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1

Correlating lepton mixing angles and mixing maxtrix with Wolfenstein parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by a new relation ?13PMNS=?C/2 observed from the relatively large ?13PMNS, we find that the combination of this relation with the quark-lepton complementarity and the self-complementarity results in correlations of the lepton mixing angles with the quark mixing angles. We find that the three mixing angles in the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix are all related to the Wolfenstein parameter ? in the quark mixing, so they are also correlated. Consequently, the PMNS matrix can be parameterized by ?, A, and a Dirac CP-violating phase ?. Such parametrizations for the PMNS matrix have the same explicitly hierarchical structure as the Wolfenstein parametrization for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix in the quark mixing, and the bimaximal mixing pattern is deduced at the leading order. We also discuss implications of these phenomenological relations in parametrizations.

Zhang, Xinyi; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2012-11-01

2

Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions  

SciTech Connect

An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

Albright, Carl H.

2009-11-01

3

4.MD,G Finding an unknown angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In the figure, $ABCD$ is a rectangle and $\\angle CAD = 31^{\\circ}$. Find $\\angle BAC$....

4

Viable entanglement detection of unknown mixed states in low dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore procedures to detect entanglement of unknown mixed states, which can be experimentally viable. The heart of the method is a hierarchy of simple feasibility problems, which provides sufficient conditions to entanglement. Our numerical investigations indicate that the entanglement is detected with a cost which is much lower than full state tomography. The procedure is applicable to both free and bound entanglements and involves only single copy measurements.

Maciel, Thiago O.; Vianna, Reinaldo O.

2009-09-01

5

Determination of the effective electroweak mixing angle from Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective electroweak mixing angle sin2thetaw is measured from the production and decay of the Z boson in e+e- interactions. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18pb-1 with about 420 000 hadronic and 40 000 leptonic Z decays. The mixing angle sin2thetaw is determined from several independent measurements: the leptonic and hadronic cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries

O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S P Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; A G Atamanchuk; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; J. Bechtluft; R. Becker; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; M. Biasini; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; G. J. Bobbink; R. Bock; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; M. Bosetti; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B. Bouwens; E. Brambilla; J. G. Branson; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A. Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; J. Busenitz; A. Buytenhuijs; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; R. Castello; M. Cerrada; F. Cesaroni; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. M. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; W. Y. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; X. T. Cui; X. Y. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Dhina; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; O. Fackler; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; F. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. Field; F. Filthaut; G. Finocchiaro; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; T. Foreman; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; D. Gele; S. Gentile; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; B. Hartmann; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; G. Herten; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; S. Jezequel; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; R. Klöckner; A. C. König; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kraemer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; A. Krivshich; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; X. Leytens; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; P. K. Malhotra; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; L. Martinez-Laso; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McHamon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; A. Nadtochy; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; C. Neyer; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J. Salicio; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; S. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen; S. Shevchenko; X. R. Shi; E. Shumilov; V. Shoutko; D. Son; A. Sopczak; C. Spartiotis; T. Spickermann; P. Spillantini; R. Starosta; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; F. Sticozzi; H. Stone; K. Strauch

1993-01-01

6

Mixing angles of quarks and leptons in quantum field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arguments coming from Quantum Field Theory are supplemented with a 1-loop perturbative calculation to settle the non-unitarity of mixing matrices linking renormalized mass eigenstates to bare flavor states for non-degenerate coupled fermions. We simultaneously diagonalize the kinetic and mass terms and counterterms in the renormalized Lagrangian. SU(2) L gauge invariance constrains the mixing matrix in charged currents of renormalized mass states, for example the Cabibbo matrix, to stay unitary. Leaving aside CP violation, we observe that the mixing angles exhibit, within experimental uncertainty, a very simple breaking pattern of SU(2) f horizontal symmetry linked to the algebra of weak neutral currents, the origin of which presumably lies beyond the Standard Model. It concerns on the one hand the three quark mixing angles; on the other hand a neutrino-like pattern in which ? 23 is maximal and tan (2 ? 12)=2. The Cabibbo angle fulfills the condition tan (2 ? c )=1/2 and ? 12 for neutrinos satisfies accordingly the “quark-lepton complementarity condition” ? c + ? 12= ?/4. ? 13=±5.7?10-3 are the only values obtained for the third neutrino mixing angle that lie within present experimental bounds. Flavor symmetries, their breaking by a non-degenerate mass spectrum, and their entanglement with the gauge symmetry, are scrutinized; the special role of flavor rotations as a very mildly broken symmetry of the Standard Model is outlined.

Duret, Q.; Machet, B.; Vysotsky, M. I.

2009-05-01

7

Review of weak mixing angle results at SLC and LEP  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors review recent precise measurements of the weak mixing angle by the SLD experiment at SLC and by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL experiments at LEP. If they assume that the Minimal Standard Model provides a complete description of the quark and lepton couplings to the Z boson, they find sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23143 {+-} 0.00028. If this assumption is relaxed to apply to lepton couplings only, they find sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23106 {+-} 0.00035. They compare these results with other precision electroweak tests.

Woods, M.

1995-10-01

8

Multivariate statistical approach to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA multivariate statistical method is presented, which includes principal components analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing model to estimate unknown end-member hydrochemical compositions and the relative mixing proportions of those end members in mixed waters. PCA, together with the Hotelling T2 statistic and a conceptual model of groundwater flow and mixing, was used in selecting samples that best approximate end members, which then were used as initial values in optimization of the end-member mixing model. This method was tested on controlled datasets (i.e., true values of estimates were known a priori) and found effective in estimating these end members and mixing proportions. The controlled datasets included synthetically generated hydrochemical data, synthetically generated mixing proportions, and laboratory analyses of sample mixtures, which were used in an evaluation of the effectiveness of this method for potential use in actual hydrological settings. For three different scenarios tested, correlation coefficients (R2) for linear regression between the estimated and known values ranged from 0.968 to 0.993 for mixing proportions and from 0.839 to 0.998 for end-member compositions. The method also was applied to field data from a study of end-member mixing in groundwater as a field example and partial method validation.

Valder, Joshua F.; Long, Andrew J.; Davis, Arden D.; Kenner, Scott J.

2012-08-01

9

Medium Effects on the CP phases and Dynamical Mixing Angles in the Neutrino Mixing Matrix  

E-print Network

The concepts of effective and dynamical neutrino mixing matrices are introduced in order to describe the behavior of neutrinos in matter. The former relates weak eigenstates to mass eigenstates, whereas the latter relates weak eigenstates to energy eigenstates in matter. It is shown that the dynamical mixing angles enable us to express the neutrino survival probability in the Sun without any resort to the Landau-Zener transition probability for the non-adiabatic process. Also discussed are effective CP violating phases that appear in the effective and dynamical mixing matrices in matter. Both two and three generation cases are discussed using the solar neutrinos as an example.

Kim, J D; Kim, J; Lee, D G

1996-01-01

10

The KASKA project - a Japanese medium-baseline reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment to measure the mixing angle ?13 -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment, KASKA, is proposed to measure the unknown neutrino-mixing angle ?13 using the world's most powerful Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. It will measure a very small deficit of reactor-neutrino flux using three identical detectors, two placed just close to the sources and one at a distance of about 1.8km. Its conceptual design and physics reach are discussed.

Kuze, Masahiro; Kaska Collaboration

2005-12-01

11

Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1fb-1. From the dominant uu¯, dd¯??*/Z??-?+ process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin?2?eff=0.2287±0.0020(stat.)±0.0025(syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hänsel, S.; Hoch, M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Trauner, C.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Benucci, L.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hammad, G. H.; Hreus, T.; Marage, P. E.; Raval, A.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Adler, V.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; McCartin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, J.; Ceard, L.; Cortina Gil, E.; de Favereau de Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Grégoire, G.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Ovyn, S.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; da Costa, E. M.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Darmenov, N.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Mateev, M.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Cabrera, A.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Lelas, K.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Sillou, D.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Marionneau, M.; Millischer, L.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Elgammal, S.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Greder, S.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Mikami, Y.; van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bedjidian, M.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Le Grand, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Lomidze, D.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

2011-12-01

12

On localized mixing in action-action-angle flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailored mixing inside individual droplets could be useful to ensure that reactions within microscopic discrete fluid volumes, which are used as microreactors in "digital microfluidic" applications, take place in a controlled fashion. We consider a translating spherical liquid drop to which we impose a time periodic rigid-body rotation. Such a rotation induces mixing via chaotic advection in a narrow area inside the drop. We show that chaotic advection is caused by the resonance destruction of adiabatic invariants and derive an analytical description for the size of the mixing region.

Wu, Fan; Vainchtein, Dmitri

2014-01-01

13

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these games to determine the best angles for success! Alien Angles Set the angle to rescue the alien. Space Angles Target the angle to shoot the alien spaceship. Mini Golf Knowing the angles will help you get the ball in the hole. ...

Mr Clark

2012-10-31

14

The Cabibbo angle as a universal seed for quark and lepton mixings  

E-print Network

A model-independent ansatz to describe lepton and quark mixing in a unified way is suggested based upon the Cabibbo angle. In our framework neutrinos mix in a "Bi-Large" fashion, while the charged leptons mix as the "down-type" quarks do. In addition to the standard Wolfenstein parameters (lambda, A) two other free parameters are needed to specify the physical lepton mixing matrix. Through this simple assumption one makes specific predictions for the atmospheric angle as well as leptonic CP violation in good agreement with current observations.

S. Roy; S. Morisi; N. N. Singh; J. W. F. Valle

2014-10-14

15

Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ?[subscript 13] with the Double Chooz detector  

E-print Network

The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ?[subscript 13] using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two ...

Conrad, Janet

16

Neutrino interactions in astrophysics and the third neutrino mixing angle theta13  

E-print Network

The third neutrino mixing angle theta13 is the least known one. In this contribution, after a brief discussion of the current efforts to determine the value of this angle better, various astrophysical implications of a non-zero value of theta13 are summarized.

A. B. Balantekin

2010-06-14

17

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of eight interactive activities lets the user explore angles from many different perspectives. Activities include (1) visualizing the size of an angle; (2) examining objects that will stand or fall with right and non-right angles; (3) identifying obtuse, right, acute and straight angles; (4) guessing angle measures with different levels of precision; (5) exploring regular shapes and their angle measures; (6) studying angles in a fractal tree that is drawn with user inputs of the same angle measure between the branches at each stage; (7) exploring angle measures through firing a cannon (8) drawing with a Logo activity.

Jo Edkins

2007-01-01

18

Bounds on mixing angles of fermions with their exotic partners using LEP 1990 data  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the bounds on mixing angles of fermions with their exotic partners which may stem from different possibilities of new physics. The tree level effects of mixing have been taken care of by a modification of the effective vector and axial-vector couplings of Z to the fermions. The radiative corrections arising from new physics of exotic fermions are assumed to be negligible; as a result the {rho} parameter and the effective sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} are calculated within the framework of the Standard Model. Mixing angles have been treated as free parameters during simultaneous fits to the combined data of cross-sections and lepton asymmetries from the four LEP experiments which have collected over 550,000 Z{sup 0} decays in 1990. In this paper fitted values of mixing angles and the upper bounds at 90% C.L. are discussed.

Bhattacharyya, G.; Ganguli, S.N. (Dept. of Pure Physics, Univ. of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (IN)); Raychaudhuri, A. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabba Road, Bombay 400005 (IN)); Datta, A. (Dept. of Physics, Jadvpur Univ., Calcutta 700032 (IN))

1991-06-14

19

Quark masses and mixing angles from universal seesaw mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A universal seesaw mechanism is invoked to account for the observed fermion mass hierarchies. In the framework of left-right symmetry, heavy fermions (mass scale ?) which are SU(2)L?SU(2)R singlets are postulated while retaining the simplest possible Higgs system: namely, ?(1,2,1)+1??(1,1,2)+1 accompanied by a left-right singlet ?(1,1,1)0 in the standard SU(3)C?SU(2)L?SU(2)R×U(1)B-L notation. Every conventional quark and lepton is accompanied by a nonmirror singlet heavy fermion, so that the associated mass matrix is doubled and has the seesaw form usually associated only with the neutrino mass matrix. In the single-generation case, the model provides a plausible explanation for the mass hierarchy me,u,d~10-4MW &~=m2e, thus accounting for the superlightness of neutrinos. Combined with a U(1) axial symmetry, the mechanism provides a formalism in which the generations are distinguished and constraints emerge on the allowed form of mass matrices. In this paper, we consider the realistic case of three generations in a simplified version of the model in which CP violation does not arise from the gauge sector. Choosing the U(1)A quantum numbers so that the mass matrices are of the Fritzsch type, we calculate experimentally measured Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vus, Vub, and Vcs and derive their dependence on quark mass parameters. An interesting correlation between Vus which measures the Cabibbo angle and Vub which measures the charmless decay of the b quark emerges from the model. Vub is naturally suppressed if Vus= ?d/s - ?u/c to a very good approximation.

Davidson, Aharon; Ranfone, Stefano; Wali, Kameshwar C.

1990-01-01

20

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet enables students, using estimation and measurement skills, to investigate angles. Teachers can use this page for demonstrating how to read a protractor, and the protractor can be hidden to give students practice in estimating angle measures. The size of the angle can be controlled or chosen randomly.

Dan Bunker

2011-01-01

21

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables students to investigate acute, obtuse, and right angles. The student decides to work with one or two transversals and a pair of parallel lines. Angle measure is given for one angle. The student answers a short series of questions about the size of other angles, identifying relationships such as vertical and adjacent angles and alternate interior and alternate exterior angles. In addition to automatically checking the student's answers, the applet can keep score of correct answers. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans and a handout with a grid for showing the relationship between all possible angles that occur when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Shodor Education Foundation

2004-01-01

22

The quark mixing matrix with manifest Cabibbo substructure and an angle of the unitarity triangle as one of its parameters  

E-print Network

The quark mixing matrix is parameterised such that its "Cabibbo substructure" is emphasised. One can choose one of the parameters to be an arbitrarily chosen angle of the unitarity triangle, for example the angle $\\beta$ (also called $\\Phi_1$).

C. Jarlskog

2005-03-21

23

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to different types of angles including acute, obtuse, and right. The lesson also introduces ways to compare angles such as alternate interior, corresponding, and many others. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to angles as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2011-05-23

24

Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1 inverse femtobarns. From the dominant u-ubar, d-dbar to gamma*/Z to opposite sign dimuons process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin^2(theta[eff]) = 0.2287 +/- 0.0020 (stat.) +/- 0.0025 (syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); et al.,

2011-12-01

25

Radiative Generation of Quark Masses and Mixing Angles in the Two Higgs Doublet Model  

E-print Network

We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zero-th order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy $|V_{ub}|,|V_{cb}|\\ll |V_{us}|$. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

Alejandro Ibarra; Ana Solaguren-Beascoa

2014-07-04

26

Can radiative magnification of mixing angles occur for two-zero neutrino mass matrix textures?  

E-print Network

Neutrino Majorana masses and mixings can be generated from a dimension-5 operator within the standard model particle content. After a review of the mechanism of radiative enhancement of the mixing angle in a two-neutrino case, we consider three-flavour mass matrices of two-zero texture generated from such an operator and investigate the possibility of implementing the mechanism here. We observe that radiative magnification of only the solar angle is consistent with oscillation data on masses and mixings, and that too for nearly degenerate neutrinos, with two of them having opposite CP parities, while for hierarchical masses the mechanism does not work. In supersymmetry or in an extra-dimensional scenario the above features are qualitatively unchanged.

Gautam Bhattacharyya; Amitava Raychaudhuri; Arunansu Sil

2003-02-03

27

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students practice comparing angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines. This activity allows students to explore the vocabulary used when comparing angles (e.g., alternate, same-side, interior, corresponding, etc.). This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

28

Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $?_{13}$ with the Double Chooz detector  

E-print Network

The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power plant. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties with respect to previous publications, whereas the efficiency of the $\\bar\

Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadón; K. Crum; A. S. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; J. Dhooghe; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Göger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. López-Castaño; J. M. LoSecco; B. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Röhling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schönert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; D. Shrestha; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stüken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; N. Walsh; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

2015-01-21

29

Nuclear Dependence in Weak Structure Functions and the Determination of Weak Mixing Angle  

E-print Network

We have studied nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F^A_2(x)$ and $F^A_3(x)$ and in the extraction of weak mixing angle using Paschos Wolfenstein(PW) relation. We have modified the PW relation for nonisoscalar nuclear target. We have incorporated the medium effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, nuclear binding energy, nucleon correlations, pion $\\&$ rho cloud contributions, and shadowing and antishadowing effects.

M. Sajjad Athar; H. Haider; I Ruiz Simo; M. J. Vicente Vacas

2013-11-10

30

Pretilt angle control and multidomain alignment of liquid crystals by using polyimide mixed with liquid crystalline prepolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to control the pretilt angle of liquid crystals by employing a mixture of the vertical alignment polyimide and the liquid crystalline prepolymer (LCP). The pretilt angle between 10° and 90° can be controlled continuously by changing the mixing ratio of the LCP. Multidomains with different pretilt angles can be formed because the pretilt angle between 50° and 90° can be obtained by varying the UV exposure time region by region under a fixed mixing ratio. We confirmed experimentally that proposed alignment layers are thermally stable.

Kim, Ki-Han; Baek, Jong-In; Cheong, Byoung-Ho; Choi, Hwan-Young; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

2010-05-01

31

CKM-UT Angles: Mixing And CP Violation at the B Factories  

SciTech Connect

We review the experimental status of the angles of the Unitarity Triangle of the CKM matrix, as measured by the BABAR and Belle experiments. The B Factories have demonstrated since the beginning of this decade that CP violation in the B meson system is consistent with the Standard Model (SM) description in terms of the complex phase in the three-by-three Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. With one single phase, the SM predicts clear patterns for quark mixing and CP violations, to be satisfied by all processes.

Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; /Frascati

2011-11-07

32

Quark masses and mixing angles in a four-generation model with a naturally heavy neutrino  

SciTech Connect

It is argued with the help of an illustrative model with some interesting predictions that the interspecies hierarchy among the fermion masses and the quark mixing angles can be accommodated naturally in the standard model with approximately equal Yukawa couplings for all the fermions, provided there are four sequential quark-lepton families with all members of the fourth family having roughly equal masses. The special problem of very light neutrino masses (if any) and possible solutions are also discussed. In the quark sector, the model is shown to be consistent with the observed neutral meson mixing data and has a few interesting predictions. It is also shown that the existence of precisely four generations is strongly favored within a wide class of models with a few very reasonable assumptions about naturalness.

Datta, A. (Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032 (India)); Raychaudhuri, S. (Department of Pure Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700 009 (India))

1994-05-01

33

13C-detected 1H dipolar magic-angle-spinning nmr experiments with isotropic mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross polarization using the WIM-24 (windowless isotropic mixing) pulse sequence and also 13C-detected 1H dipolar magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance employing the WIM-24 pulse sequence during the mixing period on a sample of the urea tridecane inclusion compound was investigated. Numerical calculations of the theoretically expected spectra were performed, using equations derived by two methods: (l) from average Hamiltonian theory and (2) the time-evolution operator obtained by multiplying together the instantaneous time-evolution operators (the multistep method). In comparisons of the calculated 13C-detected 1H dipolar MAS NMR spectra from these two methods with the experimental spectra, quantitative agreement was found only with the results from the multistep method. The effects of errors in the pulse phases and amplitude of the WIM-24 pulse sequence were investigated by computer simulations based on equations derived from the multistep method. Although the WIM-24 cross-polarization curve was changed significantly by the presence of 2° errors of the pulse phases, or 10% errors in the pulse amplitudes, the 13C-detected 1H dipolar MAS NMR spectra obtained by using the WIM24 mixing were found to be rather insensitive to those pulse imperfections. Cross-polarization curves were also calculated for the WALTZ-4 pulse sequence applied synchronously to both the 13C and the 1H channels during the mixing period to study rotational resonance effects. The calculations were performed for dipolar and J mixing. The results show that the WALTZ-4 sequence couples with the sample rotation more intensely than does the WIM-24 sequence.

Kubo, Atsushi; McDowell, Charles A.

34

Optimizing the determination of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 from reactor data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical breakthroughs of multiple detectors developed by Daya Bay and RENO collaborations have gotten great attention. Yet the optimal determination of neutrino mixing parameters from reactor data depends on the statistical method and demands equal attention. We find that a straightforward method using minimal parameters will generally outperform a multi-parameter method by delivering more reliable values with sharper resolution. We review standard confidence levels and statistical penalties for models using extra parameters, and apply those rules to our analysis. We find that the methods used in recent work of the Daya Bay and RENO collaborations have several undesirable properties. The existing work also uses nonstandard measures of significance which we are unable to explain. A central element of the current methods consists of variationally fitting many more parameters than data points. As a result, the experimental resolution of sin2(2?13) is degraded. The results also become extremely sensitive to certain model parameters that can be adjusted arbitrarily. The number of parameters to include in evaluating significance is an important issue that has generally been overlooked. The measures of significance applied previously would be consistent if and only if all parameters but one were considered to have no physical relevance for the experiment's hypothesis test. Simpler, more transparent methods can improve the determination of the mixing angle ?13 from reactor data, and exploit the advantages from superb hardware technique of the experiments. We anticipate that future experimental analysis will fully exploit those advantages.

Khan, Amir N.; McKay, Douglas W.; Ralston, John P.

2014-07-01

35

Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

Parsons, Vickie S.

2005-01-01

36

Small-angle solution scattering using the mixed-mode pixel array detector  

PubMed Central

Solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were obtained using a 128 × 128 pixel X-ray mixed-mode pixel array detector (MMPAD) with an 860?µs readout time. The MMPAD offers advantages for SAXS experiments: a pixel full-well of >2 × 107 10?keV X-rays, a maximum flux rate of 108?X-rays pixel?1 s?1, and a sub-pixel point-spread function. Data from the MMPAD were quantitatively compared with data from a charge-coupled device (CCD) fiber-optically coupled to a phosphor screen. MMPAD solution SAXS data from lysozyme solutions were of equal or better quality than data captured by the CCD. The read-noise (normalized by pixel area) of the MMPAD was less than that of the CCD by an average factor of 3.0. Short sample-to-detector distances were required owing to the small MMPAD area (19.2?mm × 19.2?mm), and were revealed to be advantageous with respect to detector read-noise. As predicted by the Shannon sampling theory and confirmed by the acquisition of lysozyme solution SAXS curves, the MMPAD at short distances is capable of sufficiently sampling a solution SAXS curve for protein shape analysis. The readout speed of the MMPAD was demonstrated by continuously monitoring lysozyme sample evolution as radiation damage accumulated. These experiments prove that a small suitably configured MMPAD is appropriate for time-resolved solution scattering measurements. PMID:21335900

Koerner, Lucas J.; Gillilan, Richard E.; Green, Katherine S.; Wang, Suntao; Gruner, Sol M.

2011-01-01

37

Improving large mixing angle predictions with nonstandard interactions: Neutrino decay in solar matter?  

SciTech Connect

It has been known for some time that the well-established large mixing angle (LMA) solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for Super-Kamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with nonstandard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the {nu}{sub {alpha}}{nu}{sub {beta}} and {nu}{sub {alpha}}e vertices that affect both the propagation of neutrinos in the Sun and their detection. We find that, among the many possibilities for nonstandard couplings, only the diagonal imaginary ones lead to a solution to the tension between the LMA predictions and the data, implying neutrino instability in the solar matter. Unitarity requirements further restrict the solution and a neutrino decay into an antineutrino and a Majoron within the Sun is the one favored. Antineutrino probability is however too small to open the possibility of experimentally observing antineutrinos from the Sun due to NSI.

Das, C. R.; Pulido, Joao [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-03-01

38

Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ? 13 with the Double Chooz detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle ? 13 using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power plant. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties with respect to previous publications, whereas the efficiency of the signal has increased. The value of ? 13 is measured to be sin2 2 ? 13 = 0.090{-/0.029 + 0.032} from a fit to the observed energy spectrum. Deviations from the reactor prediction observed above a prompt signal energy of 4 MeV and possible explanations are also reported. A consistent value of ? 13 is obtained from a fit to the observed rate as a function of the reactor power independently of the spectrum shape and background estimation, demonstrating the robustness of the ? 13 measurement despite the observed distortion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Abe, Y.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Caden, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, P.-J.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Collin, A. P.; Conover, E.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Elnimr, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Grant, C.; Haag, N.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lucht, S.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nikitenko, Y.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Pfahler, P.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Roth, S.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schilithz, A. C.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharankova, R.; Shimojima, S.; Shrestha, D.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Stüken, A.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Thi, H. H. Trinh; Valdiviesso, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Walsh, N.; Watanabe, H.; Wiebusch, C.; Winslow, L.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

2014-10-01

39

Analysis of Degree of Mixing in Filled Polymers by Wide-Angle X-  

E-print Network

, with the extrusion step following continuous and batch mixing operations, respectively. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES was used in both the continuous and the batch mixing followed by extrusion through a die. Both the continuously processed, i.e., twin-screw mixed and extruded, and the batch processed, i.e., batch mixed and ram

40

Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on nonionic and two cationic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation in mixed water systems based on nonionic surfactant, i.e., heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C14E7), and cationic surfactants, i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), has been investigated using the small-angle neutron scattering method. The preliminary results of the study of the behavior of C14E7 aqueous solutions (for a concentration of 0.17%) when adding various small amounts of classical cationic surfactants (CTAB and CTAC) have been presented.

