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1

4.MD,G Finding an unknown angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In the figure, $ABCD$ is a rectangle and $\\angle CAD = 31^{\\circ}$. Find $\\angle BAC$....

2

Angle-resolved coherent optical wave mixing  

SciTech Connect

A generalized approach is derived for the analysis of angle-resolved coherent optical wave mixing. Remarkably with this, a signal is calculated to remain efficiently generated for the arbitrary evolution of a quantum superposition state and for energy transfer spanning an ultrawide bandwidth in solution. This approach is compact and applies across matter processes and wave-mixing schemes. A high sensitivity and sampling rate are shown to be intrinsic to angle-resolved wave mixing and an angle-resolved six-wave mixing scheme is proposed for the mapping of molecular structure.

Mercer, Ian P. [School of Physics, Centre for Synthesis and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2010-10-15

3

Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions  

SciTech Connect

An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

Albright, Carl H.

2009-11-01

4

Radar target identification with relative amplitudes and unknown target aspect angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to radar target identification that uses a modified nearest neighbor algorithm and relative amplitude target features is proposed. It assumes that the aspect angles (elevation and azimuth) of the target to be identified are unknown. The relative amplitude features are the ratios of the target amplitude returns of two different frequencies, and they are two-dimensional functions of the

Jen-Shiun Chen

1990-01-01

5

Correlated hierarchy, Dirac masses and large mixing angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new parametrization of the MNS lepton mixing matrix which separates the hierarchical grand unified relations among quarks and leptons. We argue that one large angle stems from the charged leptons, the other from the seesaw structure of the neutral lepton mass matrix. We show how two large mixing angles can arise naturally provided there are special requirements

Aseshkrishna Datta; Fu-Sin Ling; Pierre Ramond

2003-01-01

6

Quark mass ratios from mixing angles and flavor symmetry considerations  

SciTech Connect

Using the flavor symmetry, we 'visualize' the dependence of the constituent quark mass on the mixing angles. We further show that a simple relation can be proposed to express its functional dependence, relating the bare and the constituent quark masses.

Coss, Maritza de; Huerta, Rodrigo [Depto. de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, A. P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

1998-10-05

7

Phenomenological relations for quark and neutrino mixing angles  

SciTech Connect

The most recent experimental data on quark and neutrino mixing angles are discussed. It is indicated that the results of the latest kaon-decay experiments are consistent with the unitarity condition for the first row of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix if the currently available world-average value of the neutron lifetime is used to determine the element V{sub ud} of this matrix. The quark mixing angles are calculated within the Fritzsch-Scadron-Delbourgo-Rupp phenomenological approach on the basis of values of the masses of light and heavy constituent quarks. The neutrino mixing angles are calculated to a high precision with the aid of the hypothesis that the quark and neutrino mixing angles are complementary. The results are compatible with experimental data.

Gaponov, Yu. V.; Khruschov, V. V.; Semenov, S. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

8

Determination of the effective electroweak mixing angle from Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective electroweak mixing angle sin2thetaw is measured from the production and decay of the Z boson in e+e- interactions. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18pb-1 with about 420 000 hadronic and 40 000 leptonic Z decays. The mixing angle sin2thetaw is determined from several independent measurements: the leptonic and hadronic cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries

O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S P Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; A G Atamanchuk; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; J. Bechtluft; R. Becker; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; M. Biasini; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; G. J. Bobbink; R. Bock; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; M. Bosetti; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B. Bouwens; E. Brambilla; J. G. Branson; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A. Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; J. Busenitz; A. Buytenhuijs; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; R. Castello; M. Cerrada; F. Cesaroni; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. M. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; W. Y. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; X. T. Cui; X. Y. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Dhina; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; O. Fackler; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; F. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. Field; F. Filthaut; G. Finocchiaro; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; T. Foreman; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; D. Gele; S. Gentile; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; B. Hartmann; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; G. Herten; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; S. Jezequel; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; R. Klöckner; A. C. König; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kraemer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; A. Krivshich; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; X. Leytens; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; P. K. Malhotra; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; L. Martinez-Laso; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McHamon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; A. Nadtochy; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; C. Neyer; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J. Salicio; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; S. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen; S. Shevchenko; X. R. Shi; E. Shumilov; V. Shoutko; D. Son; A. Sopczak; C. Spartiotis; T. Spickermann; P. Spillantini; R. Starosta; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; F. Sticozzi; H. Stone; K. Strauch

1993-01-01

9

Fermion masses and mixing angles from /SU(3) family symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model based on /SU(3) family symmetry which leads to a successful description of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles including approximate bi-maximal mixing in the neutrino sector suitable for the LOW or quasi-vacuum solar solutions, with the atmospheric angle predicted to be accurately maximal due to the /SU(3) symmetry. The model predicts a CHOOZ angle ?13~Vub. The /SU(3) symmetry can also ensure the near degeneracy of squarks and sleptons needed to avoid large flavour changing neutral currents.

King, S. F.; Ross, G. G.

2001-11-01

10

A non-linear geodetic data inversion using ABIC for slip distribution on a fault with an unknown dip angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method of geodetic data inversion for slip distribution on a fault with an unknown dip angle. A common strategy for obtaining slip distribution in previous studies is to first determine the fault geometry by minimizing the square misfit under the assumption of a uniform slip on a rectangular fault, and then apply the usual linear inversion technique to estimate a slip distribution on the determined fault. It is not guaranteed, however, that the fault determined under the assumption of a uniform slip gives the best fault geometry for a spatially variable slip distribution. The inverse problem is non-linear for cases with unknown fault geometries, but the non-linearity of the problems is actually weak, when we can assume the fault surface to be a flat plane. In particular, when a clear trace of coseismic faults is observed on the Earth's surface, only the dip angle is an unknown parameter to determine the fault geometry. Then, we regarded the dip angle as an hyperparameter that prescribed the structure of parametric models, and obtained the best estimate of the dip angle using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). With the best estimate of the dip angle, we can obtain the slip distribution on the fault based on the maximum-likelihood principle. We applied the method to the InSAR data of the 1995 Dinar, Turkey earthquake and obtained a much lower dip angle than the previous analyses.

Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Wright, Tim J.

2008-05-01

11

Effect of bond angle on mixed-mode adhesive fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum in mixed-mode adhesive fracture energy has been observed at bond angles of 45° using scarf-joint test specimens. It is shown here that by reducing the adherend surface roughness from 1.2µm CLA roughness (milled surfaces) to 0.08µm CLA roughness (polished surfaces) the fracture energy becomes a linear function of bond angle (no maximum at 45°) and there is an

W. D. Bascom; J. Oroshnik

1978-01-01

12

Multivariate statistical approach to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA multivariate statistical method is presented, which includes principal components analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing model to estimate unknown end-member hydrochemical compositions and the relative mixing proportions of those end members in mixed waters. PCA, together with the Hotelling T2 statistic and a conceptual model of groundwater flow and mixing, was used in selecting samples that best approximate end members, which then were used as initial values in optimization of the end-member mixing model. This method was tested on controlled datasets (i.e., true values of estimates were known a priori) and found effective in estimating these end members and mixing proportions. The controlled datasets included synthetically generated hydrochemical data, synthetically generated mixing proportions, and laboratory analyses of sample mixtures, which were used in an evaluation of the effectiveness of this method for potential use in actual hydrological settings. For three different scenarios tested, correlation coefficients (R2) for linear regression between the estimated and known values ranged from 0.968 to 0.993 for mixing proportions and from 0.839 to 0.998 for end-member compositions. The method also was applied to field data from a study of end-member mixing in groundwater as a field example and partial method validation.

Valder, Joshua F.; Long, Andrew J.; Davis, Arden D.; Kenner, Scott J.

2012-08-01

13

Relation between the neutrino and quark mixing angles and grand unification.  

PubMed

We argue that there exists a simple relation between the quark and lepton mixings, which supports the idea of grand unification and probes the underlying robust bimaximal fermion mixing structure of still unknown flavor physics. In this framework the quark mixing matrix is a parameter matrix describing the deviation of neutrino mixing from exactly bimaximal, predicting theta(sol)+theta(C)=pi/4, where theta(C) is the Cabibbo angle, theta(atm)+theta(CKM)(23)=pi/4 and theta(MNS)(13) approximately theta(CKM)(13) approximately O(lambda(3)), in perfect agreement with experimental data. Both non-Abelian and Abelian flavor symmetries are needed for such a prediction to be realistic. An example flavor model capable of explaining this flavor mixing pattern and inducing the measured quark and lepton masses is outlined. PMID:15524979

Raidal, Martti

2004-10-15

14

Weak mixing angles from semileptonic decays in the quark model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the constituent-quark model to predict the electron spectra in semileptonic meson decays. Particular attention is paid to the end-point region of the spectrum in B decays, which is important to the determination of the b-->u weak mixing angle.

Benjamin Grinstein; Mark B. Wise; Nathan Isgur

1986-01-01

15

Quark and lepton masses and mixing angles from superstring constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the observed structure of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles can arise entirely geometrically from superstring constructions, at the renormalizable level. The model we consider is a ?3 orbifold compactification of heterotic string with two Wilson lines, where three families of particles of SU(3)c × SU(2)L × U(1)Y, including Higgses, are automatically present. In orbifold models,

Steven A. Abel

2003-01-01

16

Precision measurement of the weak mixing angle in Moller scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moeller) scattering: A{sub PV} = (-131 {+-} 14 (stat.) {+-} 10 (syst.)) x 10{sup -9}, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2397 {+-} 0.0010 (stat.) {+-} 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q{sup 2} = 0.026 GeV{sup 2}. Combining this result with the measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} at the Z{sup 0} pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6{sigma} significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

Anthony, P.L.; Arnold, R.G.; Arroyo, C.; Bega, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bosted, P.E.; Bower, G.; Cahoon, J.; Carr, R.; Cates, G.D.; Chen, J-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cooke, M.; Decowski, P.; Deur, A.; Emam, W.; Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Field, C.; Gao, J.; Gary, M.; /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Princeton U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Smith Coll. /SLAC /Syracuse U. /Jefferson Lab /Virginia U.

2005-05-04

17

Determination of the effective electroweak mixing angle from Z decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective electroweak mixing angle sin2overline?w is measured from the production and decay of the Z boson in e +e - interactions. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18pb -1 with about 420 000 hadronic and 40 000 leptonic Z decays. The mixing angle sin2overline?w is determined from several independent measurements: the leptonic and hadronic cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries of charged leptons and b-quarks, and the ?-polarization. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The value of sin2overline?w from a fit to the asymmetries in a model independent method is 0.2321±0.0021 and from a global fit to the data in the Standard Model framework is 0.2328±0.0013.

Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Bechtluft, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Djambazov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, F.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Klöckner, R.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kraemer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mcbride, P.; McHamon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.

1993-07-01

18

Low-Energy Measurements of the Weak Mixing Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the status of precision measurements of weak neutral-current interactions, mediated by the Z0 boson, at Q2?M2Z. They can be used to extract values for the weak mixing angle [Formula: see text], a fundamental parameter of the [Formula: see text] electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Apart from providing a comprehensive test of the electroweak theory at the quantum-loop level, such measurements allow indirect access to New Physics effects at and beyond the TeV scale. After providing a theoretical introduction and a brief overview of the three most precise low-Q2 weak mixing angle determinations, we describe the ongoing experimental program and prospects for future, more sensitive studies. We also compare the sensitivities of planned and proposed measurements with physics beyond the Standard Model.

Kumar, K. S.; Mantry, Sonny; Marciano, W. J.; Souder, P. A.

2013-10-01

19

Mixing matrix estimation from sparse mixtures with unknown number of sources.  

PubMed

In blind source separation, many methods have been proposed to estimate the mixing matrix by exploiting sparsity. However, they often need to know the source number a priori, which is very inconvenient in practice. In this paper, a new method, namely nonlinear projection and column masking (NPCM), is proposed to estimate the mixing matrix. A major advantage of NPCM is that it does not need any knowledge of the source number. In NPCM, the objective function is based on a nonlinear projection and its maxima just correspond to the columns of the mixing matrix. Thus a column can be estimated first by locating a maximum and then deflated by a masking operation. This procedure is repeated until the evaluation of the objective function decreases to zero dramatically. Thus the mixing matrix and the number of sources are estimated simultaneously. Because the masking procedure may result in some small and useless local maxima, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is introduced to optimize the objective function. Feasibility and efficiency of PSO are also discussed. Comparative experimental results show the efficiency of NPCM, especially in the cases where the number of sources is unknown and the sources are relatively less sparse. PMID:21095863

Zhou, Guoxu; Yang, Zuyuan; Xie, Shengli; Yang, Jun-Mei

2011-02-01

20

S3 flavour symmetry and the reactor mixing angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of a minimal S3 symmetric extension of the Standard Model, the mass matrices of all fermions take the same generic form with two texture zeroes. The neutrino mixing matrix, VPMNS, is computed and exact, explicit analytical expressions for the neutrino mixing angles as functions of the masses of neutrinos and charged leptons are obtained in good agreement with the latest experimental data. We also compute the branching ratios of some selected flavour–changing neutral current (FCNC) processes, as well as the contribution of the exchange of neutral flavour–changing scalars to the anomaly of the magnetic moment of the muon, as functions of the masses of charged leptons and the neutral Higgs bosons.

Felix-Beltran, O.; Gonzalez Canales, F.; Mondragon, A.; Mondragón, M.

2014-03-01

21

Cosmological lepton asymmetry with a nonzero mixing angle ?13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is nowadays well measured by cosmological observations, the bounds on the lepton asymmetry in the form of neutrinos are still significantly weaker. We place limits on the relic neutrino asymmetries using some of the latest cosmological data, taking into account the effect of flavor oscillations. We present our results for two different values of the neutrino mixing angle ?13, and show that for large ?13 the limits on the total neutrino asymmetry become more stringent, diluting even large initial flavor asymmetries. In particular, we find that the present bounds are still dominated by the limits coming from big bang nucleosynthesis, while the limits on the total neutrino mass from cosmological data are essentially independent of ?13. Finally, we perform a forecast for Cosmic Origins Explorer, taken as an example of a future cosmic microwave background experiment, and find that it could improve the limits on the total lepton asymmetry approximately by up to a factor 6.6.

Castorina, Emanuele; França, Urbano; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Mangano, Gianpiero; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pastor, Sergio

2012-07-01

22

Measuring the neutrino mixing angle thetas13 with the Double Chooz far detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino mixing angle theta13 is the last one which value is still unknown. This dissertation presents an analysis suggesting a non-zero value of the theta13. The analysis is based on four months of data taken with the far Double Chooz reactor anti-neutrino detector. Using only rate information yields a best fit value of sin2(2theta 13) equal to 0.0934+/-0.0785 (1 sigma). Incorporating information on the shape of the signal energy spectrum in the analysis results in a best fit value of 0.0849+/-0.0509 (1 sigma). Based on frequentist studies, sin2(2theta13)=0 is excluded at the 92.6% confidence level. The frequentist construction using Deltachi2 as an ordering rule gives [0.0098, 0.1825] interval for sin2(2theta 13) at 90% C.L.

Ostrovskiy, Igor

23

Adaptive synchronization and parameter identification of chaotic system with unknown parameters and mixed delays based on a special matrix structure.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the synchronization and parameter identification of chaotic system with unknown parameters and mixed delays. A new approach is proposed for designing a controller and a update rule of unknown parameters based on a special matrix structure, and the synchronization and the parameter identification are realized under the controller and the update rule. Numerical simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of the approach. A significant advantage is that the process of designing a controller and a update rule become very clear and easy by the proposed approach. PMID:23891465

Zhao, Ling-Dong; Hu, Jian-Bing; Fang, Jian-An; Cui, Wen-Xia; Xu, Yu-Long; Wang, Xin

2013-11-01

24

Mixing angles of quarks and leptons in quantum field theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments coming from Quantum Field Theory are supplemented with a 1-loop perturbative calculation to settle the non-unitarity\\u000a of mixing matrices linking renormalized mass eigenstates to bare flavor states for non-degenerate coupled fermions. We simultaneously\\u000a diagonalize the kinetic and mass terms and counterterms in the renormalized Lagrangian. SU(2)\\u000a L\\u000a gauge invariance constrains the mixing matrix in charged currents of renormalized mass

Quentin Duret; Bruno Machet; M. I. Vysotsky

2009-01-01

25

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these games to determine the best angles for success! Alien Angles Set the angle to rescue the alien. Space Angles Target the angle to shoot the alien spaceship. Mini Golf Knowing the angles will help you get the ball in the hole. ...

Clark, Mr

2012-10-31

26

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of eight interactive activities lets the user explore angles from many different perspectives. Activities include (1) visualizing the size of an angle; (2) examining objects that will stand or fall with right and non-right angles; (3) identifying obtuse, right, acute and straight angles; (4) guessing angle measures with different levels of precision; (5) exploring regular shapes and their angle measures; (6) studying angles in a fractal tree that is drawn with user inputs of the same angle measure between the branches at each stage; (7) exploring angle measures through firing a cannon (8) drawing with a Logo activity.

Edkins, Jo

2007-01-01

27

Development of Gadolinium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for 1%Precision Measurement at the Daya Bay Nuclear Reactors of the Neutrino Mixing Angle, theta13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daya Bay collaboration intends to use multiple organic-liquid-scintillator (LS) detectors placed at various distances between 0.3 and 2 km from the Daya Bay-Ling Ao nuclear power reactors to detect antineutrino oscillations and to determine the unknown neutrino-mixing angle, theta13. The nuclear reaction in the LS is inverse beta-decay on protons, with the coincidence tag between the emitted prompt positron

R. L. Hahn; M. Yeh; A. Garnov

2006-01-01

28

Family replicated gauge groups and large mixing angle solar neutrino solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modification of our previous family replicated gauge group model, which now generates the Large Mixing Angle MSW solution rather than the experimentally disfavoured Small Mixing Angle MSW solution to the solar neutrino oscillation problem. The model is based on each family of quarks and leptons having its own set of gauge fields, each containing a replica of the Standard Model gauge fields plus a ( B- L)-coupled gauge field. By a careful choice of the Higgs field gauge quantum numbers, we avoid our previous prediction that the solar neutrino mixing angle is equal order of magnitudewise to the Cabibbo angle, replacing it and the well-known Fritzsch relation with the relation ? c˜(? ?) -1/3 (m d/m s) 2/3. At the same time we retain a phenomenologically successful structure for the charged quark and lepton mass matrices. A fit of all the seventeen quark-lepton mass and mixing angle observables, using just six new Higgs field vacuum expectation values, agrees with the experimental data within the theoretically expected uncertainty of about 64%, i.e., it fits perfectly order of magnitudewise.

Froggatt, C. D.; Nielsen, H. B.; Takanishi, Y.

2002-06-01

29

Angles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows the Brownstone Kids teaching others how to dance. Illustrates angles as they turn and sing 'Get the Angles.' The group goes to a community center for playing pool in 'Calling Shoots.' Discusses angles showing the 90-degree, 45-degree, and 180-degree...

1994-01-01

30

Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

Parsons, Vickie S.

2005-01-01

31

The Sensitivity of a Lithium Experiment on Solar Neutrinos to the Mixing Angle theta_{12}  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium-based radiochemical detector is aimed primarily to detect neutrinos from CNO cycle what will provide a direct proof of its existence and will be a stringent test of the theory of stellar evolution. Another task which can be solved by this experiment is to measure a mixing angle $\\\\theta_{12}$. The sensitivity of a lithium experiment to $\\\\theta_{12}$ was calculated

Anatoly Kopylov; Valery Petukhov

2003-01-01

32

Mass and mixing-angle patterns in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using renormalization group techniques, we examine several interesting relations among masses and mixing angles of quarks and leptons in the standard model. We extend the analysis to the minimal supersymmetric extension to determine its effect on these mass relations. Remarkably supersymmetry allows for these relations to be satisfied at a single grand unified scale.

H. Arason; D. J. Castano; E. J. Piard; P. Ramond

1993-01-01

33

Golden ratio lepton mixing and nonzero reactor angle with A5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We furnish a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with a flavour discrete symmetry A5 under which the lepton fields transform as an irreducible triplet. Additional (‘flavon’) superfields are used to break A5 into a {Z}_2 \\times {Z}_2 subgroup in the charged-lepton sector and another {Z}_2 subgroup in the neutrino sector. The first column of the resulting lepton mixing matrix is predicted and has entries which are related to the golden ratio. Using the observed ?13 as input, our model predicts a solar mixing angle ?12 in very good agreement with experiment; it also predicts a correlation between the atmospheric mixing angle ?23 and the CP-violating Dirac phase ?.

de Medeiros Varzielas, I.; Lavoura, L.

2014-05-01

34

Deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing and large reactor mixing angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations for a non-zero ?13 have come from various experiments. We study a model of lepton mixing with a 2-3 flavor symmetry to accommodate the sizable ?13 measurement. In this work, we derive deviations from the tri-bimaximal (TBM) pattern arising from breaking the flavor symmetry in the neutrino sector, while the charged leptons contribution has been discussed in a previous work. Contributions from both sectors towards accommodating the non-zero ?13 measurement are presented.

Rashed, Ahmed

2013-09-01

35

Measurement of the ?- ?' mixing angle in ? - and K - beams with the GAMS-4 ? Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?- ?' mixing angle has been measured with the GAMS-4 ? spectrometer in a high statistics experiment. ?' and ? mesons were generated with charge-exchange reactions in 32.5 GeV/c ? - and K - beams. Using both ? - and K - beams allows the study of the | ? q > and | ? s > components of the meson wave function. The cross section ratio at t'=0 (GeV/c)2 in the ? - beam is R ? ( ?'/ ?)=0.54±0.04, and the mixing angle ? P =(36.3±1.0)?. For the K - beam the ratio is R K ( ?'/ ?)=1.27±0.15. It was found that the gluonium content in ?' is sin2 ? G =0.17±0.07.

Donskov, S. V.; Kolosov, V. N.; Lednev, A. A.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Polyakov, V. A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Khaustov, G. V.

2013-10-01

36

A study on supersonic mixing by circular nozzle with various injection angles for air breathing engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCRAM-jet engine is considered to be one of the useful system propulsion for super/hypersonic transportation vehicle and various researches were made to develop the engine. However, there are a lot of problems to be solved to develop it and one of them is the problem of supersonic mixing. In the SCRAM-jet engine combustor, main airflow is supersonic and residence time of the air is very short (about 1 ms). Hence rapid mixing of air and fuel is necessary. However, usually it is quite difficult to mix fuel with air in very short distance. Also total pressure loss occurs by flow interaction the air and fuel. Total pressure loss is not preferable because it causes the thrust loss. Therefore, supersonic mixing with very rapid mixing and lower total pressure loss ratio is highly requested. In order to develop the supersonic mixing, it is very important to understand the effect of injection angle. In present study, we investigate the effect of injection angle with circular sonic nozzle by changing the injection angle. Experimental and computational studies on supersonic mixing phenomena of two-dimensional slot injector with various injection angles were conducted. Supersonic wind tunnel was used for the experiments. The free stream Mach number is 3.8, total pressure is 1.1 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. As a secondary gas, helium gas was injected at sonic speed from the circular nozzle. The injection angle is 30°, 90° and 150°. Its total pressure is 0.4 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. The same flow field was also simulated by solving three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equation with AUSM-DV scheme [Y. Wada, M.S. Liou, A flux splitting scheme with high-resolution and robustness for discontinuities, AIAA Paper 94-0083, 1994] for convective terms and full implicit LU-ADI factorization method [S. Obayashi, K. Matsushima, K. Fujii, K. Kuwahara, Improvements in efficiency and reliability for Navier-Stokes computations using the LU-ADI factorization algorithm, AIAA Paper 86-0338, 1986] for time integration. Central difference was used for viscous terms and k-? two-equation turbulence model [D.C. Wilcox, Reassessment of the scale determining equation for advanced turbulent models, J. AIAA 26(11) (1988) 1299-1310; D.C. Wilcox, A two-equation turbulence model for wall-bounded and free-share flows, AIAA Paper 93-2905, 1993] was also employed. In the experiments, stream line on the wall surface was revealed by the oil flow picture and the flow field was visualized by the Shlieren photograph. The wall static pressure profile along the flow was obtained by the wall pressure measurements. Also volume fraction distribution measurements were conducted. Each one of those showed good agreement with computational ones. From the thorough investigation of the flow field by experiments and computations, various characteristics of the supersonic mixing with circular nozzle have been revealed.

Aso, S.; Inoue, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tani, Y.

2009-09-01

37

Search for the ?13 Mixing Angle with the Double Chooz Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the Double Chooz experiment is presented: a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment for the measurement of the ?13 mixing angle. The experimental concept and the detector design are described, as well as the preliminary results on the neutrino selection based on the first few months of data taking. The expected sensitivities are shown, namely a limit on sin2(2?13) of 0.032 at 90% C. L. in case of no observation of oscillation and a discovery potential on sin2(2?13) of 0.05 at 3 ? C. L. in case of oscillation measurement.

Meregaglia, A.

2012-08-01

38

Determination of f 0- ? mixing angle through Bs0 to J/\\varPsi f0(980)(?) decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study Bs0 to J/? f0(980) decays, the quark content of f 0(980) and the mixing angle of f 0(980) and ?(600). We calculate not only the factorizable contribution in the QCD factorization scheme but also the nonfactorizable hard spectator corrections in QCDF and pQCD approach. We get a result consistent with the experimental data of Bs0 to J/? f0(980) and predict the branching ratio of Bs0- J/ ??. We suggest two ways to determine f 0- ? mixing angle ?. Using the experimental measured branching ratio of Bs0 to J/? f0(980), we can get the f 0- ? mixing angle ? with some theoretical uncertainties. We suggest another way to determine the f 0- ? mixing angle ? using both experimental measured decay branching ratios Bs0 to J/? f0(980) (?) to avoid theoretical uncertainties.

Li, Jing-Wu; Du, Dong-Sheng; Lü, Cai-Dian

2012-11-01

39

The Weak Mixing Angle from a SU(3) Symmetry at a TeV  

SciTech Connect

The measured values of two electroweak gauge couplings appear to obey an approximate (5%) SU(3) relation. Unless this is an accident caused by fortuitous Planck-scale physics, it suggests the presence of an SU(3) symmetry near the electroweak scale. We propose this to be a local SU(3) which spontaneously ''mixes'' with SU(2) x U(1) near a TeV. Although all the particles of the standard model are SU(3)-singlets, this symmetry relates the electroweak gauge couplings and can successfully predict the weak mixing angle with a precision of a few percent. Since this mechanism operates at a TeV, it does not require an energy desert and consequently can be embedded in theories of TeV-gravity.

Kaplan, David Elazzar

2002-08-08

40

Large neutrino mixing angle ?13MNS and quark-lepton mass ratios in unified flavor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze how a large value of the leptonic mixing angle ?13MNS can be generated via charged lepton corrections in unified flavor models, using novel combinations of Clebsch-Gordan factors for obtaining viable quark-lepton mass ratios for the first two families. We discuss how these Clebsch-Gordan factors affect the relations between down-type quark mixing and charged lepton mixing in SU(5) grand unified theories and Pati-Salam unified models and calculate the resulting possible predictions for ?13MNS for models with ?13?, ?13e??12e. While symmetric mass matrices with zero (1, 1) elements always lead to comparatively small ?13MNS?2.8°, we find novel combinations of Clebsch-Gordan factors for nonsymmetric mass matrices which can yield ?13MNS?5.1°, 6.1°, 7.6°, or 10.1°, as favored by the current experimental hints for large ?13MNS. We discuss applications to classes of models with underlying tribimaximal or bimaximal mixing in the neutrino sector.

