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1

RHYTHMIXEARCH: SEARCHING FOR UNKNOWN MUSIC BY MIXING KNOWN MUSIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel method for searching for unknown music. RhythMiXearch is a music search system we de- veloped that can accept two music inputs and mix those inputs to search for music that could reasonably be a re- sult of the mixture. This approach expands the ability of Query-by-Example and allows greater flexibility for users in finding unknown music.

Makoto P. Kato

2009-01-01

2

Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions  

SciTech Connect

An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

Albright, Carl H. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States) and Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2010-03-30

3

Mixing angle of hadrons in QCD: A new view  

SciTech Connect

A new method for calculation of the mixing angle between the hadrons within QCD sum rules is proposed. In this method, the mixing is expressed in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom. As an application, the detailed calculation of the mixing angle between heavy cascade baryons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '}, Q=c, b is presented and it is found that the mixing angle between {Xi}{sub b} ({Xi}{sub c}) and {Xi}{sub b}{sup '} ({Xi}{sub c}{sup '}) is given by {theta}{sub b}=6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. ({theta}{sub c}=5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.).

Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-01

4

Precision measurement of the weak mixing angle in Moller scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moeller) scattering: A{sub PV} = (-131 {+-} 14 (stat.) {+-} 10 (syst.)) x 10{sup -9}, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2397 {+-} 0.0010 (stat.) {+-} 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q{sup 2} = 0.026 GeV{sup 2}. Combining this result with the measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} at the Z{sup 0} pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6{sigma} significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

Anthony, P.L.; Arnold, R.G.; Arroyo, C.; Bega, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bosted, P.E.; Bower, G.; Cahoon, J.; Carr, R.; Cates, G.D.; Chen, J-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cooke, M.; Decowski, P.; Deur, A.; Emam, W.; Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Field, C.; Gao, J.; Gary, M.; /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Princeton U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Smith Coll. /SLAC /Syracuse U. /Jefferson Lab /Virginia U.

2005-05-04

5

Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moeller Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moeller) scattering: A{sub PV}=[-131{+-}14(stat){+-}10(syst)]x10{sup -9}, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff}=0.2397{+-}0.0010(stat){+-}0.0008(syst), evaluated at Q{sup 2}=0.026 GeV{sup 2}. Combining this result with the measurements of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} at the Z{sup 0} pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6{sigma} significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

Anthony, P.L.; Bower, G.; Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Field, C.; Keller, L.; Olson, M.; Pitthan, R.; Saxton, O.; Szalata, Z.M.; Turner, J.; Walz, D.; Weber, T.; Weisend, J.; Woods, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Arnold, R.G.; Arroyo, C.; Cahoon, J.; Hicks, R.S.; Kaufman, L.J. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)] [and others

2005-08-19

6

Review of weak mixing angle results at SLC and LEP  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors review recent precise measurements of the weak mixing angle by the SLD experiment at SLC and by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL experiments at LEP. If they assume that the Minimal Standard Model provides a complete description of the quark and lepton couplings to the Z boson, they find sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23143 {+-} 0.00028. If this assumption is relaxed to apply to lepton couplings only, they find sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23106 {+-} 0.00035. They compare these results with other precision electroweak tests.

Woods, M.

1995-10-01

7

Determination of the third neutrino-mixing angle ?13 and its implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until 2010 we had three unknown parameters of neutrino oscillation—the third mixing angle ?13, the sign of the larger mass difference ?m312 and the CP violating phase ?. Thanks to a number of consistent experimental results since then, culminating in the recent Daya Bay reactor neutrino data, we now have a definitive determination of ?13. Moreover its measured value, sin22?13 ? 0.1, is close to its earlier upper limit. This has promising implications for the determination of the two remaining unknown parameters from the present and proposed accelerator neutrino experiments in the foreseeable future. This article presents a pedagogical review of these profound developments for the wider community of young physicists including university students.

Roy, D. P.

2013-05-01

8

Large mixing angles from many right-handed neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beautiful understanding of the smallness of the neutrino masses may be obtained via the seesaw mechanism, whereby one takes advantage of the key qualitative distinction between the neutrinos and the other fermions: right-handed neutrinos are gauge singlets, and may therefore have large Majorana masses. The standard seesaw mechanism, however, does not address the apparent lack of hierarchy in the neutrino masses compared to the quarks and charged leptons, nor the large leptonic mixing angles compared to the small angles of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. In this paper, we will show that the singlet nature of the right-handed neutrinos may be taken advantage of in one further way in order to solve these remaining problems: Unlike particles with gauge interactions, whose numbers are constrained by anomaly cancellation, the number of gauge singlet particles is essentially undetermined. If large numbers of gauge singlet fermions are present at high energies—as is suggested, for example, by various string constructions—then the effective low-energy neutrino mass matrix may be determined as a sum over many distinct Yukawa couplings, with the largest ones being the most important. This can reduce hierarchy, and lead to large mixing angles. Assuming a statistical distribution of fundamental parameters, we will show that this scenario leads to a good fit to low-energy phenomenology, with only a few qualitative assumptions guided by the known quark and lepton masses. The scenario leads to predictions of a normal hierarchy for the neutrino masses, and a value for the |mee| mass matrix element of about 1-6 meV.

Feldstein, Brian; Klemm, William

2012-03-01

9

Day-Night and Energy Variations for Maximal Neutrino Mixing Angles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been stated in the literature that the case of maximal mixing angle for nu(e) leads to no day-night effect for solar neutrinos and an energy independent flux suppression of 1/2. While the case of maximal mixing angle and delta square m in the MSW r...

M. A. Serna

1999-01-01

10

Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1fb-1. From the dominant uu¯, dd¯??*/Z??-?+ process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin?2?eff=0.2287±0.0020(stat.)±0.0025(syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hänsel, S.; Hoch, M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Trauner, C.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Benucci, L.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hammad, G. H.; Hreus, T.; Marage, P. E.; Raval, A.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Adler, V.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; McCartin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, J.; Ceard, L.; Cortina Gil, E.; de Favereau de Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Grégoire, G.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Ovyn, S.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; da Costa, E. M.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Darmenov, N.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Mateev, M.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Cabrera, A.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Lelas, K.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Sillou, D.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Marionneau, M.; Millischer, L.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Elgammal, S.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Greder, S.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Mikami, Y.; van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bedjidian, M.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Le Grand, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Lomidze, D.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

2011-12-01

11

The 2-3 Symmetry and Large Reactor Mixing Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a 2-3 symmetric structure of the charged lepton mass matrix except for one breaking by the muon mass. Symmetry breaking effects are provided both in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector to produce corrections to the leptonic mixing and explain the recent ?13 measurements. A model that extends the SM by three right-handed neutrinos, an extra Higgs doublet, and multi-singlet scalars is introduced to generate the leptonic mixing.

Rashed, Ahmed; Datta, Alakabha

2013-10-01

12

Large mixing angle MSW and atmospheric neutrinos from single right-handed neutrino dominance and U(1) family symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single right-handed neutrino dominance (SRHND) in the 23 sector of the light effective neutrino mass matrix has been proposed as a natural explanation for the concurrent large 23 mixing angle and large 23 mass hierarchy. In this paper we show how large 12 mixing angles, suitable for the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem, may

S. F. King

2000-01-01

13

Wave-mixing interference in three-photon resonant atomic excitation with cross-polarized angled beams  

SciTech Connect

Three-photon excitation and associated wave mixing near the 6s and 6s{sup '} resonances of xenon have been studied utilizing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in angled beams with different polarizations. It has been shown that a complete cancellation of three-photon resonant atomic excitation caused by the well-known destructive wave-mixing interference occurs in s and p polarization of angled beams but distinct resonance ionization enhancement is observed when pump beams have orthogonal polarization planes. Pressure-induced evolution of the resonance ionization peak in cross-polarized beams is identical to that observed with counterpropagating beams. The reason for such resonance ionization enhancement is unknown and cannot be explained within the frame work of existing theory. The effect may result from some peculiarities of wave-mixing interference in a multilevel atomic system, where different degenerate magnetic sublevels of the upper atomic state and multiple interfering excitation processes are involved. Another possibility is that the resonance ionization enhancement results from a process where weak counterpropagating light is generated within the excitation region of cross-polarized angled beams.

Peet, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

2006-09-15

14

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of eight interactive activities lets the user explore angles from many different perspectives. Activities include (1) visualizing the size of an angle; (2) examining objects that will stand or fall with right and non-right angles; (3) identifying obtuse, right, acute and straight angles; (4) guessing angle measures with different levels of precision; (5) exploring regular shapes and their angle measures; (6) studying angles in a fractal tree that is drawn with user inputs of the same angle measure between the branches at each stage; (7) exploring angle measures through firing a cannon (8) drawing with a Logo activity.

Edkins, Jo

2007-01-01

15

Lower bounds on the smallest lepton mixing angle  

SciTech Connect

We give minimal values for the smallest lepton mixing parameter |U{sub e3}|, applying 2-loop renormalization group equations in an effective theory approach. This is relevant in scenarios that predict an inverted neutrino mass spectrum with the smallest mass and |U{sub e3}| being zero at tree level, a situation known to be preserved at 1-loop order. At 2-loop, |U{sub e3}| is generated at a level of 10{sup -12}-10{sup -14}. Such small values are of interest in supernova physics. Corresponding limits for the normal mass ordering are several orders of magnitude larger. Our results show that |U{sub e3}| can in general be expected to be nonzero.

Ray, Shamayita [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics (LEPP), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Rodejohann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmidt, Michael A. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2011-02-01

16

Effects of energy and pitch angle mixed diffusion on radiation belt electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s radiation belts is important for modeling and forecasting the intensities of energetic electrons in space. Wave diffusion processes are known to be responsible for loss and acceleration of electrons in the radiation belts. Several recent studies indicate pitch angle and energy mixed-diffusion are also important when considering the total diffusive effects. In this study, a two-dimensional Fokker Planck equation is solved numerically using the Alternating Direction Implicit method. Mixed diffusion due to whistler-mode chorus waves tends to slow down the total diffusion in the energy-pitch angle space, particularly at smaller equatorial pitch angles. We then incorporate the electron energy and pitch angle mixed diffusions due to whistler-model chorus waves into the 4-dimensional Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model and study the effect of mixed diffusion during a storm in October 2002. The 4-D simulation results show that energy and pitch angle mixed diffusion decrease the electron fluxes in the outer belt while electron fluxes in the slot region are enhanced (up to a factor of 2) during storm time.

Zheng, Qiuhua; Fok, Mei-Ching; Albert, Jay; Horne, Richard B.; Meredith, Nigel P.

2011-05-01

17

Angles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows the Brownstone Kids teaching others how to dance. Illustrates angles as they turn and sing 'Get the Angles.' The group goes to a community center for playing pool in 'Calling Shoots.' Discusses angles showing the 90-degree, 45-degree, and 180-degree...

1994-01-01

18

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables students to investigate acute, obtuse, and right angles. The student decides to work with one or two transversals and a pair of parallel lines. Angle measure is given for one angle. The student answers a short series of questions about the size of other angles, identifying relationships such as vertical and adjacent angles and alternate interior and alternate exterior angles. In addition to automatically checking the student's answers, the applet can keep score of correct answers. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans and a handout with a grid for showing the relationship between all possible angles that occur when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

19

A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle in neutrino-nucleon scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation reports a precise determination of the weak mixing angle, sin2 thetaW, from measurement of the ratios of neutral current to charged current neutrino deep inelastic cross sections. High statistics samples of separately collected neutrino and antineutrino events, resulting from exposure to the Fermilab neutrino beam during the period from 1996 to 1997, allowed the reduction of systematic errors

Geralyn P. Zeller

2002-01-01

20

Nonzero | U e3| from charged lepton corrections and the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the successful determination of the reactor neutrino mixing angle ? 13 ? 0.16 ? 0, a new feature suggested by the current neutrino oscillation data is a size- able deviation of the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle ? 23 from ?/4. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix U=U_e^{dag }{U_{? }} , where U e and U ? result from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, and assuming that U ? has a i) bimaximal (BM), ii) tri-bimaximal (TBM) form, or else iii) corresponds to the conservation of the lepton charge L' = L e - L ? - L ? (LC), we investigate quantitatively what are the minimal forms of U e , in terms of angles and phases it contains, that can provide the requisite corrections to U ? so that ? 13, ? 23 and the solar neutrino mixing angle ? 12 have values compatible with the current data. Two possible orderings of the 12 and the 23 rotations in U e , "standard" and "inverse", are considered. The results we obtain depend strongly on the type of ordering. In the case of "standard" ordering, in particular, the Dirac CP violation phase ?, present in U, is predicted to have a value in a narrow interval around i) ? ? ? in the BM (or LC) case, ii) ? ? 3 ?/2 or ?/2 in the TBM case, the CP conserving values ? = 0, ?, 2 ? being excluded in the TBM case at more than 4 ?.

Marzocca, David; Petcov, S. T.; Romanino, Andrea; Sevilla, M. C.

2013-05-01

21

A novel concept combining experimental and mathematical analysis for the identification of unknown interspecies effects in a mixed culture.  

PubMed

Bacteria in natural habitats only occur in consortia together with various other species. Characterization of bacterial species, however, is normally done by laboratory testing of pure isolates. Any interactions that might appear during growth in mixed-culture are obviously missed by this approach. Existing experimental studies mainly focus on two-species mixed cultures with species specifically chosen for their known growth characteristics, and their anticipated interactions. Various theoretical mathematical studies dealing with mixed cultures and possible interspecies effects exist, but often models cannot be validated due to a lack of experimental data. Here, we present a concept for the identification of interspecies effects in mixed cultures with arbitrary and unknown single-species properties. Model structure and parameters were inferred from single-species experiments for the reproduction of mixed-culture experiments by simulation. A mixed culture consisting of the three-species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Staphylococcus aureus served as a model system. For species-specific enumeration a quantitative terminal restriction length polymorphism (qT-RFLP) assay was used. Based on models fitted to single-species cultivations, the outcome of mixed-culture experiments was predicted. Deviations of simulation results and experimental findings were then used to design additional single-cell experiments, to modify the corresponding growth kinetics, and to update model parameters. Eventually, the resulting mixed-culture dynamics was predicted and compared again to experimental results. During this iterative cycle, it became evident that the observed coexistence of P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia in mixed-culture chemostat experiments cannot be explained on the basis of glucose as the only substrate. After extension of growth kinetics, that is, for use of amino acids as secondary substrates, mixed-culture simulations represented the experimental findings very well. According to the model structure, as motivated by single-species experiments, the growth of P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia on glucose and amino acids could be assumed to be independent of each other. In contrast, both substrates are taken up simultaneously by S. aureus. PMID:21391206

Schmidt, Julia K; Riedele, Christian; Regestein, Lars; Rausenberger, Julia; Reichl, Udo

2011-04-07

22

Theoretical determination of K1(1270,1400) mixing angle in QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quark model, the strange axial vector mesons K1(1270) and K1(1400) are defined as the mixtures of orbital angular momentum states K1A and K1B. In this work, by using the orthogonality of the mass eigenstates, we have estimated the K1(1270, 1400) mixing angle ?K1, where we have found that ?K1 simeq -(39 ± 4)°.

Da?, Hüseyin; Özpineci, Altu?; Ça??l, Ayçe; Erkol, Güray

2012-03-01

23

Mixing in Turbulent Free Jets Issuing from Isosceles Triangular Orifices with Different Apex Angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on mixing in turbulent free jets issuing from isosceles triangular orifices with apex angles of 10°C, 20°C and 30°C. The results obtained in a contoured nozzle round jet are also presented for comparison. The measurements were made with an x-array hot-wire probe and a pitot-static tube in isothermal, incompressible jets issuing

M. Azad; W. R. Quinn; D. Groulx

2011-01-01

24

Mixing in Turbulent Free Jets Issuing from Isosceles Triangular Orifices with Different Apex Angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on mixing in turbulent free jets issuing from isosceles triangular orifices with apex angles of 10°C, 20°C and 30°C. The results obtained in a contoured nozzle round jet are also presented for comparison. The measurements were made with an x-array hot-wire probe and a pitot-static tube in isothermal, incompressible jets issuing from the orifices into still surrounding air. The Reynolds number, based on the equivalent diameter of the triangular orifices (the same as the diameter of the contoured round nozzle), was on average 1.93 × 105 in all the jets. The results for the mean streamwise centerline velocity decay and jet entrainment suggest that the 10°C jet has the highest mixing rate and that the contoured nozzle round jet has the lowest mixing rate among all the jets tested.

Azad, M.; Quinn, W. R.; Groulx, D.

2011-09-01

25

A study on supersonic mixing by circular nozzle with various injection angles for air breathing engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SCRAM-jet engine is considered to be one of the useful system propulsion for super/hypersonic transportation vehicle and various researches were made to develop the engine. However, there are a lot of problems to be solved to develop it and one of them is the problem of supersonic mixing. In the SCRAM-jet engine combustor, main airflow is supersonic and residence time of the air is very short (about 1 ms). Hence rapid mixing of air and fuel is necessary. However, usually it is quite difficult to mix fuel with air in very short distance. Also total pressure loss occurs by flow interaction the air and fuel. Total pressure loss is not preferable because it causes the thrust loss. Therefore, supersonic mixing with very rapid mixing and lower total pressure loss ratio is highly requested. In order to develop the supersonic mixing, it is very important to understand the effect of injection angle. In present study, we investigate the effect of injection angle with circular sonic nozzle by changing the injection angle. Experimental and computational studies on supersonic mixing phenomena of two-dimensional slot injector with various injection angles were conducted. Supersonic wind tunnel was used for the experiments. The free stream Mach number is 3.8, total pressure is 1.1 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. As a secondary gas, helium gas was injected at sonic speed from the circular nozzle. The injection angle is 30°, 90° and 150°. Its total pressure is 0.4 MPa and total temperature is 287 K on average. The same flow field was also simulated by solving three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equation with AUSM-DV scheme [Y. Wada, M.S. Liou, A flux splitting scheme with high-resolution and robustness for discontinuities, AIAA Paper 94-0083, 1994] for convective terms and full implicit LU-ADI factorization method [S. Obayashi, K. Matsushima, K. Fujii, K. Kuwahara, Improvements in efficiency and reliability for Navier-Stokes computations using the LU-ADI factorization algorithm, AIAA Paper 86-0338, 1986] for time integration. Central difference was used for viscous terms and k-? two-equation turbulence model [D.C. Wilcox, Reassessment of the scale determining equation for advanced turbulent models, J. AIAA 26(11) (1988) 1299-1310; D.C. Wilcox, A two-equation turbulence model for wall-bounded and free-share flows, AIAA Paper 93-2905, 1993] was also employed. In the experiments, stream line on the wall surface was revealed by the oil flow picture and the flow field was visualized by the Shlieren photograph. The wall static pressure profile along the flow was obtained by the wall pressure measurements. Also volume fraction distribution measurements were conducted. Each one of those showed good agreement with computational ones. From the thorough investigation of the flow field by experiments and computations, various characteristics of the supersonic mixing with circular nozzle have been revealed.

Aso, S.; Inoue, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tani, Y.

2009-09-01

26

Tribimaximal mixing and Cabibbo angle in S{sub 4} flavor model with supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

We present a flavor model of quarks and leptons with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry S{sub 4} in the framework of the SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory. Three generations of 5-plets in SU(5) are assigned to 3 of S{sub 4} while the first and second generations of 10-plets in SU(5) are assigned to 2 of S{sub 4}, and the third generation of 10-plet is assigned to 1 of S{sub 4}. Right-handed neutrinos are also assigned to 2 for the first and second generations and 1{sup '} for the third generation. We predict the Cabibbo angle as well as the tribimaximal mixing of neutrino flavors. We also predict the nonvanishing U{sub e3} of the neutrino flavor mixing due to higher dimensional mass operators. Our predicted Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angles and the CP violation are consistent with experimental values. We also study supersymmetry breaking terms in the slepton sector. Our model leads to smaller values of flavor changing neutral currents than the present experimental bounds.

Ishimori, Hajime; Saga, Kouta; Shimizu, Yusuke [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tanimoto, Morimitsu [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

2010-06-01

27

Calculation of the Flow Field Including Boundary Layer Effects for Supersonic Mixed Compression Inlets at Angles of Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flow field in supersonic mixed compression aircraft inlets at angle of attack is calculated. A zonal modeling technique is employed to obtain the solution which divides the flow field into different computational regions. The computational regions con...

J. Vadyak J. D. Hoffman

1982-01-01

28

Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle from Leptonic Polarization Asymmetries at the SLD Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents measurements of the leptonic asymmetries in Z{sup 0} decays measured with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. A data sample of approximately 500,000 Z{sup 0} boson decays has been used. These measurements lead to a precise determination of the effective weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}{sup eff}. The combined preliminary result is sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}{sup eff} = 0.23110 {+-} 0.00029.

Reinertsen, Per L

1998-12-11

29

CKM-UT Angles: Mixing And CP Violation at the B Factories  

SciTech Connect

We review the experimental status of the angles of the Unitarity Triangle of the CKM matrix, as measured by the BABAR and Belle experiments. The B Factories have demonstrated since the beginning of this decade that CP violation in the B meson system is consistent with the Standard Model (SM) description in terms of the complex phase in the three-by-three Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. With one single phase, the SM predicts clear patterns for quark mixing and CP violations, to be satisfied by all processes.

Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; /Frascati

2011-11-07

30

Constructing the large mixing angle MNS matrix in see-saw models with right-handed neutrino dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We construct the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle ?13 including

Stephen F. King

2002-01-01

31

Measuring the 13 neutrino mixing angle and the CP phase with neutrino telescopes.  

PubMed

The observed excess of high-energy cosmic rays from the Galactic plane in the energy range around 10(18) eV may be explained by neutron primaries generated in the photodissociation of heavy nuclei. In this scenario, lower-energy neutrons decay before reaching the Earth and produce a detectable flux in a 1 km(3) neutrino telescope. The initial flavor composition of the neutrino flux, phi(nu(e)):phi(nu(mu)):phi(nu(tau))=1:0:0, permits a combined nu(mu)/nu(tau) appearance and nu(e) disappearance experiment. The observable flux ratio phi(nu(mu))/phi(nu(e)+nu(tau) at Earth depends on the 13 mixing angle theta(13) and the leptonic CP phase delta(CP), thus opening a new way to measure these two quantities. PMID:16090307

Serpico, P D; Kachelriess, M

2005-06-03

32

Masses, mixing angles and phases of general Majorana neutrino mass matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Majorana neutrino mass matrix is complex symmetric and for three generations of neutrinos it contains 12 real parameters. We diagonalize this general neutrino mass matrix and express the three neutrino masses, three mixing angles, one Dirac CP phase and two Majorana phases (removing three unphysical phases) in terms of the neutrino mass matrix elements. We apply the results in the context of a neutrino mass matrix derived from a broken cyclic symmetry invoking type-I seesaw mechanism. Phenomenological study of the above mass matrix allows enough parameter space to satisfy the neutrino oscillation data with only 10% breaking of this symmetry. In this model only normal mass hierarchy is allowed. In addition, the Dirac CP phase and the Majorana phases are numerically estimated. ? m i and | m ?ee | are also calculated.

Adhikary, Biswajit; Chakraborty, Mainak; Ghosal, Ambar

2013-10-01

33

A Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering at Low Q^2  

SciTech Connect

The electroweak theory has been probed to a high level of precision at the mass scale of the Z{sup 0} through the joint contributions of LEP at CERN and the SLC at SLAC. The E158 experiment at SLAC complements these results by measuring the weak mixing angle at a Q{sup 2} of 0.026 (GeV/c){sup 2}, far below the weak scale. The experiment utilizes a 48 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on unpolarized atomic electrons in a target of liquid hydrogen to measure the parity-violating asymmetry A{sup PV} in Moeller scattering. The tree-level prediction for A{sup PV} is proportional to 1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. Since sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} {approx} 0.25, the effect of radiative corrections is enhanced, allowing the E158 experiment to probe for physics effects beyond the Standard Model at the TeV scale. This work presents the results from the first two physics runs of the experiment, covering data collected in the year 2002. The parity-violating asymmetry A{sup PV} was measured to be A{sup PV} = -158 ppb {+-} 21 ppb (stat) {+-} 17 ppb (sys). The result represents the first demonstration of parity violation in Moeller scattering. The observed value of A{sup PV} corresponds to a measurement of the weak mixing angle of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2380 {+-} 0.0016(stat) {+-} 0.0013(sys), which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2385 {+-} 0.0006 (theory).

Jones, G.

2005-01-28

34

Sterile neutrinos produced near the electroweak scale: Mixing angles, MSW resonances, and production rates  

SciTech Connect

We study the production of sterile neutrinos in the region T{approx}M{sub W} in an extension beyond the standard model with the seesaw mass matrix originating in Yukawa couplings to Higgs-like scalars with masses and vev's of the order of the electroweak scale. Sterile neutrinos are produced by the decay of scalars and standard model vector bosons. We obtain the index of refraction, dispersion relations, mixing angles in the medium and production rates including those for right-handed sterile neutrinos, from the standard model and beyond the standard model self-energies. For 1 < or approx. M{sub W}/T < or approx. 3 we find narrow MSW resonances with k < or approx. T for both left- and right-handed neutrinos even in absence of a lepton asymmetry in the (active) neutrino sector, as well as very low energy (k/T<<|{xi}|) narrow MSW resonances in the presence of a lepton asymmetry consistent with the bounds from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. For small vacuum mixing angle, consistent with observational bounds, the absorptive part of the self-energies lead to a strong damping regime very near the resonances resulting in the exact degeneracy of the propagating modes with a concomitant breakdown of adiabaticity. We argue that cosmological expansion sweeps through the resonances, resonant and nonresonant sterile neutrino production results in a highly nonthermal distribution function enhanced at small momentum k

Wu Jun; Boyanovsky, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Ho, C.M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2009-11-15

35

High concentration measurement of mixed particle suspensions using simple multi-angle light scattering system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple multiple-angle light scattering system was developed for the differential measurement of particle concentrations in suspension even in high concentration where multiple scattering effects are significant based on size. The system combines multiple-angle detection to collect scattered angle dependent light intensities, and Partial Least Square Regression method (PLS-R) to compose the predictive models for analyzing scattered signal obtain concentrations of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs a diode lasers (red AlGaInP-based) as a light source and a silicon photodiode as a detector and optical components, all of which are readily available. The technique was validated using 1.1 ?m and 3.0?m polystyrene latex beads in both mono-dispersed and poly-dispersed suspensions. The measurement results showed good agreement between the measured results and reference values. Their deviations from the reference values are 2.4% and 1.5% relating to references' concentrations of 1.3×108 and 1.2times;107 particles/ml for 1.1 m and 3.0 ?m in mono-dispersed solutions and 2.3 % and 3.5% relating to references' concentrations of 1.1times;108 and 4.4 times;105 particles/ml for 1.1 ?m and 3.0 ?m in mixed solutions, respectively. This system is a compact but high performance system allowing multiple particle sizes in high concentration to be measured simultaneously.

Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Prins, A. D.; Sweeney, S. J.

2012-05-01

36

Structural behaviour of mixed cationic surfactant micelles: a small-angle neutron scattering study.  

PubMed

Self-assembly in mixtures of two single-chain cationic surfactants, with different tail lengths (CTAB and DTAB) as well as of a single-chain (DTAB) and a double-chain (DDAB) cationic surfactant, with identical tail lengths, have been investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rationalised in terms of bending elasticity properties. The growth behaviour of micelles with respect to surfactant composition appears completely different in the two surfactant mixtures. DTAB form small oblate spheroidal micelles in presence of [NaBr]=0.1 M that transform into prolate spheroidal mixed CTAB/DTAB micelles upon adding moderate amounts of CTAB, so as to give a mole fraction y=0.20 in solution. Most unexpectedly, upon further addition of CTAB the mixed CTAB/DTAB micelles grow with an almost equal rate in both length and width directions to form tablets. In contrast to this behaviour, mixed DDAB/DTAB micelles grow virtually exclusively in the length direction, in presence of [NaBr]=0.1 M, to form elongated ellipsoidal (tablet-shaped) and subsequently long wormlike micelles as the fraction of DDAB in the micelles increases. Mixed DDAB/DTAB micelles grow to become as long as 2000Å before an abrupt transition to large bilayer structures occurs. This means that the micelles are much longer at the micelle-to-bilayer transition as compared to the same mixture in absence of added salt. It is found that the point of transition from micelles to bilayers is significantly shifted towards higher fractions of aggregated DTAB as an appreciable amount of salt is added to DDAB/DTAB mixtures, indicating a considerable reduction of the spontaneous curvature with an increasing [NaBr]. By means of deducing the various bending elasticity constants from our experimental results, according to a novel approach by ours, we are able to conclude that the different growth behaviours appear as a consequence of a considerably lower bending rigidity, as well as higher saddle-splay constant, for DDAB/DTAB surfactant mixtures in presence of [NaBr]=0.1 M, as compared to mixtures of CTAB/DTAB in [NaBr]=0.1 M and DDAB/DTAB in absence of added salt. PMID:22683217

Bergström, L Magnus; Garamus, Vasil M

2012-05-18

37

Unknown unknowns: modeling unanticipated events  

Microsoft Academic Search

In simulations involving uncertainty, two types of unknowns must be taken into account: known unknowns and unknown unknowns. For known unknowns, the nature of the task is known, adequate historical data is available, and although the value of the model variable is unknown, either a theoretical or an empirical probability density function can be established to describe the variable. For

Lobna A. Okashah; Paul M. Goldwater

1994-01-01

38

Theories of the pattern of quarks and lepton masses and mixing angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we present a very simple SO(10) model with a radiative hierarchy that is very predictive. It is shown that this model gives an excellent fit to quark and lepton masses and mixings including the CKM phase and gives a definite relation between the neutrino angles theta 13 and theta23. We extend the model by including the right handed neutrinos and show that there is a definite correlation between the neutrino angle theta13 and the leptonic CP-violating phase. The Higgs mass-squared parameter might have a physical explanation in the context of "multiverse" scenario [2, 3]. We extend the analysis of [2, 3] to a slightly more general Higgs structure and show that a possible anthropic explanation of the fact that mu/md ˜ 1 emerges. We point out that one of the anthropic arguments proposed in [2,3] to exclude most of the mu2 > 0 region is invalidated by the existence of dark energy and show that the existence of dark energy makes possible a very different set of arguments that reach even stronger conclusions. If one or more extra Z bosons exist at low energies above the electroweak scale, then the patterns of their couplings to quarks and leptons would tell us something quite directly about unification. We show that certain ratios of these couplings allow one to make rigorous inferences about how much unification exists at high energy. We classify possible patterns of couplings that could be seen at the LHC and future accelerators into nine cases. This is the first general group-theoretical analysis of extra Z bosons of this type.

Khan, Almas

39

A Study on the Effect of Injection Angle to Two-Dimensional Supersonic Mixing Flow with Slotted Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and computational studies on supersonic mixing by slotted injection with various injection angle have been conducted. In the experiment flat plate model is installed into supersonic free stream of Mach number of 4 and fully developed turbulent boundary layer is established on the flat plate. The secondary jet is injected through slot nozzle set on the flat plate model

Kei Inoue; Shingo Kawano; Shigeru Aso

2006-01-01

40

Scalar resonance effects on the B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing angle  

SciTech Connect

The B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}}J/{psi}{phi} and B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}}J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980) decays are analyzed within generalized QCD factorization including all leading-order corrections in {alpha}{sub s}: We point out that the ratio of our calculated widths, {Gamma}(B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}}J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(980){yields}{pi}{sup +{pi}-})/{Gamma}(B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}}J/{psi}{phi},{phi}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -}), strongly indicates that S-wave effects in the f{sub 0}(980)'s daughter pions or kaons cannot be ignored in the extraction of the B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing angle, -2{beta}{sub s}, from the B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{phi}}J/{psi} decay amplitudes.

Leitner, O.; Dedonder, J.-P.; Loiseau, B.; El-Bennich, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Groupe Theorie, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie et Universite Paris-Diderot, IN2P3 and CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-10-01

41

Improving large mixing angle predictions with nonstandard interactions: Neutrino decay in solar matter?  

SciTech Connect

It has been known for some time that the well-established large mixing angle (LMA) solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for Super-Kamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with nonstandard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the {nu}{sub {alpha}}{nu}{sub {beta}} and {nu}{sub {alpha}}e vertices that affect both the propagation of neutrinos in the Sun and their detection. We find that, among the many possibilities for nonstandard couplings, only the diagonal imaginary ones lead to a solution to the tension between the LMA predictions and the data, implying neutrino instability in the solar matter. Unitarity requirements further restrict the solution and a neutrino decay into an antineutrino and a Majoron within the Sun is the one favored. Antineutrino probability is however too small to open the possibility of experimentally observing antineutrinos from the Sun due to NSI.

Das, C. R.; Pulido, Joao [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-03-01

42

Scalar resonance effects on the B{sub s} - {bar B}{sub s} mixing angle.  

SciTech Connect

The B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi} and B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980) decays are analyzed within generalized QCD factorization including all leading-order corrections in {alpha}{sub s}{sup -}. They point out that the ratio of their calculated widths, {Gamma}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(980) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}(B{sub 2}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi},{phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}), strongly indicates that S-wave effects in the f{sub 0}(980)'s daughter pions or kaons cannot be ignored in the extraction of the B{sub s}-{bar B}{sub s} mixing angle, -2{beta}{sub s}, from the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}J/{psi} decay amplitudes.

Leitner, O.; Dedonder, J.-P.; Loiseau, B.; El-Bennich, B. (Physics); (Marie Curie Univ.)

2010-10-21

43

The study of the existence of unknown and unstable compounds through mixed crystal formation using radioactive tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneous distribution study with internally formed lead chromate as host and110Ag as guest indicates the existence of a new variety of lead chromate, which forms mixed crystals with silver chromate, and\\u000a differs in morphology from the aged variety. It is inferred that the formation of mixed crystals is probably due to breeding\\u000a of a morphologically analogous and unstable species

B. C. Purkayastha; Nityaranjan Das

1974-01-01

44

A mixed problem of plate bending for doubly connected domains with partially unknown boundaries in the presence of cyclic symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the problem of plate bending for a doubly connected body with outer and inner boundaries in the form of regular polygons with a common center and parallel sides. The neighborhoods of the vertices of the inner boundary are equal full-strength smooth arcs symmetric about the rays coming from the vertices to the center, but have unknown positions. Rigid bars are attached to the linear parts of the boundary. The plate bends by the moments applied to the middle point bars. The unknown arcs are free from external stresses. The same problem of plate bending is considered for a regular hexagon weakened by a full-strength hole. Using the methods of complex analysis, the analytical image of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili’s complex potentials (characterizing an elastic equilibrium of the body), the plate deflection and unknown parts of its boundary are determined under the condition that the tangential normal moment on that plate takes a constant value. Numerical analyses are also performed and the corresponding graphs are constructed.

Odishelidze, N.; Criado-Aldeanueva, F.

2010-10-01

45

A Study on the Effect of Injection Angle to Two-Dimensional Supersonic Mixing Flow with Slotted Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and computational studies on supersonic mixing by slotted injection with various injection angle have been conducted. In the experiment flat plate model is installed into supersonic free stream of Mach number of 4 and fully developed turbulent boundary layer is established on the flat plate. The secondary jet is injected through slot nozzle set on the flat plate model in order to simulate SCRAM-jet supersonic mixer. Experiments are conducted by changing injection angle of helium gas in order to observe the effect of injection angle to the supersonic mixing. The flow fields are visualized by the Schulieren method. Also surface pressure distributions and spatial distributions are measured. The same flow fields are simulated by solving tow-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equation of mixture gas of air and helium and calculated results are compared with experiments. Quite good agreement is obtained in wall pressure distributions. And qualitative agreement is obtained in volume fruction distribution. By using the calculated results, the correlations between the mixing rate and the total pressure loss of the flow field are obtained.

Inoue, Kei; Kawano, Shingo; Aso, Shigeru

46

Comparing symmetry restoration trends for meson masses and mixing angles in the QCD-like three quark flavor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are computing the modifications for the scalar and pseudoscalar meson masses and mixing angles due to the proper accounting of fermionic vacuum fluctuation in the framework of the generalized 2+1 flavor quark meson model and the Polyakov loop augmented quark meson model (PQM). The renormalized contribution of the divergent fermionic vacuum fluctuation at one loop level makes these models effective QCD-like models. It has been explicitly shown that analytical expressions for the model parameters, meson masses, and mixing angles do not depend on any arbitrary renormalization scale. We have investigated how the incorporation of fermionic vacuum fluctuation in quark meson and PQM models qualitatively and quantitatively affects the convergence in the masses of the chiral partners in pseudoscalar (?,?,?',K) and scalar (?,a0,f0,?) meson nonets as the temperature is varied on the reduced temperature scale. Comparison of present results in the quark meson model with vacuum term and the PQM model with vacuum term with the already existing calculations in the bare 2+1 quark meson and PQM models shows that the restoration of chiral symmetry becomes smoother due to the influence of the fermionic vacuum term. We find that the melting of the strange condensate registers a significant increase in the presence of the fermionic vacuum term and its highest melting is found in the PQM model with vacuum term. The role of the UA(1) anomaly in determining the isoscalar masses and mixing angles for the pseudoscalar (? and ?') and scalar (? and f0) meson complex has also been significantly modified due to the fermionic vacuum correction. In its influence, the interplay of chiral symmetry restoration and the setting up of the UA(1) restoration trends have also been shown to be significantly modified.

Tiwari, Vivek Kumar

2013-10-01

47

Mixed short-chain lecithin\\/long-chain lecithin aggregates studied by small-angle neutron scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been made to determine the structure of the small aggregates formed\\u000a spontaneously by mixing 20 mM dipalmitoyl-PC (PC=phosphatidylcholine) with 5 mM diheptanoyl-PC in aqueous solutions at 30\\u000a °C. The Kratky-Porod plots shows that these small aggregates have disk-like structure with a bilayer thickness of about 46\\u000a Å. The most probable structure of these small

T. Lin; C. Liu; M. Roberts; S. Chen

48

Meson masses and mixing angles in the 2+1 flavor Polyakov quark meson sigma model and symmetry restoration effects  

SciTech Connect

The meson masses and mixing angles have been calculated for the scalar and pseudoscalar sector in the framework of the generalized 2+1 flavor Polyakov loop augmented quark meson linear sigma model. We have given the results for two different forms of the effective Polyakov loop potential. The comparison of results with the existing calculations in the bare 2+1 quark meson linear sigma model, shows that the restoration of chiral symmetry becomes sharper due to the influence of the Polyakov loop potential. We find that inclusion of the Polyakov loop in the quark meson linear sigma model together with the presence of axial anomaly, triggers an early and significant melting of the strange condensate. We have examined how the inclusion of the Polyakov loop qualitatively and quantitatively affects the convergence in the masses of the chiral partners in pseudoscalar ({pi}, {eta}, {eta}{sup '}, K) and scalar ({sigma}, a{sub 0}, f{sub 0}, {kappa}) meson nonets as the temperature is varied on the reduced temperature scale. The role of U{sub A}(1) anomaly in determining the isoscalar masses and mixing angles for the pseudoscalar ({eta} and {eta}{sup '}) and scalar ({sigma} and f{sub 0}) meson complex, has also been investigated in the Polyakov loop augmented quark meson linear sigma model. The interplay of chiral symmetry restoration effects and the setting up of U{sub A}(1) restoration trend has been discussed and analyzed in the framework of the presented model calculations.

Gupta, Uma Shankar; Tiwari, Vivek Kumar [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

2010-03-01

49

A PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE NEUTRINO MIXING ANGLE THETA (SUB 13) USING REACTOR ANTINEUTRINOS AT DAYA BAY.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the design of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment. Recent discoveries in neutrino physics have shown that the Standard Model of particle physics is incomplete. The observation of neutrino oscillations has unequivocally demonstrated that the masses of neutrinos are nonzero. The smallness of the neutrino masses (<2 eV) and the two surprisingly large mixing angles measured have thus far provided important clues and constraints to extensions of the Standard Model. The third mixing angle, {delta}{sub 13}, is small and has not yet been determined; the current experimental bound is sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.17 at 90% confidence level (from Chooz) for {Delta}m{sub 31}{sup 2} = 2.5 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. It is important to measure this angle to provide further insight on how to extend the Standard Model. A precision measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} using nuclear reactors has been recommended by the 2004 APS Multi-divisional Study on the Future of Neutrino Physics as well as a recent Neutrino Scientific Assessment Group (NUSAG) report. We propose to perform a precision measurement of this mixing angle by searching for the disappearance of electron antineutrinos from the nuclear reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will be vital in resolving the neutrino-mass hierarchy and future measurements of CP violation in the lepton sector because this technique cleanly separates {theta}{sub 13} from CP violation and effects of neutrino propagation in the earth. A reactor-based determination of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} will provide important, complementary information to that from long-baseline, accelerator-based experiments. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 0.01 or better in sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} at 90% confidence level.

KETTELL, S.; ET AL.

2006-10-16

50

A study on supersonic mixing by circular nozzle with various injection angles for air breathing engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCRAM-jet engine is considered to be one of the useful system propulsion for super\\/hypersonic transportation vehicle and various researches were made to develop the engine. However, there are a lot of problems to be solved to develop it and one of them is the problem of supersonic mixing. In the SCRAM-jet engine combustor, main airflow is supersonic and residence time

S. Aso; K. Inoue; K. Yamaguchi; Y. Tani

2009-01-01

51

Race Unknown  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bryan Lee, a senior at the University of California, Irvine, has noticed that some of his classmates adamantly declare their multiracial heritage while others choose not to identify themselves as being any particular ethnicity. The half-Korean, half-White biomedical engineering major is co-president of the university's Mixed Students Organization…

Gray, Katti

2011-01-01

52

Flow structure and momentum transport for buoyancy driven mixing flows in long tubes at different tilt angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buoyancy driven mixing of fluids of different densities (?1 and ?2) in a long circular tube is studied experimentally at the local scale as a function of the tilt angle from vertical (15°<=?<=60°) and of the Atwood number [10-3<=At=(?2-?1)/(?2+?1)<=10-2]. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements in a vertical diametral plane provide the velocity and the relative concentration (and, hence, density) fields. A map of the different flow regimes observed as a function of At and ? has been determined: as At increases and ? is reduced, the regime varies from laminar to intermittent destabilizations and, finally, to developed turbulence. In the laminar regime, three parallel stable layers of different densities are observed; the velocity profile is linear and well predicted from the density profile. The thickness of the intermediate layer can be estimated from the values of At and ?. In the turbulent regime, the density varies slowly with z in the core of the flow: there, transverse turbulent momentum transfer is dominant. As At decreases and ? increases, the density gradient ? in the core (and, hence, the buoyancy forces) becomes larger, resulting in higher extremal velocities and indicating a less efficient mixing. While the mean concentration varies with time in the turbulent regime, the mean velocity remains constant. In the strong turbulent regime (highest At and lowest ? values), the transverse gradient of the mean concentration and the fluctuations of concentration and velocity remain stationary, whereas they gradually decay with time when turbulence is weaker.

Znaien, J.; Moisy, F.; Hulin, J. P.

2011-03-01

53

Angles, Angles and More Angles!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test Your Angle Knowledge! Angles Telescope Star Gazing Help diget to fill up his scrapbook of stars by using his telescope and pointting at each planet during the night! But make sure you hurry before the sun comes up! Shoot The Space Ship Angles Game Try and figure out which angle you need to use to shoot down the aliens spaceship! ...

Smith, Miss

2011-03-23

54

A Computer Program for the Calculation of the Flow Field Including Boundary Layer Effects for Mixed-Compression Inlets at Angle of Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program was developed which is capable of calculating the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed compression aircraft inlet operating at angle of attack. The supersonic core flow is computed using a second-order three dimensional metho...

J. Vadyak J. D. Hoffman

1982-01-01

55

Characterization of lecithin-taurodeoxycholate mixed micelles using small-angle neutron scattering and static and dynamic light scattering  

SciTech Connect

We have used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to probe the structure and interparticle interactions of lecithin-taurodeoxycholate mixed micelles. The data are fit to a core-shell model that provides the micelle composition and dimensions. The effects on the scattering spectra of electrostatic and excluded-volume interactions are explored in terms of the decoupling approximation and the random phase approximation. We found the TDC-lecithin micelles are cylindrical particles with an average cross-sectional radius of 26.7 [+-] 0.4 A. The core-shell structure is found to be an appropriate model for the highly hydrated micelles. The micelle length increases dramatically with an increase in added electrolyte, but not with decreasing concentration as previously reported. The SANS data analysis shows that particles in 0.05 M NaCl grow by less than 15% with a 3-fold decrease in the total surfactant concentration. This is in contrast to the simple interpretation of dynamic light scattering of the same samples that shows an apparent doubling of the micelle length with the same decrease in surfactant concentration. This discrepancy is attributed to neglect of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic interactions in the analysis of the dynamic light scattering data. 59 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Long, M.A.; Kaler, E.W. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)); Lee, S.P. (VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Wignall, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-04-21

56

Structure of conjugated bile salt-fatty acid-monoglyceride mixed colloids: Studies by small-angle neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

The structures of particles found in isotropic phases of mixed surfactant systems consisting of conjugated bile salts and fatty lipids were assessed using small-angle neutron scattering. The conjugated bile salts were either cholylglycine or chenodeoxycholylglycine. The fatty lipids were mixtures of oleate and oleic acid either alone or with monoolein. The scattering data suggested that both particle interactions and polydispersity must be modeled in these systems. Particle interactions were modeled using the reduced mean spherical approximation and the decoupling approximation. Maximum entropy was used to characterize the polydispersity. A self-consistent analysis of the scattering was arrived at by making an initial estimate of particle size and shape using derivative-log and Guinier analysis and refining the estimates by analyzing the particle interactions and polydispersity and iterating. There are sufficient similarities in the particle morphologies of these and other conjugated bile salt-fatty lipid systems to suggest a common mode of self-assembly. These solutions are models for bile in the bilary system and intestine content during triglyceride digestion; the common themes of self-assembly have implications for the physiology of lipid solubilization in bile as well as intestinal absorption of dietary lipids.

Hjelm, R.P.; Schteingart, C.D.; Hofmann, A.F.; Thiyagarajan, P.

2000-01-20

57

Brewster angle microscopic study of mixed lipid-protein monolayer at air-water interface and its electrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the lipid-protein LB Fdm formation with Brewster angle microscope. Our experimental results show that Hb molecule can enter the lipid layer and stands for long time. This kind of lipid-Hb film is very useful for designing sensitive biosensors.

A. K. M. Kafi; Dong-Yun Lee; Sang-Hyun Park; Young-Sung Choi; Young-Soo Kwon

2006-01-01

58

Large lepton mixing angles from a 4+1-dimensional SU(5)×A4 domain-wall braneworld model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an extension of the 4+1-dimensional SU(5) domain-wall braneworld of Davies, George and Volkas which includes the addition of a discrete A4 flavor symmetry. We show that lepton mixing and light Majorana neutrino masses can be generated from the additional A4 physics while at the same time sufficient parameter freedom can be maintained in the charged fermion sector to produce charged fermion masses and quark mixing naturally from the split fermion mechanism. Importantly, we show that the vacuum realignment problem typical of discrete flavor symmetry models of quark and lepton mixing can be solved by separating the appropriate flavons in the extra dimension, leading to exponentially sensitive suppression of the operators responsible for vacuum realignment.

Callen, Benjamin D.; Volkas, Raymond R.

2012-09-01

59

Unveiling neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation  

SciTech Connect

We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the CP-phase {delta}. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

Mena, Olga; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

60

Phase separation in a DMPC/Dchol mixed Langmuir Film: A combined Brewster Angle, Fluorescence and Light Scattering Microscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence microscopy (FM) is one of the most direct imaging techniques for in situ observation of morphology and phase-separation at the macroscopic scale [1] in lipid mono- or bi-layers. However, the presence of fluorescent dye-molecules can affect the system. In Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM), one can image monomolecular Langmuir films without probes. Here, using a composite set-up of BAM, FM and Light Scattering Microscopy (LSM), we present a comparative study of the three techniques on a binary lipid mixture in the presence of two different probes. In most cases, all three techniques show precisely the same domains. However, depending on conditions, some domain types were more evident in one technique than the others. This established, we can directly test the influence of probe on the domain structure.

Mandal, Pritam; Bhatta, Fanindra; Gericke, Arne; Kooijman, Edgar; Allender, David; Mann, Elizabeth

2013-03-01

61

Improved measurement of B+ --> rho+ rho0 and determination of the quark-mixing phase angle alpha.  

PubMed

We present improved measurements of the branching fraction B, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{CP} in the B meson decay channel B;{+}-->rho;{+}rho;{0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are B(B;{+}-->rho;{+}rho;{0})=(23.7+/-1.4+/-1.4) x 10;{-6}, f{L}=0.950+/-0.015+/-0.006, and A{CP}=-0.054+/-0.055+/-0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, we perform an isospin analysis and determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase angle alpha=arg(-V{td}V{tb};/V{ud}V{ub}) to be (92.4{-6.5};{+6.0}) degrees. PMID:19392426

Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S

2009-04-10

62

Improved Measurement of B^ \\to\\rho^ \\rho^0 and Determination of the Quark-Mixing Phase Angle~\\alpha  

SciTech Connect

The authors present improved measurements of the branching fraction {Beta}, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{sub CP} in the B meson decay channel B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}) = (23.7 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -6}, f{sub L} = 0.950 {+-} 0.015 {+-} 0.006, and A{sub CP} = -0.054 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, they perform an isospin analysis and determine the CKM weak phase angle {alpha} to be (92.4{sub -6.5}{sup +6.0}){sup 0}.

Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J.Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /Annecy, LAPP /Barcelona U., ECM /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U.

2009-07-14

63

Precise determination of the weak mixing angle from a measurement of A{sub LR} in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} Z{sup 0}  

SciTech Connect

In the 1993 SLC/SLD run, the SLD recorded 50,000 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (63.0{+-}1.1)%. The authors measure the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production, A{sub LR}, to be 0.1628{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0028(syst.) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sup eff}{sub W} = 0.2292 {+-} 0.0009(stat.) {+-} 0.0004(syst.).

Woods, M.

1994-05-01

64

Variables and Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated PowerPoint lesson demonstrates how to substitute the value of a variable in place of the variable's symbol in an algebraic expression, and presents the concept of solving an equation for an unknown variable value.

Link, Don

2006-07-01

65

The Unknown Fossil Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project challenges the students ingenuity, creativity, and resourcefulness! They each receive a fossil of unknown identity (general geographic locality may be given, e.g., I-55 south of St. Louis, MO). The specimen is described in as much detail as possible. Their report should include taxonomic classification (as complete as they can), age, paleoecology, Earth history, and other interpretations they can infer. Identification may require library work, Internet search, etc.

Reams, Max W.

66

Absolute molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate by size exclusion chromatography: Use of a multi angle laser light scattering detector and a mixed solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular weight distribution is an important quality attribute for hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a pharmaceutical excipient used in spray-dried dispersions. Our previous study showed that neither relative nor universal calibration method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) works for HPMCAS polymers. We here report our effort to develop a SEC method using a mass sensitive multi angle laser light scattering detector

Raymond Chen; Nicholas Ilasi; Sonja S. Sekulic

2011-01-01

67

Constraints on the Z-Z Prime mixing angle from data measured for the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} at the LEP2 collider  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of effects induced by new neutral gauge Z Prime bosons was performed on the basis of data from the OPAL, DELPHI, ALEPH, and L3 experiments devoted to measuring differential cross sections for the process of the annihilation production of pairs of charged gauge W{sup {+-}} bosons at the LEP2 collider. By using these experimental data, constraints on the Z Prime -boson mass and on the angle of Z-Z Prime mixing were obtained for a number of extended gauge models.

Andreev, Vas. V., E-mail: quarks@gsu.by [Gomel State University (Belarus); Pankov, A. A., E-mail: pankov@ictp.it [Pavel Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel, Abdus Salam ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) Affiliated Centre (Belarus)

2012-01-15

68

13. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) ca. 1890, photographer unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) ca. 1890, photographer unknown COURTHOUSE AND JAIL, FROM THE SOUTH - Allegheny County Courthouse & Jail, 436 Grant Street (Courthouse), 420 Ross Street (Jail), Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

69

6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

70

64. Final Coal Conveyor, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. Final Coal Conveyor, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

71

Measurement of forward-backward asymmetry A FB and of the weak mixing angle in processes of dilepton production in proton-proton collisions at = 7 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results obtained by measuring the forward-backward asymmetry ( A FB ) of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in proton-proton collisions at = 7 TeV at the LHC are presented. This asymmetry is measured as a function of the dilepton mass and rapidity in the dielectron and dimuon channels. The values of A FB were found for invariant masses of dileptons in the range of 40 ? M ll ? 600 GeV. The results for the effective weak mixing angle that were deduced from data on dimuon production in Drell-Yan processes are also presented. The respective data sample was collected by using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector over the period spanning the years 2010 and 2011. The measured asymmetry and the effective weak mixing are consistent with the respective Standard Model predictions.