Rajewska, A.; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E.

2014-01-01

41

Penguin-mediated B_(d,s)->VV decays and the Bs - anti-Bs mixing angle  

E-print Network

In this letter, we propose three different strategies to extract the weak mixing angle phi_s of the Bs system using penguin-mediated decays into vectors, mainly Bs->K*K*, Bs->phi K* and Bs->phi phi. We also provide predictions for the longitudinal branching ratio and CP-asymmetries of Bs->K*K* using a method that combines QCD factorisation with flavour symmetries to relate this decay to its Bd counterpart.

Sebastien Descotes-Genon; Joaquim Matias; Javier Virto

2007-10-01

42

Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

2000-01-01

43

Local cation environments in mixed alkali silicate glasses studied by multinuclear single and double resonance magic-angle spinning NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local cation environments in single and mixed alkali silicate glasses are discussed on the basis of chemical shift trends observed in field-dependent multinuclear (29Si, 23Na, 6,7Li) magic angle spinning, as well as 29Si{23Na} and 29Si{7Li} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR results. Within the series (Li2O)x(SiO2)1-x and (Na2O)x(SiO2)1-x the alkali cation chemical shifts depend systematically on the network modifier

Becky Gee; Michael Janssen; Hellmut Eckert

1997-01-01

44

Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A  

E-print Network

Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

Lychkovskiy, O

2006-01-01

45

Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A  

E-print Network

Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

Oleg Lychkovskiy

2006-04-12

46

A numerical investigation of mixing and spreading across an angled discontinuity  

E-print Network

], a metric related to entropy that describes the overall mixing state of a system, and (ii) the scalar dis, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online and spreading in a very simple heterogeneous system: a numerical flow cell comprised of two homogeneous porous

Bolster, Diogo

47

A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

2006-10-16

48

Mixing angle and phase correlations from A5 with generalised CP and their prospects for discovery  

E-print Network

The observed leptonic mixing pattern could be explained by the presence of a discrete flavour symmetry broken into residual subgroups at low energies. In this scenario, a residual generalised CP symmetry allows the parameters of the PMNS matrix, including Majorana phases, to be predicted in terms of a small set of input parameters. In this article, we study the mixing parameter correlations arising from the symmetry group A5 including generalised CP subsequently broken into all of its possible residual symmetries. Focusing on those patterns which satisfy present experimental bounds, we then provide a detailed analysis of the measurable signatures accessible to the planned reactor, superbeam and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. We also discuss the role which could be played by high-precision measurements from longer term projects such as the Neutrino Factory. This work provides a concrete example of how the synergies of the upcoming experimental programme allow flavour symmetric models to be thoroug...

Ballett, Peter; Turner, Jessica

2015-01-01

49

Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle theta(13) via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay  

SciTech Connect

A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillation model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.

Jaffe D. E.; Jaffe, D.E., et al. Daya Bay Collaboration

2014-10-01

50

Small-angle X-ray scattering study on pectin-chitosan mixed solutions and thermoreversible gels.  

PubMed

Hot solutions containing pectin and chitosan with pectin weight fraction of 0.75, in acidic pH, demonstrate gelation occurring upon cooling to room temperature. This study explores the origin of this gelation using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as the main experimental tool. Modeling SAXS patterns revealed rigid rod conformation in chitosan solutions, whereas pectin formed a self-avoiding chain. In addition, nanometric aggregates were detected in pectin solutions. Pectin and chitosan in mixed solutions adopted a similar semiflexible conformation. The only sample that created a visually stable gel displayed a different pattern, characteristic to polymers gels. Manipulating the composition by adding urea and salts highlighted the important role of hydrogen bonding, which governs the gelation mechanism. Nevertheless, electrostatic interactions were also found to take part in the gelation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive and systematic SAXS study on these pectin-chitosan mixtures. PMID:25843842

Ventura, Irit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

2015-06-01

51

Calculation of the flow field including boundary layer effects for supersonic mixed compression inlets at angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow field in supersonic mixed compression aircraft inlets at angle of attack is calculated. A zonal modeling technique is employed to obtain the solution which divides the flow field into different computational regions. The computational regions consist of a supersonic core flow, boundary layer flows adjacent to both the forebody/centerbody and cowl contours, and flow in the shock wave boundary layer interaction regions. The zonal modeling analysis is described and some computational results are presented. The governing equations for the supersonic core flow form a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. The equations for the characteristic surfaces and the compatibility equations applicable along these surfaces are derived. The characteristic surfaces are the stream surfaces, which are surfaces composed of streamlines, and the wave surfaces, which are surfaces tangent to a Mach conoid. The compatibility equations are expressed as directional derivatives along streamlines and bicharacteristics, which are the lines of tangency between a wave surface and a Mach conoid.

Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

1982-01-01

52

Mixed-mode I and II fatigue threshold and crack deflection angle in SiCp/2024Al composite  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, extensive studies were made on fatigue crack propagation behavior in particle or whisker reinforced metal-matrix composites (MMCs) with specific emphasis on the pure mode I fatigue crack growth threshold condition. However, the pure mode I case seldom occurred in practice. In many components cracks are not normal to the maximum principal stress direction and the crack may not grow in the plane of initial crack. Therefore, it is important to study the fatigue behavior under mixed-mode condition. A particle reinforced metal-matrix composite and its matrix alloy were selected for this study. Special attention has been paid to the influence of crack faces friction on the mixed-mode thresholds and crack deflection angle {theta}c. The composite used in the present work is a 15% vol. SiC particulate (nominal size 14 {micro}m) reinforced 2024Al which was produced by casting and extruded at an extrusion ratio of 10:1 into 28 mm diameter rod. Also an unreinforced 2024 Al alloy with a processing history identical to that of the composite was used for comparison.

Liu, P.; Wang, Z. [Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials] [Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials

1996-04-15

53

T-stress, mixed-mode stress intensity factors, and crack initiation angles in functionally graded materials: a unified approach using the interaction integral method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For linear elastic functionally graded materials (FGMs), the fracture parameters describing the crack tip fields include not only stress intensity factors (SIFs) but also T-stress (nonsingular stress). These two fracture parameters are important for determining the crack initiation angle under mixed-mode loading conditions in brittle FGMs (e.g. ceramic\\/ceramic such as TiC\\/SiC). In this paper, the mixed-mode SIFs and T-stress are

Jeong-Ho Kim; Glaucio H. Paulino

2003-01-01

54

Angles, Angles and More Angles!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test Your Angle Knowledge! Angles Telescope Star Gazing Help diget to fill up his scrapbook of stars by using his telescope and pointting at each planet during the night! But make sure you hurry before the sun comes up! Shoot The Space Ship Angles Game Try and figure out which angle you need to use to shoot down the aliens spaceship! ...

Miss Smith

2011-03-23

55

The MOLLER Experiment: An Ultra-Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle Using M{\\o}ller Scattering  

E-print Network

The physics case and an experimental overview of the MOLLER (Measurement Of a Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction) experiment at the 12 GeV upgraded Jefferson Lab are presented. A highlight of the Fundamental Symmetries subfield of the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan was the SLAC E158 measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{PV}$ in polarized electron-electron (M{\\o}ller) scattering. The proposed MOLLER experiment will improve on this result by a factor of five, yielding the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle at low or high energy anticipated over the next decade. This new result would be sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as $\\sim 10^{-3}\\cdot G_F$ from as yet undiscovered dynamics beyond the Standard Model. The resulting discovery reach is unmatched by any proposed experiment measuring a flavor- and CP-conserving process over the next decade, and yields a unique window to new physics at MeV and multi-TeV scales, complem...

Benesch, J; Carlini, R D; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Deur, A; Gaskell, D; Gavalya, A; Gomez, J; Higinbotham, D W; Keppel, C; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Roblin, Y; Suleiman, R; Wines, R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Cates, G; Crabb, D; Day, D; Gnanvo, K; Keller, D; Liyanage, N; Nelyubin, V V; Nguyen, H; Norum, B; Paschke, K; Sulkosky, V; Zhang, J; Zheng, X; Birchall, J; Blunden, P; Gericke, M T W; Falk, W R; Lee, L; Mammei, J; Page, S A; van Oers, W T H; Dehmelt, K; Deshpande, A; Feege, N; Hemmick, T K; Kumar, K S; Kutz, T; Miskimen, R; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Riordan, S; Taylor, N Hirlinger; Bessuille, J; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Kowalski, S; Silwal, R; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Bellini, E NappiV; Mammoliti, F; Noto, F; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, C M; Cole, P; Forest, T A; Khandekar, M; McNulty, D; Aulenbacher, K; Baunack, S; Maas, F; Tioukine, V; Gilman, R; Myers, K; Ransome, R; Tadepalli, A; Beniniwattha, R; Holmes, R; Souder, P; Armstrong, D S; Averett, T D; Deconinck, W; Duvall, W; Lee, A; Pitt, M L; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; De Persio, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Cisbani, E; Fanelli, C; Garibaldi, F; Johnston, K; Simicevic, N; Wells, S; King, P M; Roche, J; Arrington, J; Reimer, P E; Franklin, G; Quinn, B; Ahmidouch, A; Danagoulian, S; Glamazdin, O; Pomatsalyuk, R; Mammei, R; Martin, J W; Holmstrom, T; Erler, J; Kolomensky, Yu G; Napolitano, J; Aniol, K A; Ramsay, W D; Korkmaz, E; Spayde, D T; Benmokhtar, F; Del Dotto, A; Perrino, R; Barkanova, S; Aleksejevs, A; Singh, J

2014-01-01

56

Small-angle neutron scattering study of the mixed state of Yb3Rh4Sn13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique we investigated the vortex lattice (VL) in the mixed state of the stannide superconductor Yb3Rh4Sn13. We find a single domain VL of slightly distorted hexagonal geometry for field strengths between 350 and 18 500 G and temperatures between T =0.05 and 6.5 K. We observe a clear in-plane rotation of the VL for different magnetic field directions relative to the crystallographic axes. We also find that the hexagonal symmetry of the VL is energetically favorable in Yb3Rh4Sn13 for external fields oriented along axes of different symmetries: twofold [110], threefold [111], and fourfold [100]. The observed behavior is different from other conventional and unconventional superconductors. The superconducting state is characterized by an isotropically gapped order parameter with an amplitude of ? (0)=1.57±0.05 meV. At the lowest temperatures, the field dependence of the magnetic form factor in our material reveals a London penetration depth of ?L=2508±17 Å and a Ginzburg coherence length of ? =100±1.3 Å, i.e., it is a strongly type-II superconductor, ? =?L/?=25.

Mazzone, D.; Gavilano, J. L.; Sibille, R.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Kenzelmann, M.

2014-07-01

57

Determination of the Higgs CP mixing angle in the tau decay channels at the LHC including the Drell-Yan background  

E-print Network

We investigate how precisely the CP nature of the 125 GeV Higgs boson resonance h can be unraveled at the LHC in its decays to tau pairs. We use a method which allows to determine the scalar-pseudoscalar Higgs mixing angle in this decay mode. This mixing angle can be extracted from the distribution of a signed angle, which we analyze for the major charged-prong tau decays. For definiteness, we consider Higgs-boson production by gluon fusion at NLO QCD. We take into account also the irreducible background from Drell-Yan production at NLO QCD. We compute, for the signal and background reactions, angular and energy correlations of the charged prongs and analyze which type of cuts suppress the Drell-Yan background. An important feature of this background is that its contribution to the distribution of our observable is a flat line, also at NLO QCD. By separating the Drell-Yan events into two different sets, two different non-trivial distributions are obtained. Based on this observation we propose to use these sets for calibation purposes. By Monte Carlo simulation we study also the effect of measurement uncertainties on this distribution. We estimate that the Higgs mixing angle can be determined with our method to a precision of 14 degree (5 degree) at the high luminosity LHC (14 TeV) with an integrated luminosity of 500 inverse fb (3 inverse ab).

Stefan Berge; Werner Bernreuther; Sebastian Kirchner

2014-12-10

58

Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during CT coronary angiography: A simulation study comparing breast shielding, angular tube current modulation, reduced kV, and partial angle protocols using an unknown-location signal-detectability metric  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors compared the performance of five protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast during computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography scans using a model observer unknown-location signal-detectability metric.Methods: The authors simulated CT images of an anthropomorphic female thorax phantom for a 120 kV reference protocol and five “dose reduction” protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast: 120 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered), 120 kV tube-current modulated (TCM), 120 kV with shielded breasts, 80 kV, and 80 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered). Two image quality tasks were investigated: the detection and localization of 4-mm, 3.25 mg/ml and 1-mm, 6.0 mg/ml iodine contrast signals randomly located in the heart region. For each protocol, the authors plotted the signal detectability, as quantified by the area under the exponentially transformed free response characteristic curve estimator (A-caret{sub FE}), as well as noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) versus breast and lung dose. In addition, the authors quantified each protocol's dose performance as the percent difference in dose relative to the reference protocol achieved while maintaining equivalent A-caret{sub FE}.Results: For the 4-mm signal-size task, the 80 kV full scan and 80 kV partial angle protocols decreased dose to the breast (80.5% and 85.3%, respectively) and lung (80.5% and 76.7%, respectively) with A-caret{sub FE} = 0.96, but also resulted in an approximate three-fold increase in image noise. The 120 kV partial protocol reduced dose to the breast (17.6%) at the expense of increased lung dose (25.3%). The TCM algorithm decreased dose to the breast (6.0%) and lung (10.4%). Breast shielding increased breast dose (67.8%) and lung dose (103.4%). The 80 kV and 80 kV partial protocols demonstrated greater dose reductions for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task, and the shielded protocol showed a larger increase in dose for the 4-mm task than for the 1-mm task. In general, the CNR curves indicate a similar relative ranking of protocol performance as the corresponding A-caret{sub FE} curves, however, the CNR metric overestimated the performance of the shielded protocol for both tasks, leading to corresponding underestimates in the relative dose increases compared to those obtained when using the A-caret{sub FE} metric.Conclusions: The 80 kV and 80 kV partial angle protocols demonstrated the greatest reduction to breast and lung dose, however, the subsequent increase in image noise may be deemed clinically unacceptable. Tube output for these protocols can be adjusted to achieve a more desirable noise level with lesser breast dose savings. Breast shielding increased breast and lung dose when maintaining equivalent A-caret{sub FE}. The results demonstrated that comparisons of dose performance depend on both the image quality metric and the specific task, and that CNR may not be a reliable metric of signal detectability.

Rupcich, Franco; Gilat Schmidt, Taly [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Badal, Andreu; Popescu, Lucretiu M.; Kyprianou, Iacovos [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States)] [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States)

2013-08-15

59

Unveiling neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation  

SciTech Connect

We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the CP-phase {delta}. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

Mena, Olga; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

60

Unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states in n-dimensional ( n ? 2) Hilbert space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known mixed states and with the Jordan-basis method, we demonstrate that the optimal success probability of the discrimination between two unknown states is independent of the dimension n. We also give a scheme for a physical implementation of the programmable state discriminator that can unambiguously discriminate between two unknown states with optimal probability of success.

Zhou, Tao

2012-12-01

61

Unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states  

E-print Network

We consider the unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states in $n$-dimensional ($n\\geqslant2$) Hilbert space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known mixed states and with the Jordan-basis method, we demonstrate that the optimal success probability of the discrimination between two unknown states is independent of the dimension $n$. We also give a scheme for a physical implementation of the programmable state discriminator that unambiguously discriminate between two unknown states with optimal probability of success.

Tao Zhou

2011-11-15

62

A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method  

SciTech Connect

The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

Rajewska, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland)

2007-09-15

63

Publications Angling, Angling Records,  

E-print Network

Publications Angling, Angling Records, and Game Fish Conservation The 1982 edition of "World Record Game Fishes," published by the Inter- national Game Fish Association, 3000 East Las alas Boulevard, Fort Lauder- dale, FL 33316, continues to grow as an important reference work for the serious angler

64

The impact of particle shape on the angle of internal friction and the implications for sediment dynamics at a steep, mixed sand-gravel beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of particle shape on the angle of internal friction, and the resulting impact on beach sediment dynamics, is still poorly understood. In areas characterized by sediments of specific shape, particularly non-rounded particles, this can lead to large departures from the expected sediment dynamics. The steep slope (1 : 10) of the mixed sand-gravel beach at Advocate Harbour is stable in large-scale morphology over decades, despite a high tidal range of 10 m or more, and intense shore-break action during storms. The Advocate sand (d < 2 mm) was found to have an elliptic, plate-like shape (Corey Shape Index, CSI ? 0.2-0.6). High angles of internal friction of this material were determined using direct shear, ranging from ? ? 41 to 49°, while the round to angular gravel was characterized as ? = 33°. The addition of 25% of the elliptic plate-like sand-sized material to the gravel led to an immediate increase in friction angle to ? = 38°. Furthermore, re-organization of the particles occurred during shearing, characterized by a short phase of settling and compaction, followed by a pronounced strong dilatory behavior and an accompanying strong increase of resistance to shear and, thus, shear stress. Long-term shearing (24 h) using a ring shear apparatus led to destruction of the particles without re-compaction. Finally, submerged particle mobilization was simulated using a tilted tray submerged in a water-filled tank. Despite a smooth tray surface, particle motion was not initiated until reaching tray tilt angles of 31° and more, being ≥7° steeper than for motion initiation of the gravel mixtures. In conclusion, geotechnical laboratory experiments quantified the important impact of the elliptic, plate-like shape of Advocate Beach sand on the angles of internal friction of both pure sand and sand-gravel mixtures. The resulting effect on initiation of particle motion was confirmed in tilting tray experiments. This makes it a vivid example of how particle shape can contribute to the stabilization of the beach face.

Stark, N.; Hay, A. E.; Cheel, R.; Lake, C. B.

2014-08-01

65

Observation of B(s)(0) ? J/? f1(1285) decays and measurement of the f1(1285) mixing angle.  

PubMed

Decays of B(s)(0) and B(0) mesons into J/? ?+?-?+?- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B(s)(0) ? J/? f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed. PMID:24655242

Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J

2014-03-01

66

Observation of B stretchy="false">¯(s)0?J /? f1(1285) Decays and Measurement of the f1(1285) Mixing Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decays of B stretchy="false">¯s0 and B stretchy="false">¯0 mesons into J /? ?+?-?+?- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B stretchy="false">¯(s)0?J /?f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq stretchy="false">¯ structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed.

Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorbounov, P.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.

2014-03-01

67

A computer program for the calculation of the flow field including boundary layer effects for mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program was developed which is capable of calculating the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed compression aircraft inlet operating at angle of attack. The supersonic core flow is computed using a second-order three dimensional method-of-characteristics algorithm. The bow shock and the internal shock train are treated discretely using a three dimensional shock fitting procedure. The boundary layer flows are computed using a second-order implicit finite difference method. The shock wave-boundary layer interaction is computed using an integral formulation. The general structure of the computer program is discussed, and a brief description of each subroutine is given. All program input parameters are defined, and a brief discussion on interpretation of the output is provided. A number of sample cases, complete with data listings, are provided.

Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

1982-01-01

68

Mixed treatment comparison of repeated measurements of a continuous endpoint: an example using topical treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.  

PubMed

Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analyses estimate relative treatment effects from networks of evidence while preserving randomisation. We extend the MTC framework to allow for repeated measurements of a continuous endpoint that varies over time. We used, as a case study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements from randomised controlled trials evaluating topical ocular hypotensives in primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension because IOP varies over the day and over the treatment course, and repeated measurements are frequently reported. We adopted models for conducting MTC in WinBUGS (The BUGS Project, Cambridge, UK) to allow for repeated IOP measurements and to impute missing standard deviations of the raw data using the predictive distribution from observations with standard deviations. A flexible model with an unconstrained baseline for IOP variations over time and time-invariant random treatment effects fitted the data well. We also adopted repeated measures models to allow for class effects; assuming treatment effects to be exchangeable within classes slightly improved model fit but could bias estimated treatment effects if exchangeability assumptions were not valid. We enabled all timepoints to be included in the analysis, allowing for repeated measures to increase precision around treatment effects and avoid bias associated with selecting timepoints for meta-analysis.The methods we developed for modelling repeated measures and allowing for missing data may be adapted for use in other MTC meta-analyses. PMID:21728183

Dakin, Helen A; Welton, Nicky J; Ades, A E; Collins, Sarah; Orme, Michelle; Kelly, Steven

2011-09-10

69

Exploring the Unknown  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

2012-01-01

70

FLOW FIELD IN SUPERSONIC MIXED-COMPRESSION INLETS AT ANGLE OF ATTACK USING THE THREE DIMENSIONAL METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS WITH DISCRETE SHOCK WAVE FITTING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computer program calculates the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed-compression aircraft inlet at non-zero angle of attack. This approach is based on the method of characteristics for steady three-dimensional flow. The results of this program agree with those produced by the two-dimensional method of characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are calculated. Except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal, the results agree well with experimental data obtained for threedimensional flow fields. The flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed compression inlets can be calculated using this program. The bow shock wave and the internal shock wave system are calculated using a discrete shock wave fitting procedure. The internal flow field can be calculated either with or without the discrete fitting of the internal shock wave system. The influence of molecular transport can be included in the calculation of the external flow about the forebody and in the calculation of the internal flow when internal shock waves are not discretely fitted. The viscous and thermal diffussion effects are included by treating them as correction terms in the method of characteristics procedure. Dynamic viscosity is represented by Sutherland's law and thermal conductivity is represented as a quadratic function of temperature. The thermodynamic model used is that of a thermally and calorically perfect gas. The program assumes that the cowl lip is contained in a constant plane and that the centerbody contour and cowl contour are smooth and have continuous first partial derivatives. This program cannot calculate subsonic flow, the external flow field if the bow shock wave does not exist entirely around the forebody, or the internal flow field if the bow flow field is injected into the annulus. Input to the program consists of parameters to control execution, to define the geometry, and the vehicle orientation. Output consists of a list of parameters used, solution planes, and a description of the shock waves. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series machine with a central memory requirement of 110K (octal) of 60 bit words when it is overlayed. This flow analysis program was developed in 1978.

Bishop, A. R.

1994-01-01

71

Finding an Unknown Charge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four charges are shown (one is unknown) given in 10-10C that form what is known as a quadrupole. You can measure the potential at any point by dragging the test charge around. Distance is measured in m.

Wolfgang Christian

72

Angle Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Examine the angles in a triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon or octagon and find a relationship between the number of sides and the sum of the interior angles." (Source: 2000-2012 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2010-05-20

73

Angle Practice!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How well do you know your angles? Check out these games and put your knowledge to the test! They will stump you if you don't pay close attention to the different angles they give you! Alien Angles! - Use the protractor to guess where the alien has flown away to. If you pick the right spot, you can save all the aliens! Squirt the Dog! Angle practice - Move the hose using different measures of angles to try and squirt the dog. To what degree? - Think you're ready to challenge yourself? Check out ...

Ms. Hume

2012-11-02

74

The Unknown Fossil Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project challenges the students ingenuity, creativity, and resourcefulness! They each receive a fossil of unknown identity (general geographic locality may be given, e.g., I-55 south of St. Louis, MO). The specimen is described in as much detail as possible. Their report should include taxonomic classification (as complete as they can), age, paleoecology, Earth history, and other interpretations they can infer. Identification may require library work, Internet search, etc.

Max Reams

75

Angles (elementary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to acute, obtuse, and right angles. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to angles as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2011-05-23

76

Measurement of forward-backward asymmetry A{sub FB} and of the weak mixing angle in processes of dilepton production in proton-proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained by measuring the forward-backward asymmetry (A{sub FB}) of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV at the LHC are presented. This asymmetry is measured as a function of the dilepton mass and rapidity in the dielectron and dimuon channels. The values of A{sub FB} were found for invariant masses of dileptons in the range of 40 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To M{sub ll} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 600 GeV. The results for the effective weak mixing angle that were deduced from data on dimuon production in Drell-Yan processes are also presented. The respective data sample was collected by using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector over the period spanning the years 2010 and 2011. The measured asymmetry and the effective weak mixing are consistent with the respective Standard Model predictions.