Antusch, Stefan; Maurer, Vinzenz

2011-12-01

41

Gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator for high-precision measurements of antineutrino oscillations and the mixing angle, ?13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of multiple, identical liquid scintillator (LS) detectors at distances between 0.1 and 2 km from a nuclear reactor has the potential to detect antineutrino oscillations and to measure the value of the unknown neutrino-mixing angle ?13. The nuclear reaction of interest in the LS is the inverse ?-decay reaction on protons, with the coincidence tag between the emitted prompt positron and the delayed neutron-capture providing a clear signature of the antineutrino capture. The neutron-capture signal is greatly enhanced by loading gadolinium into the LS, because of the large ( n, ?) cross-sections of the Gd isotopes (49,000 barns for natural abundance Gd), and the ˜8 MeV of emitted ?-rays. We have developed procedures at BNL to synthesize high-quality Gd-loaded LS (Gd-LS) in a simplified, consistent, and reproducible way, using the method of pH-controlled, solvent-solvent extraction. This Gd-LS has long attenuation length (>15 m), high-light output (˜90% of pseudocumene), and long-term stability (>1.5 years to date). The preparation and characteristics of this Gd-LS are discussed in this paper.

Yeh, M.; Garnov, A.; Hahn, R. L.

2007-07-01

42

A simple molecular mechanics integrator in mixed rigid body and dihedral angle space.  

PubMed

We propose a numerical scheme to integrate equations of motion in a mixed space of rigid-body and dihedral angle coordinates. The focus of the presentation is biomolecular systems and the framework is applicable to polymers with tree-like topology. By approximating the effective mass matrix as diagonal and lumping all bias torques into the time dependencies of the diagonal elements, we take advantage of the formal decoupling of individual equations of motion. We impose energy conservation independently for every degree of freedom and this is used to derive a numerical integration scheme. The cost of all auxiliary operations is linear in the number of atoms. By coupling the scheme to one of two popular thermostats, we extend the method to sample constant temperature ensembles. We demonstrate that the integrator of choice yields satisfactory stability and is free of mass-metric tensor artifacts, which is expected by construction of the algorithm. Two fundamentally different systems, viz., liquid water and an ?-helical peptide in a continuum solvent are used to establish the applicability of our method to a wide range of problems. The resultant constant temperature ensembles are shown to be thermodynamically accurate. The latter relies on detailed, quantitative comparisons to data from reference sampling schemes operating on exactly the same sets of degrees of freedom. PMID:25053299

Vitalis, Andreas; Pappu, Rohit V

2014-07-21

43

Scalar resonance effects on the B{sub s} - {bar B}{sub s} mixing angle.  

SciTech Connect

The B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi} and B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980) decays are analyzed within generalized QCD factorization including all leading-order corrections in {alpha}{sub s}{sup -}. They point out that the ratio of their calculated widths, {Gamma}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(980) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}(B{sub 2}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi},{phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}), strongly indicates that S-wave effects in the f{sub 0}(980)'s daughter pions or kaons cannot be ignored in the extraction of the B{sub s}-{bar B}{sub s} mixing angle, -2{beta}{sub s}, from the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}J/{psi} decay amplitudes.

Leitner, O.; Dedonder, J.-P.; Loiseau, B.; El-Bennich, B. (Physics); (Marie Curie Univ.)

2010-10-21

44

Conflict between the identification of a cosmic neutrino source and the sensitivity to mixing angles in a neutrino telescope  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino fluxes at telescopes depend on both initial fluxes out of astronomical bursts and flavor mixing during their travel to the Earth. However, since the information on the initial composition requires better precision in mixing angles and vice versa, neutrino detection at telescopes cannot provide solutions to both problems by itself. Thus, a probability to be measured at long-baseline oscillation is considered as a complement to the telescope, and problems like source identification and parameter degeneracy are examined under a few assumptions.

Hwang, Ggyoung-Riun; Siyeon, Kim [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-11-01

45

Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Viscosity Measurements on Silicone, Ionic and Nonionic Surfactant Mixed Systems in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural features of mixed micelles of a silicone surfactant (SS-1) with a comb-like structure, and three hydrocarbon surfactants (HS), sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB and t-octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol, TX-100 in water were investigated using dilute solution phase characteristics, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and solution viscosity measurements. The surfactants interact with the SS-1 micelles leading to the

N. V. Sastry; S. H. Punjabi; V. K. Aswal; P. S. Goyal

2011-01-01

46

Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on nonionic and two cationic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation in mixed water systems based on nonionic surfactant, i.e., heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C14E7), and cationic surfactants, i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), has been investigated using the small-angle neutron scattering method. The preliminary results of the study of the behavior of C14E7 aqueous solutions (for a concentration of 0.17%) when adding various small amounts of classical cationic surfactants (CTAB and CTAC) have been presented.

Rajewska, A.; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E.

2014-01-01

47

Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

2000-01-01

48

Two-loop radiative corrections of electroweak mixing angle and branching fraction for Z going to bb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I develop a numerical technique which is based on the Mellin-Barnes representation to calculate two-loop Feynman integrals. The resulting complex integrals of high dimensions are being applied with some treatments, such as the variable transform, reduction formulas, etc, to improve the convergence of the integrals. The approach is adopted to compute the two-loop radiative corrections of the electroweak mixing angle, sin theta W, and the hadronic branching ratio Rb for the process Z ? bb¯. I focus on contributions with an internal fermion sub-loop using the on-shell renormalization scheme. The results will help to derive improved constraints on the Higgs particle.

Huang, Yi-Cheng

49

Glue content and mixing angle of the {eta}-{eta}{sup '} system: The effect of the isoscalar 0{sup -} continuum  

SciTech Connect

Masses and topological charges of the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} mesons are expressed in terms of the singlet-octet mixing angle {theta}. Contributions of the pseudoscalar 0{sup -} continuum are evaluated in a model independent way. Applications to the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi} and to the radiative decay of vector mesons involving {eta} and {eta}{sup '} are considered. Agreement with experiment is, in general, good and the results quite stable for -30.5 deg. < or approx. {theta} < or approx. -18.5 deg.

Nasrallah, N.F. [Faculty of Science, Lebanese University, Tripoli (Lebanon)

2004-12-01

50

Dipole moments of the tau-lepton and Z-Z? mixing angle induced in a 331 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using as an input the data obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e+e- ? ?+?-? at the Z-pole, we obtained bounds on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in the context of a 331 model. Our bounds on the electromagnetic moments are consistent with the bounds obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e+e- ? ?+?-?. We also obtained bounds on the tau weak dipole moments which are consistent with the bounds obtained recently by the DELPHI, ALEPH and BELLE Collaborations from the reaction e+e- ? ?+?-. In addition, we obtained a limit on the Z-Z? mixing angle of the 331 model: -3.92 × 10-3 ? ? ? 1.30 × 10-4, which is competitive with those reported in the literature. Our work complements other studies on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton and on the Z-Z? mixing angle.

Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Castañeda-Almanza, C. P.

2013-03-01

51

Meson masses and mixing angles in the 2+1 flavor Polyakov quark meson sigma model and symmetry restoration effects  

SciTech Connect

The meson masses and mixing angles have been calculated for the scalar and pseudoscalar sector in the framework of the generalized 2+1 flavor Polyakov loop augmented quark meson linear sigma model. We have given the results for two different forms of the effective Polyakov loop potential. The comparison of results with the existing calculations in the bare 2+1 quark meson linear sigma model, shows that the restoration of chiral symmetry becomes sharper due to the influence of the Polyakov loop potential. We find that inclusion of the Polyakov loop in the quark meson linear sigma model together with the presence of axial anomaly, triggers an early and significant melting of the strange condensate. We have examined how the inclusion of the Polyakov loop qualitatively and quantitatively affects the convergence in the masses of the chiral partners in pseudoscalar ({pi}, {eta}, {eta}{sup '}, K) and scalar ({sigma}, a{sub 0}, f{sub 0}, {kappa}) meson nonets as the temperature is varied on the reduced temperature scale. The role of U{sub A}(1) anomaly in determining the isoscalar masses and mixing angles for the pseudoscalar ({eta} and {eta}{sup '}) and scalar ({sigma} and f{sub 0}) meson complex, has also been investigated in the Polyakov loop augmented quark meson linear sigma model. The interplay of chiral symmetry restoration effects and the setting up of U{sub A}(1) restoration trend has been discussed and analyzed in the framework of the presented model calculations.

Gupta, Uma Shankar; Tiwari, Vivek Kumar [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

2010-03-01

52

A study on supersonic mixing by circular nozzle with various injection angles for air breathing engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCRAM-jet engine is considered to be one of the useful system propulsion for super\\/hypersonic transportation vehicle and various researches were made to develop the engine. However, there are a lot of problems to be solved to develop it and one of them is the problem of supersonic mixing. In the SCRAM-jet engine combustor, main airflow is supersonic and residence time

S. Aso; K. Inoue; K. Yamaguchi; Y. Tani

2009-01-01

53

A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

2006-10-16

54

Human Cryptosporidiosis Diagnosed in Western Australia: a Mixed Infection with Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium Mink Genotype, and an Unknown Cryptosporidium Species  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of cryptosporidiosis from an immunocompetent patient from Perth, Western Australia, suffering from diarrhea and a spectrum of other symptoms. Molecular identification revealed that this patient was infected with three Cryptosporidium species—Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species.

Combs, Barry; MacKenzie, Brian; Ryan, Una

2013-01-01

55

T-stress, mixed-mode stress intensity factors, and crack initiation angles in functionally graded materials: a unified approach using the interaction integral method  

Microsoft Academic Search

For linear elastic functionally graded materials (FGMs), the fracture parameters describing the crack tip fields include not only stress intensity factors (SIFs) but also T-stress (nonsingular stress). These two fracture parameters are important for determining the crack initiation angle under mixed-mode loading conditions in brittle FGMs (e.g. ceramic\\/ceramic such as TiC\\/SiC). In this paper, the mixed-mode SIFs and T-stress are

Jeong-Ho Kim; Glaucio H. Paulino

2003-01-01

56

Estimating the neutron background toward the measurement of neutrino mixing angle theta-13 with the Double Chooz detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double Chooz is a reactor neutrino experiment which has shown evidence of electron anti-neutrino disappearance at 1 km distance. It has been able to exclude the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% CL (2.9 sigma) with only one detector. From a rate plus spectral shape analysis, the value of sin 22?13 was found to be 0:109 +/- 0:030 (stat) +/- 0:025 (syst). Correlated events mimicking an anti-neutrino event are one of the most important backgrounds for a reactor neutrino experiment like Double Chooz which measured the neutrino mixing angle ?13 . Cosmic muons passing through the rock surrounding the detector produce fast neutrons which give rise to correlated events through proton recoil followed by a neutron capture. Muons stopping around the chimney region subsequently decay into Michel electrons also contributing to the correlated background. Measurement of the shape and rate of this background is very important for the precise measurement of ?13. Experimental techniques to estimate of the shape and rate of this background in the Double Chooz far detector are presented in this thesis.

Shrestha, Deepak

57

Unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states in n-dimensional ( n ? 2) Hilbert space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known mixed states and with the Jordan-basis method, we demonstrate that the optimal success probability of the discrimination between two unknown states is independent of the dimension n. We also give a scheme for a physical implementation of the programmable state discriminator that can unambiguously discriminate between two unknown states with optimal probability of success.

Zhou, Tao

2012-12-01

58

Correlation between the FeNO angle and d-p mixing in {FeNO}7 complexes.  

PubMed

The great majority of low-spin {FeNO}(7) complexes exhibit FeNO angles of around 140-145°, whereas a small handful are characterized by linear FeNO units. Conspicuously absent are intermediate FeNO angles of 150-170°. Spurred by the recent observation of such an angle in a square-pyramidal {FeNO}(7) complex, we carried out a density functional theory survey of 12 additional, largely hypothetical complexes with porphyrin and corrole analogues as equatorial ligands. Our calculations predict several instances of intermediate FeNO angles. The calculations further indicate a strong, positive correlation (R(2) = 0.9) between the FeNO angle and metal p character in the Fe d(z(2))-based highest occupied molecular orbital. PMID:21491891

Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik

2011-05-16

59

Constraints on the Z-Z' mixing angle from data measured for the process e + e - ? W + W - at the LEP2 collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of effects induced by new neutral gauge Z' bosons was performed on the basis of data from the OPAL, DELPHI, ALEPH, and L3 experiments devoted to measuring differential cross sections for the process of the annihilation production of pairs of charged gauge W ± bosons at the LEP2 collider. By using these experimental data, constraints on the Z'-boson mass and on the angle of Z-Z' mixing were obtained for a number of extended gauge models.

Andreev, Vas. V.; Pankov, A. A.

2012-01-01

60

Small angle neutron scattering measurements of aggregation behaviour of mixed micelles of conventional surfactants with triblock polymer L64  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique has been used to study the aggregation behaviour of binary mixtures of cationic surfactants such as hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide (HTAB), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) with triblock polymer L64. The interactions between surfactants and triblock polymers have been explained on the basis of parameters like aggregation number, charge fraction

R. K. Mahajan; K. K. Vohra; V. K. Aswal

2008-01-01

61

Brewster angle microscopic study of mixed lipid-protein monolayer at air-water interface and its electrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the lipid-protein LB Fdm formation with Brewster angle microscope. Our experimental results show that Hb molecule can enter the lipid layer and stands for long time. This kind of lipid-Hb film is very useful for designing sensitive biosensors.

A. K. M. Kafi; Dong-Yun Lee; Sang-Hyun Park; Young-Sung Choi; Young-Soo Kwon

2006-01-01

62

Finding an Unknown Charge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four charges are shown (one is unknown) given in 10-10C that form what is known as a quadrupole. You can measure the potential at any point by dragging the test charge around. Distance is measured in m.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2007-01-26

63

Variables and Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated PowerPoint lesson demonstrates how to substitute the value of a variable in place of the variable's symbol in an algebraic expression, and presents the concept of solving an equation for an unknown variable value.

Link, Don

2006-07-01

64

Unknown primary tumours  

PubMed Central

Unknown primary tumours (UPTs) are defined by the absence of a primary tumour in biopsy proved metastatic cancer. These tumours have a specific biology with clinical characteristics of rapid progression and random atypical metastases. Cytogenetic abnormalities have been demonstrated, particularly deletion of chromosome 1p. Diagnostic evaluation that includes pathology review, physical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography of the abdomen, and mammography is directed at the identification of treatable subsets. Based on clinicopathological criteria, therapy responsive subsets of patients with UPTs can be defined. These subsets have a better prognosis than the average median survival time of four months in patients with UPTs.???Keywords: unknown primary tumours; metastases

Hillen, H

2000-01-01

65

Small angle X-ray scattering and 31P NMR studies on the phase behavior of phospholipid bilayered mixed micelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase behavior of lipid bilayered micelles (`bicelles') (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, DMPC/dihexanoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, DHPC 2.6/1) has been studied by small angle X-ray scattering and 31P NMR. Below 3% w/v the bilayers are arranged in tightly packed stacks. At intermediate concentrations single units are observed, whereas at 24% w/v and higher, weak stacking occurs again. The DMPC/DHPC ratio in the bicelles strongly increases at low concentration, which is correlated with an increase in the bicelle size and stacking. The increase of the order parameter in a magnetic field is related to the stack formation. Below 297 K there is no stacking at any concentration and no magnetic alignment.

Bolze, Jörg; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Nagao, Takashi; Norisada, Kazushi; Saitô, Hazime; Naito, Akira

2000-10-01

66

Phase separation in a DMPC/Dchol mixed Langmuir Film: A combined Brewster Angle, Fluorescence and Light Scattering Microscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence microscopy (FM) is one of the most direct imaging techniques for in situ observation of morphology and phase-separation at the macroscopic scale [1] in lipid mono- or bi-layers. However, the presence of fluorescent dye-molecules can affect the system. In Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM), one can image monomolecular Langmuir films without probes. Here, using a composite set-up of BAM, FM and Light Scattering Microscopy (LSM), we present a comparative study of the three techniques on a binary lipid mixture in the presence of two different probes. In most cases, all three techniques show precisely the same domains. However, depending on conditions, some domain types were more evident in one technique than the others. This established, we can directly test the influence of probe on the domain structure.

Mandal, Pritam; Bhatta, Fanindra; Gericke, Arne; Kooijman, Edgar; Allender, David; Mann, Elizabeth

2013-03-01

67

Improved measurement of B+ --> rho+ rho0 and determination of the quark-mixing phase angle alpha.  

PubMed

We present improved measurements of the branching fraction B, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{CP} in the B meson decay channel B;{+}-->rho;{+}rho;{0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are B(B;{+}-->rho;{+}rho;{0})=(23.7+/-1.4+/-1.4) x 10;{-6}, f{L}=0.950+/-0.015+/-0.006, and A{CP}=-0.054+/-0.055+/-0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, we perform an isospin analysis and determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase angle alpha=arg(-V{td}V{tb};/V{ud}V{ub}) to be (92.4{-6.5};{+6.0}) degrees. PMID:19392426

Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S

2009-04-10

68

[Papilledema of unknown cause].  

PubMed

Orbital metastases occur in 2-5 % of cancer patients. Common primary sites that cause orbital metastases are breast, lung and prostate cancer. In up to 25 % of patients orbital metastasis is the initial sign of an unknown primary tumor. Clinical symptoms are proptosis, ocular motility disorder and visual impairment. Imaging procedures may be useful in diagnosing orbital metastases but are not specific. Treatment is palliative. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical debulkment in selected patients are treatment options. PMID:23224069

Matlach, J; Nowak, J; Göbel, W

2013-06-01

69

Cervicitis of unknown etiology.  

PubMed

Cervicitis has been described by some as the female counterpart of urethritis in men. Over the years a number of clinical and microscopy-based definitions have been suggested in the literature. Clinical manifestations include mucopurulent discharge from the cervix, cervical friability (easy bleeding from the cervix with passage of a swab) and cervical ectopy. Microscopic definitions involving the use of Gram stain of cervical secretions have included either more than 10 white blood cells (WBCs) or more than 30 WBCs per high-power field. Combinations of these clinical and microscopic findings have been used in attempts to increase the accuracy of cervicitis diagnosis. When cervicitis was initially recognized as a clinical entity, several investigators reported the primary pathogens causing cervicitis as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. It is now well established that most cases of cervicitis are not caused by these two organisms. Most cases of cervicitis are of unknown etiology. PMID:24859465

Taylor, Stephanie N

2014-07-01

70

22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

71

7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

72

66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

73

64. Final Coal Conveyor, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. Final Coal Conveyor, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

74

62. Men Picking Rocks, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

62. Men Picking Rocks, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

75

Thermal properties and mixing state of diol-water mixtures studied by calorimetry, large-angle X-ray scattering, and NMR relaxation.  

PubMed

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been performed on aqueous mixtures of three diols, which involve a linear carbon chain, HO-(CH 2) n -OH ( n = 3, 4, and 5), over the whole mole fraction range of diols. The DSC results have shown the alkyl chain parity for the freezing process of the aqueous mixtures: aqueous mixtures of 1,3-propanediol (PrD) and 1,5-pentanediol (PeD) are kept in the supercooled state or vitrified over a wide mole fraction range, while those of 1,4-butanediol (BuD) are easily crystallized. The structure of PrD-water mixtures has been elucidated by using the large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) technique. It has been suggested that the structural change of PrD-water mixtures occurs at PrD mole fractions of x PrD = 0.4 and 0.8: in the range of x PrD < or = 0.4 where the tetrahedral-like structure of water predominates, in the range of 0.4 < x PrD < 0.8 where both PrD and water structures coexist, and in the range of x PrD > or = 0.8 where the inherent structure of PrD is mainly formed. (17)O and (1)H NMR relaxation measurements have been made on aqueous mixtures of ethylene glycol (EG, n = 2), PrD, and BuD to clarify the dynamics of H 2 (17)O and diol molecules. The (17)O NMR relaxation rates have suggested that the rotational motion of water molecules is gradually retarded in the diol-water mixtures with increasing diol content and that the restriction of the motion is more remarkable in the order of EG < PrD < BuD. On the basis of all the results, together with comparison with those of methanol-water, ethanol-water, and 1-propanol-water mixtures previously reported, the mixing state of diol-water mixtures has been discussed at the molecular level. PMID:18826183

Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Tsutsumi, Youichi; Matsugami, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Toshio

2008-10-23

76

Hierarchy plus anarchy in quark masses and mixings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a parametrization of the effect of unknown corrections from new physics on quark and lepton mass matrices. This parametrization is used in order to study how the hierarchies of quark masses and mixing angles are modified by random perturbations of the Yukawa matrices. We discuss several examples of flavor relations predicted by different textures, analyzing how these relations are influenced by the random perturbations. We also comment on the unlikely possibility that unknown corrections contribute significantly to the hierarchy of masses and mixings.

Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.

2003-04-01

77

What's Your Angle on Angles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the nature of the research varies, as do concepts of angle, research in general supports the supposition that angle is a complex idea, best understood from a variety of perspectives. In fact, the concept of angle tends to be threefold, consisting of: (1) the traditional, static notion of two rays meeting at a common vertex; (2) the idea…

Browning, Christine A.; Garza-Kling, Gina; Sundling, Elizabeth Hill

2007-01-01

78

Contact angle interpretation: re-evaluation of existing contact angle data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that static contact angles measured by conventional goniometer techniques could be meaningless in the context of the Young equation. There is an abundance of contact angles in the literature that are of unknown status. Here, we explored whether one should completely neglect the literature contact angle data. Existing static contact angles for 34 different types of

D. Y. Kwok; A. W. Neumann

2000-01-01

79

Unknowns and unknown unknowns: from dark sky to dark matter and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Answering well-known fundamental questions is usually regarded as the major goal of science. Discovery of other unknown and fundamental questions is, however, even more important. Recognition that "we didn't know anything" is the basic scientific driver for the next generation. Cosmology indeed enjoys such an exciting epoch. What is the composition of our universe ? This is one of the well-known fundamental questions that philosophers, astronomers and physicists have tried to answer for centuries. Around the end of the last century, cosmologists finally recognized that "We didn't know anything". Except for atoms that comprise slightly less than 5% of the universe, our universe is apparently dominated by unknown components; 23% is the known unknown (dark matter), and 72% is the unknown unknown (dark energy). In the course of answering a known fundamental question, we have discovered an unknown, even more fundamental, question: "What is dark matter? What is dark energy?" There are a variety of realistic particle physics models for dark matter, and its experimental detection may be within reach. On the other hand, it is fair to say that there is no widely accepted theoretical framework to describe the nature of dark energy. This is exactly why astronomical observations will play a key role in unveiling its nature. I will review our current understanding of the "dark sky", and then present on-going Japanese project, SuMIRe, to discover even more unexpected questions.

Suto, Yasushi

2010-07-01

80

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of cancers defined by the presence of metastatic disease with no identified primary tumor at presentation. Identifying patients with prognostically favorable disease is important, since they may derive substantial benefit, including prolonged survival, from directed treatment. In CUP cases, a focused search for the primary tumor is recommended. Whether CUP is a distinct molecular genotype-phenotype relative to metastases of known cancers is unknown. However, use of a robust immunohistochemical panel and emerging molecular data may permit development of a tailored treatment algorithm for CUP patients that will include appropriate use of targeted agents.

Varadhachary, Gauri R.

2007-01-01

81

Angle Hunting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a hand-made protractor to measure angles they find in playground equipment. Learners will observe that angle measurements do not change with distance, because they are distance invariant, or constant. Note: The "Pocket Protractor" activity should be done ahead as a separate activity (see related resource), but a standard protractor can be used as a substitute.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

82

Constraints on the Z-Z Prime mixing angle from data measured for the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} at the LEP2 collider  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of effects induced by new neutral gauge Z Prime bosons was performed on the basis of data from the OPAL, DELPHI, ALEPH, and L3 experiments devoted to measuring differential cross sections for the process of the annihilation production of pairs of charged gauge W{sup {+-}} bosons at the LEP2 collider. By using these experimental data, constraints on the Z Prime -boson mass and on the angle of Z-Z Prime mixing were obtained for a number of extended gauge models.

Andreev, Vas. V., E-mail: quarks@gsu.by [Gomel State University (Belarus); Pankov, A. A., E-mail: pankov@ictp.it [Pavel Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel, Abdus Salam ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) Affiliated Centre (Belarus)

2012-01-15

83

Measurement of forward-backward asymmetry A{sub FB} and of the weak mixing angle in processes of dilepton production in proton-proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained by measuring the forward-backward asymmetry (A{sub FB}) of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV at the LHC are presented. This asymmetry is measured as a function of the dilepton mass and rapidity in the dielectron and dimuon channels. The values of A{sub FB} were found for invariant masses of dileptons in the range of 40 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To M{sub ll} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 600 GeV. The results for the effective weak mixing angle that were deduced from data on dimuon production in Drell-Yan processes are also presented. The respective data sample was collected by using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector over the period spanning the years 2010 and 2011. The measured asymmetry and the effective weak mixing are consistent with the respective Standard Model predictions.

Gorbunov, I. N., E-mail: Ilya.Gorbunov@cern.ch; Shmatov, S. V., E-mail: shmatov@cern.ch [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15

84

Vehicle dynamics and road geometry estimation using a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy observer with unknown inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology for estimating both vehicle dynamics and road geometry using a Fuzzy unknown input observer. Vehicle sideslip and roll parameters are estimated in presence of the road bank angle and the road curvature as unknown inputs. The unknown inputs are then estimated using the observer results. The used nonlinear model deduced from the vehicle lateral and

H. Dahmani; M. Chadli; A. Rabhi; A. El Hajjaji

2011-01-01

85

Autonomous Characterization of Unknown Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to the autonomous exploration of an unknown area by a scientific robotic rover is the ability of the vehicle to autonomously recognize objects of interest and generalize about the region. This paper presents a Bayesian framework under which a mobile robot can learn how different classes of objects are distributed over a geographical region, using imperfect observations and

Liam Pedersen

2001-01-01

86

Angle Measurer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet gives students practice in creating an angle measuring between zero and 180 degrees. Two buttons control the increase or decrease of the opening between two rays. Points are awarded for accuracy.

2011-01-01

87

Right Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article gives teachers background information on right angles. It provides geometric and practical examples, a paper folding construction method, and some history of the usage of the term 'right.'

Goldenberg, Paul

2011-06-09

88

The Senses of "Unknown Creatures"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use earthworms as "unknown creatures" from the South American jungle to find out how animals use senses. Learners are given supplies to devise their own experiments and test the response of the earthworms to light, touch and chemicals. Learners collect data and draw conclusions based on this data. Learners return the earthworms to their natural habitat (a flower or garden bed) when they are finished with the experiments.

Chudler, Eric

2009-01-01

89

Classifying unknowns: the idiopathic problem.  

PubMed

The term, idiopathic, emerged as a key concept in the classification of disease in the 18th century and has become ingrained in our terminology in defining diseases and their aetiologies throughout all fields of medicine. Despite, or perhaps because of this, little has been written about the meaning or meanings of the word itself. Although most medical professionals will be able to offer a definition of idiopathic, different definitions of the word are in use and are often confused or used without an appreciation of the range of meanings. This article aims to clarify these different meanings with reference to historic and current uses. The change from the earlier nosological definition of 'primary' to the most widely accepted current definition, 'of unknown cause', occurred in the late 19th century, reflecting changing perspectives of disease causation. Far from being an innocent translation of 'unknown', idiopathic creates problems for future terminology and adds little to medical understanding. In masking the unknown, the term idiopathic maintains a paternalistic patient-practitioner relationship, and so should be avoided in modern medical terminology. PMID:23449847

Beaney, Thomas

2013-12-01

90

Calculation of the flow field in supersonic mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack using the three-dimensional method of characteristics with discrete shock wave fitting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of molecular transport is included in the computation by treating viscous and thermal diffusion terms in the governing partial differential equations as correction terms in the method of characteristics scheme. The development of a production type computer program is reported which is capable of calculating the flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed-compression aircraft inlets. The results agreed well with those produced by the two-dimensional method characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are computed. For three-dimensional flow fields, the results agree well with experimental data except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal.

Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

1978-01-01

91

Circles and Squares: Two Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad and on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows players to learn about the use of symbols and variables as a way to represent numbers as students solve puzzles involving two unknowns using algebraic thinking. The sketch displays eight rows of symbols and each row presents a different combination of squares and circles. When students drag a row of symbols across the vertical divider line, the sketch displays the sum of the symbols. By dragging two or more rows, students gather information and determine the value of the circle and the square. Overview instructions and teacher notes are available as downloadable PDF.

Decarli, Elizabeth

2010-10-19

92

Estimating Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash game for one or two players gives students practice in estimating the size of angles. A circle and a radius pointing in a random direction are given. The student activates a second sweeping radius, which can move in either direction, and tries to stop it at the specified measure. Three difficulty levels control the range of angle measures. Points are awarded based on closeness of the estimate. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-06-01

93

Search in unknown random environments.  