Gorbunov, I. N.; Shmatov, S. V.

2013-09-01

72

Angle Hunting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a hand-made protractor to measure angles they find in playground equipment. Learners will observe that angle measurements do not change with distance, because they are distance invariant, or constant. Note: The "Pocket Protractor" activity should be done ahead as a separate activity (see related resource), but a standard protractor can be used as a substitute.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

73

Learning for an Unknown Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

Barnett, Ronald

2012-01-01

74

Improved Measurement of B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0} and Determination of the Quark-Mixing Phase Angle {alpha}  

SciTech Connect

We present improved measurements of the branching fraction B, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{sub CP} in the B meson decay channel B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are B(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0})=(23.7{+-}1.4{+-}1.4)x10{sup -6}, f{sub L}=0.950{+-}0.015{+-}0.006, and A{sub CP}=-0.054{+-}0.055{+-}0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, we perform an isospin analysis and determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase angle {alpha}=arg(-V{sub td}V{sub tb}*/V{sub ud}V{sub ub}*) to be (92.4{sub -6.5}{sup +6.0}) deg.

Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V. [Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy-Le-Vieux (France); Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament ECM, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L. [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)

2009-04-10

75

Bi{sub 2/3}Ce{sub 1/3}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 5}: A new mixed-valent Rh oxide with hitherto unknown structure  

SciTech Connect

The new compound Bi{sub 2/3}Ce{sub 1/3}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been discovered. It is currently the only known compound in the Bi-Ce-Rh-O system, and it crystallizes in a previously unknown structure type. The structure was established from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Interatomic distances indicate the oxidation states as Bi{sub 2/3}{sup 3+}Ce{sub 1/3}{sup 4+}Rh{sub 2}{sup 3.33+}O{sub 5}. The structure indicates no ordering between Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup 4+}. The lack of charge ordering is consistent with the metallic properties determined from electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. - Graphical abstract: The new compound Bi{sub 2/3}Ce{sub 1/3}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been discovered. The structure indicates no ordering between Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup 4+}. The lack of charge ordering is consistent with the metallic properties determined from electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and magnetic susceptibility measurements.

Mizoguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, and OSUMI, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Ramirez, A.P. [Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 (United States); Zakharov, L.N.; Sleight, A.W. [Department of Chemistry, and OSUMI, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Subramanian, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, and OSUMI, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States)], E-mail: mas.subramanian@oregonstate.edu

2008-01-15

76

398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; GENERAL PLAN; TOWER E-9; DRG. NO. 59 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

77

396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS I; DRG. NO. 68 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

78

400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER E-6 TO E-23; TYPICAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 52 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

79

397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS II; DRG. NO. 69 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

80

393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER-E3; GENERAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 47 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

81

Estimating Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash game for one or two players gives students practice in estimating the size of angles. A circle and a radius pointing in a random direction are given. The student activates a second sweeping radius, which can move in either direction, and tries to stop it at the specified measure. Three difficulty levels control the range of angle measures. Points are awarded based on closeness of the estimate. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-06-01

82

Critical Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Exploratorium provides a demonstration of total internal reflection. The activity uses a fish aquarium to illustrate how a transparent material like water can act as a reflector. The site provides a thorough description of what to do, an explanation of what is happening, including the critical angle, and examples of its applications to optical fibers.

2008-06-23

83

Unknowns and unknown unknowns: from dark sky to dark matter and dark energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Answering well-known fundamental questions is usually regarded as the major goal of science. Discovery of other unknown and fundamental questions is, however, even more important. Recognition that "we didn't know anything" is the basic scientific driver for the next generation. Cosmology indeed enjoys such an exciting epoch. What is the composition of our universe ? This is one of the well-known fundamental questions that philosophers, astronomers and physicists have tried to answer for centuries. Around the end of the last century, cosmologists finally recognized that "We didn't know anything". Except for atoms that comprise slightly less than 5% of the universe, our universe is apparently dominated by unknown components; 23% is the known unknown (dark matter), and 72% is the unknown unknown (dark energy). In the course of answering a known fundamental question, we have discovered an unknown, even more fundamental, question: "What is dark matter? What is dark energy?" There are a variety of realistic particle physics models for dark matter, and its experimental detection may be within reach. On the other hand, it is fair to say that there is no widely accepted theoretical framework to describe the nature of dark energy. This is exactly why astronomical observations will play a key role in unveiling its nature. I will review our current understanding of the "dark sky", and then present on-going Japanese project, SuMIRe, to discover even more unexpected questions.

Suto, Yasushi

2010-07-01

84

Venus glory and the unknown uv absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first observation of a complete glory on top of the Venus clouds captured with the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) when the Sun was almost directly behind the Venus Express space-craft. The wavelengths dependence of the position of the glory is consistent with clouds being composed of spherical droplets of sulphuric acid with radius of 1.2 micron, the so called mode-2 particles. The ratio of backscattering (zero phase angle) to maximum intensity of the glory as well the slope of the observed intensity at larger phase angles cannot be explained by the sulphuric acid droplets alone suggesting a need of an additional component.We investigated several possibilities and argue that one good explanation is that the acid droplets nucleate on small inner cores composed of iron chloride. Iron chloride is one candidate for the so-called unknown absorber in the ultraviolet wavelengths range. An alternate explanation could be that the sulphuric acid droplets are coated with a thin layer of sulphur.

Markiewicz, Wojciech; Almeida, Miguel; Limaye, Sanjay; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Petrova, Elena; Shalygina, Oksana; Titov, Dmitrij

2012-07-01

85

Venus glory and the unknown uv absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first observation of a complete glory on top of the Venus clouds captured with the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) when the Sun was almost directly behind the Venus Express space-craft. The wavelengths dependence of the position of the glory is consistent with clouds being composed of spherical droplets of sulphuric acid with radius of 1.2 micron, the so called mode-2 particles. The ratio of backscattering (zero phase angle) to maximum intensity of the glory as well the slope of the observed intensity at larger phase angles cannot be explained by the sulphuric acid droplets alone suggesting a need of an additional component. We investigated several possibilities and argue that one good explanation is that the acid droplets nucleate on small inner cores composed of iron chloride. Iron chloride is one candidate for the so-called unknown absorber in the ultraviolet wavelengths range. An alternate explanation could be that the sulphuric acid droplets are coated with a thin layer of sulphur.

Markiewicz, W. J.; Petrova, E.; Shalygina, O.; Almeida, M.; Titov, D. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Ignatiev, N.

2012-04-01

86

Search in unknown random environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

N searchers are sent out by a source in order to locate a fixed object which is at a finite distance D , but the search space is infinite and D would be in general unknown. Each of the searchers has a finite random lifetime, and may be subject to destruction or failures, and it moves independently of other searchers,

Erol Gelenbe

2010-01-01

87

Cancer of unknown primary (CUP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide. It constitutes 3–5% of all human malignancies. Patients with CUP present with metastases without an established primary site. CUP manifests as an heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinicopathological entities. The diagnostic work-up includes extensive histopathology investigations and modern imaging technology. Nevertheless, the

Nicholas Pavlidis; Karim Fizazi

2005-01-01

88

Interactions between single-chained ether phospholipids and sphingomyelin in mixed monolayers at the air/water interface-Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Brewster angle microscopy studies.  

PubMed

Single-chained ether phospholipids comprise a class of both natural (PAF, lyso-PAF) and synthetic (edelfosine, ED) compounds possessing confirmed extensive biological activities. Among them ED is known to exhibit antineoplastic properties, while PAF and its lyso-precursor are lipids implicated e.g. in the functioning of organism immune system. In our study the interactions of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF with sphingomyelin (SM) being one of the main lipid found in a high concentration in membrane microdomains, like lipid rafts, were investigated in mixed monolayers at the air/water interface. The traditional Langmuir methodology was complemented with modern physicochemical techniques: Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Brewster angle microscopy. The investigated compounds, i.e.: platelet activating factor (PAF), (lyso-PAF) and edelfosine were selected because of their highly different physiological properties despite very similar chemical structure and evidenced membrane activity. The obtained results demonstrate that all the investigated three single-chained phospholipids cause strong modification of the model membrane properties in a concentration dependent manner. It has been proved that there are significant differences regarding the influence of the single-chained lipids on model SM membrane - in the region of low concentration, edelfosine was found to be the most effective among all the investigated compounds. The collected data shed new light onto the membrane behavior of the investigated herein biochemically active compounds, which can be of help in understanding their different biological activity and designing of new, more biocompatible drugs. PMID:23777791

Flasi?ski, Micha?; H?c-Wydro, Katarzyna; Wydro, Pawe?; Broniatowski, Marcin; Dynarowicz-??tka, Patrycja

2013-05-23

89

In situ low-angle x-ray scattering study of phase separation in initially mixed HfO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} thin film interfaces  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, we report on phase separation kinetics at initially mixed interfaces of HfO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} multilayers measured by low-angle x-ray scattering. Multilayers were fabricated by sputtering and ultraviolet ozone oxidation of ultrathin Hf and Si precursor films. The multilayers were subjected to isothermal anneals in the temperature range 680-762 deg. C during in situ x-ray scattering measurements. The evolution of the intensity of the multilayer x-ray satellite peaks, the Fourier components of the composition modulation, were consistent with diffusional phase separation of HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} during the anneals. The effective interdiffusivity D-tilde{sub L} of the HfO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} alloy present at the interfaces in the as-deposited multilayers was estimated from the measured intensity change of the first-order satellite reflection as a function of annealing time. The extracted activation energy for the phase separation process was 2.06{+-}0.15 eV for the multilayer samples studied.

Ha, Jeong-Hee; Chi, David; McIntyre, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2004-12-13

90

Quantum Computation with Unknown Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how it is possible to realize quantum computations on a system in which most of the parameters are practically unknown. We illustrate our results with a novel implementation of a quantum computer by means of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. In particular, we show how a universal set of gates can be carried out even if the number of atoms per site is uncertain.

García-Ripoll, J. J.; Cirac, J. I.

2003-03-01

91

The Senses of "Unknown Creatures"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use earthworms as "unknown creatures" from the South American jungle to find out how animals use senses. Learners are given supplies to devise their own experiments and test the response of the earthworms to light, touch and chemicals. Learners collect data and draw conclusions based on this data. Learners return the earthworms to their natural habitat (a flower or garden bed) when they are finished with the experiments.

Chudler, Eric

2009-01-01

92

Physical range of majorana neutrino mixing parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

If neutrinos are Majorana fermions, the lepton mixing parameter space consists of six mixing parameters: three mixing angles and three CP-odd phases. A related issue concerns the physical range of the mixing parameters. What values should these take so that all physically distinguishable mixing scenarios are realized? We present a detailed discussion of the lepton mixing parameter space in the

André de Gouvêa; James Jenkins

2008-01-01

93

Helminth therapies: translating the unknown unknowns to known knowns.  

PubMed

The use of live helminth infections is currently in clinical trials as a novel approach for the treatment of a range of allergic and autoimmune diseases. This rapid progression from observational studies some 20 years ago to helminth clinical trials can be attributed to huge advances in not just pre-clinical and clinical evidence, pertaining to the efficacy of these parasites in unrelated diseases, but also a greater understanding of the complex immunological mechanisms that underpin these effects. Helminths have exerted significant evolutionary selective pressures on the host immune genome or "immunome". Studies on helminths were pivotal in a paradigm shift in immunology with recent discoveries of a number of novel immune cell populations. Critically, these new discoveries highlight the need to further understand the underlying mechanism behind the desirable therapeutic effects that helminths offer. With these unknown unknowns there is the distinct possibility that a true, fundamental modus operandi for helminth therapy will arrive long after it has been established in the clinic. PMID:23291459

Khan, Adnan R; Fallon, Padraic G

2013-01-03

94

Circles and Squares: Two Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sketchpad activity, which opens on Geometer's Sketchpad and on iOS with Sketchbook Explorer (cataloged separately), allows players to learn about the use of symbols and variables as a way to represent numbers as students solve puzzles involving two unknowns using algebraic thinking. The sketch displays eight rows of symbols and each row presents a different combination of squares and circles. When students drag a row of symbols across the vertical divider line, the sketch displays the sum of the symbols. By dragging two or more rows, students gather information and determine the value of the circle and the square. Overview instructions and teacher notes are available as downloadable PDF.

Decarli, Elizabeth

2010-10-19

95

A New Competitive Algorithm for Agent Searching in Unknown Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a simple on-line strategy based on a continuous angle bisector approach for searching an unknown street polygon. The proposed strategy achieves a competitive ratio of 1+loge(1+ cos \\/2)+, where 0, and is a given constant greater than zero. By choosing an arbitrarily small value for , the value of this ratio is 1.7, which is

Pallab Dasgupta; P. P. Chakrabarti; S. C. De Sarkar

1996-01-01

96

Detecting messages of unknown length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the problem of developing a blind steganalyzer (a steganalyzer relying on machine learning algorithm and steganalytic features) for detecting stego images with different payload. This problem is highly relevant for practical forensic analysis, since in practice, the knowledge about the steganographic channel is very limited, and the length of hidden message is generally unknown. This paper demonstrates that the discrepancy between payload in training and testing / application images can significantly decrease the accuracy of the steganalysis. Two fundamentally different approaches to mitigate this problem are then proposed. The first solution relies on quantitative steganalyzer. The second solution transforms one-sided hypothesis test (unknown message length) to simple hypothesis test by assuming a probability distribution on length of messages, which can be efficiently solved by many machine-learning tools, e.g. by Support Vector Machines. The experimental section of the paper (a) compares both solutions on steganalysis of F5 algorithm with shrinkage removed by wet paper codes for JPEG images and LSB matching for raw (uncompressed) images, (b) investigates the effect of the assumed distribution of the message length on the accuracy of the steganalyzer, and (c) shows how the accuracy of steganalysis depends on Eve's knowledge about details of steganographic channel.

Pevny, Tomas

2011-02-01

97

rac-N-Benzyl-isatincreatinine (unknown solvate)  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C19H18N4O3 [systematic name: (RS)-1-benzyl-3-hy­droxy-3-(2-imino-3-methyl-5-oxoimidazolidin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one], was prepared as a racemate (RR and SS) by the aldol condensation of N-benzyl­isatin with creatinine in the presence of sodium acetate in acetic acid. The r.m.s. deviation of the isatin ring system is 0.033?Å. The benzyl group is disordered over two orientations, with refined occupancies of 0.847?(7) and 0.153?(7). The dihedral angles between the isatin ring system and the benzene ring (major disorder component) and the imidazole ring are 82.82?(7) and 51.31?(3)°, respectively, In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into (001) sheets by N—H?O and O—H?N hydrogen bonds, which incorporate R 2 2(9) ring motifs. The crystal was grown from mixed solvents (ethanol, methanol and possibly also ethyl acetate). These solvents are disordered in the crystal and the resulting electron density was found to be uninter­pretable. The solvent contribution to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. The formula mass and density do not take account of the solvent.

Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A.

2013-01-01

98

rac-N-Benzyl-isatincreatinine (unknown solvate).  

PubMed

The title compound, C(19)H(18)N(4)O(3) [systematic name: (RS)-1-benzyl-3-hy-droxy-3-(2-imino-3-methyl-5-oxoimidazolidin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one], was prepared as a racemate (RR and SS) by the aldol condensation of N-benzyl-isatin with creatinine in the presence of sodium acetate in acetic acid. The r.m.s. deviation of the isatin ring system is 0.033?Å. The benzyl group is disordered over two orientations, with refined occupancies of 0.847?(7) and 0.153?(7). The dihedral angles between the isatin ring system and the benzene ring (major disorder component) and the imidazole ring are 82.82?(7) and 51.31?(3)°, respectively, In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into (001) sheets by N-H?O and O-H?N hydrogen bonds, which incorporate R(2) (2)(9) ring motifs. The crystal was grown from mixed solvents (ethanol, methanol and possibly also ethyl acetate). These solvents are disordered in the crystal and the resulting electron density was found to be uninter-pretable. The solvent contribution to the scattering was removed with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. The formula mass and density do not take account of the solvent. PMID:23424560

Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A

2013-01-26

99

A Simulation Study Comparison of Bayesian Estimation with Conventional Methods for Estimating Unknown Change Points  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of a Bayesian approach for estimating unknown change points using Monte Carlo simulations. The univariate and bivariate unknown change point mixed models were presented and the basic idea of the Bayesian approach for estimating the models was discussed. The performance of Bayesian…

Wang, Lijuan; McArdle, John J.

2008-01-01

100

[Energy drinks: an unknown risk].  

PubMed

The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

2012-05-01

101

The abundance and vertical distribution of the unknown ultraviolet absorber in the venusian atmosphere from analysis of Venus Monitoring Camera images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of Venus using the ultraviolet filter of the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on ESA's Venus Express Spacecraft (VEX) provide the best opportunity for study of the spatial and temporal distribution of the venusian unknown ultraviolet absorber since the Pioneer Venus (PV) mission. We compare the results of two sets of 125 radiative transfer models of the upper atmosphere of Venus to each pixel in a subset of VMC UV channel images. We use a quantitative best fit criterion based upon the notion that the distribution of the unknown absorber should be independent of the illumination and observing geometry. We use the product of the cosines of the incidence and emission angles and search for absorber distributions that are uncorrelated with this geometric parameter, finding that two models can describe the vertical distribution of the unknown absorber. One model is a well-mixed vertical profile above a pressure level of roughly 120 mb (˜63 km). This is consistent with the altitude of photochemical formation of sulfuric acid. The second model describes it as a thin layer of pure UV absorber at a pressure level roughly around 24 mb (˜71 km) and this altitude is consistent with the top of upper cloud deck. We find that the average abundance of unknown absorber in the equatorial region is 0.21 ± 0.04 optical depth and it decreases in the polar region to 0.08 ± 0.05 optical depth at 365 nm.

Molaverdikhani, Karan; McGouldrick, Kevin; Esposito, Larry W.

2012-02-01

102

Quasidegenerate neutrinos and tribimaximal mixing  

SciTech Connect

We consider how, for quasidegenerate neutrinos with tribimaximal mixing at a high-energy scale, the mixing angles are affected by radiative running from high- to low-energy scales in a supersymmetric theory. The limits on the high-energy scale that follow from consistency with the observed mixing are determined. We construct a model in which a non-Abelian discrete family symmetry leads to both a quasidegenerate neutrino-mass spectrum and to near tribimaximal mixing.

Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo de [CFTP, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ross, Graham G.; Serna, Mario [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

2009-10-01

103

Angles of Reflection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation shows what happens to light when it hits a mirror. The simluation allows the user to change the angle of the incoming or incident light wave and see the corresponding reflected angle.

Davidson, Michael W.; Tchourioukanov, Kirill I.

2006-06-15

104

Titration of an Unknown Acid or Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a JAVA applet that simulates the titration of an unknown acid or base, and provides a graphical output of the titration curve. The unknown compounds are taken from a list of amino acids. Students set up the parameters of the titration, and then create a simulated pH curve. From this they are able to identify the unknown compound from the list, and determine the acid dissociation constant(s) from the titration data.

Blauch, David N.

2011-02-07

105

Aspect and Deviation Angle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, an attempt is made to define aspect angle and deviation angle in a logical and acceptable manner; second, a graphical calculator is supplied in the hope that it will make the calculation of these angles so simp...

T. A. Croft

1964-01-01

106

Projectile entry angle determination.  

PubMed

Small angles of projectile entry are difficult to determine in two-dimensional targets or in three-dimensional targets where internal deflection has taken place. This results from the fact that small errors in measurement lead to large errors in the calculation of the sine function used in the estimation of the angular projection of a circle onto an inclined plane at angles of less than 20 degrees from the normal. The use of a bullet tip scale, constructed to the dimensions of the entering projectile, allows a significantly more accurate determination of small angles of entry in targets not subject to stretching. A comparison of the relative error inherent in calculating entry angle using the sine function and measuring the angle using the bullet tip scale demonstrates the suitability of using the tip scale at angles less than 20 degrees and the sine function at entry angles greater than 20 degrees. PMID:3944581

Cashman, P J

1986-01-01

107

Collaborative Unknown Target Recognition in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of target recognition in sensor networks, the requirement of adding intelligence largely corre- sponds to the capability of recognizing unknown tar- gets, i.e., targets without any a priori information, and of modifying the knowledge base dynamically to incor- porate the newly discovered knowledge. In this paper, a collaborative unknown target recognition algorithm is presented. The algorithm involves

Xiaoling Wang; Hairong Qi

108

Goal seeking for robots in unknown environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of goal seeking by robots in unknown environments. We present a frontier based algorithm for finding a route to a goal in a fully unknown environment, where information about the goal region (GR), the region where the goal is most likely to be located, is available. Our algorithm efficiently chooses the best candidate frontier cell, which

V. R. Jisha; D. Ghose

2010-01-01

109

Probabilistic teleportation of an unknown atomic state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two schemes for teleporting an unknown state. In our schemes, a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is used as a quantum channel. We show that the probabilistic teleportation of an unknown quantum state can be realized.

Liu Ye; Guang-Can Guo

2002-01-01

110

Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing  

SciTech Connect

When the neutrino mass eigenstate {nu}{sub 2} is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi -110005 (India)

2010-07-01

111

Optimal filtering for systems with unknown inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal filtering formula is derived for linear time-varying discrete systems with unknown inputs. By making use of the well-known innovations filtering technique, the derivation is an extension of a new observer design method for time-invariant deterministic systems with unknown inputs. The systems under consideration have the most general form. The derived optimal filter has a similar form to the

M. Hou; R. J. Patton

1998-01-01

112

Multiple UAV exploration of an unknown region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an exploration system for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) navigating through a simulated\\u000a unknown region that contains obstacles of unknown shape, size, and initial position. The UAVs have to explore and monitor\\u000a the region continuously. The UAVs have limited sensor and communication ranges and kinematic constraints. The environment\\u000a may have blind alleys that may cause

P. B. Sujit; Randy Beard

2008-01-01

113

SunAngle Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SunAngle is an on-line tool that calculates solar angles and related information for a given location, date, and time. It computes the declination of the Sun, sunrise and sunset times, azimuth of the Sun, solar time and more. Complete instructions and definitions of variables are included.

Gronbeck, Christopher

114

Adaptive angle tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angle tracking with phased array antennas in an external noise environment was studied. While the results of this study are applicable generally to arrays of sensors for measuring the angle of arrival of incident radiation, the emphasis in the simulation portion of the study was placed on radar arrays operating in a jamming environment. This problem is important in a

L. E. Brennan; I. S. Reed

1975-01-01

115

Polygon Angle Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet supports the investigation of the relationship between the number of vertices of a polygon and its interior angle sum. Learners choose and locate the vertices, the angle measures are displayed, and then the student can drag the measures into a circle to see them summed relative to 360 degrees.

Exner, Nicholas

2000-05-31

116

Calculating unknown concentrations from nonlinear standard curves.  

PubMed

We describe an algorithm and program for calculating unknown concentration values from nonlinear standard data. The program was developed as an alternative to current data-handling techniques used for therapeutic drug enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) systems. The shape of the standard curve for a given analyte is required to be stable through the lifetime of a reagent lot. The relationship between the net change in milliabsorbance and the natural log of standard concentration is linearized once for each lot of reagents. For each subsequent time the assay is performed, one corrects the individual standard points by using the linearized relationship. Unknown concentrations are then calculated by using quadratic Lagrangian interpolation. The algorithm is faster and simpler than curve-fitting by nonlinear least squares, gives comparable results for unknowns, and rejects fewer assays for poor curve fit. PMID:3521941

Cverna, F; Hamlin, C R

1986-07-01

117

Bayesian Modeling of Unknown Diseases for Biosurveillance  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates Bayesian modeling of unknown causes of events in the context of disease-outbreak detection. We introduce a Bayesian approach that models and detects both (1) known diseases (e.g., influenza and anthrax) by using informative prior probabilities and (2) unknown diseases (e.g., a new, highly contagious respiratory virus that has never been seen before) by using relatively non-informative prior probabilities. We report the results of simulation experiments which support that this modeling method can improve the detection of new disease outbreaks in a population. A key contribution of this paper is that it introduces a Bayesian approach for jointly modeling both known and unknown causes of events. Such modeling has broad applicability in medical informatics, where the space of known causes of outcomes of interest is seldom complete.

Shen, Yanna; Cooper, Gregory F.

2009-01-01

118

Adaptive control of plants with unknown hystereses  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a system with hysteresis, the authors present a parameterized hysteresis model and develop a hysteresis inverse. The authors then design adaptive controllers with an adaptive hysteresis inverse for plants with unknown hysteresis. A new adaptive controller structure is introduced which is capable of achieving a linear parameterization and a linear error model in the presence of a hysteresis nonlinearity.

Gang Tao; Petar V. KokotoviC

1995-01-01

119

Navigation in partially unknown, narrow, cluttered space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navigation of non-circular mobile robots in narrow, cluttered, partially unknown environments is considered. The paper introduces a planner capable of planning paths in these environments, while taking specific kinematic constraints and user defined optimality criteria into account. The planning is based on a graph, built and maintained in a variable, explicit configuration space representation of robot and workspace

M. Strobel

1999-01-01

120

Unknown load distribution of two industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown load distribution between two coordinated industrial robots is studied using two different methods. In the first method, called the load estimation method, the parameters associated with the load are estimated using the information from two wrist force sensors. As a result, the load becomes known, and conventional methods can then be applied to distribute the force. In the second

K. I. Kim; Y. F. Zheng

1991-01-01

121

X-ray Analysis of Unknown Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use X-ray analysis to identify unknown minerals. They are given two samples to grind up and X-ray, using Jade to identify them. Once the minerals are identified, students make a spreadsheet and do a series of calculations.