Gorbunov, I. N., E-mail: Ilya.Gorbunov@cern.ch; Shmatov, S. V., E-mail: shmatov@cern.ch [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15

77

Jigsaw Puzzles with Pieces of Unknown Orientation Andrew C. Gallagher  

E-print Network

Jigsaw Puzzles with Pieces of Unknown Orientation Andrew C. Gallagher Eastman Kodak Research of square-piece jigsaw puzzles: those for which the orientation of each jigsaw piece is unknown. We propose even when pieces from multiple puzzles are mixed together. For solving puzzles where jigsaw piece

Chen, Tsuhan

78

22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

79

1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no date. Source: Salt River Project Archives (SRPA) - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

80

7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

81

Right Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article gives teachers background information on right angles. It provides geometric and practical examples, a paper folding construction method, and some history of the usage of the term 'right.'

Paul Goldenberg

2011-06-09

82

Aldehydes and Ketones Unknown/Derivative 37 Carbonyl Unknowns  

E-print Network

Aldehydes and Ketones Unknown/Derivative 37 Carbonyl Unknowns Overview: You will receive a carbonyl compound as an unknown. It can be either an aldehyde or a ketone, and may or may not contain an aromatic, but which you should know to answer questions · 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine test: positive for aldehydes

Jasperse, Craig P.

83

Learning for an Unknown Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

Barnett, Ronald

2012-01-01

84

Estimating Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash game for one or two players gives students practice in estimating the size of angles. A circle and a radius pointing in a random direction are given. The student activates a second sweeping radius, which can move in either direction, and tries to stop it at the specified measure. Three difficulty levels control the range of angle measures. Points are awarded based on closeness of the estimate. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

85

Calculation of the flow field in supersonic mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack using the three-dimensional method of characteristics with discrete shock wave fitting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of molecular transport is included in the computation by treating viscous and thermal diffusion terms in the governing partial differential equations as correction terms in the method of characteristics scheme. The development of a production type computer program is reported which is capable of calculating the flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed-compression aircraft inlets. The results agreed well with those produced by the two-dimensional method characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are computed. For three-dimensional flow fields, the results agree well with experimental data except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal.

Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

1978-01-01

86

[Profamilia: immense unknown contribution].  

PubMed

In late 1965, when he presented himself to the International Planned Parenthood Federation headquarters in London weeks after founding the Profamilia Foundation, Dr. Fernando Tamayo was an unknown Colombian physician with a mission to modify Colombia's very rapid rate of population growth. Colombia in 1964 has a population of 17.5 million growing at an annual rate of 3.4%. By 1973, the population was 22.9 million and growing at 2.7%. Cultural, religious, and moral obstacles precluded an aggressive family planning campaign, which would have aroused violent resistance. Profamilia personnel worked discreetly but persistently, convinced that they would see few short term results but that their effect would be immense in the long run. Family planning is partly a process of educating families in the health, socioeconomic, and psychological benefits of smaller families. Profamilia has a centralized organization which administers 3 main programs, the clinical program with 40 traditional clinics in major cities and 8 well-accepted male clinics, the sterilization program in clinics and mobile units, and the community-based distribution program which distributes pills, condoms, and IUDs through 3000 community posts under the direction of 120 instructors. Between 1964-90, Colombia's total fertility rate declined from 9.2 to 4.4 in rural areas, from 5.2 to 2.2 in urban areas, and from 7.0 to 2.8 overall. The rate of population growth declined from 3.4 to 1.8%. It has been estimated that over half the decline is due to Profamilia services. The total investment by Profamilia during its history was US $100 million. The average cost of protecting a couple against unwanted pregnancy is US $5.26 per year. Colombia's population is projected to increase from 30 to 54 million between 1985 and 2025 even if the growth rate declines from 1.8% in 1990 to 1.3% in 2025. The most worrisome aspect of the projected growth is its concentration in urban areas, which are already beset by poverty, inadequate basic services, and a limited potential water supply already threatened by deforestation. It is clear that the work of family planning in Colombia is not done and that much remains to be accomplished. PMID:12283633

Ramirez Ocampo, J

1990-12-01

87

Unknowns and unknown unknowns: from dark sky to dark matter and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Answering well-known fundamental questions is usually regarded as the major goal of science. Discovery of other unknown and fundamental questions is, however, even more important. Recognition that "we didn't know anything" is the basic scientific driver for the next generation. Cosmology indeed enjoys such an exciting epoch. What is the composition of our universe ? This is one of the well-known fundamental questions that philosophers, astronomers and physicists have tried to answer for centuries. Around the end of the last century, cosmologists finally recognized that "We didn't know anything". Except for atoms that comprise slightly less than 5% of the universe, our universe is apparently dominated by unknown components; 23% is the known unknown (dark matter), and 72% is the unknown unknown (dark energy). In the course of answering a known fundamental question, we have discovered an unknown, even more fundamental, question: "What is dark matter? What is dark energy?" There are a variety of realistic particle physics models for dark matter, and its experimental detection may be within reach. On the other hand, it is fair to say that there is no widely accepted theoretical framework to describe the nature of dark energy. This is exactly why astronomical observations will play a key role in unveiling its nature. I will review our current understanding of the "dark sky", and then present on-going Japanese project, SuMIRe, to discover even more unexpected questions.

Suto, Yasushi

2010-07-01

88

Triangle Geometry: Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive math site teaches students about angles and triangles. There are interactive activities for measuring angles, exploring types of angles, and adding angles. By using a Java applet and pictures, a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem is demonstrated.

Math Cove

2007-12-12

89

NAME:_______________ BIO 251 Unknown Tables  

E-print Network

reaction Endospore formation Growth characteristics agar deeps Growth characteristics TSB(broths) Motility Mannitol salt agar growth fermentation Hemolysin production Antibiotic sensitivity that you need to use based on the Gram reaction of the unknown and the shape. ** MINUS 10 points each day

Ahmad, Sajjad

90

Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns.  

PubMed

There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. PMID:20678146

Wintle, Brendan A; Runge, Michael C; Bekessy, Sarah A

2010-11-01

91

Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

2010-01-01

92

The Senses of "Unknown Creatures"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use earthworms as "unknown creatures" from the South American jungle to find out how animals use senses. Learners are given supplies to devise their own experiments and test the response of the earthworms to light, touch and chemicals. Learners collect data and draw conclusions based on this data. Learners return the earthworms to their natural habitat (a flower or garden bed) when they are finished with the experiments.

Eric Chudler Ph.D.

2009-01-01

93

Circles and Squares: Two Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad and on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows players to learn about the use of symbols and variables as a way to represent numbers as students solve puzzles involving two unknowns using algebraic thinking. The sketch displays eight rows of symbols and each row presents a different combination of squares and circles. When students drag a row of symbols across the vertical divider line, the sketch displays the sum of the symbols. By dragging two or more rows, students gather information and determine the value of the circle and the square. Overview instructions and teacher notes are available as downloadable PDF.

Elizabeth DeCarli

2010-10-19

94

Determining Sigma - Lambda mixing  

E-print Network

SU2 isospin breaking effects in baryon octet (and decuplet) masses are due to a combination of up and down quark mass differences and electromagnetic effects. These mass differences are small. Between the Sigma and Lambda the mass splitting is much larger, but this is mostly due to their different wavefunctions. However there is now also mixing between these states. We determine the QCD mixing matrix and hence find the mixing angle and mass splitting.

R. Horsley; J. Najjar; Y. Nakamura; H. Perlt; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; A. Schiller; H. Stüben; J. M. Zanotti

2014-12-02

95

Metastatic cancer with unknown primary.  

PubMed

Close cooperation between an experienced pathologist and oncologist is essential in the management of patients with unknown primary carcinoma. A comprehensive pathological examination is crucial and, with undifferentiated tumors, this will include immunohistology and/or electron microscopy. Ample properly processed tissue therefore must be provided. Time-consuming and costly radiographic and imaging studies should be avoided. No matter how extensive the evaluation, in a majority of cases, the primary site will never be found, so a selective search for treatable tumors is most appropriate and cost-effective. With adenocarcinomas, this will include prostate, breast, and ovary; for undifferentiated tumors, small cell bronchogenic carcinoma, lymphomas, and germ cell tumors. Table 4 summarizes recommended studies for diagnosing unknown primary undifferentiated or adenocarcinomas. Women with adenocarcinoma in axillary nodes without a primary site should be treated as having breast cancer. Estrogen and progesterone receptor assays are to be obtained on the axillary biopsy. High and midcervical nodes with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma can be treated effectively and, not infrequently, cured with surgery and radiation therapy, even if the primary site never is detected. If doubt remains, treatment should be selected that offers the best chance of significant palliation or cure--for example, cisplatin-based chemotherapy in possible extragonadal germ cell tumors. PMID:2842554

Greenberg, B R; Lawrence, H J

1988-09-01

96

Pattern Recognition Algorithm for High-Sensitivity Odorant Detection in Unknown Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a realistic odorant detection application environment, the collected sensory data is a mix of unknown chemicals with unknown concentrations and noise. The identification of the odorants among these mixtures is a challenge in data recognition. In addition, deriving their individual concentrations in the mix is also a challenge. A deterministic analytical model was developed to accurately identify odorants and calculate their concentrations in a mixture with noisy data.

Duong, Tuan A.

2012-01-01

97

Patchiness and Spatial Distribution of Laccase Genes of Ectomycorrhizal, Saprotrophic, and Unknown Basidiomycetes  

E-print Network

, Saprotrophic, and Unknown Basidiomycetes in the Upper Horizons of a Mixed Forest Cambisol Patricia Luis1- tributed to ectomycorrhizal, unknown and saprotrophic basidiomycetes, respectively. Most dominant sequences various functional groups of fungi (saprotrophs, symbionts, and pathogens) but not within all species (e

Bruns, Tom

98

A Simulation Study Comparison of Bayesian Estimation with Conventional Methods for Estimating Unknown Change Points  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of a Bayesian approach for estimating unknown change points using Monte Carlo simulations. The univariate and bivariate unknown change point mixed models were presented and the basic idea of the Bayesian approach for estimating the models was discussed. The performance of Bayesian…

Wang, Lijuan; McArdle, John J.

2008-01-01

99

Small angle spectrometers: Summary  

SciTech Connect

Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices. (LEW)

Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.; Rosner, J.; Slaughter, J.; Bromberg, C.; Jones, L.; Garren, A.; Groom, D.; Johnson, D.E.

1986-01-01

100

Angles of Reflection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation shows what happens to light when it hits a mirror. The simluation allows the user to change the angle of the incoming or incident light wave and see the corresponding reflected angle.

Michael W. Davidson

2006-06-15

101

Association Between Baseline Angle Width and Induced Angle Opening Following Prophylactic Laser Peripheral Iridotomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the association between baseline angle width and laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI)-induced opening of the anterior chamber angle. Methods. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after LPI were analyzed to determine the angle opening distance at 250 ?m (AOD250), 500 ?m (AOD500), and 750 ?m (AOD750) from the scleral spur; trabecular–iris space area at 500 ?m (TISA500) and 750 ?m (TISA750) from the scleral spur; angle recess area at 750 ?m (ARA750) from the scleral spur; and trabecular–iris angle (TIA). Differences in preoperative and postoperative measurements for the anterior chamber angle width parameters were compared by paired Student's t-tests. Univariate and linear mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the association between baseline and LPI-induced opening of anterior chamber angle width parameters. Results. Eighty-four eyes of 52 primary angle closure suspects were included in the analysis. AOD250, AOD500, AOD750, TISA500, TISA750, ARA750, and TIA significantly increased following LPI by paired Student's t-tests (all P < 0.0001). Lower baseline measurements were significantly associated with greater postoperative opening in all anterior chamber angle width parameters in both univariate and linear mixed-effects regression analyses (all P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results showed significant opening of the anterior chamber angle width after LPI and demonstrated an inverse association between baseline and LPI-induced opening of the anterior chamber angle width, such that eyes with a more crowded anterior chamber angle undergoing LPI had a greater magnitude of increase in anterior chamber angle width after the procedure. PMID:23661374

Lee, Roland Y.; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N.; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C.

2013-01-01

102

rac-N-Benzyl-isatincreatinine (unknown solvate).  

PubMed

The title compound, C(19)H(18)N(4)O(3) [systematic name: (RS)-1-benzyl-3-hy-droxy-3-(2-imino-3-methyl-5-oxoimidazolidin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one], was prepared as a racemate (RR and SS) by the aldol condensation of N-benzyl-isatin with creatinine in the presence of sodium acetate in acetic acid. The r.m.s. deviation of the isatin ring system is 0.033?Å. The benzyl group is disordered over two orientations, with refined occupancies of 0.847?(7) and 0.153?(7). The dihedral angles between the isatin ring system and the benzene ring (major disorder component) and the imidazole ring are 82.82?(7) and 51.31?(3)°, respectively, In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into (001) sheets by N-H?O and O-H?N hydrogen bonds, which incorporate R(2) (2)(9) ring motifs. The crystal was grown from mixed solvents (ethanol, methanol and possibly also ethyl acetate). These solvents are disordered in the crystal and the resulting electron density was found to be uninter-pretable. The solvent contribution to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. The formula mass and density do not take account of the solvent. PMID:23424560

Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A

2013-02-01

103

Angles All Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standard: Identify and measure right, obtuse, and acute angles. This is a two day activity. OBJECTIVE: We have learned about five different types of angles: right, acute, obtuse, straight, and reflex. We have also learned how to use a protractor to measure angles. With this lesson, you will practice what ...

Mrs. Bennett

2011-12-14

104

General Information about Carcinoma of Unknown Primary  

MedlinePLUS

... as the chest or abdomen, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked ... strengths) are aimed at the tumor from many angles. This type of radiation therapy is less likely ...

105

[Energy drinks: an unknown risk].  

PubMed

The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

2012-05-01

106

Titration of an Unknown Acid or Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a JAVA applet that simulates the titration of an unknown acid or base, and provides a graphical output of the titration curve. The unknown compounds are taken from a list of amino acids. Students set up the parameters of the titration, and then create a simulated pH curve. From this they are able to identify the unknown compound from the list, and determine the acid dissociation constant(s) from the titration data.

Blauch, David N.

107

Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing  

E-print Network

We discuss the neutrino oscillations, using texture zero mass matrices for the leptons. The reactor mixing angle $\\theta^{}_{l}$ is calculated. The ratio of the masses of two neutrinos is determined by the solar mixing angle. We can calculate the masses of the three neutrinos: $m_1$ $\\approx$ 0.003 eV - $m_2$ $\\approx$ 0.012 eV - $m_3$ $\\approx$ 0.048 eV.

Fritzsch, Harald

2015-01-01

108

Unknown, Placeholder, or Variable: What Is "X"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the…

Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

2012-01-01

109

What's My Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive module offers learners the opportunity to check their knowledge of angle measure and estimation, and the use of a protractor. There are ten activities that vary the tasks and the degree of precision. The site is designed for whiteboard demonstration as well, and it includes a tutorial on angle types and protractor use.

2011-01-01

110

Reading Angles in Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

111

Polygon Angle Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet supports the investigation of the relationship between the number of vertices of a polygon and its interior angle sum. Learners choose and locate the vertices, the angle measures are displayed, and then the student can drag the measures into a circle to see them summed relative to 360 degrees.

Nicholas Exner

2000-05-31

112

Special Angle Pairs Discovery Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson uses a discovery approach to identify the special angles formed when a set of parallel lines is cut by a transversal. During this lesson students identify the angle pair and the relationship between the angles. Students use this relationship and special angle pairs to make conjectures about which angle pairs are considered special angles.

Barbara Henry

2012-04-16

113

53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

114

eta. prime -. eta. -. pi. sup 0 mixing  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the saturation of anomalous Ward identities by the low-lying pseudoscalars {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and {eta}{prime} to determine the sizes of {eta}{prime}-{eta}, {pi}{sup 0}-{eta}, and {pi}{sup 0}-{eta}{prime} mixing angles. The {eta}{prime}-{eta} mixing angle turns out to be about {minus}20{degree} which is consistent with the recent findings. Our estimate for the {pi}{sup 0}-{eta} mixing angle shows that it could be bigger than the older value obtained from the {rho}-{omega} mixing, baryon mass splittings, and kaon mass difference.

Bagchi, B. (Department of Applied Mathematics, Vidyasagar University, Midnapur 721101, West Bengal, India (IN)); Lahiri, A. (Department of Physics, Surendranath College, Calcutta 700009 (India)); Niyogi, S. (Department of Physics, Bijay Krishna College, Howrah, West Bengal (India))

1990-05-01

115

New mixing pattern for neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new mixing pattern for neutrinos with a nonzero mixing angle ?13. Under a simple form, it agrees well with current neutrino oscillation data and displays a number of intriguing features including the ?-? interchange symmetry |U?i|=|U?i|, (i=1, 2, 3), the trimaximal mixing |Ue2|=|U?2|=|U?2|=1/3, the self-complementarity relation ?1+?3=45°, together with the maximal Dirac CP violation as a prediction.

Qu, Huilin; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2013-08-01

116

Viewing angle changeable display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing angle changeable display can change the display viewing angle as needed: In the public place the display could have a narrow viewing angle for privacy, while in the private place the displays could have a wide viewing angle for the convenience of the operation and better viewing experience. This article propose a novel adjustable optical transmission device to realize the viewing angle changes for LCD by using the principle of guest- host effect of liquid crystal. The major technology is to insert a special equipment between the backlight and the LCD, through which the backlight will display either parallel or scattered features to get an either narrow or wide viewing angle. The equipment is an adjustable transmission cell (ATC) which is actually a black G-H LC cell. This ATC is the main focus of our invention. The ATC consists of a polarizer sheet and a special guest-host liquid crystal device filled with the two-phase dye (called as GH-LC in this report), to achieve the viewing angle change in the LCD. When an electrical field charges to the ATC, only the so-called near-axis lights can pass through the ATC within a relatively small angle, while the other scattered lights are absorbed sequentially by GH-LC and the polarizer sheet. On the other hand, when there is no electrical charge to the ATC, the cell behaves like a normal polarizer; and the scattered light can pass through the cell and polarizer in a normal way. This paper describes the principle and structure of the device, applies the electric field on the sample to observe the electro-optical properties, combine the theoretical and experimental research, getting the viewing angle effects of the display.

Leng, Jinbi; Huang, Ziqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaoxi

2010-10-01

117

Laser angle sensor development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical and optical parameters were developed for a two axis (pitch/roll) laser angle sensor. The laser source and detector were mounted in the plenum above the model. Two axis optical distortion measurements of flow characteristics in a 0.3 transonic cryogenic tunnel were made with a shearing interferometer. The measurement results provide a basis for estimating the optical parameters of the laser angle sensor. Experimental and analytical information was generated on model windows to cover the reflector. A two axis breadboard was assembled to evaluate different measurement concepts. The measurement results were used to develop a preliminary design of a laser angle sensor. Schematics and expected performance specifications are included.

Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

1980-01-01

118

Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems.

Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, ?aslav

2014-09-01

119

Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

120

Unknown, placeholder, or variable: what is x?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the idea of the placeholder, the birth of symbolic algebra, and the development of the variable. Focusing on these changes in practice, we interpret some classroom examples of 8th-grade students who interpret letters in terms of their experience with unknowns, rather than in terms of variables, to the confusion and dismay of the teachers. We also discuss how particular curricular and pedagogical treatments can support student learning by deliberately focusing on these changes in practice in the transition from unknowns to variables in the middle grades.

Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

2012-03-01

121

Breast augmentation with an unknown substance.  

PubMed

Before the widespread use of silicone implants various foreign substances were injected directly into the breasts. The nature of these materials sometimes remains unknown and can cause various complications requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative diagnostic imaging can help characterise the type and distribution of the injected material, thereby assisting in making decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of breast augmentation with an unknown substance, aiming to highlight some imaging characteristics of different breast augmentation substances. PMID:24957586

Ebrahim, Lamya; Morrison, David; Kop, Alan; Taylor, Donna

2014-01-01

122

Neural network control of unknown systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that for all unknown multi-input (MI) nonlinear systems that are affected by external disturbances, it is possible to construct a semi-global state-feedback stabilizer when the only information about the unknown system is that (A1) the system is robustly stabilizable, (A2) the state dimension of the system is known, (A3) the system vector-fields are at least C1. The proposed

E. B. Kosmatopoulos; A. Chassiakos; H. Boussalis; M. Mirmirani; P. A. Ioannou

1998-01-01

123

Wetting and Contact Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with the concepts of wetting and contact angle. They are also introduced to the distinction between hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Students observe how different surfaces are used to maintain visibility under different conditions.

NSF CAREER Award and RET Program, Mechanical Engineering and Material Science,

124

'Magic Angle Precession'  

SciTech Connect

An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

Binder, Bernd [Quanics.com, Germany, 88679 Salem, P.O. Box 1247 (United States)], E-mail: binder@quanics.com

2008-01-21

125

Mixed Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

Mixed Dementia Tweet Mixed dementia is a condition in which abnormalities characteristic of more than one type of dementia ... About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About mixed dementia Take our interactive Brain Tour . In the most ...

126

Using Inscribed Angles and Polygons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you about inscribed angles, intercepted arcs, their measures, inscribed polygons, and their associated theorems. OK, time for notes! Define Inscribed Angles, using the following website (Only define the inscribed angle from this site): Inscribed Angle Definition Using this new idea, you can use the following activity to figure out the formula for the measure of an inscribed angle: Inscribed Angle Formula Discovery The whole lesson depends upon this definition. Define Intercepted Arc, Inscribed polygons, ...

Mrs. Neubert

2011-03-10

127

Protocol for Counterfactually Transporting an Unknown Qubit  

E-print Network

Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, "Alice" and "Bob". Here, using a novel "dual" version of the chained quantum Zeno effect, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob - no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

Hatim Salih

2014-04-14

128

Perspectives on meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) is a heterogeneous group of overlapping central nervous system inflammatory diseases of unknown cause. This article highlights the current understanding of MUO and its phenotypic variants encountered in clinical practice. Diagnostic evaluation of presumptive MUO includes lesion distribution on magnetic resonance imaging and ruling out other acquired diseases. Recent evidence provides further knowledge of immune-mediated processes that underlie the pathogenesis of MUO. Current empiric treatment options include corticosteroids and other adjunctive immunomodulating therapies. As the understanding of neuroimmunology and genetic influences on these disorders evolves, a more targeted treatment approach is becoming attainable. PMID:25239815

Coates, Joan R; Jeffery, Nicholas D

2014-11-01

129

What's the Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity helps students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold.

130

Adaptive control of plants with unknown hystereses  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a system with hysteresis, the authors present a parameterized hysteresis model and develop a hysteresis inverse. The authors then design adaptive controllers with an adaptive hysteresis inverse for plants with unknown hysteresis. A new adaptive controller structure is introduced which is capable of achieving a linear parameterization and a linear error model in the presence of a hysteresis nonlinearity.

Gang Tao; Petar V. KokotoviC

1995-01-01

131

X-ray Analysis of Unknown Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use X-ray analysis to identify unknown minerals. They are given two samples to grind up and X-ray, using Jade to identify them. Once the minerals are identified, students make a spreadsheet and do a series of calculations.

Dexter Perkins

132

[Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].  

PubMed

The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

2012-07-01

133

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

: ! the atom (p,e ), radioactivity, and the discovery of the neutron (n). (1895-1932) ! Cosmic RaysSearching for the unknown in Particle Physics: past discoveries and present challenges Quark: the Standard Model of Electroweak and Strong interactions ! formulation and discovery (1960's-1980's

McQuade, D. Tyler

134

Unknown load distribution of two industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown load distribution between two coordinated industrial robots is studied using two different methods. In the first method, called the load estimation method, the parameters associated with the load are estimated using the information from two wrist force sensors. As a result, the load becomes known, and conventional methods can then be applied to distribute the force. In the second

K. I. Kim; Y. F. Zheng

1991-01-01

135

Using Chemical Change to Identify an Unknown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will develop a method to test five similar-looking powders (baking soda, baking powder, cream of tartar, detergent, and cornstarch) with four test liquids (water, vinegar, iodine solution, red cabbage solution). They will use the characteristic set of reactions for each powder to identify an unknown powder, which is one of the five powders they have tested.