PubMed

N searchers are sent out by a source in order to locate a fixed object which is at a finite distance D, but the search space is infinite and D would be in general unknown. Each of the searchers has a finite random lifetime, and may be subject to destruction or failures, and it moves independently of other searchers, and at intermediate locations some partial random information may be available about which way to go. When a searcher is destroyed or disabled, or when it "dies naturally," after some time the source becomes aware of this and it sends out another searcher, which proceeds similarly to the one that it replaces. The search ends when one of the searchers finds the object being sought. We use N coupled brownian motions to derive a closed form expression for the average search time as a function of D which will depend on the parameters of the problem: the number of searchers, the average lifetime of searchers, the routing uncertainty, and the failure or destruction rate of searchers. We also examine the cost in terms of the total energy that is expended in the search. PMID:21230649

Gelenbe, Erol

2010-12-01

94

Adaptive formation control of UAVs in the presence of unknown vortex forces and leader commands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, stable adaptive formation control algorithms for two-dimensional models of aircraft are developed in the presence of unknown leader commands and disturbances due to vortex effects. The analysis is presented in the leader-follower frame for three cases of unknown leader commands and vortex forces in the velocity and heading angle dynamics. The algorithms are applied to the formation

Elham Semsar; K. Khorasani

2006-01-01

95

Computer Aided Grading of Quantitative Unknowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of fair grading of unknowns is discussed. An approach is presented to answer some of the important questions concerning faulty procedures, level of accuracy and precision, recognition of bad unknowns,'' and dry labing. (DF)

Jones, D. E.; Lytle, F. E.

1973-01-01

96

Nonlinear servocompensation of unknown external disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of adaptive compensation of unknown external disturbances is solved for a class of nonlinear systems which have the globally defined normal form. When an a priori unknown external disturbance can be accurately modeled as the output of a linear exosystem of the known order but with unknown parameters, the proposed adaptive controller provides global asymptotic tracking. If the

V. O. Nikiforov

2001-01-01

97

Binomial Group-Testing With an Unknown Proportion of Defectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binomial group-testing problem is extended to the case in which the common probability p of a unit being defective is unknown. A Bayes “non-mixing” procedure R is derived and compared with other procedures, in particular with the corresponding procedure R1 that requires the knowledge of p and with another procedure based on continually revising the maximum likelihood estimate of

Milton Sobel; Phyllis A. Groll

1966-01-01

98

Pattern Recognition Algorithm for High-Sensitivity Odorant Detection in Unknown Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a realistic odorant detection application environment, the collected sensory data is a mix of unknown chemicals with unknown concentrations and noise. The identification of the odorants among these mixtures is a challenge in data recognition. In addition, deriving their individual concentrations in the mix is also a challenge. A deterministic analytical model was developed to accurately identify odorants and calculate their concentrations in a mixture with noisy data.

Duong, Tuan A.

2012-01-01

99

Titration of an Unknown Acid or Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a JAVA applet that simulates the titration of an unknown acid or base, and provides a graphical output of the titration curve. The unknown compounds are taken from a list of amino acids. Students set up the parameters of the titration, and then create a simulated pH curve. From this they are able to identify the unknown compound from the list, and determine the acid dissociation constant(s) from the titration data.

Blauch, David N.

2011-02-07

100

Genetic leukoencephalopathies with unknown metabolic pathogenesis.  

PubMed

The authors describe the principal forms of genetic leucodystrophies with unknown metabolic pathogenesis, indicating their main clinical signs and the new findings concerning the molecular genetic that are useful for the laboratory confirmation of the clinical suspicion. PMID:11794472

Federico, A; Rufa, A; Battisti, C; Bianchi, S; Cardaioli, E; Da Pozzo, P; De Stefano, N; Formichi, P; Sicurelli, F; Dotti, M T

2001-11-01

101

Genetic leukoencephalopathies with unknown metabolic pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The authors describe the principal forms of genetic leucodystrophies with unknown metabolic pathogenesis, indicating their main clinical signs and the new findings concerning the molecular genetic that are useful for the laboratory confirmation of the clinical suspicion.

A. Federico; A. Rufa; C. Battisti; S. Bianchi; E. Cardaioli; P. Da Pozzo; N. De Stefano; P. Formichi; F. Sicurelli; M. T. Dotti

2001-01-01

102

Breast augmentation with an unknown substance.  

PubMed

Before the widespread use of silicone implants various foreign substances were injected directly into the breasts. The nature of these materials sometimes remains unknown and can cause various complications requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative diagnostic imaging can help characterise the type and distribution of the injected material, thereby assisting in making decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of breast augmentation with an unknown substance, aiming to highlight some imaging characteristics of different breast augmentation substances. PMID:24957586

Ebrahim, Lamya; Morrison, David; Kop, Alan; Taylor, Donna

2014-01-01

103

Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 11E, Serovariant 11Av and Mixed Populations by High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) Spectroscopy and Flow Cytometric Serotyping Assay (FCSA)  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11E and serovariant 11Av among isolates previously typed as 11A by classical serotyping methods. Serotype 11E and serovariant 11Av differ from serotype 11A by having totally or partially inactive wcjE, a gene in cps locus coding for an O-acetyl transferase. Serotype 11E is rare among carriage isolates but common among invasive isolates suggesting that it survives better during invasion. Aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiology of serotype 11A in a pneumococcal collection using a new serotyping approach based on High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy to distinguish serotypes 11A and 11E. Methods A collection of 48 (34 invasive and 14 carriage) S. pneumoniae isolates from Italy, previously identified as serotype 11A by the Quellung reaction, were investigated by wcjE sequencing, HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the reference flow cytometric serotyping assay (FCSA) based on monoclonal antibodies. Results HR-MAS NMR spectra from serotypes 11A and 11E showed different NMR peaks indicating that HR-MAS NMR could be used to distinguish these serotypes, although HR-MAS NMR could not distinguish serotype 11Av from serotype 11E unambiguously. Thirty-eight isolates were confirmed to be serotype 11A, 8 isolates with a mutated wcjE were serotype 11E, 1 isolate belonged to serovariant 11Av, and 1 isolate was a mixed population 11A/11Av. All 11E isolates were identified among invasive isolates. Conclusions We proved that HR-MAS NMR can be of potential use for pneumococcal serotyping. The detection of serotype 11E among invasive isolates in our collection, supports previous epidemiological studies suggesting that mutations in wcjE can represent a mechanism promoting pneumococcal survival during invasion. The discovery of a spectrum of immunochemical diversity within established serotypes should stimulate efforts to develop new serotyping approaches.

Camilli, Romina; Spencer, Brady L.; Moschioni, Monica; Pinto, Vittoria; Berti, Francesco; Nahm, Moon H.; Pantosti, Annalisa

2014-01-01

104

Unknown-parent groups in single-step genomic evaluation.  

PubMed

In single-step genomic evaluation using best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP), genomic predictions are calculated with a relationship matrix that combines pedigree and genomic information. For missing pedigrees, unknown selection processes, or inclusion of several populations, a BLUP model can include unknown-parent groups (UPG) in the animal effect. For ssGBLUP, UPG equations also involve contributions from genomic relationships. When those contributions are ignored, UPG solutions and genetic predictions can be biased. Options to eliminate or reduce such bias are presented. First, mixed model equations can be modified to include contributions to UPG elements from genomic relationships (greater software complexity). Second, UPG can be implemented as separate effects (higher cost of computing and data processing). Third, contributions can be ignored when they are relatively small, but they may be small only after refinements to UPG definitions. Fourth, contributions may approximately cancel out when genomic and pedigree relationships are constructed for compatibility; however, different construction steps are required for unknown parents from the same or different populations. Finally, an additional polygenic effect that also includes UPG can be added to the model. PMID:23855627

Misztal, I; Vitezica, Z G; Legarra, A; Aguilar, I; Swan, A A

2013-08-01

105

Bayesian Modeling of Unknown Diseases for Biosurveillance  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates Bayesian modeling of unknown causes of events in the context of disease-outbreak detection. We introduce a Bayesian approach that models and detects both (1) known diseases (e.g., influenza and anthrax) by using informative prior probabilities and (2) unknown diseases (e.g., a new, highly contagious respiratory virus that has never been seen before) by using relatively non-informative prior probabilities. We report the results of simulation experiments which support that this modeling method can improve the detection of new disease outbreaks in a population. A key contribution of this paper is that it introduces a Bayesian approach for jointly modeling both known and unknown causes of events. Such modeling has broad applicability in medical informatics, where the space of known causes of outcomes of interest is seldom complete.

Shen, Yanna; Cooper, Gregory F.

2009-01-01

106

Adapting to Unknown Smoothness via Wavelet Shrinkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to recover a function of unknown smoothness from noisy sampled data. We introduce a procedure, SureShrink, that suppresses noise by thresholding the empirical wavelet coefficients. The thresholding is adaptive: A threshold level is assigned to each dyadic resolution level by the principle of minimizing the Stein unbiased estimate of risk (Sure) for threshold estimates. The computational effort of

David L. Donoho; Iain M. Johnstone

1995-01-01

107

SEM-EDX analysis of an unknown  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, an unknown white powder was discovered spilled inside of a shipping container of whole kernel corn during an inspection by federal inspectors in the port of Baltimore, Maryland. The container was detained and quarantined while a sample of the powder was collected and sent to a federal laboratory where it was screened using chromatography for the presence of

Douglas C. Albright

2009-01-01

108

Entanglement concentration for unknown W class states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a theoretical entanglement concentration protocol for unknown triparticle W class states, and then the physical implementation of this proposal has also been presented in cavity QED. The general protocol is mainly based on the appropriate Bell state measurements. In the feasible physical scheme, the interaction between two driven atoms and a cavity mode is a

Li-Hua Zhang; Ming Yang; Zhuo-Liang Cao

2007-01-01

109

Quantile Regression Model with Unknown Censoring Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces an estimator for the linear censored quantile regression model when the censoring point is an unknown function of a set of regressors. The objective function minimized is convex and the minimization problem is a linear programming problem, for which there is a global minimum. The suggested procedure applies also to the special case of a fixed known

Moshe Buchinsky; Jinyong Hahn

1995-01-01

110

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

111

Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.  

PubMed

Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents. PMID:12837347

Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

2003-07-01

112

Orthogonalization of partly unknown quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum analog of the fundamental classical not gate is a quantum gate that would transform any input qubit state onto an orthogonal state. Intriguingly, this universal NOT gate is forbidden by the laws of quantum physics. This striking phenomenon has far-reaching implications concerning quantum information processing and encoding information about directions and reference frames into quantum states. It also triggers the question of under what conditions the preparation of quantum states orthogonal to input states becomes possible. Here we report on experimental demonstration of orthogonalization of partly unknown single- and two-qubit quantum states. A state orthogonal to an input state is conditionally prepared by quantum filtering, and the only required information about the input state is a mean value of a single arbitrary operator. We show that perfect orthogonalization of partly unknown two-qubit entangled states can be performed by applying the quantum filter to one of the qubits only.

Ježek, M.; Mi?uda, M.; Straka, I.; Miková, M.; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.

2014-04-01

113

Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

2010-04-01

114

Intelligent pursuit & evasion in an unknown environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel and flexible simulation platform for studying pursuit and evasion in unknown 2-D environments of arbitrary obstacles, in an effort to expand the practical application of pursuit-evasion research. The platform provides realistic simulation of the sensing capability of each robotic agent (either a pursuer or an evader). Each agent uses real-time local sensing to collect information

Jonathan Annas; Jing Xiao

2009-01-01

115

Describe Angle Pair Relationships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will explain the types of pairs of angles you will find in Geometry. Note taking time on page 5: Angle Information Now, let's see if you get it: Angle Relationship Quiz (fun) Ok! Now for your assignment, #8 on page 38! Class Zone Geometry Textbook ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-09-01

116

What's Your Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students devise procedures for using a protractor to measure the number of degrees in an angle, and use inductive reasoning to develop "angle sense." Then they describe circumstances and careers that require a working knowledge of angles and their measurements.

2010-01-01

117

Fidelities for transformations of unknown quantum states  

SciTech Connect

We present a general theoretical formalism to compute the fidelity of transformations of unknown quantum states, and we apply our theory to Gaussian transformations of continuous variable quantum systems. For the case of a Gaussian distribution of displaced coherent states, the theory is readily tractable by a covariance matrix formalism, and a wider class of states, exemplified by Fock states, can be treated efficiently by the Wigner function formalism. Given the distribution of input states, the optimum feedback gain is identified, and analytical results for the fidelities are presented for recently implemented teleportation and memory storage protocols for continuous variables.

Madsen, Lars Bojer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Moelmer, Klaus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physics and Astronomy, QUANTOP-Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2006-03-15

118

Space Invariant Independent Component Analysis and ENose for Detection of Selective Chemicals in an Unknown Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a space invariant architecture to enable the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to solve chemical detection from two unknown mixing chemical sources. The two sets of unknown paired mixture sources are collected via JPL 16-ENose sensor array in the unknown environment with, at most, 12 samples data collected. Our space invariant architecture along with the maximum entropy information technique by Bell and Sejnowski and natural gradient descent by Amari has demonstrated that it is effective to separate the two mixing unknown chemical sources with unknown mixing levels to the array of two original sources under insufficient sampled data. From separated sources, they can be identified by projecting them on the 11 known chemical sources to find the best match for detection. We also present the results of our simulations. These simulations have shown that 100% correct detection could be achieved under the two cases: a) under-completed case where the number of input (mixtures) is larger than number of original chemical sources; and b) regular case where the number of input is as the same as the number of sources while the time invariant architecture approach may face the obstacles: overcomplete case, insufficient data and cumbersome architecture.

Duong, Tuan A.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Duong, Vu A.

2007-01-01

119

Fermion Mass Spectrum and Mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the mass spectra of the fundamental fermions for relations between the spectra and the electroweak mixing angles and suggest that interactions beyond the Standard Model are implied and, to some extent, delineated.

Goldman, Terrence; Stephenson, Gerard, Jr.

2013-04-01

120

Low angle resistivity anomaly in layered superconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pinning effect of vortex lines by the layered structure (intrinsic pinning) on resistivity of high-T(sub c), superconductors in the mixed state is investigated by means of perturbation theory. A sharp drop in the resistivity at small angles for which ...

A. E. Koshelev V. M. Vinokur

1993-01-01

121

Magnetic Unmixing: From the Known to the Unknown (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unravelling mixed magnetic mineral assemblages is fundamental to environmental magnetic interpretation. Within natural settings, mixtures of different magnetic mineral types and particle sizes can provide important quantitative information concerning combinations of processes that influence the local, or even global, environment. An ability to identify, characterize and quantify environmentally relevant fractions of a magnetic mineral assemblage is therefore essential. Unmixing strategies aim to mathematically separate the convolved information carried by magnetic mineral assemblages into environmentally meaningful parts. An ability to identify such characteristic components allows links to be identified between the composition of the magnetic mineral assemblage and specific environmental processes. Environmental magnetists now have access to a range of numerical strategies that approach the task of unmixing from different angles. Despite the wide use of unmixing tools in the environmental magnetic community, more advanced techniques that can handle diverse data types still need to be developed. We will show how recently developed forward and inverse unmixing methods can be applied to a variety of measurements, for example, isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, hysteresis loops, and first-order reversal curve distributions. It is also important to consider the consistency between mixing models that employ different strategies and types of measurements. An often undiscussed aspect of unmixing is non-uniqueness. Nearly all of our existing unmixing techniques suffer from non-uniqueness and some of the more common pitfalls (and ways to avoid them) will be discussed. Looking forward, we will consider what the future holds for numerical unmixing and the key challenges we face.

Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.

2013-12-01

122

Robust Rotation Angle Estimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional method of estimating the rotation angle of a pattern using the principal axes is not suitable for circular symmetric patterns since their eigenvalues are similar in both directions. In the paper, a robust method of estimating a rotation angle using the phase information of Zernike moments is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method estimates the

Whoi-yul Kim; Young-sung Kim

1999-01-01

123

Reading Angles in Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

124

What's My Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive module offers learners the opportunity to check their knowledge of angle measure and estimation, and the use of a protractor. There are ten activities that vary the tasks and the degree of precision. The site is designed for whiteboard demonstration as well, and it includes a tutorial on angle types and protractor use.

2011-01-01

125

Stable Angles of Slopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a box filled with sand to learn about factors controlling the angle of repose (the stable angle of a slope). They will will see what happens when slopes are oversteepened, and relate the experiment results to general understanding of instability of slopes.

126

Wide Angle Optical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide angle optical field flattening system for a multispectral scanner is described which provides a large field angles and high resolution at low f-numbers. The system utilizes a basic optical element in the form of a first flat surface of a reflecting...

F. Vicik

1979-01-01

127

CPHD filtering with unknown probability of detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional PHD and CPHD filters presume that the probability pD(x) that a measurement will be collected from a target with state-vector x (the state-dependent probability of detection) is known a priori. However, in many applications this presumption is false. A few methods have been devised for estimating the probability of detection, but they typically presume that pD(x) is constant in both time and the region of interest. This paper introduces CPHD/PHD filters that are capable of multitarget track-before-detect operation even when probability of detection is not known and, moreover, when it is not necessarily constant, either temporally or spatially. Furthermore, these filters are potentially computationally tractable. We begin by deriving CPHD/PHD filter equations for the case when probability of detection is unknown but the clutter model is known a priori. Then, building on the results of a companion paper, we note that CPHD/PHD filters can be derived for the case when neither probability of detection or the background clutter are known.

Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

2010-04-01

128

Special Angle Pairs Discovery Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson uses a discovery approach to identify the special angles formed when a set of parallel lines is cut by a transversal. During this lesson students identify the angle pair and the relationship between the angles. Students use this relationship and special angle pairs to make conjectures about which angle pairs are considered special angles.

Henry, Barbara

2012-04-16

129

Neutrino mixing and quark-lepton complementarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the identification of the solution to the solar neutrino problem, a rather precise relation thetasun+thetaC=pi\\/4 between the leptonic 1-2 mixing angle thetasun and the Cabibbo angle has emerged. It would mean that the lepton and the quark mixing angles add up to the maximal, suggesting a deep structure by which quarks and leptons are interrelated. We

Hisakazu Minakata; Alexei Yu. Smirnov

2004-01-01

130

? and ?' mixing from lattice QCD.  

PubMed

We present a lattice QCD computation of ? and ?' masses and mixing angles, for the first time controlling continuum and quark mass extrapolations. The results for M(?) = 551(8)(stat) (6)(yst) MeV and M(?') = 1006(54)(stat)(38)(syst)(+61)(ex) MeV are in excellent agreement with experiment. Our data show that the mixing in the quark flavor basis can be described by a single mixing angle of Ø = 46(1)(stat)(3)(syst)° indicating that the ?' is mainly a flavor singlet state. PMID:24237506

Michael, C; Ottnad, K; Urbach, C

2013-11-01

131

Metabolic phenotypes in primary unknown metastatic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate expression of metabolism-related proteins in primary unknown metastatic carcinoma (PUMC) and associated implications for treatment. Methods A tissue microarray containing 77 cases of PUMC was constructed and immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate expression of the following proteins: Glycolysis-related: Glut-1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX, and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4; Glutaminolysis-related: glutaminase1 (GLS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2); and Mitochondrial-related: ATP synthase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, and SDHB. The association between immunohistochemical staining results and clinicopathologic parameters was evaluated. Results The expression of metabolism-related proteins was different depending on the histologic subtype. Compared to other subtypes, squamous cell carcinomas (SQ) expressed more Glut-1 (p?=?0.028), while adenocarcinomas (AD) expressed more SDHB in the stroma (p?=?0.025). The expression of metabolism-related proteins was also different depending on the clinical subtypes. Glut-1 was expressed most in the nodal type and the least in carcinomatosis type, when compared to other subtypes (p?=?0.021). The metabolic phenotypes also showed other trends: when the stroma showed no glutaminolysis, the tumor mostly invaded lymph node, bone, and brain, while the tumor invaded regions other than lymph node, bone, and brain when the stroma showed glutaminolysis (p?=?0.003). When the stroma showed the mitochondrial metabolic type, the histologic subtype was mainly AD, but the non-mitochondrial type was associated more with SQ (P?=?0.049). Conclusion For PUMC, the expression of metabolism-related proteins, such as Glut-1 and SDHB, differs in the tumor or stroma depending on the clinical and histologic tumor subtype.

2014-01-01

132

Viewing angle changeable display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing angle changeable display can change the display viewing angle as needed: In the public place the display could have a narrow viewing angle for privacy, while in the private place the displays could have a wide viewing angle for the convenience of the operation and better viewing experience. This article propose a novel adjustable optical transmission device to realize the viewing angle changes for LCD by using the principle of guest- host effect of liquid crystal. The major technology is to insert a special equipment between the backlight and the LCD, through which the backlight will display either parallel or scattered features to get an either narrow or wide viewing angle. The equipment is an adjustable transmission cell (ATC) which is actually a black G-H LC cell. This ATC is the main focus of our invention. The ATC consists of a polarizer sheet and a special guest-host liquid crystal device filled with the two-phase dye (called as GH-LC in this report), to achieve the viewing angle change in the LCD. When an electrical field charges to the ATC, only the so-called near-axis lights can pass through the ATC within a relatively small angle, while the other scattered lights are absorbed sequentially by GH-LC and the polarizer sheet. On the other hand, when there is no electrical charge to the ATC, the cell behaves like a normal polarizer; and the scattered light can pass through the cell and polarizer in a normal way. This paper describes the principle and structure of the device, applies the electric field on the sample to observe the electro-optical properties, combine the theoretical and experimental research, getting the viewing angle effects of the display.

Leng, Jinbi; Huang, Ziqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaoxi

2010-05-01

133

Entanglement entropy and determination of an unknown quantum state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial unknown quantum state can be determined with a single measurement apparatus by letting it interact with an auxiliary, ancilla, system as proposed by Allahverdyan, Balian, and Nieuwenhuizen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 120402 (2004)]. In the case of two qubits, this procedure allows one to reconstruct the initial state of the qubit of interest, S , by measuring three commuting observables and therefore by means of a single apparatus, for the total system S+A at a later time. The determinant of the matrix of the linear transformation connecting the measurements of three commuting observables at time t>0 to the components of the polarization vector of S at time t=0 is used as an indicator of the reconstructability of the initial state of the system S . We show that a connection between the entanglement entropy of the total system S+A and such a determinant exists, and that for a pure state a vanishing entanglement individuates, without a need for any measurement, those intervals of time for which the reconstruction procedure is least efficient. This property remains valid for a generic dimension of S . In the case of a mixed state, this connection is lost.

Aquino, Gerardo; Giraldi, Filippo

2008-12-01

134

68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

135

67. Corroded Menzie Cone with Nozzles, date unknown Historic Photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. Corroded Menzie Cone with Nozzles, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photograph Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

136

17. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, BASEMENT PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

137

19. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

138

21. Photocopy of maesured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of maesured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, SITE PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

139

18. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

140

20. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of measured drawing (source unknown) 6 March 1945, delineator unknown PROPOSED ADAPTIVE REUSE AS CLEMSON COLLEGE FACULTY CLUB, ATTIC PLAN - Woodburn, Woodburn Road, U.S. Route 76 vicinity, Pendleton, Anderson County, SC

141

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

142

53. Retail Pockets, Looking West, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photogapher ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Retail Pockets, Looking West, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photogapher Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

143

55. East Side of Breaker, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. East Side of Breaker, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA) photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

144

56. Rock Belt Line, Transfer Building, date unknown Historic Photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. Rock Belt Line, Transfer Building, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr.(Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

145

Tri-bimaximal-Cabibbo mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of the lepton mixing angle ?13 by the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments are consistent with the relationship ?13??C/?{2} where ?C is the Cabibbo angle. We propose Tri-Bimaximal-Cabibbo (TBC) mixing, in which sin ?13=sin ?C/?{2}, sin ?23=1/?{2} and sin ?12=1/?{3}. We show that TBC mixing may arise approximately from tri-bimaximal, bi-maximal or Golden Ratio neutrino mixing, together with Cabibbo-like charged lepton corrections arising from a Pati-Salam gauge group, leading to predictions for the CP-violating phase of ??±90°,±180°,±75°, respectively. Alternatively, we show that TBC neutrino mixing may realised accurately using the type I see-saw mechanism with partially constrained sequential right-handed neutrino dominance, assuming a family symmetry which is broken by a flavon common to quarks and neutrinos.

King, S. F.

2012-11-01

146

Mixed cryoglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B-cell lymphomas. The first-line treatment of MC should focus on eradication of HCV by combined interferon-ribavirin treatment. Pathogenetic treatments (immunosuppressors, corticosteroids, and/or plasmapheresis) should be tailored to each patient according to the progression and severity of the clinical manifestations. Long-term monitoring is recommended in all MC patients to assure timely diagnosis and treatment of the life-threatening complications. The overall prognosis is poorer in patients with renal disease, liver failure, lymphoproliferative disease and malignancies.

Ferri, Clodoveo

2008-01-01

147

What Is the Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that will help students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold. The students will explore all the angles of sunlight with a few thermometers and a heat lamp and understand why there is such a dramatic temperature change between the equator and the South Pole.

148

Using Inscribed Angles and Polygons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you about inscribed angles, intercepted arcs, their measures, inscribed polygons, and their associated theorems. OK, time for notes! Define Inscribed Angles, using the following website (Only define the inscribed angle from this site): Inscribed Angle Definition Using this new idea, you can use the following activity to figure out the formula for the measure of an inscribed angle: Inscribed Angle Formula Discovery The whole lesson depends upon this definition. Define Intercepted Arc, Inscribed polygons, ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-10

149

What's the Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity helps students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold.

150

State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is presented. The developed theory is used to estimate vertical tire forces and predict tripped rollovers in situations involving road bumps, potholes, and lateral unknown force inputs. To estimate the tire-road friction coefficients at each individual tire of the vehicle, algorithms to estimate longitudinal forces and slip ratios at each tire are proposed. Subsequently, tire-road friction coefficients are obtained using recursive least squares parameter estimators that exploit the relationship between longitudinal force and slip ratio at each tire. The developed approaches are evaluated through simulations with industry standard software, CARSIM, with experimental tests on a Volvo XC90 sport utility vehicle and with experimental tests on a 1/8th scaled vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the developed approaches can reliably estimate the vehicle parameters and state variables needed for effective ESC and rollover prevention applications.

Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

151

Five adjustable parameter fit of quark and lepton masses and mixings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of ours fitting the quark and lepton masses and mixing angles by removing from the model a Higgs field previously introduced to organise a large atmospheric mixing angle for neutrino oscillations. Due to the off-diagonal elements dominating in the seesaw neutrino mass matrix the large atmospheric mixing angle comes essentially by itself. It turns out that

H. B. Nielsen; Y. Takanishi

2002-01-01

152

Yaw Angle Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) is a 5 degree-of -freedom repulsive force magnetic suspension system designed to study the control of objects over large magnetic gaps. A digital control algorithm uses 6 sets of laser-sheet sensors and 5 control coils to position a cylinder 3' above the plane of electromagnetics

1994-01-01

153

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

154

Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second most common cause of blindness. It has been linked to muta- tions in the myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) genes, although mutations have been found in 5% of patients. The pathologic mechanism(s) of POAG remain unknown but may include retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, which causes progres- sive damage to axons at the

Khaled K. Abu-Amero; Jose Morales; Thomas M. Bosley

2006-01-01

155

A Different Angle on Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

Frantz, Marc

2012-01-01

156

Laser angle sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

1985-01-01

157

Surface nanobubble contact angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous AFM experiments on surface nanobubbles have suggested an anomalously large contact angle theta of the bubbles (typically ˜160,o measured through the water) and a possible size dependence theta(R). Here we determine theta(R) for nanobubbles on smooth highly orientated pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with a variety of different cantilevers. It is found that theta(R) is constant within the experimental error, down

Bram Borkent; Sissi de Beer; Frieder Mugele; Detlef Lohse

2009-01-01

158

Neutrino Mixing in the ??SSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, several reactor oscillation experiments have successively measured a nonzero value for the neutrino mixing angle ?13, which is greater than five standard deviations. Within framework of the ? from ? Supersymmetric Standard Model (??SSM), three tiny neutrino masses are generated at the tree level through TeV scale seesaw mechanism. In this work, we analyze the neutrino masses and mixing in the ??SSM with a "top-down" method, assuming neutrino mass spectrum with normal ordering or inverted ordering.

