving gauge models must obey in order to have nontrivial mixing angles - is introduced. It is found that naturality groups guaranteeing Natural Flavor Conservation cannot generate meaningful mixing angles in any gauge model.

  8. Measurement of the neutrino mixing angle theta13 with the Double Chooz experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Ostrovskiy

    2009-01-01

    The neutrino mixing angle theta13 is last one which value is still unknown. Measuring the theta13 is important for completing our understanding of three flavor neutrino oscillations. Moreover, leptonic CP violation could only be measured in case the value of theta13 is not zero. The current best limit (^2(2theta13)<0.17 @ 90CL) belongs to the Chooz experiment conducted over 10 years

  9. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2014-07-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying A 4 flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading order effective operators. We prove this idea is viable by constructing an A 4-based ultraviolet completion, where the dominant tribimaximal structure arises from the type-I seesaw while the subleading contribution is determined by either type-II or type-III seesaw driven by a non-trivial A 4 singlet (minimal hybrid model). After finding general criteria, we identify all the N symmetries capable of producing such A 4-based minimal hybrid models.

  10. Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states

    E-print Network

    T. M. Aliev; M. Savci

    2014-09-18

    Using the pictures for $X(3872)$ as a mixture of charmonium and molecular $D^{\\ast 0}D^0$ states; $Y(3940)$ as a mixture of $\\chi_{c0}$ and $D^\\ast D^{\\prime\\ast}$ states, and $Y(4260)$ as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We obtain that our predictions for the mixing angles of the $X(3872)$, $Y(4260)$ and $Y(3940)$ states are considerably smaller compared to works in which mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the $X(3872)$, $Y(4260)$ and $Y(3940)$ states are not successful in describing these states.

  11. Mixing angle as a function of neutrino mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Singh, N. N.

    2015-05-01

    In the quark sector, we experience a correlation between the mixing angles and the mass ratios. A partial realization of the similar tie-up in the neutrino sector helps to constrain the parametrization of masses and mixing, and hints for a predictive framework. We derive five hierarchy dependent textures of neutrino mass matrix with minimum number of parameters (?4 ), following a model-independent strategy.

  12. A non-linear geodetic data inversion using ABIC for slip distribution on a fault with an unknown dip angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Wright, Tim J.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed a method of geodetic data inversion for slip distribution on a fault with an unknown dip angle. A common strategy for obtaining slip distribution in previous studies is to first determine the fault geometry by minimizing the square misfit under the assumption of a uniform slip on a rectangular fault, and then apply the usual linear inversion technique to estimate a slip distribution on the determined fault. It is not guaranteed, however, that the fault determined under the assumption of a uniform slip gives the best fault geometry for a spatially variable slip distribution. The inverse problem is non-linear for cases with unknown fault geometries, but the non-linearity of the problems is actually weak, when we can assume the fault surface to be a flat plane. In particular, when a clear trace of coseismic faults is observed on the Earth's surface, only the dip angle is an unknown parameter to determine the fault geometry. Then, we regarded the dip angle as an hyperparameter that prescribed the structure of parametric models, and obtained the best estimate of the dip angle using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). With the best estimate of the dip angle, we can obtain the slip distribution on the fault based on the maximum-likelihood principle. We applied the method to the InSAR data of the 1995 Dinar, Turkey earthquake and obtained a much lower dip angle than the previous analyses.

  13. Weak mixing angles from semileptonic decays in the quark model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Grinstein; Mark B. Wise; Nathan Isgur

    1986-01-01

    We use the constituent-quark model to predict the electron spectra in semileptonic meson decays. Particular attention is paid to the end-point region of the spectrum in B decays, which is important to the determination of the b-->u weak mixing angle.

  14. Searching for the Neutrino Mixing Angle Theta-13 at Reactors

    E-print Network

    Maury Goodman

    2007-06-04

    Two neutrino mixing angles have been measured, and much of the neutrino community is turning its attention to the unmeasured mixing angle, $\\quq$, whose best limit comes from the reactor neutrino experiment CHOOZ.\\cite{bib:chooz} New two detector reactor neutrino experiments are being planned, along with more ambitious accelerator experiments, to measure or further limit $\\quq$. Here I will overview how to measure $\\quq$ using reactor neutrinos, mention some experiments that were considered and are not going forward, and review the current status of four projects: Double Chooz in France, Daya Bay in China, RENO in South Korea and Angra in Brazil. Finally I will mention how the neutrino observer can gauge progress in these projects two years from now as we approach the times corresponding to early estimates for new results.

  15. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a general method for determining phase shifts and mixing angles on the lattice with greater precision than existing methods. The approach starts with angular momentum projection on the lattice wave functions in order to construct lattice radial wave functions. We then impose spherical wall boundaries together with an adjustable auxiliary potential to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energy. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance in order to extract phase shifts and mixing angles from the complex-valued wave functions. We benchmark the method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component, and find that scattering parameters can be extracted precisely for all angular momenta and energies. We discuss the application of the method to ab initio lattice Monte Carlo studies.

  16. Multivariate statistical approach to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end members

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Long, Andrew J.; Davis, Arden D.; Kenner, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented, which includes principal components analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing model to estimate unknown end-member hydrochemical compositions and the relative mixing proportions of those end members in mixed waters. PCA, together with the Hotelling T2 statistic and a conceptual model of groundwater flow and mixing, was used in selecting samples that best approximate end members, which then were used as initial values in optimization of the end-member mixing model. This method was tested on controlled datasets (i.e., true values of estimates were known a priori) and found effective in estimating these end members and mixing proportions. The controlled datasets included synthetically generated hydrochemical data, synthetically generated mixing proportions, and laboratory analyses of sample mixtures, which were used in an evaluation of the effectiveness of this method for potential use in actual hydrological settings. For three different scenarios tested, correlation coefficients (R2) for linear regression between the estimated and known values ranged from 0.968 to 0.993 for mixing proportions and from 0.839 to 0.998 for end-member compositions. The method also was applied to field data from a study of end-member mixing in groundwater as a field example and partial method validation.

  17. Multivariate statistical approach to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Long, Andrew J.; Davis, Arden D.; Kenner, Scott J.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryA multivariate statistical method is presented, which includes principal components analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing model to estimate unknown end-member hydrochemical compositions and the relative mixing proportions of those end members in mixed waters. PCA, together with the Hotelling T2 statistic and a conceptual model of groundwater flow and mixing, was used in selecting samples that best approximate end members, which then were used as initial values in optimization of the end-member mixing model. This method was tested on controlled datasets (i.e., true values of estimates were known a priori) and found effective in estimating these end members and mixing proportions. The controlled datasets included synthetically generated hydrochemical data, synthetically generated mixing proportions, and laboratory analyses of sample mixtures, which were used in an evaluation of the effectiveness of this method for potential use in actual hydrological settings. For three different scenarios tested, correlation coefficients (R2) for linear regression between the estimated and known values ranged from 0.968 to 0.993 for mixing proportions and from 0.839 to 0.998 for end-member compositions. The method also was applied to field data from a study of end-member mixing in groundwater as a field example and partial method validation.

  18. Measurement of flow angle and mass flow rate in an unknown flow field using hot film and hot wire probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, V. T., III

    1978-01-01

    A data reduction technique applicable to constant temperature hot film and hot wire probes is presented which is used to determine flow angle and mass flow rate in an unknown flow field over a wide range of flow conditions at supersonic and hypersonic velocities. The technique virtually eliminates the effect of Reynolds number on a probe's flow angle sensitivity. Methods for extrapolating a limited amount of mass flow rate calibration data to include the range of mass flow rate encountered in an experiment are also given. This technique has been applied to data obtained using a hot film probe during surveys in the leeside flow field of a space shuttle orbiter configuration.

  19. A Non-linear Geodetic Data Inversion Using ABIC for Slip Distribution on a Fault With an Unknown dip Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahata, Y.; Wright, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    We developed a method of geodetic data inversion for slip distribution on a fault with an unknown dip angle. When fault geometry is unknown, the problem of geodetic data inversion is non-linear. A common strategy for obtaining slip distribution is to first determine the fault geometry by minimizing the square misfit under the assumption of a uniform slip on a rectangular fault, and then apply the usual linear inversion technique to estimate a slip distribution on the determined fault. It is not guaranteed, however, that the fault determined under the assumption of a uniform slip gives the best fault geometry for a spatially variable slip distribution. In addition, in obtaining a uniform slip fault model, we have to simultaneously determine the values of the nine mutually dependent parameters, which is a highly non-linear, complicated process. Although the inverse problem is non-linear for cases with unknown fault geometries, the non-linearity of the problems is actually weak, when we can assume the fault surface to be flat. In particular, when a clear fault trace is observed on the EarthOs surface after an earthquake, we can precisely estimate the strike and the location of the fault. In this case only the dip angle has large ambiguity. In geodetic data inversion we usually need to introduce smoothness constraints in order to compromise reciprocal requirements for model resolution and estimation errors in a natural way. Strictly speaking, the inverse problem with smoothness constraints is also non-linear, even if the fault geometry is known. The non-linearity has been dissolved by introducing AkaikeOs Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC), with which the optimal value of the relative weight of observed data to smoothness constraints is objectively determined. In this study, using ABIC in determining the optimal dip angle, we dissolved the non-linearity of the inverse problem. We applied the method to the InSAR data of the 1995 Dinar, Turkey earthquake and obtained a much shallower dip angle than before.

  20. Neutrino Oscillations - what are the masses and mixing angles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, David

    2004-11-01

    An overview of existing data will be given and a simple model of the essential physics contained in each experiment will be described. Results of the analysis of the world's data by the model in the context of no CP violation and three neutrinos will be presented. Some interesting aspects of the results are 1.) Including LSND in the analysis raises the value of \\chi^2 but the statistically best fit predicts zero for the LSND experiments, 2.) the recent results from KamLAND demonstrate that it is located in the oscillatory region and is very nearly at the distance where the anti-electron neutrinos from the reactor have oscillated away and then maximally oscillated back, and 3.) the masses and mixing angles we find are very nearly equal to those found from a full anaysis for ?_13 greater than zero. However, we find a second solution with ?_13 negative, a solution which heretofore has been overlooked. The importance of including the negative ?_13 region, a region of parameter space which we have shown to be physical and distinct, will be stressed.

  1. The Cabibbo angle as a universal seed for quark and lepton mixings

    E-print Network

    S. Roy; S. Morisi; N. N. Singh; J. W. F. Valle

    2014-10-14

    A model-independent ansatz to describe lepton and quark mixing in a unified way is suggested based upon the Cabibbo angle. In our framework neutrinos mix in a "Bi-Large" fashion, while the charged leptons mix as the "down-type" quarks do. In addition to the standard Wolfenstein parameters (lambda, A) two other free parameters are needed to specify the physical lepton mixing matrix. Through this simple assumption one makes specific predictions for the atmospheric angle as well as leptonic CP violation in good agreement with current observations.

  2. Search for the theta13 mixing angle with the Double Chooz experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inés Gil-Botella

    2010-01-01

    The Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment will search for a non vanishing theta13 mixing angle with unprecedented sensitivity, which might open the way to unveiling CP violation in the leptonic sector. The measurement of this angle will be based in a precise comparison of the antineutrino spectrum at two identical detectors located at different distances from the Chooz nuclear reactor

  3. Angles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Edkins

    2007-01-01

    This set of eight interactive activities lets the user explore angles from many different perspectives. Activities include (1) visualizing the size of an angle; (2) examining objects that will stand or fall with right and non-right angles; (3) identifying obtuse, right, acute and straight angles; (4) guessing angle measures with different levels of precision; (5) exploring regular shapes and their angle measures; (6) studying angles in a fractal tree that is drawn with user inputs of the same angle measure between the branches at each stage; (7) exploring angle measures through firing a cannon (8) drawing with a Logo activity.

  4. Mixing angle and phase predictions from A5 with generalised CP

    E-print Network

    Turner, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Flavour groups have been extensively used to explain the pattern of mixing in the lepton sector. In combination with generalised CP six observables of the lepton sector can be predicted: three mixing angles and three phases. We present the predictions made from using A5 as a flavour group.

  5. Ansatz of leptonic mixing: The alliance of bi-maximal mixing with a single-angle rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyeon, Kim

    2014-11-01

    We introduce an ansatz of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix that consists of specific types of transformations. Bi-maximal mixing is taken for the neutrino masses while a single-angle rotation in the 1-2 block is taken for the charged lepton masses. Motivated by the implications of the recent results on neutrino oscillations, ? 23 in the first octant and non-zero ? 13 are predicted by the ansatz. Three physical mixing angles are expressed in terms of a single variable, the 1-2 angle of charged leptons, so that a simple relation among the angles has been obtained: tan ? 13 = (sin ? 23 - sin ? 12). Finally a model of the inverted hierarchy that can produce the given ansatz is proposed.

  6. Angles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Practice your knowledge of acute, obtuse, and alternate angles. Also, practice relationships between angles - vertical, adjacent, alternate, same-side, and corresponding. Angles is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  7. Coulomb-scattering and eta - eta-prime mixing angle

    E-print Network

    F. Kleefeld

    2006-02-20

    The fascinating physics underlying eta and eta-prime mesons can be studied theoretically and experimentally in various contexts. In this presentation we want to turn our attention to two important uncorrelated aspects of this vivid research field which provide yet unexpected challenges or surprises. First we discuss open questions in the theoretical treatment of Coulomb-interaction in the context of reaction processes like p p --> p p eta. Then we review eta - eta-prime and sigma(600) - f_0(980) mixing in the U(3) x U(3) Linear Sigma Model and extract information on eta - eta-prime mixing and the K*0(800) resonance from meson-meson scattering.

  8. Effects of energy and pitch angle mixed diffusion on radiation belt electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiuhua; Fok, Mei-Ching; Albert, Jay; Horne, Richard B.; Meredith, Nigel P.

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s radiation belts is important for modeling and forecasting the intensities of energetic electrons in space. Wave diffusion processes are known to be responsible for loss and acceleration of electrons in the radiation belts. Several recent studies indicate pitch angle and energy mixed-diffusion are also important when considering the total diffusive effects. In this study, a two-dimensional Fokker Planck equation is solved numerically using the Alternating Direction Implicit method. Mixed diffusion due to whistler-mode chorus waves tends to slow down the total diffusion in the energy-pitch angle space, particularly at smaller equatorial pitch angles. We then incorporate the electron energy and pitch angle mixed diffusions due to whistler-model chorus waves into the 4-dimensional Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model and study the effect of mixed diffusion during a storm in October 2002. The 4-D simulation results show that energy and pitch angle mixed diffusion decrease the electron fluxes in the outer belt while electron fluxes in the slot region are enhanced (up to a factor of 2) during storm time.

  9. A global fit to determine the pseudoscalar mixing angle and the gluonium content of the ?' meson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KLOE Collaboration; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Archilli, F.; Beltrame, P.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Spadaro, T.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.

    2009-07-01

    We update the values of the ?-?' mixing angle and of the ?' gluonium content by fitting our measurement Rphi = BR(phi ? ?'?)/BR(phi ? ??) together with several vector meson radiative decays to pseudoscalars (V ? P?), pseudoscalar mesons radiative decays to vectors (P ? V?) and the ?' ? ??, ?0 ? ?? widths. From the fit we extract a gluonium fraction of ZG2 = 0.12±0.04, the pseudoscalar mixing angle ?P = (40.4±0.6)° and the phi-? mixing angle ?V = (3.32±0.09)°. ZG2 and ?P are fairly consistent with those previously published. We also evaluate the impact on the ?' gluonium content determination of future experimental improvements of the ?' branching ratios and decay width.

  10. Angles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shodor Education Foundation

    2004-01-01

    This Java applet enables students to investigate acute, obtuse, and right angles. The student decides to work with one or two transversals and a pair of parallel lines. Angle measure is given for one angle. The student answers a short series of questions about the size of other angles, identifying relationships such as vertical and adjacent angles and alternate interior and alternate exterior angles. In addition to automatically checking the student's answers, the applet can keep score of correct answers. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans and a handout with a grid for showing the relationship between all possible angles that occur when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); et al.,

    2011-12-01

    A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1 inverse femtobarns. From the dominant u-ubar, d-dbar to gamma*/Z to opposite sign dimuons process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin^2(theta[eff]) = 0.2287 +/- 0.0020 (stat.) +/- 0.0025 (syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

  12. hal-00128493,version1-1Feb2007 SEARCH FOR THE 13 NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and 23. The present bound, which is dominated by the result of the CHOOZ reactor experiment, is sin2 213 to be much smaller than the two other mixing angles. The negative result of the Chooz reactor experiment [2 part of the region currently allowed by CHOOZ. Superbeam experiments will exploit the appearance

  13. Searching for the neutrino mixing angle {Theta}{sub 13} at reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M. C.; High Energy Physics

    2007-01-01

    Two neutrino mixing angles have been measured, and much of the neutrino community is turning its attention to the unmeasured mixing angle, quq, whose best limit comes from the reactor neutrino experiment CHOOZ. New two detector reactor neutrino experiments are being planned, along with more ambitious accelerator experiments, to measure or further limit quq. Here I will overview how to measure quq using reactor neutrinos, mention some experiments that were considered and are not going forward, and review the current status of four projects: Double Chooz in France, Daya Bay in China, RENO in South Korea and Angra in Brazil. Finally I will mention how the neutrino observer can gauge progress in these projects two years from now as we approach the times corresponding to early estimates for new results.

  14. Measurement of the pseudoscalar mixing angle and ?? gluonium content with the KLOE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Beltrame, P.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Bowring, D.; Branchini, P.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Chi, S.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fiore, S.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Mei, W.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Spadaro, T.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.; KLOE Collaboration

    2007-05-01

    We have measured the ratio R? = BR (? ??? ?) / BR (? ? ??) by looking for the radiative decays ? ??? ? and ? ? ?? into the final states ?+?- 7 ? and 7?, respectively, in a sample of ? 1.4 ×109? mesons produced at the Frascati ? factory. We obtain R? = (4.77 ±0.09stat ±0.19syst) ×10-3, from which we derive BR (? ??? ?) = (6.20 ±0.11stat ±0.25syst) ×10-5. Assuming the ?? has zero gluonium content, we extract the pseudoscalar mixing angle in the quark-flavor basis, ?P = (41.4 ±0.3stat ±0.7syst ±0.6th) °. Combining the value of R? with other constraints, we estimate the fractional gluonium content of the ?? to be Z2 = 0.14 ± 0.04 and the mixing angle to be ?P = (39.7 ± 0.7) °.

  15. Measurement of the pseudoscalar mixing angle and ? gluonium content with the KLOE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KLOE Collaboration; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Beltrame, P.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Bowring, D.; Branchini, P.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Chi, S.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; de Santis, A.; de Simone, P.; de Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Falco, S.; di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fiore, S.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Mei, W.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Spadaro, T.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.

    2007-05-01

    We have measured the ratio R=BR(????)/BR(????) by looking for the radiative decays ???? and ???? into the final states ??7? and 7?, respectively, in a sample of ˜1.4×10? mesons produced at the Frascati ? factory. We obtain R=(4.77±0.09±0.19)×10, from which we derive BR(????)=(6.20±0.11±0.25)×10. Assuming the ? has zero gluonium content, we extract the pseudoscalar mixing angle in the quark-flavor basis, ?=(41.4±0.3±0.7±0.6)°. Combining the value of R with other constraints, we estimate the fractional gluonium content of the ? to be Z=0.14±0.04 and the mixing angle to be ?=(39.7±0.7)°.

  16. The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 with reactor neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmaier, T.

    2015-07-01

    Currently running reactor neutrino experiments with a baseline of about 1 km have provided the first clean measurements of the third neutrino mixing angle ?13. This review summarizes their basic principles, performance and results. Emphasis is placed on a thorough description of the experimental techniques, including detection of the neutrino signal, determination and suppression of correlated backgrounds, and an overview of the systematic uncertainties that are relevant for a precision measurement of ?13.

  17. Penguin-mediated Bd,s?VV decays and the Bs-B¯s mixing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descotes-Genon, Sébastien; Matias, Joaquim; Virto, Javier

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we propose three different strategies to extract the weak mixing angle ?s of the Bs system using penguin-mediated decays into vectors, mainly Bs?K*0K¯*0, Bs??K¯*0, and Bs???. We also provide predictions for the longitudinal branching ratio and CP asymmetries of Bs?K*0K¯*0 using a method that combines QCD factorization with flavor symmetries to relate this decay to its Bd counterpart.