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

136

Adapting to Unknown Smoothness via Wavelet Shrinkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to recover a function of unknown smoothness from noisy sampled data. We introduce a procedure, SureShrink, that suppresses noise by thresholding the empirical wavelet coefficients. The thresholding is adaptive: A threshold level is assigned to each dyadic resolution level by the principle of minimizing the Stein unbiased estimate of risk (Sure) for threshold estimates. The computational effort of

David L. Donoho; Iain M. Johnstone

1995-01-01

137

An unknown mathematical manuscript by Blaise Pascal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with an unknown mathematical manuscript to be found in the Recueil Original of the manuscript of the Pensées. I give a technical description of the original manuscript, followed by a mathematical analysis of the proposition proved by Pascal. The interest of this study lies in the fact that this theorem is the only handwritten draft remaining in

Dominique Descotes

2010-01-01

138

Alcohol Unknown (NMR)/Synthesis of Aspirin 27 Alcohol Unknowns and Aspirin  

E-print Network

Alcohol Unknown (NMR)/Synthesis of Aspirin 27 Alcohol Unknowns and Aspirin Part 1: Microscale Synthesis of Aspirin Intro Aspirin is among the most versatile drugs known to medicine, and is among the oldest (the first known use of an aspirin-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece

Jasperse, Craig P.

139

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

140

Exact ligand cone angles.  

PubMed

Many properties of transition-metal complexes depend on the steric bulk of bound ligands, usually quantified by the Tolman (?) and solid (?) cone angles, which have proven utility but suffer from various limitations and coarse approximations. Here, we present an improved, mathematically rigorous method to determine an exact cone angle (?°) by solving for the most acute right circular cone that contains the entire ligand. The procedure is applicable to any ligand, planar or nonplanar, monodentate or polydentate, bound to any metal center in any environment, and it is ideal for analyzing structures from quantum chemical computations as well as X-ray crystallography experiments. Exact cone angles were evaluated for a wide array of phosphine and amine ligands bound to palladium, nickel, or platinum by optimizing structures using B3LYP/6-31G* density functional theory with effective core potentials for the transition metals. The mean absolute deviations of the standard ? and ? parameters from the exact cone angles were 15-25°, mostly caused by distortions from the assumed idealized structures. PMID:23408559

Bilbrey, Jenna A; Kazez, Arianna H; Locklin, Jason; Allen, Wesley D

2013-05-30

141

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

142

Taxicab Angles and Trigonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural analogue to angles and trigonometry is developed in taxicab geometry. This structure is then analyzed to see which, if any, congruent triangle relations hold. A nice application involving the use of parallax to determine the exact (taxicab) distance to an object is also discussed.

Kevin Thompson; Tevian Dray

2011-01-01

143

open-angle glaucoma  

E-print Network

Purpose: To investigate whether associations with the nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) variants and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) depend on female reproductive factors. Methods: Two functional and two tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; T-786C: rs2070744, Glu298Asp: rs

Jae Hee Kang; Janey L. Wiggs; Jonathan Haines; Wael Abdrabou; Louis R. Pasquale

144

A Different Angle on Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

Frantz, Marc

2012-01-01

145

The problem with mixing mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mixing of mitochondrial DNAs (heteroplasmy) is unfavorable for reasons unknown. Sharpley et al. show that heteroplasmy has surprising genetic and behavioral effects in mice, even when each haplotype alone produces a normal phenotype. This interference is bioenergetic and may have contributed to the evolution of sexes. PMID:23063117

Lane, Nick

2012-10-12

146

Find Angle Measures in Polygons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce you to polygons and their angle measures. Focus on the Interior angles and exterior angles and their properties. First, let's discuss diagonals. What is a diagonal in a polygon? Play with and take notes on the following web site: Diagonals of a Polygon Now you are ready to learn the Polygon Interior Angles Theorem. It involves finding the measure of all of the angles inside a polygon, no matter how big or little ...

Mrs. Neubert

2011-02-09

147

Orthogonalization of partly unknown quantum states  

E-print Network

A quantum analog of the fundamental classical NOT gate is a quantum gate that would transform any input qubit state onto an orthogonal state. Intriguingly, this universal NOT gate is forbidden by the laws of quantum physics. This striking phenomenon has far-reaching implications concerning quantum information processing and encoding information about directions and reference frames into quantum states. It also triggers the question under what conditions the preparation of quantum states orthogonal to input states becomes possible. Here we report on experimental demonstration of orthogonalization of partly unknown single- and two-qubit quantum states. A state orthogonal to an input state is conditionally prepared by quantum filtering, and the only required information about the input state is a mean value of a single arbitrary operator. We show that perfect orthogonalization of partly unknown two-qubit entangled states can be performed by applying the quantum filter to one of the qubits only.

M. Jezek; M. Micuda; I. Straka; M. Mikova; M. Dusek; J. Fiurasek

2014-04-16

148

Orthogonalization of partly unknown quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum analog of the fundamental classical not gate is a quantum gate that would transform any input qubit state onto an orthogonal state. Intriguingly, this universal NOT gate is forbidden by the laws of quantum physics. This striking phenomenon has far-reaching implications concerning quantum information processing and encoding information about directions and reference frames into quantum states. It also triggers the question of under what conditions the preparation of quantum states orthogonal to input states becomes possible. Here we report on experimental demonstration of orthogonalization of partly unknown single- and two-qubit quantum states. A state orthogonal to an input state is conditionally prepared by quantum filtering, and the only required information about the input state is a mean value of a single arbitrary operator. We show that perfect orthogonalization of partly unknown two-qubit entangled states can be performed by applying the quantum filter to one of the qubits only.

Ježek, M.; Mi?uda, M.; Straka, I.; Miková, M.; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.

2014-04-01

149

Identifying the unknowns by aligning fragmentation trees.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry allows sensitive, automated, and high-throughput analysis of small molecules. In principle, tandem mass spectrometry allows us to identify "unknown" small molecules not in any database, but the automated interpretation of such data is in its infancy. Fragmentation trees have recently been introduced for the automated analysis of the fragmentation patterns of small molecules. We present a method for the automated comparison of such fragmentation patterns, based on aligning the compounds' fragmentation trees. We cluster compounds based solely on their fragmentation patterns and show a good agreement with known compound classes. Fragmentation pattern similarities are strongly correlated with the chemical similarity of molecules. We present a tool for searching a database for compounds with fragmentation pattern similar to an unknown sample compound. We apply this tool to metabolites from Icelandic poppy. Our method allows fully automated computational identification of small molecules that cannot be found in any database. PMID:22390817

Rasche, Florian; Scheubert, Kerstin; Hufsky, Franziska; Zichner, Thomas; Kai, Marco; Svatoš, Aleš; Böcker, Sebastian

2012-04-01

150

Laser angle sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

1985-01-01

151

Fever of Unknown Origin: An Unusual Case  

PubMed Central

Recurrent episodic fever of unknown origin (FUO) arising from tumour of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. We report an otherwise healthy 62-year-old man with recurrent circumscribed bouts of fever and raised CRP for 3 years who has remained well and fever-free 2 years after the removal of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. Occult colonic neoplasm should be considered and sought when routine investigations for FUO are negative. PMID:22567466

Bansal, R. A.; Hayman, G. R.; Bansal, A. S.

2011-01-01

152

Small Angle Neutron Scattering  

SciTech Connect

Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

Urban, Volker S [ORNL

2012-01-01

153

Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

2002-11-01

154

Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

2002-11-01

155

Changes in muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics in response to handling objects of unknown mass magnitude.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the main and interaction effects of mass knowledge and mass magnitude on trunk muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics. Eighteen participants performed symmetric box lifts of three different mass magnitudes (1.1kg, 5kg, 15kg) under known and unknown mass knowledge conditions. Outcome measures were normalized peak electromyography of four trunk muscles in addition to three dimensional lumbosacral angles and acceleration. The results indicated that three out of four muscles exhibited significantly greater activity when handling unknown masses (p<.05). Meanwhile, only sagittal angular acceleration was significantly higher when handling unknown masses (115.6±42.7°/s(2)) compared to known masses (109.3±31.5°/s(2)). Similarly, the mass magnitude and mass knowledge interaction significantly impacted the same muscles along with the sagittal lumbosacral angle and angular acceleration (p<.05) with the greatest difference between knowledge conditions being consistently occurring under the 1.1kg mass magnitude condition. Thus, under these conditions, it was concluded that mass magnitude has more impact than mass knowledge. However, handling objects of unknown mass magnitude could be hazardous, particularly when lifting light masses, in that they can increase mechanical burden on the lumbosacral spine due to increased muscular exertion and acceleration. PMID:25662505

Elsayed, Walaa; Farrag, Ahmed; El-Sayyad, Mohsen; Marras, William

2015-04-01

156

Wide Angle Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

157

Angles and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 10 of PDF), learners approximate the area of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater using a variety of square grids. They conclude which angle of impact results in the greatest area. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. Includes a pre-lesson activity (p54). The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

NASA

2012-05-08

158

Shapes and Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 7 of PDF), learners will identify the general two-dimensional geometric shape of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater. They will also draw connections between the general two-dimensional geometric shape of an impact crater and the projectile's angle of impact. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

NASA

2012-05-08

159

Dual Wall Angles Would Enhance Performance Of A Solar Pond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed dual-angle design for Sun-facing wall of solar pond enhances solar-energy-storage performance of pond; increase in performance over that of similar pond with conventional (single-angle) wall estimated to be 25 percent. Design compromises between maximizing heating and minimizing convection. Top part of Sun-facing wall optimized for top colder layer of water, less tendency toward convective mixing. Bottom part of wall optimized for bottom, warmer layer of water, greater tendency towards convection. Optimization involves consideration of both anticipated temperature-vs.-depth profile (affects tendency toward convection) and latitude (affects angle of incidence of solar radiation and rate of heating).

Noever, David A.

1995-01-01

160

Vector meson {omega}-{phi} mixing and their form factors in the light-cone quark model  

SciTech Connect

The vector meson {omega}-{phi} mixing is studied in two alternative scenarios with different numbers of mixing angles, i.e., the one-mixing-angle scenario and the two-mixing-angle scenario, in both the octet-singlet mixing scheme and the quark flavor mixing scheme. Concerning the reproduction of experimental data and the Q{sup 2} behavior of transition form factors, the one-mixing-angle scenario in the quark flavor scheme performs better than that in the octet-singlet scheme, while the two-mixing-angle scenario works well for both mixing schemes. The difference between the two mixing angles in the octet-singlet scheme is bigger than that in the quark flavor scheme.

Qian Wen; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2008-10-01

161

The Learnability of Unknown Quantum Measurements  

E-print Network

Quantum machine learning has received significant attention in recent years, and promising progress has been made in the development of quantum algorithms to speed up traditional machine learning tasks. In this work, however, we focus on investigating the information-theoretic upper bounds of sample complexity - how many training samples are sufficient to predict the future behaviour of an unknown target function. This kind of problem is, arguably, one of the most fundamental problems in statistical learning theory and the bounds for practical settings can be completely characterised by a simple measure of complexity. Our main result in the paper is that, for learning an unknown quantum measurement, the upper bound, given by the fat-shattering dimension, is linearly proportional to the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space. Learning an unknown quantum state becomes a dual problem to ours, and as a byproduct, we can recover Aaronson's famous result [Proc. R. Soc. A 463:3089-3144 (2007)] solely using a classical machine learning technique. In addition, other famous complexity measures like covering numbers and Rademacher complexities are derived explicitly. We are able to connect measures of sample complexity with various areas in quantum information science, e.g. quantum state/measurement tomography, quantum state discrimination and quantum random access codes, which may be of independent interest. Lastly, with the assistance of general Bloch-sphere representation, we show that learning quantum measurements/states can be mathematically formulated as a neural network. Consequently, classical ML algorithms can be applied to efficiently accomplish the two quantum learning tasks.

Hao-Chung Cheng; Min-Hsiu Hsieh; Ping-Cheng Yeh

2015-01-03

162

Shadow-angle method for anisotropic and weakly absorbing films.  

PubMed

A method for determining the optical properties of a film on an isotropic substrate is proposed. The method is based on the existence of two specific incidence angles in the angular interference pattern of the p-polarized light where oscillations of the reflection coefficient cease. The first of these angles, theta(B1), is the well-known Abelès angle, i.e., the ambient-film Brewster angle, and the second angle theta(B2) is the film-substrate Brewster angle. In the conventional planar geometry and in a vacuum ambient there is a rigorous constraint epsilon(1) + epsilon > epsilon(1)epsilon on the film and the substrate dielectric permittivities epsilon(1) and epsilon, respectively, for the existence of the second angle theta(B2.) The limitation may be removed in an experiment by use of a cylindrical lens as an ambient with epsilon(0) > 1, so that both angles become observable. This, contrary to general belief, allows one to adopt the conventional Abelès method not only for films with epsilon(1) close to the substrate's value epsilon but also for any value of epsilon(1). The method, when applied to a wedge-shaped film or to any film of unknown variable thickness, permits one to determine (i) the refractive index of a film on an unknown substrate, (ii) the vertical and the horizontal optical anisotropies of a film on an isotropic substrate, (iii) the weak absorption of a moderately thick film on a transparent or an absorbing isotropic substrate. PMID:18323897

Surdutovich, G; Vitlina, R; Baranauskas, V

1999-07-01

163

Creation of the ? angle standard for the flat angle measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angle measurements are based mainly on multiangle prisms - polygons with autocollimators, rotary encoders fo high accuracy and circular scales as the standards of the flat angle. Traceability of angle measurements is based on the standard of the plane angle - prism (polygon) calibrated at an appropriate accuracy. Some metrological institutions have established their special test benches (comparators) equipped with circular scales or rotary encoders of high accuracy and polygons with autocollimators for angle calibration purposes. Nevertheless, the standard (etalon) of plane angle - polygon has many restrictions for the transfer of angle unit - radian (rad) and other units of angle. It depends on the number of angles formed by the flat sides of the polygon that is restricted by technological and metrological difficulties related to the production and accuracy determination of the polygon. A possibility to create the standard of the angle equal to ? rad or half the circle or the full angle is proposed. It can be created by the circular scale with the rotation axis of very high accuracy and two precision reading instruments, usually, photoelectric microscopes (PM), placed on the opposite sides of the circular scale using the special alignment steps. A great variety of angle units and values can be measured and its traceability ensured by applying the third PM on the scale. Calibration of the circular scale itself and other scale or rotary encoder as well is possible using the proposed method with an implementation of ? rad as the primary standard angle. The method proposed enables to assure a traceability of angle measurements at every laboratory having appropriate environment and reading instruments of appropriate accuracy together with a rotary table with the rotation axis of high accuracy - rotation trajectory (runout) being in the range of 0.05 ?m. Short information about the multipurpose angle measurement test bench developed is presented.

Giniotis, V.; Rybokas, M.

2010-07-01

164

Variable angle correlation spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

Lee, Y.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Biodynamics Div.

1994-05-01

165

Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

2012-11-25

166

Power law enhancement of neutrino mixing angles in extra dimensions  

E-print Network

We study the renormalization of the $llHH$-type Majorana neutrino mass operator in a scenario where there is a compactified extra dimension and the fields involved correspond to only the standard model particles and their Kaluza-Klein excitations. We observe that in a two flavour scenario, where one of the neutrinos is necessarily $\

Gautam Bhattacharyya; Srubabati Goswami; Amitava Raychaudhuri

2002-07-10

167

Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

2010-01-01

168

Narrow Angle movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

169

Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

2012-06-01

170

Multiple sensor fusion under unknown distributions  

SciTech Connect

In a system of N sensors, the sensor {ital S{sub i}}, i = 1, 2 ..., N, outputs {ital Y}{sup (i)} {element_of} {Re}, according to an unknown probability distribution P{sub Y{sup (i)}}{vert_bar}X, corresponding to input X {element_of} {Re}. A training {ital n}-sample (X{sub 1}, Y{sub 1}), (X{sub 2},Y{sub 2}), ..., (X{sub n},Y{sub n}) is given where {ital Y{sub i}} = (Y{sub i}{sup (1)},Y{sub i}{sup (2)},...,Y{sub i}{sup (N)}) such that Y{sub i}{sup (j)} is the output of S{sub j} in response to input X{sub i}. The problem is to design a fusion rule expected square error: I({ital f}) = {integral}[X - f (Y)]{sup 2}dP{sub y{vert_bar}X}dPx, where Y=(Y{sup (1)}, Y{sup (2)},..., Y({sup N)}),is minimized over a family of functions {ital F}. Let f{sup *} minimize I(.) over {ital F}; in general, f{sup *} cannot be computed since the underlying distributions are unknown. We consider sufficient conditions based on smoothness and/or combinatorial dimensions of {ital F} to ensure that an estimator {cflx {ital f}} satisfies P[I({cflx {ital f}}) - I(f{sup *}) > {epsilon}] < {delta} for any {epsilon} > 0 and 0 < {delta} < 1. We present two methods for computing {cflx {ital f}} based on feedforward sigmoidal networks and Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Design and performance characteristics of the two methods are discussed, based both on theoretical and simulation results.

Rao, N.S.V.

1996-10-01

171

Structural studies of mixed glass former 0.35Na2O + 0.65[xB2O3 + (1 - x)P2O5] glasses by Raman and 11B and 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies.  

PubMed

The mixed glass former (MGF) effect (MGFE) is defined as a nonlinear and nonadditive change in the ionic conductivity with changing glass former composition at constant modifier composition. In this study, sodium borophosphate 0.35Na(2)O + 0.65[xB(2)O(3) + (1 - x)P(2)O(5)], 0 ? x ? 1, glasses which have been shown to exhibit a positive MGFE have been prepared and examined using Raman and (11)B and (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopies. Through examination of the short-range order (SRO) structures found in the ternary glasses, it was determined that the minority glass former, B for 0.1 ? x ? 0.7 and P for 0.7 ? x ? 0.9, is "overmodified" and contains more Na(+) ions than would be expected from simple linear mixing of the binary sodium borate, x = 1, and sodium phosphate, x = 0, glasses, respectively. Changes in the intermediate range order (IRO) structures were suggested by changes in the NMR spectral chemical shifts and Raman spectra wavenumber shifts over the full composition range x in the Raman and MAS NMR spectra. The changes observed in the chemical shifts of (31)P MAS NMR spectra with x are found to be too large to be caused solely by changing sodium modification of the phosphate SRO structural groups, and this indicates that internetwork bonding between phosphorus and boron through bridging oxygens (BOs), P-O-B, must be a major contributor to the IRO structure of these glasses. While not fully developed, a first-order thermodynamic analysis based upon the Gibbs free energies of formation of the various SRO structural units in this system has been developed and can be used to account for the preferential formation of tetrahedral boron groups, B(4), by the reaction of B(3) with P(2) groups to form B(4) and P(3) groups, respectively, where the superscript denotes the number of BOs on these units, in these glasses. This preference for B(4) units appears to be a predominate cause of the changing modifier to glass former ratio with composition x in these ternary MGF glasses and appears to be associated with the large negative value of the Gibbs free energy of formation of this group. PMID:23281937

Christensen, Randilynn; Olson, Garrett; Martin, Steve W

2013-02-21

172

Relating quark mixing neutrino mixing and {delta}{sub lep}  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed that all flavor mixing is caused by the mixing of the three quark and lepton families with vectorlike fermions in 5+5-bar multiplets of SU(5). The entire 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 complex mass matrix of the neutrinos M{sub {nu}} is then found to have a simple expression in terms of two complex parameters and an overall scale. Thus, all the presently unknown neutrino parameters are predicted. The best fits are for {theta}{sub atm} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 Degree-Sign The leptonic Dirac CP phase is found to be somewhat greater than {pi}.

Barr, S. M.; Chen Hengyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware (United States)

2013-05-23

173

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

174

52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

175

53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

176

46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

177

45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

178

50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

179

44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

180

48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

181

47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

182

51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

183

49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

184

8. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). SEVEN COTTAGES. VIEW UNKNOWN. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

185

4. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES WITH DIRT ROAD IN FOREGROUND. LOCATION UNKNOWN. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

186

5. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). SIX COTTAGES. VIEW UNKNOWN. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

187

Generalization of the Euler Angles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

2002-01-01

188

8.G Find the Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In triangle $\\Delta ABC$, point $M$ is the point of intersection of the bisectors of angles $\\angle BAC$, $\\angle ABC$, and $\\angle ACB$. The measure o...

189

Clearing a Pile of Unknown Objects using Interactive Perception  

E-print Network

Clearing a Pile of Unknown Objects using Interactive Perception Dov Katz, Moslem Kazemi, J. Andrew of clearing a pile of unknown objects using an autonomous interactive perception approach. Our robot hypothesizes the boundaries of objects in a pile of unknown objects (object segmentation) and verifies its

Katz, Dov

190

Asymptotically optimal stopping rules in the presence of unknown parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stopping problem for maxX1,…,Xn ? en is treated when the distribution of Xi is unknown. We give a general result on asymptotic optimality for a stopping time which incorporates an estimate for the unknown optimal level. This generalizes a result by Martinsek (1984) for exponential distributions with unknown mean.

A. Irle

1996-01-01

191

Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states  

SciTech Connect

A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

2001-04-01

192

[Diagnostic approach to fever of unknown origin].  

PubMed

Nowadays, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is generally defined as a fever higher than 38-3 degrees C lasting for a period of at least three weeks, in which no definitive diagnosis has been made after a number of obligatory tests. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which history taking, physical examination and the obligatory tests are the most important steps in the search for potentially diagnostic clues (PDCs). Next, factitious fever and drug fever should be ruled out. Further diagnostic procedures should be guided by the PDCs. If this does not lead to diagnosis or if there are no useful PDCs, further screening, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, should be performed. In 30 to 50% of the patients with FUO no diagnosis can be reached. If their clinical condition is stable, waiting to see if new PDCs develop is recommended. Most patients in whom no diagnosis can be made, have a good prognosis. Supportive treatment with NSAIDs can be helpful. Only if patients deteriorate, should other therapeutic trials be considered. PMID:18512526

Bleeker-Rovers, C P; van der Meer, J W M

2008-04-12

193

Guidance law against maneuvering targets with intercept angle constraint.  

PubMed

This study explores the guidance law against maneuvering targets with the intercept angle constraint. The limitation of the traditional guidance law, which simply treats the unknown target acceleration as zero, has been analyzed. To reduce this limitation, a linear extended state observer is constructed to estimate the acceleration of the maneuvering target to enhance the tracking performance of the desired intercept angle. Furthermore, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode control scheme is adopted to design the sliding surface, which is able to avoid the singularity in the terminal phase of guidance. Simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed guidance law outperforms the traditional guidance law in the sense that more accurate intercept angle can be achieved. PMID:24773919

Xiong, Shaofeng; Wang, Weihong; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Sen; Chen, Zengqiang

2014-07-01

194

Modeling Buoyancy Driven Mixed Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-order modeling technique for stratified turbulent flows with application to buoyancy driven mixed layers is presented.The models of pressure terms, dissipation and destruction of temperature variance are to a great extent based on invariant techniques. The unknown constants in these models were determined empirically. The turbulent transport model, based on solutions to the approximated rate equations for the third-order

Otto Zeman; Jonn L. Lumley

1976-01-01

195

Predicting Lepton Flavor Mixing from $?(48)$ and Generalized CP Symmetries  

E-print Network

We propose to understand the mixing angles and CP-violating phases from the $\\Delta(48)$ family symmetry combined with the generalized CP symmetry. A model-independent analysis is performed by scanning all the possible symmetry breaking chains. We find a new mixing pattern with only one free parameter, excellent agreement with the observed mixing angles can be achieved and all the CP-violating phases are predicted to take nontrivial values. This mixing pattern is testable in the near future neutrino oscillation and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, a flavor model is constructed to realize this mixing pattern.

Gui-Jun Ding; Ye-Ling Zhou

2014-10-15

196

Predicting lepton flavor mixing from ?(48) and generalized CP symmetries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to understand the mixing angles and CP-violating phases from the ?(48) family symmetry combined with the generalized CP symmetry. A model-independent analysis is performed by scanning all the possible symmetry breaking chains. We find a new mixing pattern with only one free parameter, excellent agreement with the observed mixing angles can be achieved and all the CP-violating phases are predicted to take nontrivial values. This mixing pattern is testable in the near future neutrino oscillation and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, a flavor model is constructed to realize this mixing pattern. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275188, 11179007, 11135009)

Ding, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Ye-Ling

2015-02-01

197

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

198

On self-complementarity relations of neutrino mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the latest results of a large mixing angle ?13 for neutrinos by the T2K, MINOS and Double Chooz experiments, we find that the self-complementarity (SC) relations agree with the data in some angle-phase parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix. There are three kinds of self-complementarity relations: (1) ?i+?j=?k=45°; (2) ?i+?j=?k; (3) ?i+?j=45° (where i, j, k denote the mixing angles in the angle-phase parametrizations). We present a detailed study on the self-complementarity relations in nine different angle-phase parametrizations, and also examine the explicit expressions in reparametrization-invariant form, as well as their deviations from global fit. These self-complementarity relations may lead to new perspective on the mixing pattern of neutrinos.