Zhang, Hai-Bin; Feng, Tai-Fu; Kou, Li-Na; Zhao, Shu-Min

2013-09-01

159

Ejs Brewsterâs Angle Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Brewsterâs Angle model displays the electric field of an electromagnetic wave incident on a change of index of refraction. The simulation allows an arbitrarily linearly (in parallel and perpendicular components) polarized wave to encounter the change of index of refraction. The initial electric field and incidence angle change of index of refraction can all be changed via sliders. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Brewsterâs Angle model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_brewster.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-20

160

Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.  

PubMed

Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

2013-11-01

161

Deriving Unknown Word Meaning from Context: Is It Reliable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language teachers often encourage L2 readers to guess the meaning of unknown words in texts. This paper argues that before any statements about the value of guessing can be made, it is necessary to show how reliable learners' guesses are. To this end, the present study investigates how accurately EFL learners assess their understanding of unknown

Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Mohammad

2008-01-01

162

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

163

48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

164

54. East Side of Breaker from Foot House, date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. East Side of Breaker from Foot House, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy of Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

165

Angle Performance on Optima XE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant. Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04° (1?). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

2011-01-01

166

The small mixing angle {theta}13 and the lepton asymmetry  

SciTech Connect

We present the correlation of low energy CP phases, and the lepton asymmetry for the baryon asymmetry in the universe, for cases in which the amount of the lepton asymmetry YL turns out to be proportional to {theta}{sub 13}{sup 2}, considering the constraint between two types of CP phases and the relation of YL versus the Jarlskog invariant or the amplitude of neutrinoless double beta decay as {theta}13 varies.

Lee, Song-Haeng; Siyeon, Kim [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-02

167

Wide Angle Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

168

Angles and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 10 of PDF), learners approximate the area of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater using a variety of square grids. They conclude which angle of impact results in the greatest area. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. Includes a pre-lesson activity (p54). The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

Nasa

2012-05-08

169

Shapes and Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 7 of PDF), learners will identify the general two-dimensional geometric shape of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater. They will also draw connections between the general two-dimensional geometric shape of an impact crater and the projectile's angle of impact. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

Nasa

2012-05-08

170

Laser angle measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

1980-01-01

171

Cabibbo haze in lepton mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quark–lepton unification suggests Cabibbo-sized effects in lepton mixings, which we call Cabibbo haze. We give simple examples and explore possible Wolfenstein-like parametrizations of the MNSP matrix which incorporate leptonic Cabibbo shifts. We find that the size of the CHOOZ angle is not always correlated with the observability of CP violation.

Aseshkrishna Datta; Lisa Everett; Pierre Ramond

2005-01-01

172

Variable angle correlation spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

Lee, Y.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Biodynamics Div.

1994-05-01

173

A Note on Angle Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author investigates the construction of angles (using Euclidean tools) through a numerical approach. He calls attention to the surprising impossibility of constructing the conventional units of angle measure--the degree, minute, second, radian, and mil. (MN)

Francis, Richard L.

1978-01-01

174

Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

2012-11-25

175

7. Aggregate operations downstream from dam. Photographer unknown, March 1924. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Aggregate operations downstream from dam. Photographer unknown, March 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

176

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

177

41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

178

30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

179

1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

180

27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

181

22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

182

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

Wagner, J.S.

1999-07-20

183

18. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, July 1932, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, July 1932, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER COMPLETION. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

184

17. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, March 1932, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, March 1932, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

185

47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

186

37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...

2013-07-01

187

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...

2013-07-01

188

37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES...

2013-07-01

189

Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information, "is ...

190

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

191

Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

192

25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

193

76. photographer unknown 31 March 1936 INTAKE PIERS AND SCROLL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. photographer unknown 31 March 1936 INTAKE PIERS AND SCROLL CASE TO UNIT NO 1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

194

35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

195

356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

196

6. FORSYTHIA WALK AFTER WIDENING Photocopy of photograph, date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. FORSYTHIA WALK AFTER WIDENING Photocopy of photograph, date unknown National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

197

73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE LINER AND SPEED RING PIERS. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

198

Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

199

26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

200

Identification, Isolation and Characterization of an Unknown Impurity of Varenicline  

PubMed Central

An unknown impurity formed during stability sample analysis by a gradient reversed phase ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) of varenicline tablets at 0.2% level. A simple isocratic preparative method was developed to isolate the unknown impurity with 20 min run time. This unknown impurity was identified and characterized by using spectroscopic techniques. Based on the spectral data, the unknown impurity has been characterized as 4,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-1H-6,10-methanopyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine-2,3-dione. The structure of this impurity was also established unambiguously, prepared by isolation and co-injected into UHPLC to confirm the retention time. To the best of our knowledge, this impurity has not been reported elsewhere.

Satheesh, Balasubramanian; Sree Ganesh, Kondayampettai K.; Saravanan, Dhandayutham

2012-01-01

201

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

202

1. Photocopy of architectural measured drawing Delineator unknown, ca. 1982 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of architectural measured drawing Delineator unknown, ca. 1982 SITE PLAN SHOWING HISTORIC DISTRICT AND LOCATION OF NEW ADDITION - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

203

82. photographer unknown 12 June 1937 ASSEMBLING TURBINE AND ROTOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. photographer unknown 12 June 1937 ASSEMBLING TURBINE AND ROTOR FOR UNITS NOS 1 AND 2. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

204

85. photographer unknown 26 June 1937 GENERAL VIEW 55 DECK, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

85. photographer unknown 26 June 1937 GENERAL VIEW 55 DECK, ASSEMBLING GENERATOR ROTOR AND STATOR FOR UNIT NO 2. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

205

91. photographer unknown 18 September 1937 55 DECK, GENERAL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. photographer unknown 18 September 1937 55 DECK, GENERAL VIEW OF UNIT NO 1 AND ROTOR. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

206

87. photographer unknown 1 September 1937 CLOSE UP, ROTOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

87. photographer unknown 1 September 1937 CLOSE UP, ROTOR AND STATOR IN UNIT NO 2. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

207

77. photographer unknown 17 April 1937 ASSEMBLING BEARING SUPPORT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. photographer unknown 17 April 1937 ASSEMBLING BEARING SUPPORT AND GENERATOR ROTOR FOR UNIT NO 1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

208

90. photographer unknown 10 September 1937 GENERAL VIEW ASSEMBLING ROTOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. photographer unknown 10 September 1937 GENERAL VIEW ASSEMBLING ROTOR FOR UNIT NO 1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

209

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

210

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING INTERIOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

211

1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

212

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, NORTHWEST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

213

23. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, DETAIL OF PENTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

214

21. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, NORTHEAST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

215

17. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman Circa 1910 WORKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman Circa 1910 WORKING DRAWING OF ALTERNATE DETAILS OF LOBBY WALL FINISHES From the Collection of the Shreve Memorial Library - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

216

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, SOUTHWEST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

217

14. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman Circa 1910 WORKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman Circa 1910 WORKING DRAWING OF SOUTHWEST ELEVATION From the Collection of the Shreve Memorial Library - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

218

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

219

28. (Credit unknown) Low service pump pit (erected in 19111912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. (Credit unknown) Low service pump pit (erected in 1911-1912 near Cross Bayou) as it appears today (1980). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

220

23. photographer unknown 15 October 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. photographer unknown 15 October 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, SHOWING PROGRESS ON LOWER GATE RECESSES. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

221

65. Final Screening and Picking Tables, date unknown Historic Photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. Final Screening and Picking Tables, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Uknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA, photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

222

The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

223

Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners identify an unknown liquid by comparing its behavior to known liquids. Learners drop liquids onto different surfaces and see how the liquids behave. Learners realize that using a combination of results from two or more tests will allow them to successfully identify the unknown. Use the related activity "Look-alike Liquids" from the same resource (see related resources) to introduce the behavior of the liquids on different surfaces.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

224

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

225

Exploring an Unknown Environment with an Intelligent Virtual Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We consider the problem of exploring an unknown environment with an intelligent virtual agent. Traditionally research efforts\\u000a to address the exploration and mapping problem have focused on the graph-based space representations and the graph search\\u000a algorithms. In this paper, we propose DFS-RTA* and DFS-PHA*, two real-time graph search algorithms for exploring and mapping\\u000a an unknown environment. Both algorithms are based

In-cheol Kim

2006-01-01

226

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

227

Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.  

PubMed

Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represent a clinically and surgically interesting entity. The opportunity of complete surgical excision and the incidence of impairment of nerval structures largely depend on the tumour biology that either leads to displacement of surrounding structures by an expansive type of growth or to an enveloping of nerval and vascular structures by an en plaque type of growth. As the origin and the direction of growth are very variable, the exact tumour extension in relation to the nerval structures and the tumour origin can be identified sometimes only at the time of surgery. Out of a series of 230 meningiomas of the posterior skull base operated between 1978 and 1993, data of 134 meningiomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are presented. There were 20% male and 80% female patients, age at the time of surgery ranging from 18 to 76 years, on the average 51 years. The clinical presentation was characterized by a predominant disturbance of the cranial nerves V (19%), VII (11%), VIII (67%) and the caudal cranial nerves (6%) and signs of ataxia (28%). 80% of the meningiomas were larger than 30 mm in diameter, 53% led to evident brainstem compression or dislocation and 85% extended anteriorly to the internal auditory canal. Using the lateral suboccipital approach in the majority of cases and a combined presigmoidal or combined suboccipital and subtemporal approaches in either sequence in 5%, complete tumour removal (Simpson I and II) was accomplished in 95% and subtotal tumour removal in 5%. Histologically the meningiotheliomatous type was most common (49%) followed by the mixed type (19%), fibroblastic (16%), psammomatous (7%), hemangioblastic (7%) and anaplastic (2%) types. Major post-operative complications were CSF leakage (8%) requiring surgical revision in 2% and hemorrhage (3%) requiring revision in 2%. While the majority of neurological disturbances showed signs of recovery, facial nerve paresis or paralysis was encountered in 17%, and facial nerve reconstruction was necessary in 7%. Hearing was preserved in 82% with improvement of hearing in 6%. The variability of tumour extension, the implications and limitations for complete surgical excision are discussed along with the experiences from the literature. PMID:8738504

Matthies, C; Carvalho, G; Tatagiba, M; Lima, M; Samii, M

1996-01-01

228

Sun angle calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A circular computer and system is disclosed for determining the sun angle relative to the horizon from any given place and at any time. The computer includes transparent, rotatably mounted discs on both sides of the circular disc member. Printed on one side of the circular disc member are outer and inner circular sets of indicia respectively representative of site longitude and Greenwich Mean Time. Printed on an associated one of the rotatable discs is a set of indicia representative of Solar Time. Printed on the other side of the circular disc member are parallel lines representative of latitude between diametral representations of North and South poles. Elliptical lines extending between the North and South poles are proportionally disposed on the surface to scale Solar Time in hours.

Flippin, A.; Schmitt, A. L. (inventors)

1976-01-01

229

Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

230

Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

2014-01-01

231

Narrow Angle movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

232

Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?  

PubMed

It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. PMID:24140073

Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

2014-04-01

233

Do not Bet on the Unknown Versus Try to Find Out More: Estimation Uncertainty and "Unexpected Uncertainty" Both Modulate Exploration  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how humans solve the exploitation/exploration trade-off. In particular, the evidence for uncertainty-driven exploration is mixed. The current study proposes a novel hypothesis of exploration that helps reconcile prior findings that may seem contradictory at first. According to this hypothesis, uncertainty-driven exploration involves a dilemma between two motives: (i) to speed up learning about the unknown, which may beget novel reward opportunities; (ii) to avoid the unknown because it is potentially dangerous. We provide evidence for our hypothesis using both behavioral and simulated data, and briefly point to recent evidence that the brain differentiates between these two motives.

Payzan-LeNestour, Elise; Bossaerts, Peter

2012-01-01

234

Multiple target angle tracking algorithm using predicted angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modify a multiple target angle tracking algorithm presented by Sword, et al. The predicted estimates, instead of the existing estimates, of the target angles are updated by the most recent output of the sensor array to improve the tracking performance of the algorithm for crossing target. Also, the least square solution is modified to avoid abnormally large angular innovations when the target angles are very close. The improved performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer simulations.

Park, S. B.; Ryu, C. S.; Lee, K. K.

1994-04-01

235

The Weak Mixing Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Weak Mixing Matrix, ( *20c Uud & Uus & Uub Ucd & Ucs & Ucb Utd & Uts & Utb ) , is not equal to the product of rotations, and in particular, it is not equal to the KM, or the PDG Matrices. At most, we may find an approximating matrix for the Weak Mixing Matrix that is based on the rotation matrices. We show that one such approximating matrix for the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix is ( *20c ?C?C^3 & ?C?C^3 & ^3 ?C?C^2 - ?C?C^2 & ?C?C^2 & ^2 ?C - ?C^3 ?C & - ?C?C^3 ^2 ?C & ?C^2 ?C^3 ), where ?C is the Cabbibo angle. The approximating matrix depends on ?C alone, and predicts the Real part of the Weak Mixing Matrix to a high degree of accuracy. We establish, with a Chi-Squared Goodness-of- Fitness-Test, that our approximating matrix can be used with extremely high level of statistical confidence.

Dannon, Vic; Levine, Robert

2009-10-01

236

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

237

Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoids  

PubMed Central

Epidermoids, or congenital cholesteatomas, constitute about 0.2% to 1.5% of intracranial tumors, and 3% to 5% of tumors of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). We review the surgical management of CPA epidermoids in 13 patients at the House Ear Clinic for the years 1978 to 1993. There were seven male and six female patients, ranging in age from 27 to 59 years (average, 40 years). Tumors ranged in size from 3.5 cm to 7.0 cm, and the surgical approach was tailored to the tumor extent and location. All patients complained at presentation of unilateral hearing loss, and nine had poor speech discrimination (less than 50%) preoperatively. Serviceable hearing was preserved in two patients. Two patients presented with facial nerve symptoms, and four cases had postoperative permanent facial nerve paralysis (House-Brackmann Grade V or VI). There were no surgical deaths. Four patients required second surgeries to remove residual cholesteatoma. Compared with prior series, we describe a higher rate of total tumor removed, as well as a higher rate of second operations, indicating a more aggressive approach to these lesions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Doyle, Karen Jo; De la Cruz, Antonio

1996-01-01

238

The Effect of Deciduous Cuspid Extraction on the IMPA Angle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of deciduous cuspid extractions on the IMPA angle. Records were reviewed of 340 children receiving mixed dentition orthodontic care. Twenty-two (22) were found to have had no lingual arch placed after ...

B. H. Mueller P. P. L'Homme F. A. Schoenbrodt W. A. Ayer

1976-01-01

239

Condition assessment of structures under unknown support excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method is proposed to assess the condition of structures under unknown support excitation by simultaneously detecting local damage and identifying the support excitation from several structural dynamic responses. The support excitation acting on a structure is modeled by orthogonal polynomial approximations, and the sensitivities of structural dynamic response with respect to its physical parameters and orthogonal coefficients are derived. The identification equation is based on Taylor’s first order approximation, and is solved with the damped least-squares method in an iterative procedure. A fifteen-story shear building model and a five-story three-dimensional steel frame structure are studied to validate the proposed method. Numerical simulations with noisy measured accelerations show that the proposed method can accurately detect local damage and identify unknown support excitation from only several responses of the structure. This method provides a new approach for detecting structural damage and updating models with unknown input and incomplete measured output information.

Zhang, Kun; Law, S. S.; Duan, Zhongdong

2009-03-01

240

Magma Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Earth and Ocean Sciences Department at the University of British Columbia, this module on magma mixing is based on ideas and theories taken from papers authored by Stephen Blake and Gregory N. Ivey. A short movie, which can be viewed at the site, shows a lab experiment where two different magmas are mixed to form a hybrid magma. Users can then peruse information (including photographs and some diagrams) on the geological concepts involved.

241

Biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location.  

PubMed

Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1% to 2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location. PMID:23290746

Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T

2013-03-15

242

17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

243

Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location  

PubMed Central

Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location.

Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

2013-01-01

244

The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

Froehle, Peter H.

2009-01-01

245

Adaptive mobile tracking in unknown non-line-of-sight conditions with application to digital TV networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the problem of tracking a mobile device in mixed line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions. NLOS error is assumed to be Gaussian with unknown mean and variance. An adaptive Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is proposed for mobile tracking in such scenarios. An extended Kalman filter is used to approximately estimate the mobile state, and the particle filter is applied to estimate the posterior distribution of sight conditions and the unknown static parameters, the distribution of which is updated by sufficient statistics. To improve the efficiency of the particle filtering, we use the approximate optimal proposal distribution for particle inference. Algorithm performance is investigated in the scenario of mobile tracking using signals of opportunity from digital TV (DTV) network. Simulation results show that the adaptive RBPF method is effective to infer the unknown NLOS parameter and can achieve good tracking accuracy using a small number of particles.

Chen, Liang; Piché, Robert; Kuusniemi, Heidi; Chen, Ruizhi

2014-12-01

246

Technique Development for Particle Bounce Monitoring of Unknown Aerosol Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particle bounce monitor has been developed to determine the bounce properties of unknown aerosols. In this new device aerosol is sampled through a conical inlet into a nozzle of constant cross section. The aerosol flow leaves the inlet section as a free jet and is separated into a center flow, which is drawn into a constant-flow particle counter, and

Mindi Xu; Klaus Willeke

1993-01-01

247

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer unknown, c. 1938 EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer unknown, c. 1938 EXTERIOR FROM SOUTH Copied from print in files of National Capital Region, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. - Godey Lime Kilns (Ruins), Junction of Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

248

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown, post 1907. EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown, post 1907. EXTERIOR FROM WEST Copied from print in files of National Capital Region, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. - Godey Lime Kilns (Ruins), Junction of Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

249

Simulation in Familiarizing Older People with an Unknown Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how successfully an environmental simulation technique could provide older people with a working knowledge of an unknown building. Compared three groups of participants: site visit (n=20); simulation (n=20); and control (n=20). Found simulation comparable to site visits in instilling confidence in way-finding ability, providing a mental…

Hunt, Michael E.; Roll, Mary K.

1987-01-01

250

24. Photocopy of photograph sketch, Artist and photographer unknown, circa ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph sketch, Artist and photographer unknown, circa 1930. Original sketch can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. ARTIST'S RENDERING OF CHANCE CONE, HUDSON COAL COMPANY, SCRANTON, PA. - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

251

Determination of Polymer Unknowns Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this laboratory exercise, you will evaluate several unknown polymers using XPS to provide their proper identities. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should: ⢠Have an understanding of XPS as a tool for surface analysis. ⢠Understand the importance of the surface state of polymeric materials.

Derosa, Rebecca L.

2008-09-04

252

45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

253

Unknown Input Observers for Switched Nonlinear Discrete Time Descriptor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a linear matrix inequality technique for the state estimation of discrete-time, nonlinear switched descriptor systems is developed. The considered systems are composed of linear and nonlinear parts. An observer giving a perfect unknown input decoupled state estimation is proposed. Sufficient conditions of global convergence of observers are proposed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate this method.

D. Koenig; B. Marx; D. Jacquet

2008-01-01

254

Detection of Answer Copying with Unknown Item and Trait Parameters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated empirical Type I error rates and the power of omega (index of answer copying developed by J. Wollack, 1997) when item and trait (theta) parameters were unknown and estimated from datasets of 100 and 500 examinees. Type I error was unaffected by estimating item parameters, with power slightly lower for the smaller sample. (SLD)

Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.

1998-01-01

255

18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW OF SLUSH TROUGH FROM BREAKER NO. 2 TO BOREHOLE UNDER NORTH END OF BOILER HOUSE NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

256

Controlled remote implementation of partially unknown quantum operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A protocol for controlled remote implementation of a partially unknown operation on an arbitrary quantum state is proposed. In this protocol, a task can be performed using a GHZ state shared among three distant parties: Alice, Bob and the controller Charlie. This protocol is also generalized to the multi-party control system based on sharing an N-qubit GHZ state.

Fan, Qiubo; Liu, Dongdong

2008-11-01

257

23. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "View across dam from right bank showing drift. Mr. Jacobs and Watchman Hansen in foreground." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

258

38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

259

8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

260

Identification of unknown parameters for heat conductivity equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for identification of unknown parameters of nonlinear heat conductivity equations is proposed. Solutions of equations observed with an error are input data of the algorithm. Finite dimensional approximations of input signals and their derivatives are used. The algorithm utilizes the idea of the direct minimization of the residual of equations written in an appropriate variational form. The convergence

N. D. Botkin

1995-01-01

261

Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

An entanglement concentration scheme for unknown atomic entanglement states is proposed via entanglement swapping in cavity QED. Because the interaction used here is a large-detuned one between two driven atoms and a quantized cavity mode, the effects of the cavity decay and thermal field have been eliminated. These advantages can warrant the experimental feasibility of the current scheme.

Ming Yang; Yan Zhao; Wei Song; Zhuo-Liang Cao

2005-01-01

262

Entanglement concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via entanglement swapping  

SciTech Connect

An entanglement concentration scheme for unknown atomic entanglement states is proposed via entanglement swapping in cavity QED. Because the interaction used here is a large-detuned one between two driven atoms and a quantized cavity mode, the effects of the cavity decay and thermal field have been eliminated. These advantages can warrant the experimental feasibility of the current scheme.

Yang Ming; Zhao Yan; Song Wei; Cao Zhuoliang [Anhui Key Laboratory of Information Material and Devices, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

2005-04-01

263

Optimal and Efficient Path Planning for Unknown and Dynamic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The {ask of planning trajectories for a mobile robot hat received considerable attention in the research literature.Algorithms exist for handling a variety of robot shapes, configurations, motion constraints, and environments. Mostof the work assumes the robot has a complete and accurate model of its environment before it begins to move; lessattention has been paid to the problem of unknown or

Anthony Stentz

1993-01-01

264

26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

265

24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

266

4. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1940; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1940; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 49; SPLITTING CARCASSES WITH CLEAVER IN OLD BEEF HOUSE - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building-1929 Beef House, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

267

4. Photographic copy of photo dated ca. 1936; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photographic copy of photo dated ca. 1936; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 5; SAUSAGES HANGING IN CURING ROOM AT RATH PACKING COMPANY - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

268

25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

269

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

270

28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

271

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF EDWIN CLARK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF EDWIN CLARK RESIDENCE ON EASTERN SIDE OF BRIDGE STREET. (Original in possession of the Erie County Historical Society.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

272

7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

273

On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals Over Fading Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter addresses the problem of energy detection of an unknown signal over a multipath channel. It starts with the no-diversity case, and presents some alternative closed-form expressions for the probability of detection to those recently reported in the literature. Detection capability is boosted by implementing both square-law combining and square-law selection diversity schemes

Fadel F. Digham; Mohamed-slim Alouini; Marvin K. Simon

2007-01-01

274

Improved Fast Replanning for Robot Navigation in Unknown Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incom- pletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz' Focussed Dynamic A* is a heuristic search method that repeatedly determines

Sven Koenig; Maxim Likhachev

2002-01-01

275

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

276

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

277

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

278

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

279

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

280

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

281

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

282

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

283

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. GENERAL PLAN OF MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

284

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

285

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 16 September 1913 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 16 September 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW OF LOG BOOM COMPOSED OF TIMBER CUT DURING CLEARING OPERATIONS OF THE RESERVOIR SITE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

286

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

287

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

288

6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

289

Discover the Unknown Chekhov in Your ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher, believes that for stories to be a successful tool in classroom instruction, they need to have universal themes, and they must deal with situations that the students could readily identify with regardless of their language, culture, or religion. In this article, she introduces the unknown

Beliavsky, Ninah

2007-01-01

290

Cancers by Body Location/System: Unknown Primary  

Cancer.gov

In English En español In English En español Cancers by Body Location/System: Unknown Primary To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm CellGynecologicHead

291

Reducing Wave-Based Teleoperator Reflections for Unknown Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave variables guarantee stability for delayed tele- operation. They also introduce reflections which can prove very disorientating for an operator. This paper presents a new method for reducing the wave reflections when operating in unknown en- vironments. The new method does not only guarantee stability but also laboratory experiments show it also reduces wave reflections allowing for improved velocity tracking

Laurence Bate; Christopher D. Cook; Zheng Li

2011-01-01

292

Competitive routing of virtual circuits with unknown duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a strategy to route unknown duration virtual circuits in a highspeed communication network. Previous work on virtual circuit routing concentrated on the case where the call duration is known in advance. We show that by allowing O(logn) reroutes per call, we can achieve O(logn) competitive ratio with respect to the maximum load (congestion) for the

Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azart; Serge A. Plotkin; Orli Waarts

1994-01-01

293

21. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF ROOF FRAMING AND TRUSSES From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

294

10. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF FRONT ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

295

23. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF DOOR DETAILS From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

296

Haemophagocytic syndrome presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) should be included in the differential diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). The hallmark of HPS is the accumulation of activated macrophages that engulf haematopoietic cells in the reticuloendothelial system. We describe a patient with unexplained fever in which a final diagnosis of HPS was established in a bone marrow study. PMID:16708741

Fadilah, S A W; Raymond, A A; Leong, C F; Cheong, S K

2006-03-01

297

Walking in unknown environments — A step towards more autonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to autonomous navigation for humanoid robots in previously unknown environments. Our method uses only on-board cameras and does not rely on color coding, textured surfaces or predefined object models. We propose using a reactive approach towards navigation that does not require building an explicit model of the environment. The basic idea of the navigation system

Thomas Buschmann; Sebastian Lohmeier; Markus Schwienbacher; V. Favot; Heinz Ulbrich; Felix von Hundelshausen; Gerhard Rohe; Hans-Joachim Wuensche

2010-01-01

298

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1915 PRIOR TO REMODELING - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

299

10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

300

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING EXTERIOR OF BUILDING NEARING COMPLETION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

301

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

302

7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

303

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915 DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

304

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

305

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

306

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

307

178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

308

Carcinomas of an unknown primary origin—diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinomas of an unknown primary origin (CUP) account for 3–5% of all malignancies and are thus among the ten most-frequent cancers worldwide. Having a specific and unique phenotype of early and usually aggressive metastatic dissemination with no identifiable primary tumor, CUP are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a careful clinical and extensive histopathological

Yohann Loriot; Karim Fizazi; Christophe Massard

2011-01-01

309

11. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer September 30, 1912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer September 30, 1912 VIEW OF LOBBY FACING NORTHEAST UNDER CONSTRUCTION From the Collection of Alex Campbell, Jr. Photocopy by Thurman C. Smith - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

310

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer July 31, 1912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer July 31, 1912 VIEW OF LOBBY FACING SOUTHWEST UNDER CONSTRUCTION From the Collection of Alex Campbell, Jr. Photocopy by Thurman C. Smith - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

311

10. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer May 31, 1912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer May 31, 1912 CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING, 1912, SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS From the Collection of Alex Campbell, Jr. Photocopy by Thurman C. Smith - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

312

9. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer May 31, 1912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer May 31, 1912 CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING, 1912, FROM EAST CORNER From the Collection of Alex Campbell, Jr. Photocopy by Thurman C. Smith - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

313

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, DETAIL PLAN AND ELEVATIONS OF LOADING DOCK AND CANOPY From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

314

Machine Learning of Morphosyntactic Structure: Lemmatizing Unknown Slovene Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic lemmatization is a core application for many language processing tasks. In inflectionally rich languages, such as Slovene, assigning the correct lemma (base form) to each word in a running text is not trivial, since for instance, nouns inflect for number and case, with a complex configuration of endings and stem modifications. The problem is especially difficult for unknown words,

Tomaz Erjavec; Sasco Dzeroski

2004-01-01

315

24. photographer unknown 28 November 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. photographer unknown 28 November 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, SHOWING FILLING AND EMPTYING PORTS IN FLOOR AND PLACING OF STOP LOGS IN LOWER GATE RECESS. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

316

49. South Side of Breaker Historic Photographer Unknown Originally taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. South Side of Breaker Historic Photographer Unknown Originally taken by Glen Alden Safety Department, 18 August 1954; Collection of William Everett, Jr (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

317

46. North Side of Breaker Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown, Originally ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. North Side of Breaker Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown, Originally taken by Glen Alden Safety Department, 18 August 1954; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy of Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

318

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

319

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

320

385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

321

Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay  

SciTech Connect

We present a physical scheme for entanglement concentration of unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay. In the scheme, the atomic state is used as a stationary qubit and the photonic state as a flying qubit, and a close maximally entangled state can be obtained from pairs of partially entangled states probabilistically.