  18. Double Chooz, A Search for the Neutrino Mixing Angle theta-13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maury Goodman Thierry Lasserre

    2006-01-01

    The Double Chooz Reactor Neutrino Experiment in France plans to quickly measure the neutrino mixing angle theta-13, or limit it to sin^2 2-theta_13 less than 0.025. The physics reach, experimental site, detector structures, scintillator, photodetection, electronics, calibration and simulations are described. The possibility of using Double Chooz to explore the possible use of a antineutrino detector for non-proliferation goals is

  19. Letter of Intent for Double-CHOOZ: a Search for the Mixing Angle Theta13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ardellier; I. Barabanov; J. C. Barriere; M. Bauer; L. Bezrukov; C. Buck; C. Cattadori; B. Courty; M. Cribier; F. Dalnoki-Veress; N. Danilov; H. de Kerret; A. Di Vacri; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; Ch. Grieb; M. Goeger; A. Guertin; T. Kirchner; Y. S. Krylov; D. Kryn; C. Hagner; W. Hampel; F. X. Hartmann; P. Huber; J. Jochum; T. Lachenmaier; Th. Lasserre; Ch. Lendvai; M. Lindner; F. Marie; J. Martino; G. Mention; A. Milsztajn; J. P. Meyer; D. Motta; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; L. Pandola; W. Potzel; S. Schoenert; U. Schwan; T. Schwetz; S. Scholl; L. Scola; M. Skorokhvatov; S. Sukhotin; A. Letourneau; D. Vignaud; F. von Feilitzsch; W. Winter; E. Yanovich

    2004-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been achieved in neutrino oscillation physics during the last few years. However, the smallness of the $\\\\t13$ neutrino mixing angle still remains enigmatic. The current best constraint comes from the CHOOZ reactor neutrino experiment $\\\\s2t13 < 0.2$ (at 90% C.L., for $\\\\adm2=2.0 10^{-3} \\\\text{eV}^2$). We propose a new experiment on the same site, Double-CHOOZ, to explore the

  20. The Double Chooz Experiment: A Search for the Mixing Angle theta13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th A. Mueller

    2011-01-01

    Double Chooz is an experiment to search for the electron neutrino component of the third neutrino mass eigenstate (i.e., a non-vanishing theta13 mixing angle) by measuring reactor antineutrino disappearance over a 1 km baseline. It will be the first of a new generation of neutrino experiments using identical detectors at different distances from the neutrino source to reduce the systematic

  1. Double Chooz, A Search for the Neutrino Mixing Angle theta-13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maury Goodman Thierry Lasserre

    2006-01-01

    The Double Chooz Reactor Neutrino Experiment in France plans to quickly\\u000ameasure the neutrino mixing angle theta-13, or limit it to sin^2 2-theta_13\\u000aless than 0.025. The physics reach, experimental site, detector structures,\\u000ascintillator, photodetection, electronics, calibration and simulations are\\u000adescribed. The possibility of using Double Chooz to explore the possible use of\\u000aa antineutrino detector for non-proliferation goals is

  2. Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $?_{13}$ with the Double Chooz detector

    E-print Network

    Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadón; K. Crum; A. S. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; J. Dhooghe; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Göger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. López-Castaño; J. M. LoSecco; B. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Röhling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schönert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; D. Shrestha; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stüken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; N. Walsh; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

    2015-01-21

    The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power plant. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties with respect to previous publications, whereas the efficiency of the $\\bar\

  3. VMD, the WZW Lagrangian and ChPT:The Third Mixing Angle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Heath B

    1999-03-31

    We show that the Hidden Local Symmetry Model, supplemented with well-known procedures for breaking flavor SU(3) and nonet symmetry, provides all the information contained in the standard Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) Lagrangian L{sup (0)} + L{sup (1)}. This allows to rely on radiative decays of light mesons (VP{gamma} and P{gamma}{gamma}) in order to extract some numerical information of relevance to ChPT: a value for {Lambda}{sub 1} = 0.20 {+-} 0.04, a quark mass ratio of {approx_equal} 21.2 {+-} 2.4, and a negligible departure from the Gell-Mann--Okubo mass formula. The mixing angles are {theta}{sub 8} = {minus}20.40{degree} {+-} 0.96{degree} and {theta}{sub 0} = {minus}0.05{degree} {+-} 0.99{degree}. We also give the values of all decay constants. It is shown that the common mixing pattern with one mixing angle {theta}{sub P} is actually quite appropriate and algebraically related to the {eta}/{eta}{prime} mixing pattern presently preferred by the ChPT community. For instance the traditional {theta}{sub p} is functionally related to the ChPT {theta}{sub 8} and fulfills {theta}{sub P} {approx_equal} {theta}{sub 8}/2. The vanishing of {theta}{sub 0}, supported by all data on radiative decays, gives a novel relation between mixing angles and the violation of nonet symmetry in the pseudoscalar sector. Finally, it is shown that the interplay of nonet symmetry breaking through U(3) {r_arrow} SU(3) x U(1) satisfies all requirements of the physics of radiative decays without any need for additional glueballs.

  4. Measurement of B??J/??(') and constraint on the ?-?' mixing angle

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.-C.; Duh, Y.-C.; Lin, J.-Y.; Adachi, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chen, A.; Chen, K.-F.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Garmash, A.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Julius, T.; Katayama, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Koblitz, S.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, R.; Kumita, T.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z. Q.; Louvot, R.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakamura, I.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, K. S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Peng, T.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Röhrken, M.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, K.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stani?, S.; Stari?, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Varner, G.; Vorobyev, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2012-05-01

    We measure the branching fractions of B??J/??(') decays with the complete Belle data sample of 772×10? BB¯¯¯ events collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e?e? collider. The results for the branching fractions are: B(B??J/??)=(12.3±1.811.7±0.7)×10?? and B(B??J/??')<7.4×10?? at 90% confidence level. The ?-?' mixing angle is constrained to be less than 42.2° at 90% confidence level.

  5. Search for the ?13 Mixing Angle with the Double Chooz Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meregaglia, A.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper the Double Chooz experiment is presented: a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment for the measurement of the ?13 mixing angle. The experimental concept and the detector design are described, as well as the preliminary results on the neutrino selection based on the first few months of data taking. The expected sensitivities are shown, namely a limit on sin2(2?13) of 0.032 at 90% C. L. in case of no observation of oscillation and a discovery potential on sin2(2?13) of 0.05 at 3 ? C. L. in case of oscillation measurement.

  6. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  7. Small angle scattering from soft matter—application to complex mixed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, François; Cousin, Fabrice; Gummel, Jérémie; Oberdisse, Julian; Carrot, Géraldine; El Harrak, Abdeslam

    2007-09-01

    The advantage of small angle neutron scattering associated with isotopic labelling through deuteration is illustrated in the case of mixed systems, created by associating already well-known systems of characteristic structures; this is also important for applications. Our first mixed system associates charged polymer chains, polyelectrolytes (here polystyrene sulfonate, PSS), with oppositely charged particles, proteins (here lysozyme). Different fractions of deuterated water (D 2O) mixed with normal water are used to match the scattering length density of the protein or of the polymer in non-deuterated or deuterated version. First, this allows us to separate the protein and the polymer signal: we can then distinguish a case where the structures of each species alone in water are hardly modified by mixing, except for interconnections yielding a gel, and a case inducing complete change into a structure common to both species, made of aggregated globules. Second, using, for counterions of the polyions, deuterated TetraMethylAmmonium, together with matching both protein and polymer, we establish unambiguously the counterion release into the solvent. Third, matching only a fraction of polymer chains, the other being deuterated, we extrapolate at zero deuterated fraction their form factor and describe the chain conformation inside the complexes. Fourth, we illustrate the possibilities of modelling the signal on a second example of mixed system: a nanocomposite made of silica particles surrounded by polymer dispersed into a deuterated polymer matrix. Chains are then visible in such reinforced polymer system, in particular when it is submitted to elongation: we discuss a possible model for an ideal system, introducing the scattering contribution from deformed chains, another subject studied at LLB. To cite this article: F. Boué et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  8. Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jaffe D. E.; Jaffe, D.E., et al. Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillation model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.

  9. Letter of Intent for Double-CHOOZ: a Search for the Mixing Angle Theta13

    E-print Network

    F. Ardellier; I. Barabanov; J. C. Barriere; M. Bauer; L. Bezrukov; C. Buck; C. Cattadori; B. Courty; M. Cribier; F. Dalnoki-Veress; N. Danilov; H. de Kerret; A. Di Vacri; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; Ch. Grieb; M. Goeger; A. Guertin; T. Kirchner; Y. S. Krylov; D. Kryn; C. Hagner; W. Hampel; F. X. Hartmann; P. Huber; J. Jochum; T. Lachenmaier; Th. Lasserre; Ch. Lendvai; M. Lindner; F. Marie; J. Martino; G. Mention; A. Milsztajn; J. P. Meyer; D. Motta; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; L. Pandola; W. Potzel; S. Schoenert; U. Schwan; T. Schwetz; S. Scholl; L. Scola; M. Skorokhvatov; S. Sukhotin; A. Letourneau; D. Vignaud; F. von Feilitzsch; W. Winter; E. Yanovich

    2004-05-14

    Tremendous progress has been achieved in neutrino oscillation physics during the last few years. However, the smallness of the $\\t13$ neutrino mixing angle still remains enigmatic. The current best constraint comes from the CHOOZ reactor neutrino experiment $\\s2t13 CHOOZ, to explore the range of $\\s2t13$ from 0.2 to 0.03, within three years of data taking. The improvement of the CHOOZ result requires an increase in the statistics, a reduction of the systematic error below one percent, and a careful control of the cosmic ray induced background. Therefore, Double-CHOOZ will use two identical detectors, one at $\\sim$150 m and another at 1.05 km distance from the nuclear cores. The plan is to start data taking with two detectors in 2008, and to reach a sensitivity of 0.05 in 2009, and 0.03 in 2011.

  10. Measuring the 13 neutrino mixing angle and the CP phase with neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Serpico, P D; Kachelriess, M

    2005-06-01

    The observed excess of high-energy cosmic rays from the Galactic plane in the energy range around 10(18) eV may be explained by neutron primaries generated in the photodissociation of heavy nuclei. In this scenario, lower-energy neutrons decay before reaching the Earth and produce a detectable flux in a 1 km(3) neutrino telescope. The initial flavor composition of the neutrino flux, phi(nu(e)):phi(nu(mu)):phi(nu(tau))=1:0:0, permits a combined nu(mu)/nu(tau) appearance and nu(e) disappearance experiment. The observable flux ratio phi(nu(mu))/phi(nu(e)+nu(tau) at Earth depends on the 13 mixing angle theta(13) and the leptonic CP phase delta(CP), thus opening a new way to measure these two quantities. PMID:16090307

  11. Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jaffe D. E.; Jaffe, D.E., et al. Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillationmore »model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.« less

  12. Determination of the Higgs CP-mixing angle in the tau decay channels

    E-print Network

    Stefan Berge; Werner Bernreuther; Sebastian Kirchner

    2014-10-23

    The measurement of possible Higgs sector CP-violation in the tau decay channels at the LHC is investigated. A CP-violating effect would manifest itself in these decay modes in characteristic spin-spin correlations of the tau lepton pairs which can be accessed using the momenta and impact parameters of the charged tau decay particles. We examine a CP-sensitive observable for a 125 GeV Higgs boson resonance in the gluon fusion channel at the LHC. Furthermore, we consider the distribution of this observable for the irreducible Drell-Yan background. By splitting these events into two categories we obtain two different distributions which can be used for calibration purposes. Finally, we estimate the achievable precision of the scalar-pseudo-scalar mixing angle of the tau decay channel for Run II and the high luminosity run of the LHC.

  13. Constructing the large mixing angle MNS matrix in see-saw models with right-handed neutrino dominance

    E-print Network

    S. F. King

    2002-09-11

    Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We first present a model-independent analysis in which we diagonalise each of these two mass matrix structures to leading order in $\\theta_{13}$ and extract the neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases. In this analysis we express the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle $\\theta_{13}$ including the neutrino {\\em and} charged lepton mixing angles and phases, the latter playing a crucial r\\^{o}le for allowing the inverted hierarchy case to be consistent with the LMA MSW solution. We then consider the see-saw mechanism with right-handed neutrino dominance and show how the successful neutrino mass matrix structures may be constructed with no tuning and with small radiative corrections, leading to a full, partial or inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. In each case we derive approximate analytic relations between the input see-saw parameters and the resulting neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases, which will provide a useful guide for unified model building. For the hierarchical cases the LMA MSW solution gives a soft lower bound $|U_{e3}|\\simgt 0.1$, just below the current CHOOZ limit. Both hierarchical and inverted hierarchical cases predict small $\\beta \\beta_{0\

  14. Estimating Unknown Transition Times Using a Piecewise Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Model in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H. Morrell; Jay D. Pearson; H. Ballentine Carter; Larry J. Brant

    1995-01-01

    It may be clinically useful to know when prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels first begin to rise rapidly and to determine if the natural history of PSA progression is different in men with locally confined prostate cancers compared to men with metastatic tumors. This article uses a nonlinear mixed-effects model to describe longitudinal changes in PSA in men before their prostate

  15. Conflict between the identification of cosmic neutrino source and the sensitivity to mixing angles in neutrino telescope

    E-print Network

    Ggyoung-Riun Hwang; Kim Siyeon

    2008-12-10

    Neutrino fluxes at telescopes depend on both initial fluxes out of astronomical bursts and flavor mixing during their travel to the earth. However, since the information on the initial composition requires better precision in mixing angles and vice versa, the neutrino detection at telescopes for itself cannot provide solutions to the both problems. Thus, a probability to be measured at long baseline oscillation is considered as a complement to the telescope, and problems like source identification and parameter degeneracy are examined under a few assumptions.

  16. A small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Borisov, Oleg; Lapp, Alain; François, Jeanne

    2006-03-15

    Mixed micelle of protonated or deuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and SDSd25, respectively) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) are studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In all the cases the scattering curves exhibit a peak whose position changes with the composition of the system. The main parameters which characterize mixed micelles, i.e., aggregation numbers of SDS and PPOMA, geometrical dimensions of the micelles and degree of ionisation are evaluated from the analysis of the SANS curves. The position q(max) of the correlation peak can be related to the average aggregation numbers of SDS-PPOMA and SDSd25-PPOMA mixed micelles. It is found that the aggregation number of SDS decreases upon increasing the weight ratio PPOMA/SDS (or SDSd25). The isotopic combination, which uses the "contrast effect" between the two micellar systems, has allowed us to determine the mixed micelle composition. Finally, the SANS curves were adjusted using the RMSA for the structure factor S(q) of charged spherical particles and the form factor P(q) of spherical core-shell particle. This analysis confirms the particular core-shell structure of the SDS-PPOMA mixed micelle, i.e., a SDS "core" micelle surrounded by the shell formed by PPOMA macromonomers. The structural parameters of mixed micelles obtained from the analysis of the SANS data are in good agreement with those determined previously by conductimetry and fluorescence studies. PMID:16380127

  17. Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

  18. Two-loop radiative corrections of electroweak mixing angle and branching fraction for Z going to bb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Cheng

    In this thesis I develop a numerical technique which is based on the Mellin-Barnes representation to calculate two-loop Feynman integrals. The resulting complex integrals of high dimensions are being applied with some treatments, such as the variable transform, reduction formulas, etc, to improve the convergence of the integrals. The approach is adopted to compute the two-loop radiative corrections of the electroweak mixing angle, sin theta W, and the hadronic branching ratio Rb for the process Z ? bb¯. I focus on contributions with an internal fermion sub-loop using the on-shell renormalization scheme. The results will help to derive improved constraints on the Higgs particle.

  19. Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A

    E-print Network

    Lychkovskiy, O

    2006-01-01

    Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

  20. Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A

    E-print Network

    Oleg Lychkovskiy

    2006-04-12

    Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

  1. 21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown TWO RUSSIAN CANNONS OUTSIDE OF FORT ENTRANCE - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown EXTERIOR CORNER WALLS SHOWING RAMPART AND CANNONS - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. Non Unitary Neutrino Mixing angles Matrix in a Non Associative 331 Gauge Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussahel, M.; Mebarki, N.

    2015-04-01

    A possible non-unitary neutrino-mixing matrix is discussed in the context of a low energy limit of a recently proposed 331 gauge model within the non associative geometry of Wulkenhaar's approach. Some bounds on certain physical parameters of the model are also obtained

  4. Non Unitary Neutrino Mixing Angle in a Non Commutative Chamseddine-Frohlich 331Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrat, M.; Mebarki, N.

    2015-04-01

    The non-unitary neutrino-mixing matrix of the oscillation phenomenon is studied in the context of the low energy limit of a recently constructed non-commutative 331 model a la Chamsseddine-Frohlich approach as a deviation from the standard model. Comparison with the puts experimental data may stringent bounds on the space-time non-commutativity parameter.

  5. A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.

    SciTech Connect

    KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

    2006-10-16

    This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

  6. Race Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Bryan Lee, a senior at the University of California, Irvine, has noticed that some of his classmates adamantly declare their multiracial heritage while others choose not to identify themselves as being any particular ethnicity. The half-Korean, half-White biomedical engineering major is co-president of the university's Mixed Students Organization…

  7. Preparation of a durable superhydrophobic membrane by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mixed with epoxy–siloxane modified SiO 2 nanoparticles: A possible route to superhydrophobic surfaces with low water sliding angle and high water contact angle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuai Wang; Yapeng Li; Xiaoliang Fei; Mingda Sun; Chaoqun Zhang; Yaoxian Li; Qingbiao Yang; Xia Hong

    2011-01-01

    A durable superhydrophobic surface with low water sliding angle (SA) and high water contact angle (CA) was obtained by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which was mixed with epoxy–siloxane modified SiO2 nanoparticles. To increase the roughness, modified SiO2 nanoparticles were introduced into PVDF precursor solution. Then in the electrospinning process, nano-sized SiO2 particles irregularly inlayed (it could also be regard

  8. Spontaneous R-parity violation: Lightest neutralino decays and neutrino mixing angles at future colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Vicente, A.; Porod, W. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C. and Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2008-04-01

    We study the decays of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in models with spontaneously broken R-parity. We focus on the two cases that the LSP is either a bino or a neutral singlet lepton. We work out the most important phenomenological differences between these two scenarios and discuss also how they might be distinguished from explicit R-parity breaking models. In both cases we find that certain ratios of decay branching ratios are correlated with either the solar or the atmospheric (and reactor) neutrino angle. The hypothesis that spontaneous R-parity violation is the source of the observed neutrino masses is therefore potentially testable at the LHC.

  9. Calculation of the flow field including boundary layer effects for supersonic mixed compression inlets at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The flow field in supersonic mixed compression aircraft inlets at angle of attack is calculated. A zonal modeling technique is employed to obtain the solution which divides the flow field into different computational regions. The computational regions consist of a supersonic core flow, boundary layer flows adjacent to both the forebody/centerbody and cowl contours, and flow in the shock wave boundary layer interaction regions. The zonal modeling analysis is described and some computational results are presented. The governing equations for the supersonic core flow form a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. The equations for the characteristic surfaces and the compatibility equations applicable along these surfaces are derived. The characteristic surfaces are the stream surfaces, which are surfaces composed of streamlines, and the wave surfaces, which are surfaces tangent to a Mach conoid. The compatibility equations are expressed as directional derivatives along streamlines and bicharacteristics, which are the lines of tangency between a wave surface and a Mach conoid.

  10. A unified analysis of the reactor neutrino program towards the measurement of the theta_13 mixing angle

    E-print Network

    Guillaume Mention; Thierry Lasserre; Dario Motta

    2007-12-05

    We present in this article a detailed quantitative discussion of the measurement of the leptonic mixing angle theta_13 through currently scheduled reactor neutrino oscillation experiments. We thus focus on Double Chooz (Phase I & II), Daya Bay (Phase I & II) and RENO experiments. We perform a unified analysis, including systematics, backgrounds and accurate experimental setup in each case. Each identified systematic error and background impact has been assessed on experimental setups following published data when available and extrapolating from Double Chooz acquired knowledge otherwise. After reviewing the experiments, we present a new analysis of their sensitivities to sin^2(2 theta_13) and study the impact of the different systematics based on the pulls approach. Through this generic statistical analysis we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each experimental setup.