Zhang, Xinyi; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2012-04-01

199

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Oregon Museum of Science and Industry

2002-01-01

200

Helicity-dependent single-walled carbon nanotube alignment on graphite for helical angle and handedness recognition  

PubMed Central

Aligned single-walled carbon nanotube arrays provide a great potential for the carbon-based nanodevices and circuit integration. Aligning single-walled carbon nanotubes with selected helicities and identifying their helical structures remain a daunting issue. The widely used gas-directed and surface-directed growth modes generally suffer the drawbacks of mixed and unknown helicities of the aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Here we develop a rational approach to anchor the single-walled carbon nanotubes on graphite surfaces, on which the orientation of each single-walled carbon nanotube sensitively depends on its helical angle and handedness. This approach can be exploited to conveniently measure both the helical angle and handedness of the single-walled carbon nanotube simultaneously at a low cost. In addition, by combining with the resonant Raman spectroscopy, the (n,m) index of anchored single-walled carbon nanotube can be further determined from the (d,?) plot, and the assigned (n,m) values by this approach are validated by both the electronic transition energy Eii measurement and nanodevice application. PMID:23892334

Chen, Yabin; Shen, Ziyong; Xu, Ziwei; Hu, Yue; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Sheng; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yanfeng; Peng, Lianmao; Ding, Feng; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

2013-01-01

201

CONTRIBUTIONS Large angle pair production  

E-print Network

does not decrease with energy ; 4) total cross-section for muon pair production in electron Institute (USSR) Abstract. - Total cross sections for e* + e- -t e' + e- + Wf + W- processes are obtained of a pair of particles on an electron at large angles ; 3) photon emission at a large angle when the cross-section

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Measuring Angles in Physical Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features articles about physical therapy and its history as related to geometry through measurement of body angles. Includes open-ended worksheets for mathematics activities that introduce students to angle measurement, data analysis, and mathematical tools. Activities include: (1) Making Your Own Goniometer; (2) Range of Motion; (3) Active versus…

Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

1997-01-01

203

Goniometer-rotation-angle recorder  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a goniometer-rotation-angle recorder with a discrete drive. The rotation angle in a given plane is recorded by bidirectional sign counter of positive and negative drive-actuation numbers for rotations in positive and negative directions. The maximum capacity of the counter is + or - 9 decimal digits.

Shchagin, A.V.

1985-12-01

204

Predictions From High Scale Mixing Unification Hypothesis  

E-print Network

Starting with 'High Scale Mixing Unification' hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization-group equations. For both type of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution 'naturally' results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which th...

Srivastava, Rahul

2015-01-01

205

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

206

Magma Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Earth and Ocean Sciences Department at the University of British Columbia, this module on magma mixing is based on ideas and theories taken from papers authored by Stephen Blake and Gregory N. Ivey. A short movie, which can be viewed at the site, shows a lab experiment where two different magmas are mixed to form a hybrid magma. Users can then peruse information (including photographs and some diagrams) on the geological concepts involved.

207

Observation of interference between four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report generation of four-wave mixing enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping in a ladder-type atomic system. When two pumping laser beams are used to form a conjugate small-angle static grating, both four-wave and six-wave mixing processes are shown to exist at the same time. Interference between these two nonlinear wave-mixing signals is experimentally demonstrated.

Yanpeng Zhang; Andy W. Brown; Min Xiao

2007-01-01

208

Lepton Flavor Mixing and CP Symmetry  

E-print Network

The strategy of constraining the lepton flavor mixing from remnant CP symmetry is investigated in a rather general way. The neutrino mass matrix generally admits four remnant CP transformations which can be derived from the measured lepton mixing matrix in the charged lepton diagonal basis. Conversely, the lepton mixing matrix can be reconstructed from the postulated remnant CP transformations. All mixing angles and CP violating phases can be completely determined by the full set of remnant CP transformations or three of them. When one or two remnant CP transformations are preserved, the resulting lepton mixing matrix would depend on three real parameters or one real parameter respectively in addition to the parameters characterizing the remnant CP, and the concrete form of the mixing matrix is presented. The phenomenological predictions for the mixing parameters are discussed. The conditions leading to vanishing or maximal Dirac CP violation are studied.

Peng Chen; Cai-Chang Li; Gui-Jun Ding

2014-12-29

209

Lepton flavor mixing and C P symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strategy of constraining the lepton flavor mixing from remnant C P symmetry is investigated in a rather general way. The neutrino mass matrix generally admits four remnant C P transformations which can be derived from the measured lepton mixing matrix in the charged lepton diagonal basis. Conversely, the lepton mixing matrix can be reconstructed from the postulated remnant C P transformations. All mixing angles and C P -violating phases can be completely determined by the full set of remnant C P transformations or three of them. When one or two remnant C P transformations are preserved, the resulting lepton mixing matrix would depend on three real parameters or one real parameter, respectively, in addition to the parameters characterizing the remnant C P . The concrete form of the mixing matrix is also presented. The phenomenological predictions for the mixing parameters are discussed. The conditions leading to vanishing or maximal Dirac C P violation are studied.

Chen, Peng; Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

2015-02-01

210

Angle closure in younger patients.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

2002-01-01

211

Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.

He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2008-12-01

212

Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.  

PubMed

For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller. PMID:24238360

Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

2014-07-01

213

Measurements of the CKM Angle phi3/gamma  

SciTech Connect

We present a review on the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} ({phi}{sub 3}){sup 1} as performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP-II and KEKB. These measurements are using either charged or neutral B decays. For charged B decays the modes {tilde D}{sup 0}K{sup -}, {tilde D}*{sup 0}K{sup -}, and {tilde D}{sup 0}K*{sup -} are employed, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. Direct CP violation is exploited. It is caused by interferences between V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} accessible transitions that generate asymmetries in the final states. For these decays various methods exist to enhance the sensitivity to the V{sub ub} transition, carrying the weak phase {gamma}. For neutral B decays, the modes D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} are used. In addition to the V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} interferences, these modes are sensitive to the B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, so that time dependent analyses are performed to extract sin(2{beta} + {gamma}). An alternative method would use the lower branching ratios decay modes {tilde D}{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} where much larger asymmetries are expected. The various available methods are mostly ''theoretically clean'' and always free of penguins diagrams. In some cases a high sensitivity to {gamma} is expected and large asymmetries may be seen. But these measurements are always experimentally difficult as one has to face with either low branching ratios, or small asymmetries, or additional technical/theoretical difficulties due to Dalitz/SU(3) and re-scattering models needed to treat/estimate nuisance parameters such as unknown strong phases and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of the interfering ''V{sub ub}'' transitions. Thus at the present time only a relatively limited precision on {gamma} can be extracted from these measurements. The current world average is {gamma} = (78{sub -26}{sup +19}){sup o} [1]. For other methods and long term perspectives, as discussed in details, the reader is invited to consult the proceedings of the recent CKM workshop that was held in Nagoya (Japan) in December 2006 [2].

Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

2007-06-27

214

Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

McKinley, John M.

1980-01-01

215

Two Comments on Bond Angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

Glaister, P.

1997-09-01

216

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

2014-09-18

217

Ion mixing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

1983-01-01

218

15. Photocopy of photograph c. 1931, photographer unknown STRUCTURAL FRAMING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of photograph c. 1931, photographer unknown STRUCTURAL FRAMING OF DOME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST DURING CONSTRUCTION - Cincinnati Union Terminal, 1301 Western Avenue, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

219

Improved eddy current angle probe  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for detecting flaws in a tubular workpiece in a single scan. The coils of a dual coil bobbin eddy current inspection probe are wound at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the transverse axis of the probe, one coil having an angular position about the axis about 90/sup 0/ relative to the angular position of the other coil, and the angle of intersection of the planes containing the coils being about 60/sup 0/.

Nance, R.A.; Hartley, W.H.; Caffarel, A.J.

1982-02-11

220

Predictions from High Scale Mixing Unification Hypothesis  

E-print Network

We investigate the renormalization group evolution of masses and mixing angles of Majorana neutrinos under the `High Scale Mixing Unification' hypothesis. Assuming the unification of quark-lepton mixing angles at a high scale, we show that all the experimentally observed neutrino oscillation parameters can be obtained, within 3-$\\sigma$ range, through the running of corresponding renormalization group equations provided neutrinos have same CP parity and are quasi-degenerate. One of the novel results of our analysis is that $\\theta_{23}$ turns out to be non-maximal and lies in the second octant. Furthermore, we derive new constraints on the allowed parameter space for the unification scale, SUSY breaking scale and $\\tan \\beta$, for which the `High Scale Mixing Unification' hypothesis works.

Gauhar Abbas; Saurabh Gupta; G. Rajasekaran; Rahul Srivastava

2014-05-22

221

Experimental studies on effervescent atomizers with wide spray angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the operating and spray characteristics of two internal-mixing twin-fluid atomizers that were designed to produce effervescent atomization at low air\\/liquid mass ratios (ALR's). These two experimental atomizers ejected the two phase flow so as to produce a wide spray angle. One atomizer was a plain orifice design that used a four-hole exit orifice

J. D. Whitlow; A. H. Lefebvre; R. J. Rollbuhler

1993-01-01

222

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

223

Algorithms for Rapidly Dispersing Robot Swarms in Unknown Environments  

E-print Network

Algorithms for Rapidly Dispersing Robot Swarms in Unknown Environments Tien-Ruey Hsiang 1 , Esther develop and analyze algorithms for dispersing a swarm of primitive robots in an unknown environment, R Introduction The objective of swarm robotics is to program a huge number of simple, tiny robots to perform

Bender, Michael

224

Rendezvous of Distance-aware Mobile Agents in Unknown Graphs  

E-print Network

Rendezvous of Distance-aware Mobile Agents in Unknown Graphs Shantanu Das1 , Dariusz Dereniowski2 study the problem of rendezvous of two mobile agents starting at distinct locations in an unknown graph bounds for the general rendezvous problem without distance awareness. Keywords: Mobile Agent, Rendezvous

225

Microarray-based method for detection of unknown genetic modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Due to the increased use of genetic modifications in crop improvement, there is a need to develop effective methods for the detection of both known and unknown transgene constructs in plants. We have developed a strategy for detection and characterization of unknown genetic modifications and we present a proof of concept for this method using Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza

Torstein Tengs; Anja B Kristoffersen; Knut G Berdal; Tage Thorstensen; Melinka A Butenko; Håvard Nesvold; Arne Holst-Jensen

2007-01-01

226

Disclosure of Unknown Harms in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown harms are by their nature difficult to communicate. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has known risks (e.g., metal projectiles, dislodgement of medical implants), this imaging modality also has potential unknown long-term negative health effects associated with its static magnetic fields. We carried out a research ethics board (REB) file review of previously approved MRI research studies and found that

Jennifer Marshall

2010-01-01

227

Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams of Mobile Robots  

E-print Network

Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams of Mobile Robots Wolfram Burgard 1 of exploring an unknown envi­ ronment by a team of robots. As in single­robot exploration the goal is to mini­ mize the overall exploration time. The key problem to be solved in the context of multiple robots

Burgard, Wolfram

228

Grasping Unknown Objects by Exploiting Shape Adaptability and Environmental Constraints  

E-print Network

Eppner1 and Oliver Brock1 Abstract-- In grasping, shape adaptation between hand and object has a major consideration of shape adaptability of the hand leads to robust grasping of unknown objects. Simple perception for grasping of unknown objects. In human grasping, preshaping of the hand before contact occurs in a low

229

Detecting a hidden periodic signal when its period is unknown  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is presented for detecting an unknown periodic signal in additive noise. The period is unknown, but the amplitudes of the fundamental and the first M - 1 harmonics are known to be nonzero. One application is the detection of a torpedo by a submarine sonar system from the observed acoustic line spectrum generated by the torpedo's blade

M. Hinich

1982-01-01

230

30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2011-07-01

231

30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2011-07-01

232

Quantifying mixing using equilibrium reactions  

SciTech Connect

A method of quantifying equilibrium reactions in a microchannel using a fluorometric reaction of Fluo-4 and Ca{sup 2+} ions is presented. Under the proper conditions, equilibrium reactions can be used to quantify fluid mixing without the challenges associated with constituent mixing measures such as limited imaging spatial resolution and viewing angle coupled with three-dimensional structure. Quantitative measurements of CaCl and calcium-indicating fluorescent dye Fluo-4 mixing are measured in Y-shaped microchannels. Reactant and product concentration distributions are modeled using Green's function solutions and a numerical solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Equilibrium reactions provide for an unambiguous, quantitative measure of mixing when the reactant concentrations are greater than 100 times their dissociation constant and the diffusivities are equal. At lower concentrations and for dissimilar diffusivities, the area averaged fluorescence signal reaches a maximum before the species have interdiffused, suggesting that reactant concentrations and diffusivities must be carefully selected to provide unambiguous, quantitative mixing measures. Fluorometric equilibrium reactions work over a wide range of pH and background concentrations such that they can be used for a wide variety of fluid mixing measures including industrial or microscale flows.

Wheat, Philip M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Posner, Jonathan D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States)

2009-03-15

233

Inferring the impact of radar incidence angle on soil moisture retrieval skill using data assimilation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of measurement incidence angle (') on the accuracy of radar-based surface soil moisture (') retrievals is largely unknown due to discrepancies in theoretical backscatter models as well as limitations in the availability of sufficiently extensive ground-based ' observations for validation....

234

Critical angle in electron capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous single electron capture and production of doubley-charged He ions in single collisions between fast protons and He atoms has been studied experimentally as a function of scattering angle (0.3-3.2 mrad) and impact energy (200-500 keV). The angular dependences reveal a critical angle at which the probability for production of He++ simultaneously with electron capture peaks sharply. The peak itself as well as the energy dependence of the size and shape of it may be interpreted qualitatively in terms of a capture mechanism proposed already in 1927 by L. H. Thomas on the basis of classical mechanics.

Horsdal, Erik; Jensen, Bente; Nielsen, Karsten Omann

1986-09-01

235

Cydonia: Wide Angle Color Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Although the resolution of the MOC wide angle cameras is too low to tell much about the geomorphology of the Cydonia region, the images from the red and blue wide angle cameras provide us with two types of information that is of interest in their own right: color and stereoscopic data. Above are a color view and a stereoscopic anaglyph rendition of Geodesy Campaign images acquired by MGS MOC in May 1999. To view the stereo image, you need red/blue '3-D' glasses.

2000-01-01

236

THE ANGLE IRON BAT GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of the American Cave Conservation Association (ACCA) angle iron gate types. Topics discussed include: air flow testing, materials, security, and advantages of these designs. Brief History of Gate Installation Many early gates installed in caves and mines caused more problems and damage to resources than they protected. Airflow disturbances changed temperature and humidity. Paints added

Roy D. Powers Jr

237

Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

Roscoe, Matt B.

2012-01-01

238

primary open-angle glaucoma  

E-print Network

Purpose: Alterations of the plasmin system have been suggested to participate in the multifactorial pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The main physiological inhibitor of the plasmin system is plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which leads to decreased degradation of

Georg Mossböck; Martin Weger; Christoph Faschinger; Otto Schmut; Wilfried Renner

239

Angle interferometer cross axis errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angle interferometers are commonly used to measure surface plate flatness. An error can exist when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the surface plate and the guide bar for the mirror sled is curved. Typical errors can be one to two microns per meter. A similar error can exist in the calibration of

J. B. Bryan; D. L. Carter; S. L. Thompson

1994-01-01

240

Adaptive mobile tracking in unknown non-line-of-sight conditions with application to digital TV networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the problem of tracking a mobile device in mixed line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. NLOS error is assumed to be Gaussian with unknown mean and variance. An adaptive Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is proposed for mobile tracking in such scenarios. An extended Kalman filter is used to approximately estimate the mobile state, and the particle filter is applied to estimate the posterior distribution of sight conditions and the unknown static parameters, the distribution of which is updated by sufficient statistics. To improve the efficiency of the particle filtering, we use the approximate optimal proposal distribution for particle inference. Algorithm performance is investigated in the scenario of mobile tracking using signals of opportunity from digital TV (DTV) network. Simulation results show that the adaptive RBPF method is effective to infer the unknown NLOS parameter and can achieve good tracking accuracy using a small number of particles.

Chen, Liang; Piché, Robert; Kuusniemi, Heidi; Chen, Ruizhi

2014-12-01

241

A lattice determination of Sigma - Lambda mixing  

E-print Network

Isospin breaking effects in baryon octet (and decuplet) masses are due to a combination of up and down quark mass differences and electromagnetic effects and lead to small mass splittings. Between the Sigma and Lambda this mass splitting is much larger, this being mostly due to their different wavefunctions. However when isospin is broken, there is a mixing between between these states. We describe the formalism necessary to determine the QCD mixing matrix and hence find the mixing angle and mass splitting between the Sigma and Lambda particles due to QCD effects.

R. Horsley; J. Najjar; Y. Nakamura; H. Perlt; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; A. Schiller; H. Stüben; J. M. Zanotti

2015-04-16

242

Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

1985-01-01

243

Models of Neutrino Masses and Mixings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pocket guide to Terra Incognita of the "Planisphaerium Neutrinorum" ( http://www.ba.infn.it/~now2004/) by Eligio Lisi. Includes a survival kit for the U territory and a first-aid package for the case of maximal atmospheric mixing angle.

Feruglio, Ferruccio

2005-08-01

244

masses and mixing: a large reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconcile the 1\\/Nc expansion with the observed ? ? ?' mass spec- trum. The chiral corrections introduced for that purpose are natural and consistent with the octet-singlet mixing angle ? = ?(22±1)? extracted from phenomenology in the large Nc limit.

J.-M. Gerard; E. Kou

2005-01-01

245

43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). COMPLETED BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

246

Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

247

26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

248

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

249

Managing Credit Lines Using Markov Decision Processes with Unknown Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we apply Markov decision processes with unknown parameters to managing credit lines. We propose a new managing credit lines method which maximizes total discounted reward with reference to a Bayes criterion.

Maeda, Yasunari; Masui, Fumito; Suzuki, Masakiyo

250

Complete and Fast Unknown Tag Identification in Large RFID Systems  

E-print Network

, Bin Xiao The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Central South University Abstract--The RFID technologyComplete and Fast Unknown Tag Identification in Large RFID Systems Xuan Liu, Shigeng Zhang, Kai Bu

Xiao, Bin

251

Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

252

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

253

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

254

Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information, "is ...

255

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1894 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1894 ORIGINAL PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

256

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

257

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1918 SAND TANK NEAR FREIGHT DEPOT, CA. 1918 - Illinois Central Railroad, Sand Tank, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

258

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING INTERIOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

259

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NORTH FACADE OF NEW FREIGHT HOUSE, TAKEN IN 1918 - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

260

Autonomous Flight in Unstructured and Unknown Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

261

Autonomous flight in unstructured and unknown indoor environments  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design, implementation, and validation of a system that enables a micro air vehicle to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. Such a vehicle would be of considerable ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

2009-01-01

262

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2013-01-01

263

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2010-01-01

264

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2014-01-01

265

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2011-01-01

266

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2012-01-01

267

52. photographer unknown 9 October 1935 CURING CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. photographer unknown 9 October 1935 CURING CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR BASE OF SOUTH HALF OF SPILLWAY DAM. INSPECTION TUNNEL FORM IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

268

41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

269

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

270

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

Wagner, J.S.

1999-07-20

271

11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown 1886 'EPISCOPAL CHURCH, CORNER OF 1ST AND J ST. BENICIA' WEST AND SOUTH SIDES - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

272

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "GENERATORS IN POWER PLANT; DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

273

35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, SHOWING WALKWAY WITH CHARLES WILLIS (WITH HAT) AND FAMILY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

274

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated...

2013-07-01

275

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated...

2011-07-01

276

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated...

2014-07-01

277

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated...

2012-07-01

278

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If the designated...

2010-07-01

279

6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES, INCLUDING 'J.P. McPHERSON POST NO. 27 CAFE GENEVA'. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

280

7. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). LAKE IN FOREGROUND, COTTAGES IN BACK. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

281

48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-K #39, LOG GUARD RAIL, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

282

31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in the possession of the Library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. - Fairmount Hotel, 857 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

283

The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

284

Unknown Journal Series Volume 000, Number 0, 0000  

E-print Network

Unknown Journal Series Volume 000, Number 0, 0000 Arrays, Numeration Systems and Frankenstein Games properties of A. Further, we propose and analyze a family Frankenstein of 2­player pebbling games played

Fraenkel, Aviezri

285

25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

286

7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF PLYMOUTH PLACE, 1898 From the Collection of the Regional Transportation District - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

287

A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing  

SciTech Connect

This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it is not are all that is necessary for this method. The method is based on reinforcing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra when the signal of interest occurs and subtracting spectra when it does not. Several examples are presented. This method could be used to discover spectral components of unknown chemical species within spectral analysis instruments such as Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography. In addition, this method can be used to isolate device loading signatures on power transmission lines.

Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

2009-12-01

288

35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

289

22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

290

76. photographer unknown 31 March 1936 INTAKE PIERS AND SCROLL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. photographer unknown 31 March 1936 INTAKE PIERS AND SCROLL CASE TO UNIT NO 1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

291

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) Old Photo showing Kilns about 1900 (from original print found at site) - Charcoal Kilns, Valley Road, Pelham, Hampshire County, MA

292

10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown May 1, 1894, revised to Mar. 27, 1918 'MAP OF BENICIA ARSENAL RESERVATION' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

293

Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners identify an unknown liquid by comparing its behavior to known liquids. Learners drop liquids onto different surfaces and see how the liquids behave. Learners realize that using a combination of results from two or more tests will allow them to successfully identify the unknown. Use the related activity "Look-alike Liquids" from the same resource (see related resources) to introduce the behavior of the liquids on different surfaces.

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

294

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

295

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

296

Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

297

A Natural Solution to the Neutrino Mixing Problem  

E-print Network

The combined requirements, of (i) a natural solution to the fermion mass hierarchy problem and (ii) an explanation of both the atmospheric and solar neutrino problems, lead to an essentially unique picture of neutrino masses and mixing angles. The electron and muon neutrinos are quasi-degenerate in mass with maximal mixing, giving $\

C. D. Froggatt; M. Gibson; H. B. Nielsen

1997-06-20

298

Mixing and Decay Constants of Pseudoscalar Mesons  

E-print Network

We propose a new eta-eta' mixing scheme where we start from the quark flavor basis and assume that the decay constants in that basis follow the pattern of particle state mixing. On exploiting the divergences of the axial vector currents - which embody the axial vector anomaly - all basic parameters are fixed to first order of flavor symmetry breaking. That approach naturally leads to a mass matrix, quadratic in the masses, with specified elements. We also test our mixing scheme against experiment and determine corrections to the first order values of the basic parameters from phenomenology. Finally, we generalize the mixing scheme to include the eta(c). Again the divergences of the axial vector currents fix the mass matrix and, hence, mixing angles and the charm content of the eta and eta'.

T. Feldmann; P. Kroll; B. Stech

1998-07-20

299

Simple parametrization of neutrino mixing matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose simple forms of the neutrino mixing matrix in analogy with the Wolfenstein parametrization of the quark mixing matrix by adopting the smallest mixing angle ?13 as a measure of expansion parameters with the tribimaximal pattern as the base matrix. The triminimal parametrization technique is utilized to expand the mixing matrix under two schemes, i.e., the standard Chau-Keung scheme and the original Kobayashi-Maskawa scheme. The new parametrizations have their corresponding Wolfenstein-like parametrizations of the quark mixing matrix, and therefore they share the same intriguing features of the Wolfenstein parametrization. The newly introduced expansion parameters for neutrinos are connected to the Wolfenstein parameters for quarks via the quark-lepton complementarity.

Ma, Bo-Qiang

2013-01-01

300

Gaia basic angle monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission1 will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft2, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the `Basic Angle', at an operational temperature of 100 K. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability at cryogenic conditions, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system3 for this mission, measuring the relative motion of Gaia's telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to detect Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction on Gaia and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material this paper addresses the specific challenges towards the cryogenic application of the Gaia BAM including design, integration and verification/qualification by testing.

Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Mekking, J.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.; Monteiro, D.

2013-09-01

301

OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ?{sub j} ? 1/5?{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of ?{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ?{sub j,{sub max}} ? 1/5 ? 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2013-11-10

302

Quark mixing from ? (6N2) family symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a direct approach to quark mixing based on the discrete family symmetry ? (6N2) in which the Cabibbo angle is determined by a residual Z2 ×Z2 subgroup to be |Vus | = 0.222521, for N being a multiple of 7. We propose a particular model in which unequal smaller quark mixing angles and CP phases may occur without breaking the residual Z2 ×Z2 symmetry. We perform a numerical analysis of the model for N = 14, where small Z2 ×Z2 breaking effects of order 3% are allowed by model, allowing perfect agreement within the uncertainties of the experimentally determined best fit quark mixing values.