Cao Zhuoliang; Yang Ming [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230039 (China); Zhang Lihua [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230039 (China); Department of Physics, Anqing Teacher College, Anqing, 246011 (China)

2006-01-15

322

Mixed-Mode Fracture Of Adhesively Bonded Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on using fracture mechanics to evaluate mixed-mode fracture properties of adhesively bonded aerospace material systems. As a part of experimental efforts, mixed-mode fracture tests were performed using modified Arcan specimens consisting of several combinations of adhesive, composite and metallic adherends using a special loading device. By varying the loading angle,? from 0? to 90?, mode I, mixed-

Naghdali Choupani; Lin Ye; Yiu-Wing Mai

323

Radiative magnification of neutrino mixings and a natural explanation of the neutrino anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the neutrino mixing pattern with the large mixing required for the atmospheric neutrino problem and the small mixing angle MSW solution for the solar neutrino problem can be naturally generated through radiative magnification, even though all the mixing angles at the seesaw scale may be small. This can account for the neutrino anomalies as well as the CHOOZ constraints in the context of quark-lepton unified theories, where the quark and lepton mixing angles are expected to be similar in magnitude at the high scale. We also indicate the 4/? mixing scenarios for which this mechanism of radiative magnification can provide a natural explanation.

Balaji, K. R. S.; Dighe, A. S.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Parida, M. K.

2000-05-01

324

On self-complementarity relations of neutrino mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the latest results of a large mixing angle ?13 for neutrinos by the T2K, MINOS and Double Chooz experiments, we find that the self-complementarity (SC) relations agree with the data in some angle-phase parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix. There are three kinds of self-complementarity relations: (1) ?i+?j=?k=45°; (2) ?i+?j=?k; (3) ?i+?j=45° (where i, j, k denote the mixing angles in the angle-phase parametrizations). We present a detailed study on the self-complementarity relations in nine different angle-phase parametrizations, and also examine the explicit expressions in reparametrization-invariant form, as well as their deviations from global fit. These self-complementarity relations may lead to new perspective on the mixing pattern of neutrinos.

Zhang, Xinyi; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2012-04-01

325

Naskah Angling Darma Ambya Madura  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAK Angling Darma adalah cerita Jawa yang mengisahkan perjalanan seorang raja yang terpaksa meninggalkan kerajaannya sebagai dharma untuk menebus dosa-dosa yang dilakukannya. Angling Darma Ambya Madura ditulis dalam bahasa Madura dialek Sumenep. Oleh kerana proses penulisannya yang diduga melalui teknik penyaduran, versi Madura ini banyak sekali meng- gunakan kata dan ungkapan yang diadaptasi dari bahasa Jawa, sehingga kata dan ungkapan

A. SYUKUR GHAZALI

326

Measuring Angles in Physical Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features articles about physical therapy and its history as related to geometry through measurement of body angles. Includes open-ended worksheets for mathematics activities that introduce students to angle measurement, data analysis, and mathematical tools. Activities include: (1) Making Your Own Goniometer; (2) Range of Motion; (3) Active versus…

Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

1997-01-01

327

Low-Angle Target Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an experiment that was performed to evaluate a new low-angle tracking (LAT) radar technique which uses array antenna technology. The process enables the radar to track targets in elevation in the low-angle region between one beamwidt...

R. VanDeusen W. Steckenreiter

1973-01-01

328

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

329

A 4 models of tri-bimaximal-reactor mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results from T2K, MINOS and Double CHOOZ all indicate a sizeable reactor angle ? 13 which would rule out conventional tri-bimaximal lepton mixing. However, it is possible to maintain the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric mixing angle predictions, ? 12 ? 35°, ? 23 ? 45° even for a quite sizeable reactor angle ? 13 ? 8°, using an ansatz called tri-bimaximal-reactor (TBR) mixing proposed by one of us some time ago. We propose an explicit A 4 model of leptons based on the type I seesaw mechanism at both the effective and the renormalisable level which, together with vacuum alignment, leads to surprisingly accurate TBR neutrino mixing, with the second order corrections to mixing angles having small coefficients.

King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

2012-03-01

330

OPTOTRAK Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle Using Standardized Foot Positions  

PubMed Central

Objective: While there is evidence to suggest that the magnitude of the quadriceps (Q) angle changes with alterations in foot position, a detailed quantitative description of this relationship has not been reported. Our purpose was to determine the effect of varying foot placement on the magnitude of the Q angle. Design and Setting: A mixed between-within, repeated-measures design was used to compare Q angles derived under static weight-bearing conditions with the feet positioned in self-selected versus standardized stance positions. Subjects: Twenty healthy young-adult men and women with no history of acute injury to or chronic dysfunction of the lower limbs. Measurements: We placed light-emitting diodes bilaterally on the left and right anterior superior iliac spines, the tibial tuberosities, and the midpoints of the patellae to bilaterally define the Q angles. An OPTOTRAK motion-measurement system was used to capture x,y coordinate data at a sampling rate of 60 Hz. These data were subsequently filtered and used to calculate the magnitude of the left and right Q angles. Results: A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that when measured statically, Q angles differed significantly between stance positions (P < .001) and limbs (P < .05). Depending on the stance adopted, mean Q angles varied from 7.2° to 12.7° and 11.0° to 16.1° in the left and right lower limbs, respectively. Q-angle measurements taken in conjunction with the Romberg foot position most closely resembled those gathered with the feet in a self-selected stance (Pearson r = 0.86 to 0.92). Conclusions: Q-angle magnitude varies with changes in foot position, increasing or decreasing as the foot rotates internally or externally, respectively. These data demonstrate the need for a standardized foot position for Q-angle measurements.

Livingston, Lori A.; Spaulding, Sandi J.

2002-01-01

331

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431

Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

2010-03-01

332

Determining Horizontal Symmetry from Neutrino Mixing  

SciTech Connect

We argue that the best way to determine horizontal symmetry is from neutrino mixing and proceed to show that the only finite group capable of yielding the tribimaximal mixing for all Yukawa couplings is S{sub 4}, or any group containing it. The method used is largely group theoretical, but it can be implemented by dynamical schemes in which the Higgs expectation values introduced to break S{sub 4} spontaneously are uniquely determined up to an unknown scale for each.

Lam, C. S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-09-19

333

Flash mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing novel methods for robust protocol design, to substitute for costly zero-knowledge schemes, we are able to produce a mixing scheme with significantly lower costs of operation than all previously known such schemes. The scheme takes a list of ElGamal encrypted messages, and produces as output a permuted list of encryptions of the same plaintext messages, such that corresponding

Markus Jakobsson

1999-01-01

334

NASA WHY FILES: The Case of the Unknown Stink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Unknown Stink.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of trying to find the source of an unpleasant odor that is invading the surrounding neighborhoods. To determine the source of the stink, our detectives learn about the sense of smell: what it is, how people and animals smell, and how wind speed and direction influence the movement of odor. They also learn about how NASA's Atmospheric Science research can help solve the case. While investigating the case, the tree house detectives learn that the source of the 'unknown stink' is 'right under their very noses.'

2000-01-01

335

An ``Unknown'' Magnetic Moment Measured Five Independent Ways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an introductory, or even advanced student laboratory, it is difficult to find an experiment where the ``unknown'' or the physical constant can be measured in multiple ways. This talk will describe five independent methods students can use to measure the magnetic moment of a NdFeB disc imbedded in a 6.1 cm diameter snooker ball. Mechanics, as well as E&M concepts are necessary to analyze these experiments. Expressing results in the proper units turns out to be an additional challenge for most students. Each measurement has its own unique systematic as well as precision uncertainties. I believe that no other undergraduate experiment uses such a wide range of physical phenomena and complementary measurements to zero-in on a single unknown.

Reichert, Jonathan F.

2007-03-01

336

Helicity-dependent single-walled carbon nanotube alignment on graphite for helical angle and handedness recognition  

PubMed Central

Aligned single-walled carbon nanotube arrays provide a great potential for the carbon-based nanodevices and circuit integration. Aligning single-walled carbon nanotubes with selected helicities and identifying their helical structures remain a daunting issue. The widely used gas-directed and surface-directed growth modes generally suffer the drawbacks of mixed and unknown helicities of the aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Here we develop a rational approach to anchor the single-walled carbon nanotubes on graphite surfaces, on which the orientation of each single-walled carbon nanotube sensitively depends on its helical angle and handedness. This approach can be exploited to conveniently measure both the helical angle and handedness of the single-walled carbon nanotube simultaneously at a low cost. In addition, by combining with the resonant Raman spectroscopy, the (n,m) index of anchored single-walled carbon nanotube can be further determined from the (d,?) plot, and the assigned (n,m) values by this approach are validated by both the electronic transition energy Eii measurement and nanodevice application.

Chen, Yabin; Shen, Ziyong; Xu, Ziwei; Hu, Yue; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Sheng; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yanfeng; Peng, Lianmao; Ding, Feng; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

2013-01-01

337

Adaptive control of plants with unknown dead-zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model reference adaptive controllers are designed for plants with unknown dead-zones. Several control strategies are investigated in which two sets of adjustable parameters, one belonging to a dead-zone inverse and the other to a linear controller, are either kept fixed or adaptively updated. The developed adaptive control schemes ensure boundedness of all closed-loop signals and reduce the tracking error

Gang Tao; P. V. Kokotovic

1994-01-01

338

Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War II period. During drives to encourage purchase of war bonds, posters featuring female shipyard workers were widely distributed purchasers were allowed one vote for each bond bought. Votes were cast and the woman who got the most votes was named "War Bond Girl." The contest was won by Kay McGinty, 4th row, 2nd column. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

339

Saucer-Shaped Sandstone Intrusions: Facts, Inferences and Unknowns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saucer-shaped and conical sandstone intrusions occur in abundance within Paleogene claystones of the North Sea Basin and within Paleogene-Neogene claystones of the Faroe-Shetland and More Basins along the NW European Atlantic Margin. The dimensions of individual saucers range from 50-300m height, 0.5-2 km width, and 0.5-4 km length, with sandstone volumes up to some 0.5 cubic kilometres. Clusters of saucers may contain composite intruded volumes up to several cubic kilometres and may form significant reservoir bodies for hydrocarbon accumulations. Conical sandstone intrusions have similar dimensions, though their width, length and volumes are limited by their downward tapering geometry with a central pointy apex, lacking a horizontal segment in the centre. Whilst their occurrence, dimensions and significance within their known host basins are no longer in doubt, virtually all the parameters relating to their genesis are poorly constrained and either inferred or declared unknown in the existing literature. These include: source of the intruded sand, timing of intrusion (both duration and age), depth of emplacement, triggering mechanism(s), relation with underlying structures and/or structures within and the rheology of the host claystones, etc. It is also largely unknown whether intrusions occurred largely synchronously or during a multitude of events within their host basins. Without a rigorous analysis of which parameters are known and which are inferred or essentially unknown, any analysis of the origin of sandstone intrusions remains speculation and may be highly misleading. This paper presents examples and highlights the facts, inferences and unknowns for each of the case studies drawn from the northern North Sea and the Faroe-Shetland Basin and summarises the implications of these uncertainties for the analysis of the origin of the intrusions.

Huuse, M.; Cartwright, J. A.

2007-12-01

340

10. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; SOUTH END OF RATH COMPLEX IN SPRING OF 1941, AFTER COMPLETION OF THREE-STORY ADDITION TO GREASE INTERCEPTOR - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

341

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

342

9. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; SOUTH END OF COMPLEX, LATE 1940; FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER; BUILDING 148 ADDITION UNDER CONSTRUCTION (CENTER) - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

343

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

344

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

345

Unknown meteor showers of comet Machholz and asteroid Phaeton  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search was carried out, in the catalog archives of the Meteor Data Center in Lund, Sweden, for meteors associated with the theoretically predicted, but previously unknown, Carinid and kappa-Velid meteor showers of comet Machholz, and the delta-Leonid and Canis-Minorid meteor showers of asteroid Phaeton. Results of the search support the existence of the indicated showers, and therefore, the existence

P. B. Babadzhanov; Yu. V. Obrubov

1993-01-01

346

Unknown meteor showers of comet Machholz and of asteroid Phaethon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for meteors which belong to theoretically predicted but previously unknown Carinid and chi-Velid meteor showers of comet Machholz and delta-Leonid and Canis-Minorid meteor showers of asteroid Phaethon was carried out on the base of the archive of the IAU Meteor Data Center in Lund, Sweden. The results of the search confirmed the existence of the above mentioned meteor

P. B. Babadzhanov; Yu. V. Obrubov

1993-01-01

347

FDG PET\\/CT in carcinoma of unknown primary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of metastatic malignancies in which a primary tumor could not\\u000a be detected despite thorough diagnostic evaluation. Because of its high sensitivity for the detection of lesions, combined\\u000a 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)\\/computed tomography (CT) may be an excellent alternative to\\u000a CT alone and conventional magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the

Thomas C. Kwee; Sandip Basu; Gang Cheng; Abass Alavi

2010-01-01

348

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

349

[Identification of an exhumed unknown infant through DNA analysis].  

PubMed

The article reports on the exhumation and subsequent DNA analysis of the skeletal remains of an unknown male newborn from 1988. Molecular biological methods confirmed the maternity of a woman who was already convicted of infanticide. Since homicide could not be clearly proven and manslaughter becomes barred by the statute of limitation after 20 years, the woman cannot be held accountable for the alleged killing of her first child. PMID:25004622

Jopp, Eilin; Püschel, Klaus; Warschke, Christian; Kaufmann, Richard; Krebs, Oliver

2014-01-01

350

Protracted diarrhea of unknown etiology in Israeli soldiers.  

PubMed

Twenty-five Israeli soldiers, seen over a period of five years, suffered from diarrhea lasting from one month to three years. This was accompanied by weight loss and, in some cases, by evidence of malabsorption and/or mild abnormalities in small bowel and rectal biopsies. The etiology of the diarrhea is unknown, since a routine search for parasites or pathogenic bacteria was unrewarding. An infectious etiology is, however, most likely. PMID:1158658

Theodor, E; Gilon, E

1975-05-01

351

1. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, before 1892. City of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, before 1892. City of Philadelphia Records Department, Photo No. 41097. Original print in the Penrose Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. View was taken before 1892, when the addition of the Friends Institute was made at the southwest corner. Note the William Penn Charter School at right. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

352

Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

353

Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

Royle, J.A.; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

2007-01-01

354

Unknown Bands Observed in the 266 NM Photolysis of Iodomethanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unknown bands that were not seen in the nascent emission spectra following the near-UV photolysis of bromomathanes (CHBr3-nCl_n, n= 0, 1, 2 and CH_2Br_2) were observed in the 520-820 nm region of the nascent emission spectra following the 266 nm photolysis of iodomethanes (CHI_3, CH_2I_2, and CH_3I) in a slow flow system at ambient temperature. We have dramatically improved the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of these unknown bands for further data analyses. Pressure dependence and temporal waveforms of the unknown bands were also recorded. The analyses show that these bands have the vibrational intervals of roughly 400 cm-1 and possibly originate from the same upper level with emission to different lower levels. Moreover, the nascent emission spectra of photolyzing the deuterated or 13C-substituted isotopomers (CD_2I_2, CD_3I, and 13CH_2I_2) were also acquired, and the results indicate that the carrier molecule probably does not contain any hydrogen or carbon atoms. Our current progress will be presented. S.-X. Yang, G.-Y. Hou, J.-H. Dai, C-.H. Chang, and B.-C. Chang, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4785 (2010) C.-N. Liu, H.-F. Liao, G.-Y. Hou, S-.X. Yang, and B.-C. Chang, 65 OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, MI10 (2010).

Du, Jia-Jen; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Bor-Chen

2012-06-01

355

Assisted assignment of ligands corresponding to unknown electron density.  

SciTech Connect

A semi-automated computational procedure to assist in the identification of bound ligands from unknown electron density has been developed. The atomic surface surrounding the density blob is compared to a library of three-dimensional ligand binding surfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Ligands corresponding to surfaces which share physicochemical texture and geometric shape similarities are considered for assignment. The method is benchmarked against a set of well represented ligands from the PDB, in which we show that we can identify the correct ligand based on the corresponding binding surface. Finally, we apply the method during model building and refinement stages from structural genomics targets in which unknown density blobs were discovered. A semi-automated computational method is described which aims to assist crystallographers with assigning the identity of a ligand corresponding to unknown electron density. Using shape and physicochemical similarity assessments between the protein surface surrounding the density and a database of known ligand binding surfaces, a plausible list of candidate ligands are identified for consideration. The method is validated against highly observed ligands from the Protein Data Bank and results are shown from its use in a high-throughput structural genomics pipeline.

Binkowski, T. A.; Cuff, M.; Nocek, B.; Chang, C.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

2010-01-03

356

Two-dimensional robot navigation among unknown stationary polygonal obstacles  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe an algorithm for navigating a polygonal robot, capable of translational motion, in an unknown environment. The environment contains stationary polygonal obstacles and is bounded by polygonal walls, all of which are initially unknown to the robot. The environment is learned during the navigation process by use of a laser range-finding device, and new knowledge is integrated with previously acquired information. A partial map of the environment is thus obtained. The map contains parts of the obstacles that were seen by the robot and the free space between them. The obstacles in the map are transformed into a new set of expanded polygonal obstacles. This enables treating the robot as a point instead of a polygon, and the navigation problem is reduced to point navigation among unknown polygonal obstacles. A navigation graph is built from the transformed obstacles in the map. This is a partial visibility graph of the enlarged obstacles. A search is conducted on the graph for a path to the destination. The path is piecewise linear; at its corners, the robot stops, scans its environment, and updates the map, the obstacles, and the planned path. The algorithm is proved to converge to the desired destination in a finite number of steps provided a path to the destination exists. If such a path does not exist, then the navigation process terminates in a finite number of steps with the conclusion that the destination is unreachable.

Foux, G.; Heymann, M.; Bruckstein, A. (Center for Intelligent Systems, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Computer Science)

1993-02-01

357

Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Yèche, Christophe

2014-04-01

358

The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

2009-12-01

359

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phiv. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta12=phiv and cos theta12=phiv\\/2. We compare these ansätze and discuss a model leading to cos theta12=phiv\\/2 based on the dihedral group D10. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos

Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

2009-01-01

360

Bayesian estimation of Karplus parameters and torsion angles from three-bond scalar couplings constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply Bayesian inference to analyze three-bond scalar coupling constants in an objective and consistent way. The Karplus curve and a Gaussian error law are used to model scalar coupling measurements. By applying Bayes' theorem, we obtain a probability distribution for all unknowns, i.e., the torsion angles, the Karplus parameters, and the standard deviation of the Gaussian. We infer all these unknowns from scalar coupling data using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and analytically derive a probability distribution that only involves the torsion angles.

Habeck, Michael; Rieping, Wolfgang; Nilges, Michael

2005-11-01

361

Angle interferometer cross axis errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have found what appears to be a previously unreported error in the measurement of surface plate flatness and the measurement of angular displacement errors in rotary tables using angle interferometers.

J. B. Bryan D. L. Carter S. L. Thompson

1993-01-01

362

Angles of multivariable root loci  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

1982-01-01

363

Unknown nonlinear chaotic gyros synchronization using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control with unknown dead-zone input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the problem of synchronizing two chaotic gyros in the presence of uncertainties, external disturbances and dead-zone nonlinearity in the control input is studied while the structure of the gyros, parameters of the dead-zone and the bounds of uncertainties and external disturbances are unknown. The dead-zone nonlinearity in the control input might cause the perturbed chaotic system to show unpredictable behavior. This is due to the high sensitivity of these systems to small changes in their parameters. Thereby, the effect of these issues should not be ignored in the control design for these systems. In order to eliminate the effects from the dead-zone nonlinearity, in this paper, a robust adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control scheme is proposed to overcome the synchronization problem for a class of unknown nonlinear chaotic gyros. The main contribution of our paper in comparison with other works that attempt to solve the problem of dead-zone in the synchronization of chaotic gyros is that we assume that the structure of the system, uncertainties, external disturbances, and dead-zone are fully unknown. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Roopaei, Mehdi; Zolghadri Jahromi, Mansoor; John, Robert; Lin, Tsung-Chih

2010-09-01

364

How Thioredoxin Dissociates Its Mixed Disulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation mechanism of the thioredoxin (Trx) mixed disulfide complexes is unknown and has been debated for more than twenty years. Specifically, opposing arguments for the activation of the nucleophilic cysteine as a thiolate during the dissociation of the complex have been put forward. As a key model, the complex between Trx and its endogenous substrate, arsenate reductase (ArsC), was

Goedele Roos; Nicolas Foloppe; Koen Van Laer; Lode Wyns; Lennart Nilsson; Paul Geerlings; Joris Messens

2009-01-01

365

A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.

Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.

1993-01-01

366

Measurements of the CKM Angle phi3/gamma  

SciTech Connect

We present a review on the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} ({phi}{sub 3}){sup 1} as performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP-II and KEKB. These measurements are using either charged or neutral B decays. For charged B decays the modes {tilde D}{sup 0}K{sup -}, {tilde D}*{sup 0}K{sup -}, and {tilde D}{sup 0}K*{sup -} are employed, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. Direct CP violation is exploited. It is caused by interferences between V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} accessible transitions that generate asymmetries in the final states. For these decays various methods exist to enhance the sensitivity to the V{sub ub} transition, carrying the weak phase {gamma}. For neutral B decays, the modes D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} are used. In addition to the V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} interferences, these modes are sensitive to the B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, so that time dependent analyses are performed to extract sin(2{beta} + {gamma}). An alternative method would use the lower branching ratios decay modes {tilde D}{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} where much larger asymmetries are expected. The various available methods are mostly ''theoretically clean'' and always free of penguins diagrams. In some cases a high sensitivity to {gamma} is expected and large asymmetries may be seen. But these measurements are always experimentally difficult as one has to face with either low branching ratios, or small asymmetries, or additional technical/theoretical difficulties due to Dalitz/SU(3) and re-scattering models needed to treat/estimate nuisance parameters such as unknown strong phases and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of the interfering ''V{sub ub}'' transitions. Thus at the present time only a relatively limited precision on {gamma} can be extracted from these measurements. The current world average is {gamma} = (78{sub -26}{sup +19}){sup o} [1]. For other methods and long term perspectives, as discussed in details, the reader is invited to consult the proceedings of the recent CKM workshop that was held in Nagoya (Japan) in December 2006 [2].

Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

2007-06-27

367

Predictions from high scale mixing unification hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the renormalization group evolution of masses and mixing angles of Majorana neutrinos under the "high scale mixing unification" hypothesis. Assuming the unification of quark-lepton mixing angles at a high scale, we show that all the experimentally observed neutrino oscillation parameters can be obtained, within the 3-? range, through the running of corresponding renormalization group equations provided neutrinos have the same charge parity and are quasidegenerate. One of the novel results of our analysis is that ?23 turns out to be nonmaximal and lies in the second octant. Furthermore, we derive new constraints on the allowed parameter space for the unification scale, supersymmetry breaking scale and tan?, for which the high scale mixing unification hypothesis works.

Abbas, Gauhar; Gupta, Saurabh; Rajasekaran, G.; Srivastava, Rahul

2014-05-01

368

7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print in possession of James E. Zielinski Earth Tech, Huntsville, AL). Pan American World Airways, photographer. Aerial view (north to south) of missile launch area. Warhead handling building can be seen at the bottom center of the picture and the universal missile building in the middle right. In the distance can be seen the missile site control building and related structures - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

369

Fever of unknown origin: a rare retroperitoneal cause  

PubMed Central

The authors present a patient with fever of unknown origin and vague loin pain. Baseline investigations revealed elevated inflammatory markers and imaging eventually identified a renal mass. Radical nephrectomy was performed at a collaborative surgical list involving both the urology and vascular surgical teams. Histological examination confirmed a retroperitoneal paraganglioma and the patient made a rapid recovery and remains well at follow-up. This case draws attention to the rare diagnosis of retroperitoneal paraganglioma and the potential for diagnostic delay. Furthermore, the vital multi-disciplinary approach to the optimum management of patients with such tumours is highlighted.

Davies, Llion l; Fitchett, Jason M; Jones, David

2012-01-01

370

Strongyloides as a cause of fever of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Strongyloides is endemic in parts of the United States. Most often it is asymptomatic but it has a wide range of clinical presentations. Because of the unusual capacity of strongyloides for autoinfection, it can cause hyperinfection, when it effects the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, or disseminated infection, when other organs are involved. Both hyperinfection and disseminated strongyloides usually occur in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of hyperinfection with strongyloides in a man presenting with fever of unknown origin who was not immunosuppressed. PMID:22570402

Neumann, Iliana; Ritter, Rhianna; Mounsey, Anne

2012-01-01

371

Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.  

PubMed

About 3-5% of metastatic cancers originate from an unknown primary origin. Some have a signet-ring cell (SRC) component. We report the medical history of three patients with SRC carcinoma expressing both the oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). Although no primary breast cancer could be identified, we considered these three patients as having metastatic breast cancer. All of them were therefore treated with standard breast anti-hormonal therapies and all demonstrated benefit. The pitfalls of clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and treatment are discussed. PMID:24724758

Gregoire, C; Muller, G; Machiels, J-P; Goeminne, J-C

2014-04-01

372

Prediction approach to multistage sampling when cluster sizes are unknown  

SciTech Connect

A model for two-stage cluster sampling when sample cluster sizes are unknown is used to derive an optimal (model-based) estimator for the population total and to determine robust sampling strategies. In an empirical study using 1970 and 1980 census data for Los Angeles and surrounding counties, comparisons are made between the model based estimator and conventional estimators. The results favor the new estimator over those derived from randomization theory. In addition, the empirical study shows that the robust sampling strategies suggested by the theory can reduce biases, improve efficiency, and decrease the frequencies of large errors. 7 refs.

Kelly, E.J.; Cumberland, W.G.

1985-01-01

373

Lepton flavor mixing in the Wolfenstein scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We mimic the Wolfenstein scheme of quark flavor mixing to describe neutrino oscillations in the standard model. We identify the parameter ? with the experimentally measured value of the mixing element responsible for atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The matrix elements responsible for solar neutrino oscillations and the Chooz angle are taken to be proportional to ?2 and ?3, respectively. Using present world average data on neutrinos, we derive bounds on the other parameters, A, ?, and ? of the new scheme.

Gupta, V.; Sánchez-Colón, G.; Rajpoot, S.; Wang, H.-C.

2013-04-01

374

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4sigma below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bimaximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z2?Z2' symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the

Yuji Kajiyama; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

2007-01-01

375

Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to the Optical Interference Coatings 2004 Topical Meeting Measurement Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the characterizations performed at the Institut Fresnel for the Measurement Problem of the Optical Interference Coatings 2004 Topical Meeting. A single layer coated on a fused-silica substrate of unknown composition and parameters is analyzed in terms of optogeometrical parameters, uniformity, and scattering. We determine the refractive index and the average thickness of the coating, then provide the localized determination of the thickness with a 2 mm spatial resolution. Topography measurements include atomic force microscopy and angle-resolved scattering measurements. These results are completed thanks to a Taylor Hobson noncontact 3D surface profiler.

Lemarchand, Fabien; Deumié, Carole; Zerrad, Myriam; Abel-Tiberini, Laëtitia; Bertussi, Bertrand; Georges, Gaëlle; Lazaridès, Basile; Cathelinaud, Michel; Lequime, Michel; Amra, Claude

2006-03-01

376

Learned navigation in unknown terrains: A retraction method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of learned navigation of a circular robot R, of radius delta (is greater than or equal to 0), through a terrain whose model is not a-priori known is considered. Two-dimensional finite-sized terrains populated by an unknown (but, finite) number of simple polygonal obstacles are also considered. The number and locations of the vertices of each obstacle are unknown to R. R is equipped with a sensor system that detects all vertices and edges that are visible from its present location. In this context two problems are covered. In the visit problem, the robot is required to visit a sequence of destination points, and in the terrain model acquisition problem, the robot is required to acquire the complete model of the terrain. An algorithmic framework is presented for solving these two problems using a retraction of the freespace onto the Voronoi diagram of the terrain. Algorithms are then presented to solve the visit problem and the terrain model acquisition problem.

Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Stoltzfus, N.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

1989-01-01

377

Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry.  

PubMed

This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A?, S? and ?(96). PMID:23645075

King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph

2013-05-01

378

Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A4, S4 and ?(96).

King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

2013-05-01

379

Continuous separation of submicron particles using Angled electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectrophoretic separation of particles is achieved by the generation of electric forces on the particles by non-uniform electric fields. This paper presents a technique based on negative dielectrophoresis in a novel design of electrode array for the non-contact separation of polarisable particles. Angled electrodes are used to generate a lateral force in a microfluidic channel separating a mixed stream of particles into distinct streams of constituent components and achieving a high degree of spatial separation.

Yunus, Nurul A. Md; Green, Nicolas G.

2008-12-01

380

Transition mixing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

Reynolds, R.; White, C.

1986-01-01

381

Angle imaging: Advances and challenges  

PubMed Central

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard.

Quek, Desmond T L; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

2011-01-01

382

Light Scattering at Various Angles  

PubMed Central

The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering.

Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

1972-01-01

383

High angle of attack: Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict high angle of attack, nonlinear, aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles, including aircraft, has made significant progress in the last 25 years using computational tools and analyses. The key technological element which has made these analyses possible is the ability to account for the influence of the shed vortical flow, prevalent in this angle of attack range, on geometries of interest. Using selected analysis techniques, applications have also been made to wing design in order to improve their high speed maneuver performance. Various techniques, associated with different levels of accuracy, exist to model this vortical flow influence. The ones included in this paper cover: suction analogy with extensions; free vortex filaments; free vortex sheet modeling; and Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions. Associated relevant features of vortices are also addressed, including: the wing and flow conditions which cause vortex formation; and how the vortex strength varies with angle of attack and wing sweep.

Lamar, John E.

1992-01-01

384

Fermion masses and mixings from heterotic orbifold models  

SciTech Connect

We search for a possibility of getting realistic fermion mass ratios and mixing angles from renormalizable couplings on the Z6-I heterotic orbifold with one pair of Higgs doublets. In the quark sector, we find cases with reasonable results if we ignore the first family. In the lepton sector, we can fit the charged lepton mass ratios, the neutrino mass squared difference ratio, and the lepton mixing angles, considering all three families00.

Park, Jae-hyeon [School of Physics, KIAS, Cheongnyangni-dong, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-02

385

Cydonia: Wide Angle Color Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Although the resolution of the MOC wide angle cameras is too low to tell much about the geomorphology of the Cydonia region, the images from the red and blue wide angle cameras provide us with two types of information that is of interest in their own right: color and stereoscopic data. Above are a color view and a stereoscopic anaglyph rendition of Geodesy Campaign images acquired by MGS MOC in May 1999. To view the stereo image, you need red/blue '3-D' glasses.

2000-01-01

386

Management of angle closure glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is equally prevalent in Indian in Asian population as the primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty-six percent of people with PACG are in Asia, with approximately 48.0% in China, 23.9% in India and 14.1% in southeast Asia. To understand PACG, it is mandatory to understand its classification and type of presentation with the underlying pathophysiology. The treatment options are medical, laser and/or surgical. The present article provides an overview of PACG.

See, Jovina L S; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Aduan, Joel; Chew, Paul T K

2011-01-01

387

Radiation impacts on human health: certain, fuzzy, and unknown.  

PubMed

The atomic bomb and other studies have established with certainty that moderate-to-high doses of radiation cause many types of solid cancer and leukemia. Moving down the dose range to the vicinity of 100-200 mSv, the risks become fuzzy and then unknown at low doses on the order of 10-20 mSv. Nor have low-dose experimental studies provided definitive answers: some have suggested there may be adverse biological effects in the range of 5-50 mSv, while others support a "no risk" interpretation. Epidemiologic data contain intrinsic "noise" (variation by known and unknown factors related to genetics, lifestyle, other environmental exposures, sociodemographics, diagnostic accuracy, etc.) so are generally too insensitive to provide compelling answers in the low-dose range. However, there have been recent provocative reports regarding risk from relatively low-dose occupational and medical radiation exposures that warrant careful consideration. Summaries of the largest studies with low-dose or low dose-rate radiation exposure provide suggestive evidence of risk for solid cancer and stronger evidence for leukemia risk. Recently, interest in health endpoints other than cancer also has risen sharply, in particular the degree of cardiovascular and cataract risk following doses under 1 Sv. Data regarding cardiovascular disease are limited and fuzzy, with suggestions of inconsistencies, and the risk at low doses is essentially unknown. The evidence of cataract risk after low dose-rate exposures among those conducting interventional medical radiological procedures is becoming strong. The magnitude of radiation impacts on human health requires fuller documentation, especially for low-dose or low dose-rate exposures. From the epidemiologic vantage point, this will require longer observation of existing irradiated cohorts and development of new informative cohorts, improved accuracy in dose assessments, more attention to confounding variables, and more biosamples from irradiated groups to enable translational radiobiological studies. Introduction of Radiation Impacts on Human Health (Video 2:02, http://links.lww.com/HP/A35). PMID:24378493

Shore, Roy E

2014-02-01

388

Optimal design of an unsupervised adaptive classifier with unknown priors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An adaptive detection scheme for M hypotheses was analyzed. It was assumed that the probability density function under each hypothesis was known, and that the prior probabilities of the M hypotheses were unknown and sequentially estimated. Each observation vector was classified using the current estimate of the prior probabilities. Using a set of nonlinear transformations, and applying stochastic approximation theory, an optimally converging adaptive detection and estimation scheme was designed. The optimality of the scheme lies in the fact that convergence to the true prior probabilities is ensured, and that the asymptotic error variance is minimum, for the class of nonlinear transformations considered. An expression for the asymptotic mean square error variance of the scheme was also obtained.

Kazakos, D.

1974-01-01

389

Graves' disease presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.  

PubMed Central

Fever is a common clinical manifestation of inflammatory processes of the thyroid and thyroid crisis. On the other hand, fever alone as a presenting symptom of thyrotoxicosis, without other manifestations, is extremely rare. A female patient is described in whom fever persisted for two months prior to hospitalization, but without clinical symptoms or signs to lead to suspicion of thyroid disease. After exhaustive investigation it was found that the patient was suffering from hyperthyroidism. Fever disappeared gradually on antithyroid therapy, recurred when the drugs were withdrawn for a rechallenge trial, and cleared up again after renewal. Four other cases of persistent fever as a presenting symptom of hyperthyroidism were found on a review of previous publications. Thyrotoxicosis should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. Images Figure 1

Shaked, Y.; Samra, Y.; Zwas, S. T.

1988-01-01

390

Protein Domains of Unknown Function Are Essential in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT More than 20% of all protein domains are currently annotated as “domains of unknown function” (DUFs). About 2,700 DUFs are found in bacteria compared with just over 1,500 in eukaryotes. Over 800 DUFs are shared between bacteria and eukaryotes, and about 300 of these are also present in archaea. A total of 2,786 bacterial Pfam domains even occur in animals, including 320 DUFs. Evolutionary conservation suggests that many of these DUFs are important. Here we show that 355 essential proteins in 16 model bacterial species contain 238 DUFs, most of which represent single-domain proteins, clearly establishing the biological essentiality of DUFs. We suggest that experimental research should focus on conserved and essential DUFs (eDUFs) for functional analysis given their important function and wide taxonomic distribution, including bacterial pathogens.

Goodacre, Norman F.; Gerloff, Dietlind L.; Uetz, Peter

2013-01-01

391

Congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin in beef herds.  

PubMed

Congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO), often referred to as 'acorn calf disease' or congenital joint laxity and dwarfism (CJLD), has been reported in beef cattle in Canada, the United States, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. An association of CCUO with grazing drought-affected pastures, feeding hay-only or silage-only diets or supplementation with apple pulp suggests a nutritional cause such as a mineral deficiency. This review compares published reports on CCUO in order to identify common features among outbreaks and to provide a basis for future research into the condition. A protocol for investigation of outbreaks is provided to improve the outcome of future comparisons. PMID:22633829

White, Peter J; Windsor, Peter A

2012-08-01

392

Simulated NMIS Imaging Data for an Unknown Object  

SciTech Connect

This report presents simulated Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging data for an unclassified object, whose characteristics are initially unknown to the reader. This data will be used to test various analysis capabilities and was created with a simple deterministic ray-tracing algorithm. NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence counting system that is used to characterize both fissile and non-fissile materials undergoing nondestructive assay. NMIS characterizes materials by interrogating them with neutrons, either from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, which produces a time and directionally tagged monoenergetic beam of 14.1 MeV neutrons, or a time-tagged spontaneous fission source in an ionization chamber.

Walker, Mark E [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2012-04-01

393

Interpolation schemes in the control of systems with unknown dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-delay control for systems with unknown dynamics involves estimations. In its present form, these estimations include not only the interpolation of a time-varying function but also its derivative between data points. Presently, the control law is reformulated, taking into account the computation delay. A window-shifting scheme is then devised to view n data points as they are sampled in order to perform the function estimation. At each new sampling time, the window shifts to include the new data point as well as the last n-1 points. Several interpolation methods are considered. These methods use data points from a sampled function to construct a polynomial estimate of the function. The control system performance was experimentally tested using a servosystem. The results show that a Newtonian interpolation provided best results when the computation time was 0.4 times the sampling period.

Youcef-Toumi, K.; Mcmahon, E. H., II

1990-01-01

394

CROSS IDENTIFICATION OF STARS WITH UNKNOWN PROPER MOTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The cross identification of sources in separate catalogs is one of the most basic tasks in observational astronomy. It is, however, surprisingly difficult and generally ill defined. Recently, Budavari and Szalay formulated the problem in the realm of probability theory and laid down the statistical foundations of an extensible methodology. In this paper, we apply their Bayesian approach to stars with detectable proper motion and show how to associate their observations. We study models on a sample of stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which allow for an unknown proper motion per object, and demonstrate the improvements over the analytic static model. Our models and conclusions are directly applicable to upcoming surveys such as PanSTARRS, the Dark Energy Survey, Sky Mapper, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, whose data sets will contain hundreds of millions of stars observed multiple times over several years.

Kerekes, Gyoengyi; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Pazmany P. setany 1/A, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Connolly, Andrew J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, 3910 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Szalay, Alexander S., E-mail: kerekes@complex.elte.h, E-mail: budavari@jhu.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2010-08-10

395

Definite familial multiple system atrophy with unknown genetics.  

PubMed

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an oligodendrogliopathy of presumably sporadic origin, characterized by prominent ?-synuclein inclusions with neuronal multisystem degeneration, although a few Mendelian pedigrees have been reported. Here we report two familial cases of MSA of unknown genetic background. One patient was diagnosed as a possible MSA-C (cerebellar dysfuntion) case, and the other as clinically possible MSA-P (parkinsonism), which turned out to be definite MSA, based on a detailed autopsy. The neuropathology showed extensive deposition of ?-synuclein in the glia as well as in the neurons located in the cerebral cortices and hippocampal systems, although neither multiplication of the SNCA gene or mutations in COQ2 gene were identified in the family concerned. PMID:24397755

Itoh, Kyoko; Kasai, Takashi; Tsuji, Yukiko; Saito, Kozo; Mizuta, Ikuko; Harada, Yoshinori; Sudoh, Shinji; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Fushiki, Shinji

2014-06-01

396

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

PubMed Central

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in “unknowns” dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage–host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Sullivan, Matthew B.

2013-01-01

397

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

398

Glory on Venus cloud tops and the unknown UV absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the implications of the observations of the glory phenomenon made recently by Venus Express orbiter. Glory is an optical phenomenon that poses stringent constraints on the cloud properties. These observations thus enable us to constrain two properties of the particles at the cloud tops (about 70 km altitude) which are responsible for a large fraction of the solar energy absorbed by Venus. Firstly we obtain a very accurate estimate of the cloud particles size to be 1.2 ?m with a very narrow size distribution. We also find that for the two observations presented here the clouds are homogenous, as far as cloud particles sizes are concerned, on scale of at least 1200 km. This is in contrast to previous estimates that were either local, from entry probes data, or averaged over space and time from polarization data. Secondly we find that the refractive index for the data discussed here is higher than that of sulfuric acid previously proposed for the clouds composition (Hansen, J.E., Hovenier, J.W. [1974]. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160; Ragent, B. et al. [1985]. Adv. Space Res. 5, 85-115). Assuming that the species contributing to the increase of the refractive index is the same as the unknown UV absorber, we are able to constrain the list of candidates. We investigated several possibilities and argue that either small ferric chloride (FeCl3) cores inside sulfuric acid particles or elemental sulfur coating their surface are good explanations of the observation. Both ferric chloride and elemental sulfur have been suggested in the past as candidates for the as yet unknown UV absorber (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1352-1359; Mills, F.P. et al. [2007]. In: Esposito, L.W., Stofan, E.R., Cravens, T.E. (Eds.), Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, vol. 176. AGU Monogr. Ser., Washington, DC, pp. 73-100).

Markiewicz, W. J.; Petrova, E.; Shalygina, O.; Almeida, M.; Titov, D. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Ignatiev, N.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K. D.

2014-05-01

399

Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

1985-01-01

400

Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

Roscoe, Matt B.

2012-01-01

401

Angles of planar triangular graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a characterization of all the planar drawings of a triangular graph through a system of equations and inequalities relating its angles, solving a problem that is explicitly mentioned as open by several authors; we also discuss minimalit y properties of the charact erization. The characterization can be used: (1) to decide in linear time whether a given distribution

Giuseppe Di Battista; Luca Vismara

1993-01-01

402

Wide Angle Laser Beam Steering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic investigation has been conducted on the wide angle deflection of laser beams by magnetic stripe domains in a magnetic platelet. Techniques for preparing crystals of YIG by liquid phase epitaxy and MnBiSb by evaporation are described. The YIG ...

F. G. Hewitt T. R. Johansen L. J. Kochel E. J. Torok

1973-01-01

403

Models of Neutrino Masses and Mixings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pocket guide to Terra Incognita of the "Planisphaerium Neutrinorum" ( http://www.ba.infn.it/~now2004/) by Eligio Lisi. Includes a survival kit for the U territory and a first-aid package for the case of maximal atmospheric mixing angle.

Feruglio, Ferruccio

2005-08-01

404

Models of Neutrino Masses and Mixings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pocket guide to Terra Incognita of the ``Planisphaerium Neutrinorum'' (http:\\/\\/www.ba.infn.it\\/~now2004\\/) by Eligio Lisi. Includes a survival kit for the Ue3 territory and a first-aid package for the case of maximal atmospheric mixing angle.

Ferruccio Feruglio

2005-01-01

405

Family hierarchy and large neutrino mixings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent neutrino data seem to favor two large and one small mixing angles and a hierarchy of their squared mass differences. We discuss these within the context of hierarchical neutrino masses. We show that this scheme suggests a specific neutrino mass matrix with mild fine-tuning. We then present a Froggatt–Nielsen model that reproduces this matrix.

Fu-Sin Ling; Pierre Ramond

2002-01-01

406

Effects of yaw on low angle injection into a supersonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of a study of transverse gas injection into supersonic/hypersonic streams with low downstream transverse angles in addition to yaw angles varying from zero to approximately 30 deg. The primary data are concentration measurements, with nanoshadowgraphs and oil flow visualization pictures also included. Two sets of experiments were performed. The first set studied the effects of yaw angle, specifically beta = 15 and 28 deg, on a helium injector with a 30-deg transverse angle in a Mach 3 freestream. Axial measurement stations were x/d = 30, 50, and 100. It was found that, as beta was increased, the maximum concentration mixing rate did not vary, but the jet core penetration decreased more at beta = 15 deg than at beta = 28 deg. A shearing effect between the portion of the jet in the boundary layer and the portion in the freestream increased the area of a typical constant concentration contour. The second set of experiments, conducted at NASA Langley, studied the effect of yawed injection at a transverse angle of 15 deg in a Mach 6 flow. Axial stations of x/d = 20, 40, 60, and 80 were used. A yaw angle of beta = 15 deg was found to decrease both the jet core mixing rate and penetration. The primary benefit of yaw was to increase lateral spreading. For similar injection conditions, the results show less near-field mixing at Mach 6 than Mach 3, but a faster mixing rate in the far-field at Mach 6.

Thomas, R. H.; Schetz, J. A.; Fuller, E. J.

1991-01-01

407

Application of Acoustic Wave Propagation Analysis Methods for Monitoring a Miscible Mixing Zone in Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biot's acoustics theory, which describes acoustic wave propagation in a porous medium, and computer simulation techniques were utilized to model the behavior of acoustic waves entering and leaving a mixing zone in a miscible displacement in porous media. The results indicate that the angles of waves produced by a mixing zone are equal to angles of waves produced by

K. Asghari; N. Liu; R. Paranjape

2007-01-01

408

New results on drawing angle graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An angle graph is a graph with a fixed cyclic order of the edges around each vertex and an angle specified for every pair of consecutive edges incident on a vertex. We study the problem of constructing a drawing of an angle graph that preserves its angles, and present several new results. •• We disprove the conjectures of Vijayan (1986)

Ashim Garg

1998-01-01

409

Failure Modes of Angle Ply Laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation of failure of balanced angle-ply laminates under symmetric uniaxial tension revealed three distinct failure modes. The three different modes were observed for reinforcement angles smaller than ±45°, for the ±45° angle ply and for angles larger than ±45°. Comparison of experimental failure loads with theoretical failure loads based on first laminate failure criteria showed good agreement for certain

Assa Rotem; Zvi Hashin

1975-01-01

410

Estimating and adjusting abnormal networks with unknown parameters and topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of parameters and topology in a complex network often lead to unexpected accidents in complex systems, such as diseases in neural systems and unexpected current in circuit system, so the methods of adjusting the abnormal network back to its normal conditions are necessary to avoid these problems. However, it is not easy to detect the structures and information of each network, even if we can find a network which has the same function as the abnormal network, it is still hard to use it as a reference to adjust the abnormal network because a lot of network information is unknown. In this paper, we design a ``bridging network'' as an information bridge between a normal network and an abnormal network to estimate and control the abnormal network. Through the ``bridging network'' and some adaptive laws, the abnormal parameters and connections in abnormal network can be adjusted to the same conditions as those of the normal network which is chosen as a reference model. Finally, the ``bridging network'' and the abnormal network achieve synchronization with the normal network. Besides, the detailed inner information in normal network and abnormal network can be accurately estimated by this ``bridging network.'' Finally, the nodes in the abnormal network will behave normally after the correction. In this paper, we use Hindmarsh-Rose model as an example to describe our method.

Jia, Chenhui; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Che, Yanqiu

2011-03-01

411

Comprehensive functional assessment of MLH1 variants of unknown significance.  

PubMed

Lynch syndrome is associated with germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Up to 30% of DNA changes found are variants of unknown significance (VUS). Our aim was to assess the pathogenicity of eight MLH1 VUS identified in patients suspected of Lynch syndrome. All of them are novel or not previously characterized. For their classification, we followed a strategy that integrates family history, tumor pathology, and control frequency data with a variety of in silico and in vitro analyses at RNA and protein level, such as MMR assay, MLH1 and PMS2 expression, and subcellular localization. Five MLH1 VUS were classified as pathogenic: c.[248G>T(;)306G>C], c.[780C>G;788A>C], and c.791-7T>A affected mRNA processing, whereas c.218T>C (p.L73P) and c.244A>G [corrected] (p.T82A) impaired MMR activity. Two other VUS were considered likely neutral: the silent c.702G>A variant did not affect mRNA processing or stability, and c.974G>A (p.R325Q) did not influence MMR function. In contrast, variant c.25C>T (p.R9W) could not be classified, as it associated with intermediate levels of MMR activity. Comprehensive functional assessment of MLH1 variants was useful in their classification and became relevant in the diagnosis and genetic counseling of carrier families. PMID:22736432

Borràs, Ester; Pineda, Marta; Brieger, Angela; Hinrichsen, Inga; Gómez, Carolina; Navarro, Matilde; Balmaña, Judit; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Torres, Asunción; Brunet, Joan; Blanco, Ignacio; Plotz, Guido; Lázaro, Conxi; Capellá, Gabriel

2012-11-01

412

Metastatic melanoma from unknown primary presenting as dorsal midbrain syndrome.  

PubMed

PURPOSE.: Dorsal midbrain syndrome, which is characterized by upgaze paralysis, light-near dissociated pupils, eyelid retraction, and convergence retraction nystagmus, can be caused by compression, ischemia, inflammation, or injury to the dorsal midbrain. Although brain metastases are common in certain cancers, including melanoma, only 3 to 5% occur in the brain stem. We present a case of metastatic melanoma from an unknown primary that initially presented as dorsal midbrain syndrome. CASE REPORT.: After a prodrome of intermittent nonspecific visual symptoms, a 60-year-old male veteran presented with bilateral upgaze paralysis and convergence retraction nystagmus. A single hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain was causative. An inguinal mass with associated lymphadenopathy was subsequently discovered, and the biopsy from this site revealed malignant melanoma. A primary lesion was never found. The patient underwent surgical resection of the groin lesion and stereotactic radiosurgery for the midbrain metastasis but passed away 6 months after his initial presentation. CONCLUSIONS.: The presentation of bilateral vertical gaze paralysis, especially in the company of convergence retraction nystagmus, light-near dissociated pupils, or eyelid retraction, should raise concern for midbrain pathology. Although metastases to the midbrain are rare, they carry a grave prognosis, especially if melanoma is the primary malignancy, and most treatment options are considered palliative. PMID:23142879

Skarbez, Kathryn; Fanciullo, Lisa

2012-12-01

413

DGGE-based detection method for Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).  

PubMed

Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is a significant cause of hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria mortality along the northeast coast of the United States. It infects both wild and cultured clams, often annually in plots that are heavily farmed. Subclinically infected clams can be identified by histological examination of the mantle tissue, but there is currently no method available to monitor the presence of QPX in the environment. Here, we report on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method that will facilitate the detection of QPX in natural samples and seed clams. With our method, between 10 and 100 QPX cells can be detected in 1 l of water, 1 g of sediment and 100 mg of clam tissue. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to establish whether the PCR products are the same as those in the control QPX culture. We used the method to screen 100 seed clams of 15 mm, and found that 10 to 12% of the clams were positive for the presence of the QPX organism. This method represents a reliable and sensitive procedure for screening both environmental samples and potentially contaminated small clams. PMID:16875398

Gast, R J; Cushman, E; Moran, D M; Uhlinger, K R; Leavitt, D; Smolowitz, R

2006-06-12

414

Environmental distribution and persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).  

PubMed

Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is the cause of mass mortality events of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from Virginia, USA, to New Brunswick, Canada. Aquaculture areas in Massachusetts, USA, have been particularly hard hit. The parasite has been shown to be a directly infective organism, but it is unclear whether it could exist or persist outside of its clam host. We used molecular methods to examine water, sediment, seaweeds, seagrass and various invertebrates for the presence of QPX. Sites in Virginia and Massachusetts were selected based upon the incidence of QPX-induced clam die-offs, and they were monitored seasonally. QPX was detectable in almost all of our different sample types from Massachusetts, indicating that the parasite was widely distributed in the environment. Significantly more samples from Massachusetts were positive than from Virginia, and there was a seasonal pattern to the types of samples positive from Massachusetts. The data suggest that, although it may be difficult to completely eradicate QPX from the environment, it may be possible to keep the incidence of disease under control through good plot husbandry and the removal of infected and dying clams. PMID:18998586

Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Audemard, Corinne; Lyons, M Maille; DeFavari, Jackie; Reece, Kimberly S; Leavitt, Dale; Smolowitz, Roxanna

2008-09-24

415

Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

2012-05-01

416

The immunological basis of villitis of unknown etiology - review.  

PubMed

Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) represents a common placental inflammatory lesion, primarily, but not exclusively, identifiable T lymphocytes at term. Despite considerable evidence to contest that this simply represents a benign pathological finding, VUE remains a significantly undervalued diagnosis. Given its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes; including fetal growth restriction, preterm birth, and recurrent pregnancy loss, an increased awareness amongst clinician obstetricians is certainly warranted. The underlying immunopathogenesis of VUE remains uncertain. Despite initial theories that this represents an infectious placental lesion of undiagnosed pathogenic source, a more complex sequence of events involving the "breakdown" of maternal-fetal tolerance is emerging. Characterization of a unique inflammatory phenomenon in which both maternal and fetal T lymphocytes and Höfbauer cells interact has captivated particular research interest and has generated analogies to both the problems of allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Within the context of VUE, this review evaluates how disruption of the multidimensional immunological mechanisms underlying feto-maternal tolerance may permit abnormal lymphocyte infiltration into placental villi. We shall review the existing evidence for these events in VUE and outline areas of certain future interest. PMID:23891153

Tamblyn, J A; Lissauer, D M; Powell, R; Cox, P; Kilby, M D

2013-10-01

417

Yield of esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy in cancer of unknown primary  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) is heterogeneous group of cancers. Role of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in this entity is under investigated. Aim of this study was to evaluate yield of Colonoscopy and Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in localizing primary tumor in patients with CUP. Methodology: Patients with histopathologically proven CUP who underwent colonoscopy / EGD to find the primary tumor from December 2009 to December 2011 were included in the study. Abdominal symptoms and cytokeratin (CK) 7 and 20 markers were correlated with presence of primary in GI tract. Results: After giving informed consent 86 patients were included in final analysis. All patients underwent colonoscopy while 60(70%) got EGD along with colonoscopy. Mean age was 55.10 +/-11.94 years with 52(60%) male. Abdominal symptoms were present in 50%. CK7+/CK20- in 34(40%); CK7-/CK20+ in 2(2%) while CK7+/20+ in 7(8%) of metastatic tumor samples. Liver was metastatic site in 47(55%), Lymph node 12(14%) and Ascites in 8(9%). Endoscopy detected primary in 6 (7%) patients with 3 each in stomach and colon. No association of abdominal symptoms and cytokeratin markers was found with presence of GI primary site. Conclusion: Yield of localizing primary lesion in the GI tract by pan-endoscopy was limited. Abdominal symptoms and cytokeratin markers do not predict presence of gastrointestinal malignancies.

Usmani, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Khalid, Abdullah; Ali Shah, Syed Hasnain; Ahmad, Tauseef; S. Hamid, Saeed; Wasim Jafri, Syed M

2013-01-01

418

Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model.

Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

2013-01-01

419

Robotic grasping of unknown objects: A knowledge-based approach  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors demonstrate a general-purpose robotic grasping system for use in unstructured environments. Using computer vision and a compact set of heuristics, the system automatically generates the robot arm and hand motions required for grasping an unmodeled object. The utility of such a system is most evident in environments where the robot will have to grasp and manipulate a variety of unknown objects, but where many of the manipulation tasks may be relatively simple. Examples of such domains are planetary exploration and astronaut assistance, undersea salvage and rescue, and nuclear waste site clean-up. This work implements a two-stage model of grasping: stage one is an orientation of the hand and wrist and a ballistic reach toward the object; stage two is hand preshaping and adjustment. Visual features are first extracted from the unmodeled object. These features and their relations are used by an expert system to generate a set of valid reach/grasps for the object. These grasps are then used in driving the robot hand and arm to bring the fingers into contact with the object in the desired configuration. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the functioning of the system.