  11. PDF uncertainties in the determination of the W boson mass and of the effective lepton mixing angle at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Juan Rojo

    2013-05-21

    The precision measurement of the W boson mass allows to perform stringent consistency tests of the Standard Model by means of global electroweak fits. The accurate determination of the W boson mass is one of the legacy results of the Tevatron, where the experimental accuracy is such that $M_W$ is now limited by theoretical uncertainties related to the parton distributions of the proton. In this contribution, we show how to quantify the impact of PDF uncertainties in the measurement of $M_W$ at the Tevatron and the LHC by means of a template method, and study both the use of the W transverse mass and the lepton pT kinematical distributions to generate these templates. We also present preliminary results on the quantification of the PDF uncertainties in the determination of the effective lepton mixing angle at the LHC, based on the same template method as for the W mass determination

  12. Realization of lepton masses and mixing angles from point interactions in an extra dimension

    E-print Network

    Yukihiro Fujimoto; Kenji Nishiwaki; Makoto Sakamoto; Ryo Takahashi

    2014-10-23

    We investigate a model on an extra dimension $S^1$ where plenty of effective boundary points described by point interactions (zero-thickness branes) are arranged. After suitably selecting the conditions on these points for each type of five-dimensional fields, we realize the tiny active neutrino masses, the charged lepton mass hierarchy, and lepton mixings with a CP-violating phase, simultaneously. Not only the quark's but also the lepton's configurations are generated in a unified way with acceptable accuracy, with neither the see-saw mechanism nor symmetries in Yukawa couplings, by suitably setting the model parameters, even though their flavor structures are dissimilar each other. One remarkable point is that a complex vacuum expectation value of the five-dimensional Higgs doublet in this model becomes the common origin of the CP violation in both quark and lepton sectors. The model can be consistent with the results of the precision electroweak measurements and Large Hadron Collider experiments.

  13. Estimating the neutron background toward the measurement of neutrino mixing angle theta-13 with the Double Chooz detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Deepak

    Double Chooz is a reactor neutrino experiment which has shown evidence of electron anti-neutrino disappearance at 1 km distance. It has been able to exclude the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% CL (2.9 sigma) with only one detector. From a rate plus spectral shape analysis, the value of sin 22?13 was found to be 0:109 +/- 0:030 (stat) +/- 0:025 (syst). Correlated events mimicking an anti-neutrino event are one of the most important backgrounds for a reactor neutrino experiment like Double Chooz which measured the neutrino mixing angle ?13 . Cosmic muons passing through the rock surrounding the detector produce fast neutrons which give rise to correlated events through proton recoil followed by a neutron capture. Muons stopping around the chimney region subsequently decay into Michel electrons also contributing to the correlated background. Measurement of the shape and rate of this background is very important for the precise measurement of ?13. Experimental techniques to estimate of the shape and rate of this background in the Double Chooz far detector are presented in this thesis.

  14. Characterization of lecithin-taurodeoxycholate mixed micelles using small-angle neutron scattering and static and dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Long, M.A.; Kaler, E.W. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)); Lee, S.P. (VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Wignall, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-04-21

    We have used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to probe the structure and interparticle interactions of lecithin-taurodeoxycholate mixed micelles. The data are fit to a core-shell model that provides the micelle composition and dimensions. The effects on the scattering spectra of electrostatic and excluded-volume interactions are explored in terms of the decoupling approximation and the random phase approximation. We found the TDC-lecithin micelles are cylindrical particles with an average cross-sectional radius of 26.7 [+-] 0.4 A. The core-shell structure is found to be an appropriate model for the highly hydrated micelles. The micelle length increases dramatically with an increase in added electrolyte, but not with decreasing concentration as previously reported. The SANS data analysis shows that particles in 0.05 M NaCl grow by less than 15% with a 3-fold decrease in the total surfactant concentration. This is in contrast to the simple interpretation of dynamic light scattering of the same samples that shows an apparent doubling of the micelle length with the same decrease in surfactant concentration. This discrepancy is attributed to neglect of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic interactions in the analysis of the dynamic light scattering data. 59 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during CT coronary angiography: A simulation study comparing breast shielding, angular tube current modulation, reduced kV, and partial angle protocols using an unknown-location signal-detectability metric

    SciTech Connect

    Rupcich, Franco; Gilat Schmidt, Taly [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Badal, Andreu; Popescu, Lucretiu M.; Kyprianou, Iacovos [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States)] [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The authors compared the performance of five protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast during computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography scans using a model observer unknown-location signal-detectability metric.Methods: The authors simulated CT images of an anthropomorphic female thorax phantom for a 120 kV reference protocol and five “dose reduction” protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast: 120 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered), 120 kV tube-current modulated (TCM), 120 kV with shielded breasts, 80 kV, and 80 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered). Two image quality tasks were investigated: the detection and localization of 4-mm, 3.25 mg/ml and 1-mm, 6.0 mg/ml iodine contrast signals randomly located in the heart region. For each protocol, the authors plotted the signal detectability, as quantified by the area under the exponentially transformed free response characteristic curve estimator (A-caret{sub FE}), as well as noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) versus breast and lung dose. In addition, the authors quantified each protocol's dose performance as the percent difference in dose relative to the reference protocol achieved while maintaining equivalent A-caret{sub FE}.Results: For the 4-mm signal-size task, the 80 kV full scan and 80 kV partial angle protocols decreased dose to the breast (80.5% and 85.3%, respectively) and lung (80.5% and 76.7%, respectively) with A-caret{sub FE} = 0.96, but also resulted in an approximate three-fold increase in image noise. The 120 kV partial protocol reduced dose to the breast (17.6%) at the expense of increased lung dose (25.3%). The TCM algorithm decreased dose to the breast (6.0%) and lung (10.4%). Breast shielding increased breast dose (67.8%) and lung dose (103.4%). The 80 kV and 80 kV partial protocols demonstrated greater dose reductions for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task, and the shielded protocol showed a larger increase in dose for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task. In general, the CNR curves indicate a similar relative ranking of protocol performance as the corresponding A-caret{sub FE} curves, however, the CNR metric overestimated the performance of the shielded protocol for both tasks, leading to corresponding underestimates in the relative dose increases compared to those obtained when using the A-caret{sub FE} metric.Conclusions: The 80 kV and 80 kV partial angle protocols demonstrated the greatest reduction to breast and lung dose, however, the subsequent increase in image noise may be deemed clinically unacceptable. Tube output for these protocols can be adjusted to achieve a more desirable noise level with lesser breast dose savings. Breast shielding increased breast and lung dose when maintaining equivalent A-caret{sub FE}. The results demonstrated that comparisons of dose performance depend on both the image quality metric and the specific task, and that CNR may not be a reliable metric of signal detectability.

  16. Determination of the Higgs CP mixing angle in the tau decay channels at the LHC including the Drell-Yan background

    E-print Network

    Stefan Berge; Werner Bernreuther; Sebastian Kirchner

    2014-12-10

    We investigate how precisely the CP nature of the 125 GeV Higgs boson resonance h can be unraveled at the LHC in its decays to tau pairs. We use a method which allows to determine the scalar-pseudoscalar Higgs mixing angle in this decay mode. This mixing angle can be extracted from the distribution of a signed angle, which we analyze for the major charged-prong tau decays. For definiteness, we consider Higgs-boson production by gluon fusion at NLO QCD. We take into account also the irreducible background from Drell-Yan production at NLO QCD. We compute, for the signal and background reactions, angular and energy correlations of the charged prongs and analyze which type of cuts suppress the Drell-Yan background. An important feature of this background is that its contribution to the distribution of our observable is a flat line, also at NLO QCD. By separating the Drell-Yan events into two different sets, two different non-trivial distributions are obtained. Based on this observation we propose to use these sets for calibation purposes. By Monte Carlo simulation we study also the effect of measurement uncertainties on this distribution. We estimate that the Higgs mixing angle can be determined with our method to a precision of 14 degree (5 degree) at the high luminosity LHC (14 TeV) with an integrated luminosity of 500 inverse fb (3 inverse ab).

  17. Viewing Lepton Mixing through the Cabibbo Haze

    E-print Network

    Lisa L. Everett

    2005-11-12

    We explore the hypothesis that the Cabibbo angle is an expansion parameter for lepton as well as quark mixing. Cabibbo effects are deviations from zero mixing for the quarks but are deviations from unknown mixings for the leptons, such that lepton mixing is veiled by a Cabibbo haze. We present a systematic classification of parametrizations and catalog the leading order Cabibbo effects. We find that the size of the CHOOZ angle is not always correlated with the observability of CP violation. This phenomenological approach has practical merit both as a method for organizing top-down flavor models and as a guideline for planning future experiments.

  18. Unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states

    E-print Network

    Tao Zhou

    2011-11-15

    We consider the unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states in $n$-dimensional ($n\\geqslant2$) Hilbert space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known mixed states and with the Jordan-basis method, we demonstrate that the optimal success probability of the discrimination between two unknown states is independent of the dimension $n$. We also give a scheme for a physical implementation of the programmable state discriminator that unambiguously discriminate between two unknown states with optimal probability of success.

  19. Experimental study on the effect of angles and positions of mixing vanes on CHF in a 2 × 2 rod bundle with working fluid R-134a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Soo Shin; Soon Heung Chang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the CHF experiment on the effect of angles and position of mixing vanes was performed in a 2×2 rod bundle. The test section had rectangular geometry in which four rod, each with a diameter of 9.5mm, were inserted. The rod-to-rod gap was 3.15mm, and the rod-to-wall gap was 1.575mm. It was vertically installed in the test loop

  20. A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajewska, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

  1. NAME:_______________ BIO 251 Unknown Tables

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    NAME:_______________ BIO 251 Unknown Tables Unknown #:_______ Property Unknown (+/-) Descriptions -- soft agar deeps -- Wet Mount TABLE 1 #12;NAME: Unknown #:______ Property Unknown #1 (+/-) Descriptions Methyl red test (MR) Voges-Proskaeur test (VP) Citrate utilization TABLE 2 #12;NAME: Unknown

  2. The effect of contact angle hysteresis on droplet coalescence and mixing Michael A. Nilsson, Jonathan P. Rothstein

    E-print Network

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    of the colliding drop to the center of mass of the sta- tionary drop, and D1 and D2 are the diameters of the two Coalescence Mixing Drop dynamics Superhydrophobic a b s t r a c t In this work, droplet coalescence Weber numbers, We = qV2 D/r drop- lets [2]. Here the Weber number is a ratio

  3. Improved Measurement of B^ \\to\\rho^ \\rho^0 and Determination of the Quark-Mixing Phase Angle~\\alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J.Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /Annecy, LAPP /Barcelona U., ECM /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U.

    2009-07-14

    The authors present improved measurements of the branching fraction {Beta}, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{sub CP} in the B meson decay channel B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}) = (23.7 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -6}, f{sub L} = 0.950 {+-} 0.015 {+-} 0.006, and A{sub CP} = -0.054 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, they perform an isospin analysis and determine the CKM weak phase angle {alpha} to be (92.4{sub -6.5}{sup +6.0}){sup 0}.

  4. The impact of particle shape on the angle of internal friction and the implications for sediment dynamics at a steep, mixed sand-gravel beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, N.; Hay, A. E.; Cheel, R.; Lake, C. B.

    2014-08-01

    The impact of particle shape on the angle of internal friction, and the resulting impact on beach sediment dynamics, is still poorly understood. In areas characterized by sediments of specific shape, particularly non-rounded particles, this can lead to large departures from the expected sediment dynamics. The steep slope (1 : 10) of the mixed sand-gravel beach at Advocate Harbour is stable in large-scale morphology over decades, despite a high tidal range of 10 m or more, and intense shore-break action during storms. The Advocate sand (d < 2 mm) was found to have an elliptic, plate-like shape (Corey Shape Index, CSI ? 0.2-0.6). High angles of internal friction of this material were determined using direct shear, ranging from ? ? 41 to 49°, while the round to angular gravel was characterized as ? = 33°. The addition of 25% of the elliptic plate-like sand-sized material to the gravel led to an immediate increase in friction angle to ? = 38°. Furthermore, re-organization of the particles occurred during shearing, characterized by a short phase of settling and compaction, followed by a pronounced strong dilatory behavior and an accompanying strong increase of resistance to shear and, thus, shear stress. Long-term shearing (24 h) using a ring shear apparatus led to destruction of the particles without re-compaction. Finally, submerged particle mobilization was simulated using a tilted tray submerged in a water-filled tank. Despite a smooth tray surface, particle motion was not initiated until reaching tray tilt angles of 31° and more, being ≥7° steeper than for motion initiation of the gravel mixtures. In conclusion, geotechnical laboratory experiments quantified the important impact of the elliptic, plate-like shape of Advocate Beach sand on the angles of internal friction of both pure sand and sand-gravel mixtures. The resulting effect on initiation of particle motion was confirmed in tilting tray experiments. This makes it a vivid example of how particle shape can contribute to the stabilization of the beach face.

  5. Observation of B(s)(0) ? J/? f1(1285) decays and measurement of the f1(1285) mixing angle.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J

    2014-03-01

    Decays of B(s)(0) and B(0) mesons into J/? ?+?-?+?- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B(s)(0) ? J/? f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed. PMID:24655242

  6. Exploring the Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

  7. Absolute molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate by size exclusion chromatography: use of a multi angle laser light scattering detector and a mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Raymond; Ilasi, Nicholas; Sekulic, Sonja S

    2011-12-01

    Molecular weight distribution is an important quality attribute for hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a pharmaceutical excipient used in spray-dried dispersions. Our previous study showed that neither relative nor universal calibration method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) works for HPMCAS polymers. We here report our effort to develop a SEC method using a mass sensitive multi angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) to determine molecular weight distributions of HPMCAS polymers. A solvent screen study reveals that a mixed solvent (60:40%, v/v 50mM NaH(2)PO(4) with 0.1M NaNO(3) buffer: acetonitrile, pH* 8.0) is the best for HPMCAS-LF and MF sub-classes. Use of a mixed solvent creates a challenging condition for the method that uses refractive index detector. Therefore, we thoroughly evaluated the method performance and robustness. The mean weight average molecular weight of a polyethylene oxide standard has a 95% confidence interval of (28,443-28,793) g/mol vs. 28,700g/mol from the Certificate of Analysis. The relative standard deviations of average molecular weights for all polymers are 3-6%. These results and the Design of Experiments study demonstrate that the method is accurate and robust. PMID:21840663

  8. Variables and Unknowns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Don Link

    This animated PowerPoint lesson demonstrates how to substitute the value of a variable in place of the variable's symbol in an algebraic expression, and presents the concept of solving an equation for an unknown variable value.

  9. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pioneered by Zwicky, a currently unexploited region of observational parameter space can be identified viz: time variable spectral patterns on all spectral and angular scales, one interesting example would be 'spectral transients'. We should be prepared to build up to 10 percent less collecting area for a given overall budget in order to enhance the ways in which SKA1 can be flexibly utilized.

  10. NAME:_______________ BIO 351 Unknown Tables

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    NAME:_______________ BIO 351 Unknown Tables Unknown #:_______ Property Unknown #1 (+/-) Descriptions/drawings Unknown #2 (+/-) Descriptions/drawings Colony characteristics On TSA or NSM shape,color,texture,edge,elevation etc. Media Type Unknown #1 (+/-) Descriptions/drawings Unknown #2 (+/-) Descriptions/drawings Mannitol

  11. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW FROM RAILROAD TRACKS LOOKING NORTHWEST - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  12. 32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, Date unknown STEEL WORK DETAILS, WEST END OF BANKING ROOM, STAIR LANDINGS - Anglo & London Paris National Bank, One Sansome Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN

    E-print Network

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, Na the formula weight. #12;Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 91 Note: Do your titration once, and check

  14. Exploring an unknown graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaotie Deng; C.H. Papadimitriou

    1990-01-01

    It is desired to explore all edges of an unknown directed, strongly connected graph. At each point one has a map of all nodes and edges visited, one can recognize these nodes and edges upon seeing them again, and it is known how many unexplored edges emanate from each node visited. The goal is to minimize the ratio of the

  15. Fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Mulders-Manders, Catharina; Simon, Anna; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    More than 50 years after the first definition of fever of unknown origin (FUO), it still remains a diagnostic challenge. Evaluation starts with the identification of potential diagnostic clues (PDCs), which should guide further investigations. In the absence of PDCs a standardised diagnostic protocol should be followed with PET-CT as the imaging technique of first choice. Even with a standardised protocol, in a large proportion of patients from western countries the cause for FUO cannot be identified. The treatment of FUO is guided by the final diagnosis, but when no cause is found, antipyretic drugs can be prescribed. Corticosteroids should be avoided in the absence of a diagnosis, especially at an early stage. The prognosis of FUO is determined by the underlying cause. The majority of patients with unexplained FUO will eventually show spontaneous remission of fever. We describe the definition, diagnostic workup, causes and treatment of FUO. PMID:26031980

  16. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  17. 62. Men Picking Rocks, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Men Picking Rocks, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  18. 64. Final Coal Conveyor, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Final Coal Conveyor, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  19. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  1. 1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no date. Source: Salt River Project Archives (SRPA) - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  3. 6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE DURING MOVE SHOWING HOUSE RAISED - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York, New York County, NY

  4. 4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE BEFORE HOUSE MOVED SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES IN FOREGROUND - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York, New York County, NY

  5. General Information about Carcinoma of Unknown Primary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Key Points Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) ...

  6. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

  7. 7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW (SOUTHEAST) FROM ORIGINAL SITE SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES (FOREGROUND) AND NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF HOUSE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE (ENTRANCE STAIRS FROM ORIGINAL SOUTH FRONT MOVED TO PRESENT WEST FRONT) - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York, New York County, NY

  8. Angle Hunting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a hand-made protractor to measure angles they find in playground equipment. Learners will observe that angle measurements do not change with distance, because they are distance invariant, or constant. Note: The "Pocket Protractor" activity should be done ahead as a separate activity (see related resource), but a standard protractor can be used as a substitute.

  9. Constraints on the Z-Z Prime mixing angle from data measured for the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} at the LEP2 collider

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Vas. V., E-mail: quarks@gsu.by [Gomel State University (Belarus); Pankov, A. A., E-mail: pankov@ictp.it [Pavel Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel, Abdus Salam ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) Affiliated Centre (Belarus)

    2012-01-15

    An analysis of effects induced by new neutral gauge Z Prime bosons was performed on the basis of data from the OPAL, DELPHI, ALEPH, and L3 experiments devoted to measuring differential cross sections for the process of the annihilation production of pairs of charged gauge W{sup {+-}} bosons at the LEP2 collider. By using these experimental data, constraints on the Z Prime -boson mass and on the angle of Z-Z Prime mixing were obtained for a number of extended gauge models.

  10. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  11. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but our opening question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge if not urgency in the contemporary age. Indeed, it could be said that our opening question has never been generally acknowledged to be a significant motivating curricular and…

  12. Cancer of Unknown Primary Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Anthony Greco; John D. Hainsworth

    In the United States, unknown primary cancers represented about 2% of all cancer diagnoses reported between 1973 and 1987.1\\u000a Registries from seven other countries have listed incidences from 2.3% to 7.8%.2 These patients are heterogeneous with several\\u000a clinical presentations and histologic tumor types. Most have metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site, while others have\\u000a equivocal pathologic diagnoses with tumors difficult

  13. A Determination of the CKM-angle $?$ using Mixing-induced CP Violation in the Decays $B_d\\to?^+?^-$ and $B_d\\to K^0 \\bar K^0$

    E-print Network

    Andrzej J. Buras; Robert Fleischer

    1995-07-31

    We present a method of determining the CKM-angle $\\alpha$ by performing simultaneous measurements of the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of the decays $B_d\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B_d\\to K^0\\bar K^0$. The accuracy of our approach is limited by $SU(3)$-breaking effects originating from $\\bar b\\to \\bar ds\\bar s$ QCD-penguin diagrams. Using plausible power-counting arguments we show that these uncertainties are expected to be of the same order as those arising through electroweak penguins in the standard Gronau-London-method in which $\\alpha$ is extracted by means of isospin relations among $B\\to\\pi\\pi$ decay amplitudes. Therefore our approach, which does not involve the experimentally difficult mode $B_d\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ and is essentially unaffected by electroweak penguins, may be an interesting alternative to determine $\\alpha$.