Ishimori, Hajime; King, Stephen F.; Okada, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

2015-04-01

303

Junction angles in drainage networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model relating the junction angle of a tributary in a drainage network to its own Shreve magnitude and the Shreve magnitude of the stream into which it flows is developed and verified using published data (including Landsat maps) on U.S. networks with different underlying rock types, relief, and basin lengths. Good agreement is found, and a tendency for the slopes of individual network links to evolve toward graded longitudinal profiles as the network approaches an equilibrium (graded') planimetric pattern is noted. The differences between the network patterns predicted by the model and those observed on Mars are indicated, confirming the results of Pieri (1979, 1980).

Pieri, D. C.

1984-08-01

304

An angle representation of QCD  

E-print Network

For the sake of eliminating gauge variant degrees of freedom we discuss the way to introduce angular variables in the hamiltonian formulation of QCD. On the basis of an analysis of Gauss' law constraints a particular choice is made for the variable transformation from gauge fields to angular field variables. The resulting formulation is analogous to the one of Bars in terms of corner variables and it is closely related to the hamiltonian lattice QCD formulation. Therefore the corner or angle formulation may constitute an useful starting point for the investigation of the low energy properties of QCD in terms of gauge invariant degrees of freedom.

Dieter Stoll

1994-09-12

305

Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location  

PubMed Central

Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location. PMID:23290746

Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

2013-01-01

306

17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

307

Celiac Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy that occurs, in affected individuals, with exposure to gluten in the diet and improves with removal of dietary gluten. Although CD is readily considered in patients with classical presentations of the disease, atypical manifestations may be the only presenting symptoms. We present a case of CD in a 16-year-old female presenting as fever of unknown origin, which has not been reported previously. The postulated mechanism for fever in CD and the importance of clinicians having a low threshold for considering CD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and other enigmatic clinical presentations is discussed. PMID:23970982

Cooney, Megan J.; El-Matary, Wael

2013-01-01

308

Edge delamination in angle-ply composite laminates, part 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method was developed for describing the edge delamination stress intensity characteristics in angle-ply composite laminates. The method is based on the theory of anisotropic elasticity. The edge delamination problem is formulated using Lekhnitskii's complex-variable stress potentials and an especially developed eigenfunction expansion method. The method predicts exact orders of the three-dimensional stress singularity in a delamination crack tip region. With the aid of boundary collocation, the method predicts the complete stress and displacement fields in a finite-dimensional, delaminated composite. Fracture mechanics parameters such as the mixed-mode stress intensity factors and associated energy release rates for edge delamination can be calculated explicity. Solutions are obtained for edge delaminated (theta/-theta theta/-theta) angle-ply composites under uniform axial extension. Effects of delamination lengths, fiber orientations, lamination and geometric variables are studied.

Wang, S. S.

1981-01-01

309

The Complex Angle in Normed Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a generalized angle in complex normed vector spaces. Its definition corresponds to the definition of the well known Euclidean angle in real inner product spaces. Not surprisingly it yields complex values as 'angles'. This 'angle' has some simple properties, which are known from the usual angle in real inner product spaces. But to do ordinary Euclidean geometry real angles are necessary. We show that even in a complex normed space there are many pure real valued 'angles'. The situation improves yet in inner product spaces. There we can use the known theory of orthogonal systems to find many pairs of vectors with real angles, and to do geometry which is based on the Greeks 2000 years ago.

Thürey, Volker

2014-03-01

310

Planet Impact: What's Your Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive module, students can vary the comet's angle of approach to see the effect of gravity on its trajectory towards Jupiter. The speed and masses of the two bodies are held constant. The goal is for the students to understand the relationship between the distance from the planet and the force of gravity. Students may work independently or in small groups to complete this activity. It may also be done as a teacher-directed activity in the classroom. After completing this module, students will learn about how changing the angle of approach affects the force of gravity on a comet. This module is a part of the online exploration "Planet Impact!" An explanation of the science behind the animations can be found in "Science Scoop." More information on the crash of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter can be obtained from "Gravity Gallery" and "Comet News." Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards.

311

A new procedure for measuring contact angle  

SciTech Connect

Described here are some recent work regarding the mathematic design of apparatus that exploits microgravity conditions for accurate experimental determination of contact angle. The underlying motivation for the procedures rests on a discontinuous dependence of the capillary free surface interface S on the contact angle {gamma}, in a cylindrical capillary tube whose section (base) {Omega} contains a protruding corner with opening angle 2{alpha}.

Concus, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Finn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1994-05-01

312

42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

313

46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE WITH NEW COMMEMORATIVE PLATE INSTALLED IN 1934. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

314

22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Keechelus Crib Dam. View dam from right bank of river, showing downstream face and apron of dam". - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

315

AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION TROUP FOR COOPERATIVE MODELLING OF UNKNOWN ENVIRONMENTS  

E-print Network

AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION TROUP FOR COOPERATIVE MODELLING OF UNKNOWN ENVIRONMENTS Josep Amat robots [1] [2] [3] [4]. The goal of these autonomous vehicles is to obtain partial information about Robot (Host) that in turn will be able to compute the most plausible map. With this information

López-Sánchez, Maite

316

KNOWN AND UNKNOWN RESULTS ON ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

KNOWN AND UNKNOWN RESULTS ON ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY PROBLEMS Gerd Grubb Copenhagen Univ. Math. Dept., Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail grubb@math.ku.dk In a survey article by W. N. Everitt and L pointwise radial limits for r 1. They claim on p. 480: 1 #12;2 GERD GRUBB "It is an unsolved problem

Grubb, Gerd

317

Robustness against unknown Networked induced Delays of Observer based FDI  

E-print Network

Robustness against unknown Networked induced Delays of Observer based FDI Dominique Sauter and Taha, robustness. 1. INTRODUCTION The new trends for the realization of fault diagnosis (FDI) and fault tolerant in the design of FDI However, whereas there are a great number of significant results for the control problems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Autonomous Exploration in Unknown Urban Environments for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an autonomous exploration method for unmanned aerial vehicles in unknown urban environment. We address two major aspects of exploration- gathering information about the surroundings and avoiding obstacles in the flight path- by building local obstacle maps and solving for confli ct-free trajectory using model predictive control (MPC) framework. For obstacle sensing, an onboard laser scanner

David Hyunchul Shim; Hoam Chung; H. Jin Kim; Shankar Sastry

2005-01-01

319

Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

320

AUTOMATICALLY INCORPORATING UNKNOWN WORDS IN JUPITER Grace Chung  

E-print Network

AUTOMATICALLY INCORPORATING UNKNOWN WORDS IN JUPITER½ Grace Chung Spoken Language Systems Group) words in the JUPITER weather information system. Specifically our objective is to deal with weather in the JUPITER domain, and this paper will detail the development of a system that uses an ANGIE-based framework

321

41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

322

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

323

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

324

48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Piling logs with Washington donkey." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

325

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

326

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

327

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

328

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

329

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

330

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING EXTERIOR OF BUILDING NEARING COMPLETION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

331

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NEW FREIGHT DEPOT, TAKEN IN 1918, DURING THE CONVERSION OF THE ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

332

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FREIGHT DEPOT, TAKEN IN 1918, DURING THE CONVERSEION OF THE ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

333

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

334

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915 DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

335

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

336

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 SOUTH AND WEST FACADES, TAKEN IN 1918 DURING THE CONVERSION OF THE FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE. - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

337

7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

338

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT BEFORE REMODELING, WITH ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT BEYOND - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

339

10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

340

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

341

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1915 PRIOR TO REMODELING - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

342

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

343

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NORTH FACADE, TAKEN IN 1918, SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS FOR ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

344

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

345

Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

2002-01-01

346

Bayes Solution to Dynamic Inventory Models Under Unknown Demand Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the periodic review inventory problem for which one or more parameters of the demand distribution are unknown with a known prior distribution chosen from the natural conjugate family. The Bayesian formulation of this problem results in a dynamic program with a multi-dimensional state space. Two models are analysed: the depletive inventory model of consumable items and the

Katy S. Azoury

1985-01-01

347

Autonomous sonar navigation in indoor, unknown and unstructured environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile robot operating autonomously in unknown, unstructured environments has to be able to map its environment while at the same time determining its own position accurately within this environment. This paper presents an approach where the bootstrapping problem of concurrent localisation and map building is solved by estimating the respective errors introduced by each of the processes and correcting

W. D. Rencken

1994-01-01

348

4. Photographic copy of photo dated ca. 1936; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photographic copy of photo dated ca. 1936; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 5; SAUSAGES HANGING IN CURING ROOM AT RATH PACKING COMPANY - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

349

25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

350

24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

351

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

352

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

353

44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

354

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

355

47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

356

46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

357

42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

358

45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

359

Analog table look-up device identifies unknown terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Table provides a probability map defining unknown terrain in terms of known terrain inputs. Device consists of analog transformation network and flying spot scanner. Information is useful to manufacturers and users of remote sensing equipment and applies to automated quality control.

Dye, R. H.

1972-01-01

360

Fuzzy behavior navigation for an unmanned helicopter in unknown environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial missions that require unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to fly autonomously in unknown and hostile environments are inevitable. These UAVs must be equipped with a fully autonomous navigation system. Many methods that have been proposed for navigation of autonomous systems either lack the necessary intelligence or are not responsive enough to cope with the flying speeds of UAVs. This paper

Dongqing Shi; Majura F. Selekwa; Emmanuel G. Collins Jr; Carl A. Moore

2005-01-01

361

Application of incremental unknowns to the Burgers equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article, we make a few remarks on the role that attractors and inertial manifolds play in fluid mechanics problems. We then describe the role of incremental unknowns for approximating attractors and inertial manifolds when finite difference multigrid discretizations are used. The relation with direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation is also mentioned.

Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger

1993-01-01

362

45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

363

38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

364

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

365

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

366

On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals Over Fading Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter addresses the problem of energy detection of an unknown signal over a multipath channel. It starts with the no-diversity case, and presents some alternative closed-form expressions for the probability of detection to those recently reported in the literature. Detection capability is boosted by implementing both square-law combining and square-law selection diversity schemes

Fadel F. Digham; Mohamed-slim Alouini; Marvin K. Simon

2007-01-01

367

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1912 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "GENERAL VIEW OF DAM, LOOKING EAST STATION 5-75, ALSO SHOWING STEEL BRIDGE" TO GATEHOUSE - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

368

56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

369

54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

370

RSS BASED COOPERATIVE SENSOR NETWORK LOCALIZATION WITH UNKNOWN TRANSMIT POWER  

E-print Network

RSS BASED COOPERATIVE SENSOR NETWORK LOCALIZATION WITH UNKNOWN TRANSMIT POWER Pinar Oguz-Ekim, Jo) and a set of other sources. Received Signal Strength (RSS) between them are measured. Since finding which localization could be based, Re- ceived Signal Strength (RSS) is an attractive method mainly

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

371

Optimal iterative control of unknown nonlinear systems using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal iterative controller of unknown nonlinear systems using neural networks is presented. Initially the multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to learn the forward dynamics of the plant off-line. Then the control law is derived by the optimal iterative method based on the neural network during each sampling interval. The optimal iterative controller predicts the feedforward control action, while

Wang Fuli; Li Mingzhong

1997-01-01

372

Discover the Unknown Chekhov in Your ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher, believes that for stories to be a successful tool in classroom instruction, they need to have universal themes, and they must deal with situations that the students could readily identify with regardless of their language, culture, or religion. In this article, she introduces the unknown

Beliavsky, Ninah

2007-01-01

373

27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Pile driver driving piling for core-wall. Moving for the next pile." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

374

6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

375

Ant-Inspired Navigation In Unknown Environments Stergios I. Roumeliotis  

E-print Network

Ant-Inspired Navigation In Unknown Environments Stergios I. Roumeliotis Computer Science Dpt-0781 maja@robotics.usc.edu In contrast to mostother ant species, desert ants (Cataglyphis fortis) do not use) information. Indeed desert ants and honeybees use such information in addition to path integration. On a fa

Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

376

Overall, in this case, Prob(happy, unknown employment)  

E-print Network

Overall, in this case, Prob(happy, unknown employment) = |M · U(t) · |cemployedl|2 · Prob(employed) + |M · U(t) · |c employed l|2 · Prob( employed). It should be clear that in such a case" reasoner is still uncertain about whether she will be employed. The crucial difference is that in this case

Aerts, Diederik

377

7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

378

Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignant neoplasms and is therefore one of the 10 most frequent cancer diagnoses in man. Patients with CUP present with metastatic disease for which the site of origin cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis. It is now accepted that CUP represents a heterogeneous group of

N. Pavlidis; E. Briasoulis; J. Hainsworth; F. A. Greco

2003-01-01

379

Determination of Polymer Unknowns Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this laboratory exercise, you will evaluate several unknown polymers using XPS to provide their proper identities. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should: • Have an understanding of XPS as a tool for surface analysis. • Understand the importance of the surface state of polymeric materials.

DeRosa, Rebecca L.

2008-09-04

380

8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

381

Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

2009-01-01

382

Bilinear Programming for Human Activity Recognition with Unknown MRF Graphs  

E-print Network

SVM; (b) an MRF with a graph built us- ing heuristics; (c) an MRF using Lan's method[9]; (d) an MRFBilinear Programming for Human Activity Recognition with Unknown MRF Graphs Zhenhua Wang, Qinfeng to their ability to model complex dependencies and deal with lo- cal uncertainty. However, the underlying graph

Shi, Qinfeng "Javen"

383

Implementation of neural network controller for unknown systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With both neural network theory and custom VLSI technology becoming more advanced, it is now possible to implement adaptive-type control strategies using VLSI-based neural networks. The reported work addresses three issues: developing a general control system structure for control of unknown systems; developing the neural network paradigm for the controller, a multilayer feedforward network which is trained using a variant

Keith Shaffer; M. E. Zaghloul; Yaobin Chen

1990-01-01

384

1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

385

178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

386

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

387

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

388

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

389

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

390

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

391

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

392

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

393

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

394

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

395

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

396

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. GENERAL PLAN OF MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

397

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

398

6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

399

24. Photocopy of photograph sketch, Artist and photographer unknown, circa ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph sketch, Artist and photographer unknown, circa 1930. Original sketch can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. ARTIST'S RENDERING OF CHANCE CONE, HUDSON COAL COMPANY, SCRANTON, PA. - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

400

Lactase deficiency: a potential novel aetiological factor in chronic pruritus of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Chronic pruritus, which is associated with a wide variety of underlying diseases, represents a challenge in diagnostics and treatment in dermatology and general medicine. The cause of pruritus remains unknown in up to 45% of patients. In this study, 718 patients with chronic pruritus were analysed concerning lactase deficiency, demographic data, aetiology, duration and intensity of pruritus. A total of 154 patients were tested positive for lactase deficiency and 38.3% showed a significant anti-pruritic response to a lactose-free diet (minimum 4 weeks). The best results were observed in patients with pruritus of mixed or unknown origin (n = 91; 64% response). Age, sex, localization or duration had no significant influence on the anti-pruritic effect of a lactose-free diet. Lactase deficiency might be an independent causal factor in the elicitation of chronic pruritus. Thus, screening for lactase deficiency represents a rational step in the diagnostic work-up of chronic pruritus. In case of a positive test result, a lactose-free diet offers a low-cost, efficient and specific therapy in patients with chronic pruritus. PMID:21879247

Grundmann, Sonja A; Stratmann, Ewelina; Brehler, Randolf; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

2011-10-01

401

A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.

Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.

1993-01-01

402

Recognition of internal structure of unknown objects with simultaneous neutron and gamma radiography.  

PubMed

Generally speaking in customary industrial and medical radiography, there is no tendency to reveal the nature of the samples. Ordinarily, the main objective of taking a radiograph is to show the position and dimension of unknown parts, inside the test object and to determine cracks, defects, etc. Whereas in radiography many important factors such as material cross-sections and build-up factors are also involved. In this paper, by using both neutron and gamma radiography techniques, some mathematical relations were successfully generated, in order to calculate the neutron and gamma total macroscopic cross-sections of some unknown elements in the presence of the other elements. For this work, some test pieces were defined and made of lead, silver, copper, Nickel, tin, graphite and polyethylene. The neutron radiography facility at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) was used as mixed neutron and gamma radiography source (Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Neutron Radiography, Paris, France, pp. 25-32). On testing of a correction of the above-mentioned generated relations, a new technique of simultaneous neutron and gamma radiography was also investigated. PMID:15246384

Moghadam, K Kamali; Nasseri, M M

2004-10-01

403

Creation of the pi angle standard for the flat angle measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angle measurements are based mainly on multiangle prisms - polygons with autocollimators, rotary encoders fo high accuracy and circular scales as the standards of the flat angle. Traceability of angle measurements is based on the standard of the plane angle - prism (polygon) calibrated at an appropriate accuracy. Some metrological institutions have established their special test benches (comparators) equipped with

V. Giniotis; M. Rybokas

2010-01-01

404

Predictions From High Scale Mixing Unification Hypothesis  

E-print Network

Starting with 'High Scale Mixing Unification' hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization-group equations. For both type of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution 'naturally' results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which this hypothesis works. The results can be tested by present and future experiments.

Rahul Srivastava

2015-03-27

405

A new mixed finite element method for computing viscoelastic flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mixed finite element method for computing viscoelastic flows is presented. The mixed formulation is based on the introduction of the rate of deformation tensor as an additional unknown. Contrary to the popular EVSS method [D. Rajagopalan, R.A. Brown and R.C. Armstrong, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 36 (1990) 159], no change of variable is performed into the constitutive equation.

Robert Guénette; Michel Fortin

1995-01-01

406

A new mixed finite element method for computing viscoelastic flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mixed finite element method for computing viscoelastic flows is presented. The mixed formulation is based on the introduction of the rate of deformation tensor as an additional unknown. Contrary to the popular EVSS method (D. Rajagopalan, R.A. Brown and R.C. Armstrong, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 36 (1990) 1591, no change of variable is performed into the constitutive equation.

Robert GuCnette; Michel Fortin

1995-01-01

407

Update on Angles and Sides of the CKM Unitarity Triangle from BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report several recent updates from the BABAR Collaboration on the matrix elements |V{sub cb}|, |V{sub ub}|, and |V{sub td}| of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix, and the angles {beta} and {alpha} of the unitarity triangle. Most results presented here are using the full BABAR {Upsilon}(4S) data set.

Cheng, Chih-hsiang; /Caltech; ,

2011-11-14

408

Update on angles and sides of the CKM unitarity triangle from BABAR  

E-print Network

We report several recent updates from the BABAR Collaboration on the matrix elements $|V_{cb}|$, $|V_{ub}|$, and $|V_{td}|$ of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix, and the angles $\\beta$ and $\\alpha$ of the unitarity triangle. Most results presented here are using the full BABAR $\\Upsilon(4S)$ data set.

Chih-hsiang Cheng

2009-01-14

409

A new relation between quark and lepton mixing matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new relation between quark mixing matrix and lepton mixing matrix. Since the parameters in the quark sector are well determined, we employ them to describe the mixing of leptons. Phenomenologically, we study the neutrino oscillation probabilities for different channels, which can be measured precisely in forthcoming reactor and accelerator experiments. As an example of the applicability of our assumption, CP violation in the lepton sector is also discussed. In the latest T2K experiment, the range of the mixing angle ?13 is measured, and our prediction of ?13 is compatible with their result.

Qin, Nan; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2011-08-01

410

Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.  

SciTech Connect

The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

2004-10-01

411

NASA WHY FILES: The Case of the Unknown Stink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Unknown Stink.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of trying to find the source of an unpleasant odor that is invading the surrounding neighborhoods. To determine the source of the stink, our detectives learn about the sense of smell: what it is, how people and animals smell, and how wind speed and direction influence the movement of odor. They also learn about how NASA's Atmospheric Science research can help solve the case. While investigating the case, the tree house detectives learn that the source of the 'unknown stink' is 'right under their very noses.'

2000-01-01

412

11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Inspecting concrete on upstream face of Keechelus Dam spillway. Joseph Jacobs, consulting engineer; M.B. Lemon, Gatetender; Paul Taylor, assistant engineer; and C.H. Paul, consulting engineer." - Keechelus Dam, Spillway, Yakim River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

413

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW SHOWING LOCATION OF PROPOSED DAM SITE AT OUTLET OF LAKE KACHESS, WN., JUST BELOW PRESENT OLD DAM" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

414

Adaptive control of plants with unknown dead-zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model reference adaptive controllers are designed for plants with unknown dead-zones. Several control strategies are investigated in which two sets of adjustable parameters, one belonging to a dead-zone inverse and the other to a linear controller, are either kept fixed or adaptively updated. The developed adaptive control schemes ensure boundedness of all closed-loop signals and reduce the tracking error

Gang Tao; P. V. Kokotovic

1994-01-01

415

Estimation of unknown speaker’s height from speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we propose a regression-based scheme for the direct estimation of the height of unknown speakers from\\u000a their speech. In this scheme every speech input is decomposed via the openSMILE audio parameterization to a single feature vector that is fed to a regression model, which provides a direct estimation of\\u000a the persons’ height. The focus in this

Iosif Mporas; Todor Ganchev

2009-01-01

416

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

417

Clinical guideline SEOM: cancer of unknown primary site.  

PubMed

Cancer of unknown primary site is a histologically confirmed cancer which is manifested in advanced stage, with no identifiable primary site after the use of standard diagnostic procedures. Patients are initially placed into one of categories based upon the examination of the initial biopsy: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Appropriate patient management requires an understanding of several clinicopathologic features that help to identify several subsets of patients with more responsive tumors. PMID:25392080

Collado Martín, R; García Palomo, A; de la Cruz Merino, L; Borrega García, P; Barón Duarte, F J

2014-12-01

418

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved, by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

S. -S. B. Lee; H. -S. Sim

2010-06-08

419

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

420

[Identification of an exhumed unknown infant through DNA analysis].  

PubMed

The article reports on the exhumation and subsequent DNA analysis of the skeletal remains of an unknown male newborn from 1988. Molecular biological methods confirmed the maternity of a woman who was already convicted of infanticide. Since homicide could not be clearly proven and manslaughter becomes barred by the statute of limitation after 20 years, the woman cannot be held accountable for the alleged killing of her first child. PMID:25004622

Jopp, Eilin; Püschel, Klaus; Warschke, Christian; Kaufmann, Richard; Krebs, Oliver

2014-01-01

421

RSS-Based Location Estimation with Unknown Pathloss Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, received signal strength (RSS)-based location estimation technique has been proposed as a low-cost, low-complexity solution for many novel location-aware applications. In the existing studies, radio propagation pathloss model is assumed known a priori, which is an oversimplification in many application scenarios. In this paper we present a detailed study on the RSS-based joint estimation of unknown location coordinates and

Xinrong Li

2006-01-01

422

Spread-Spectrum Carrier Estimation With Unknown Doppler Shift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a method for the frequency estimation of a BPSK modulated, spread-spectrum carrier with unknown Doppler shift. The approach relies on a classic periodogram in conjunction with a spectral matched filter. Simulation results indicate accurate carrier estimation with processing gains near 40. A DSP-based prototype has been implemented for real-time carrier estimation for use in New Mexico State University's proposal for NASA's Demand Assignment Multiple Access service.

DeLeon, Phillip L.; Scaife, Bradley J.

1998-01-01

423

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

424

13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

425

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

426

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

427

Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, ?D3 ? Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at ?A = 160?, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

2015-03-01

428

Assisted assignment of ligands corresponding to unknown electron density.  

SciTech Connect

A semi-automated computational procedure to assist in the identification of bound ligands from unknown electron density has been developed. The atomic surface surrounding the density blob is compared to a library of three-dimensional ligand binding surfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Ligands corresponding to surfaces which share physicochemical texture and geometric shape similarities are considered for assignment. The method is benchmarked against a set of well represented ligands from the PDB, in which we show that we can identify the correct ligand based on the corresponding binding surface. Finally, we apply the method during model building and refinement stages from structural genomics targets in which unknown density blobs were discovered. A semi-automated computational method is described which aims to assist crystallographers with assigning the identity of a ligand corresponding to unknown electron density. Using shape and physicochemical similarity assessments between the protein surface surrounding the density and a database of known ligand binding surfaces, a plausible list of candidate ligands are identified for consideration. The method is validated against highly observed ligands from the Protein Data Bank and results are shown from its use in a high-throughput structural genomics pipeline.