Perkins, Dexter

122

Investing in the Unknown and Unknowable  

Microsoft Academic Search

From David Ricardo making a fortune buying British government bonds on the eve of the Battle of Waterloo to Warren Buffett selling insurance to the California earthquake authority, the wisest investors have earned extraordinary returns by investing in the unknown and the unknowable (UU). But they have done so on a reasoned, sensible basis. This essay explains some of the

Richard Zeckhauser

2006-01-01

123

Approximating Unknown Mappings: An Experimental Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different methodologies have been introduced in recent years with the aim of approximating unknown functions. Basically, these methodologies are general frameworks for representing non-linear mappings from several input variables to several output variables. Research into this problem occurs in applied mathematics (multivariate function approximation), statistics (nonparametric multiple regression) and computer science (neural networks). However, since these methodologies have been proposed

Rafael Martí; Francisco Montes; Abdellah El-fallahi

2005-01-01

124

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

125

Mixed cryoglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B-cell lymphomas. The first-line treatment of MC should focus on eradication of HCV by combined interferon-ribavirin treatment. Pathogenetic treatments (immunosuppressors, corticosteroids, and/or plasmapheresis) should be tailored to each patient according to the progression and severity of the clinical manifestations. Long-term monitoring is recommended in all MC patients to assure timely diagnosis and treatment of the life-threatening complications. The overall prognosis is poorer in patients with renal disease, liver failure, lymphoproliferative disease and malignancies.

Ferri, Clodoveo

2008-01-01

126

Assigned Resampling Method: A new method to estimate size sexual dimorphism in samples of unknown sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method, Assigned Resampling Method (ARM), to estimate the degree of size sexual dimorphism in samples of unknown sex. ARM resamples with replacement pairs of observation from the mixed-sex data and after applying a filter, generates a distribution of di- morphism estimates by transforming the pair values into ratios. The mean of the distribution is proposed

Sang-Hee Lee

2001-01-01

127

Fever of Unknown Origin: An Unusual Case  

PubMed Central

Recurrent episodic fever of unknown origin (FUO) arising from tumour of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. We report an otherwise healthy 62-year-old man with recurrent circumscribed bouts of fever and raised CRP for 3 years who has remained well and fever-free 2 years after the removal of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. Occult colonic neoplasm should be considered and sought when routine investigations for FUO are negative.

Bansal, R. A.; Hayman, G. R.; Bansal, A. S.

2011-01-01

128

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary – an Orphan Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryCarcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is an intriguing clinical finding that is defined as biopsy-proven metastasis from a malignancy in the absence of an identifiable primary site after a complete clinical work-up. CUP is a relatively common clinical entity, accounting for approximately 3–5% of all cancer diagnoses, and consists of a heterogeneous group of tumors that have acquired the capacity

Alwin Krämer; Gerdt Hübner; Andreas Schneeweiss; Gunnar Folprecht; Kai Neben

2008-01-01

129

Anticipating the Unknown: The Ethics of Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that only a pragmatist ethics is sufficient for making ethical decisions in situations dealing with the unknown.\\u000a The pragmatist ethics described here is one that emphasizes the role of the community when making descisions. Making a moral\\u000a decision requires asking what the consequences of your actions are for the living the Good Life, where what the Good

Joseph C. pitt

130

ABCA7, a molecule with unknown function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ABC proteins are functional in cellular lipid transport in various different manners. ABCA7 is a full-size ABC transporter, the physiological function of which is unknown to date. This is a protein that shows the highest homology known to ABCA1, an essential molecule for producing of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and in fact it mimics ABCA1 to mediate the production

Sumiko Abe-Dohmae; Kazumitsu Ueda; Shinji Yokoyama

2006-01-01

131

Immunohistochemical Profile for Unknown Primary Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Development of tailored treatment based on immunohistochemical profiles (IPs) of tumors for cancers of unknown primary is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an algorithm based on primary known adenocarcinoma for testing sensitivity and specificity. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 71 patients of unfavorable subsets of unknown primary adenocarcinoma were obtained. We examined 15 molecular markers using the algorithm incorporating these IPs and classified the tumours into 9 subsets based on the primary tumour site. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm were 80.3% and 97.6%, respectively. Apparent primary sites were lung in 17 patients, digestive organs in 13, gynecological organs in 9, prostate in 7, liver or kidney in 6, breast in 4, urothelial organ in 2, biliary tract and pancreatic profile in none, and unclassified in 13. The response rate to chemotherapy was highest for the gynecological IPs. Patients with gynecological or lung cancer IPs had longer median progression-free survival than those with others: 11.2 months for gynecological IPs (p<0.001) and 6.8 months for lung IPs (p?=?0.05). Lung, digestive, prostate, and gynecological profiles were associated with significantly longer median survival time than the other profiles. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the IPs were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions/Significance The IPs identified in this study can be used to further stratify patient prognosis for unfavorable subsets of unknown primary adenocarcinoma.

Hashimoto, Kenji; Sasajima, Yuko; Ando, Masashi; Yonemori, Kan; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

2012-01-01

132

What's the Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps learners understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, learners apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps learners use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always cold.

History, American M.; University, Rice

2002-01-01

133

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

134

Wide Angle SAR Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We consider imaging strategies for synthetic aperture radar data collections that span a wide angular aperture. Most traditional radar imaging techniques are predicated on the assumption of isotropic point scattering mechanisms, which does not hold for wide apertures. We investigate point scattering center images for narrowband, wide angle data, and consider the effect of limited persistence on the resulting

Randolph L. Moses; Lee C. Potter; Mujdat Cetin

135

Sterile Neutrinos and the Solar Mixing  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino mixing matrix appears to be close to bimaximal mixing, but for the solar angle which is definitively smaller than 45 degrees. Whereas it seems quite easy to understand bimaximal mixings, as in models using Le - L{mu} - L{tau} global symmetries, understanding the 12 degrees of deviation in the observed solar angle seems less simple. We suggest that such a deviation could be due to a light sterile neutrino that mixes with the active sector. The mass scale needed to produce the effect is shown to be smaller than atmospheric scale, and thus, irrelevant for LSND.

Gomez-Izquierdo, J. C.; Perez-Lorenzana, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav. Apdo. Post. 14-740, 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2006-09-25

136

Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second most common cause of blindness. It has been linked to muta- tions in the myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) genes, although mutations have been found in 5% of patients. The pathologic mechanism(s) of POAG remain unknown but may include retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, which causes progres- sive damage to axons at the

Khaled K. Abu-Amero; Jose Morales; Thomas M. Bosley

2006-01-01

137

Ocean Exploration: Journey to the Unknown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will experience the excitement of discovery and problem-solving to learn about organisms that live in extreme environments in the deep ocean. As part of the activity, the students will imagine that they are going on an expedition to explore the deep-sea floor, while they teacher plays recorded sound effects and reads from a narrative. As they proceed, they will come to understand the importance of ocean exploration and to discover what information they can use to determine where they are in an unknown area.

138

Multiple tendon ruptures of unknown etiology.  

PubMed

Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study. PMID:23966259

Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G

2013-08-21

139

Fidelities for transformations of unknown quantum states  

SciTech Connect

We present a general theoretical formalism to compute the fidelity of transformations of unknown quantum states, and we apply our theory to Gaussian transformations of continuous variable quantum systems. For the case of a Gaussian distribution of displaced coherent states, the theory is readily tractable by a covariance matrix formalism, and a wider class of states, exemplified by Fock states, can be treated efficiently by the Wigner function formalism. Given the distribution of input states, the optimum feedback gain is identified, and analytical results for the fidelities are presented for recently implemented teleportation and memory storage protocols for continuous variables.

Madsen, Lars Bojer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Moelmer, Klaus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physics and Astronomy, QUANTOP-Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2006-03-15

140

Cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology: Barth syndrome unrecognized.  

PubMed

This is a report of a child who died at 20 months from what was clinically thought to be cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology. Barth syndrome, an X-linked mitochondrial cardioskeletal myopathy, was diagnosed by genetic testing at autopsy. Barth syndrome presents in infancy or childhood with cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, growth delays, and cyclic neutropenia. Other associated laboratory findings can include hypocholesterolemia, relative monocytosis, low prealbumin, low plasma carnitine, and lactic acidosis. The classic echocardiogram finding is left ventricular noncompaction, although not always present. Until recently, the most reliable biochemical finding has been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. However, quantitative analysis must be specifically requested for results to be reliable. Recently, a confirmatory tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin high-pressure liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry blood test has become available. Genetic testing is also confirmatory and details the underlying mutation. Diagnosis is often missed or delayed and early diagnosis improves survival. The purpose of this case report is to encourage physicians to include Barth syndrome in the differential for cardiomyopathy of uncertain etiology in males, especially in the presence of growth delays, hypotonia, neutropenia, and/or family history of pediatric male death of unknown etiology. PMID:19037987

Sweeney, Robert T; Davis, Gregory J; Noonan, Jacqueline A

141

Fermion mixings in SU(9) family unification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an SU(9) model of gauged family unification, we propose an explanation for why angles observed in the lepton flavor (PMNS) mixing matrix are significantly larger than those measured for any analogous quark flavor (KM) mixing angle. It is directly related to a see-saw mechanism that we assume to be responsible for the generation of neutrino masses. Our model is more constrained and therefore even more predictive than a model previously proposed by Barr.

Frampton, Paul H.; Kephart, Thomas W.

2009-11-01

142

Minimal neutrino texture with neutrino mass ratio and Cabibbo angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present neutrino mass matrix textures in a minimal framework of the type-I seesaw mechanism, where two right-handed Majorana neutrinos are introduced in order to reproduce experimental results of neutrino oscillations. The textures can lead to experimentally favored leptonic mixing angles described by tri-bimaximal mixing with one additional rotation. We present minimal and next to minimal textures for the normal mass hierarchy case in the context of the texture zero. A minimal texture in the inverted hierarchy case is also constructed, which does not have any vanishing entries in a Dirac neutrino mass matrix. We also discuss some cases in which the model parameters in the textures are supposed to be a neutrino mass ratio and/or the Cabibbo angle. Predicted regions of mixing angles, a leptonic CP-violation parameter, and an effective mass for the neutrinoless double beta decay are presented in all textures.

Shimizu, Yusuke; Takahashi, Ryo; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

2013-06-01

143

Anticoagulation therapy in haemophilia. Managing the unknown.  

PubMed

Patients with haemophilia (PWH) are relatively protected from cardiovascular death. Recent insights have shown that this is not due to less formation of atherosclerosis than in non-haemophilic men, therefore protection from the final occlusive thrombus will be the major determinant. Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular disease (especially non-fatal events) are scarce, although ongoing studies are addressing this issue.Meanwhile, because the haemophilia population is aging, we are increasingly confronted with cardiovascular events. The main cardiovascular risk factors that should be part of regular screening programs are hypertension, overweight, lipometabolic disorders and smoking. Anticoagulation therapy in haemophilia is feasible, provided that individual tailored coagulation therapy and close monitoring is provided.Here, we present our view on anticoagulation management in PWH. There is an absolute need for risk assessment tools and prospective validation of suggested anticoagulation management strategies in PWH. Until then, we are managing the unknown. PMID:23446851

Schutgens, R E G; Tuinenburg, A; Fischer, K; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P

2013-02-28

144

ABCA7, a molecule with unknown function.  

PubMed

Many ABC proteins are functional in cellular lipid transport in various different manners. ABCA7 is a full-size ABC transporter, the physiological function of which is unknown to date. This is a protein that shows the highest homology known to ABCA1, an essential molecule for producing of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and in fact it mimics ABCA1 to mediate the production of HDL from cellular lipid when transfected in vitro. It is therefore rational to assume that ABCA7 plays a relevant role in regulating of lipid metabolism. However, the ABCA7 expression profile is distinct from that of ABCA1, with respect to tissue-specific distribution and response to some reagents, presumably because of different transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Potential roles and functions of ABCA7 in lipid homeostasis are discussed, especially in relation to HDL metabolism, based on available publications. PMID:16376881

Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Yokoyama, Shinji

2005-12-19

145

Vector meson {omega}-{phi} mixing and their form factors in the light-cone quark model  

SciTech Connect

The vector meson {omega}-{phi} mixing is studied in two alternative scenarios with different numbers of mixing angles, i.e., the one-mixing-angle scenario and the two-mixing-angle scenario, in both the octet-singlet mixing scheme and the quark flavor mixing scheme. Concerning the reproduction of experimental data and the Q{sup 2} behavior of transition form factors, the one-mixing-angle scenario in the quark flavor scheme performs better than that in the octet-singlet scheme, while the two-mixing-angle scenario works well for both mixing schemes. The difference between the two mixing angles in the octet-singlet scheme is bigger than that in the quark flavor scheme.

Qian Wen; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2008-10-01

146

Shapes and Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 7 of PDF), learners will identify the general two-dimensional geometric shape of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater. They will also draw connections between the general two-dimensional geometric shape of an impact crater and the projectile's angle of impact. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

Nasa

2012-05-08

147

Angles and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 10 of PDF), learners approximate the area of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater using a variety of square grids. They conclude which angle of impact results in the greatest area. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. Includes a pre-lesson activity (p54). The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

Nasa

2012-05-08

148

Creation of the ? angle standard for the flat angle measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angle measurements are based mainly on multiangle prisms - polygons with autocollimators, rotary encoders fo high accuracy and circular scales as the standards of the flat angle. Traceability of angle measurements is based on the standard of the plane angle - prism (polygon) calibrated at an appropriate accuracy. Some metrological institutions have established their special test benches (comparators) equipped with circular scales or rotary encoders of high accuracy and polygons with autocollimators for angle calibration purposes. Nevertheless, the standard (etalon) of plane angle - polygon has many restrictions for the transfer of angle unit - radian (rad) and other units of angle. It depends on the number of angles formed by the flat sides of the polygon that is restricted by technological and metrological difficulties related to the production and accuracy determination of the polygon. A possibility to create the standard of the angle equal to ? rad or half the circle or the full angle is proposed. It can be created by the circular scale with the rotation axis of very high accuracy and two precision reading instruments, usually, photoelectric microscopes (PM), placed on the opposite sides of the circular scale using the special alignment steps. A great variety of angle units and values can be measured and its traceability ensured by applying the third PM on the scale. Calibration of the circular scale itself and other scale or rotary encoder as well is possible using the proposed method with an implementation of ? rad as the primary standard angle. The method proposed enables to assure a traceability of angle measurements at every laboratory having appropriate environment and reading instruments of appropriate accuracy together with a rotary table with the rotation axis of high accuracy - rotation trajectory (runout) being in the range of 0.05 ?m. Short information about the multipurpose angle measurement test bench developed is presented.

Giniotis, V.; Rybokas, M.

2010-07-01

149

Angle closure in younger patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAngle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults; only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients aged 40 or younger with angle closure in our database.

Robert Ritch; Brian M Chang; Jeffrey M Liebmann

2003-01-01

150

Angle performance on optima MDxt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16° (1?). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1° (1?).

David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis

2012-11-01

151

Angle performance on optima MDxt  

SciTech Connect

Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}).

David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2012-11-06

152

Mixed Convective Droplet Combustion with Internal Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of a fuel droplet in a mixed convective environment once the initial transient heating of the droplet has been completed is analyzed considering the internal motion of the liquid. The coupled gas and liquid phase analyses are solved simultaneously by a series expansion approach in terms of the polar angle. A previously developed mixed convection formulation is used

R. H. RANGEL; A. C. FERNANDEZ-PELLO

1984-01-01

153

Variable angle correlation spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

Lee, Y.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Biodynamics Div.

1994-05-01

154

Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states  

SciTech Connect

A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

2001-04-01

155

Tri-bimaximal Mixing from Cascades  

SciTech Connect

We investigate fermion mass matrices of the cascade form which lead to the tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector. The cascade neutrino matrix predicts a parameter-independent relation among the observables, which are the neutrino mixing angles and mass squared differences. The relation predicts that the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle is close to maximal. We also study phenomenological aspect of the cascade form in supersymmetric theory, which are lepton flavor violation and thermal leptogenesis. A dynamical realivation of the cascade mass matrix are also presented in U(1) flavor theory.

Takahashi, Ryo [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2008-11-23

156

Flavor Mixing, Neutrino Masses and Neutrino Oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We study a model for the mass matrices of the leptons. We are able to relate the mass eigenvalues of the charged leptons and of the neutrinos to the mixing angles and can predict the masses of the neutrinos. We find a normal hierarchy--the masses are 0.004 eV, 0.01 eV and 0.05 eV. The atmospheric mixing angle is given by the mass ratios of the charged leptons and the neutrinos. We find 38 degrees, consistent with the experiments. The mixing element, connecting the first neutrino with the electron, is found to be 0.05.

Fritzsch, H. [University of Munich, Physics Department, Munich (Germany)

2009-05-14

157

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

158

67. Corroded Menzie Cone with Nozzles, date unknown Historic Photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. Corroded Menzie Cone with Nozzles, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photograph Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

159

1. Photocopy of a measured drawing, delineator unknown, April 1919 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of a measured drawing, delineator unknown, April 1919 PLANS, SECTION, AND ELEVATIONS OF KRONPRINSENSGADE COMMERCIAL BUILDING (ADDRESS UNKNOWN) - Kronprinsensgade Area Study, Commercial Building, Crown Prince Street, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, VI

160

5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section...DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...refuses to cooperate in the Board's search for the missing beneficiary,...

2010-01-01

161

5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section...DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify...refuses to cooperate in the Board's search for the missing beneficiary,...

2009-01-01

162

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14 Section 303.14 Commercial...RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile...

2010-01-01

163

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14 Section 303.14 Commercial...RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile...

2009-01-01

164

State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is presented. The developed theory is used to estimate vertical tire forces and predict tripped rollovers in situations involving road bumps, potholes, and lateral unknown force inputs. To estimate the tire-road friction coefficients at each individual tire of the vehicle, algorithms to estimate longitudinal forces and slip ratios at each tire are proposed. Subsequently, tire-road friction coefficients are obtained using recursive least squares parameter estimators that exploit the relationship between longitudinal force and slip ratio at each tire. The developed approaches are evaluated through simulations with industry standard software, CARSIM, with experimental tests on a Volvo XC90 sport utility vehicle and with experimental tests on a 1/8th scaled vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the developed approaches can reliably estimate the vehicle parameters and state variables needed for effective ESC and rollover prevention applications.

Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

165

Experimental entanglement purification of arbitrary unknown states.  

PubMed

Distribution of entangled states between distant locations is essential for quantum communication over large distances. But owing to unavoidable decoherence in the quantum communication channel, the quality of entangled states generally decreases exponentially with the channel length. Entanglement purification--a way to extract a subset of states of high entanglement and high purity from a large set of less entangled states--is thus needed to overcome decoherence. Besides its important application in quantum communication, entanglement purification also plays a crucial role in error correction for quantum computation, because it can significantly increase the quality of logic operations between different qubits. Here we demonstrate entanglement purification for general mixed states of polarization-entangled photons using only linear optics. Typically, one photon pair of fidelity 92% could be obtained from two pairs, each of fidelity 75%. In our experiments, decoherence is overcome to the extent that the technique would achieve tolerable error rates for quantum repeaters in long-distance quantum communication. Our results also imply that the requirement of high-accuracy logic operations in fault-tolerant quantum computation can be considerably relaxed. PMID:12761543

Pan, Jian-Wei; Gasparoni, Sara; Ursin, Rupert; Weihs, Gregor; Zeilinger, Anton

2003-05-22

166

Angle Concept Formation in Elementary Age Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of literature on the child's development of the angle concept. Children have difficulties understanding angles that stem from the lack of salience of the angle in general representations and particular angle situations, the wide variety of particular angle situations, and the fact that there is no single angle concept but rather multiple angle concepts. General

TJ Leone

167

Mixing Time Study Bituminous Mixes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken to determine the minimum acceptable wet mixing time in the pugmill with a variety of plants and materials. Mixes were evaluated by Ross count, Marshall stability and other test methods performed in the laboratory on specimens mold...

L. K. Baldwin

1967-01-01

168

A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it

Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

2009-01-01

169

Detecting Unknown Massive Mailing Viruses Using Proactive Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of unknown viruses is beyond the capability of many existing virus detection approaches. In this paper, we show how proactive customization of system behaviors can be used to improve the detection rate of unknown malicious executables. Two general proac- tive methods, behavior skewing and cordoning, and their application in BESIDES, a prototype system that detects unknown massive mailing

Ruiqi Hu; Aloysius K. Mok

2004-01-01

170

2D DOA estimation with propagator method for correlated sources under unknown symmetric Toeplitz noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper employs the propagator method (PM) to find two-dimensional (2D) direction of arrival angles (DOAs). The proposed algorithm can be applied to the situation when the incident sources are mixed, either with uncorrelated or fully correlated (coherent) sources. Like S. Pasad et al. (see IEEE Trans., vol.ASSP-36, no.5, p.631-41, 1988), we assume a symmetric Toeplitz covariance matrix for the

Nizar Tayem; Hyuck M. Kwon

2005-01-01

171

Magma Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Earth and Ocean Sciences Department at the University of British Columbia, this module on magma mixing is based on ideas and theories taken from papers authored by Stephen Blake and Gregory N. Ivey. A short movie, which can be viewed at the site, shows a lab experiment where two different magmas are mixed to form a hybrid magma. Users can then peruse information (including photographs and some diagrams) on the geological concepts involved.

172

8.G Find the Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In triangle $\\Delta ABC$, point $M$ is the point of intersection of the bisectors of angles $\\angle BAC$, $\\angle ABC$, and $\\angle ACB$. The measure o...

173

Retrieving Biome Types from Multi-angle Spectral Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the ability of multi-angle spectral data to discriminate plant dominant species. Most have employed the use of empirically based techniques, which are site specific, requires some initial training based on characteristics of known leaf and\\/or canopy spectra and therefore may not be extendable to operational use or adapted to changing\\/unknown land cover. An

M. A. Schull; L. Xu; P. Latorre; A. Samanta; R. B. Myneni; Y. Knyazikhin

2009-01-01

174

The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.|

Froehle, Peter H.

2009-01-01

175

Modeling Buoyancy Driven Mixed Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-order modeling technique for stratified turbulent flows with application to buoyancy driven mixed layers is presented.The models of pressure terms, dissipation and destruction of temperature variance are to a great extent based on invariant techniques. The unknown constants in these models were determined empirically. The turbulent transport model, based on solutions to the approximated rate equations for the third-order

Otto Zeman; Jonn L. Lumley

1976-01-01

176

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

177

Quark masses and flavor mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of calculating the flavor mixing angles in the six-quark theory based on the gauge group SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1) is discussed. The t quark mass can be computed in terms of the u, d, s, c, and b quark masses. We estimate mt ~ 10...11 GeV. Phenomenological implications with respect to the decays of b and t

Harald Fritzsch

1979-01-01

178

5. Photocopy of photograph, date and photographer unknown VIEW NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of photograph, date and photographer unknown VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dormitory, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

179

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phiv. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta12=phiv and cos theta12=phiv\\/2. We compare these ansätze and discuss a model leading to cos theta12=phiv\\/2 based on the dihedral group D10. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos

Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

2009-01-01

180

Angle closure in younger patients.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention.

Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

2002-01-01

181

Ring magnet firing angle control  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle.

Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

1975-10-21

182

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

183

Development of Robotics Applications in a Solid Propellant Mixing Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mixing of novel solid rocket propellants in R&D laboratories requires extensive safety precautions due to the explosive nature and, in some cases, unknown hazards of the materials. Current operations including ingredient weighing and prebatching, ingredie...

A. R. Darvish G. B. Kniazewycz

1988-01-01

184

A typology of mixed methods research designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixed methods paradigm is still in its adolescence, and, thus, is still relatively unknown and confusing to many researchers.\\u000a In general, mixed methods research represents research that involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting quantitative\\u000a and qualitative data in a single study or in a series of studies that investigate the same underlying phenomenon. Over the\\u000a last several years, a plethora

Nancy L. Leech; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

2009-01-01

185

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

186

Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles in Unknown Environments using Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a generic approach for navigation of nonholonomic vehicles in unknown environments. The vehicle model is also unknown, so the path planner uses reinforcement learning to acquire the optimal behaviour together with the model, which is estimated by a reduced set of transitions. After the training phase, the vehicle is able to explore the environment through

T. Martinez-Marin; R. Rodriguez

2007-01-01

187

Dynamic graph-based search in unknown environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel graph-based approach to search in unknown environments is presented. A virtual geometric structure is imposed on the environment represented in computer memory by a graph. Algorithms use this representation to coordinate a team of robots (or entities). Local discovery of environmental features cause dynamic expansion of the graph resulting in global exploration of the unknown environment. The algorithm

Paul S. Haynes; Lyuba Alboul; Jacques Penders

188

Teleportation of an Unknown Quantum State via Partly Entangled States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teleportation of an unknown quantum state from one observer to another is of great importance in quantum information. In the standard teleportation scheme, a maximally entangled state is demanded. However, it is difficult to prepare such states in practice, and real entangled states are always partly entangled. We present a scheme to teleport an unknown quantum state using two

Xun-Li Feng; Shang-Qing Gong; Zhong-Yang Wang; Zhi-Zhan Xu

2000-01-01

189

Modified Pairwise Spectrogram Processing for Localization of Unknown Broadband Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pairwise waveform (PWW) and pairwise spectrogram (PWS) processors for 3-D localization of unknown, continuous-wave, broadband sources in shallow water have been developed and implemented. The processors use sparse hydrophone arrays and are applicable to multiple sources, which can be unknown, continuous wave, and broadband. Here, we give new formulas for these two processors that significantly reduce computational requirements, making localization

Eva-Marie Nosal; L. Neil Frazer

2007-01-01

190

What is a Right Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn how to identify different kinds of angles. Dates: You begin this activity on October 8th. You must complete it by October 12th. Objective (Goal): As you already learned about different kinds of angles. Now you will practice your knowledge with different websites. Materials: Your worksheet from Ms. O\\'Hara and a pencil. Websites for answering your questions in your worksheet. ------------------------------------- Why ...

Ms. O\\'Hara

2006-10-04

191

Riser unit covers all angles  

SciTech Connect

A riser angle positioning system (RAPS), which measures the angle of selected joints in the riser system and, through the use of a mini-computer develops information on the vessel-wellhead position reference, is described. The system currently is employed on the drillship, Discoverer Seven Seas, which is currently drilling wells in approx. 4000 ft of water. The RAPS provides a backup system for more conventional acoustic systems. Sample calculations are included. (BLM)

Dean, Q.W.

1980-06-05

192

Homonuclear correlation experiments for quadrupolar nuclei, spinning away from the magic angle.  