  14. Unknowns and unknown unknowns: from dark sky to dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Yasushi

    2010-07-01

    Answering well-known fundamental questions is usually regarded as the major goal of science. Discovery of other unknown and fundamental questions is, however, even more important. Recognition that "we didn't know anything" is the basic scientific driver for the next generation. Cosmology indeed enjoys such an exciting epoch. What is the composition of our universe ? This is one of the well-known fundamental questions that philosophers, astronomers and physicists have tried to answer for centuries. Around the end of the last century, cosmologists finally recognized that "We didn't know anything". Except for atoms that comprise slightly less than 5% of the universe, our universe is apparently dominated by unknown components; 23% is the known unknown (dark matter), and 72% is the unknown unknown (dark energy). In the course of answering a known fundamental question, we have discovered an unknown, even more fundamental, question: "What is dark matter? What is dark energy?" There are a variety of realistic particle physics models for dark matter, and its experimental detection may be within reach. On the other hand, it is fair to say that there is no widely accepted theoretical framework to describe the nature of dark energy. This is exactly why astronomical observations will play a key role in unveiling its nature. I will review our current understanding of the "dark sky", and then present on-going Japanese project, SuMIRe, to discover even more unexpected questions.

  15. Brewster angle microscopic study of mixed lipid-protein monolayer at the air-water interface and its application in biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kafi, A K M; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2008-09-15

    This study investigated lipid-protein LB film formation with Brewster angle microscopy. Our experimental results show that hemoglobin (Hb) molecules can enter the lipid layer and remain for an extended time. We investigated the KCl effect on the LB monolayer of lipid-protein. The lipid-Hb monolayer was transferred from the air-water interface to a QCM gold electrode. UV-vis spectra showed that Hb retained its natural structure in the lipid layer. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) and amperometric systems were applied in this study in order to confirm the remaining bioactivity and sensitivity of Hb to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Lipid-Hb-modified electrodes showed well-defined redox peaks, indicating that the direct electron transfer between Hb and the electrode was enhanced by Hb incorporated in lipid layer. Based on this phenomenon, a novel biosensor for H(2)O(2) was designed. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as pH, and potential were optimized and assessed. The levels of the R.S.D.'s (<5%) for the entire analyses reflected the highly reproducible sensor performance. Using optimized conditions the linear range for the detection of H(2)O(2) was observed from 1 x 10(-6) to 1.00 x 10(-4) molL(-1) with a detection limit of 4.00 x 10(-7) molL(-1) (based on the S/N=3). PMID:18761150

  16. Adaptive separation of an unknown number of sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Malouche; O. Macchi

    1997-01-01

    The problem of separation of mixed sources is addressed in this paper. To solve this problem, at least as many observations as sources are needed. In particular, the number of sources can be unknown. The separation system is a linear network updated with a stochastic descent algorithm to minimize some separation criterion. A first algorithm separates sources with positive kurtosises

  17. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Pavlidis; Karim Fizazi

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide. It constitutes 3–5% of all human malignancies. Patients with CUP present with metastases without an established primary site. CUP manifests as an heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinicopathological entities. The diagnostic work-up includes extensive histopathology investigations and modern imaging technology. Nevertheless, the

  18. Unknown Attribute Values in Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ross Quinlan

    1989-01-01

    Simple techniques for the development and use of decision tree classifiers assume that all attribute values ofall cases are available. Numerous approaches have been proposed with the aim of extending these techniquesto cover real-world situations in which unknown attribute values are not uncommon. This paper comparesthe effectiveness of several approaches as measured by their performance on a collection of datasets.INTRODUCTIONThe

  19. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  20. The Senses of "Unknown Creatures"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Chudler Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners use earthworms as "unknown creatures" from the South American jungle to find out how animals use senses. Learners are given supplies to devise their own experiments and test the response of the earthworms to light, touch and chemicals. Learners collect data and draw conclusions based on this data. Learners return the earthworms to their natural habitat (a flower or garden bed) when they are finished with the experiments.

  1. Exploration of an Unknown Environment with a Differential Drive Disc Robot

    E-print Network

    Bobadilla, Leonardo

    Exploration of an Unknown Environment with a Differential Drive Disc Robot Guillermo Laguna, Rafael the problem of exploring an unknown, planar, polygonal and simply connected environment. A saliency object (i or angle, or performing self localization. The exploration problem consists in discovering the environment

  2. Circles and Squares: Two Unknowns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth DeCarli

    2010-10-19

    This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad and on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows players to learn about the use of symbols and variables as a way to represent numbers as students solve puzzles involving two unknowns using algebraic thinking. The sketch displays eight rows of symbols and each row presents a different combination of squares and circles. When students drag a row of symbols across the vertical divider line, the sketch displays the sum of the symbols. By dragging two or more rows, students gather information and determine the value of the circle and the square. Overview instructions and teacher notes are available as downloadable PDF.

  3. Handling toxicoses of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Tandon, H D

    1993-01-01

    A strategy is presented for investigating toxicoses of unknown origin and following a disease-oriented approach. The strategy is derived from and illustrated by experience of three large scale outbreaks of disease involving aflatoxicosis in India, intoxication by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium spp. in Afghanistan and from Crotalaria spp. in India. Investigation of such cases involves a descriptive phase (case definition, descriptive pattern of disease), hypothesis generation (based on pathologic studies and indications from environmental and epidemiological investigations), hypothesis testing and confirmatory studies. After establishing a causal relationship, steps need to be taken to transmit information to health authorities, to disseminate knowledge to health delivery personnel and the general public, to identify borderline cases and plan management, to identify mechanisms of exposure/contamination and relevant measures to remove or minimize exposure to the causal agent. PMID:8504866

  4. Pattern Recognition Algorithm for High-Sensitivity Odorant Detection in Unknown Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic odorant detection application environment, the collected sensory data is a mix of unknown chemicals with unknown concentrations and noise. The identification of the odorants among these mixtures is a challenge in data recognition. In addition, deriving their individual concentrations in the mix is also a challenge. A deterministic analytical model was developed to accurately identify odorants and calculate their concentrations in a mixture with noisy data.

  5. New method of DOA estimation for coherent sources under unknown noise field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shujing Su; Zenggang Wang; Jinglong Yan

    2009-01-01

    The major shortcomings of the MUSIC algorithm for direction-of arrival (DOA) are that it performs poorly when the sources are highly and when the noise is unknown. A method was proposed to estimate DOA for coherent, noncoherent, and mixed narrowband signals under an unknown spatially noise environment, in this method, the forward-backward spatial smoothing algorithm was employed to decorrelate highly

  6. A Simulation Study Comparison of Bayesian Estimation with Conventional Methods for Estimating Unknown Change Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; McArdle, John J.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of a Bayesian approach for estimating unknown change points using Monte Carlo simulations. The univariate and bivariate unknown change point mixed models were presented and the basic idea of the Bayesian approach for estimating the models was discussed. The performance of Bayesian…

  7. BLIND SEPARATION OF MIXTURES OF SPEECH SIGNALS WITH UNKNOWN PROPAGATION DELAYS

    E-print Network

    De Leon, Phillip

    , illustrated in Fig. 1, we assume two unknown speech signals, s1 and s2 are filtered by aji and mixed to produce two mixture signals x1 and x2. The filter, aji represents the length-N, unknown room impulse

  8. Chronic villitis of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Boog, Georges

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic villitis of unknown etiology (CVUE), characterized by focal areas of inflammation with mononuclear cells and areas of fibrinoid necrosis in chorionic villi, can only be set-up after exclusion of a latent maternal-fetal transmission of infectious agents by sophisticated techniques such as polymerase chain reaction. Significant associations of CVUE with maternal body mass index, multigravidity and ethnicity were reported. While a fetal origin of the inflammatory cells has been evoked, there are many more arguments drawn from histopathology and immunohistology for a maternal immune response against the foreign fetal allograft. CVUE is detected in 7-33% of placentas, mainly after idiopathic intrauterine growth retardation, unexplained prematurity, preeclampsia, perinatal asphyxia and intrauterine fetal death. CVUE is also more frequent in pregnancies affected by autoimmune or alloimmune diseases. Considering the high rate of recurrences after an index case of CVUE, we would suggest to associate aspirine and corticosteroids in further pregnancies, a regimen that was successful in our experience but must be confirmed by other studies. The same is true for the alleviated inflammatory immunologic response recently obtained by a weekly use of maternal intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:17683846

  9. The abundance and vertical distribution of the unknown ultraviolet absorber in the venusian atmosphere from analysis of Venus Monitoring Camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaverdikhani, Karan; McGouldrick, Kevin; Esposito, Larry W.

    2012-02-01

    Observations of Venus using the ultraviolet filter of the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on ESA's Venus Express Spacecraft (VEX) provide the best opportunity for study of the spatial and temporal distribution of the venusian unknown ultraviolet absorber since the Pioneer Venus (PV) mission. We compare the results of two sets of 125 radiative transfer models of the upper atmosphere of Venus to each pixel in a subset of VMC UV channel images. We use a quantitative best fit criterion based upon the notion that the distribution of the unknown absorber should be independent of the illumination and observing geometry. We use the product of the cosines of the incidence and emission angles and search for absorber distributions that are uncorrelated with this geometric parameter, finding that two models can describe the vertical distribution of the unknown absorber. One model is a well-mixed vertical profile above a pressure level of roughly 120 mb (˜63 km). This is consistent with the altitude of photochemical formation of sulfuric acid. The second model describes it as a thin layer of pure UV absorber at a pressure level roughly around 24 mb (˜71 km) and this altitude is consistent with the top of upper cloud deck. We find that the average abundance of unknown absorber in the equatorial region is 0.21 ± 0.04 optical depth and it decreases in the polar region to 0.08 ± 0.05 optical depth at 365 nm.

  10. State and unknown inputs estimation via a proportional integral observer with unknown

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    State and unknown inputs estimation via a proportional integral observer with unknown inputs Atef in order to estimate the state and the faults which are assumed as unknown inputs. The noise's effect) are the object of many works in varied contexts including the take into account of unknown inputs or parametrical

  11. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  12. Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic

    E-print Network

    Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic Algorithm Emulation of Markets Market Research Center Interval Analysis for Unknown Dependencies and Genetic Algorithm Emulation of Markets. This emulation used a genetic-algorithm market simulator and a market simulator based on a genetic programming

  13. Unknown, Placeholder, or Variable: What Is "X"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the…

  14. Sensing Assessment in Unknown Environments: A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Diane Gage; Robin R. Murphy

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys sensing assessment solutions from the literature with a particular focus on techniques which can be used in unknown environments, including the following: sensor fault detection and identification (FDI), sensor or source evaluation, and isolating poorly sensed regions. Each approach is evaluated in terms of its ability to perform sensing assessment tasks in unknown environments and its coverage

  15. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  16. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW LOOKING UP POWELL STREET FROM MARKET STREET - Powell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  18. Exploration of unknown mechanical assemblies through manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vijay R.; Yun, Xiaoping; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    1990-01-01

    If robots must function in unstructured environments, they must also possess the ability to acquire information and construct appropriate models of the unknown environment. This paper addresses the automatic generation of kinematic models of unknown objects with movable parts in the environment. If the relative motion between moving parts must be observed and characterized, vision alone cannot suffice. An approach in which manipulation is used with vision for sensing is better suited to the task of determining kinematic properties. In this paper, algorithms for constructing models of unknown mechanical assemblies and characterizing the relative motion are developed. Results of a simulation are described to demonstrate the role of manipulation in such an endeavor.

  19. On graphically representing the confidence region for an unknown rotation in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, M.S.; Chang, T.

    1990-01-01

    In assessing the errors involved in reconstructing tectonic plate rotations, it is desirable to have confidence regions for the unknown rotation. This paper presents a method for graphing such confidence regions, which exhibits the dependence of the range of possible angles of rotation on the axis considered. Namely, the minimum and maximum angles of rotation are graphed as functions of axis longitude and latitude. A FORTRAN 77 program SPHEREREGRESS is given which, under a variety of probabilistic models for the data, generates grid matrices which are used to draw contour maps of the minimum and maximum angles of rotation. ?? 1990.

  20. What's Your Angle?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students devise procedures for using a protractor to measure the number of degrees in an angle, and use inductive reasoning to develop "angle sense." Then they describe circumstances and careers that require a working knowledge of angles and their measurements.

  1. Angles All Around

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Bennett

    2011-12-14

    Standard: Identify and measure right, obtuse, and acute angles. This is a two day activity. OBJECTIVE: We have learned about five different types of angles: right, acute, obtuse, straight, and reflex. We have also learned how to use a protractor to measure angles. With this lesson, you will practice what ...

  2. Analysis of unknown words through morphological decomposition. 

    E-print Network

    van de Plassche, J; Black, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method of analysing words through morphological decomposition when the lexicon is incomplete. The method is used within a text-to-speech system to help generate pronunciations of unknown words. The ...

  3. Unknown-parent groups in single-step genomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Misztal, I; Vitezica, Z G; Legarra, A; Aguilar, I; Swan, A A

    2013-08-01

    In single-step genomic evaluation using best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP), genomic predictions are calculated with a relationship matrix that combines pedigree and genomic information. For missing pedigrees, unknown selection processes, or inclusion of several populations, a BLUP model can include unknown-parent groups (UPG) in the animal effect. For ssGBLUP, UPG equations also involve contributions from genomic relationships. When those contributions are ignored, UPG solutions and genetic predictions can be biased. Options to eliminate or reduce such bias are presented. First, mixed model equations can be modified to include contributions to UPG elements from genomic relationships (greater software complexity). Second, UPG can be implemented as separate effects (higher cost of computing and data processing). Third, contributions can be ignored when they are relatively small, but they may be small only after refinements to UPG definitions. Fourth, contributions may approximately cancel out when genomic and pedigree relationships are constructed for compatibility; however, different construction steps are required for unknown parents from the same or different populations. Finally, an additional polygenic effect that also includes UPG can be added to the model. PMID:23855627

  4. Schemes of Neutrino Mixings (Oscillations) and Their Mixing Matrices

    E-print Network

    Kh. M. Beshtoev

    2004-06-10

    Three schemes of neutrino mixings (oscillations) together with their mixing matrices (analogous to Kabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices) are considered. In these schemes neutrino transitions are virtual if neutrino masses are different. Two of them belong to the so called mass mixing schemes (mixing parameters are expressed by elements of mass matrices) and the third scheme belongs to the charge mixing scheme (mixing parameters are expressed through charges). In the first scheme system of 6 equations for determination of the all elements of the mass matrix (neutrino masses and transition widths) by using experimental data are obtained. In the second and third ones the neutrino mixing angles are equal or close to maximal angles ($\\pi/4$). It is obvious that the experiment must give an answer to the following question: Which of these schemes is realized indeed?

  5. Neutrino masses and flavor mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the neutrino oscillations, using texture zero mass matrices for the leptons. The reactor mixing angle ?l is calculated. The ratio of the masses of two neutrinos is determined by the solar mixing angle. We can calculate the masses of the three neutrinos: m1 ? 0.003 eV, m2 ? 0.012 eV, m3 ? 0.048 eV.

  6. Creation of superposition of unknown quantum states

    E-print Network

    Micha? Oszmaniec; Andrzej Grudka; Micha? Horodecki; Antoni Wójcik

    2015-05-29

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work we systematically study the problem of creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Secondly, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol is proven to be unique and optimal. Moreover, it can be implemented on arbitrary Hilbert spaces. In the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical or nongaussian states.

  7. Weak cloning of an unknown quantum state

    E-print Network

    Erik Sjöqvist; Johan Åberg

    2006-05-22

    The impossibility to clone an unknown quantum state is a powerful principle to understand the nature of quantum mechanics, especially within the context of quantum computing and quantum information. This principle has been generalized to quantitative statements as to what extent imperfect cloning is possible. We delineate an aspect of the border between the possible and the impossible concerning quantum cloning, by putting forward an entanglement-assisted scheme for simulating perfect cloning in the context of weak measurements. This phenomenon we call weak cloning of an unknown quantum state.

  8. Space Invariant Independent Component Analysis and ENose for Detection of Selective Chemicals in an Unknown Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Duong, Vu A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space invariant architecture to enable the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to solve chemical detection from two unknown mixing chemical sources. The two sets of unknown paired mixture sources are collected via JPL 16-ENose sensor array in the unknown environment with, at most, 12 samples data collected. Our space invariant architecture along with the maximum entropy information technique by Bell and Sejnowski and natural gradient descent by Amari has demonstrated that it is effective to separate the two mixing unknown chemical sources with unknown mixing levels to the array of two original sources under insufficient sampled data. From separated sources, they can be identified by projecting them on the 11 known chemical sources to find the best match for detection. We also present the results of our simulations. These simulations have shown that 100% correct detection could be achieved under the two cases: a) under-completed case where the number of input (mixtures) is larger than number of original chemical sources; and b) regular case where the number of input is as the same as the number of sources while the time invariant architecture approach may face the obstacles: overcomplete case, insufficient data and cumbersome architecture.

  9. The likelihood ratio test for general mixture models with possibly unknown structural parameter

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The likelihood ratio test for general mixture models with possibly unknown structural parameter testing problems: the test of a single distribution against any mixture, with application to Gaussian with the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for testing hypotheses on the mixing measure in mixture models with possibly

  10. Special Angle Pairs Discovery Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Henry

    2012-04-16

    This lesson uses a discovery approach to identify the special angles formed when a set of parallel lines is cut by a transversal. During this lesson students identify the angle pair and the relationship between the angles. Students use this relationship and special angle pairs to make conjectures about which angle pairs are considered special angles.

  11. Polygon Angle Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicholas Exner

    2000-05-31

    This interactive Java applet supports the investigation of the relationship between the number of vertices of a polygon and its interior angle sum. Learners choose and locate the vertices, the angle measures are displayed, and then the student can drag the measures into a circle to see them summed relative to 360 degrees.

  12. Avian Influenza 181 Rare or unknown

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Avian Influenza 181 Frequent Common Occasional Rare or unknown Waterfowl Shorebirds Gulls and terns Marine birds Upland gamebirds Ratites Cranes Songbirds Raptors Chapter 22 Avian Influenza Synonyms Fowl pest, fowl plague, avian influenza A. Wild birds, especially waterfowl and shorebirds, have long been

  13. Giant radioactive halos: indicators of unknown radioactivity?

    PubMed

    Gentry, R V

    1970-08-14

    A new group of giant radioactive halos has been found with radii in excess of anything previously discovered. Since alternate explanations for these giant halos are inconclusive at present, the possibility is considered that they originate with unknown alpha radioactivity, either from isomers of known elements or from superheavy elements. PMID:17791843

  14. Adapting to Unknown Smoothness via Wavelet Shrinkage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Donoho; Iain M. Johnstone

    1995-01-01

    We attempt to recover a function of unknown smoothness from noisy sampled data. We introduce a procedure, SureShrink, that suppresses noise by thresholding the empirical wavelet coefficients. The thresholding is adaptive: A threshold level is assigned to each dyadic resolution level by the principle of minimizing the Stein unbiased estimate of risk (Sure) for threshold estimates. The computational effort of

  15. Adaptive sequential estimation with unknown noise statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH A. MYERS; BYRON D. TAPLEY

    1976-01-01

    Sequential estimators are derived for suboptimal adaptive estimation of the unknown a priori state and observation noise statistics simultaneously with the system state. First- and second-order moments of the noise processes are estimated based on state and observation noise samples generated in the Kalman filter algorithm. A limited memory algorithm is developed for adaptive correction of the a priori statistics

  16. Unanimity in an Unknown and Unreliable Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Dolev

    1981-01-01

    Can unanimity be achieved in an unknown and unreliable distributed system? We analyze two extreme models of networks: one in which all the routes of communication are known, and the other in which not even the topology of the network is known. We prove that independently of the model, unanimity is achievable if and only if the number of faulty

  17. Adaptive control of plants with unknown hystereses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Tao; Petar V. KokotoviC

    1995-01-01

    For a system with hysteresis, the authors present a parameterized hysteresis model and develop a hysteresis inverse. The authors then design adaptive controllers with an adaptive hysteresis inverse for plants with unknown hysteresis. A new adaptive controller structure is introduced which is capable of achieving a linear parameterization and a linear error model in the presence of a hysteresis nonlinearity.

  18. X-ray Analysis of Unknown Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dexter Perkins

    In this exercise, students use X-ray analysis to identify unknown minerals. They are given two samples to grind up and X-ray, using Jade to identify them. Once the minerals are identified, students make a spreadsheet and do a series of calculations.