Binkowski, T. A.; Cuff, M.; Nocek, B.; Chang, C.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

2010-01-03

429

Minimal supergravity radiative effects on the tribimaximal neutrino mixing pattern  

SciTech Connect

We study the stability of the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) mixing pattern, assumed to hold at some high energy scale, against supersymmetric radiative corrections. We work in the framework of a reference minimal supergravity model (mSUGRA) where supersymmetry breaking is universal and flavor-blind at unification. The radiative corrections considered include both RGE running as well as threshold effects. We find that in this case the solar mixing angle can only increase with respect to the HPS reference value, while the atmospheric and reactor mixing angles remain essentially stable. Deviations from the solar angle HPS prediction towards lower values would signal novel contributions from physics beyond the simplest mSUGRA model.

Hirsch, M.; Valle, J. W. F.; Villanova Moral, A. del [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular-C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado: 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ma, Ernest [Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Romao, J. C. [Departamento de Fisica and CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2007-03-01

430

Effects of active-sterile neutrino mixing during primordial nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we discuss the effects of the inclusion of sterile-active neutrino oscillations during the production of primordial light-nuclei. We assume that the sterile neutrino mass-eigenstate might oscillate with the two lightest active neutrino mass-eigenstates, with mixing angles ?1 and ?2. We also allow a constant renormalization (represented by a parameter (?)) of the sterile neutrino occupation factor. Taking ? and the mixing angles as free parameters, we have computed distribution functions of active and sterile neutrinos and primordial abundances. Using observable data we set constrains in the free parameters of the model. It is found that the data on primordial abundances are consistent with small mixing angles and with a value of ? smaller than 0.65 at 3? level.

Civitarese, Osvaldo; Mosquera, Mercedes Elisa; Sáez, María Manuela

2014-11-01

431

Neutrino masses and mixing from S4 flavor twisting  

E-print Network

We discuss a neutrino mass model based on the S4 discrete symmetry where the symmetry breaking is triggered by the boundary conditions of the bulk right-handed neutrino in the fifth spacial dimension. While the symmetry restricts bare mass parameters to flavor-diagonal forms, the viable mixing angles emerge from the wave functions of the Kaluza-Klein modes which carry symmetry breaking effect. The magnitudes of the lepton mixing angles, especially the reactor angle is related to the neutrino mass patterns and the model will be tested in future neutrino experiments, e.g., an early (late) discovery of the reactor angle favors the normal (inverted) hierarchy. The size of extra dimension has a connection to the possible mass spectrum; a small (large) volume corresponds to the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy.

Hajime Ishimori; Yusuke Shimizu; Morimitsu Tanimoto; Atsushi Watanabe

2011-02-11

432

Neutrino masses and mixing from S4 flavor twisting  

E-print Network

We discuss a neutrino mass model based on the S4 discrete symmetry where the symmetry breaking is triggered by the boundary conditions of the bulk right-handed neutrino in the fifth spacial dimension. While the symmetry restricts bare mass parameters to flavor-diagonal forms, the viable mixing angles emerge from the wave functions of the Kaluza-Klein modes which carry symmetry breaking effect. The magnitudes of the lepton mixing angles, especially the reactor angle is related to the neutrino mass patterns and the model will be tested in future neutrino experiments, e.g., an early (late) discovery of the reactor angle favors the normal (inverted) hierarchy. The size of extra dimension has a connection to the possible mass spectrum; a small (large) volume corresponds to the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy.

Ishimori, Hajime; Tanimoto, Morimitsu; Watanabe, Atsushi

2010-01-01

433

Charged Lepton Correction to Tri-Bimaximal Lepton Mixing and its Implications to Neutrino Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent results from Daya Bay and RENO reactor neutrino experiments have firmly established that the smallest reactor mixing angle ?13 is nonvanishing at the 5 ? level, with a relatively large value, i.e. ?13 ? 9°. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as V PMNS = Ul U? P? , where Ul and U? result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and P? is a diagonal matrix containing the Majorana phases and assuming the tri-bimaximal (TBM) form for U?, we investigate the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle due to the corrections of the charged lepton mixing matrix. The form of Ul is assumed to be that of CKM mixing matrix of the quark sector. We find that with this modification it is possible to accommodate the large observed reactor mixing angle ?13. We also study the implications of such corrections on the other phenomenological observables.

Gollu, Srinu; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

2013-09-01

434

Signature extension for sun angle, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Within a restricted zenith sun angle range of 35 - 50 degrees, it was empirically observed that canopy reflectance is mainly Lambertian. Reflectance changes with crop stage were simple shifts in scale in the sun angle range. It was noted that sun angle variations depend on canopy characteristics. Effects of the vegetative canopy were most pronounced at the larger solar zenith angles (20 %). The linear sun angle correction coefficients demonstrate a dependency on both crop stage (15-20 %) and crop type (10-20 %). The use of canopy reflectance modeling allowed for the generation of a simulated data set over an extremely broad envelope of sun angles.

Smith, J. A. (principal investigator); Berry, J. K.; Heimes, F.

1975-01-01

435

Algorithms For Limited-Angle Computed Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited-angle computed tomography was studied in a project to develop algorithms for a limited-angle scanner. Both the ART algorithm and an orthogonal function algorithm were investigated. The artifact produced by the different methods was very similar. A method is presented for producing model limited-angle artifact in phantom images. Filters are investigated for reducing the artifact, and it is shown that substantial improvement in subjective quality of images can be obtained. This method can be incorporated into limited-angle convolution back-projection algorithms.

Rowan, William H.; Boyd, Douglas P.; Couch, John L.; Ortendahl, Douglas

1982-11-01

436

A Parametric Numerical Study of Mixing in a Cylindrical Duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction is described of some of the important parameters affecting the mixing process in a quick mixing region of a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustor. The performance of the quick mixing region is significantly affected by the geometric designs of both the mixing domain and the jet inlet orifices. Several of the important geometric parameters and operating conditions affecting the mixing process were analytically studied. Parameters such as jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio (J), mass flow ratio (MR), orifice geometry, orifice orientation, and number of orifices/row (equally spaced) around the circumferential direction were analyzed. Three different sets of orifice shapes were studied: (1) square, (2) elongated slots, and (3) equilateral triangles. Based on the analytical results, the best mixing configuration depends significantly on the penetration depth of the jet to prevent the hot mainstream flow from being entrained behind the orifice. The structure in a circular mixing section is highly weighted toward the outer wall and any mixing structure affecting this area significantly affects the overall results. The increase in the number of orifices per row increases the mixing at higher J conditions. Higher slot slant angles and aspect ratios are generally the best mixing configurations at higher momentum flux ratio (J) conditions. However, the square and triangular shaped orifices were more effective mixing configurations at lower J conditions.

Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

1992-01-01

437

11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant is at right, west tower and placement tower boom are visible. Photographer unknown, November 24, 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

438

A Mixed Finite Element Framework for Modeling Coupled Fluid Flow ...  

E-print Network

We propose a mixed finite element space discretization, which is stable, ... consortium (Reservoir Simulation Industrial Affiliate Program at Stanford ...... pressure unknowns respectively, which is evaluated at next time level k+1. Explicitly ..... It is a novel idea as it combines the staggeredness or sequential advancement of the.

Birendra Jha

2005-10-03

439

Low-energy mixing in algal culture raceways  

SciTech Connect

A project in Honolulu to use marine algae mass for energy has demonstrated that the use of angled plates in shallow (100--150 mm) raceways, where cultures of marine algae are grown, significantly increased algae production. The reasons for higher productivity are not fully understood, but the increased production rates were clearly demonstrated. Accepting the premise that angled plates in shallow raceways significantly increased algal production, the research objectives of a complementary project described here were to study the mixing relationships in shallow (100 mm) water flows with low velocity ({approximately}0.3 m/s) that are created by variously shaped and positioned submerged plates and to identify the optimum energy efficiency. Based on six test runs with combinations of three to five 100 mm square and triangular plates set at 10{degree} and 20{degree} angles to the water flow, the velocities directly behind the test plates were consistently higher than those in between for up to 4.5 m downstream (thus creating desired mixing conditions); the 20{degree} angled plates created a notably higher degree of mixing than those at 10{degree}; the use of three 100 mm plates (particularly the square-shaped ones) provided adequate mixing in comparison to five plates; the energy loss between the plate section and a section 4.5 m downstream was essentially negligible; and the drag force on the plates was relatively insignificant regardless of the plate shape or angle of attack.

Cheng, E.D.H.; Dugan, G.L. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-12-01

440

Divergent-ray projection method for measuring the flapping angle, lag angle, and torsional angle of a bumblebee wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A divergent-ray projection (DRP) method was developed for measuring the flapping angle, lag angle, and torsional angle of bumblebee wing during beating motion. This new method can measure the spatial coordinates of an insect wing by digitizing the images that are projected by two divergent laser rays from different directions. The advantage of the DRP method is its ability to measure those three angles simultaneously using only one high-speed camera. The resolution of the DRP method can be changed easily by adjusting system parameters to meet the needs of different types of objects. The measurement results for these angles of a bumblebee wing probe the effectiveness of the DRP method in studying the flight performance of insects.

Zeng, Lijiang; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Kawachi, Keiji

1996-11-01

441

Melt-mixing by novel pitched-tip kneading disks in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt-mixing in twin-screw extruders is a key process in the development of polymer composites. Quantifying the mixing performance of kneading elements based on their internal physical processes is a challenging problem. We discuss melt-mixing by novel kneading elements called “pitched-tip kneading disk (ptKD)”. The disk-stagger angle and tip angle are the main geometric parameters of the ptKDs. We investigated four

Yasuya Nakayama; Eiji Takeda; Takashi Shigeishi; Hideki Tomiyama; Toshihisa Kajiwara

2010-01-01

442

Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.  

PubMed

Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only for liquids with high viscosity. PMID:17537391

Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

2007-10-31

443

Prediction approach to multistage sampling when cluster sizes are unknown  

SciTech Connect

A model for two-stage cluster sampling when sample cluster sizes are unknown is used to derive an optimal (model-based) estimator for the population total and to determine robust sampling strategies. In an empirical study using 1970 and 1980 census data for Los Angeles and surrounding counties, comparisons are made between the model based estimator and conventional estimators. The results favor the new estimator over those derived from randomization theory. In addition, the empirical study shows that the robust sampling strategies suggested by the theory can reduce biases, improve efficiency, and decrease the frequencies of large errors. 7 refs.

Kelly, E.J.; Cumberland, W.G.

1985-01-01

444

Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Vargas, A. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Casilla 54-D (Chile); Vianna, R. O. [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2010-07-15

445

Single particle diversity and mixing state measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly developed framework for quantifying aerosol particle diversity and mixing state based on information-theoretic entropy is applied for the first time to single particle mass spectrometry field data. Single particle mass fraction estimates for black carbon, organic aerosol, ammonium, nitrate and sulphate, derived using single particle mass spectrometer, aerosol mass spectrometer and multi-angle absorption photometer measurements are used to calculate single particle species diversity (Di). The average single particle species diversity (D?) is then related to the species diversity of the bulk population (D?) to derive a mixing state index value (?) at hourly resolution. The mixing state index is a single parameter representation of how internally/externally mixed a particle population is at a given time. The index describes a continuum, with values of 0% and 100% representing fully external and internal mixing, respectively. This framework was applied to data collected as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in Paris, France 2010. Di values are low (∼2) for fresh traffic and woodburning particles that contain high mass fractions of black carbon and organic aerosol but low mass fractions of inorganic ions. Conversely, Di values are higher (∼4) for aged carbonaceous particles containing similar mass fractions of black carbon, organic aerosol, ammonium, nitrate and sulphate. Aerosol in Paris is estimated to be 59% internally mixed in the size range 150-1067 nm, and mixing state is dependent both upon time of day and air mass origin. Daytime primary emissions associated with vehicular traffic and woodburning result in low ? values, while enhanced condensation of ammonium nitrate on existing particles at night leads to higher ? values. Advection of particles from continental Europe containing ammonium, nitrate and sulphate leads to increases in D?, D? and ?. The mixing state index represents a useful metric by which to compare and contrast ambient particle mixing state at other locations globally.

Healy, R. M.; Riemer, N.; Wenger, J. C.; Murphy, M.; West, M.; Poulain, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; O'Connor, I. P.; McGillicuddy, E.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

2014-02-01

446

Single particle diversity and mixing state measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly developed framework for quantifying aerosol particle diversity and mixing state based on information-theoretic entropy is applied for the first time to single particle mass spectrometry field data. Single particle mass fraction estimates for black carbon, organic aerosol, ammonium, nitrate and sulfate, derived using single particle mass spectrometer, aerosol mass spectrometer and multi-angle absorption photometer measurements are used to calculate single particle species diversity (Di). The average single particle species diversity (D?) is then related to the species diversity of the bulk population (D?) to derive a mixing state index value (?) at hourly resolution. The mixing state index is a single parameter representation of how internally/externally mixed a particle population is at a given time. The index describes a continuum, with values of 0 and 100% representing fully external and internal mixing, respectively. This framework was applied to data collected as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in Paris, France, 2010. Di values are low (~ 2) for fresh traffic and wood-burning particles that contain high mass fractions of black carbon and organic aerosol but low mass fractions of inorganic ions. Conversely, Di values are higher (~ 4) for aged carbonaceous particles containing similar mass fractions of black carbon, organic aerosol, ammonium, nitrate and sulfate. Aerosol in Paris is estimated to be 59% internally mixed in the size range 150-1067 nm, and mixing state is dependent both upon time of day and air mass origin. Daytime primary emissions associated with vehicular traffic and wood-burning result in low ? values, while enhanced condensation of ammonium nitrate on existing particles at night leads to higher ? values. Advection of particles from continental Europe containing ammonium, nitrate and sulfate leads to increases in D?, D? and ?. The mixing state index represents a useful metric by which to compare and contrast ambient particle mixing state at other locations globally.

Healy, R. M.; Riemer, N.; Wenger, J. C.; Murphy, M.; West, M.; Poulain, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; O'Connor, I. P.; McGillicuddy, E.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

2014-06-01

447

Quantum Critical Transport and the Hall Angle  

E-print Network

In this letter we study the Hall conductivity in holographic models where translational invariance is broken by a lattice. We show that generic holographic theories will display a different temperature dependence in the Hall angle as to the DC conductivity. Our results suggest a general mechanism for obtaining an anomalous scaling of the Hall angle in strongly interacting quantum critical systems.

Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos

2015-03-02

448

Tree Branch Angle: Maximizing Effective Leaf Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature.

Hisao Honda; Jack B. Fisher

1978-01-01

449

for Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma by UK  

E-print Network

Myint, Joy (2013). A study of case finding for chronic open angle glaucoma by UK community optometrists. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City University London) City Research Online Original citation: Myint, Joy (2013). A study of case finding for chronic open angle glaucoma by UK community

Community Optometrists; Joy Myint

450

Vision only Presented angle (Visual / Body)  

E-print Network

Vision only Presented angle (Visual / Body) 45º / 30º 60º / 40º 75º / 50º Reproductedrotationangle rotation Vision + Body (same gain) Presented angle (Visual / Body) 45º / 30º 60º / 40º 75º / 50º Reproductedrotationangle(º) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Visual rotation Body rotation Vision + Body (different gain

451

Let's Do It! Using Geostrips and "Angle-Fixers" to Develop Ideas About Shapes and Angles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homemade geostrips, "angle-fixers" (cardboard circular sectors) and brass fasteners can be used by students to explore properties of angles, triangles and other polygons. Several games and other activities are suggested. (SD)

Bruni, James V.; Silverman, Helene

1975-01-01

452

A generalized technique for using cones and dihedral angles in attitude determination, revision 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytic development is presented for a general least squares attitude determination subroutine applicable to spinning satellites. The method is founded on a geometric approach which is completely divorced from considerations relating to particular types and configurations of onboard attitude sensors. Any mix of sensor measurements which can be first transformed (outside the program) to cone or dihedral angle data can be processed. A cone angle is an angle between the spin axis and a known direction line in space; a dihedral angle is an angle between two planes formed by the spin axis and each of two known direction lines. Many different kinds of sensor data can be transformed to these angles, which in turn constitute the actual program inputs, so that the subroutine can be applied without change to a variety of satellite missions. Either a constant or dynamic spin axis model can be handled. The program is also capable of solving for fixed biases in the input angles, in addition to the spin axis attitude solution.

Werking, R. D.

1973-01-01

453

Mixing patterns from the groups ?(n?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We survey the mixing patterns which can be derived from the discrete groups ?(36 × 3), ?(72 × 3), ?(216 × 3) and ?(360 × 3), if these are broken to Abelian subgroups Ge and G? in the charged lepton and neutrino sector, respectively. Since only ?(360 × 3) possesses Klein subgroups, only this group allows neutrinos to be Majorana particles. We find a few patterns that can agree well with the experimental data on lepton mixing in scenarios with small corrections and that predict the reactor mixing angle ?13 to be 0.1 ? ?13 ? 0.2. All these patterns lead to a trivial Dirac phase. Patterns which instead reveal CP violation tend to accommodate the data not well. We also comment on the outer automorphisms of the discussed groups, since they can be useful for relating inequivalent representations of these groups.

Hagedorn, Claudia; Meroni, Aurora; Vitale, Lorenzo

2014-02-01

454

Angle resolved color of bulk scattering media.  

PubMed

The angle resolved reflectance factor of matte samples is measured with a goniophotometer and simulated using radiative transfer theory. Both measurements and simulations display the same characteristic dependence of the reflectance factor on the observation angle. The angle resolved reflectance spectra are translated to CIELAB color coordinates and the angular color differences are found to be surprisingly large. A chromatic adaptation that is dependent on the observation angle is suggested, in which a nonabsorbing opaque medium is used as the reference white, and the angular color differences are then reduced. Furthermore, the use of an undyed paper as the reference white is evaluated. The angular lightness differences are then reduced further, but the angular differences in chroma are still large. It is suggested that smaller variations in perceived color could be explained by angle dependent chromatic adaptation and a limited sensitivity of the human visual system to changes in chroma. PMID:22193184

Neuman, Magnus; Coppel, Ludovic G; Edström, Per

2011-12-20

455

Isoplanatic angle in finite distance: experimental validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through theoretical analysis, we have previously proposed a method to measure an isoplanatic angle over a finite distance using three receiver apertures and a synthetic point source. Here, we present the validation experiment for this method. Through careful experimental design, the atmospheric coherence length for spherical waves propagating in the opposite direction was measured and converted to an isoplanatic angle as the true value for comparison. In general, the direct measurement of an isoplanatic angle agrees well with the true value in clear-air periods. Experimental results confirm our method for measuring an isoplanatic angle over a finite distance. The experiment resulted in the first time-diagram of an isoplanatic angle in finite distance ever measured through spherical-wave scintillation.

Yu, Long-Kun; Hou, Zai-Hong; Zhang, Shou-Chuan; Jing, Xu; Wu, Yi

2015-02-01

456

Brain biopsy in neurologic decline of unknown etiology.  

PubMed

Brain biopsies have an uncertain role in the diagnosis of patients with dementia or neurologic decline of unknown etiology. They are often performed only after an exhaustive panel of less invasive tests and procedures have failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of brain biopsies in this patient group through the retrospective analysis of 53 brain biopsies performed for neurologic disease of unknown etiology at a single tertiary care institution between December 2001 and December 2011. Patients with known nonlymphomatous neoplasms thought to be associated with the neurologic symptoms or with immunodeficiency were excluded from the study. Furthermore, the clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory tests were compared between diagnostic groups to identify factors more likely to yield a diagnosis. Sixty percent of the biopsies were diagnostic (32 of 53), with the most common histologic diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma in 14 of 53 patients (26% of total) followed by infarct in four subjects (7.5%). A few patients were found to have rare and unsuspected diseases such as lymphomatosis cerebri, neurosarcoidosis and neuroaxonal leukodystrophy. Complications from biopsy were uncommon and included hemorrhage and infection with abscess formation at the biopsy site. These results suggest that brain biopsies may be useful in difficult cases in which less invasive measures have been unable to yield a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25661242

Magaki, Shino; Gardner, Tracie; Khanlou, Negar; Yong, William H; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V

2015-04-01

457

Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lü, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lü system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach.

Wang, Shaoming; Luo, Haigeng; Yue, Chaoyuan; Liao, Xiaoxin

2008-04-01

458

Froissart Bound on Inelastic Cross Section Without Unknown Constants  

E-print Network

Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, Andr\\'e Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D-wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section $\\sigma_{inel}$ which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on $\\sigma_{tot}$, and Wu, Martin,Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given $\\sigma_{tot}$. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high energy approximation, upper bounds on energy averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms,together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D-waves below t...

Martin, André

2015-01-01

459

Learned navigation in unknown terrains: A retraction method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of learned navigation of a circular robot R, of radius delta (is greater than or equal to 0), through a terrain whose model is not a-priori known is considered. Two-dimensional finite-sized terrains populated by an unknown (but, finite) number of simple polygonal obstacles are also considered. The number and locations of the vertices of each obstacle are unknown to R. R is equipped with a sensor system that detects all vertices and edges that are visible from its present location. In this context two problems are covered. In the visit problem, the robot is required to visit a sequence of destination points, and in the terrain model acquisition problem, the robot is required to acquire the complete model of the terrain. An algorithmic framework is presented for solving these two problems using a retraction of the freespace onto the Voronoi diagram of the terrain. Algorithms are then presented to solve the visit problem and the terrain model acquisition problem.

Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Stoltzfus, N.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

1989-01-01

460

Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise  

E-print Network

LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequency-dependent background noise. The method uses noise marginalisation in connection with averaged Welch's periodograms to achieve unbiased parameter estimation, together with a consistent, non-parametric estimate of the residual PSD. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively re-weighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD, and to analyze differential acceleration from several experiments with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

Stefano Vitale; Giuseppe Congedo; Rita Dolesi; Valerio Ferroni; Mauro Hueller; Daniele Vetrugno; William Joseph Weber; Heather Audley; Karsten Danzmann; Ingo Diepholz; Martin Hewitson; Natalia Korsakova; Luigi Ferraioli; Ferran Gibert; Nikolaos Karnesis; Miquel Nofrarias; Henri Inchauspe; Eric Plagnol; Oliver Jennrich; Paul W. McNamara; Michele Armano; James Ira Thorpe; Peter Wass

2014-08-04

461

Mixing in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

Fryer, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-07

462

Mixing in explosions  

SciTech Connect

Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

Kuhl, A.L.

1993-12-01

463

Radiation impacts on human health: certain, fuzzy, and unknown.  

PubMed

The atomic bomb and other studies have established with certainty that moderate-to-high doses of radiation cause many types of solid cancer and leukemia. Moving down the dose range to the vicinity of 100-200 mSv, the risks become fuzzy and then unknown at low doses on the order of 10-20 mSv. Nor have low-dose experimental studies provided definitive answers: some have suggested there may be adverse biological effects in the range of 5-50 mSv, while others support a "no risk" interpretation. Epidemiologic data contain intrinsic "noise" (variation by known and unknown factors related to genetics, lifestyle, other environmental exposures, sociodemographics, diagnostic accuracy, etc.) so are generally too insensitive to provide compelling answers in the low-dose range. However, there have been recent provocative reports regarding risk from relatively low-dose occupational and medical radiation exposures that warrant careful consideration. Summaries of the largest studies with low-dose or low dose-rate radiation exposure provide suggestive evidence of risk for solid cancer and stronger evidence for leukemia risk. Recently, interest in health endpoints other than cancer also has risen sharply, in particular the degree of cardiovascular and cataract risk following doses under 1 Sv. Data regarding cardiovascular disease are limited and fuzzy, with suggestions of inconsistencies, and the risk at low doses is essentially unknown. The evidence of cataract risk after low dose-rate exposures among those conducting interventional medical radiological procedures is becoming strong. The magnitude of radiation impacts on human health requires fuller documentation, especially for low-dose or low dose-rate exposures. From the epidemiologic vantage point, this will require longer observation of existing irradiated cohorts and development of new informative cohorts, improved accuracy in dose assessments, more attention to confounding variables, and more biosamples from irradiated groups to enable translational radiobiological studies. Introduction of Radiation Impacts on Human Health (Video 2:02, http://links.lww.com/HP/A35). PMID:24378493

Shore, Roy E

2014-02-01

464

PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES  

SciTech Connect

Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism via reverse genetics, metabolic profiling, functional complementation, and recombinant protein biochemistry. Our approach predicted and validated functions for 10 formerly uncharacterized protein families common to plants and prokaryotes; none of these functions had previously been correctly predicted by computational methods. The functions of five more are currently being validated. Experimental testing of diverse representatives of these families combined with in silica analysis allowed accurate projection of the annotations to hundreds more sequenced genomes.