PubMed

We present a set of homonuclear correlation experiments for half-integer quadrupolar spins in solids. In all these exchange-type experiments, the dipolar interaction is retained during the mixing time by spinning the sample at angles other than the "regular magic angle" (54.7 degrees celsius). The second-order quadrupolar interaction is averaged by different strategies for the different experiments. The multiple-quantum off magic angle spinning (MQOMAS) exchange experiment is essentially a regular MQMAS experiment where the quadrupolar interaction is averaged by combining magic angle spinning with a multiple- to single-quantum correlation scheme. The sample is spun at the magic angle at all times except during the mixing time which is added to establish homonuclear correlation. In the multiple-quantum P4 magic angle spinning (MQP4MAS) exchange experiment, the sample is spun at one of the angles at which the fourth-order Legendre polynomial vanishes (P4 magic angle), the remaining second-order quadrupolar interaction now governed by a second-rank tensor is refocussed by the multiple to single-quantum correlation scheme. In the dynamic angle spinning (DAS) exchange experiment, the second-order quadrupolar interaction is averaged by correlating the evolution from two complementary angles. These experiments are demonstrated and compared, in view of their specific advantages and disadvantages, for 23Na in the model compound Na2SO3. PMID:15388182

Ajithkumar, T G; van Eck, E R H; Kentgens, A P M

193

Quantifying mixing using equilibrium reactions  

SciTech Connect

A method of quantifying equilibrium reactions in a microchannel using a fluorometric reaction of Fluo-4 and Ca{sup 2+} ions is presented. Under the proper conditions, equilibrium reactions can be used to quantify fluid mixing without the challenges associated with constituent mixing measures such as limited imaging spatial resolution and viewing angle coupled with three-dimensional structure. Quantitative measurements of CaCl and calcium-indicating fluorescent dye Fluo-4 mixing are measured in Y-shaped microchannels. Reactant and product concentration distributions are modeled using Green's function solutions and a numerical solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Equilibrium reactions provide for an unambiguous, quantitative measure of mixing when the reactant concentrations are greater than 100 times their dissociation constant and the diffusivities are equal. At lower concentrations and for dissimilar diffusivities, the area averaged fluorescence signal reaches a maximum before the species have interdiffused, suggesting that reactant concentrations and diffusivities must be carefully selected to provide unambiguous, quantitative mixing measures. Fluorometric equilibrium reactions work over a wide range of pH and background concentrations such that they can be used for a wide variety of fluid mixing measures including industrial or microscale flows.

Wheat, Philip M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Posner, Jonathan D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States)

2009-03-15

194

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4sigma below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bimaximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z2?Z2' symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the

Yuji Kajiyama; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

2007-01-01

195

Isopistonic angle for multi-aperture interferometers from isoplanatic angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Extending the potential of multi-aperture telescopes toward the higher magnitudes necessary for extragalactic science needs an off-axis reference source to cophase the interferometric array. Aims: The off-axis reference star and the science source must be within the isopistonic angle, and evaluating this parameter is crucial for estimating the potential of long-baseline interferometers for faint sources, differential astrometry, and phase-reference imaging. Methods: We derived an analytical method of deducing the isopistonic angle from the standard atmospheric optical parameters, and used a full description of the atmospheric turbulence to validate numerical integrations. Results: We used the analytical expression for the isopistonic angle for predictions concerning the VLT, Keck, and LBT interferometers, as well as for an array of small apertures in the Antarctica site Dome C, indicating that is might be a unique site on earth for interferometric observations of faint sources.

Elhalkouj, T.; Ziad, A.; Petrov, R. G.; Lazrek, M.; Elazhari, Y.; Benkhaldoun, Z.

2008-01-01

196

Measurements of the CKM Angle phi3/gamma  

SciTech Connect

We present a review on the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} ({phi}{sub 3}){sup 1} as performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP-II and KEKB. These measurements are using either charged or neutral B decays. For charged B decays the modes {tilde D}{sup 0}K{sup -}, {tilde D}*{sup 0}K{sup -}, and {tilde D}{sup 0}K*{sup -} are employed, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. Direct CP violation is exploited. It is caused by interferences between V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} accessible transitions that generate asymmetries in the final states. For these decays various methods exist to enhance the sensitivity to the V{sub ub} transition, carrying the weak phase {gamma}. For neutral B decays, the modes D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} are used. In addition to the V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} interferences, these modes are sensitive to the B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, so that time dependent analyses are performed to extract sin(2{beta} + {gamma}). An alternative method would use the lower branching ratios decay modes {tilde D}{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} where much larger asymmetries are expected. The various available methods are mostly ''theoretically clean'' and always free of penguins diagrams. In some cases a high sensitivity to {gamma} is expected and large asymmetries may be seen. But these measurements are always experimentally difficult as one has to face with either low branching ratios, or small asymmetries, or additional technical/theoretical difficulties due to Dalitz/SU(3) and re-scattering models needed to treat/estimate nuisance parameters such as unknown strong phases and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of the interfering ''V{sub ub}'' transitions. Thus at the present time only a relatively limited precision on {gamma} can be extracted from these measurements. The current world average is {gamma} = (78{sub -26}{sup +19}){sup o} [1]. For other methods and long term perspectives, as discussed in details, the reader is invited to consult the proceedings of the recent CKM workshop that was held in Nagoya (Japan) in December 2006 [2].

Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

2007-06-27

197

A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

Aliev, T. M. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Permanent institute: Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ozpineci, A. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-12-28

198

[Angle reproducibility and surface roughness of stone casts obtained from combined agar-alginate impressions].  

PubMed

Angle reproducibility and surface roughness were compared among stone casts obtained from two agar-alginate impression methods; 1) conventional method in which an alginate mix was applied before gelation of agar, and 2) improved method in which an alginate mix was applied to gelled agar. Impressions of the rectangular parallel piped metal mold with a high accurate point angle was taken according to the above methods, and stone casts were obtained. Enlarged images of the angles of the casts were projected with an optical projector, and the defects of the point angle were traced. The area, the length and the circular-degree coefficient of the defects were determined using an image analysis system. The surface roughness of the stone casts was also measured. The stone casts prepared by the improved agar-alginate method had better angle reproducibility and the same surface roughness as that prepared by the conventional method. PMID:2135530

Ohta, T

1990-05-01

199

Do not Bet on the Unknown Versus Try to Find Out More: Estimation Uncertainty and "Unexpected Uncertainty" Both Modulate Exploration  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how humans solve the exploitation/exploration trade-off. In particular, the evidence for uncertainty-driven exploration is mixed. The current study proposes a novel hypothesis of exploration that helps reconcile prior findings that may seem contradictory at first. According to this hypothesis, uncertainty-driven exploration involves a dilemma between two motives: (i) to speed up learning about the unknown, which may beget novel reward opportunities; (ii) to avoid the unknown because it is potentially dangerous. We provide evidence for our hypothesis using both behavioral and simulated data, and briefly point to recent evidence that the brain differentiates between these two motives.

Payzan-LeNestour, Elise; Bossaerts, Peter

2012-01-01

200

Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle  

SciTech Connect

In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.

Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg Institut) Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-02-01

201

21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES OF CONCRETE PLANT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

202

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

203

356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

204

Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance in a bone marrow donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, for whom allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was planned. Donor workup revealed monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. We discuss this finding and stress the importance of performing complete donor examinations.

S. O. Peters; M. Stockschläder; W. Zeller; K. Mross; M. Dürken; W. Krüger; A. R. Zander

1993-01-01

205

81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES BEFORE LOWERING INTO DRAFT TUBE LINER. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

206

12. Photocopy of lithograph (source unknown) The Armor Lithograph Company, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of lithograph (source unknown) The Armor Lithograph Company, Ltd., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, ca. 1888 COURTHOUSE AND JAIL, FROM THE WEST - Allegheny County Courthouse & Jail, 436 Grant Street (Courthouse), 420 Ross Street (Jail), Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

207

54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle pier, Wheeler Creek Bridge, Pinnacles Road, mile two. Taken from under bridge, looking up." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

208

41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

209

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "DIVERSION WORKS AND POWER HOUSE CONSTRUCTION" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

210

27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

211

Sampling Guidance for Unknown Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sampling Guidance for Unknown Contaminants in Drinking Water provides comprehensive guidance that integrates recommendations for pathogen, toxin, chemical, and radiochemical sample collection, preservation, and transport procedures to support multiple...

2008-01-01

212

18. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, July 1932, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, July 1932, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER COMPLETION. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

213

17. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, March 1932, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, March 1932, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

214

Probabilistic and controlled teleportation of unknown quantum states  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of the unknown quantum states of both one-particle and two-particle is proposed. In this scheme the teleportation is not always successful but with certain probability.

Fengli Yan; Dong Wang

2003-01-01

215

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

216

Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

217

32. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 11 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 11 ON WAYS JUST PRIOR TO LAUNCHING. CRIB SHOWS WET SIDE SHEATHING, BLOCKING, FILLER BLOCKS, AND VERTICALS. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

218

27. photographer unknown 20 August 1935 CONCRETE BEING WETSCREENED BEFORE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. photographer unknown 20 August 1935 CONCRETE BEING WET-SCREENED BEFORE FORMING 6' X 12' TEST SPECIMENS. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

219

25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

220

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

221

7. Aggregate operations downstream from dam. Photographer unknown, March 1924. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Aggregate operations downstream from dam. Photographer unknown, March 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

222

1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

223

30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

224

26. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown) from collection of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown) from collection of Byron Delavan, Canandaigua, New York. HORSE, SLEIGH, AND CARRIAGE HOUSE - Hiram Lay Carriage House, Mays Point Road, Tyre, Seneca County, NY

225

76. photographer unknown undated STRUCTURAL STEEL TRUSSES FOR DOWNSTREAM THIRD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. photographer unknown undated STRUCTURAL STEEL TRUSSES FOR DOWNSTREAM THIRD STEP COFFERDAM IN PLACE. TWO PADS FOR THIS COFFERDAM ARE LAYING ON THE BAFFLES TO THE LEFT OF THE TRUSSES. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

226

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

227

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING INTERIOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

228

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NORTH FACADE OF NEW FREIGHT HOUSE, TAKEN IN 1918 - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

229

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1894 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1894 ORIGINAL PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

230

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1918 SAND TANK NEAR FREIGHT DEPOT, CA. 1918 - Illinois Central Railroad, Sand Tank, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

231

32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER BEFORE DAM WAS BUILT. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

232

37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES' DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners....

2013-07-01

233

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

2013-01-01

234

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR SALES COUNTER AND STAIRWAY, Private Collection, Photocopy by Jack Boucher, October 1972. - Powers Building, 16 Main Street West, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

235

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "HANDLING ROCK - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

236

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

237

40. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1909 FIRST ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1909 FIRST ADDITION TO SUBSTATION. VIEWS TO EAST, SOUTH, AND WEST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

238

35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, SUBSTATION, CAR BARN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

239

55. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO BUILDING. FRAME FOR 15-TON OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

240

41. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1909 FIRST ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1909 FIRST ADDITION TO SUBSTATION. LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS SECTIONS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

241

54. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO SUBSTATION. CRANE BRIDGE FOR 15-TON OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

242

33. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1903. EAST OF CAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1903. EAST OF CAR BARN. UNDER CONSTRUCTION. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

243

49. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1929 ROOF ALTERATION OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1929 ROOF ALTERATION OVER OFFICE PORTION OF BUILDING. VIEWS TO WEST, EAST, AND NORTH. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

244

58. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO BUILDING. CHAIN RECEPTACLES FOR 15-TON OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

245

36. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND WEST SIDE OF NEWLY COMPLETED BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

246

42. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1909 FIRST ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1909 FIRST ADDITION TO SUBSTATION. WEST SIDE WINDOW DETAILS. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

247

47. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1916 ADDITION TO CAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1916 ADDITION TO CAR BARN. LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS SECTIONS. VIEWS TO SOUTH AND WEST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

248

57. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO SUBSTATION. GEAR SHAFTING FOR 15-TON OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

249

56. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 SECOND ADDITION TO BUILDING. BEARING FOR 15-TON OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

250

59. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 ASSEMBLY DRAWING FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Photocopy of plans. Draftsman unknown, 1914 ASSEMBLY DRAWING FOR 15-TON OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

251

37. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND EAST SIDE OF NEWLY COMPLETED BUILDING. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

252

34. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1903. FRONT FACADE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1903. FRONT FACADE AND WEST SIDE. UNDER CONSTRUCTION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

253

43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR THE POWDER MILL ROAD INTERCHANGE. (NPS/NCR (cn) 9995-C) - Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

254

28. (Credit unknown) Low service pump pit (erected in 19111912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. (Credit unknown) Low service pump pit (erected in 1911-1912 near Cross Bayou) as it appears today (1980). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

255

1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

256

37. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD BRADFORD ISLAND. CRIB UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON WAYS IN RIVER AWAITING PLACEMENT. STEEL SHEET PILES DRIVEN ALONG RIGHT FACE OF COFFERDAM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

257

38. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD BRADFORD ISLAND. CRIB UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON WAYS IN RIVER AWAITING PLACEMENT. STEEL SHEET PILES DRIVEN ALONG RIGHT FACE OF COFFERDAM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

258

31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in the possession of the Library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. - Fairmount Hotel, 857 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

259

51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

260

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 ...pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known...licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties...

2013-01-01

261

Minimum enclosures with specified angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a convex polygon P, an m-envelope is a convex m-sided polygon that contains P. Given any convex polygon P, and any sequence of m >= 3 angles A equals ((alpha) 1, (alpha) 2, ..., (alpha) m) we consider the problem of computing the minimum area m- envelope for P whose counterclockwise sequence of exterior angles is given by A. We show that such envelopes can be computed in O(nm log m) time. The main result on which the correctness of the algorithm rests is a flushness condition stating that for any locally minimum enclosure with specified angles, one of its sides must be collinear with one of the sides of P.

Mount, David M.; Silverman, Ruth

1993-04-01

262

Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners identify an unknown liquid by comparing its behavior to known liquids. Learners drop liquids onto different surfaces and see how the liquids behave. Learners realize that using a combination of results from two or more tests will allow them to successfully identify the unknown. Use the related activity "Look-alike Liquids" from the same resource (see related resources) to introduce the behavior of the liquids on different surfaces.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

263

Verifying Heap-Manipulating Programs with Unknown Procedure Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Verification of programs with invocations to unknown procedures is a practical problem, because in many scenarios not all\\u000a codes of programs to be verified are available. Those unknown calls also pose a challenge for their verification. This paper\\u000a addresses this problem with an attempt to verify the full functional correctness of such programs using pointer-based data\\u000a structures. Provided with a

Shengchao Qin; Chenguang Luo; Guanhua He; Florin Craciun; Wei-Ngan Chin

2010-01-01

264

Multi-Robot Fire Searching in Unknown Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Exploration of an unknown environment is a fundamental concern in mobile robotics. This paper presents an approach for cooperative\\u000a multi-robot exploration, fire searching and mapping in an unknown environment. The proposed approach aims to minimize the\\u000a overall exploration time, making it possible to locate fire sources in an efficient way. In order to achieve this goal, the\\u000a robots cooperate in

Ali Marjovi; João Nunes; Lino Marques; Aníbal de Almeida

265

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain\\u000a in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized\\u000a presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization\\u000a (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by

Tom Ruttink; Rolinde Demeyer; Elke Van Gulck; Bart Van Droogenbroeck; Maddalena Querci; Isabel Taverniers; Marc De Loose

2010-01-01

266

An unusual etiology of fever of unknown origin: Foley catheter.  

PubMed

Fever may appear due to known causes such as infections, but may sometimes occur as a result of unknown pathologies. These pathologies can be included in a miscellaneous group of fever of unknown origin. We report one case of bladder stone including a foreign body in a 40-year-old man with a stroke admitted for high fever, blocked miction and bladder symptoms. PMID:19669975

Aslan, Sahin; Katirci, Yavuz; Yapano?lu, Turgut; Kandi?, Hayati; Uzkeser, Mustafa

2009-07-01

267

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

268

Management of angle closure glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is equally prevalent in Indian in Asian population as the primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty-six percent of people with PACG are in Asia, with approximately 48.0% in China, 23.9% in India and 14.1% in southeast Asia. To understand PACG, it is mandatory to understand its classification and type of presentation with the underlying pathophysiology. The treatment options are medical, laser and/or surgical. The present article provides an overview of PACG.

See, Jovina L S; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Aduan, Joel; Chew, Paul T K

2011-01-01

269

Progress in phase angle thermography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase angle thermography is basically spatially multiplexed photothermal radiometry. It provides images for remote detection and imaging of damage. For energy deposition one can use external heat sources (e.g., light or convective heating) or internal heat generation (e.g., electric current, microwaves, eddy current, or elastic wave). More complete information about defects is obtained by combining information from external and internal

A. Dillenz; T. Zweschper; G. Riegert; G. Busse

2003-01-01

270

Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crys...

R. K. Smither P. B. Fernandez

1993-01-01

271

Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

Roscoe, Matt B.

2012-01-01

272

Assessment of angle velocity in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Background Although it has been demonstrated that the peak height velocity (PHV) is a predictive factor of progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), little is known about the usefulness of angle progression in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between height and angle velocities, as well as to determine if peak angle velocity (PAV) occurs at the same time than PHV. Methods A retrospective study of a cohort of girls with idiopathic scoliotic curves greater than 10°. Data of 132 girls who participated in a previous retrospective study about growth in AIS were used to calculate height and angle velocities. Relationship between height and angle velocities was estimated by the use of a Linear Mixed Model. Results PHV and PAV take place simultaneously 1 year before menarche in progressive curves managed with a brace in AIS. Changes in angle velocity are influenced by changes in height growth velocity, in such a way that as from 6 months post-menarche, height growth velocity in this group of girls estimates curve progression velocity (?-coefficient -0.88, p = 0.04). Conclusion As from 6 months post-menarche, there is an inverse relationship between height velocity and curve progression in the group of AIS girls with progressive curves managed with a brace. Because height velocity is decreasing from 1 year before menarche, this finding corroborates that at the end of puberty, there is still a risk of progression in this group of girls despite bracing. The assessment of both height and angle velocity might be useful in clinical practice at the time of assessing brace effectiveness and how long bracing has to be indicated.

Escalada, Ferran; Marco, Ester; Duarte, Esther; Ma Muniesa, Josep; Boza, Roser; Tejero, Marta; Caceres, Enric

2009-01-01

273

Thermodynamic modeling of contact angles on rough, heterogeneous surfaces.  

PubMed

Theoretical modelling for contact angle hysteresis carried out to date has been mostly limited to several idealized surface configurations, either rough or heterogeneous surfaces. This paper presents a preliminary study on the thermodynamics of contact angles on rough and heterogeneous surfaces by employing the principle of minimum free energy and the concept of liquid front. Based on a two-dimensional regular model surface, a set of relations were obtained, which correlate advancing, receding and system equilibrium contact angles to surface topography, roughness and heterogeneity. It was found that system equilibrium contact angles (theta(ES)) can be expressed as a function of surface roughness factor (delta) and the Cassie contact angle (theta(C)): costheta(ES) = deltacostheta(C). This expression can be reduced to the classical Wenzel equation.: theta(ES) = theta(W) for rough but homogeneous surfaces, and the classical Cassie equation theta(ES) = theta(C) for heterogeneous but smooth surfaces. A non-dimensional parameter called surface feature factor (omega) was proposed to classify surfaces into three categories (types): roughness-dominated, heterogeneity-dominated and mixed-rough-heterogeneous. The prediction of advancing and receding contact angles of a surface is dependent on which category the surface belongs to. The thermodynamic analysis of contact angle hysteresis was further extended from the regular model surface to irregular surfaces; consistent results were obtained. The current model not only agrees well with the models previously studied by other researchers for idealized surfaces, but also explores more possibilities to explain the reported experimental results/observations that most existing theories could not explain. PMID:16154106

Long, J; Hyder, M N; Huang, R Y M; Chen, P

2005-09-09

274

Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of a standard bidirectional “plug-and-play” quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been an open question for a long time. This is mainly because its source is equivalently controlled by an eavesdropper, which means the source is unknown and untrusted. Qualitative discussion on this subject has been made previously. In this paper, we solve this question directly by presenting the quantitative security analysis on a general class of QKD protocols whose sources are unknown and untrusted. The securities of standard Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, and one-decoy state protocol, with unknown and untrusted sources are rigorously proved. We derive rigorous lower bounds to the secure key generation rates of the above three protocols. Our numerical simulation results show that QKD with an untrusted source gives a key generation rate that is close to that with a trusted source.

Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

2008-05-01

275

Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system. The scheme only requires a single laser beam. It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons, e.g. a thermal motion. Furthermore, it works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency. Thus, the teleportation speed is greatly increased, which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect. This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

Chen, Mei-Feng; Ma, Song-She

2008-02-01

276

Reproducing lepton mixing in a texture zero model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We note that the emerging features of lepton mixing can be reproduced if, with inverted neutrino mass ordering, both the smallest neutrino mass and the ?? element of the neutrino mass matrix vanish. Then, the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle is less than maximal and the Dirac phase ? is close to ?. We derive the correlations among the mixing parameters and show that there is a large cancellation in the effective mass responsible for neutrinoless ?? decay. Three simple seesaw models leading to our scenario are provided.

Lavoura, Luís; Rodejohann, Werner; Watanabe, Atsushi

2013-10-01

277

Effect of geometry on fluid mixing of the rhombic micromixers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar micromixer with rhombic microchannels and a converging-diverging element has been proposed for its effective mixing.\\u000a Both CFD-ACE numerical simulations and experiments were used to design and investigate the effect of three parameters (number\\u000a of rhombi, turning angle and absence or presence of the converging-diverging element) on mixing. Mixing efficiency is dependent\\u000a upon Reynolds number and geometrical parameters. Through

C. K. Chung; T. R. Shih

2008-01-01

278

Progress in phase angle thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase angle thermography is basically spatially multiplexed photothermal radiometry. It provides images for remote detection and imaging of damage. For energy deposition one can use external heat sources (e.g., light or convective heating) or internal heat generation (e.g., electric current, microwaves, eddy current, or elastic wave). More complete information about defects is obtained by combining information from external and internal heating methods: Effects of intact thermal structure can be distinguished from defect specific thermal signatures. Our recent results relate to multifrequency excitation allowing for depth profiling from one lock-in-thermography measurement and, additionally, to modulated ultrasound frequency burst phase angle thermography where effects of standing elastic waves are eliminated. This way the applications for nondestructive evaluation become more reliable and faster.

Dillenz, A.; Zweschper, T.; Riegert, G.; Busse, G.

2003-01-01

279

Adjustable-angle pipe fitting  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to a pipe fitting for joining two pipes at a desired, preselected angle and comprises a curved section of pipe with a generally circular cross-section. One end of the curved pipe is preferably furnished with a bell fitting. The other end is adapted to be inserted into the bell of another pipe fitting. The surface of the pipe is marked with circumferential lines spaced at several-degree intervals, the lines corresponding to the angle of the bend which will result if the pipe is cut along that line. The outer diameter of the pipe is closely controlled to be the same throughout its length as the outer diameter of a straight pipe, so the cut end can be inserted into the bell of another fitting without further treatment, and the radius of curvature of the pipe is larger than a standard street elbow, preferably three to ten times the diameter of the pipe. Thus, a cut approximately perpendicular to the axial centerline can be made at any point along the length of the pipe to form an elbow of any desired angle.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-01-01

280

Adjustable-angle pipe fitting  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to a pipe fitting for joining two pipes at a desired, preselected angle and comprises a curved section of pipe with a generally circular cross-section. One end of the curved pipe is preferably furnished with a bell fitting. The other end is adapted to be inserted into the bell of another pipe fitting. The surface of the pipe is marked with circumferential lines spaced at several-degree intervals, the lines corresponding to the angle of the bend which will result if the pipe is cut along that line. The outer diameter of the pipe is closely controlled to be the same throughout its length as the outer diameter of a straight pipe, so the cut end can be inserted into the bell of another fitting without further treatment, and the radius of curvature of the pipe is larger than a standard street elbow, preferably three to ten times the diameter of the pipe. Thus, a cut approximately perpendicular to the axial centerline can be made at any point along the length of the pipe to form an elbow of any desired angle.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-12-31

281

Gaia basic angle monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the ‘Basic Angle’. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system for this mission. The BAM measures the relative motion of Gaia’s telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to measure Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction to the Gaia mission, the Payload Module (PLM) and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material, this presentation will address an overview of the challenges towards the key requirements, design, integration and testing (including space-level qualification) of the Gaia BAM.

Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Meijer, E.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Monteiro, D.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.

2012-09-01

282

Gaia basic angle monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission1 will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft2, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the `Basic Angle', at an operational temperature of 100 K. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability at cryogenic conditions, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system3 for this mission, measuring the relative motion of Gaia's telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to detect Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction on Gaia and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material this paper addresses the specific challenges towards the cryogenic application of the Gaia BAM including design, integration and verification/qualification by testing.

Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Mekking, J.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.; Monteiro, D.

2013-09-01

283

Small angle scattering and asphaltenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum is a mixture of organic material consisting of a series of molecules with increasing molecular weight but with decreasing carbon to hydrogen ratios. This monotonic trend leads to distinctive properties of each class, cut by solvents. Asphaltenes are a class soluble in toluene but not in heptane. The importance of asphaltenes lies in their relevance to petroleum operations. Many properties of petroleum liquids are due to the interplay between asphaltenes and other co-existing components. These complex interactions impact on petroleum phases, and thus the operations. So-called petroleomics is a scheme to link the molecular structures of the most relevant components in the petroleum liquid to its overall properties, similar to the proteomics widely accepted in biological sciences. However, though the asphaltene molecular structure and compositions are relevant to the macroscopic properties of petroleum liquids, their aggregates on the colloidal length scale could be the most relevant elementary unit that dictates the properties of the petroleum mixtures. In this regard, it is legitimate to use small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques to bridge the molecular structures of asphaltenes and the operational parameters that are commonly applied in the field. In this review, the linkages between asphaltene molecules and their aggregates and the asphaltene aggregates and the macroscopic properties are described. Applications of small angle x-ray and neutron scattering for characterizing asphaltene aggregates and asphaltene emulsions are also discussed.

Sheu, Eric Y.