  19. An unknown mathematical manuscript by Blaise Pascal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Descotes

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with an unknown mathematical manuscript to be found in the Recueil Original of the manuscript of the Pensées. I give a technical description of the original manuscript, followed by a mathematical analysis of the proposition proved by Pascal. The interest of this study lies in the fact that this theorem is the only handwritten draft remaining in

  20. Robotic Deburring of parts with Unknown Geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kazerooni; M. G. Her

    1988-01-01

    The work presented here is an approach in robotic deburring of two dimensional parts with unknown geometry. Two problems have been addressed in this paper: tracking the the part contour, and control of the metal removal process. The tracking mechanism is a roller bearing mounted on a force sensor at the robot endpoint. The tracking control employs the force measured

  1. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kozlowski; J. Masel; S. Harbison; J. Yu

    1983-01-01

    Summary Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics.

  2. BLOG: Probabilistic Models with Unknown Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Milch; Bhaskara Marthi; Stuart J. Russell; David Sontag; Daniel L. Ong; Andrey Kolobov

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces and illustrates B LOG, a formal lan- guage for defining probability models over worlds with unknown objects and identity uncertainty. BLOG unifies and extends several existing approaches. Subject to cer- tain acyclicity constraints, every B LOG model specifies a unique probability distribution over first-order model structures that can contain varying and unbounded num- bers of objects. Furthermore,

  3. State of Matter of an Unknown Material

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is used to introduce the different properties of states of matter, by testing an unknown substance with household materials to determine which state of matter most closely resembles the material. It also can invole data collection, reasoning, grph making, and presentation of findings.

  4. Problems Dealing with Unknown Quantities and Two Different Levels of Representing Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filloy, Eugenio; Rojano, Teresa; Solares, Armando

    2010-01-01

    This article centers on studying the progress of algebraic syntax once students have surmounted initial obstacles found in the transition toward symbolic algebra. It specifically analyzes students' progress concerning the operation on the unknown, when the latter is represented by an expression that involves a 2nd unknown. In curricular terms,…

  5. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  6. Laser angle sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical and optical parameters were developed for a two axis (pitch/roll) laser angle sensor. The laser source and detector were mounted in the plenum above the model. Two axis optical distortion measurements of flow characteristics in a 0.3 transonic cryogenic tunnel were made with a shearing interferometer. The measurement results provide a basis for estimating the optical parameters of the laser angle sensor. Experimental and analytical information was generated on model windows to cover the reflector. A two axis breadboard was assembled to evaluate different measurement concepts. The measurement results were used to develop a preliminary design of a laser angle sensor. Schematics and expected performance specifications are included.

  7. Venus atmospheric circulation - Known and unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay Shridhar

    1990-01-01

    Temporally and longitudinally averaged circulation determined from images acquired since 1979 from the Pioneer Venus orbiter has shown significant changes in th meridional flow. The solar-locked structure in the zonal and meridional components of the cloud motions is also observed to change with time. Mechanisms for such changes remain unknown, although planetary waves and a slight modulation of the cloud level have been suggested as explanations. Decomposition of the solar-locked structure into diurnal and semidiurnal components suggests that nightside zonal flow may be 10-20 m/s faster than the average dayside flow. Many aspects of the circulation remain unknown, including the horizontal and vertical structure on the nightside and at levels higher and lower than the UV cloud features, sources, and sinks of UV absorbers, and meridional transports of heat, momentum, and water vapor at different levels.

  8. Tracking highly maneuverable targets with unknown behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHAD SCHELL; STEPHEN P. LINDER; J. R. Zeider

    2004-01-01

    Tracking of highly maneuvering targets with unknown behavior is a difficult problem in sequential state estimation. The performance of predictive-model-based Bayesian state estimators deteriorates quickly when their models are no longer accurate or their process noise is large. A data-driven approach to tracking, the segmenting track identifier (STI), is presented as an algorithm that operates well in environments where the

  9. Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

  10. Oil merger trend: exploring the unknowns

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.

    1984-03-26

    Experts disagree on the effect recent oil company mergers will have on exploration spending and US credit markets. Proclaiming the answers unknowable, some see the issue as surpassing antitrust concerns. It is generally agreed, however, that there will be less spending on exploration and production during the transition period of the merger. The effect on stocks is also unknown, but analysts suggest that shareholder's adjustments will have only a minimal effect on the credit market.

  11. Neurofunctional Signature of Hyperfamiliarity for Unknown Faces

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Elisa; D’Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Coriasco, Mario; Ferrio, Federica; Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Rubino, Elisa; de Gelder, Beatrice; Rainero, Innocenzo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Tamietto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces is a rare selective disorder that consists of the disturbing and abnormal feeling of familiarity for unknown faces, while recognition of known faces is normal. In one such patient we investigated with a multimodal neuroimaging design the hitherto undescribed neural signature associated with hyperfamiliarity feelings. Behaviorally, signal detection methods revealed that the patient’s discrimination sensitivity between familiar and unfamiliar faces was significantly lower than that of matched controls, and her response criterion for familiarity decisions was significantly more liberal. At the neural level, while morphometric analysis and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) showed the atrophy and hypofunctioning of the left temporal regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that hyperfamiliarity feelings were selectively associated to enhanced activity in the right medial and inferior temporal cortices. We therefore characterize the neurofunctional signature of hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces as related to the loss of coordinated activity between the complementary face processing functions of the left and right temporal lobes. PMID:26154253

  12. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd [Quanics.com, Germany, 88679 Salem, P.O. Box 1247 (United States)], E-mail: binder@quanics.com

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

  13. Changes in muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics in response to handling objects of unknown mass magnitude.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Walaa; Farrag, Ahmed; El-Sayyad, Mohsen; Marras, William

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main and interaction effects of mass knowledge and mass magnitude on trunk muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics. Eighteen participants performed symmetric box lifts of three different mass magnitudes (1.1 kg, 5 kg, 15 kg) under known and unknown mass knowledge conditions. Outcome measures were normalized peak electromyography of four trunk muscles in addition to three dimensional lumbosacral angles and acceleration. The results indicated that three out of four muscles exhibited significantly greater activity when handling unknown masses (p<.05). Meanwhile, only sagittal angular acceleration was significantly higher when handling unknown masses (115.6 ± 42.7°/s(2)) compared to known masses (109.3 ± 31.5°/s(2)). Similarly, the mass magnitude and mass knowledge interaction significantly impacted the same muscles along with the sagittal lumbosacral angle and angular acceleration (p<.05) with the greatest difference between knowledge conditions being consistently occurring under the 1.1 kg mass magnitude condition. Thus, under these conditions, it was concluded that mass magnitude has more impact than mass knowledge. However, handling objects of unknown mass magnitude could be hazardous, particularly when lifting light masses, in that they can increase mechanical burden on the lumbosacral spine due to increased muscular exertion and acceleration. PMID:25662505

  14. What Is the Angle?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will help students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that will help students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold. The students will explore all the angles of sunlight with a few thermometers and a heat lamp and understand why there is such a dramatic temperature change between the equator and the South Pole.

  15. What's the Angle?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    2002-01-01

    This activity helps learners understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, learners apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps learners use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always cold.

  16. Mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B-cell lymphomas. The first-line treatment of MC should focus on eradication of HCV by combined interferon-ribavirin treatment. Pathogenetic treatments (immunosuppressors, corticosteroids, and/or plasmapheresis) should be tailored to each patient according to the progression and severity of the clinical manifestations. Long-term monitoring is recommended in all MC patients to assure timely diagnosis and treatment of the life-threatening complications. The overall prognosis is poorer in patients with renal disease, liver failure, lymphoproliferative disease and malignancies. PMID:18796155

  17. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  18. Ring laser angle encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coccoli, J. D.; Lawson, J. R.; Mc Garty, T. P.; Nickles, J. E.

    1969-01-01

    Ring laser angle encoder with a scanning photometer autocollimator and an isolation axis, provides continuous digital readout. It measures the angular difference in inertial attitudes of target /any phenomena generating or reflecting a light beam/ two at a time relative to target one at a time.

  19. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  20. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Thea R.; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import of essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that non-polar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporters for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or ascorbic acid. PMID:25191333

  1. [Hedrocele, an unknown pelvic organ prolapse].

    PubMed

    Parsy, C; Cosson, M; Quinton, J-F; Laurent, N; Lucot, J-P; Tempremant, F; Poncelet, E

    2015-06-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are frequent and source of symptoms which can be invalidating for patients. Between them, hedrocele is a pathology often unknown and clinically difficult to diagnose. It is a herniation of fat pad, small bowel or sigmoid colon in the recto-uterine pouch (cul-de-sac of Douglas) exercising a mass effect on the anterior wall of the rectum. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with morphological sequences and dynamic sequences in thrust can be very useful, allowing a comprehensive study of pelvic floor dysfunction and confirming the complete diagnosis, especially before surgery. We suggest you some examples to illustrate this pathology in order to emphasize the importance of its diagnosis, especially preoperative. A better understanding of this pelvic floor dysfunction would improve the care of patients. PMID:26004024

  2. Multiple sensor fusion under unknown distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.

    1996-10-01

    In a system of N sensors, the sensor {ital S{sub i}}, i = 1, 2 ..., N, outputs {ital Y}{sup (i)} {element_of} {Re}, according to an unknown probability distribution P{sub Y{sup (i)}}{vert_bar}X, corresponding to input X {element_of} {Re}. A training {ital n}-sample (X{sub 1}, Y{sub 1}), (X{sub 2},Y{sub 2}), ..., (X{sub n},Y{sub n}) is given where {ital Y{sub i}} = (Y{sub i}{sup (1)},Y{sub i}{sup (2)},...,Y{sub i}{sup (N)}) such that Y{sub i}{sup (j)} is the output of S{sub j} in response to input X{sub i}. The problem is to design a fusion rule expected square error: I({ital f}) = {integral}[X - f (Y)]{sup 2}dP{sub y{vert_bar}X}dPx, where Y=(Y{sup (1)}, Y{sup (2)},..., Y({sup N)}),is minimized over a family of functions {ital F}. Let f{sup *} minimize I(.) over {ital F}; in general, f{sup *} cannot be computed since the underlying distributions are unknown. We consider sufficient conditions based on smoothness and/or combinatorial dimensions of {ital F} to ensure that an estimator {cflx {ital f}} satisfies P[I({cflx {ital f}}) - I(f{sup *}) > {epsilon}] < {delta} for any {epsilon} > 0 and 0 < {delta} < 1. We present two methods for computing {cflx {ital f}} based on feedforward sigmoidal networks and Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Design and performance characteristics of the two methods are discussed, based both on theoretical and simulation results.

  3. Angle Sense: A Valuable Connector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Proposes angle sense as a fundamental connector between mathematical concepts for middle grade students. Introduces the use of pattern blocks and a goniometer, a tool to measure angles, to help students develop angle sense. Discusses connections between angle measurement and the concepts of rational numbers, circles, area, number theory,…

  4. A Different Angle on Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

  5. Comparison of mixed quantum states

    E-print Network

    Shengshi Pang; Shengjun Wu

    2011-09-07

    In this article, we study the problem of comparing mixed quantum states: given $n$ unknown mixed quantum states, can one determine whether they are identical or not with an unambiguous quantum measurement? We first study universal comparison of mixed quantum states, and prove that this task is generally impossible to accomplish. Then, we focus on unambiguous comparison of $n$ mixed quantum states arbitrarily chosen from a set of $k$ mixed quantum states. The condition for the existence of an unambiguous measurement operator which can produce a conclusive result when the unknown states are actually the same and the condition for the existence of an unambiguous measurement operator when the unknown states are actually different are studied independently. We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the first measurement operator, and a necessary condition and two sufficient conditions for the second. Furthermore, we find that the sufficiency of the necessary condition for the second measurement operator has simple and interesting dependence on $n$ and $k$. At the end, a unified condition is obtained for the simultaneous existence of these two unambiguous measurement operators.

  6. Angling hydraulic jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Andrew; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2008-11-01

    We present an experimental and mathematical study of the normal impact of a jet onto an inclined solid surface, focusing on the characteristics of the hydraulic jump. The angle of the surface is varied between vertical and horizontal positions, using both flat and curved (patterned) surfaces. Comparisons of the outer envelope of the hydraulic jump are made with the ballistic theory and the model of Edwards, Howison, Ockendon, & Ockendon.

  7. Laser angle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

  8. 56. Rock Belt Line, Transfer Building, date unknown Historic Photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Rock Belt Line, Transfer Building, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr.(Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  9. 55. East Side of Breaker, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. East Side of Breaker, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA) photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  10. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative...INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...

  11. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations,...

  13. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents...RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated collecting...

  14. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations,...

  15. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents...SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the Collective is unable to...

  16. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents...RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated collecting...

  17. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative...INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...

  18. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations,...

  20. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative...INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...

  3. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative...INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...

  5. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations,...

  7. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents...RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated collecting...

  8. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents...SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the Collective is unable to...

  9. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations,...

  10. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative...INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...

  11. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents...RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated collecting...

  12. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents...RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated collecting...

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs Mecia, Tombstone, Arizona. Date Unknown GENERAL VIEW MAIN CHURCH (SOUTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents...SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the Collective is unable to...

  16. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 4. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES WITH DIRT ROAD IN FOREGROUND. LOCATION UNKNOWN. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  20. 8. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). SEVEN COTTAGES. VIEW UNKNOWN. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  1. 5. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). SIX COTTAGES. VIEW UNKNOWN. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  2. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Volker S [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  3. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is presented. The developed theory is used to estimate vertical tire forces and predict tripped rollovers in situations involving road bumps, potholes, and lateral unknown force inputs. To estimate the tire-road friction coefficients at each individual tire of the vehicle, algorithms to estimate longitudinal forces and slip ratios at each tire are proposed. Subsequently, tire-road friction coefficients are obtained using recursive least squares parameter estimators that exploit the relationship between longitudinal force and slip ratio at each tire. The developed approaches are evaluated through simulations with industry standard software, CARSIM, with experimental tests on a Volvo XC90 sport utility vehicle and with experimental tests on a 1/8th scaled vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the developed approaches can reliably estimate the vehicle parameters and state variables needed for effective ESC and rollover prevention applications.

  4. Overfitting Bayesian Mixture Models with an Unknown Number of Components

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes solutions to three issues pertaining to the estimation of finite mixture models with an unknown number of components: the non-identifiability induced by overfitting the number of components, the mixing limitations of standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling techniques, and the related label switching problem. An overfitting approach is used to estimate the number of components in a finite mixture model via a Zmix algorithm. Zmix provides a bridge between multidimensional samplers and test based estimation methods, whereby priors are chosen to encourage extra groups to have weights approaching zero. MCMC sampling is made possible by the implementation of prior parallel tempering, an extension of parallel tempering. Zmix can accurately estimate the number of components, posterior parameter estimates and allocation probabilities given a sufficiently large sample size. The results will reflect uncertainty in the final model and will report the range of possible candidate models and their respective estimated probabilities from a single run. Label switching is resolved with a computationally light-weight method, Zswitch, developed for overfitted mixtures by exploiting the intuitiveness of allocation-based relabelling algorithms and the precision of label-invariant loss functions. Four simulation studies are included to illustrate Zmix and Zswitch, as well as three case studies from the literature. All methods are available as part of the R package Zmix, which can currently be applied to univariate Gaussian mixture models. PMID:26177375

  5. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  6. CPHD filtering with unknown probability of detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2010-04-01

    The conventional PHD and CPHD filters presume that the probability pD(x) that a measurement will be collected from a target with state-vector x (the state-dependent probability of detection) is known a priori. However, in many applications this presumption is false. A few methods have been devised for estimating the probability of detection, but they typically presume that pD(x) is constant in both time and the region of interest. This paper introduces CPHD/PHD filters that are capable of multitarget track-before-detect operation even when probability of detection is not known and, moreover, when it is not necessarily constant, either temporally or spatially. Furthermore, these filters are potentially computationally tractable. We begin by deriving CPHD/PHD filter equations for the case when probability of detection is unknown but the clutter model is known a priori. Then, building on the results of a companion paper, we note that CPHD/PHD filters can be derived for the case when neither probability of detection or the background clutter are known.

  7. Robot self-location in unknown environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stuck, E.R.

    1991-02-01

    It is often necessary for robots to navigate in environments which are not known in advance. In this context, self-location is the problem of determining how far and in what direction motion has occurred. Because of wheel slippage and other errors, odometry cannot be depended upon to provide precise or accurate positional information. Triangulating from visual features can help make position estimation more accurate. This paper describes work that was done during a three-month student research internship at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, exploring the problem of robot self-location in unknown environments. This work included the development and integration of a set of programs which present a partial solution to this self-location problem. These programs use a sequence of images which are acquired as the camera moves between positions with a motion which is known approximately. Visual features are extracted from the images and matched through time. Triangulation using these features then provides a rough estimate of the range of these features from the camera. Kalman filtering (not implemented) can then be used to integrate the information from odometry and vision to provide a better estimate of the position of the robot. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  9. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-06-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle ?C?13° with the CP-violating phase ?q around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around ?/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ?l is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ?l?0 limit and predicts sin ?13=1/?{2}sin(?l/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ?l)/12 can reach a few percent if ?13 lies in the range 7°??13?10°.

  10. Grasping unknown objects based on 3d model reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wang; L. Jiang; J. W. LI; H. G. Cai

    2005-01-01

    Automatic grasping of unknown objects for multifingered robot hand is a very difficult problem because the location and model of the object are unknown and the possible hand configurations are numerous. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for modeling and grasping prior unknown objects based on powerful 3D model reconstruction. The whole system consists of a laser scanner,

  11. OBSERVER DESIGN FOR SYSTEMS WITH NON SMALL AND UNKNOWN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OBSERVER DESIGN FOR SYSTEMS WITH NON SMALL AND UNKNOWN TIME-VARYING DELAY Alexandre Seuret Thierry deals with the design of observers for linear systems with unknown, time-varying, but bounded delays (on the unknown input observer approach with an adequate choice of a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional for non small

  12. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14 Section 303.14...ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber...textile by-products, or waste materials of unknown, and for practical purposes,...

  13. On sliding mode observers for systems with unknown inputs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On sliding mode observers for systems with unknown inputs T. Floquet1,3 , C. Edwards2 and S. K for a linear system subject to unknown inputs. This problem has been extensively studied in the literature to enable a linear unknown input observer to be designed have been established for many years. One way

  14. An observation algorithm for nonlinear systems with unknown inputs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An observation algorithm for nonlinear systems with unknown inputs Jean-Pierre Barbot1,4 , Driss Lille - Nord Europe, France. Abstract This paper provides some new developments in the design of unknown input observers for nonlinear systems. An algorithm which states if the state and the unknown input

  15. A Motion Description Language for Robotic Reconnaissance of Unknown Fields

    E-print Network

    Baillieul, John

    1 A Motion Description Language for Robotic Reconnaissance of Unknown Fields Dimitar Baronov to explore the features of an unknown scalar field. The first motion primitive is designed to follow at the mapping of unknown fields. The motion control primitives developed bellow will provide the foundation

  16. Stability Analysis of Networked Control Systems with Unknown Inputs

    E-print Network

    Sun, Dengfeng

    Stability Analysis of Networked Control Systems with Unknown Inputs Ahmad F Taha, Ahmed Elmahdi# , Jitesh H. Panchal and Dengfeng Sun Abstract-- Unknown Input Observers (UIO) use the known plant's inputs and outputs to generate state estimates for plants with unknown inputs. In many cases, the UIO's inputs

  17. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71...Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic...package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52.247-49 Section 52.247-49...Clauses 52.247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5...purpose of evaluating offers: Destination Unknown (APR 1984) For the purpose of...