V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

2012-01-03

465

Lepton mixing from the interplay of the alternating group A5 and CP  

E-print Network

Assuming three generations of Majorana neutrinos, we study the different mixing patterns that arise from the non-trivial breaking of the flavor group A5 and CP to the residual symmetries Z3, Z5 or Z2 x Z2 in the charged lepton and to Z2 x CP in the neutrino sector. All patterns contain only one free parameter theta and thus mixing angles as well as the Dirac and the two Majorana phases are strongly correlated. We perform an analytical and a numerical study of all possible mixing patterns. It turns out that only four patterns can describe the experimentally measured values of the mixing angles for a particular choice of theta well. All of them predict trivial Majorana phases, while the Dirac phase delta is maximal for two patterns and trivial for the two remaining ones. If delta is maximal, also the atmospheric mixing angle is fixed to be maximal.

Di Iura, Andrea; Meloni, Davide

2015-01-01

466

Mixed Outcome Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Policymakers and planners have broadly conceptualized and widely adopted the mixed-income approach to provision of low-income housing. Yet, few case studies examine the relationship between theoretical propositions about how mixed-income tenancy can help lift families out of poverty and the actual dynamics of a mixed-income housing development.Purpose: I address this gap by examining the social dynamics within a mixed-income

Erin M. Graves

2011-01-01

467

Liquid mixing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the

OLeary

1985-01-01

468

Lichen scrofulosorum presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Cutaneous tuberculosis forms a subset of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. It accounts for about 1.5% of all the cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lichen Scrofulosorum is a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is usually seen in children or young adults and an important marker of occult tuberculosis. Usually, the eruption appears in children and adolescents with strong immune sensitivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and consists of tiny follicular papules. Underlying systemic involvement is more common in children, compared with adults. We report a case of 3 years old boy who was investigated for pyrexia of unknown origin and finally diagnosed as Lichen Scrofulosorum associated with tuberculous lymphadenitis of mediastinal lymph nodes. A skin biopsy showed extensive tuberculoid granulomas surrounding hair follicles which were consistent with the diagnosis of Lichen Scrofulosorum. The child was treated with antitubercular drugs and it showed improvement within 2 weeks of starting treatment with resolution of skin lesions. PMID:24491013

Patra, Soumya; Patro, Bijoy; Patel, Rakesh; Aneja, Satinder; Sarkar, Debanjali

2014-02-01

469

Parameter estimation of qubit states with unknown phase parameter  

E-print Network

We discuss a problem of parameter estimation for quantum two-level system, qubit system, in presence of unknown phase parameter. We analyze trade-off relations for mean-square errors when estimating relevant parameters with separable measurements based on known precision bounds; the symmetric logarithmic derivative Cramer-Rao bound and Hayashi-Gill-Massar (HGM) bound. We investigate the optimal measurement which attains the HGM bound and discuss its properties. We show that the HGM bound for relevant parameters can be attained asymptotically by using some fraction of given $n$ quantum states to estimate the phase parameter. We also discuss the Holevo bound which can be attained asymptotically by a collective measurement.

Jun Suzuki

2015-02-24

470

Simulated NMIS Imaging Data for an Unknown Object  

SciTech Connect

This report presents simulated Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging data for an unclassified object, whose characteristics are initially unknown to the reader. This data will be used to test various analysis capabilities and was created with a simple deterministic ray-tracing algorithm. NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence counting system that is used to characterize both fissile and non-fissile materials undergoing nondestructive assay. NMIS characterizes materials by interrogating them with neutrons, either from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, which produces a time and directionally tagged monoenergetic beam of 14.1 MeV neutrons, or a time-tagged spontaneous fission source in an ionization chamber.

Walker, Mark E [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2012-04-01

471

Identification of unknown migrants from food contact materials.  

PubMed

Materials that come into contact with foodstuffs can transfer components that may cause odour or taint problems or in the worse case cause the foodstuff to be unsafe to eat. The identities of some of these are easily predicted from the chemistry of known components but others are not. In this respect, it is important to be able to identify and quantify these chemicals. This chapter describes the need for methods of identification of unknown chemicals that may migrate. Mass spectrometric analytical methods are described, including headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS), liquid injection gas chromatography with MS, and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight MS (LC-TOF-MS). PMID:21643915

Driffield, Malcolm; Bradley, Emma L; Castle, Laurence; Coulier, Leon

2011-01-01

472

Optimal transfer of an unknown state via a bipartite operation  

E-print Network

A fundamental task in quantum information science is to transfer an unknown state from particle $A$ to particle $B$ (often in remote space locations) by using a bipartite quantum operation $\\mathcal{E}^{AB}$. We suggest the power of $\\mathcal{E}^{AB}$ for quantum state transfer (QST) to be the maximal average probability of QST over the initial states of particle $B$ and the identifications of the state vectors between $A$ and $B$. We find the QST power of a bipartite quantum operations satisfies four desired properties between two $d$-dimensional Hilbert spaces. When $A$ and $B$ are qubits, the analytical expressions of the QST power is given. In particular, we obtain the exact results of the QST power for a general two-qubit unitary transformation.

Yang Liu; Yu Guo; D. L. Zhou

2012-09-11

473

Physical mixture modeling with unknown number of components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured physical spectra often comprise an unknown number of components of known parametric family. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) technique is applied to the problem of estimating the number of components evident in the data jointly with the parameters of the components. The physical model consists of a mixture of components, an additive background, and a convolution with a blurring apparatus transfer function. The results were compared with the deconvolution of a form-free distribution. By calculating marginal posterior probability density distributions from the RJMCMC sample for the most probable number of components we estimated the parameters and their uncertainties. The method was applied to a benchmark test of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy on a system consisting of a thin Cu film where we know that Cu consists of two isotopes.

Fischer, R.; Dose, V.

2002-05-01

474

[Observations on cancer metastasis from an unknown primary location].  

PubMed

Following a short introduction in which the criteria used to classify patients suffering from cancer metastasis from an occult primary location are defined, the paper reports two cases of this type: an omental metastasis occluding the upper colon and an inguinal lymph node metastasis. Referring to the international literature, the Authors then analyse the reasons for the inability to recognise the neoplasm, its incidence, patients survival, the most appropriate diagnostic course and possible treatment of these cases. In conclusion, over and above the definition of a truly autonomous nosological status of metastasis of unknown origin, it is important to follow a correct diagnostic procedure in order to establish the most appropriate form of therapy. PMID:1758637

Mandarano, R; Ciccone, A; Sereni, P; Ceccherini, E

1991-09-15

475

An Efficient Algorithm for Direction Finding against Unknown Mutual Coupling  

PubMed Central

In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs) with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively. PMID:25347587

Wang, Weijiang; Ren, Shiwei; Ding, Yingtao; Wang, Haoyu

2014-01-01

476

Parameter estimation of qubit states with unknown phase parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a problem of parameter estimation for quantum two-level system, qubit system, in presence of unknown phase parameter. We analyze trade-off relations for mean square errors (MSEs) when estimating relevant parameters with separable measurements based on known precision bounds; the symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD) Cramér-Rao (CR) bound and Hayashi-Gill-Massar (HGM) bound. We investigate the optimal measurement which attains the HGM bound and discuss its properties. We show that the HGM bound for relevant parameters can be attained asymptotically by using some fraction of given n quantum states to estimate the phase parameter. We also discuss the Holevo bound which can be attained asymptotically by a collective measurement.

Suzuki, Jun

2015-02-01

477

Orientation Angles of a Pulsar's Polarization Vector  

E-print Network

A statistical model of the polarization of pulsar radio emission is used to derive the general statistics of a polarization vector's orientation angles. The theoretical distributions are compared with orientation angle histograms computed from single-pulse, polarization observations of PSR B2020+28. The favorable agreement between the theoretical and measured distributions lends support to the underlying assumptions of the statistical model, and demonstrates, like recent work on other pulsars, that the handedness of circular polarization is associated with the radiation's orthogonally polarized modes. Comprehensive directional statistics of the vector's orientation angles are also derived, and are shown to follow the Watson bipolar and Fisher distributions in its limiting forms.

Mark M. McKinnon

2006-03-17

478

Bond Angles around a Tetravalent Central Atom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several practical algorithms for building molecular geometries based on bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles. There seem to be few discussions of the effect changing one angle has on the remaining bond angles depending upon local symmetry. For example, in methane, CH4, the H-C-H bond angles are all tetrahedral, i.e., ? = 109.4712206... deg. If one considers CH3F, a molecule with C3v symmetry, how are the H-C-F bond angles related to the H-C-H bond angles? This study derives the bond angle relationships for a 4-bonded central atom such as a saturated C atom. For a 4-bonded central atom (6 bond angles) the possible local point group symmetries are Td(0), D2d(1), C3v(1), C2v(1), D2(2), C2(3), Cs(3), and C1(4). The numbers in parentheses are the degrees of freedom, i.e., the number of angles which can be assigned arbitrary values with the remaining angles fixed by symmetry. Analytical formulas relating the bond angles for each of the eight possible symmetries are derived. Also, formulas have been derived for the five possible symmetries of a planar 4-bonded atom, D4h(0), D2h(1), C2v(pendant, 1), C2v(trapezoid, 2), and Cs(3); the three possible structures of planar 3-bonded atoms, (D3h(0), C2v (1), and Cs(2); the three possible symmetries of pyramidal 3-bonded atoms, C3v(1), Cs(2), and C1 (3); and the trivial case of 2-bonded atoms, D{?h}(0) and C2v(bent 1). There are also six distinct 4-bonded central atom structures with all the bonds directed into a hemisphere, C4v(1), C2v(2), C2(3), Cs(trapezoid 3), Cs(pendant 3), and C1(4), geometries rarely seen in molecules.

Bohn, Robert Karl

2014-06-01

479

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

480

Glory on Venus cloud tops and the unknown UV absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the implications of the observations of the glory phenomenon made recently by Venus Express orbiter. Glory is an optical phenomenon that poses stringent constraints on the cloud properties. These observations thus enable us to constrain two properties of the particles at the cloud tops (about 70 km altitude) which are responsible for a large fraction of the solar energy absorbed by Venus. Firstly we obtain a very accurate estimate of the cloud particles size to be 1.2 ?m with a very narrow size distribution. We also find that for the two observations presented here the clouds are homogenous, as far as cloud particles sizes are concerned, on scale of at least 1200 km. This is in contrast to previous estimates that were either local, from entry probes data, or averaged over space and time from polarization data. Secondly we find that the refractive index for the data discussed here is higher than that of sulfuric acid previously proposed for the clouds composition (Hansen, J.E., Hovenier, J.W. [1974]. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160; Ragent, B. et al. [1985]. Adv. Space Res. 5, 85-115). Assuming that the species contributing to the increase of the refractive index is the same as the unknown UV absorber, we are able to constrain the list of candidates. We investigated several possibilities and argue that either small ferric chloride (FeCl3) cores inside sulfuric acid particles or elemental sulfur coating their surface are good explanations of the observation. Both ferric chloride and elemental sulfur have been suggested in the past as candidates for the as yet unknown UV absorber (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1352-1359; Mills, F.P. et al. [2007]. In: Esposito, L.W., Stofan, E.R., Cravens, T.E. (Eds.), Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, vol. 176. AGU Monogr. Ser., Washington, DC, pp. 73-100).

Markiewicz, W. J.; Petrova, E.; Shalygina, O.; Almeida, M.; Titov, D. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Ignatiev, N.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K. D.

2014-05-01

481

A Distance and Angle Similarity Measure Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses similarity measures that are used in information retrieval to improve precision and recall ratios and presents a combined vector-based distance and angle measure to make similarity measurement more scientific and accurate. Suggests directions for future research. (LRW)

Zhang, Jin; Korfhage, Robert R.

1999-01-01

482

Spherical Trigonometry of the Projected Baseline Angle  

E-print Network

The basic geometry of a stellar interferometer with two telescopes consists of a baseline vector and a direction to a star. Two derived vectors are the delay vector, and the projected baseline vector in the plane of the wavefronts of the stellar light. The manuscript deals with the trigonometry of projecting the baseline further outwards onto the celestial sphere. The position angle of the projected baseline is defined, measured in a plane tangential to the celestial sphere, tangent point at the position of the star. This angle represents two orthogonal directions on the sky, differential star positions which are aligned with or orthogonal to the gradient of the delay recorded in the u-v plane. The North Celestial Pole is chosen as the reference direction of the projected baseline angle, adapted to the common definition of the "parallactic" angle.

Mathar, R J

2006-01-01

483

Spherical Trigonometry of the Projected Baseline Angle  

E-print Network

The basic geometry of a stellar interferometer with two telescopes consists of a baseline vector and a direction to a star. Two derived vectors are the delay vector, and the projected baseline vector in the plane of the wavefronts of the stellar light. The manuscript deals with the trigonometry of projecting the baseline further outwards onto the celestial sphere. The position angle of the projected baseline is defined, measured in a plane tangential to the celestial sphere, tangent point at the position of the star. This angle represents two orthogonal directions on the sky, differential star positions which are aligned with or orthogonal to the gradient of the delay recorded in the u-v plane. The North Celestial Pole is chosen as the reference direction of the projected baseline angle, adapted to the common definition of the "parallactic" angle.

Richard J. Mathar

2009-05-02

484

Ducted turbine theory with right angled ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of an inviscid approach to model a ducted turbine - also known as a diffuser augmented turbine - and a comparison of results with a particular one-dimensional theory. The aim of the investigation was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between a real duct and the ideal diffuser, which is a concept that is developed in the theory. A range of right angled ducts, which have a rim for a 90° exit angle, were modelled. As a result, the performance of right angled ducts has been characterised in inviscid flow. It was concluded that right angled ducts cannot match the performance of their associated ideal diffuser and that the optimum rotor loading for these turbines varies with the duct dimensions.

McLaren-Gow, S.; Jamieson, P.; Graham, J. M. R.

2014-06-01

485

SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final research report summarizes the scientific work performed by The Aerospace Corporation on SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions. The period of performance was from June 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001.

McKenzie, David L.; Anderson, Phillip C.

2002-01-01

486

Mixing of Pseudoscalar Mesons  

E-print Network

Eta-eta' mixing is discussed in the quark-flavor basis with the hypothesis that the decay constants follow the pattern of particle state mixing. On exploiting the divergences of the axial vector currents - which embody the axial vector anomaly - all mixing parameters are fixed to first order of flavor symmetry breaking. An alternative set of parameters is obtained from a phenomenological analysis. We also discuss mixing in the octet-singlet basis and show how the relevant mixing parameters are related to those in the quark-flavor basis. The dependence of the mixing parameters on the strength of the anomaly and the amount of flavor symmetry breaking is investigated. Finally, we present a few applications of the quark-flavor mixing scheme, such as radiative decays of vector mesons, the photon-pseudoscalar meson transition form factors, the coupling constants of eta and eta' to nucleons, and the isospin-singlet admixtures to the pi^0 meson.

Th. Feldmann; P. Kroll

2002-01-08

487

Contact Angle Hysteresis on Superhydrophobic Stripes  

E-print Network

We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, $\\phi_S$. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e. is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with $\\phi_S$, in contrast to predictions of the Cassie equation. To interpret this we develop a simple theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the elastic energy of strong defects at the borders of stripes, which scales as $\\phi_S^2 \\ln \\phi_S$. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except as in a dilute regime, and its value is determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on $\\phi_S$, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at $\\phi_S\\simeq 0.5$. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be proportional to $\\phi_S^2$. Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when $\\phi_S\\leq 0.2$.

Alexander L. Dubov; Ahmed Mourran; Martin Möller; Olga I. Vinogradova

2014-07-21

488

Estimation of Surface Energies from Contact Angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RECENT communication by Gray1 illustrates a possible pitfall in the use of the theories of Fowkes2-5 and Good and Girifalco6,7 to estimate surface energies, and the various components of surface energy, from contact angles. This source of error is the incorrect identification of the surface tension terms, and the equating of the contact angle in a contaminated, experimental system

R. J. Good

1966-01-01

489

Classifying Triangles By Sides and Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn to classify triangles by either their side lengths or their angle measures. There are two ways to classify triangles: by its sides, and by its angles. Let's see how to classify a triangle by its sides : A S calene Triangle has no congruent sides (no sides the same measure). An Isoceles Triangle has at least 2 congruent sides (2 sides of the same measure). ...

Mrs. Neubert

2010-10-05

490

MRI 'magic angle' imaging of finger tendons.  

PubMed

The value of using the technique of magic angle MR imaging to demonstrate finger tendons is explored. Images of fresh frozen cadaveric specimens are presented and the structures that can be visualized in the finger are described. The results suggest that magic angle MR imaging may be a useful non-invasive technique of visualizing the details of the tendons and their surrounds in the hand. PMID:16182418

Lambe, G; Coutts, G; McArthur, P; Dangerfield, P H

2006-04-01

491

Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)  

SciTech Connect

We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); National Research Council, Canada, SIMS, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstr 3, D-70569, Stuttgart (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2005-05-15

492

Modelling PTB's spatial angle autocollimator calibrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and traceable form measurement of optical surfaces has been greatly advanced by a new generation of surface profilometers which are based on the reflection of light at the surface and the measurement of the reflection angle. For this application, high-resolution electronic autocollimators provide accurate and traceable angle metrology. In recent years, great progress has been made at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in autocollimator calibration. For an advanced autocollimator characterisation, a novel calibration device has been built up at PTB: the Spatial Angle Autocollimator Calibrator (SAAC). The system makes use of an innovative Cartesian arrangement of three autocollimators (two reference autocollimators and the autocollimator to be calibrated), which allows a precise measurement of the angular orientation of a reflector cube. Each reference autocollimator is sensitive primarily to changes in one of the two relevant tilt angles, whereas the autocollimator to be calibrated is sensitive to both. The distance between the reflector cube and the autocollimator to be calibrated can be varied flexibly. In this contribution, we present the SAAC and aspects of the mathematical modelling of the system for deriving analytical expressions for the autocollimators' angle responses. These efforts will allow advancing the form measurement substantially with autocollimator-based profilometers and approaching fundamental measurement limits. Additionally, they will help manufacturers of autocollimators to improve their instruments and will provide improved angle measurement methods for precision engineering.

Kranz, Oliver; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael

2013-05-01

493

42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown...Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined,...

2010-10-01

494

Comments on the Yule Marble Haines Block--Potential Replacement, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Arlington  

E-print Network

Comments on the Yule Marble Haines Block--Potential Replacement, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier., 2014, Comments on the Yule Marble Haines Block--Potential Replacement, Tomb of the Unknown Solider ....................................................................................................................................................................1 Yule Marble

Torgersen, Christian

495

[Long-term follow-up of pulmonary hypertension of unknown etiology].  

PubMed

Since 1967, 166 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension of unknown etiology have been followed-up at the Department of Cardiology at the University of Vienna. Although an exact etiopathogenetic differentiation was not possible, three groups of patients were identified clinically: patients with so-called primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)--group 1; patients with pulmonary hypertension induced by anorexipens (aminorex fumarate)--group 2; and patients with pulmonary hypertension due to emboli in the large pulmonary vessels--group 3. In addition to non-invasive echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary pressures, regular cardiac catheterizations were carried out, which revealed right atrial mean pressure, cardiac output, and mixed venous saturation to be prognostic predictive factors. Patients with anorexigen-induced pulmonary hypertension have a clearly better life expectancy than those with PPH. Owing to the temporally limited effect of the pulmonary hypertension-inducing agent, aminorex fumarate (Menocil), patients with anorexigen-induced pulmonary hypertension may be considered a model group for drug-induced vascular pathology. PMID:2399244

Lang, I; Kneussl, M; Frank, H; Mlczoch, J

1990-07-01

496

Three-dimensional aquifer inversion under unknown boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for three-dimensional steady-state aquifer inversion is developed to simultaneously estimate aquifer hydraulic conductivities and the unknown aquifer boundary conditions (BC). The method has its key strength in computational efficiency, as there is no need to fit an objective function, nor repeated simulations of a forward flow model. It employs a discretization scheme based on functional approximations and a collocation technique to enforce the global flow solution. The noisy observed data are directly incorporated into the inversion matrix, which is solved in a one-step procedure. The inverse solution includes hydraulic conductivities and head and flux approximating functions from which the model BC can be inferred. Thus a key advantage of the method is that it eliminates the non-uniqueness associated with parameter estimation under unknown BC which can cause the result of inversion sensitive to the assumption of aquifer BC. Two approximating functions are tested here, one employing quadratic approximation of the hydraulic head (flux is linear), the other cubic approximation. Two different BC are also tested, one leading to linear flow, the other strongly nonlinear flow. For both BC, the estimated conductivities converge to the true values with grid refinement, and the solution is accurate and stable when a sufficient number of the observation data is used. Compared to the quadratic function, the cubic function leads to a faster convergence of the estimated conductivity at a lower level of grid discretization, while it is also more robust for the different flow conditions tested. A sensitivity analysis is conducted whereby the inversion accuracy is evaluated against data density. Composite scale sensitivity (CSS) can reveal the overall information content of the data. However, when the number of measurements is fixed, CSS cannot reveal whether the observed data can lead to reliable conductivity estimates. A one-observation-at-a-time (OAT) approach is proposed, which can indicate the reliability of the estimated conductivity for a given set of the observation data. To evaluate the stability of the method when the observation data contain errors, a problem with 4 hydrofacies conductivities is inverted using hydraulic heads and a single Darcy flux component. The results are accurate when the measurement error is small but become slightly less accurate when the error is larger. In summary, flow condition, inverse formulation, grid discretization, observation data density and location, and measurement errors all influence the accuracy of inversion.

Zhang, Ye; Irsa, Juraj; Jiao, Jianying

2014-02-01

497

Solar cell angle of incidence corrections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees from normal which prevented any firm conclusions about extreme angle effects although a trend in the right direction was seen. Measurement errors were estimated and found to be consistent with the conclusions that were drawn. A controlled experiment using coverglasses and cells from the same lots and extending to larger incidence angles would probably lead to further insight into the subject area.

Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

1995-01-01

498

Contact angle hysteresis: study by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry on polyimide.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis was studied on smooth films of polyimide, a polymer type used in the microelectronic industry, by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements based on axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile in combination with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). It was found that both advancing and receding contact angles became smaller with increasing the number of cycles and are, therefore, not a property of the dry solid alone. The changes of the wetting behavior during these dynamic cycling contact angle measurements are attributed mainly to swelling and/or liquid retention. To reveal the water-induced changes of the polymer film, the polyimide surface was studied before and after the contact with a water droplet by VASE. Both the experimental ellipsometric spectrum for Delta and that for Psi as well as the corresponding simulations show characteristic shifts due to the contact with water. The so-called effective medium approximation was applied to recover information about the thickness and effective optical constants of the polymer layer from the ellipsometrically measured values of Delta and Psi. On the basis of these results, the swelling and retention behavior of the polyimide films in contact with water droplets were discussed. PMID:15274573

Hennig, A; Eichhorn, K-J; Staudinger, U; Sahre, K; Rogalli, M; Stamm, M; Neumann, A W; Grundke, K

2004-08-01

499

Family symmetries and the origin of fermion masses and mixings  

E-print Network

Family symmetries are possibly the most conservative extension of the Standard Model that attempt explanations of the pattern of fermion masses and mixings. The observed large mixing angles in the lepton sector may be the first signal for the presence of a non-Abelian family symmetry. We investigate the possibilities of simultaneously explaining the observed pattern of masses of the quarks (hierarchical masses and small mixing angles) and of the leptons (near tri-bi-maximal mixing, thus large mixing angles). We show that such contrasting observations can be achieved naturally via the seesaw mechanism, whether in models with continuous or discrete family symmetries. We consider also in some detail the constraints on flavour changing neutral currents arising from introducing a continuous family symmetry. We show that, for a restricted choice of the flavon sector, continuous family symmetries are consistent with even the most conservative limits both for the case of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking and the case of gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking.

Ivo de Medeiros Varzielas

2008-01-17

500

Intermittent acute angle closure glaucoma and chronic angle closure following topiramate use with plateau iris configuration  

PubMed Central

This is a case report describing recurrent intermittent acute angle closure episodes in the setting of topiramate use in a female suffering from migraines. Despite laser peripheral iridotomy placement for the pupillary block component, and the discontinuation of topiramate, the acute angle closure did not resolve in the left eye with chronic angle closure and the patient required urgent trabeculectomy. The right eye responded to laser peripheral iridotomy immediately and further improved after the cessation of topiramate. While secondary angle closure glaucoma due to topiramate use has been widely reported, its effects in patients with underlying primary angle closure glaucoma have not been discussed. Our report highlights the importance of recognizing the often multifactorial etiology of angle closure glaucoma to help guide clinical management. PMID:25114497

Rajjoub, Lamise Z; Chadha, Nisha; Belyea, David A

2014-01-01