2006-09-01

284

Opening Angles of Collapsar Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ? j ~ 1/5?0 and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?0, is a few for existing observations of ? j . The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ? j, max ~ 1/5 ~ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

2013-11-01

285

Ocular Biometry in Angle Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and acute primary angle closure (APAC). Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF), relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD) and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001), thicker lens (P<0.0001), shallower ACD (P=0.009), shallower CACD (P=0.003) and larger LAF (P<0.0001). Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001) and CCT (P=0.001) were significant risk factors. Conclusion This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC.

Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Banifatemi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

286

8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

287

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, July 1911 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "ORANGE-PEEL EXCAVATOR DREDGING OUTLET CHANNEL" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

288

385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

289

Fuzzy behavior navigation for an unmanned helicopter in unknown environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial missions that require unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to fly autonomously in unknown and hostile environments are inevitable. These UAVs must be equipped with a fully autonomous navigation system. Many methods that have been proposed for navigation of autonomous systems either lack the necessary intelligence or are not responsive enough to cope with the flying speeds of UAVs. This paper

Dongqing Shi; Majura F. Selekwa; Emmanuel G. Collins Jr; Carl A. Moore

2005-01-01

290

Discover the Unknown Chekhov in Your ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author, an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher, believes that for stories to be a successful tool in classroom instruction, they need to have universal themes, and they must deal with situations that the students could readily identify with regardless of their language, culture, or religion. In this article, she introduces the unknown

Beliavsky, Ninah

2007-01-01

291

43. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 May 1915 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 May 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Progress view of embankment fill on north dam. Note start of paving." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

292

25. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 June 1913 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 June 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "View of 'C' Street in camp showing laborers bunk houses and tents. A bath house, and the end of the Y.M.C.A." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

293

Fever of unknown origin in childhood: difficulties in diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

We have described a child with systemic onset juvenile chronic arthritis who presented initially with fever of unknown origin. Treatment of a presumed infection led to a severe allergic response with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, renal failure and DIC. This reaction obscured the features of the underlying disease and delayed the diagnosis. Images

Martin, K; Davies, E G; Axford, J S

1994-01-01

294

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "A VIEW OF METHOD OF DAM CONSTRUCTION" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

295

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING DAM AFTER REMOVING OF TRESTLE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

296

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1906 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1906 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "DETAILS OF 60 FT. AND 80 FT. SPANS" - Kachess Dam, Cutoff Channel and Crib Structures, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

297

28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

298

26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

299

4. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1940; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1940; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 49; SPLITTING CARCASSES WITH CLEAVER IN OLD BEEF HOUSE - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building-1929 Beef House, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

300

MULTISENSOR FUSION UNDER UNKNOWN DISTRIBUTIONS Finite-Sample Performance Guarantees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a multiple sensor system such that for each sensor the outputs are related to the actual feature values according to a certain p robability distribution. We present an overview of informational and computational aspects of a fuser that is required to combine the sensor outputs to more accura tely predict the feature, when the sensor distributions are unknown

Nageswara S. V. Rao

301

19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

302

15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 September 1915 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 September 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Unloading cylinder gate from car at depot." - Keechelus Dam, Outlet Tower, Yakim River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

303

28. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Placing concrete in core-wall from concrete cars operating on the trestle." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

304

Remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits  

SciTech Connect

We propose and prove the protocol of remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits belonging to the restricted sets. Moreover, we obtain the general and explicit forms of restricted sets and present evidence of their uniqueness and optimization. In addition, our protocol has universal recovery operations that can enhance the power of remote implementations of quantum operations.

Wang Anmin [Quantum Theory Group, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2006-09-15

305

Autonomous sonar navigation in indoor, unknown and unstructured environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile robot operating autonomously in unknown, unstructured environments has to be able to map its environment while at the same time determining its own position accurately within this environment. This paper presents an approach where the bootstrapping problem of concurrent localisation and map building is solved by estimating the respective errors introduced by each of the processes and correcting

W. D. Rencken

1994-01-01

306

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

307

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

308

Simulation in Familiarizing Older People with an Unknown Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined how successfully an environmental simulation technique could provide older people with a working knowledge of an unknown building. Compared three groups of participants: site visit (n=20); simulation (n=20); and control (n=20). Found simulation comparable to site visits in instilling confidence in way-finding ability, providing a mental…

Hunt, Michael E.; Roll, Mary K.

1987-01-01

309

6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

310

407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET 12 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

311

408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. 26 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

312

406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

313

402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 1A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

314

404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 7-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

315

403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 2 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

316

409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; DRAWING NO.33 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

317

42. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 May 1915 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 May 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Laying tar paper and sheeting inside of flume." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

318

362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

319

374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

320

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

321

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

322

7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken circa 1890 (original print in the possession of W.F. Rhinehart, Phoenixville, R.D.#1, Pennsylvania) NORTH ELEVATION - William Moore House, State Route 23 & Reading Railroad Tracks vicinity (Schuykill Township), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

323

7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

324

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown, post 1907. EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown, post 1907. EXTERIOR FROM WEST Copied from print in files of National Capital Region, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. - Godey Lime Kilns (Ruins), Junction of Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

325

On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals Over Fading Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter addresses the problem of energy detection of an unknown signal over a multipath channel. It starts with the no-diversity case, and presents some alternative closed-form expressions for the probability of detection to those recently reported in the literature. Detection capability is boosted by implementing both square-law combining and square-law selection diversity schemes

Fadel F. Digham; Mohamed-slim Alouini; Marvin K. Simon

2007-01-01

326

177. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1925 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

177. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1925 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). ROSE HILL SCHOOL. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

327

24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

328

25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

329

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FREIGHT DEPOT, TAKEN IN 1918, DURING THE CONVERSEION OF THE ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

330

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

331

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 SOUTH AND WEST FACADES, TAKEN IN 1918 DURING THE CONVERSION OF THE FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE. - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

332

10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

333

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

334

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

335

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NEW FREIGHT DEPOT, TAKEN IN 1918, DURING THE CONVERSION OF THE ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT INTO AN ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

336

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 NORTH FACADE, TAKEN IN 1918, SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS FOR ENGINE HOUSE - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 1, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

337

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

338

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1915 PRIOR TO REMODELING - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

339

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, 1918 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING EXTERIOR OF BUILDING NEARING COMPLETION - Illinois Central Railroad, Freight Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

340

7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

341

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT BEFORE REMODELING, WITH ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT BEYOND - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

342

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915 DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

343

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

344

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF EDWIN CLARK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF EDWIN CLARK RESIDENCE ON EASTERN SIDE OF BRIDGE STREET. (Original in possession of the Erie County Historical Society.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

345

Energy Efficient Swarm Deployment for Search in Unknown Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper introduces three strategies to deploy a swarm of robots in unknown environments for a search task, aiming to reduce\\u000a the total swarm energy cost with rapid operation for applications such as disaster mitigation. We are motivated by current\\u000a research on flying robot swarms [10].

Timothy S. Stirling; Dario Floreano

2010-01-01

346

An Optimal Strategy for Searching in Unknown Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of a robot searching for an unknown, yet visually recognizable target in a street. A street is a simple polygon with start and target on the boundary so that the two boundary chains between them are weakly mutually\\u000a visible. We are interested in the ratio of the search path length to the shortest path length which

Sven Schuierer; Ines Semrau

1999-01-01

347

Synthetic instruments options for searching for unknown spurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses synthetic instrumentation, and its ability to perform demanding measurements like spur searches. It gives a brief overview of synthetic instrumentation, and discusses the justification for moving measurements to synthetic systems. It then discusses a specific demanding measurement, the search for unknown spurs. It outlines the specific challenges faced when making this measurement using a synthetic implementation, as

D. LeCheminant

2007-01-01

348

Discounted Bayesian search problems with unknown detection probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider three discrete-time discounted Bayesian search problems with an unknown number of objects and uncertainty about the distribution of the objects among the boxes. Moreover, we admit uncertainty about the detection probabilities. The goal is to determine a policy which finds (dependent on the search problem) at least one object or all objects with minimal expected

Thilo Liebig

1996-01-01

349

A Study of Intelligent Searching Mobile Robots under Unknown Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent searching strategy for mobile robots consisting of a fuzzy-logic based searching algorithm over the unknown environments, and a dynamic template matching method to recognize and position the target. Specifically, sonar and omni-directional camera are utilized as sensors to detect the surrounding environments, based on which a fuzzy logic algorithm is adopted for local path planning

X. Xiao; Y. Fang; F. He; B. J. Ma

2006-01-01

350

Searching for unknown open clusters in the Tycho-2 catalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 11 new open cluster candidates found in a systematic search for unknown star clusters using the astrometric and photometric data included in the Tycho 2 catalog. The possible existence of these stellar aggregates is supported by the analysis of proper motions, color-magnitude diagrams, stellar density distributions, and by the visual inspection of the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) plates.

B. S. Alessi; A. Moitinho; W. S. Dias

2003-01-01

351

Standardizing the Unknown: Practicable Pluripotency as Doable Futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To standardize human embryonic stem cells is an exercise in standardizing different kinds of unknowns. Such standards, currently being developed in the field, can change the understanding of what a stem cell is. In the influential International Stem Cell Initiative (ISCI), scientists in a fiercely competitive field are prepared to exchange research material and data that would normally be highly

Lena Eriksson; Andrew Webster

2008-01-01

352

29. Photocopy of photograph dated 1930; photographer unknown; original filed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Photocopy of photograph dated 1930; photographer unknown; original filed as HE17/p7 in Audio-Visual Collection of Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul; HANGAR AREA, INTERIOR, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL 'CARRYING' TRUSS AND CANTILEVERED SECTION OF ROOF TRUSSES; LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST FRONT CORNER - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

353

26. Photocopy of photograph dated 1930; photographer unknown; original filed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopy of photograph dated 1930; photographer unknown; original filed as MR2.9/SP8/p343 in Audio-Visual Collection of Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul; THREE-QUARTER VIEW SHOWING WEST SIDE AND SOUTH FRONT SHORTLY AFTER COMPLETION; LOOKING NORTHEAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

354

28. Photocopy of photograph dated ca. 1940; photographer unknown; original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of photograph dated ca. 1940; photographer unknown; original filed as MR2.9/SP8/r373 in Audio-Visual Collection of Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul; WEST SIDE AFTER SECOND-STORY ADDITION; LOOKING EAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

355

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, September 1912 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, September 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "BLASTING IN LAKE (DREDGE) HT. 500'." - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

356

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

357

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

358

15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

359

Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. Eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem: Auger electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, ion beam spectrochemical analysis, Rutherford backscattering, reverse optical monitoring, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, stylus profilometer, spectrophotometric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, ultramicrotomy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The

J. A. Dobrowolski; R. Herrmann; A. Waldorf; D. F. Mitchell; P. H. Berning; S. Vincent; W. Thoeni; E. Casparis; R. Pfefferkorn; J. Bartella; H.-G. Lotz; W.-D. Muenz; B. Bovard; U. J. Gibson; K. W. Nebesny; S. G. Saxe; D. Y. Song; P. Swab; R. M. Swenson; F. Van Milligen

1985-01-01

360

Automatic installation of underwater elastic structures under unknown currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the new technique of installation and construction of underwater flexible structures by using learning tracking controller (LTC). The LTC has such potentials on the installation or construction of underwater structures, in deep water under unknown currents, that the structure can be installed precisely on the desired point on seabed. By this method automated construction of very

Hideyuki Suzuki; Qi Tao; Koichiro Yoshida

1998-01-01

361

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

362

Cooperative hunting of multiple mobile robots under unknown dynamic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general scheme of cooperative hunting for a moving target by multiple mobile robots in unknown environments is presented. To realize successful hunting, the point stabilization control algorithm is used for path planning of hunting mobile robots. Simultaneously, collision risk based obstacle avoidance scheme is used to keep away from random obstacles during hunting. The synthesized behavior is obtained by

Fei Wang; Wei Wei; Chengdong Wu

2009-01-01

363

On teleportation of a completely unknown state of relativistic photon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of teleportation of a completely unknown single-photon relativistic state is considered. Analysis of the relativistic case reveals that the teleportation as it is understood in the non-relativistic quantum mechanics is impossible if no a priori information on the state to be teleported is available. It is only possible to speak of the amplitude of the propagation of the

R. Laiho; S. N. Molotkov; S. S. Nazin

2000-01-01

364

1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

365

Determination of Polymer Unknowns Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this laboratory exercise, you will evaluate several unknown polymers using XPS to provide their proper identities. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should: ⢠Have an understanding of XPS as a tool for surface analysis. ⢠Understand the importance of the surface state of polymeric materials.

Derosa, Rebecca L.

2008-09-04

366

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

367

22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Keechelus Crib Dam. View dam from right bank of river, showing downstream face and apron of dam". - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

368

Neural Network Based Approaches for Detecting Signals With Unknown Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of gaussian signals with unknown correlation coefficient, rhos, is considered. A strategy for designing mixture of experts in composite hypothesis test is proposed. It is based on designing a single multi-layer perceptron (MLP) trained with rhos varying uniformly in [0,1] to approximate the average likelihood ratio (ALR), and evaluate it for fixed values of rhos, so as to

D. de la Mata-Moya; P. Jarabo-Amores; M. Rosa-Zurera; R. Vicen-Bueno; J. C. Nieto-Borge

2007-01-01

369

Robust detectors for targets of unknown correlation in clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilayer perceptron (MLP) based detector is proposed for approximating the average likelihood ratio (ALR) detector in composite hypothesis-testing problems. The case of detecting colored gaussian targets with Gaussian autocorrelation function (ACF) and unknown one-lag correlation coefficient (rhos), in colored Gaussian interference with Gaussian ACF is considered. The robustness of the likelihood ratio (LR) detector for known rhos is studied,

D. Mata-Moya; P. Jarabo-Amores; J. C. Nieto-Borge; F. Lopez-Ferreras

2008-01-01

370

Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

2002-01-01

371

Robot Path Planning in Unknown Environments Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method of robot path planning in unknown environments based on particle swarm optimization in this paper. We firstly transform the problem of robot path planning into a minimization one, and then define the fitness of a particle based on the positions of the target and the obstacles in the environment. The positions of globally best particle in

Li Lu; Dunwei Gong

2008-01-01

372

26. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 27 September 1913 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 27 September 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "General view of camp from top of trestle." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

373

17. Photographer unknown, 9 January 1913 VIEW TO NORTHWEST, MONROE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographer unknown, 9 January 1913 VIEW TO NORTHWEST, MONROE STREET PLANT, GENERATING UNIT SIMILAR TO UNITS 4 AND 5 - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

374

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

375

45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE VIEW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

376

47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

377

48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

378

46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. VIEW FROM BOW SHOWING MAIN DECK AND PILOTHOUSE. NOTE BUOYS STORED ON PIER AT RIGHT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

379

44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

380

Efficient variable length channel coding for unknown DMCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a strategy for the reliable communication of a message, in a variable number of channel uses, over an unknown discrete memoryless channel (DMC). The decoder periodically tests the received sequence and, when it can decode, sends an acknowledgment to the transmitter, which then stops transmitting. By choosing the size of the codebook large enough, the rate that is

Stark C. Draper; Brendan J. Frey; Frank R. Kschischang

2004-01-01

381

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

382

Finding and identifying unknown commercials using repeated video sequence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated commercial detection can be performed by matching features extracted from commercials or by detecting embedded codes that are hidden within the commercial. In both cases, it is necessary to create a database of known commercials that contain the information necessary for detection. In this paper, we present an automated technique for locating previously unknown commercials by continuously monitoring broadcast

John M. Gauch; Abhishek Shivadas

2006-01-01

383

GRASPING OF UNKNOWN OBJECT IMITATING HUMAN GRASPING REFLEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a grasping strategy of unknown objects imitating human grasping reflex for anthropomorphic robot hands. In the proposed grasping, each joint of the thumb and the fingers is controlled independently using the contact force affecting its adjacent fingertip side link. By setting a suitable contact force, both fingertip grasping and enveloped grasping with uniform grasping force are executable.

Haruhisa Kawasaki; Tetsuya Mouri; Jun Takai; Satoshi Ito

2002-01-01

384

Pushing Motion for Unknown Object by Humanoid Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a pushing motion for an unknown object by a humanoid robot. This method deals with an object whose parameters are not known. In order to push the unknown object, the robot motion must be decided according to the object. Therefore, the robot judges whether the unknown object is movable or not. When the robot judges the object is unmovable, the robot stops pushing. On the other hand, when the robot judges the object is movable, the robot continues pushing and walking. When the robot walks during a pushing motion, the influence of the pushing motion may destabilize a walking motion. Therefore, ZMP trajectory is modified by reaction force response before one step. Additionally, cycle time in double support phase is also modified by using sigmoid function. In the result, the heavier the object is, the more slowly the robot moves like a human. With these methods, the robot is able to push the unknown object during walking. Furthermore, even if parameters of the object change, this proposed method is available to continue pushing the object.

Motoi, Naoki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

385

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

386

4. Photographic copy of photo dated ca. 1936; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photographic copy of photo dated ca. 1936; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 5; SAUSAGES HANGING IN CURING ROOM AT RATH PACKING COMPANY - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

387

In situ small-angle X-ray scattering study of cluster formation in carbon micropores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of water and CCl4 adsorbed on pitch-based activated carbon fibers (ACF) were measured with different relative pressures at 303K. We extended the Debye-Bueche theory to the three-phase mixed system (carbon, adsorbed phase, and vacant space) to obtain the average dimension of adsorbed phase la. The zero-angle intensity of X-ray scattering I0 and la

T Iiyama; Y Kobayashi; K Kaneko; S Ozeki

2004-01-01

388

Isolated primary craniopharyngioma in the cerebellopontine angle.  

PubMed

Between January 2000 and January 2011, we diagnosed three patients with isolated craniopharyngioma in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Brain MRI revealed cystic lesions with various imaging characteristics, including hypointensity on T1-weighted (T1W) images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The first patient's lesion showed rim enhancement after gadolinium administration. The second patient's lesion showed mixed signal intensity on both T1W and T2W images. The third patient's MRI showed a well-defined cystic lesion in the right CPA that compressed the brainstem. This lesion was hyperintense on T1W images and hypointense relative to cerebrospinal fluid on T2W images, and was peripherally enhanced after gadolinium administration. All three patients underwent surgical intervention through a suboccipital retrosigmoid craniotomy/craniectomy and lesions that did not adhere to adjacent tissues were removed completely. Histopathological examination confirmed the tumors to be adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The post-operative course was uneventful for all patients uneventful and no tumor recurrences were detected at the last follow-up. Primary CPA craniopharyngioma can be completely removed surgically, provided it does not densely adhere to vital structures. PMID:22595351

Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Borghei-Razavi, Hamid; Samadian, Mohammad; Moharamzad, Yashar; Schick, Uta

2012-05-16

389

Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. If a non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1-(1-C2)1/2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation, Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.

Yu, Chang-Shui; Wang, Ya-Hong; Song, He-Shan

2007-06-01

390

Angles, Scales and Parametric Renormalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the structure of renormalized Feynman rules. Regarding them as maps from the Hopf algebra of Feynman graphs to {{C}} originating from the evaluation of graphs by Feynman rules, they are elements of a group {G=Spec_{Feyn}(H)} . We study the kinematics of scale and angle-dependence to decompose G into subgroups {G_{{1-s}}} and {G_{fin}} . Using parametric representations of Feynman integrals, renormalizability and the renormalization group underlying the scale dependence of Feynman amplitudes are derived and proven in the context of algebraic geometry.

Brown, Francis; Kreimer, Dirk

2013-09-01

391

Optical characterization of an unknown single layer: Institut Fresnel contribution to the Optical Interference Coatings 2004 Topical Meeting Measurement Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the characterizations performed at the Institut Fresnel for the Measurement Problem of the Optical Interference Coatings 2004 Topical Meeting. A single layer coated on a fused-silica substrate of unknown composition and parameters is analyzed in terms of optogeometrical parameters, uniformity, and scattering. We determine the refractive index and the average thickness of the coating, then provide the localized determination of the thickness with a 2 mm spatial resolution. Topography measurements include atomic force microscopy and angle-resolved scattering measurements. These results are completed thanks to a Taylor Hobson noncontact 3D surface profiler.

Lemarchand, Fabien; Deumié, Carole; Zerrad, Myriam; Abel-Tiberini, Laëtitia; Bertussi, Bertrand; Georges, Gaëlle; Lazaridès, Basile; Cathelinaud, Michel; Lequime, Michel; Amra, Claude

2006-03-01

392

Angle-of-Attack Computation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses methods of computing angle of attack by influence using combinations of data from presently available, on-board sensors, thereby eliminating the need for external vanes or probes. Equations were derived from which computed angle of at...

J. B. Dendy K. G. Transier

1969-01-01

393

Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying ar...

V. S. Parsons

2005-01-01

394

Renal disease masquerading as pyrexia of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Pyrexia of unknown origin is a challenging clinical problem. Infections, malignancies, and connective tissue diseases form the major etiologies for this condition. We report a case of a 57-year-old diabetic male who presented with fever of unknown origin for several months. The course of investigations led to a kidney biopsy which clinched the cause of his fever as well as the underlying diagnosis. The light microscopy findings of expansile storiform fibrosis with a dense inflammatory infiltrate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by positive staining of Immunoglobulin G4, the dense lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. A course of steroids followed by mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance immunosuppression rendered the patient afebrile with improvement of renal function. PMID:23960353

Korivi, D; Billa, V; Patel, K; Madiwale, C

2013-07-01

395

Child deaths of unknown cause: review of 7 years' experience.  

PubMed

Using data from the Pima County (Arizona) Child Fatality Review Team, we sought to describe the nature of unknown cause pediatric deaths. Of 1,150 total deaths (1995-2001), 22 were unknown cause and 3 had only a mode of death on the death certificate. There were 15 infants <6 months, 4 children 1-4 years, 2 children 5-9 years, 1 preteen (10-14 years), and 3 aged 15-17 years. Four patterns were seen: those resembling SIDS but with confounding history, autopsy, or scene investigation; sleeping toddlers with respiratory symptoms; children with underlying conditions not expected to cause death; and deaths without complete investigation. PMID:15583775

Bowen, Kathryn A; Marshall, William N

396

Renal disease masquerading as pyrexia of unknown origin  

PubMed Central

Pyrexia of unknown origin is a challenging clinical problem. Infections, malignancies, and connective tissue diseases form the major etiologies for this condition. We report a case of a 57-year-old diabetic male who presented with fever of unknown origin for several months. The course of investigations led to a kidney biopsy which clinched the cause of his fever as well as the underlying diagnosis. The light microscopy findings of expansile storiform fibrosis with a dense inflammatory infiltrate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by positive staining of Immunoglobulin G4, the dense lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. A course of steroids followed by mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance immunosuppression rendered the patient afebrile with improvement of renal function.

Korivi, D.; Billa, V.; Patel, K.; Madiwale, C.

2013-01-01

397

Adaptive Sliding-Mode Control of Space Robot during Manipulating Unknown Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future space application, space robot is playing more and more important roles in on-orbital retrieval missions, such as catching an uncontrolled and unknown satellite. As well known, the contact and impact can not be avoided fully when the space robot captures the unknown objects. However, these unknown factors, such as the unknown payload and unknown contact force and

Panfeng Huang; Jianping Yuan; Bin Liang

2007-01-01

398

Estimation of unknown speaker’s height from speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we propose a regression-based scheme for the direct estimation of the height of unknown speakers from\\u000a their speech. In this scheme every speech input is decomposed via the openSMILE audio parameterization to a single feature vector that is fed to a regression model, which provides a direct estimation of\\u000a the persons’ height. The focus in this

Iosif Mporas; Todor Ganchev

2009-01-01

399

10. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; SOUTH END OF RATH COMPLEX IN SPRING OF 1941, AFTER COMPLETION OF THREE-STORY ADDITION TO GREASE INTERCEPTOR - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

400

9. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photographic copy of photo dated 1940; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; SOUTH END OF COMPLEX, LATE 1940; FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER; BUILDING 148 ADDITION UNDER CONSTRUCTION (CENTER) - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

401

Marantic endocarditis and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site.  