  20. Processing Unknown Words in a Dialogue System Matthew Purver

    E-print Network

    Purver, Matthew

    Processing Unknown Words in a Dialogue System Matthew Purver Department of Computer Science King of pro- cessing unknown words in a HPSG- based dialogue system, with acquisi- tion of lexical semantics language processing applications have to deal with unknown words ­ as the lexi- con of any natural language

  1. State estimation of uncertain multiple model with unknown inputs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    State estimation of uncertain multiple model with unknown inputs Abdelkader Akhenak, Mohammed) multiple model with unknown inputs. Stability conditions of such observers are expressed in terms of linear strategy able to minimize their effects. The dis- turbances are called unknown inputs when they affect

  2. FAULT DETECTION OBSERVERS FOR SYSTEMS WITH UNKNOWN INPUTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FAULT DETECTION OBSERVERS FOR SYSTEMS WITH UNKNOWN INPUTS Besma GADDOUNA, Didier MAQUIN and José}@ensem.u-nancy.fr Abstract. Many approaches for the design of unknown input observers were developed to estimate the state of a linear time-invariant dynamical system driven by both known and unknown inputs. These observers are often

  3. Delayed Observers for Linear Systems with Unknown Inputs

    E-print Network

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    1 Delayed Observers for Linear Systems with Unknown Inputs Shreyas Sundaram and Christoforos N with unknown inputs. Our approach provides a characterization of observers with delay, which eases the established necessary conditions for existence of unknown input observers with zero-delay. We develop a parame

  4. Full Order Unknown Inputs Observers Design for Delay Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Full Order Unknown Inputs Observers Design for Delay Systems M.Darouach CRAN-CNRS (UMR 7039), UHP@iut-longwy.uhp-nancy.fr Abstract This paper presents the full order observers design for linear time delay systems with unknown inputs. A new method generalizing those existing in the literature is developed, the unknown inputs

  5. Unknown Object Identification Using Category Visual Words with Rejection Function

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    Unknown Object Identification Using Category Visual Words with Rejection Function Yuto Tanaka an identification method for unknown category objects. Most popular conven- tional methods in object recognition use visual words by quan- tizing SIFT features. However, this method is unable to identify unknown objects

  6. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71...Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic...package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that...

  7. Verifying Pointer Safety for Programs with Unknown Calls

    E-print Network

    Qin, Shengchao

    Verifying Pointer Safety for Programs with Unknown Calls Chenguang Luo, Florin Craciun, Shengchao with unknown procedure calls. Given a Hoare-style partial correctness specification S = {Pre} C {Post} in separation logic, where the program C contains calls to some unknown pro- cedure U, we infer a specification

  8. Design of Unknown Input Observers for Lipschitz Nonlinear Systems

    E-print Network

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Design of Unknown Input Observers for Lipschitz Nonlinear Systems A. M. Pertew , H. J. Marquez and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, T6G 2V4 Abstract-- The problem of unknown is a generalization of previously used linear unknown input observers is introduced. The additional degrees of freedom

  9. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14 Section 303.14...ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber...textile by-products, or waste materials of unknown, and for practical purposes,...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52.247-49 Section 52.247-49...Clauses 52.247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5...purpose of evaluating offers: Destination Unknown (APR 1984) For the purpose of...

  11. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71...Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic...package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that...

  12. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14 Section 303.14...ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber...textile by-products, or waste materials of unknown, and for practical purposes,...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  14. A novel approach to the design of unknown input observers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Guan; Mehrdad Saif

    1991-01-01

    A novel state estimator design scheme for linear dynamical systems driven by partially unknown inputs is presented. It is assumed that there is no information available about the unknown inputs, and thus no prior assumption is made about the nature of these inputs. A simple approach for designing a reduced-order unknown input observer (UIO) with pole-placement capability is proposed. By

  15. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71...Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic...package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  17. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14 Section 303.14...ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber...textile by-products, or waste materials of unknown, and for practical purposes,...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  19. Observers for systems with unknown and inaccessible inputs†

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. MEDITCH; G. H. HOSTETTER

    1974-01-01

    Observer theory for constant-coefficient linear systems is extended to systems with unknown inaccessible inputs. Two types of observers for such systems are defined, and simplified criteria for their existence are developed. A theorem regarding the structure of these observers is given which allows the application of results for systems with single unknown inputs to systems with multiple unknown inputs.

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  1. THE UNKNOWN AND THE UNKNOWABLE JOSEPH F. TRAUB

    E-print Network

    Traub, Joseph F.

    THE UNKNOWN AND THE UNKNOWABLE JOSEPH F. TRAUB Columbia University Department of Computer Science science? I'll discuss the unknown and the unknowable in science, raising more questions than I will answer come to your attention a few months ago in The New York Times. My primary theme is the unknown

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52.247-49 Section 52.247-49...Clauses 52.247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5...purpose of evaluating offers: Destination Unknown (APR 1984) For the purpose of...

  3. Page 1 of 2 UNKNOWN CHEMICAL WASTE CHARACTERIZATION FORM

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Page 1 of 2 UNKNOWN CHEMICAL WASTE CHARACTERIZATION FORM Please provide as much information as possible for unidentified chemical wastes. You must complete one form for each container of unknown waste) Contact Name, Phone, & Email: 1. Have all personnel who use the lab been questioned about this unknown

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52.247-49 Section 52.247-49...Clauses 52.247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5...purpose of evaluating offers: Destination Unknown (APR 1984) For the purpose of...

  5. Unknown Input Observer Design and Analysis for Networked Control

    E-print Network

    Sun, Dengfeng

    1 Unknown Input Observer Design and Analysis for Networked Control Systems Ahmad F Taha, Ahmed subject to unknown inputs in a form of disturbances, perturbations, or attacks. The objective of this paper is to design and analyze an observer for networked dynamical systems with unknown inputs

  6. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52.247-49 Section 52.247-49...Clauses 52.247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5...purpose of evaluating offers: Destination Unknown (APR 1984) For the purpose of...

  7. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71...Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic...package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that...

  8. UNKNOWN INPUT MULTIPLE OBSERVER BASED-APPROACH -APPLICATION TO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UNKNOWN INPUT MULTIPLE OBSERVER BASED-APPROACH - APPLICATION TO SECURE COMMUNICATIONS A. Akhenak presents multiple observer design for nonlinear chaotic sys- tems with unknown inputs in multiple model approach. The considered unknown inputs influences the states and the outputs of the system. The main

  9. Extension of minimum variance estimation for systems with unknown inputs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extension of minimum variance estimation for systems with unknown inputs M. Darouach , M the problem of minimum variance estimation for discrete-time time-varying stochastic systems with unknown inputs. The objective is to construct an optimal filter in the general case where the unknown inputs

  10. Low angle injection into a supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mays, R. B.; Thomas, R. H.; Schetz, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of helium jets injected into a Mach 3 airflow through circular sonic nozzles angled downstream at 15 and 30 deg is presented. An aspirating hot-film probe was employed to measure helium concentrations. The results of Schlieren and nonoshadowgraph photography show the presence of large-scale turbulent structures in the high pressure jets. Concentration data reveal some asymmetries both in the cross section of the jet and in the trajectory of the jet relative to the centerline of the jet. Plotting the decay of maximum concentration with axial distance, it is found that the mixing rate can be increased significantly by increasing the pressure ratio. These low angle jets display good cross-stream penetration.

  11. Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Angle ?13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Masahiro

    Neutrinos exhibit an interesting phenomenon called "neutrino oscillation", in which a neutrino changes its flavor after traveling some flight length. Many experiments measured the mixing angles and mass differences, but the angle ?13 had been unmeasured due to its smallness compared to others. During 2011 and 2012, series of new-generation neutrino experiments reported positive results in ?13 search, and its value has been determined to be just below the previous upper limit. The non-zero result of ?13 is a very good news for future of neutrino physics, since it opens a possibility of measuring the CP violation phase in the lepton sector. An introduction to neutrino oscillation and latest experimental results are presented. A detail is put on Double Chooz reactor experiment, in which the author is involved.

  12. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  13. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  14. Shapes and Angles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2012-05-08

    In this activity (page 7 of PDF), learners will identify the general two-dimensional geometric shape of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater. They will also draw connections between the general two-dimensional geometric shape of an impact crater and the projectile's angle of impact. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

  15. Texture Components and Euler Angles

    E-print Network

    Rollett, Anthony D.

    1 Texture Components and Euler Angles 27-750 Texture, Microstructure components and their associated Euler angles. · The overall aim is to be able to describe a texture component by a single point (in orienta

  16. Vector 1 Vector 2 Zone Axis (h k l) d (h k l) d [U V W] Angle

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Vector 1 Vector 2 of d-spacings obtained from two reciprocal lattice vectors, and the acute angle between these vectors. If the camera constant is unknown, then the ratio of the vectors may be used instead

  17. Angle performance on optima MDxt

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}).

  18. Identification of an unknown material in a radiation shield using the schwinger inverse method.

    SciTech Connect

    Favorite, J. A. (Jeffrey A.); Bledsoe, K. C. (Keith C.)

    2004-01-01

    The Schwinger method for solving inverse gamma-ray transport problems was proposed in a previous paper. The method is iterative and requires a set of uncoupled forward and adjoint transport calculations in each iteration. In this paper, the Schwinger inverse method is applied to the problem of identifying an unknown material in a radiation shield by calculating its total macroscopic photon cross sections. The gamma source is known and the total (angle-independent) gamma leakage is measured. In numerical one-dimensional spherical and slab test problems, the Schwinger inverse method successfully calculated the photon cross sections of an unknown material. Material identification was successfully achieved by comparing the calculated cross sections with those in a precomputed material cross section library, although there was some ambiguity when realistic measurements were used. The Schwinger inverse method compared very favorably with the standard single energy transmission technique (SET).

  19. Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-11-25

    In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

  20. Synchronous generator load angle estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Cucek; D. Sumina; N. Svigir

    2010-01-01

    In the paper is proposed a load angle estimation method for synchronous generators. The estimation method is based on synchronous generator corresponding voltage-current vector diagram and parameters of generator, transformer and transmission lines. In addition measurement of the load angle is presented. The estimation results were compared with the measured ones. The estimation method gives satisfactory accuracy for load angles

  1. Solar Neutrino Data, Neutrino Magnetic Moments and Flavor Mixing

    E-print Network

    E. Kh. Akhmedov; A. Lanza; S. T. Petcov

    1994-11-15

    The results of all currently operating solar neutrino experiments are analyzed in the framework of the resonant neutrino spin--flavor precession scenario including the effects of neutrino mixing. Nine different profiles of the solar magnetic field are used in the calculations. It is shown that the available experimental data can be accounted for within the considered scenario. The Ga--Ge data lead to an upper limit on the neutrino mixing angle: $\\sin 2\\theta_0 \\aprle 0.25$. One can discriminate between small mixing angle ($\\sin 2\\theta_0 \\aprle 0.1$) and moderate mixing angle solutions by studying the solar $\\bar{\

  2. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. PMID:24140073

  3. Nonlinear Angle Beam Ultrasonic Evaluation of Adhesive Bonds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Rokhlin; L. Wang; A. Baltazar; V. A. Yakovlev; L. Adler

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an experimental method incorporating high frequency pulsed angle beam ultrasonic measurements under low frequency vibration of bonded structures utilizing parametric\\/nonlinear mixing between high and low frequencies. We have demonstrated that the effect of environmental degradation of adhesive bonds can be detected by this method. It is shown that good quality (undamaged) bonds do not exhibit dependence of

  4. Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Martin U.; Lüdemann, Wolf O.; Schreiber, Hartwig; Samii, Madjid

    1997-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas in an infratentorial and extra-axial location are extremely rare. The presented case of an extensive lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represents 0.05% of all CPA tumors operated on in our department from 1978 to 1996. The lipoma constitutes an important differential diagnosis because the clinical management differs significantly from other CPA lesions. The clinical presentation and management of the presented case are analyzed in comparison to all previously described cases of CPA lipomas. The etiology and the radiological features of CPA lipomas are reviewed and discussed. CPA lipomas are maldevelopmental lesions that may cause slowly progressive symptoms. Neuroradiology enables a reliable preoperative diagnosis. Attempts of complete lipoma resection usually result in severe neurological deficits. Therefore, we recommend a conservative approach in managing these patients. Limited surgery is indicated if the patient has an associated vascular compression syndrome or suffers from disabling vertigo. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171031

  5. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  6. Tri-bimaximal Mixing from Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryo [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2008-11-23

    We investigate fermion mass matrices of the cascade form which lead to the tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector. The cascade neutrino matrix predicts a parameter-independent relation among the observables, which are the neutrino mixing angles and mass squared differences. The relation predicts that the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle is close to maximal. We also study phenomenological aspect of the cascade form in supersymmetric theory, which are lepton flavor violation and thermal leptogenesis. A dynamical realivation of the cascade mass matrix are also presented in U(1) flavor theory.

  7. The Weak Angle and Quark Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannon, Vic

    2000-04-01

    The weak angle discerns a basic quark mass through mu div md div ms div mc div mb div mt ? 1 div ( frac1 sin ? W ) div ( frac1 sin ^5 ? W ) div ( frac1 sin ^8 ? W ) div ( frac1 sin ^10 ? W ) div ( frac1 sin ^15 ? W ) Within families mu div md ? sin ? _W, ms div mc ? sin^3 ? _W, and mb div mt ? sin^5 ? _W, are complementary to the relations sin ? 1 ? sin ^2 ? _W, sin ? 2 ? sin ^4 ? _W, and sin ? 3 ? sin ^6 ? W validated* by the CKM matrix data where ? W ? arcsin ? 0.23, and the CKM matrix is the product ( 1 & 0 & 0 0 & c2 & s2 0 & - s2 & c2 )( c1 & s1 & 0 - s1 & c1 & 0 0 & 0 & 1 )( 1 & 0 & 0 0 & 1 & 0 0 & 0 & e^i? )( 1 & 0 & 0 0 & c3 & s3 0 & - s3 & c3 ) based on the mixing angles, ? 1 ,? 2 ,? 3 , and ?. ci = \\cos ?_i, and s_i= sin ?_i. Thus, ( fracmu md ) div sin ? 1 div ( fracms mc ) div sin ? 2 div ( fracmb mt ) div sin ? 3 ? sin ? W div sin ^2 ? W div sin ^3 ? W div sin ^4 ? W div sin ^5 ? W div sin ^6 ? W . ["Cabbibo Angle Approximation CKM matrix", Bull.Vol.44, No.9

  8. NEUTRINO SCATTERING IN PERTURBATIVE QCD AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WEINBERG ANGLE.

    SciTech Connect

    KRETZER,S.HALL-RENO,M.

    2003-05-19

    We summarize a recent calculation of perturbative neutrino cross sections that includes NLO and mass corrections. We provide numerical results for quantities that are related to the extraction of the weak mixing angle from neutrino deep inelastic scattering.

  9. Predicting lepton flavor mixing from ?(48) and generalized CP symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Ye-Ling

    2015-02-01

    We propose to understand the mixing angles and CP-violating phases from the ?(48) family symmetry combined with the generalized CP symmetry. A model-independent analysis is performed by scanning all the possible symmetry breaking chains. We find a new mixing pattern with only one free parameter, excellent agreement with the observed mixing angles can be achieved and all the CP-violating phases are predicted to take nontrivial values. This mixing pattern is testable in the near future neutrino oscillation and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, a flavor model is constructed to realize this mixing pattern. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275188, 11179007, 11135009)

  10. Quantitative composition determination at the atomic level using model-based high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; De Backer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-02-01

    High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images provide sample information which is sensitive to the chemical composition. The image intensities indeed scale with the mean atomic number Z. To some extent, chemically different atomic column types can therefore be visually distinguished. However, in order to quantify the atomic column composition with high accuracy and precision, model-based methods are necessary. Therefore, an empirical incoherent parametric imaging model can be used of which the unknown parameters are determined using statistical parameter estimation theory (Van Aert et al., 2009, [1]). In this paper, it will be shown how this method can be combined with frozen lattice multislice simulations in order to evolve from a relative toward an absolute quantification of the composition of single atomic columns with mixed atom types. Furthermore, the validity of the model assumptions are explored and discussed. PMID:24270003

  11. 8.G Find the Angle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In triangle $\\Delta ABC$, point $M$ is the point of intersection of the bisectors of angles $\\angle BAC$, $\\angle ABC$, and $\\angle ACB$. The measure o...

  12. Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams of Mobile Robots

    E-print Network

    Burgard, Wolfram

    Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams of Mobile Robots Wolfram Burgard 1 of exploring an unknown envi­ ronment by a team of robots. As in single­robot exploration the goal is to mini­ mize the overall exploration time. The key problem to be solved in the context of multiple robots

  13. Advanced Motion Control for Wheelchair in Unknown Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichiro Katsura; K. Ohnishi

    2006-01-01

    Motion control in open environment will be more and more important. The recent machines are required to have an ability to contact with unknown environment. The environmental information is a key to be compliant to unknown environment. This paper develops a novel viewpoint of motion control based on quarrying of environmental information. The quarry process means to abstract and express

  14. 54. East Side of Breaker from Foot House, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. East Side of Breaker from Foot House, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy of Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  15. 48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  16. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  17. Adaptive control of unknown plants using dynamical neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Rovithakis; Manolis A. Christodoulou

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we are dealing with the problem of controlling an unknown nonlinear dynamical system. The algorithm is divided into two phases. First a dynamical neural network identifier is employed to perform “black box” identification and then a dynamic state feedback is developed to appropriately control the unknown system. We apply the algorithm to control the speed of a

  18. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  19. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  20. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  1. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents...CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  2. Deriving Unknown Word Meaning from Context: Is It Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers often encourage L2 readers to guess the meaning of unknown words in texts. This paper argues that before any statements about the value of guessing can be made, it is necessary to show how reliable learners' guesses are. To this end, the present study investigates how accurately EFL learners assess their understanding of unknown

  3. How do Humans Determine Reflectance Properties under Unknown Illumination?

    E-print Network

    Adelson, Edward

    How do Humans Determine Reflectance Properties under Unknown Illumination? Roland W. Fleming, Ron O materi- als such as these have different surface reflectance prop- erties, including lightness and gloss. With single isolated images and unknown illumination conditions, the task of estimating surface reflectance

  4. Using Artificial Anomalies to Detect Unknown and Known Network Intrusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Fan; Matthew Miller; Salvatore J. Stolfo; Wenke Lee; Philip K. Chan

    2001-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) must be capable of detecting new and unknown attacks, or anomalies. We study the problem of building detection models for both pure anomaly detection and combined misuse and anomaly detection (i.e., detection of both known and unknown in- trusions). We propose an algorithm to generate artificial anomalies to coerce the inductive learner into discovering an accurate

  5. Practical Motion Planning in Unknown and Unpredictable Environments

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Jing

    the CFP, taking into account its finite processing time, into real-time motion planning to enable a robot, it is desirable to study how to enable motion planning for robots without the need of recognizing unknownPractical Motion Planning in Unknown and Unpredictable Environments Rayomand Vatcha and Jing Xiao

  6. The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehle, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

  7. On self-complementarity relations of neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyi; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    With the latest results of a large mixing angle ?13 for neutrinos by the T2K, MINOS and Double Chooz experiments, we find that the self-complementarity (SC) relations agree with the data in some angle-phase parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix. There are three kinds of self-complementarity relations: (1) ?i+?j=?k=45°; (2) ?i+?j=?k; (3) ?i+?j=45° (where i, j, k denote the mixing angles in the angle-phase parametrizations). We present a detailed study on the self-complementarity relations in nine different angle-phase parametrizations, and also examine the explicit expressions in reparametrization-invariant form, as well as their deviations from global fit. These self-complementarity relations may lead to new perspective on the mixing pattern of neutrinos.

  8. The relative value of labeled and unlabeled samples in pattern recognition with an unknown mixing parameter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Castelli; Thomas M. Cover

    1996-01-01

    We observe a training set Q composed of l labeled samples {(X1,?1),...,(Xl, ?l )} and u unlabeled samples {X1',...,Xu'}. The labels ?i are independent random variables satisfying Pr{?i=1}=?, Pr{?i=2}=1-?. The labeled observations Xi are independently distributed with conditional density f?i(·) given ?i. Let (X0 ,?0) be a new sample, independently distributed as the samples in the training set. We observe

  9. Neutrino Mixing from ?(6n2) Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neder, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Experimentally viable lepton mixing parameters can be predicted in so-called direct flavour models with Majorana neutrinos using ?(6n2) groups as a flavour group. In direct models, in which the flavour group is broken to a Z2 × Z2 subgroup in the neutrino sector, mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are purely predicted from symmetry. General predictions of direct models with ?(6n2) flavour groups are that all mixing angles are fixed up to a discrete choice and that the Dirac CP phase is 0 or ? Furthermore, the middle column of the mixing matrix is trimaximal which yields the sum rule ?23 = 45° ± ?13/?2 depending on the Dirac phase. These predictions of lepton mixing parameters are compatible with recent global fit results or will be tested experimentally in the near future. It is the first time that such predictions have been obtained model-independently for an infinite series of groups.