Stansfield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1990-11-01

420

Robotic grasping of unknown objects: A knowledge-based approach  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we demonstrate a general-purpose robotic grasping system for use in unstructured environments. Using computer vision and a compact set of heuristics, the system automatically generates the robot arm and hand motions required for grasping an unmodeled object. The utility of such a system is most evident in environments where the robot will have to grasp and manipulate a variety of unknown objects, but where many of the manipulation tasks may be relatively simple. Examples of such domains are planetary exploration and astronaut assistance, undersea salvage and rescue, and nuclear waste site clean-up. This work implements a two-stage model of grasping: stage one is an orientation of the hand and wrist and a ballistic reach toward the object; stage two is hand preshaping and adjustment. Visual features are first extracted from the unmodeled object. These features and their relations are used by an expert system to generate a set of valid reach/grasps for the object. These grasps are then used in driving the robot hand and arm to bring the fingers into contact with the object in the desired configuration. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the functioning of the system. 27 refs., 38 figs.

Stansfield, S.A.

1989-06-01

421

A Study of Unknown Resonance near Upper Stop Band for 43°In-Plane Rotated ST-Cut Quartz SAW Resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unknown resonance is studied, which exists near upper stop band of IDT reflection characteristics, for the 43° in-plane rotated ST-cut of quartz SAW resonator. In this study, we analyze the displacement loci of surface wave at first, and find that slight skew angles exist in them. Simple simulation model is introduced to analyze the phenomenon and anti-symmetric model of T matrix explains that phenomenon adequately.

Takagi, Michiaki; Kanna, Shigeo; Iizawa, Keigo; Yamazaki, Takashi

422

Angle interferometer cross axis errors  

SciTech Connect

Angle interferometers are commonly used to measure surface plate flatness. An error can exist when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the surface plate and the guide bar for the mirror sled is curved. Typical errors can be one to two microns per meter. A similar error can exist in the calibration of rotary tables when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the axes of rotation of the angle calibrator and the calibrator axis is not parallel to the rotary table axis. Commercial double comer cube assemblies typically have non-parallelism errors of ten milli-radians between their centerlines and their sides and similar values for non-squareness between their centerlines and end surfaces. The authors have developed a simple method for measuring these errors and correcting them by remachining the reference surfaces.

Bryan, J.B.; Carter, D.L.; Thompson, S.L.

1994-01-01

423

CMK Angle Measurements from BABAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraining CP-violating CKM parameters is an important goal of the B-factories. The BABAR detector at the SLAC B Factory has published many measurements related to the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. This proceeding reports recent measurements of sin2? in B0 ? D(*)+ D(*)- decays as well as ? related measurements from B0 ? D? K0?± decays and B0 (bar B0 ) -> K^ ± ? ^ ? ? 0 decays.

Anderson, Jacob M.

2009-09-01

424

Conservative mixing, competitive mixing and their applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many of the models applied to simulations of turbulent transport and turbulent combustion, the mixing between particles is used to reflect the influence of the continuous diffusion terms in the transport equations. Stochastic particles with properties and mixing can be used not only for simulating turbulent combustion, but also for modeling a large spectrum of physical phenomena. Traditional mixing, which is commonly used in the modeling of turbulent reacting flows, is conservative: the total amount of scalar is (or should be) preserved during a mixing event. It is worthwhile, however, to consider a more general mixing that does not possess these conservative properties; hence, our consideration lies beyond traditional mixing. In non-conservative mixing, the particle post-mixing average becomes biased towards one of the particles participating in mixing. The extreme form of non-conservative mixing can be called competitive mixing or competition: after a mixing event, the loser particle simply receives the properties of the winner particle. Particles with non-conservative mixing can be used to emulate various phenomena involving competition. In particular, we investigate cyclic behavior that can be attributed to complex competing systems. We show that the localness and intransitivity of competitive mixing are linked to the cyclic behavior.

Klimenko, A. Y.

2010-12-01

425

Testing atmospheric mixing sum rules at precision neutrino facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the prospects for testing classes of atmospheric mixing sum rules at precision neutrino facilities. Such sum rules, which correlate the atmospheric mixing angle ?23 with the recently measured reactor angle ?13 and the cosine of the oscillation phase ?, are predicted by a variety of semidirect models based on discrete family symmetry classified in terms of finite von Dyck groups. We perform a detailed simulation of the performance of the next generation of oscillation experiments, including the wideband superbeam and low-energy neutrino factory proposals, and compare their discriminating power for testing atmospheric mixing sum rules.

Ballett, Peter; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A.

2014-01-01

426

Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians  

SciTech Connect

An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

1987-06-01

427

Melanoma with unknown primary: report and analysis of 24 patients.  

PubMed

In the literature, there are some papers reporting on patients with metastatic melanoma from an unknown primary lesion (MUP). The pathogenesis of this phenomenon and the prognosis of these patients are still debatable. Therefore, we reviewed our casistics on MUP patients. We identified 24 MUP patients out of all patients registered into a melanoma database from June 1996 to June 2011. The incidence was 1.4%. We compared the survival rate of all patients with MUP stage III-IV with all patients with metastatic melanoma known primary (MMKP) stage III-IV observing a clear survival improvement for MUP patients in front of MMKP patients (p<0.01). In a second instance, we compared stage III MUP patients with only lymph nodal involvement with stage III MMKP patients with only lymph nodal involvement, and again we found statistically significant better survival for MUP patients (p<0.05). In this retrospective study, the number of lymph nodes involved (p=0.8), the sex (p=0.9), and S100 value (p=0.2) were not statistically relevant for prognosis. The better prognosis for these patients is very similar to better survival rate for metastatic melanoma patients and vitiligo. This correlation may be in accord with the hypothesis of a regression of primary lesion by immunological system of the host and also the median age of patients at the time of diagnosis, commonly older than melanoma patients, may correspond to a long period of immunological interferences between the host and the melanoma disease. PMID:22460835

Clerico, Rita; Bottoni, Ugo; Paolino, Giovanni; Ambrifi, Marina; Corsetti, Paola; Devirgiliis, Valeria; Calvieri, Stefano

2012-12-01

428

Discrete state space modeling and control of nonlinear unknown systems.  

PubMed

A novel procedure for integrating neural networks (NNs) with conventional techniques is proposed to design industrial modeling and control systems for nonlinear unknown systems. In the proposed approach, a new recurrent NN with a special architecture is constructed to obtain discrete-time state-space representations of nonlinear dynamical systems. It is referred as the discrete state-space neural network (DSSNN). In the DSSNN, the outputs of the hidden layer neurons of the DSSNN represent the system's (pseudo) state. The inputs are fed to output neurons and the delayed outputs of the hidden layer neurons are fed to their inputs via adjustable weights. The discrete state space model of the actual system is directly obtained by training the DSSNN with the input-output data. A training procedure based on the back-propagation through time (BPTT) algorithm is developed. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method with a trust region approach is used to update the DSSNN weights. Linear state space models enable to use well developed conventional analysis and design techniques. Thus, building a linear model of a system has primary importance in industrial applications. Thus, a suitable linearization procedure is proposed to derive the linear state space model from the nonlinear DSSNN representation. The controllability, observability and stability properties are examined. The state feedback controllers are designed with both the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and the pole placement techniques. The regulator and servo control problems are both addressed. A full order observer is also designed to estimate the state variables. The performance of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by applying for both single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear control problems. PMID:23978661

Savran, Aydogan

2013-11-01

429

Off-angle correlation spectroscopy applied to spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional correlation experiment is described, in which homonuclear dipolar couplings are used to realize through-space magnetization exchange on spin-1/2 (31P) and on quadrupolar nuclei (23Na and 11B). In the detection period, Magic Angle Spinning is applied to enhance resolution, and the dipole couplings are re-introduced in the mixing period by spinning off the Magic Angle. The dependency of the exchange rates on the mixing time and the spinning angle is investigated. The influence of strong spin-locking during mixing is discussed, and shown in the spin-1/2 case to remove the dependence on chemical shift offset effects. For quadrupolar spins, the experiment yields information on the relative tensor orientations of the coupled quadrupoles. Applications to crystalline sodium aluminum diphosphate, sodium sulphite, and potassium borate glasses are shown. PMID:10378433

Hartmann, P; Jäger, C; Zwanziger, J W

1999-05-01

430

Quark Mixing in the Standard Model and the Space Rotations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotation matrix and the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are discussed. The exponential parameterisation of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix is viewed as the rotation matrix in Euler angles with Pitch-Roll-Yaw convention for the angles and as the angle-axis representation of the rotation matrix. The account for the CP-violating phase in CKM and the O(3) rotation matrix in the angle-axis form are discussed in the context of such view on the mixing matrix. The generation of the new parameterisations of the CKM matrix by the exponential form with distinguished CP violating part is demonstrated.

Dattoli, G.; Zhukovsky, K.

2009-01-01

431

Unknown Strong Earthquakes In North-western Caucasus In Holocen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies and mapping on terrain seismo genic areas and determination of their modern seismic potential for the territory of the North-Western (Russian) Caucasus were fulfilled. The seismotectonic study of geological structures: faults, folds and blocks of the Earth's crust and allocation on this base of potential seismic sources of expected earthquakes (PSSs) was conducted. Fulfilled in the region investigations have allowed to study a structure of deforming ambiance's by compiling of 6 geophysical and structure-geological cross-sections and profiles, carried out given across stretching out folded systems. The important tectonic boundary between the Caucasus folded belt and the Transcaucasian microplate is studied on a south slope of The Main Caucasus Ridge. With the especial detailed where explored areas of largest faults in the region. On the south limb of the North-Western Caucasus near the above mentioned tectonic boundary the primary and secondary seismic ruptures of unknown ancient and known historical strong earthquakes (seismic faults, landslides, micrograbens) were discovered. Using an informative method of "trenching" enable to estimate a recurrence interval of seismic shocks in PSSs. The study of near surface structure of the faults in trenches to manage to define an absolute age of the seismic displacements, having place in Holocene on Malobzhid, Verkhnekhazar and Costal fault zones. Violated paleosoils have absolute age 990+- 100 years (IGAN 2126) for first fault and 520+-80 years (IGAN 2118) - for the second one. These seismic motions manages to identify with known, but referred to other seismic zone by strong earthquake Crimean-Kuban' region, 16 Septembers 1799. The seismic event magnitude was not less than 6.5, intensity - from 7 to 9. Determination of paleosoils and bones from the area of the Coastal fault absolute age denominated on surfaces in the manner of systems of escarps and gravitational- seismotectonic ruptures, has allowed to estimate periods of stability of the structure of 130+/-40, 6840+-30 years (IGAN-2417, 2418) and 2980+- 90 years (GIN-11728) ago. This signifies, that periods of activations of the structure, when colluvial and deluvial deposits accumulated, are correspondent at the time of near two -three thousand years and five thousand years ago. Thereby, the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes in the studied region is measured in 2 thousand years approximately.

Rogozhin, E.

432

Unknown Holocenian Strong Earthquakes In North- Western Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies and mapping on terrain seismo genic areas and determination of their modern seismic potential for the territory of the North-Western (Russian) Caucasus was fulfilled. The seismotectonic study of geological structures: faults, folds and blocks of the Earth's crust and allocation on this base of potential seismic sources of expected earthquakes (PSSs). Fulfilled in the region investigations have allowed to study a structure of deforming ambiance's by compiling of 6 geophysical and structure-geological cross-sections and profiles, carried out given across stretching out folded systems. The important tectonic boundary between the Caucasus folded belt and the Transcaucasian microplate is studied on a south slope of The Main Caucasus Ridge. With the especial detailed where explored areas of la rgest faults in the region. On the south limb of the North-Western Caucasus near the above mentioned tectonic boundary the primary and secondary seismic ruptures of unknown ancient and known historical, but referred to other segments of the area strong earthquakes (seismic faults, landslides, micrograbens) were discovered. Using an informative method of "trenching" enable to estimate a recurrence interval of seismic shocks in PSSs. The study of near surface structure of the faults in trenches to manage to define an absolute age of the seismic displacements, having place in Holocene on Malobzhid, Verkhnekhazar and Costal fault zones. Violated paleosoils have absolute age 990+-100 years (IGAN 2126) for first fault and 520+-80 years (IGAN 2118) - for the second one. These seismic motions manages to identify with known, but referred to other seismic zone by strong earthquake Crimean-Kuban' region, 16 Septembers 1799. The seismic event magnitude was not less than 6.5, intensity - from 7 to 9. Determination of paleosoils and bones from the area of the Coastal fault absolute age, denominated on surfaces in the manner of systems of escarps and gravitational-seismotectonic ruptures, has allowed to estimate periods of stability of the structure of 130+/-40, 6840+-30 years (IGAN-2417, 2418) and 2980+- 90 years (GIN-11728) ago. This signifies, that periods of activations of the structure, when colluvial and deluvial Late Quaternary deposits accumulated, are correspondent at the time of near two-three thousand years and five thousand years ago. Thereby, the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes in the studied region is measured in 2 thousand years approximately.

Rogozhin, E.

433

Contact Angle Measurement and Cell Hydrophobicity of Granular Sludge from Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thecontactangle,whichisgenerallyusedtoevaluatethehydrophobicitiesofpurebacterialstrainsandsolid surfaces,wasusedtostudymixedcellculturesofbacteriainvolvedinanaerobicdigestion.Previouslypublished data and data from this study showed that most acidogens are hydrophilic (contact angle, <45&) but most of the acetogens and methanogens isolated from granular sludge are hydrophobic (contact angle, >45&). The hydrophobicitiesofmixturesofhydrophilicandhydrophobiccellswerefoundtobelinearlycorrelatedwiththe cell mixing ratio. The hydrophobicities of cells present in effluents from upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors which were treating different types of substrates were different

DANIELE DAFFONCHIO; JULLAPONG THAVEESRI; ANDWILLY VERSTRAETE

1995-01-01

434

Phase-conjugate reflection at arbitrary angles using TEM00 pump beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the spatial and angular variations of the reflection from a phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) using degenerate four-wave mixing pumped by collimated gaussian TEM00 pump waves. The analysis is valid for finite cell lenghts and arbitrary angles and beam profiles of the incident signal wave, neglecting depletion and diffraction effects. For small incidence angles or thin samples the four-wave mixer

Rick Trebino; A. E. Siegman

1980-01-01

435

Off-angle correlation spectroscopy applied to spin-1\\/2 and quadrupolar nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional correlation experiment is described, in which homonuclear dipolar couplings are used to realize through-space magnetization exchange on spin-1\\/2 (31P) and on quadrupolar nuclei (23Na and 11B). In the detection period, Magic Angle Spinning is applied to enhance resolution, and the dipole couplings are re-introduced in the mixing period by spinning off the Magic Angle. The dependency of the

P Hartmann; C Jäger; J. W Zwanziger

1999-01-01

436

Huygens lens for angle compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmonic lenses are based on complex combinations of nanoscale high aspect ratio slits. We show that their design can be greatly simplified, keeping similar performance while releasing technological constraints. The simplified system, called Huygens lens, consists in a central aperture surrounded by several identical single mode slits in a thin gold layer that does not rely anymore on surface plasmons. The focusing behaviour with respect to the position and number of slits is investigated, and we demonstrate the interest of this design to get compact array of lenses which are able to compensate the angle of incidence of the incoming wave.

Lévesque, Quentin; Bouchon, Patrick; Pardo, Fabrice; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad

2014-03-01

437

Airfoil Shaped Flow Angle Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a force-based instrument that measures local flow angle. The preferred embodiment of the invention has a low aspect ratio airfoil member connected to a mounting base. Using a series of strain gauges located at the connecting portion of the probe, aerodynamic forces on the airfoil member can be converted to strain, which in turn can be converted to local air flow measurements. The present invention has no moving parts and is well suited for measuring flow in a transonic and supersonic regime.

Corda, Stephen (Inventor); Vachon, Michael Jake (Inventor)

2003-01-01

438

Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We present a cathodoluminescence spectroscopy technique which combines deep subwavelength excitation resolution with angle-resolved detection capabilities. The cathodoluminescence emission is collected by a paraboloid mirror (effective NA = 0.96) and is projected onto a 2D CCD array. The azimuthal and polar emission pattern is directly deduced from the image. As proof of principle, we use the technique to measure the angular distribution of transition radiation from a single crystalline gold surface under 30 keV electron irradiation. We find that the experiment matches very well with theory, illustrating the potential of this technique for the characterization of photonic structures with deep subwavelength dimensions.

Coenen, Toon; Vesseur, Ernst Jan R.; Polman, Albert

2011-10-03

439

Turbulence at the magic angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong turbulence is characterized by the way in which statistical moments of velocity increments < (? u(r))^p > increase with separation, < (? u(r))^p > ~ r^?(p). For isotropic turbulence it is believed that the function ?(p) is a universal function, independent of the way in which turbulence is made. It is also believed that for anisotropic turbulence the function depends in such way on the angle between the vectors u and r that each of the irreducible components of G_p(r, ?, ?) ? < (? u(r))^p > has its own scaling exponent (V.Lvov et al. PRL 79, 2050(1997)). Conversely, scaling of the generalized structure function G_p(r, ?,?) should be purest if only one single component survives. In the case of axisymmetric turbulence, these irreducible components are related to the Legendre polynomials P_l(?), and the magic angle ?M where P_2(?_M) = 0 should be a special one. In an experiment we create axisymmetric turbulence and measure the generalized structure functions G_p(r, ?, ?) using an array of hot-wire probes. We will demonstrate that for the Reynolds numbers (Re_? ? 600) in our experiment the structure functions do not foliate simply in their irreducible components, and that the pureness of the scaling is best when ? = ?/2 (the transverse structure function).

Staicu, Adrian Daniel; van de Water, Willem

2001-11-01

440

Planet Impact: What's Your Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive module, students can vary the comet's angle of approach to see the effect of gravity on its trajectory towards Jupiter. The speed and masses of the two bodies are held constant. The goal is for the students to understand the relationship between the distance from the planet and the force of gravity. Students may work independently or in small groups to complete this activity. It may also be done as a teacher-directed activity in the classroom. After completing this module, students will learn about how changing the angle of approach affects the force of gravity on a comet. This module is a part of the online exploration "Planet Impact!" An explanation of the science behind the animations can be found in "Science Scoop." More information on the crash of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter can be obtained from "Gravity Gallery" and "Comet News." Detailed teacher pages, identified as Teaching Tips on the title pages of the activity, provide science background information, lesson plan ideas, related resources, and alignment with national education standards.

441

Carrying angle of the elbow - excessive  

MedlinePLUS

... sides and your palms are facing forward, your forearm and hands should normally be about 5 to ... angle" of the elbow. This angle allows your forearms to clear the hips when swinging your arms, ...

442

Failure Modes of Angle Ply Laminates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental investigation of failure of balanced angle-ply laminates under symmetric uniaxial tension revealed three distinct failure modes. The three different modes were observed for reinforcement angles smaller than plus or minus 45 degrees, for the p...

A. Rotem Z. Hashin

1974-01-01

443

Edge delamination in angle-ply composite laminates, part 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method was developed for describing the edge delamination stress intensity characteristics in angle-ply composite laminates. The method is based on the theory of anisotropic elasticity. The edge delamination problem is formulated using Lekhnitskii's complex-variable stress potentials and an especially developed eigenfunction expansion method. The method predicts exact orders of the three-dimensional stress singularity in a delamination crack tip region. With the aid of boundary collocation, the method predicts the complete stress and displacement fields in a finite-dimensional, delaminated composite. Fracture mechanics parameters such as the mixed-mode stress intensity factors and associated energy release rates for edge delamination can be calculated explicity. Solutions are obtained for edge delaminated (theta/-theta theta/-theta) angle-ply composites under uniform axial extension. Effects of delamination lengths, fiber orientations, lamination and geometric variables are studied.

Wang, S. S.

1981-01-01

444

Mirror-lepton mixing in tau decays  

SciTech Connect

We explore the sensitivity of the semileptonic decays tau/sup -/..--> pi../sup -/..nu../sub tau/ and tau/sup -/..-->..K/sup -/..nu../sub tau/ to mirror-lepton mixing and find that the existing data on these decays yield upper limits chemically bondtheta/sub tau/chemically bond,chemically bondphi/sub tau/chemically bondless than or equal to34.8/sup 0/ (for theta/sub ..mu../,phi/sub ..mu../ = 0/sup 0/) on the mixing angles which are not far from the best present limits. The angular distribution of ..pi.. (K) for the decay of polarized tau, if measured, could distinguish between ultralight- and heavy-mirror-neutrino mixing models. In addition, the angular correlation of the decay products of tau/sup +/tau/sup -/ for the process e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..tau/sup +/tau/sup -/ could be useful in discerning charged-mirror-lepton mixing.

Singh, S.; Sharma, N.K.

1987-07-01

445

Computing the Grazing Angle of Specular Reflection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three methods are given for computing the grazing angle of specular reflection. The first gives an approximation to the grazing angle. The second is an iterative method, whose derivation is easy and provides for the computation of the grazing angle to any...

A. Miller E. Vegh

1982-01-01

446

A new procedure for measuring contact angle  

SciTech Connect

Described here are some recent work regarding the mathematic design of apparatus that exploits microgravity conditions for accurate experimental determination of contact angle. The underlying motivation for the procedures rests on a discontinuous dependence of the capillary free surface interface S on the contact angle {gamma}, in a cylindrical capillary tube whose section (base) {Omega} contains a protruding corner with opening angle 2{alpha}.

Concus, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Finn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

1994-05-01

447

The significance of normal angle vessels.  

PubMed

One hundred patients (200 eyes) were examined over a one-year period for the presence of normal anterior chamber angle vessels. Normal vessels were observed in the angle in 21% of eyes examined. The types, location, and number of normal vessels are documented. The significance of these vessels in two eyes with anterior chamber angle fixated lenses is discussed. PMID:4022560

Shihab, Z M; Lee, P F

1985-06-01

448

Lepton mixing parameters from ?(48) family symmetry and generalised CP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a systematic and thorough exploration of the ?(48) family symmetry and the consistent generalised CP symmetry. A model-independent analysis of the achievable lepton flavor mixing is performed by considering all the possible remnant symmetries in the neutrino and the charged lepton sectors. We find a new interesting mixing pattern in which both lepton mixing angles and CP phases are nontrivial functions of a single parameter ?. The value of ? can be fixed by the measured reactor mixing angle ? 13, and the excellent agreement with the present data can be achieved. A supersymmetric model based on ?(48) family symmetry and generalised CP symmetry is constructed, and this new mixing pattern is exactly reproduced.

Ding, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Ye-Ling

2014-06-01

449

Small angle neutron scattering studies of vesicle stability  

SciTech Connect

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of mixed colloids of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) with the bile salt, cholylglycine (CG), in D{sub 2}O as a function of pressure (P) and temperature (T). At atmospheric pressure, the system forms an isotropic phase of mixed, single bilayer vesicles (SLV`s). Increasing the external hydrostatic pressure brought about significant changes in particle morphology. At T = 25 C, application of a pressure of 3.5 MPa resulted in the collapse of the SLV`s. Further increase of P, up to 51.8 MPa, resulted in a transition from a phase of ordered (stacked), collapsed vesicles to one of stacked, ribbon-like particles. A similar collapse of the vesicles was observed at higher temperature (T = 37 C) with increasing P, but at this temperature, no ribbon phase was found at the highest pressure explored.

Mang, J.T.; Hjelm, R.P.

1997-10-01

450

Huygens begins its final journey into the unknown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Today’s release is another successful milestone in the Cassini/Huygens odyssey”, said Dr David Southwood, ESA’s director of science programmes. “This was an amicable separation after seven years of living together. Our thanks to our partners at NASA for the lift. Each spacecraft will now continue on its own but we expect they’ll keep in touch to complete this amazing mission. Now all our hopes and expectations are focused on getting the first in-situ data from a new world we’ve been dreaming of exploring for decades”. Final stage of a 7-year odyssey The Cassini/Huygens mission, jointly developed by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), began on 15 October 1997, when the composite spacecraft were launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, atop a Titan 4B/Centaur vehicle. Together, the two probes weighed 5548 kg at launch and became the largest space mission ever sent to the outer planets. To gain sufficient velocity to reach Saturn, they had to conduct four gravity-assist manoeuvres by flying twice by Venus, once by the Earth and once by Jupiter. On 1 July Cassini/Huygens eventually became the first spacecraft to enter an orbit around Saturn. On 17 December, while on its third orbit around the ringed planet, the Cassini orbiter performed a manoeuvre to enter a controlled collision trajectory towards Titan. As planned, a fine tuning of the trajectory took place on 22 December to place Huygens on its nominal entry trajectrory. While Huygens will remain on this trajectory till it plunges into Titan’s atmosphere on 14 January, the orbiter will perform a deflection manoeuvre on 28 December to avoid crashing onto the moon. Today’s separation was achieved by the firing of pyrotechnic devices. Under the action of push-off springs, ramps and rollers, the probe was released at a relative velocity of about 0.3 m/s with a spin rate of 7 rpm. Telemetry data confirming the separation were collected by NASA’s Deep Space Network stations in Madrid, Spain and Goldstone, California, when the telemetry playback signal from Cassini eventually reached the Earth. The Huygens probe is now dormant and will remain so for its 20-day coast phase to Titan. Four days before its release, a triply-redundant timer was programmed in order to wake-up the probe’s systems shortly before arrival on Titan. Exploring Titan’s atmosphere Huygens is scheduled to enter Titan’s atmosphere at about 09:06 UTC (10:06 CET) on 14 January, entering at a relatively steep angle of 65° and a velocity of about 6 km/s. The target is over the southern hemisphere, on the day side. Protected by an ablative thermal shield, the probe will decelerate to 400 m/s within 3 minutes before it deploys a 2.6 m pilot chute at about 160 km. After 2.5 seconds this chute will pull away the probe’s aft cover and the main parachute, 8.3 m in diameter, will deploy to stabilise the probe. The front shield will then be released and the probe, whose main objective is to study Titan’s atmosphere, will open inlet ports and deploy booms to collect the scientific data. All instruments will have direct access to the atmosphere to conduct detailed in-situ measurements of its structure, dynamics and chemistry. Imagery of the surface along the track will also be acquired. These data will be transmitted directly to the Cassini orbiter, which, at the same time, will be flying over Titan at 60 000 km at closest approach. Earth-based radiotelescopes will also try to detect the signal’s tone directly. After 15 minutes, at about 120 km, Huygens will release its main parachute and a smaller 3 m drogue chute will take over to allow a deeper plunge through the atmosphere within the lifetime of the probe’s batteries. The descent will last about 140 minutes before Huygens impacts the surface at about 6 m/s. If the probe survives all this, its extended mission will start, consisting in direct characterisation of Titan’s surface for as long as the batteries can power the instruments and the Cassini orbiter is visible over the horizon at the landing site, i.e. not more than 13

2004-12-01

451

An approximate analytical solution for interlaminar stresses in angle-ply laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved approximate analytical solution for interlaminar stresses in finite width, symmetric, angle-ply laminated coupons subjected to axial loading is presented. The solution is based upon statically admissible stress fields which take into consideration local property mismatch effects and global equilibrium requirements. Unknown constants in the admissible stress states are determined through minimization of the complementary energy. Typical results are presented for through-the-thickness and interlaminar stress distributions for angle-ply laminates. It is shown that the results represent an improved approximate analytical solution for interlaminar stresses.

Rose, Cheryl A.; Herakovich, Carl T.

1991-01-01

452

Mixing in process vessels used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.  

PubMed

The use of nonbaffled vessels for mixing applications is becoming common in the biopharmaceutical industry but is not sufficiently well studied. Orientation of the impellers off-centered and/or at an angle is necessary to enhance mixing and eliminate swirling that would result without a baffle in a standard tank. This study focuses on characterizing mixing in vessels with the hydrofoil axial flow impellers mounted off-center at 10 degrees to the vertical. Geometrically similar vessels ranging from 100 to 5000 L working volume were used in this study. Mixing performance was successfully correlated to vessel geometric factors. PMID:10753450

Ram, K; Vickroy, T B; Lamb, K A; Slater, N K; Dennis, J S; Duffy, L E

2000-01-01

453

Four-wave-mixing interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method of determining in time both the real and the imaginary parts of third-order nonlinear-optical coefficients. In this method the phase-conjugated four-wave-mixing signal beam interferes with one of the transmitted pump beams. By comparing the interference pattern with that of a known reference, we are able to determine the real and the imaginary parts of the third-order optical nonlinearity for an unknown sample. The real and the imaginary parts can also be separated when one incoming beam is delayed. We apply this method to a bis-thienyl polyene molecule containing five conjugate double bonds and find that the hyperpolarizability is gamma 1111 =(-2.5-0.17i) \\times 10 -30 esu.