PubMed

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a disease characterized by deposition of thrombi and fibrin on normal or degenerated cardiac valves in the absence of microorganisms. This condition is more commonly seen in chronic inflammatory states, and is associated with higher incidence of thromboembolic events than infective endocarditis. We report the case of a 63-year old male patient with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site and systemic embolism. PMID:21552651

Schlittler, Luis Alberto; Dallagasperina, Viviane Weiller; Schavinski, Claudia; Baggio, Ana Paula; Lazaretti, Nícolas Silva; Villaroel, Rodrigo Ughini

2011-04-01

402

FDG PET\\/CT in carcinoma of unknown primary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of metastatic malignancies in which a primary tumor could not\\u000a be detected despite thorough diagnostic evaluation. Because of its high sensitivity for the detection of lesions, combined\\u000a 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)\\/computed tomography (CT) may be an excellent alternative to\\u000a CT alone and conventional magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the

Thomas C. Kwee; Sandip Basu; Gang Cheng; Abass Alavi

2010-01-01

403

Adaptive control of plants with unknown dead-zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model reference adaptive controllers are designed for plants with unknown dead-zones. Several control strategies are investigated in which two sets of adjustable parameters, one belonging to a dead-zone inverse and the other to a linear controller, are either kept fixed or adaptively updated. The developed adaptive control schemes ensure boundedness of all closed-loop signals and reduce the tracking error

Gang Tao; P. V. Kokotovic

1994-01-01

404

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

405

13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

406

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

407

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

408

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

409

Search for unknown isotopes using the JAERI-ISOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for unknown neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and neutron-deficient americium isotopes was carried out using a gas-jet coupled thermal ion source installed in the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL). New isotopes 166Tb and 165Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of 238U were identified. The half-lives were 21 ± 6 s for 166Tb and 10.3 ± 1.6 s for 165Gd. Pu

S. Ichikawa; K. Tsukada; M. Asai; A. Osa; Y. Oura; H. Iimura; Y. Kojima; T. Hirose; I. Nishinaka; Y. Hatsukawa; Y. Nagame; K. Kawade; T. Ohyama; K. Sueki

1997-01-01

410

Frontier Based Multiple Goal Search in Unknown Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a frontier based algorithm for searching multiple goals in a fully unknown environment, with only information about\\u000a the regions where the goals are most likely to be located. Our algorithm chooses an “active goal” from the “active goal list”\\u000a generated by running a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) routine with the given centroid locations of the goal regions. We

V. R. Jisha; Debasish Ghose

2010-01-01

411

27. Photocopy of photograph dated ca. 1940; photographer unknown; original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photocopy of photograph dated ca. 1940; photographer unknown; original filed as MR2.9/SP8/r374 in Audio-Visual Collection Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul; THREE-QUARTER VIEW SHOWING WEST SIDE AND SOUTH FRONT AFTER SECOND-STORY ADDITION; LOOKING NORTHEAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

412

The prevalence and diagnostic value of toxocariasis in unknown eosinophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxocariasis is one of the causes of eosinophilia in peripheral blood and provokes eosinophilic infiltration in internal organs.\\u000a Extended studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of toxocariasis have been rare. The aim of this study is to\\u000a evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis in unknown eosinophilia and to analyze the efficacy of toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent\\u000a assay (ELISA). We evaluated patients

Nam-Hee Kwon; Mi-Jung Oh; Sang-Pyo Lee; Byung-Jae Lee; Dong-Chull Choi

2006-01-01

413

Underlying Pathology of Stroke of Unknown Cause (Cryptogenic Stroke)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underlying pathologies of stroke of unknown cause include atherosclerosis in brain arteries, either intracranial (e.g. moderate middle cerebral artery stenosis), extracranial (e.g. vertebral artery origin stenosis) or proximal (e.g. thick plaques in the aortic arch), thought to be unrelated to the stroke; cardiac findings of undetermined causal link (e.g. patent foramen ovale); incomplete or late workup responsible for true, undiagnosed

Pierre Amarenco

2009-01-01

414

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW SHOWING LOCATION OF PROPOSED DAM SITE AT OUTLET OF LAKE KACHESS, WN., JUST BELOW PRESENT OLD DAM" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

415

Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

416

Transition Cells for Navigation and Planning in an Unknown Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a navigation and planning system using vision for extracting non predefined landmarks, a dead-reckoning system\\u000a generating the integrated movement and a topological map. Localisation and planning remain possible even if the map is partially\\u000a unknown. An omnidirectional camera gives a panoramic images from which unpredefined landmarks are extracted. The set of landmarks\\u000a and their azimuths relative to a

Nicolas Cuperlier; Mathias Quoy; Christophe Giovannangeli; Philippe Gaussier; Philippe Laroque

2006-01-01

417

The posterior condylar angle in osteoarthritic knees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The posterior condylar angle is formed by the transepicondylar axis and the tangent line to the posterior condyles. It is an important relationship to determine rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. We measured this angle directly in 107 osteoarthritic knees undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The posterior condylar angle was significantly greater in valgus knees than in

Frankie M. Griffin; John N. Insall; Giles R. Scuderi

1998-01-01

418

Dynamic contact angles in CFD simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate modelling of contact angle properties plays an important role in the simulation of free-surface micro flows. Taking capillary filling as an example, we first discuss the analytical solutions of a corresponding 1D description in certain limits and then derive an approximate analytical expression for the general case with constant contact angle. In case of a dynamic contact angle

Friedhelm Schönfeld; Steffen Hardt

2009-01-01

419

A two camera video imaging system with application to parafoil angle of attack measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a two-camera, video imaging system for the determination of three-dimensional spatial coordinates from stereo images. This system successfully measured angle of attack at several span-wise locations for large-scale parafoils tested in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Measurement uncertainty for angle of attack was less than 0.6 deg. The stereo ranging system was the primary source for angle of attack measurements since inclinometers sewn into the fabric ribs of the parafoils had unknown angle offsets acquired during installation. This paper includes discussions of the basic theory and operation of the stereo ranging system, system measurement uncertainty, experimental set-up, calibration results, and test results. Planned improvements and enhancements to the system are also discussed.

Meyn, Larry A.; Bennett, Mark S.

1991-01-01

420

Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

Royle, J.A.; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

2007-01-01

421

Assisted assignment of ligands corresponding to unknown electron density.  

PubMed

A semi-automated computational procedure to assist in the identification of bound ligands from unknown electron density has been developed. The atomic surface surrounding the density blob is compared to a library of three-dimensional ligand binding surfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Ligands corresponding to surfaces which share physicochemical texture and geometric shape similarities are considered for assignment. The method is benchmarked against a set of well represented ligands from the PDB, in which we show that we can identify the correct ligand based on the corresponding binding surface. Finally, we apply the method during model building and refinement stages from structural genomics targets in which unknown density blobs were discovered. A semi-automated computational method is described which aims to assist crystallographers with assigning the identity of a ligand corresponding to unknown electron density. Using shape and physicochemical similarity assessments between the protein surface surrounding the density and a database of known ligand binding surfaces, a plausible list of candidate ligands are identified for consideration. The method is validated against highly observed ligands from the Protein Data Bank and results are shown from its use in a high-throughput structural genomics pipeline. PMID:20091237

Binkowski, T Andrew; Cuff, Marianne; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chang, Changsoo; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2010-01-21

422

Assisted assignment of ligands corresponding to unknown electron density.  

SciTech Connect

A semi-automated computational procedure to assist in the identification of bound ligands from unknown electron density has been developed. The atomic surface surrounding the density blob is compared to a library of three-dimensional ligand binding surfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Ligands corresponding to surfaces which share physicochemical texture and geometric shape similarities are considered for assignment. The method is benchmarked against a set of well represented ligands from the PDB, in which we show that we can identify the correct ligand based on the corresponding binding surface. Finally, we apply the method during model building and refinement stages from structural genomics targets in which unknown density blobs were discovered. A semi-automated computational method is described which aims to assist crystallographers with assigning the identity of a ligand corresponding to unknown electron density. Using shape and physicochemical similarity assessments between the protein surface surrounding the density and a database of known ligand binding surfaces, a plausible list of candidate ligands are identified for consideration. The method is validated against highly observed ligands from the Protein Data Bank and results are shown from its use in a high-throughput structural genomics pipeline.

Binkowski, T. A.; Cuff, M.; Nocek, B.; Chang, C.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

2010-01-03

423

Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of a standard bi-directional ``plug & play'' quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been an open question for a long time. This is mainly because its source is equivalently controlled by an eavesdropper, which means the source is unknown and untrusted. Qualitative discussion on this subject has been made previously. In this paper, we present the first quantitative security analysis on a general class of QKD protocols whose sources are unknown and untrusted. The securities of standard BB84 protocol, weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, and one-decoy decoy state protocol, with unknown and untrusted sources are rigorously proved. We derive rigorous lower bounds to the secure key generation rates of the above three protocols. Our numerical simulation results show that QKD with an untrusted source gives a key generation rate that is close to that with a trusted source. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 77:052327 (2008).

Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

2009-03-01

424

Assisted assignment of ligands corresponding to unknown electron density  

PubMed Central

A semi-automated computational procedure to assist in the identification of bound ligands from unknown electron density has been developed. The atomic surface surrounding the density blob is compared to a library of three-dimensional ligand binding surfaces extracted from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Ligands corresponding to surfaces which share physicochemical texture and geometric shape similarities are considered for assignment. The method is benchmarked against a set of well represented ligands from the PDB, in which we show that we can identify the correct ligand based on the corresponding binding surface. Finally, we apply the method during model building and refinement stages from structural genomics targets in which unknown density blobs were discovered. A semi-automated computational method is described which aims to assist crystallographers with assigning the identity of a ligand corresponding to unknown electron density. Using shape and physicochemical similarity assessments between the protein surface surrounding the density and a database of known ligand binding surfaces, a plausible list of candidate ligands are identified for consideration. The method is validated against highly observed ligands from the Protein Data Bank and results are shown from its use in a high-throughput structural genomics pipeline.

Binkowski, T. Andrew; Cuff, Marianne; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chang, Changsoo; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2010-01-01

425

Microarray-based method for detection of unknown genetic modifications  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the increased use of genetic modifications in crop improvement, there is a need to develop effective methods for the detection of both known and unknown transgene constructs in plants. We have developed a strategy for detection and characterization of unknown genetic modifications and we present a proof of concept for this method using Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). The approach relies on direct hybridization of total genomic DNA to high density microarrays designed to have probes tiled throughout a set of reference sequences. Results We show that by using arrays with 25 basepair probes covering both strands of a set of 235 vectors (2 million basepairs) we can detect transgene sequences in transformed lines of A. thaliana and rice without prior knowledge about the transformation vectors or the T-DNA constructs used to generate the studied plants. Conclusion The approach should allow the user to detect the presence of transgene sequences and get sufficient information for further characterization of unknown genetic constructs in plants. The only requirements are access to a small amount of pure transgene plant material, that the genetic construct in question is above a certain size (here ? 140 basepairs) and that parts of the construct shows some degree of sequence similarity with published genetic elements.

Tengs, Torstein; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Berdal, Knut G; Thorstensen, Tage; Butenko, Melinka A; Nesvold, Havard; Holst-Jensen, Arne

2007-01-01

426

Small angle neutron scattering studies of vesicle stability  

SciTech Connect

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of mixed colloids of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) with the bile salt, cholylglycine (CG), in D{sub 2}O as a function of pressure (P) and temperature (T). At atmospheric pressure, the system forms an isotropic phase of mixed, single bilayer vesicles (SLV`s). Increasing the external hydrostatic pressure brought about significant changes in particle morphology. At T = 25 C, application of a pressure of 3.5 MPa resulted in the collapse of the SLV`s. Further increase of P, up to 51.8 MPa, resulted in a transition from a phase of ordered (stacked), collapsed vesicles to one of stacked, ribbon-like particles. A similar collapse of the vesicles was observed at higher temperature (T = 37 C) with increasing P, but at this temperature, no ribbon phase was found at the highest pressure explored.

Mang, J.T.; Hjelm, R.P.

1997-10-01

427

Review of cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) medulloblastomas (MB) are rare lesions with few cases previously described in the literature. We report two further cases of CPA MB. The patients were a 22-year-old man and a 26-year-old woman with a mass developing in the CPA. The preoperative radiological diagnosis was vestibular schwannoma in the first case and petrosal meningioma in the second case. The patients were operated on through a retrosigmoid approach. The intraoperative findings revealed an intra-axial tumour and the histological diagnosis was classic type of MB in both cases. We review the literature and discuss pathological and radiological features and possible pathogenesis of CPA MB, underlining the necessity to consider MB in the differential diagnosis of CPA lesions. PMID:23163297

Spina, A; Boari, N; Gagliardi, F; Franzin, A; Terreni, M R; Mortini, P

2012-11-19

428

Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques. PMID:19939389

Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

2009-11-25

429

Mix It Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners use two colors of beads to form two different percent mixes, and then form a final mix using scoops from the two mixes. From this, learners will develop and use a formula to determine the final percent mix from two source mixtures. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Haehl, Martha

2008-01-01

430

Mixing in process vessels used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.  

PubMed

The use of nonbaffled vessels for mixing applications is becoming common in the biopharmaceutical industry but is not sufficiently well studied. Orientation of the impellers off-centered and/or at an angle is necessary to enhance mixing and eliminate swirling that would result without a baffle in a standard tank. This study focuses on characterizing mixing in vessels with the hydrofoil axial flow impellers mounted off-center at 10 degrees to the vertical. Geometrically similar vessels ranging from 100 to 5000 L working volume were used in this study. Mixing performance was successfully correlated to vessel geometric factors. PMID:10753450

Ram, K; Vickroy, T B; Lamb, K A; Slater, N K; Dennis, J S; Duffy, L E

431

Buckled crystalline structure of disordered mixed salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed salts AgBr0.6Cl0.4 and their pure components were investigated by XAFS. The concentration of the mixture was chosen to produce the homogeneous phase. Detailed analysis of the Ag and Br K edge data revealed an angular deviation of bonds in the mixture from collinearity. The corresponding RMS buckling angles (11 ± 2°) were determined using the strong angular dependence of

A. Frenkel; A. Voronel; A. Katzir; M. Newville; E. A. Stern

1995-01-01

432

Classification and treatment of prominent mandibular angle.  

PubMed

In Oriental culture, the contour of the mandibular angle is important for feminine facial shape because a woman who has a wide and square face is thought to have had an unhappy life. A prominent mandibular angle, which does not coincide with the natural look, produces a characteristic quadrangle, coarse, and muscular appearance. So Oriental women who have a prominent mandibular angle want to have an ovoid, reduced, and slender face by aesthetic mandibular angle resection. Many satisfactory corrections of a prominent mandibular angle by various operative techniques have been reported. But reasonable morphologic classification and treatment were not reported. So we classified prominent mandibular angles into four groups by morphology and operated on the patients according to their classification with different modalities: no square shape but only a reduced gonial angle in the profile view-class I, mild form; severe mandibular angle protrusion with lateral protrusion-class II, moderate form; a definite square-shaped angle (class II) with masseteric hypertrophy-class III, severe form; and combined prominent mandibular angle and chin deformity-class IV, complex form. We use angle ostectomy through the intraoral route alone or with an additional external stab incision for class I. An external stab incision to set up the reciprocating saw is sometimes helpful in class I cases because there is no lateral protrusion of the angle. For class II cases, we use conventional intraoral angle ostectomy only or angle splitting ostectomy with contouring. For class III cases, we use angle splitting ostectomy and contouring with partial masseteric myectomy. In class IV, we use angle ostectomy and additional genioplasty. During 7 years, we have performed 46 cases of mandibular angle resection. Of the mandibular angle resection cases, 19 were class I, 15 were class II, 9 were class III, and 3 were class IV. A total of 42 patients were satisfied with the postoperative results. For reasonable and satisfactory final results, classification according to the mandibular angle shape and suitable treatment according to the classification are essential. PMID:11692255

Kim, S K; Han, J J; Kim, J T

433

CP violation and mixing in technicolor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum alignment in technicolor models provides an attractive origin for the quarks' CP violation and, possibly, a natural solution for the strong-CP problem of QCD. We discuss these topics in this paper. Then we apply them to determine plausible mixing matrices for left and right-handed quarks. These matrices determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix as well as new mixing angles and phases that are observable in extended technicolor (ETC) and topcolor (TC2) interactions. We determine the contributions of these new interactions to CP-violating and mixing observables in the K0, Bd and Bs systems. Consistency with mixing and CP violation in the K0 system requires assuming that ETC interactions are electroweak generation-conserving even if technicolor has a walking gauge coupling. Large ETC gauge boson masses and small intergenerational mixing then result in negligibly small ETC contributions to B-meson mixing and CP violation and to Re(?'/?). We confirm our earlier strong lower bounds on TC2 gauge boson masses from Bd B¯d mixing. We then pay special attention to the possibility that current experiments indicate a deviation from standard model expectations of the values of sin(2? measured in Bd?J/?KS, ?KS, ?'KS, and ?KS, studying the ability of TC2 to account for these. We also determine the TC2 contribution to ?MBs and to Re(?'/?), and find them to be appreciable.

Martin, Adam; Lane, Kenneth

2005-01-01

434

Minimal supergravity radiative effects on the tribimaximal neutrino mixing pattern  

SciTech Connect

We study the stability of the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) mixing pattern, assumed to hold at some high energy scale, against supersymmetric radiative corrections. We work in the framework of a reference minimal supergravity model (mSUGRA) where supersymmetry breaking is universal and flavor-blind at unification. The radiative corrections considered include both RGE running as well as threshold effects. We find that in this case the solar mixing angle can only increase with respect to the HPS reference value, while the atmospheric and reactor mixing angles remain essentially stable. Deviations from the solar angle HPS prediction towards lower values would signal novel contributions from physics beyond the simplest mSUGRA model.

Hirsch, M.; Valle, J. W. F.; Villanova Moral, A. del [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular-C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado: 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ma, Ernest [Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Romao, J. C. [Departamento de Fisica and CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2007-03-01

435

Damage Analysis for Mixed Mode Crack Initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a numerical simulation for mixed mode crack initiation based on the concepts of damage mechanics. A model with two scalar damage variables is introduced for characterization of damage in a material element. Then a tangent modulus tensor is derived for damage-coupled constitutive equations. A failure criterion is developed with the concept of damage accumulation not only to identify the location of damaged element with the crack initiation angle but also to determine the critical load for mixed mode fracture. The damage model developed is incorporated in a general-purpose finite element program ABAQUA through its UMAT subroutine. The finite element program is then used to perform numerical simulation for pre-cracked specimens under monotonic tensile loading. The thin plates are made of aluminum alloy and particulate composite embedded with a crack of inclined angle Beta = 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg for mixed mode fracture analysis. The predicted crack initiation loads and the angles of crack initiation agree well with the test results.

Wei, Y.; Chow, C. L.; Liu, C. T.

2000-06-01

436

Fever of unknown origin in HIV/AIDS patients.  

PubMed

Fever of unknown or uncertain origin (FUO) constitutes a common clinical challenge in patients infected with HIV. It is usually caused by disseminated opportunistic infection, and the relative frequency of each cause of FUO is influenced by multiple factors including CD4 count, geographic setting, and local prevalences of infectious agents, which may provide clues to the diagnosis. Infections presenting as FUO in the HIV population occur most often in the late stages of the disease and high diagnostic suspicion for mycobacterial disease should be maintained when evaluating these patients, particularly in areas of high prevalence. This article discusses the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of FUO in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:18061087

Hot, Arnaud; Schmulewitz, Laura; Viard, Jean-Paul; Lortholary, Olivier

2007-12-01

437

Optical approach for measuring unknown microwave frequency with improved sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel photonic technique for unknown microwave frequency measurement by employing an optical group delay line. The 7-bit optical delay line composed of several magneto-optical switches and 1.6 km single-mode fiber is designed as a tunable dispersive medium in the measurement system. In our scheme, the measurable frequency range of 1 to 20 GHz with a measurement error less than ±40 MHz was demonstrated experimentally. Also, we studied the sensitivity of the whole measurement system, and the minimum detectable power reached -50 dBm.

Hu, Shu; Han, Xiuyou; Wu, Pengsheng; Gu, Yiying; Hu, Jingjing; Zhao, Mingshan

2013-02-01

438

Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Vargas, A. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Casilla 54-D (Chile); Vianna, R. O. [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

2010-07-15

439

Prediction approach to multistage sampling when cluster sizes are unknown  

SciTech Connect

A model for two-stage cluster sampling when sample cluster sizes are unknown is used to derive an optimal (model-based) estimator for the population total and to determine robust sampling strategies. In an empirical study using 1970 and 1980 census data for Los Angeles and surrounding counties, comparisons are made between the model based estimator and conventional estimators. The results favor the new estimator over those derived from randomization theory. In addition, the empirical study shows that the robust sampling strategies suggested by the theory can reduce biases, improve efficiency, and decrease the frequencies of large errors. 7 refs.

Kelly, E.J.; Cumberland, W.G.

1985-01-01

440

Subacute thyroiditis presenting as fever of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Subacute thyroiditis is a painful, inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, probably of viral origin. It is an uncommon but important cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO). We report a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with a 1 month history of fever, headache and weakness, and in whom extensive evaluation only revealed subacute thyroiditis. He was treated with low-dose steroids and became asymptomatic after 2 weeks. In conclusion, when a patient presents with FUO, subacute thyroiditis should be considered as a possible cause even if classic features are absent. PMID:17956558

Karachalios, G N; Amantos, K; Kanakis, K V; Deliousis, A; Karachaliou, I G; Zacharof, A K

2007-10-23

441

Search for unknown isotopes using the JAERI-ISOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for unknown neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and neutron-deficient americium isotopes was carried out using a gas-jet coupled thermal ion source installed in the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL). New isotopes b166Tb and d165Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of 238U were identified. The half-lives were 21+\\/-6 s for b166Tb and 10.3+\\/-1.6 s for d.165Gd. Pu KX-rays associated with EC

S. Ichikawa; K. Tsukada; Y. Oura; H. Iimura; I. Nishinaka; Y. Hatsukawa; Y. Nagame; M. Asai; A. Osa; Y. Kojima; T. Hirose; K. Kawade; T. Ohyama; K. Sueki

1996-01-01

442

Cabibbo mixing and the experiments that proved it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "leaning structure" of weak interactions that now encompasses flavor mixing of three quark families and even CP violation started with Nicola Cabibbo's proposal in the context of hyperon decays that the d and s quarks are "rotated" by an angle (Cabibbo angle). I will recall the origins of this radical idea and recount the key experiments that established its validity. In addition I will suggest possible new hyperon experiments.

Winston, Roland

2012-12-01

443

Charged Lepton Correction to Tri-Bimaximal Lepton Mixing and its Implications to Neutrino Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent results from Daya Bay and RENO reactor neutrino experiments have firmly established that the smallest reactor mixing angle ?13 is nonvanishing at the 5 ? level, with a relatively large value, i.e. ?13 ? 9°. Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix can be represented as V PMNS = Ul U? P? , where Ul and U? result from the diagonalization of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices and P? is a diagonal matrix containing the Majorana phases and assuming the tri-bimaximal (TBM) form for U?, we investigate the possibility of accounting for the large reactor mixing angle due to the corrections of the charged lepton mixing matrix. The form of Ul is assumed to be that of CKM mixing matrix of the quark sector. We find that with this modification it is possible to accommodate the large observed reactor mixing angle ?13. We also study the implications of such corrections on the other phenomenological observables.

Gollu, Srinu; Deepthi, K. N.; Mohanta, R.

2013-10-01

444

Helping physical task learning by automatic adjustment of a virtual teacher's rotation angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that a virtual teacher-model's position and orientation influence (a) the number of errors, and (b) the accomplishment time, in physical-task learning using mixed- reality environments. This paper proposes an automatic adjustment method of the virtual teacher's rotation angle so that the learner can observe the important body motion easily. The method divides the whole task motion into

Mamoun Nawahdah; Tomoo Inoue

2011-01-01

445

Update on Angles and Sides of the CKM Unitarity Triangle from BaBar  

SciTech Connect

We report several recent updates from the BABAR Collaboration on the matrix elements |V{sub cb}|, |V{sub ub}|, and |V{sub td}| of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix, and the angles {beta} and {alpha} of the unitarity triangle. Most results presented here are using the full BABAR {Upsilon}(4S) data set.

Cheng, Chih-hsiang; /Caltech

2011-11-14

446

Identification of unknown protein function using metabolite cocktail screening  

PubMed Central

Summary Proteins of unknown function comprise a significant fraction of sequenced genomes. Defining the roles of these proteins is vital to understanding cellular processes. Here, we describe a method to determine a protein function based on the identification of its natural ligand(s) by the crystallographic screening of the binding of a metabolite library, followed by a focused search in the metabolic space. The method was applied to two protein families with unknown function, PF01256 and YjeF_N. The PF01256 proteins, represented by YxkO from Bacillus subtilis and the C-terminal domain of Tm0922 from Thermotoga maritima, were shown to catalyze ADP/ATP-dependent NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratation, a previously described orphan activity. The YjeF_N proteins, represented by mouse apolipoprotein A-I binding protein and the N-terminal domain of Tm0922, were found to interact with an adenosine diphosphoribose-related substrate and likely serve as ADP-ribosyltransferases. Crystallographic screening of metabolites serves as an efficient tool in functional analyses of uncharacterized proteins.

Shumilin, Igor A.; Cymborowski, Marcin; Chertihin, Olga; Jha, Kula N.; Herr, John C.; Lesley, Scott A.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Minor, Wladek

2012-01-01

447

On Differential Photometric Reconstruction for Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comprehensive theory of photometric surface reconstruction from image derivatives in the presence of a general, unknown isotropic BRDF. We derive precise topological classes up to which the surface may be determined and specify exact priors for a full geometric reconstruction. These results are the culmination of a series of fundamental observations. First, we exploit the linearity of chain rule differentiation to discover photometric invariants that relate image derivatives to the surface geometry, regardless of the form of isotropic BRDF. For the problem of shape-from-shading, we show that a reconstruction may be performed up to isocontours of constant magnitude of the gradient. For the problem of photometric stereo, we show that just two measurements of spatial and temporal image derivatives, from unknown light directions on a circle, suffice to recover surface information from the photometric invariant. Surprisingly, the form of the invariant bears a striking resemblance to optical flow; however, it does not suffer from the aperture problem. This photometric flow is shown to determine the surface up to isocontours of constant magnitude of the surface gradient, as well as isocontours of constant depth. Further, we prove that specification of the surface normal at a single point completely determines the surface depth from these isocontours. In addition, we propose practical algorithms that require additional initial or boundary information, but recover depth from lower order derivatives. Our theoretical results are illustrated with several examples on synthetic and real data. PMID:24136432

Chandraker, Manmohan; Bai, Jiamin; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

2013-12-01

448

On Differential Photometric Reconstruction for Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs.  

PubMed

We present a comprehensive theory of photometric reconstruction from image derivatives, in the presence of a general, unknown isotropic BRDF. We derive precise topological classes up to which the surface may be determined and specify exact priors for a full geometric reconstruction. These results are the culmination of a series of fundamental observations. First, we exploit the linearity of differentiation to discover BRDF-independent photometric invariants. For the problem of shape from shading, we show that isocontours of constant magnitude of the gradient may be recovered. For the problem of photometric stereo, we derive a photometric flow that relates image derivatives to surface geometry, using just two measurements of spatial and temporal image derivatives from unknown light directions on a circle. The photometric flow is shown to determine the surface up to isocontours of constant magnitude of the surface gradient, as well as isocontours of constant depth. Further, we prove that specification of the surface normal at a single point completely determines the surface depth from these isocontours. Additionally, we propose practical algorithms that require initial or boundary information, but recover depth from lower order derivatives. Our theoretical results are illustrated with several examples on synthetic and real data. PMID:23045376

Chandraker, Manmohan; Bai, Jiamin; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

2012-10-01

449

S{sub 4} model for quarks and leptons with maximal atmospheric angle  

SciTech Connect

We consider a model for quark and lepton masses and mixings based on S{sub 4} flavor symmetry. The model contains six Higgs doublets where three of them give mass to the leptons, and the other three gives mass to the quarks. Charged fermion and quark masses arise from renormalizable interactions while neutrino Majorana masses are generated through effective dimension five Weinberg operator. From the study of the minimization of the scalar potential we found a residual {mu}{r_reversible}{tau} symmetry in the neutrino sector predicting zero reactor angle and maximal atmospheric angle and for the quark sector we found a four-zero texture. We give a fit of the mass hierarchies and mixing angles in the quark sector.

Morisi, Stefano; Peinado, Eduardo [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular-C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2010-04-15

450

Mix Design Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to develop a mix design method for WMA in the form of a draft AASHTO recommended practice for use by engineers and technicians in the public and private sectors. This method was (1) to be based on Superpave mix design met...