  10. A 4 models of tri-bimaximal-reactor mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Recent results from T2K, MINOS and Double CHOOZ all indicate a sizeable reactor angle ? 13 which would rule out conventional tri-bimaximal lepton mixing. However, it is possible to maintain the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric mixing angle predictions, ? 12 ? 35°, ? 23 ? 45° even for a quite sizeable reactor angle ? 13 ? 8°, using an ansatz called tri-bimaximal-reactor (TBR) mixing proposed by one of us some time ago. We propose an explicit A 4 model of leptons based on the type I seesaw mechanism at both the effective and the renormalisable level which, together with vacuum alignment, leads to surprisingly accurate TBR neutrino mixing, with the second order corrections to mixing angles having small coefficients.

  11. Solar elevation angle probability distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Larson; C. R. Acquista

    1980-01-01

    The probability distribution of solar elevation angles is determined, and the importance of this distribution on concentrator design is discussed. It is concluded that the time probability function for the solar elevation angle is important when considering alternative low-concentration systems for year-round or seasonal applications.

  12. Measuring Angles in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

    1997-01-01

    Features articles about physical therapy and its history as related to geometry through measurement of body angles. Includes open-ended worksheets for mathematics activities that introduce students to angle measurement, data analysis, and mathematical tools. Activities include: (1) Making Your Own Goniometer; (2) Range of Motion; (3) Active versus…

  13. Supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Verdes, Dorinel

    2004-09-01

    We explore a new confocal microscope for the detection of surface-generated fluorescence. The instrument is designed for high resolution imaging as well as for the readout of large biochips. Special feature is the separated collection of two different fluorescence emission modes. One optical path covers the emission into the glass at low surface angles, the other captures high angles, exceeding the critical angle of the water/glass interface. Due to the collection of the supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) the confocal detection volume is strictly confined to the interface, whereas the low angles collect much deeper from the aqueous analyte solution. Hence the system can deliver information about surfacebound and unbound fraction of fluorescent analyte simultaneously. PMID:19483970

  14. Shear angle of magnetic fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanping, Lü; Wang, Jingxiu; Wang, Huaning

    1993-11-01

    The authors introduce a new parameter, the shear angle of vector magnetic fields, ??, to describe the non-potentiality of magnetic fields in active regions, which is defined as the angle between the observed vector magnetic field and its corresponding current-free field. In the case of highly inclined field configurations, this angle is approximately equal to the "angular shear", ??, defined by Hagyard et al. (1984). ?? can be considered as the projection of the shear angle, ??, on the photosphere. For the active region studied, the shear angle, ??, seems to have a better and neater correspondence with flare activity than does ??. It gives a clearer explanation of the non-potentiality of magnetic fields. It is a better measure of the deviation of the observed magnetic field from a potential field, and is directly related to the magnetic free energy stored in non-potential fields.

  15. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  16. High scale mixing unification for Dirac neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Gauhar; Gupta, Saurabh; Rajasekaran, G.; Srivastava, Rahul

    2015-06-01

    Starting with the high scale mixing unification hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization-group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for Dirac-type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) mixing angles and phase are taken to be identical to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) ones at a unifying high scale. Then they are evolved to a low scale using renormalization-group equations. The notable feature of this hypothesis is that renormalization-group evolution with quasidegenerate mass pattern can explain largeness of leptonic mixing angles even for Dirac neutrinos. The renormalization-group evolution "naturally" results in a nonzero and small value of leptonic mixing angle ?13. One of the important predictions of this work is that the mixing angle ?23 is nonmaximal and lies only in the second octant. We also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the supersymmetry breaking and unification scales for which this hypothesis works. The results are novel and can be tested by present and future experiments.

  17. Wavelet-based reconstruction for limited-angle X-ray tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maaria Rantala; Simopekka Vänskä; Seppo Järvenpää; Martti Kalke; Matti Lassas; Jan Moberg; Samuli Siltanen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of X-ray tomography is to reconstruct an unknown physical body from a collection of projection images. When the projection images are only available from a limited angle of view, the reconstruction problem is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. Statistical inversion allows stable solution of the limited-angle tomography problem by complementing the measurement data by a priori information. In

  18. Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  19. Lepton Flavor Mixing and CP Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Peng Chen; Cai-Chang Li; Gui-Jun Ding

    2014-12-29

    The strategy of constraining the lepton flavor mixing from remnant CP symmetry is investigated in a rather general way. The neutrino mass matrix generally admits four remnant CP transformations which can be derived from the measured lepton mixing matrix in the charged lepton diagonal basis. Conversely, the lepton mixing matrix can be reconstructed from the postulated remnant CP transformations. All mixing angles and CP violating phases can be completely determined by the full set of remnant CP transformations or three of them. When one or two remnant CP transformations are preserved, the resulting lepton mixing matrix would depend on three real parameters or one real parameter respectively in addition to the parameters characterizing the remnant CP, and the concrete form of the mixing matrix is presented. The phenomenological predictions for the mixing parameters are discussed. The conditions leading to vanishing or maximal Dirac CP violation are studied.

  20. Lepton flavor mixing and C P symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The strategy of constraining the lepton flavor mixing from remnant C P symmetry is investigated in a rather general way. The neutrino mass matrix generally admits four remnant C P transformations which can be derived from the measured lepton mixing matrix in the charged lepton diagonal basis. Conversely, the lepton mixing matrix can be reconstructed from the postulated remnant C P transformations. All mixing angles and C P -violating phases can be completely determined by the full set of remnant C P transformations or three of them. When one or two remnant C P transformations are preserved, the resulting lepton mixing matrix would depend on three real parameters or one real parameter, respectively, in addition to the parameters characterizing the remnant C P . The concrete form of the mixing matrix is also presented. The phenomenological predictions for the mixing parameters are discussed. The conditions leading to vanishing or maximal Dirac C P violation are studied.

  1. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle. PMID:20060981

  2. Measurements of the CKM Angle phi3/gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

    2007-06-27

    We present a review on the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} ({phi}{sub 3}){sup 1} as performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP-II and KEKB. These measurements are using either charged or neutral B decays. For charged B decays the modes {tilde D}{sup 0}K{sup -}, {tilde D}*{sup 0}K{sup -}, and {tilde D}{sup 0}K*{sup -} are employed, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. Direct CP violation is exploited. It is caused by interferences between V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} accessible transitions that generate asymmetries in the final states. For these decays various methods exist to enhance the sensitivity to the V{sub ub} transition, carrying the weak phase {gamma}. For neutral B decays, the modes D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} are used. In addition to the V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} interferences, these modes are sensitive to the B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, so that time dependent analyses are performed to extract sin(2{beta} + {gamma}). An alternative method would use the lower branching ratios decay modes {tilde D}{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} where much larger asymmetries are expected. The various available methods are mostly ''theoretically clean'' and always free of penguins diagrams. In some cases a high sensitivity to {gamma} is expected and large asymmetries may be seen. But these measurements are always experimentally difficult as one has to face with either low branching ratios, or small asymmetries, or additional technical/theoretical difficulties due to Dalitz/SU(3) and re-scattering models needed to treat/estimate nuisance parameters such as unknown strong phases and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of the interfering ''V{sub ub}'' transitions. Thus at the present time only a relatively limited precision on {gamma} can be extracted from these measurements. The current world average is {gamma} = (78{sub -26}{sup +19}){sup o} [1]. For other methods and long term perspectives, as discussed in details, the reader is invited to consult the proceedings of the recent CKM workshop that was held in Nagoya (Japan) in December 2006 [2].

  3. 27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. 22. Photographer unknown, 1956 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST, BUILDING 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographer unknown, 1956 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST, BUILDING 20 AT LEFT. DARK AREAS ARE LANDSCAPED. - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  5. 10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown May 1, 1894, revised to Mar. 27, 1918 'MAP OF BENICIA ARSENAL RESERVATION' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. 26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination 

    E-print Network

    Arjwech, Rungroj

    2012-02-14

    Unknown bridge foundations pose a significant safety risk due to stream scour and erosion. Records from older structures may be non-existent, incomplete, or incorrect. Nondestructive and inexpensive geophysical methods ...

  8. 5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  9. 1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1918 SAND TANK NEAR FREIGHT DEPOT, CA. 1918 - Illinois Central Railroad, Sand Tank, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  10. 1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1894 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1894 ORIGINAL PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  11. 3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NORTH FACADE OF NEW FREIGHT HOUSE, TAKEN IN 1918 - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  12. 6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING INTERIOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  13. 65. Final Screening and Picking Tables, date unknown Historic Photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Final Screening and Picking Tables, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Uknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA, photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  14. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult. PMID:25595877

  15. Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

  17. 13. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 194041 SOUTH ELEVATION FROM LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1940-41 SOUTH ELEVATION FROM LAKE DURING RECONSTRUCTION - White Deer Lake Camp, Chimney Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  18. 15. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 194041 SOUTH ELEVATION WITH ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1940-41 SOUTH ELEVATION WITH ORIGINAL PORCH REMOVED - White Deer Lake Camp, Chimney Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  19. 18. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 194041 CHIMNEY, UNDERSIDE OF ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1940-41 CHIMNEY, UNDERSIDE OF ROOF AND PROTECTIVE SUPERSTRUCTURE - White Deer Lake Camp, Chimney Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  20. 6. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 193641 ALTERATIONS TO SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1936-41 ALTERATIONS TO SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOF, LOOKING EAST - White Deer Lake Camp, Beaver Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  1. 16. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 194041 WEST END OF SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1940-41 WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION DURING RECONSTRUCTION - White Deer Lake Camp, Chimney Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  2. 9. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1907 SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1907 SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS BEFORE WING WAS CONSTRUCTED - White Deer Lake Camp, Birch Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  3. 14. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 194041 SOUTH ELEVATION DURING RECONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1940-41 SOUTH ELEVATION DURING RECONSTRUCTION OF PORCH - White Deer Lake Camp, Chimney Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  4. 7. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). LAKE IN FOREGROUND, COTTAGES IN BACK. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  5. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  6. 15. Photographer unknown, 4 January 1913 VIEW TO EAST, MONROE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographer unknown, 4 January 1913 VIEW TO EAST, MONROE STREET PLANT UNDER MONROE STREET BRIDGE - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  7. 241. Photocopy of photograph from Gravure's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1902 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    241. Photocopy of photograph from Gravure's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1902 300 BLOCK EAST GWINNETT STREET - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 242. Photocopy of photograph from Gravure's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1902 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    242. Photocopy of photograph from Gravure's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1902 'SCENE ON HENRY STREET, E.' - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 240. Photocopy of photograph from Gravure's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1902 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    240. Photocopy of photograph from Gravure's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1902 'SCENE ON GWINNETT STREET, E.' WITH 223 EAST GWINNETT IN FOREGROUND - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. Estimating Surface Reflectance Properties from Images under Unknown Illumination

    E-print Network

    Adelson, Edward

    Estimating Surface Reflectance Properties from Images under Unknown Illumination Ron O. Drora reflectance properties from a single image without knowledge of illumination. We develop a machine vision system to perform similar reflectance estimation tasks automatically. The problem of estimating

  11. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  12. 18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. EAST TOWER ON SKYLINE HAS NOT BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  14. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ca. 1937 NORTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Photograph provided by Landmarks Commission, Photographer unknown, (e. 1945). OVERALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph provided by Landmarks Commission, Photographer unknown, (e. 1945). OVERALL FRONT. WEST SIDE. VIEW LOOKING EAST (Photocopy of photograph: 3 x 5 copy negative) - Kansas City General Hospital, 2315 Locust, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  16. 12. Photocopy of lithograph (source unknown) The Armor Lithograph Company, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of lithograph (source unknown) The Armor Lithograph Company, Ltd., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, ca. 1888 COURTHOUSE AND JAIL, FROM THE WEST - Allegheny County Courthouse & Jail, 436 Grant Street (Courthouse), 420 Ross Street (Jail), Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. PEDro: this well-known, unknown. Physiotherapy Evidence Database.

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present some unknown features of the already well-known Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) with some useful skills to make your search more effective. PMID:19002099

  18. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  19. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Automatic Rule Induction for Unknown-Word Guessing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Mikheev

    1997-01-01

    Words unknown to the lexicon present a substantial problem to NLP modules that rely on morphosyntactic information, such as part-of-speech taggers or syntactic parsers. In this paper we present a technique for fully automatic acquisition of rules that guess possible part-of-speech tags for unknown words using their starting and ending segments. The learning is performed from a general-purpose lexicon and

  1. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Adaptive fuzzy mixed H2\\/H? attitude control of spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bor-Sen Chen; Charng-Shi Wu; Ying-Wen Jan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive fuzzy mixed H2\\/H? attitude control of nonlinear spacecraft systems with unknown or uncertain inertia matrix and external disturbances. Using an adaptive fuzzy approximation method, an uncertain nonlinear model is estimated. Then, by a mixed H2 and H? attitude control design, the effect of external disturbance and fuzzy approximation error on spacecraft attitude can be restrained

  3. On quantum coding for ensembles of mixed states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Barnum; Carlton M. Caves; Christopher A. Fuchs; Richard Jozsa; Benjamin W. Schumacher

    2001-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal asymptotically faithful compression for ensembles of mixed quantum states. Although the optimal rate is unknown, we prove upper and lower bounds and describe a series of illustrative examples of compression of mixed states. We also discuss a classical analogue of the problem.

  4. Solar Angles and Tracking Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

  5. Angles, scales and parametric renormalization

    E-print Network

    Francis Brown; Dirk Kreimer

    2011-12-06

    We decompose renormalized Feynman rules according to the scale and angle dependence of amplitudes. We use parametric representations such that the resulting amplitudes can be studied in algebraic geometry.

  6. Compact Right-Angle Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, Salvador L.; Pierson, Vonde E.

    1989-01-01

    New right-angle connector between hose and "quick-disconnect" coupler smaller and simpler than its predecessor. Employs fewer parts and therefore cheaper and less likely to leak. Connector consists of only two major parts.

  7. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  8. Angles of multivariable root loci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

  9. $?(27)$ family symmetry and neutrino mixing

    E-print Network

    Ivo de Medeiros Varzielas

    2015-07-01

    The observed neutrino mixing, having a near maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle and a large solar mixing angle, is close to tri-bi-maximal. This structure may be related to the existence of a discrete non-Abelian family symmetry. In this paper the family symmetry is the non-Abelian discrete group $\\Delta(27)$, a subgroup of $SU(3)$ with triplet and anti-triplet representations. Different frameworks are constructed in which the mixing follows from combining fermion mass terms with the vacuum structure enforced by the discrete symmetry. Mass terms for the fermions originate from familon triplets, anti-triplets or both. Vacuum alignment for the family symmetry breaking familons follows from simple invariants.

  10. Inferring the impact of radar incidence angle on soil moisture retrieval skill using data assimilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of measurement incidence angle (') on the accuracy of radar-based surface soil moisture (') retrievals is largely unknown due to discrepancies in theoretical backscatter models as well as limitations in the availability of sufficiently extensive ground-based ' observations for validation....

  11. Lepton flavor mixing in the Wolfenstein scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, V.; Sánchez-Colón, G.; Rajpoot, S.; Wang, H.-C.

    2013-04-01

    We mimic the Wolfenstein scheme of quark flavor mixing to describe neutrino oscillations in the standard model. We identify the parameter ? with the experimentally measured value of the mixing element responsible for atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The matrix elements responsible for solar neutrino oscillations and the Chooz angle are taken to be proportional to ?2 and ?3, respectively. Using present world average data on neutrinos, we derive bounds on the other parameters, A, ?, and ? of the new scheme.

  12. Lepton flavor mixing in the Wolfenstein scheme

    E-print Network

    V. Gupta; G. Sánchez-Colón; S. Rajpoot; H-C. Wang

    2013-04-03

    We mimic the Wolfenstein scheme of quark flavor mixing to describe neutrino oscillations in the standard model. We identify the parameter $\\lambda$ with the experimentally measured value of the mixing element responsible for atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The matrix elements responsible for solar neutrino oscillations and the Chooz angle are taken to be proportional to $\\lambda^2$ and $\\lambda^3$, respectively. Using present world average data on neutrinos, we derive bounds on the other parameters $A$, $\\rho$, and $\\eta$, of the new scheme.

  13. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  14. Quantifying mixing using equilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Philip M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Posner, Jonathan D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    A method of quantifying equilibrium reactions in a microchannel using a fluorometric reaction of Fluo-4 and Ca{sup 2+} ions is presented. Under the proper conditions, equilibrium reactions can be used to quantify fluid mixing without the challenges associated with constituent mixing measures such as limited imaging spatial resolution and viewing angle coupled with three-dimensional structure. Quantitative measurements of CaCl and calcium-indicating fluorescent dye Fluo-4 mixing are measured in Y-shaped microchannels. Reactant and product concentration distributions are modeled using Green's function solutions and a numerical solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Equilibrium reactions provide for an unambiguous, quantitative measure of mixing when the reactant concentrations are greater than 100 times their dissociation constant and the diffusivities are equal. At lower concentrations and for dissimilar diffusivities, the area averaged fluorescence signal reaches a maximum before the species have interdiffused, suggesting that reactant concentrations and diffusivities must be carefully selected to provide unambiguous, quantitative mixing measures. Fluorometric equilibrium reactions work over a wide range of pH and background concentrations such that they can be used for a wide variety of fluid mixing measures including industrial or microscale flows.

  15. A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Permanent institute: Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ozpineci, A. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-28

    A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

  16. Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A?, S? and ?(96). PMID:23645075

  17. Learning tracking control of ocean structure under unknown disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Koichiro; Tao, Q. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    1996-12-31

    When an ocean structure is constructed from several part-structures, the construction operations, such as mating, positioning and transportation of these structures at the construction site, must be carried out under various disturbances. This paper presents learning trajectory tracking control when a structure is transported repeatedly along the objective trajectory under unknown steady disturbance. Corresponding to the premise, a learning controller which is constituted by both feedback controller and feedforward controller is proposed. The controller improves its feedforward control force every time it tracks the same objective trajectory by learning unknown disturbances from the difference between the objective trajectory and previously realized trajectory. In this study, simulations and basin experiments, using a model of a semi-submersible are conducted. The learning controller showed good performance in both simulation and basin experiment under the unknown disturbances.

  18. The EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, J.; Christian, D.; Craig, N.; Jessop, H.; Stroozas, B.

    1996-05-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE ) has three scanning telescopes that observe in a direction perpendicular to that of the primary guest observer (GO) telescope---the Deep Survey/Spectrometer (DS/S). During the first 6 months of the EUVE mission, the scanning telescopes were used to conduct an all-sky survey consisting of short exposures ( ~ 500 s) of the entire sky between 58--740 Angstroms . These telescopes are now being used during GO observations to conduct simultaneous long exposure (typically 40+ ks) observations as part of the very successful---and publicly accessible---EUVE Right Angle Program (RAP). To date, the EUVE RAP has provided photometric and timing data on late-type stars and CVs and has been responsible for detecting dozens of previously unknown extreme ultraviolet sources, including many stars without optical counterparts. This poster presents some of the exciting results found with EUVE RAP data, along with general information about the program and instructions for submitting RAP proposals. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298.

  19. Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg Institut) Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.

  20. Surface identification from multiband LADAR reflectance with varied incidence angle via database mapping.

    PubMed

    Guiang, Chona; Jin, Xuemin; Levine, Robert Y

    2015-02-10

    Incident angle dependencies of LADAR reflection depend on bulk material reflectivity and surface texture properties that can be exploited for surface identification. In this paper, surface identification via multiband LADAR reflected radiance is assessed using the nonconventional exploitation factors data system database. A statistics-based dimension reduction algorithm, stochastic neighborhood embedding (t-SNE), is used to separate the data clouds resulting from the monostatic LADAR reflected radiance and corresponding band ratios. The application of t-SNE to multiband reflected radiance effectively separates the data clouds, making surface identification via multiband LADAR reflectance possible in the presence of unknown incident angle dependencies and uncertainties. It is demonstrated that, for both the multiband monostatic reflected radiance and band ratios, the application of t-SNE mapping yields a significant improvement in surface identification from measurements with unknown or varied incident angles. PMID:25968038

  1. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location. PMID:23290746

  3. Management of angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    See, Jovina L S; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Aduan, Joel; Chew, Paul T K

    2011-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is equally prevalent in Indian in Asian population as the primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty-six percent of people with PACG are in Asia, with approximately 48.0% in China, 23.9% in India and 14.1% in southeast Asia. To understand PACG, it is mandatory to understand its classification and type of presentation with the underlying pathophysiology. The treatment options are medical, laser and/or surgical. The present article provides an overview of PACG. PMID:21150039

  4. [Mixed cryoglobulinemia].