Tang, N.; Partanen, J. P.

1996-08-01

454

?-angle monodromy in two dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“?-angle monodromy” occurs when a theory possesses a landscape of metastable vacua which reshuffle as one shifts a periodic coupling ? by a single period. “Axion monodromy” models arise when this parameter is promoted to a dynamical pseudoscalar field. This paper studies the phenomenon in two-dimensional gauge theories which possess a U(1) factor at low energies: the massive Schwinger and gauged massive Thirring models, the U(N) ’t Hooft model, and the CPN model. In all of these models, the energy dependence of a given metastable false vacuum deviates significantly from quadratic dependence on ? just as the branch becomes completely unstable (distinct from some four-dimensional axion monodromy models). In the Schwinger, Thirring, and ’t Hooft models, the meson masses decrease as a function of ?. In the U(N) models, the landscape is enriched by sectors with non-Abelian ? terms. In the CPN model, we compute the effective action and the size of the mass gap is computed along a metastable branch.

Lawrence, Albion

2012-05-01

455

Angiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.  

PubMed

Angiomas situated within the pontocerebellar cistern lie superficially on the ventrolateral aspect of the brain stem. Occasionally, minor extensions penetrate into the adjacent nervous structures. Five patients bearing such lesions were operated upon, using a microsurgical technique. Radical excision was performed in all cases. Within 2 to 12 months the patients had returned to their previous occupations, being fully able to work or attend school. There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of surgical treatment of angiomas of the ventrolateral aspect of the brain stem and the cerebellopontine angle. The illness usually presents with hemorrhages of varying severity, ranging from mild to devastating. Impairment of consciousness, contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral cranial nerve palsies are the most frequent neurological signs after bleeding. The outcome following excision is primarily related to the preoperative condition. No additional deficits or only minor further impairment can be expected from surgical interference. Exploration is advisable whenever the malformation appears to lie on the surface rather than within the brain stem. PMID:6169805

Viale, G L; Pau, A; Viale, E S; Turtas, S

1981-01-01

456

Minimal supergravity radiative effects on the tribimaximal neutrino mixing pattern  

SciTech Connect

We study the stability of the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) mixing pattern, assumed to hold at some high energy scale, against supersymmetric radiative corrections. We work in the framework of a reference minimal supergravity model (mSUGRA) where supersymmetry breaking is universal and flavor-blind at unification. The radiative corrections considered include both RGE running as well as threshold effects. We find that in this case the solar mixing angle can only increase with respect to the HPS reference value, while the atmospheric and reactor mixing angles remain essentially stable. Deviations from the solar angle HPS prediction towards lower values would signal novel contributions from physics beyond the simplest mSUGRA model.

Hirsch, M.; Valle, J. W. F.; Villanova Moral, A. del [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular-C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado: 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ma, Ernest [Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Romao, J. C. [Departamento de Fisica and CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2007-03-01

457

Mix Design Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to develop a mix design method for WMA in the form of a draft AASHTO recommended practice for use by engineers and technicians in the public and private sectors. This method was (1) to be based on Superpave mix design met...

R. Bonaquist

2011-01-01

458

Charged Lepton Correction to Tri-Bimaximal Lepton Mixing and its Implications to Neutrino Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent results from Daya Bay and RENO reactor neutrino experiments have firmly established that the smallest reactor mixing angle ?13 is nonvanishing at the 5 ? level, with a relatively large value, i.e. ?13 ? 9°. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as V PMNS = Ul U? P? , where Ul and U? result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and P? is a diagonal matrix containing the Majorana phases and assuming the tri-bimaximal (TBM) form for U?, we investigate the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle due to the corrections of the charged lepton mixing matrix. The form of Ul is assumed to be that of CKM mixing matrix of the quark sector. We find that with this modification it is possible to accommodate the large observed reactor mixing angle ?13. We also study the implications of such corrections on the other phenomenological observables.

Gollu, Srinu; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

2013-10-01

459

AKA unknown male Foxtrot 23/4: alias assignment for unidentified emergency room patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To introduce a unique system of alias assignment for patients whose identity is initially unknown at time of admission to the emergency unit; to prevent confusion and cases of mistaken identity. METHODS: At the triage area the "unknown" patient is given a "forename" using the phonetic alphabet according to the stage of the current name cycle. The sex of the patient is included as well as the unknown status and a "surname" is added as the numerical date. Thus an unknown male patient admitted on the 24th of April at the start of a new name cycle would be known as "unknown male Alpha 24/4". RESULTS: Ten thousand alias assignments have been issued to patients since the introduction of the system in 1985. CONCLUSION: This system is a simple yet effective, tried and tested method for the unique identification of unknown patients, which allows easy communication and retrieval of data for inquiries.

Brooks, A J; Macnab, C; Boffard, K

1999-01-01

460

S{sub 4} model for quarks and leptons with maximal atmospheric angle  

SciTech Connect

We consider a model for quark and lepton masses and mixings based on S{sub 4} flavor symmetry. The model contains six Higgs doublets where three of them give mass to the leptons, and the other three gives mass to the quarks. Charged fermion and quark masses arise from renormalizable interactions while neutrino Majorana masses are generated through effective dimension five Weinberg operator. From the study of the minimization of the scalar potential we found a residual {mu}{r_reversible}{tau} symmetry in the neutrino sector predicting zero reactor angle and maximal atmospheric angle and for the quark sector we found a four-zero texture. We give a fit of the mass hierarchies and mixing angles in the quark sector.

Morisi, Stefano; Peinado, Eduardo [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular-C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2010-04-15

461

Diffusion characteristics of a T-type microchannel with different configurations and inlet angles.  

PubMed

A series of symmetrical and asymmetrical microfluidic T-sensors with different inlet angles were fabricated to study the mixing characteristics of a T-type microstructure for generating concentration gradient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations showed that the concentration gradient, transition zone and diffusion length were different for various configurations and inlet angles. Quick mix and sharp concentration gradient occurred in the asymmetrical structure with large inlet angle. The observed concentration gradients in the fabricated microchannel were consistent with the theoretical prediction. In this microstructure, stagnant zone and z-direction diffusion also affected the concentration gradient. Based on the simulation results, the microfluidic structure was optimized to generate desired concentration gradient for a cell-based study. PMID:17575354

Yang, Jun; Pi, Xitian; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Xiangshao; Yang, Jing; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Wenxian; Zheng, Xiaolin

2007-06-01

462

Current concepts on primary open-angle glaucoma genetics: a contribution to disease pathophysiology and future treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucoma is a common, complex, heterogenous disease and it constitutes the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in all populations. Most of the molecular mechanisms leading to POAG development are still unknown. Gene mutations in various populations have been identified by genetic studies and a genetic basis for glaucoma

M Gemenetzi; Y Yang; A J Lotery

2012-01-01

463

Retrieval of aerosol properties over land surfaces: capabilities of multiple-viewing-angle intensity and polarization measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the capabilities of different instrument concepts for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land. It was found that, if the surface reflection properties are unknown, only multiple-viewing-angle measurements of both intensity and polarization are able to provide the relevant aerosol parameters with sufficient accuracy for climate research. Furthermore, retrieval errors are only little affected when the number of

Otto P. Hasekamp; Jochen Landgraf

2007-01-01

464

A Parametric Numerical Study of Mixing in a Cylindrical Duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction is described of some of the important parameters affecting the mixing process in a quick mixing region of a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustor. The performance of the quick mixing region is significantly affected by the geometric designs of both the mixing domain and the jet inlet orifices. Several of the important geometric parameters and operating conditions affecting the mixing process were analytically studied. Parameters such as jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio (J), mass flow ratio (MR), orifice geometry, orifice orientation, and number of orifices/row (equally spaced) around the circumferential direction were analyzed. Three different sets of orifice shapes were studied: (1) square, (2) elongated slots, and (3) equilateral triangles. Based on the analytical results, the best mixing configuration depends significantly on the penetration depth of the jet to prevent the hot mainstream flow from being entrained behind the orifice. The structure in a circular mixing section is highly weighted toward the outer wall and any mixing structure affecting this area significantly affects the overall results. The increase in the number of orifices per row increases the mixing at higher J conditions. Higher slot slant angles and aspect ratios are generally the best mixing configurations at higher momentum flux ratio (J) conditions. However, the square and triangular shaped orifices were more effective mixing configurations at lower J conditions.

Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

1992-01-01

465

A statistical raindrop canting angle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model to predict accurately the mean and standard deviation of each drop-size canting angle, assuming Gaussian canting angle distributions, is presented. The model utilizes the one-dimensional energy spectrum of horizontal turbulence given by Davenport. By using the differential equation for the horizontal-drop movement, the mean and standard deviation of each drop-size canting angle are calculated. Comparison with Saunders' work shows good agreement.

Howard, J.; Gerogiokas, M.

1982-01-01

466

Miniature Angle Measuring Interferometer (MIAMI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The miniature Angle Measuring Interferometer (MIAMI) is a compact laser interferometer that was developed by Ball to satisfy the sensor needs of various pointing and tracking applications. These include: (1) attitude sensing for fast-steering mirrors and other optical elements, (2) structural monitoring and control for optical benches and other structures requiring micro-positioning, and (3) high-precision encoders for use in measuring the angular position of gimballed payloads and drives. MIAMI is constructed from off-the-shelf optical elements, using the inherent precision of the optical faces for alignment when feasible. In the present configuration, the laser light makes eight passes between the sensor head and the retroreflective target, amplifying the sensitivity of this device by a factor of eight. The interference of the two laser beams create fringe patterns, and the separation between fringes is equivalent to one wavelength of laser light (0.6328 micrometers). MIAMI uses interpolation to further subdivide each fringe spacing by a factor of 8 or 16, depending on configuration. MIAMI exhibits excellent performance characteristics, Its angular resolution is 175 nanoradians, and it achieves this with incremental data rates exceeding 5 MHz. MIAMI can accommodate rapid slew rates (greater than 50 deg/sec) and large angular travel (greater than +/- 20 deg). When used as a linear calibration sensor, MIAMI is capable of approxiamtely 10 nanometer linear resolution. The compact design (approximately 5 cubic in.) and light weight (approximately 8 oz) for the sensor head optics make it a very attractive candidate for space sensor applications.

Bauer, Robert J.

467

A comparison of variable angle versus fixed angle distal femoral resection in primary total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether using a variable distal valgus resection angle improved post-operative coronal lower limb alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Two groups were compared: Fixed (n=124), where a fixed distal valgus resection angle of 7° was used; Variable (n=87), where the resection angle was adjusted to the measured femoral mechanical anatomical (FMA) angle of the patient. FMA and mechanical femoro-tibial (MFT) angles were measured on pre-operative and post-operative hip-knee-ankle radiographs. 85% of patients in the Variable group had a post-operative MFT angle within 0°±3°compared to 69% in the Fixed group (P=0.006). The use of a fixed distal femoral resection angle for all patients is not appropriate. Setting the resection to an individual patient's FMA angle can significantly improve the post-operative MFT angle. PMID:24355255

Deakin, Angela H; Sarungi, Martin

2014-06-01

468

Zero texture lepton mass matrices and near tribimaximal mixing in the SO(10) theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have described the quark and lepton masses and mixings in context of non-SUSY SO(10) and "four-zero-texture" (FZT). In the FZT case, the fermion masses and the mixing angles can be related. We predict the neutrino masses using the near tribimaximal (TBM) mixing and the triminimal mixing. Our results show that under TBM, the neutrinos have a normal, but weak hierarchy. Variations of the neutrino masses under the "Near TBM-scenario" are also discussed.

Bhatti, A. Aziz; Fritzsch, Harald

2014-04-01

469

The Retroacetabular Angle Determines the Safe Angle for Screw Placement in Posterior Acetabular Fracture Fixation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. A method for the determination of safe angles for screws placed in the posterior acetabular wall based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) is described. It defines a retroacetabular angle and determines its variation in the population. Methods. The retroacetabular angle is the angle between the retroacetabular surface and the tangent to the posterior acetabular articular surface. Screws placed through the marginal posterior wall at an angle equal to the retroacetabular angle are extraarticular. Medial screws can be placed at larger angles whose difference from the retroacetabular angle is defined as the allowance angles. CT scans of all patients with acetabular fractures treated in our institute between September 2002 to July 2007 were used to measure the retroacetabular angle and tangent. Results. Two hundred thirty one patients were included. The average (range) age was 42 (15–74) years. The average (range) retroacetabular angle was 39 (30–47) degrees. The average (range) retroacetabular tangent was 36 (30–45)?mm. Conclusions. Placing the screws at an average (range) angle of 39 (33–47) degrees of anterior inclination with the retroacetabular surface makes them extraarticular. Angles for medial screws are larger. Safe angles can be calculated preoperatively with a computer program.

Tadros, Ayman M. A.; Oxland, Thomas R.; O'Brien, Peter

2013-01-01

470

Best Angle to Orient Two Intersecting Lines  

SciTech Connect

Fiducials in the form of intersecting straight lines are used to align the target in the final target chamber of the National Ignition Facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One of the techniques used to locate these lines is the Hough transform. When two lines intersect at a 90 degree angle, it is tempting to orient the lines to horizontal and vertical directions. There are other possible angles at which the lines may be oriented. One question that arises while designing the fiducials is whether there is a preferred angle or range of angles that leads to higher accuracy. This work attempts to answer this question through detailed computer simulation.

Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W; Shull, P B

2006-07-25

471

Pitch Angle of Galactic Spiral Arms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

2014-06-01

472

High angle of attack hypersonic aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new aerodynamics force model is presented which is based on modified Newtonian theory and empirical correlations. The algebraic model was developed for complete vehicles from take off to orbital speeds and for large angles of attack. Predictions are compared to results for a wind tunnel model at a Mach number of 20, and the full scale Shuttle Orbiter for Mach numbers from 0.25 to 20 for angles of attack from 0 to 50 deg. The maximum shuttle orbiter lift/drag at Mach 10 and 20 is 1.85 at 20-deg angle-of-attack. Aerodynamic force predictions are made for a transatmospheric vehicle, which is a derivative of the Shuttle Orbiter, for Mach numbers from 4 to 27 at angles of attack from 5 to 40 deg. Predicted aerodynamic force data indicate that lift/drag ratios of 5.2 at Mach number 10 and 3.6 at Mach number 26 are obtainable. Changes in force coefficients with changes in: nose angle, sweep angle, and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area are quantified for Mach numbers of 10 and 26. Lift/drag ratios increase with decreasing nose angle and (volume exp 2/3)/planform area and increasing wing sweep angle. Lift/drag ratios are independent of these variables for angles of attack in excess of 20 deg at Mach 10 and 30 deg at Mach 26.

Harloff, Gary J.

1987-01-01

473

11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant is at right, west tower and placement tower boom are visible. Photographer unknown, November 24, 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

474

A mixed finite element method for the generalized Stokes problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and analyse a new mixed finite element method for the generalized Stokes problem. The approach, which is a natural extension of a previous procedure applied to quasi-Newtonian Stokes flows, is based on the introduction of the flux and the tensor gradient of the velocity as further unknowns. This yields a two-fold saddle point operator equation as the resulting

Rommel Bustinza; Gabriel N. Gatica; María González

2005-01-01

475

CP violation in bipair neutrino mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are experimentally determined two best-fit points for the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle ?23: sin2 ?23=0.413 (case A) and sin2 ?23=0.594 (case B). In the bipair neutrino mixing scheme, we predict sin2 ?23=?{2}-1 (case 1) to be consistent with the case A and sin2 ?23=2-?{2} (case 2) to be consistent with the case B. If the case B is realized in nature, the bipair neutrino mixing provides a unique neutrino model consistent with the observation sin2 ?23=0.594. However, the reactor neutrino mixing angle ?13 is predicted to be sin2 ?13=0, which is inconsistent with the observation. We propose a new modification scheme to yield sin2 ?13?0 utilizing the charged lepton contribution and study its effect on both of CP-violating Dirac and Majorana phases, which is numerically estimated. It is found that there appear striking differences between the case 1 and the case 2 in their phase structure.

Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasuè, Masaki

2013-10-01

476

Mixing in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

Fryer, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-07

477

Mixing in explosions  

SciTech Connect

Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

Kuhl, A.L.

1993-12-01

478

Effects of material mixing on planetary gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of mixing of rocks and soil on the gamma-ray signal emitted by Martian surface was investigated with special consideration given to the effect of the geometry of mixing. It is shown that, under certain circumstances, this scale can have a significant effect on the gamma-ray spectrum observed. The techniques that can be used to address this problem are discussed, showing that, using these techniques, rock compositions can be inferred from the signal produced by a rock-soil mixtures of unknown rock concentration and mixing geometry.

Squyres, Steven W.; Evans, Larry G.

1992-01-01

479

Observations of nonthermal plasmas at different aspect angles  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented from the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter (Facility)) CP-3-E experiment which show large increases in the auroral zone convection velocities (> 2 km s{sup {minus}1}) over a wide range of latitudes. These are larger than the estimated neutral thermal speed and allow a study of the plasma in a nonthermal state over a range of observing angles. Spectra are presented which show a well-defined central peak, consistent with an ion velocity distribution function which significantly departs from a Maxwellian form. As the aspect angle decreases, the central peak becomes less obvious. simulated spectra, derived using theoretical expressions for the O{sup +} ion velocity distribution function based on the generalized relaxation collision model, are compared with the observations and show good first-order, qualitative agreement. It is shown that ion temperatures derived from the observations, with the assumption of a Maxwellian distribution function, are an overestimate of the true ion temperature at large aspect angles and an underestimate at low aspect angles. The theoretical distribution functions have been included in the standard incoherent scatter radar analysis procedure, and attempts have been made to derive realistic ionospheric parameters from nonthermal plasma observations. If the expression for the distribution function are extended to include mixed ion composition, a significant improvement is found in fitting some of the observed spectra, and estimates of the ion composition can be made. The non-Maxwellian analysis of the data revealed that the spectral shape distortion parameter, D*, was significantly higher in this case for molecular ions than for atomic ions in a thin height slab roughly 40 km thick. This would seem unlikely if the main molecular ions present were NO{sup +}.

Winser, K.J.; Lockwood, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (England)); Jones, G.O.L. (Univ. College of Wales, Aberystwyth (England)); Suvanto, K. (Imperial College, London (England))

1989-02-01

480

Effects of triggering mechanism on snow avalanche slope angles and slab depths from field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field data from snow avalanche fracture lines for slope angle and slab depth (measured perpendicular to the weak layer) were analyzed for different triggering mechanisms. For slope angle, the results showed that the same probability density function (pdf) (of log-logistic type) and range (25 - 55 degrees) apply independent of triggering mechanism. For slab depth, the same pdf (generalized extreme value) applies independent of triggering mechanism. For both slope angle and slab depth, the data skewness differentiated between triggering mechanism and increased with applied triggering load. For slope angle, skewness is lowest for natural triggering by snow loads and highest for triggering from human intervention. For slab depth, the skewness is lowest for natural triggering and highest for a mix of triggers including explosive control with skier triggering being intermediate. The results reveal the effects of triggering mechanism which are important for risk analyses and to guide avalanche forecasting.

McClung, David M.

2013-04-01

481

A Climbing Class' Reinvention of Angles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous study shows how a twelve-year-old girl discovers angles in her narrative from a climbing trip. Based on this research, the girl's class takes part in one day of climbing and half a day of follow-up work at school. The students mathematise their climbing with respect to angles and they express themselves in texts and drawings. Their…

Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

2008-01-01

482

Classification procedure in limited angle tomography system  

SciTech Connect

In this work we propose the use of limited angle reconstruction algorithms combined with a procedure for defect detection and feature evaluation in three dimensions. The procedure consists of the following steps: acquisition of the X-ray projections, approximated limited angle 3D image reconstruction, and image preprocessing and classification.

Chlewicki, W.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Chady, T.; Brykalski, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Westpomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

2011-06-23

483

SNAKE. A Solid Angle Calculational System  

SciTech Connect

SNAKE calculates solid angles subtended by geometric forms composed of spherical, cylindrical, and planar surfaces, either singularly or in specified arrays, from exact analytic integral forms. Thus, it is capable of providing information necessary for the solid angle method for evaluation of neutron interaction in arrays.

Thompson, J.K.; Lewallen, M.A.; Trapp, J.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1984-03-01

484

High gain observers with multiple sliding mode for state and unknown input estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-gain observers with multiple sliding modes for simultaneous state and unknown input estimations of a class of MIMO nonlinear systems are systematically developed in this paper. The unknown inputs are assumed to be bounded and not necessarily Lipschitz, and do not require any matching condition. A new nonlinear transformation is proposed and the observer design and analysis are performed in

Kalyana C. Veluvolu; Soh Yeng Chai

2009-01-01

485

Range Identification in the Presence of Unknown Motion Parameters for Perspective Vision Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear observer for the range identification problem for a moving object, whose motion is described by a known linear system with unknown coeffi- cients. Convergent estimates of the unknown motion parameters can be guaranteed under certain observability conditions. I. INTRODUCTION A variety of 3D motion estimation algorithms have been developed since the 1970's, inspired by such

Lili Ma; Chengyu Cao; Naira Hovakimyan; Warren E. Dixon; Craig Woolsey

2009-01-01

486

Range Identification in the Presence of Unknown Motion Parameters for Perspective Vision Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear observer for the range identification problem for a moving object, whose motion is described by a known linear system with unknown coefficients. Convergent estimates of the unknown motion parameters can be guaranteed under certain observability conditions.

Lili Ma; Chengyu Cao; Naira Hovakimyan; Warren E. Dixon; Craig Woolsey

2007-01-01

487

The value of immunohistochemistry in patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas of unknown primary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subgroup of patients with metastatic carcinomas of unknown origin may benefit from combination chemotherapy. The relevance of immunohistochemistry in detecting such patients was investigated. Immunohistochemical studies with a panel of antibodies were performed on the tissue specimens of 41 patients having a light-microscopic diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown origin, who had been treated with

A. van der Gaast; J. Verweij; A. S. Th. Planting; G. Stoter; S. C. Henzen-Logmans

1996-01-01

488

Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State via Dual Classical and EPR Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown quantum state jOEi can be disassembled into, then later reconstructedfrom, purely classical information and purely nonclassical EPR correlations. To do sothe sender, "Alice," and the receiver, "Bob," must prearrange the sharing of an EPRcorrelatedpair of particles. Alice makes a joint measurement on her EPR particle andthe unknown quantum system, and sends Bob the classical result of this measurement.Knowing

Charles H. Bennett; Gilles Brassard; Claude Crépeau; Richard Jozsa; Asher Peres; William K. Wootters

1993-01-01

489

Bayesian analysis of multivariate Gaussian hidden Markov models with an unknown number of regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate Gaussian hidden Markov models with an unknown number of regimes are introduced here in the Bayesian setting and new efficient reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for estimating both the dimension and the unknown parameters of the model are presented. Hidden Markov models are an extension of mixture models that can be applied to time series so as

Luigi Spezia

2010-01-01

490

Simulated annealing based simulation-optimization approach for identification of unknown contaminant sources in groundwater aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact location and release history of groundwater pollutant sources is often unknown. Identification of unknown release histories is usually carried out by inversion of the equations governing flow and transport over time and space. This is an ill posed problem. Solution of this ill-posed inversion is complicated due to the inherent non-uniqueness of solutions, uncertainties in modelling the flow

Manish K. Jha; Bithin Datta

2011-01-01

491

Rejection of unknown periodic load disturbances in continuous steel casting process using learning repetitive control approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a discrete-time repetitive controller for the continuous steel casting process that is used for the rejection of periodic load disturbances with an unknown period. A discrete, recursive scheme is applied to identify the unknown disturbance period and to adaptively change the period setting of the repetitive control algorithm. An experiment was conducted

Thomas J. Manayathara; Tsu-Chin Tsao; Joseph Bentsman

1996-01-01

492

The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of Neanderthals, from which DNA sequences of numerous individuals have now been determined, the number and genetic relationships of other hominin lineages are largely unknown. Here we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. It represents a hitherto unknown type

Johannes Krause; Qiaomei Fu; Jeffrey M. Good; Bence Viola; Michael V. Shunkov; Anatoli P. Derevianko; Svante Pääbo

2010-01-01

493

How Do English L1 Learners of Advanced Japanese Infer Unknown "Kanji" Words in Authentic Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates advanced Japanese language learners' abilities to infer unknown "kanji" (Chinese character )words while reading authentic Japanese texts. Data obtained from 42 English L1 students indicate that, first, although they can guess the meanings of unknown "kanji" words in context, they frequently make erroneous guesses or fail to…

Kondo-Brown, Kimi

2006-01-01

494

The Effect of Known-and-Unknown Word Combinations on Intentional Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine whether learning a known-and-unknown word combination is superior in terms of retention and retrieval of meaning to learning a single unknown word. The term "combination" in this study means a two-word collocation of a familiar word and a word that is new to the participants. Following the results of…

Kasahara, Kiwamu

2011-01-01

495

Research on new view planning method for automatic reconstruction of unknown 3D objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic reconstruction of unknown 3-D objects is a main part of the machine vision technology and it has a variety of applications such as robot navigation, medical imaging and industrial inspection, etc. In this paper, a new view planning method for reconstructing unknown 3-D models automatically was proposed based on the limit visual surface. Firstly, the visual region of the

Xiaolong Zhou; Bingwei He; Y. F. Li

2009-01-01

496

Technical Note: Recursive Algorithm for Inbreeding Coefficients Assuming Nonzero Inbreeding of Unknown Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recursive algorithm to calculate inbreeding coeffi- cients was modified to account for nonzero inbreeding of unknown parents. The modification was done by changing one part of a recursive formula in which the inbreeding of an animal with at least one unknown parent is not zero and replacing it by the mean inbreed- ing of all animals born the same

I. Aguilar; I. Misztal

2008-01-01

497

A Control Method Based on Modal Transformation for Biped Robots to Climb Unknown Steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a control method based on modal transformation for biped robots to climb unknown steps. This method is able to control the foot position of the biped robot and the ground reaction force acting in vertical direction when the biped robot climbs unknown steps in a double-support phase. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation

Shuhei Shimmyo; Miki Nakazato; Kei Mikami; Tomoya Sato; Sho Sakaino; Kouhei Ohnishi

2010-01-01

498

GR Schwarzschild Light Launch Angle Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Schwarzschild Light Launch Angle program simulates the path of light around a black hole using the Schwarzschild metric and allows the user to set the launch angle of the light. It also displays a plot of the effective potential well for the light. The default setting is light with an r-coordinate value of 3.5 and a launch angle of 1.571 (in radians). GR Schwarzschild Light Launch Angle Parameter is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_schwarzschild_light_launch_angle.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2008-05-27

499

Investigation of Lightning Rod Shielding Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies those parameters affecting the shielding angle of the lightning rod (Franklin Rod) above very tall buildings. It was recommended that the shielding angle of the lightning rod is about 45°?60°. The downward lightning leader is modeled by using discrete line charges to consider the exponential distribution of charges through the downward leader. The voltage condition used by Rizk is used to investigate the inception of the upward lightning leader. Different air conditions (relative air density and air humidity) are considered for more practical simulation. The influences of lightning parameters and lightning rod height on the shielding angle are studied. The results shows that, lightning leader parameters, lightning rod height and ground slope have series effects on the lightning rod shielding angle. Based on the results, a lightning rod shielding angle for shielding design is recommended to decrease the lightning stroke to the lightning rod.

Nayel, Mohamed

500

Statistics of remote roll angle measurement.  

PubMed

Remote measurement of object orientation is used in various scientific fields, such as robotics, optics, and biology (e.g., optical tweezers). Roll angle is one of the three angles that describe the orientation of an object in space. A common method to measure the roll angle is based on analyzing the polarization of the backreflection of a beam. The accuracy of the measurement is degraded by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The low SNR is the result of the large distance between the measurement device and the object, or due to the small backreflection cross section. We perform a laboratory experiment and derive a mathematical model for the probability density function of the measured roll angle and its expectation value. This model makes it possible to calculate the accuracy of the roll angle measurement at low SNRs. Experiments and theoretical analysis using our model were performed and good agreement between the two approaches has been found. PMID:24787415

Plosker, Effie; Arnon, Shlomi

2014-04-10