    PubMed

    Roque, R; Ramiro, S; Vinagre, F; Cordeiro, A; Godinho, F; Santos, Maria José; Gonçalves, P; Canas da Silva, J

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe two clinical cases of cryoglobulinemia. A 70 years old woman, having skin ulcers on lower limbs, arthralgias, paresthesias and constitutional symptoms, for about 10 months. Exams revealed mild anemia, elevation of the biological parameters of inflammation and aminotransferases, positive cryoglobulin and rheumatoid factor in serum, and a severe reduction in C4 complement fraction. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology was negative. Idiopathic mixed cryoglobulinemia was diagnosed and corticosteroid therapy started. Given the lack of response, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis were added. Two weeks later the patient died in septic shock. The second case refers to a 41 years old female, with untreated hepatitis C who developed over a 6 month period petechiae and livedoid lesions on the lower limbs, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms and was admitted with intestinal necrosis. Exams were consistent with the diagnosis of mixed cryoglobulinemia associated, with HCV. She started therapy with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, with improvement. PMID:22113605

  5. Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

  6. Handling Advertisements of Unknown Quality in Search Advertising

    E-print Network

    Olston, Christopher

    Handling Advertisements of Unknown Quality in Search Advertising Sandeep Pandey Christopher Olston@yahoo-inc.com Abstract We consider how a search engine should select advertisements to display with search results well the displayed advertisements appeal to users. The main difficulty stems from new ad- vertisements

  7. 12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated COLLAPSIBLE FORM FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated COLLAPSIBLE FORM FOR CONCRETE AREA ON TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. NOTE: PRINT FROM 8X10 NEGATIVE - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. 25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  10. 24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. 26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. 18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW OF SLUSH TROUGH FROM BREAKER NO. 2 TO BOREHOLE UNDER NORTH END OF BOILER HOUSE NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Zhuoliang; Yang Ming [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230039 (China); Zhang Lihua [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230039 (China); Department of Physics, Anqing Teacher College, Anqing, 246011 (China)

    2006-01-15

    We present a physical scheme for entanglement concentration of unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay. In the scheme, the atomic state is used as a stationary qubit and the photonic state as a flying qubit, and a close maximally entangled state can be obtained from pairs of partially entangled states probabilistically.

  14. 54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. 24. Photographic copy of historic photo of unknown date (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of historic photo of unknown date (original filed in drawer 98, Bridge Division, Department of Public Works, St. Paul City Annex). 3/4 view of main spans of Selby Avenue Bridge similar to that shown in MN-61-4. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  20. Maximum likelihood estimation for array processing in unknown noise environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wu; K. M. Wong; J. P. Reilly

    1992-01-01

    In array signal processing, the spatially white noise model is most commonly used, and most of the high-resolution methods are established on such a noise model. However, in real environments, the noise model is often either unknown or undeterminable. This may cause the high-resolution methods to suffer severe performance degradation. An approach for consistent and parametric direction of arrival (DOA)

  1. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original print in possession of St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) sectional elevation thru typical bay, view east - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. 17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  6. Ant-Inspired Navigation In Unknown Environments Stergios I. Roumeliotis

    E-print Network

    Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

    Ant-Inspired Navigation In Unknown Environments Stergios I. Roumeliotis Computer Science Dpt-0781 maja@robotics.usc.edu In contrast to mostother ant species, desert ants (Cataglyphis fortis) do not use) information. Indeed desert ants and honeybees use such information in addition to path integration. On a fa

  7. Robot navigation in a known environment with unknown moving obstacles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ratering; Maria L. Gini

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new type of artificial potential field, that we call hybrid potential field, to navigate a robot in situations in which the environment is known except for unknown and possibly moving obstacles. We show how to compute hybrid potential fields in real time and use them to control the motions of a real robot. Our method is tested

  8. 4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING EXTERIOR OF BUILDING NEARING COMPLETION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  9. 2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1915 PRIOR TO REMODELING - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  10. 5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  11. 7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  12. 4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  13. 2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FREIGHT DEPOT, TAKEN IN 1918, DURING THE CONVERSEION OF THE ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  14. 6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  15. 1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT BEFORE REMODELING, WITH ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT BEYOND - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  16. 9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  17. 3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915 DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  18. 10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  19. 8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  20. 1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NEW FREIGHT DEPOT, TAKEN IN 1918, DURING THE CONVERSION OF THE ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  1. 8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 SOUTH AND WEST FACADES, TAKEN IN 1918 DURING THE CONVERSION OF THE FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE. - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  2. 9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NORTH FACADE, TAKEN IN 1918, SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS FOR ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  3. Optimal Control of an Unknown Linear Process with Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M Kiefer; Yaw Nyarko

    1989-01-01

    Optimal control of a linear process with unknown parameters is considered when the horizon is infinite and rewards are discounted. Active learning strategies are considered, i.e., agents consider the information value of possible actions, as well as current reward. Distributional assumptions are minimal in that no restriction to conjugate families is made. Convergence of beliefs and actions is established. Copyright

  4. A fuzzy logic supervisor for PID control of unknown systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Copeland; Kuldip S. Rattan

    1994-01-01

    The design of a fuzzy logic supervisor for proportional plus integral plus derivative control of unknown systems is carried out in this paper. The PID controllers are designed using Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. Since the Ziegler-Nichols method provides nominal parameter values for the PID controller, the desired system response is not realized without additional tuning. A fuzzy supervisor is proposed to

  5. Detection of Answer Copying with Unknown Item and Trait Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated empirical Type I error rates and the power of omega (index of answer copying developed by J. Wollack, 1997) when item and trait (theta) parameters were unknown and estimated from datasets of 100 and 500 examinees. Type I error was unaffected by estimating item parameters, with power slightly lower for the smaller sample. (SLD)

  6. 44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Utah State Historical Society Photograph Collection, Salt Lake City UT). DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  7. 46. North Side of Breaker Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown, Originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. North Side of Breaker Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown, Originally taken by Glen Alden Safety Department, 18 August 1954; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy of Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  8. 49. South Side of Breaker Historic Photographer Unknown Originally taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. South Side of Breaker Historic Photographer Unknown Originally taken by Glen Alden Safety Department, 18 August 1954; Collection of William Everett, Jr (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  9. 8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  10. Bayes Solution to Dynamic Inventory Models Under Unknown Demand Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katy S. Azoury

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the periodic review inventory problem for which one or more parameters of the demand distribution are unknown with a known prior distribution chosen from the natural conjugate family. The Bayesian formulation of this problem results in a dynamic program with a multi-dimensional state space. Two models are analysed: the depletive inventory model of consumable items and the

  11. Design of unknown input observers and robust fault detection filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIE CHEN; RON J. PATTON; HONG-YUE ZHANG

    1996-01-01

    Fault detection filters are a special class of observers that can generate directional residuals for the purpose of fault isolation. This paper proposes a new approach to design robust (in the disturbance de-coupling sense) fault detection filters which ensure that the residual vector, generated by this filter, has both robust and directional properties. This is done by combining the unknown

  12. Application of incremental unknowns to the Burgers equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we make a few remarks on the role that attractors and inertial manifolds play in fluid mechanics problems. We then describe the role of incremental unknowns for approximating attractors and inertial manifolds when finite difference multigrid discretizations are used. The relation with direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation is also mentioned.

  13. Competitive routing of virtual circuits with unknown duration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azart; Serge A. Plotkin; Orli Waarts

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a strategy to route unknown duration virtual circuits in a highspeed communication network. Previous work on virtual circuit routing concentrated on the case where the call duration is known in advance. We show that by allowing O(logn) reroutes per call, we can achieve O(logn) competitive ratio with respect to the maximum load (congestion) for the

  14. A complete navigation system for goal acquisition in unknown environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Stentz; Martial Hebert

    1995-01-01

    Most autonomous outdoor navigation systems tested on actual robots have centered on local navigation tasks such as avoiding obstacles or following roads. Global navigation has been limited to simple wandering, path tracking, straight-line goal seeking behaviors, or executing a sequence of scripted local behaviors. These capabilities are insufficient for unstructured and unknown environments, where replanning may be needed to account

  15. Analog table look-up device identifies unknown terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Table provides a probability map defining unknown terrain in terms of known terrain inputs. Device consists of analog transformation network and flying spot scanner. Information is useful to manufacturers and users of remote sensing equipment and applies to automated quality control.

  16. Optimal and Efficient Path Planning for Unknown and Dynamic Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Stentz

    1993-01-01

    The {ask of planning trajectories for a mobile robot hat received considerable attention in the research literature.Algorithms exist for handling a variety of robot shapes, configurations, motion constraints, and environments. Mostof the work assumes the robot has a complete and accurate model of its environment before it begins to move; lessattention has been paid to the problem of unknown or

  17. A Complete Navigation System for Goal Acquisition in Unknown Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Stentz; Martial Hebert

    1994-01-01

    Most autonomous outdoor navigation systems tested on actual robots have centered on local navigation tasks such as avoiding obstacles or following roads. Global navigation has been limited to simple wandering, path tracking, straight-line goal seeking behaviors, or executing a sequence of scripted local behaviors. These capabilities are insufficient for unstructured and unknown environments, where replanning may be needed to account

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Pavlidis; E. Briasoulis; J. Hainsworth; F. A. Greco

    2003-01-01

    Metastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignant neoplasms and is therefore one of the 10 most frequent cancer diagnoses in man. Patients with CUP present with metastatic disease for which the site of origin cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis. It is now accepted that CUP represents a heterogeneous group of

  19. Design of observers for linear systems with unknown inputs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hou; P. C. Muller

    1992-01-01

    With a straightforward treatment, a design of reduced-order observers is presented for linear systems with unknown inputs. The observers are derived with a physical meaning. Some explanations are given within the framework of descriptor system observer design principles. The conditions for the existence of the observers are presented. Some illustrative examples are included

  20. How to learn an unknown environment. I: the rectilinear case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaotie Deng; Tiko Kameda; Christos H. Papadimitriou

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem faced by a robot that must explore and learn an unknown room with obstacles in it. We seek algorithms that achieve a bounded ratio of the worst-case distance traversed in order to see all visible points of the environment (thus creating a map), divided by the optimum distance needed to verify the map, if we had

  1. Recursive state estimation: Unknown but bounded errors and system inputs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Schweppe

    1968-01-01

    A method is discussed for estimating the state of a linear dynamic system using noisy observations, when the input to the dynamic system and the observation errors are completely unknown except for bounds on their magnitude or energy. The state estimate is actually a set in state space rather than a single vector. The optimum estimate is the smallest calculable

  2. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Keechelus Crib Dam. View dam from right bank of river, showing downstream face and apron of dam". - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  3. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 198. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SEGREGATION OF PUBLIC LAND, LINCOLN AND CASSIA COUNTIES; MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 16. Photographer unknown, 8 April 1925 VIEW TO NORTH, MONROE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographer unknown, 8 April 1925 VIEW TO NORTH, MONROE STREET PLANT (CENTER FOREGROUND), MONROE STREET BRIDGE (LEFT), AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE (BACKGROUND, SINCE RAZED) - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  7. 25. Photocopy of 8' x 10' photograph, photographer unknown, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of 8' x 10' photograph, photographer unknown, date circa 1950s, on file at Eastern Washington Historical Society Library, Spokane, Washington. VIEW OF LIBRARY SITE FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF MONROE STREET AND MAIN AVENUE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Sears, Roebuck Department Store, West 906 Main Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  8. 17. Photographer unknown, 9 January 1913 VIEW TO NORTHWEST, MONROE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographer unknown, 9 January 1913 VIEW TO NORTHWEST, MONROE STREET PLANT, GENERATING UNIT SIMILAR TO UNITS 4 AND 5 - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  9. GOING TOWARDS THE UNKNOWN: EXPRESSIONS FOR DYING IN EUROPEAN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    this place. Third, although every human being must die, death is not something trivial. For oneselfGOING TOWARDS THE UNKNOWN: EXPRESSIONS FOR DYING IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES ANNA VOGEL Abstract. The chapter investigates expressions for dying in five European languages with an onomasiological approach

  10. Radio Network Distributed Algorithms in the Unknown Neighborhood Model

    E-print Network

    Radio Network Distributed Algorithms in the Unknown Neighborhood Model Bilel Derbel and El with radio network distributed algorithms where initially no information about node degrees is available. We show that the lack of such an information affects the time complexity of ex- isting fundamental

  11. 41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. Determination of Polymer Unknowns Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DeRosa, Rebecca L.

    2008-09-04

    During this laboratory exercise, you will evaluate several unknown polymers using XPS to provide their proper identities. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should: • Have an understanding of XPS as a tool for surface analysis. • Understand the importance of the surface state of polymeric materials.

  13. Uncalibrated Photometric Stereo for Unknown Isotropic Reflectances Yasuyuki Matsushita2

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Phil

    Uncalibrated Photometric Stereo for Unknown Isotropic Reflectances Feng Lu1 Yasuyuki Matsushita2@microsoft.com, imarik@nii.ac.jp Abstract We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general are performed using both synthetic and real-world scenes. 1. Introduction Photometric stereo recovers

  14. Walking Gait Optimization for Accommodation of Unknown Terrain Height Variations

    E-print Network

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Walking Gait Optimization for Accommodation of Unknown Terrain Height Variations Brent Griffin of terrain height changes. Trajectory and control deviations are related to a nominal periodic orbit via that specifically account for trajectory and control-effort perturbations arising from a finite set of ground height

  15. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east of marine railway (Haer no. Pa-387-W). The railway was being dismantled at the time this photograph was taken. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 view northwest of caisson for drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) in drydock no. 1 (Haer no. PA-387-A) for overhaul and repair of rubber gasket. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, April 13, 1964. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, April 13, 1964. View south of drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) with the destroyer U.S.S Vesole (DD-878) undergoing a fleet moderinzation and repair modernization (frame). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 159. Photocopy of measured drawing (location of original document unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of measured drawing (location of original document unknown) C. H. Puls, delineator 12 January 1937 Last revised by Keister 23 September 1948 FIFTH FLOOR PLAN - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Invariant detection of transient ARMA signals with unknown initial conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kay; L. Scharf

    1984-01-01

    A large class of physical signals may be characterized by mode parameters (natural frequencies and damping coefficients) and initial conditions. The mode parameters, usually governed by well understood physical models, are often accurately known apriori. Conversely, very little is usually known about initial conditions. The problem of interest here is to detect signals with known modes, but unknown initial conditions,

  2. Robust Multi-loop Airborne SLAM in Unknown Wind Environments

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

    platforms which are typically payload limited. Nonlinear filtering, such as the particle filter, can reduceRobust Multi-loop Airborne SLAM in Unknown Wind Environments Jonghyuk Kim Department of Engineering presents a robust multi-loop airborne SLAM structure which also augments wind information. The air velocity

  3. On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals Over Fading Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fadel F. Digham; Mohamed-slim Alouini; Marvin K. Simon

    2007-01-01

    This letter addresses the problem of energy detection of an unknown signal over a multipath channel. It starts with the no-diversity case, and presents some alternative closed-form expressions for the probability of detection to those recently reported in the literature. Detection capability is boosted by implementing both square-law combining and square-law selection diversity schemes

  4. 189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  6. 45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  7. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF MINERS CHANGING ROOM, SHOWING CLOTHING SUSPENDED FROM CEILING - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  8. Discover the Unknown Chekhov in Your ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beliavsky, Ninah

    2007-01-01

    The author, an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher, believes that for stories to be a successful tool in classroom instruction, they need to have universal themes, and they must deal with situations that the students could readily identify with regardless of their language, culture, or religion. In this article, she introduces the unknown

  9. 40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken circa 1890 (original print in the possession of W.F. Rhinehart, Phoenixville, R.D.#1, Pennsylvania) NORTH ELEVATION - William Moore House, State Route 23 & Reading Railroad Tracks vicinity (Schuykill Township), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  12. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. 38. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). " Dredge after failure of control dam." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  14. 39. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "View of control dam after failure." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 18 February 1908 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 18 February 1908 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LAKE KACHESS CRIB DAM, ALL GATES OPEN. TAKEN FROM LOWER SIDE" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  16. 17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 22 November 1906 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 22 November 1906 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Government camp at foot of lake." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 18 February 1908 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 18 February 1908 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LAKE KACHESS CRIB DAM. TAKEN FROM UPSTREAM SIDE. 4 FEET OF SNOW" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, November 1910 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, November 1910 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "KACHESS DAM - LAKE OUTLET WORKS" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW SHOWING LOCATION OF PROPOSED DAM SITE AT OUTLET OF LAKE KACHESS, WASHINGTON" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, September 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, September 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "BLASTING IN LAKE (DREDGE) HT. 500'." - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  1. 36. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 11 October 1914 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 11 October 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Lake Avenue. A part of the family residence section." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  2. Severe Scratcher-Reaction: An Unknown Health Hazard?

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  3. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  4. Transition mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R.; White, C.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

  5. Ring magnet firing angle control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Knott; L. G. Lewis; H. H. Rabe

    1975-01-01

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons ; (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ; ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage ; wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts ; from zero

  6. Use of nuclei fractal properties for help to determine some unknown particle spins and unknown nuclei excited level spins

    E-print Network

    Boris Tatischeff

    2011-12-06

    The fractal property stipulates that the same physical laws apply for different scales of a given physics. This property is applied to particles and nuclei, in order to study the possibility to use it to help for determination of unknown spins of some particles or excited nuclei levels.

  7. Flavor Mixing Democracy and Minimal CP Violation

    E-print Network

    Gerard, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle \\theta_C \\simeq 13^\\circ with the CP-violating phase \\phi_q around 1^\\circ, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around \\pi/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase \\phi_l is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the \\phi_l \\to 0 limit and predicts \\sin\\theta_13 = 1/\\sqrt{2} \\sin (\\phi_l/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation J_l = (\\sin\\phi_l)/12 can reach a few percent if \\theta_13 lies in the range 7^\\circ \\leq \\theta_13 \\leq 10^\\circ.

  8. Flavor Mixing Democracy and Minimal CP Violation

    E-print Network

    Jean-Marc Gerard; Zhi-zhong Xing

    2012-05-22

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle \\theta_C \\simeq 13^\\circ with the CP-violating phase \\phi_q around 1^\\circ, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around \\pi/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase \\phi_l is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the \\phi_l \\to 0 limit and predicts \\sin\\theta_13 = 1/\\sqrt{2} \\sin (\\phi_l/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation J_l = (\\sin\\phi_l)/12 can reach a few percent if \\theta_13 lies in the range 7^\\circ \\leq \\theta_13 \\leq 10^\\circ.

  9. 17 CFR 260.7a-22 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 260...Contents § 260.7a-22 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...disclaimed. As to information which is unknown and is unavailable after reasonable...

  10. 17 CFR 260.7a-22 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 260...Contents § 260.7a-22 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...disclaimed. As to information which is unknown and is unavailable after reasonable...

  11. 17 CFR 230.409 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 230...Requirements § 230.409 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to...

  12. 17 CFR 230.409 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 230...Requirements § 230.409 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to...

  13. 17 CFR 230.409 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 230...Requirements § 230.409 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to...

  14. 17 CFR 260.7a-22 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 260...Contents § 260.7a-22 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...disclaimed. As to information which is unknown and is unavailable after reasonable...

  15. 17 CFR 230.409 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 230...Requirements § 230.409 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to...

  16. 17 CFR 230.409 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 230...Requirements § 230.409 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to...

  17. 17 CFR 260.7a-22 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 260...Contents § 260.7a-22 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...disclaimed. As to information which is unknown and is unavailable after reasonable...

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-22 - Information unknown or not reasonably available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Information unknown or not reasonably available. 260...Contents § 260.7a-22 Information unknown or not reasonably available. Information...disclaimed. As to information which is unknown and is unavailable after reasonable...

  19. A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.

    1993-01-01

    The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.

  20. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431