R. Bonaquist

2011-01-01

451

Angiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.  

PubMed

Angiomas situated within the pontocerebellar cistern lie superficially on the ventrolateral aspect of the brain stem. Occasionally, minor extensions penetrate into the adjacent nervous structures. Five patients bearing such lesions were operated upon, using a microsurgical technique. Radical excision was performed in all cases. Within 2 to 12 months the patients had returned to their previous occupations, being fully able to work or attend school. There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of surgical treatment of angiomas of the ventrolateral aspect of the brain stem and the cerebellopontine angle. The illness usually presents with hemorrhages of varying severity, ranging from mild to devastating. Impairment of consciousness, contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral cranial nerve palsies are the most frequent neurological signs after bleeding. The outcome following excision is primarily related to the preoperative condition. No additional deficits or only minor further impairment can be expected from surgical interference. Exploration is advisable whenever the malformation appears to lie on the surface rather than within the brain stem. PMID:6169805

Viale, G L; Pau, A; Viale, E S; Turtas, S

1981-01-01

452

[Screening in open angle glaucoma].  

PubMed

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) represents the second cause of mondial cecity, after retinal diabetes complications, with extremely severe implications in quality of life. Screening testing for glaucoma is justified, because only the diagnosis in very incipient stage will preserve the visual function; any treatment will not assure the reversibility of pre-existent optic nerve lesions. Screening of glaucoma, will take into a consideration the costs, the time of investigation, the adverse effects, and the sensitivity and specificity of tests; the last parameter also will strongly influence the positive predictive value. An ideal screening identifies all subjects that present the disease (sensitivity) and will exclude all healthy subjects (specificity). In this moment, in Dolj district, the diagnosis is based on active diagnosis of new cases of glaucoma on the high risk level population, therefore in a 210000 habitants. 4723 patients with glaucoma are diagnosed, screened and follow-up on medical cabinets and on Center of Glaucoma, which coordinates their activity. To better monitored patients, automatized programs with acquisition and storage for different types of medical imaging facilities had become indispensable to any routine practice. PMID:23755511

Mocanu, Carmen; Mocanu, Andrei

2012-01-01

453

CP violation in bipair neutrino mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are experimentally determined two best-fit points for the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle ?23: sin2?23=0.413 (case A) and sin2?23=0.594 (case B). In the bipair neutrino mixing scheme, we predict sin2?23=2-1 (case 1) to be consistent with the case A and sin2?23=2-2 (case 2) to be consistent with the case B. If the case B is realized in nature, the bipair neutrino mixing provides a unique neutrino model consistent with the observation sin2?23=0.594. However, the reactor neutrino mixing angle ?13 is predicted to be sin2?13=0, which is inconsistent with the observation. We propose a new modification scheme to yield sin2?13?0 utilizing the charged lepton contribution and study its effect on both of CP-violating Dirac and Majorana phases, which is numerically estimated. It is found that there appear striking differences between the case 1 and the case 2 in their phase structure.

Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasuè, Masaki

2013-10-01

454

PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES  

SciTech Connect

Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism via reverse genetics, metabolic profiling, functional complementation, and recombinant protein biochemistry. Our approach predicted and validated functions for 10 formerly uncharacterized protein families common to plants and prokaryotes; none of these functions had previously been correctly predicted by computational methods. The functions of five more are currently being validated. Experimental testing of diverse representatives of these families combined with in silica analysis allowed accurate projection of the annotations to hundreds more sequenced genomes.

V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

2012-01-03

455

8.G Find the Missing Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In the picture below, lines $l$ and $m$ are parallel. The measure of angle $\\angle PAX$ is $31^\\circ$, and the measure of angle $\\angle PBY$ is $54^\\ci...

456

Magnetic reconnection with large separatrix angles  

SciTech Connect

The authors have made use of incompressible MHD simulations to study the process of magnetic reconnection. They have varied the inflow boundary conditions and the magnetic Reynolds numbers. They study the case of magnetic reconnection with large magnetic separatrix angles. They contrast this with the Petschek reconnection model with small separatrix angles. They show that a large normal magnetic field results in the presence of large separatrix angles in the steady state reconnection condition. They find the separatrix angle depends mainly upon the normal magnetic field component on the inflow boundary. They observe the formation of plasma jets, whose structure can convert magnetic energy into plasma kinetic energy by plasma acceleration and heating.

Yan, M.; Lee, L.C. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)); Priest, E.R. (Univ. of St. Andrews (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

457

Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability.  

PubMed

As an approach using bistable nematic liquid crystals, we present a liquid crystal display with viewing angle control using two stable states, splay and 180 degrees-twist at pi cell, with three terminal electrode structures. The splay state is controlled by in-plane switching for a wide viewing angle (WVA), while the 180 degrees-twist state is operated by vertical switching for a narrow viewing angle (NVA). With this bistable mode, we fabricated viewing angle-controlled LCDs without additional optical components. PMID:18542350

Gwag, Jin Seog; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Myung-Eun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

2008-02-18

458

Search for unknown isotopes using the JAERI-ISOL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for unknown neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and neutron-deficient americium isotopes was carried out using a gas-jet coupled thermal ion source installed in the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL). New isotopes b166Tb and d165Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of 238U were identified. The half-lives were 21+/-6 s for b166Tb and 10.3+/-1.6 s for d.165Gd. Pu KX-rays associated with EC decays of americium isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions were observed in the X/?-ray spectra for the mass separated fraction of 237 and 236.

Ichikawa, S.; Tsukada, K.; Oura, Y.; Iimura, H.; Nishinaka, I.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Nagame, Y.; Asai, M.; Osa, A.; Kojima, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kawade, K.; Ohyama, T.; Sueki, K.

1996-04-01

459

Chest wall metastasis from unknown primary site of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Previous reports of a solitary metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma have been rare. Because this tumor has a different treatment modality and prognosis, an accurate differential diagnosis is essential. Here we report a rare case of a solitary chest wall metastasis from unknown primary site of hepatocellular carcinoma. It involves a 51-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital because of a palpable left upper chest wall mass. The mass was resected and pathologic examination confirmed a diagnosis of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite our investigation, no evidence was found that indicated the primary origin of the hepatocellular carcinoma. Four months later, the patient was admitted again because of spinal cord compression at the third and fourth thoracic vertebrae. Emergent decompressive laminectomy was performed and microscopic features revealed the same pathology as the initial chest wall mass resected 4 months earlier. After one year, a follow-up abdominal computed tomography (CT) still revealed no evidence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:16610073

Hyun, Yil-Sik; Choi, Ho-Soon; Bae, Joong-Ho; Jun, Dae-Won; Lee, Hang-Lak; Lee, Oh-Young; Yoon, Byung-Chul; Lee, Min-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoo; Kee, Choon-Shuk; Kang, Jung-Ho; Park, Moon-Hyang

2006-04-01

460

CROSS IDENTIFICATION OF STARS WITH UNKNOWN PROPER MOTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The cross identification of sources in separate catalogs is one of the most basic tasks in observational astronomy. It is, however, surprisingly difficult and generally ill defined. Recently, Budavari and Szalay formulated the problem in the realm of probability theory and laid down the statistical foundations of an extensible methodology. In this paper, we apply their Bayesian approach to stars with detectable proper motion and show how to associate their observations. We study models on a sample of stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which allow for an unknown proper motion per object, and demonstrate the improvements over the analytic static model. Our models and conclusions are directly applicable to upcoming surveys such as PanSTARRS, the Dark Energy Survey, Sky Mapper, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, whose data sets will contain hundreds of millions of stars observed multiple times over several years.

Kerekes, Gyoengyi; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Pazmany P. setany 1/A, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Connolly, Andrew J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, 3910 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Szalay, Alexander S., E-mail: kerekes@complex.elte.h, E-mail: budavari@jhu.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2010-08-10

461

Graves' disease presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.  

PubMed Central

Fever is a common clinical manifestation of inflammatory processes of the thyroid and thyroid crisis. On the other hand, fever alone as a presenting symptom of thyrotoxicosis, without other manifestations, is extremely rare. A female patient is described in whom fever persisted for two months prior to hospitalization, but without clinical symptoms or signs to lead to suspicion of thyroid disease. After exhaustive investigation it was found that the patient was suffering from hyperthyroidism. Fever disappeared gradually on antithyroid therapy, recurred when the drugs were withdrawn for a rechallenge trial, and cleared up again after renewal. Four other cases of persistent fever as a presenting symptom of hyperthyroidism were found on a review of previous publications. Thyrotoxicosis should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. Images Figure 1

Shaked, Y.; Samra, Y.; Zwas, S. T.

1988-01-01

462

Unknown primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) in the mediastinum.  

PubMed

Unknown primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) in the mediastinum is extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a 53-year-old man with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome who developed LCNEC in the middle mediastinum. His chief complaint was facial edema. Chest X-ray revealed an abnormal shadow in the right upper mediastinum. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed a 67-mm mass in the middle mediastinum. Tumor invasion caused constriction of the SVC. The patient underwent induction chemoradiotherapy with vinorelbin and cisplatin and concurrent radiation therapy. After induction therapy, the tumor size decreased remarkably and was resected completely. The pathological diagnosis was LCNEC. PMID:23011520

Maeda, Ai; Nakata, Masao; Yasuda, Kouichiro; Yukawa, Takuro; Saisho, Shinsuke; Okita, Riki; Hirami, Yuji; Shimizu, Katsuhiko

2012-09-26

463

Autoimmune cholangitis presented as fever of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Autoimmune cholangitis is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease. Fever of unknown origin is defined as a temperature higher than 38.3 degrees C that lasts for more than 3 weeks with no obvious source despite appropriate investigation. We describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with fever, fatigue and weight loss. The serum biochemical study showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Antinuclear, antimitochondrial, anti-smooth-muscle antibodies and antibodies against the cytoplasm of neutrophils were negative. Liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune cholangitis. The patient was successfully treated with methylprednisolone and ursodeoxycholic acid. We describe here a rare case of fever as preceding and leading symptom of autoimmune cholangitis. PMID:17008778

Petrogiannopoulos, Constantinos; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Karachalios, Georgios; Karachaliou, Iris; Kostakos, Nikolaos; Barbati, Kalypso; Zacharof, Antonios

2006-09-27

464

Fever of unknown origin: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Fever is a common problem for which patients seek medical advice. Fortunately, in most cases, fever is self-limiting or the etiology of fever is promptly established. Sustained, unexplained fever despite a comprehensive work up is recognized as fever of unknown origin (FUO), which frequently poses a clinical challenge. For a methodical approach, FUO is recently categorized into classic FUO, nosocomial FUO, neutropenic FUO and HIV-associated FUO based on the clinical setting and patient's underlying immune status. This review focuses on the key factors of classic FUO. The etiologic clues obtainable from the history, bedside physical examination findings and pertinent laboratory tests are discussed. Also, FUO in older patients and tuberculosis as a cause of FUO are briefly discussed. PMID:22475734

Hayakawa, Kayoko; Ramasamy, Balaji; Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi H

2012-10-01

465

Simulated NMIS Imaging Data for an Unknown Object  

SciTech Connect

This report presents simulated Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging data for an unclassified object, whose characteristics are initially unknown to the reader. This data will be used to test various analysis capabilities and was created with a simple deterministic ray-tracing algorithm. NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence counting system that is used to characterize both fissile and non-fissile materials undergoing nondestructive assay. NMIS characterizes materials by interrogating them with neutrons, either from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, which produces a time and directionally tagged monoenergetic beam of 14.1 MeV neutrons, or a time-tagged spontaneous fission source in an ionization chamber.

Walker, Mark E [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2012-04-01

466

Pharmacointeraction Network Models Predict Unknown Drug-Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can lead to serious and potentially lethal adverse events. In recent years, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to interaction-related adverse events (AEs). Current methods for detecting DDIs rely on the accumulation of sufficient clinical evidence in the post-market stage – a lengthy process that often takes years, during which time numerous patients may suffer from the adverse effects of the DDI. Detection methods are further hindered by the extremely large combinatoric space of possible drug-drug-AE combinations. There is therefore a practical need for predictive tools that can identify potential DDIs years in advance, enabling drug safety professionals to better prioritize their limited investigative resources and take appropriate regulatory action. To meet this need, we describe Predictive Pharmacointeraction Networks (PPINs) – a novel approach that predicts unknown DDIs by exploiting the network structure of all known DDIs, together with other intrinsic and taxonomic properties of drugs and AEs. We constructed an 856-drug DDI network from a 2009 snapshot of a widely-used drug safety database, and used it to develop PPIN models for predicting future DDIs. We compared the DDIs predicted based solely on these 2009 data, with newly reported DDIs that appeared in a 2012 snapshot of the same database. Using a standard multivariate approach to combine predictors, the PPIN model achieved an AUROC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.81 with a sensitivity of 48% given a specificity of 90%. An analysis of DDIs by severity level revealed that the model was most effective for predicting “contraindicated” DDIs (AUROC?=?0.92) and less effective for “minor” DDIs (AUROC?=?0.63). These results indicate that network based methods can be useful for predicting unknown drug-drug interactions.

Cami, Aurel; Manzi, Shannon; Arnold, Alana; Reis, Ben Y.

2013-01-01

467

Screening to identify unknown atrial fibrillation. A systematic review.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a significantly increased stroke risk which is highly preventable with appropriate oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC). However, AF may be asymptomatic and unrecognised prior to stroke. We aimed to determine if single time-point screening for AF could identify sufficient numbers with previously undiagnosed AF, to be effective for stroke prevention. This is a systematic review of clinical trials, by searching electronic medical databases, reference lists and grey literature. Studies were included if they evaluated a general ambulant adult population, using electrocardiography or pulse palpation to identify AF. We identified 30 individual studies (n=122,571, mean age 64 years, 54% male) in nine countries. Participants were recruited either from general practitioner and outpatient clinics (12 studies) or population screening/community advertisements (18 studies). Prevalence of AF across all studies was 2.3% (95% CI, 2.2-2.4%), increasing to 4.4% (CI, 4.1-4.6%) in those ?65 years (16 studies, n= 27,884). Overall incidence of previously unknown AF (14 studies, n=67,772) was 1.0% (CI, 0.89-1.04%), increasing to 1.4% (CI, 1.2-1.6%) in those ?65 years (8 studies, n= 18,189) in whom screening setting did not influence incidence identified. Of those with previously unknown AF, 67% were at high risk of stroke.Screening can identify 1.4% of the population ?65 years with previously undiagnosed AF. Many of those identified would be eligible for, and benefit from OAC to prevent stroke. Given this incidence, community AF screening strategies in at risk older age groups could potentially reduce the overall health burden associated with AF. PMID:23595785

Lowres, Nicole; Neubeck, Lis; Redfern, Julie; Freedman, S Ben

2013-04-18

468

A 'range test' for determining scatterers with unknown physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new scheme for determining the convex scattering support of an unknown scatterer when the physical properties of the scatterers are not known. The convex scattering support is a subset of the scatterer and provides information about its location and estimates for its shape. For convex polygonal scatterers the scattering support coincides with the scatterer and we obtain full shape reconstructions. The method will be formulated for the reconstruction of the scatterers from the far field pattern for one or a few incident waves. The method is non-iterative in nature and belongs to the type of recently derived generalized sampling schemes such as the 'no response test' of Luke-Potthast. The range test operates by testing whether it is possible to analytically continue a far field to the exterior of any test domain Omegatest. By intersecting the convex hulls of various test domains we can produce a minimal convex set, the convex scattering support of which must be contained in the convex hull of the support of any scatterer which produces that far field. The convex scattering support is calculated by testing the range of special integral operators for a sampling set of test domains. The numerical results can be used as an approximation for the support of the unknown scatterer. We prove convergence and regularity of the scheme and show numerical examples for sound-soft, sound-hard and medium scatterers. We can apply the range test to non-convex scatterers as well. We can conclude that an Omegatest which passes the range test has a non-empty intersection with the infinity-support (the complement of the unbounded component of the complement of the support) of the true scatterer, but cannot find a minimal set which must be contained therein.

Potthast, Roland; Sylvester, John; Kusiak, Steven

2003-06-01

469

Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.  

PubMed

Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

2002-05-21

470

Effects of triggering mechanism on snow avalanche slope angles and slab depths from field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field data from snow avalanche fracture lines for slope angle and slab depth (measured perpendicular to the weak layer) were analyzed for different triggering mechanisms. For slope angle, the results showed that the same probability density function (pdf) (of log-logistic type) and range (25 - 55 degrees) apply independent of triggering mechanism. For slab depth, the same pdf (generalized extreme value) applies independent of triggering mechanism. For both slope angle and slab depth, the data skewness differentiated between triggering mechanism and increased with applied triggering load. For slope angle, skewness is lowest for natural triggering by snow loads and highest for triggering from human intervention. For slab depth, the skewness is lowest for natural triggering and highest for a mix of triggers including explosive control with skier triggering being intermediate. The results reveal the effects of triggering mechanism which are important for risk analyses and to guide avalanche forecasting.

McClung, David M.

2013-04-01

471

Mixing in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

Fryer, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-07

472

Mixed-initiative interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents three essays about the area of mixed-initiative interaction. The first essay introduces the area and creates a useful taxonomy of mixed-initiative dialog issues. The author summarises several years' worth of research on mixed-initiative planning systems. The second essay describes the role of uncertainty in mixed-initiative interaction and describes two innovative systems for semi-automated assistance that make use of Bayesian

J. E. Allen; C. I. Guinn; E. Horvtz

1999-01-01

473

Optimum release angle in the shot put  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of a method of calculating the optimum release angle in the shot put. Using the proposed method, the optimum release angle that produces the greatest flight distance is calculated by combining the equation for the range of a projectile in free flight with the relations between release speed, release height

Nicholas P. Linthorne

2001-01-01

474

Classification procedure in limited angle tomography system  

SciTech Connect

In this work we propose the use of limited angle reconstruction algorithms combined with a procedure for defect detection and feature evaluation in three dimensions. The procedure consists of the following steps: acquisition of the X-ray projections, approximated limited angle 3D image reconstruction, and image preprocessing and classification.

Chlewicki, W.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Chady, T.; Brykalski, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Westpomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

2011-06-23

475

High Angle Conveyor Study. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the use of a high angle conveying system in an open pit mine. It identifies available high angle conveying equipment and examines the haulage and crushing costs associated with both a conventional truck and shovel mining operation and a...

E. A. Mevissen A. C. Siminerio J. A. Dos Santos

1981-01-01

476

11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Buttress rising above stream bed elevation. Concrete mixing plant is at right, west tower and placement tower boom are visible. Photographer unknown, November 24, 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

477

Angle illusion on a picture's surface.  

PubMed

Shapes on picture surfaces are not seen accurately (Arnheim, 1954). In particular, if they depict 3-D forms, angles between lines on a picture surface are misperceived. To test four theories of the misperception, subjects estimated acute and obtuse internal angles of quadrilaterals. Each quadrilateral was shown alone or as part of a drawing of a cube. The drawings showed the tops of the cubes, tilted at various angles around a horizontal axis. This generated different acute and obtuse angles in the drawings. Compared to a quadrilateral on its own, judgments of the acute and obtuse angles in the cube drawings were biased towards 90 degrees . The bias was present over a wide range of intermediate tilts. The results support a perspective convergence theory and run counter to 'Extreme Foreshortening', Gestalt and Cognitive theories. PMID:18534114

Hammad, Sherief; Kennedy, John M; Juricevic, Igor; Rajani, Shazma

2008-01-01

478

GR Schwarzschild Light Launch Angle Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Schwarzschild Light Launch Angle program simulates the path of light around a black hole using the Schwarzschild metric and allows the user to set the launch angle of the light. It also displays a plot of the effective potential well for the light. The default setting is light with an r-coordinate value of 3.5 and a launch angle of 1.571 (in radians). GR Schwarzschild Light Launch Angle Parameter is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_schwarzschild_light_launch_angle.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2008-05-27

479

Investigation of Lightning Rod Shielding Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies those parameters affecting the shielding angle of the lightning rod (Franklin Rod) above very tall buildings. It was recommended that the shielding angle of the lightning rod is about 45°?60°. The downward lightning leader is modeled by using discrete line charges to consider the exponential distribution of charges through the downward leader. The voltage condition used by Rizk is used to investigate the inception of the upward lightning leader. Different air conditions (relative air density and air humidity) are considered for more practical simulation. The influences of lightning parameters and lightning rod height on the shielding angle are studied. The results shows that, lightning leader parameters, lightning rod height and ground slope have series effects on the lightning rod shielding angle. Based on the results, a lightning rod shielding angle for shielding design is recommended to decrease the lightning stroke to the lightning rod.

Nayel, Mohamed

480

[Drugs and closed-angle glaucoma risk].  

PubMed

Closed-angle glaucomas arise among predisposed patients (narrow iridocorneal angle) in response to various stimuli. Most of the attacks are of iatrogenic origin: all the topical and systemic mydriatic drugs can provoke an angle closure glaucoma attack. Dangerous active ingredients with closed-angle glaucoma are active substances with anticholinergic activity (peripheral action, central action, with anticholinergic side-effects), active ingredients with sympathomimetic alpha activity (alpha 1, alpha and beta with indirect effects), and the active ingredients with parasympathomimetic activity (anticholinesterases). The proprietary medicine, whether or not they are included in the French dictionary Vidal((R)), are classified according to the administration route and their different indications. The closed-angle glaucoma risk after administration of these drugs is noted in the items'contraindications and precautions in the summary of the product characteristics enclosed in the marketing authorization. PMID:11965126

Pozzi, D; Giraud, C; Callanquin, M

2002-01-01

481

Dynamic-angle spinning of quadrupolar nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS), a sample spins around an axis inclined at an angle ?(t) with respect to the magnetic field such that the averages of Pn(cos?) are zero. The simplest case is where ?(t) assumes two discrete values ?1 and ?2 (complementary DAS angles) such that the averages of P2(cos?) and P4(cos?) are zero, thereby removing second-order quadrupolar (and dipolar) broadening. Examples of DAS complementary angles are ?1=37.38° and ?2=79.18°. Experimental details for DAS experiments are provided and applications to sodium-23 and oxygen-17 NMR illustrate the enhanced resolution achieved by removing the second-order broadening inherent in magic-angle spinning.

Mueller, K. T.; Sun, B. Q.; Chingas, G. C.; Zwanziger, J. W.; Terao, T.; Pines, A.

2011-12-01

482

Development of Tibiofemoral Angle in Korean Children  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to identify the chronological changes of the knee angle or the tibiofemoral angles in normal healthy Korean children. Full-length anteroposterior view standing radiographs of 818 limbs of 452 Korean children were analyzed. The overall patterns of the chronological changes in the knee angle were similar to those described previously in western or Asian children, but the knee angle development was delayed, i.e., genu varum before 1 yr, neutral at 1.5 yr, increasing genu valgum with maximum a value of 7.8° at 4 yr, followed by a gradual decrease to approximately 5-6° of genu valgum of the adult level at 7 to 8 yr of age. These normative data on chronological changes of knee angles should be taken into consideration when evaluating lower limb alignment in children.

Yoo, Jae Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chung, Chin Youb; Yoo, Won Joon

2008-01-01

483

Saturation and the zenith angle dependence of atmospheric isoplanatic angle measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10-11 cm aperture stellar scintillometer can measure atmospheric isoplanatic angles reliably provided the normalized variance and the zenith angle of the data are sufficiently, restricted. Within these constraints, the normalized variance data has a zenith angle power law that is quite close to the theoretical prediction. This is a self-consistent indication that the instrument is actually measuring the isoplanatic angle.

Walters, D. L.

484

Implant Angle Repeatability on Optima MD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very sensitive channeling implant has been used to quantify the repeatability of implant angles for the Optima MD over a period exceeding one month. Sensitivity of sheet resistance to variation in vertical and horizontal beam angles was measured for 500 keV P++ at a dose of 5E13 /cm2 near orientations tilt/twist of 0°/0° and 35.26°/0° for (100) wafers. Sensitivity to tilt in the vertical plane at both conditions was at least a 10% change in Rs for a 0.5° change in tilt at a tilt of 0.75° away from the channel (i.e. at 0.75°/0° and 34.5°/0°), where the variation in Rs was linear with tilt. Horizontal angle sensitivity resulted in a 7.5% change in Rs for a 0.5° change in angle, but was less sensitive to smaller angle variation, since Rs varied roughly as a second order function near the channel. Sensitivity to tilt is reduced by about a factor of 3 for implants at 0°/0° compared to 0.75°/0° with a similar response at 35.26°/0° compared to 34.5°/0°. Implants were carried out using wafers from a single boule over a period exceeding one month at the orientation of 0.75°/0°. Angle control was enabled by in-situ measurement and correction of the beam angles in both the vertical and horizontal planes prior to implant. The repeatability of sheet resistance was used to infer the variation in angle. Attributing all Rs variation to be the result of beam angle variation showed that the standard deviation of beam angles for over 30 wafers is 0.03°.

Rathmell, Robert; David, Jonathan; Harris, Mark

2008-11-01

485

A fringe shadow method for measuring flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fringe shadow (FS) method was developed for measuring the flapping angle and torsional angle of a dragonfly wing during beating motion. This new method involves two sets of fringe patterns projected onto the wing from orthogonal directions. The torsional angle is determined using the length of the shadow of the wing chord that is cast by the two sets

Lijiang Zeng; Hirokazu Matsumoto; Keiji Kawachi

1996-01-01

486

The Structure of Vitreous Carbon from Wide Angle and Low Angle X-Ray Diffraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both wide angle and low angle X-ray diffraction patterns have been measured for a sample of vitreous carbon which has been subjected to maximum heat-treatment of 1800C. The wide angle scattering was used to calculate a radial distribution function, which ...

C. J. Pings G. D. Wignall

1972-01-01

487

Classical phases and quantum angles in the description of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

The interference of two Bose-Einstein condensates, initially in Fock states, can be described in terms of their relative phase, treated as a random unknown variable. This phase can be understood either as emerging from the measurements or pre-existing to them; in the latter case, the originating states could be phase states with unknown phases, so an average over all their possible values is taken. Both points of view lead to a description of probabilities of results of experiments in terms of a phase angle, which plays the role of a classical variable. Nevertheless, in some situations, this description is not sufficient: another variable, which we call the ''quantum angle,'' emerges from the theory. This article studies various manifestations of the quantum angle. We first introduce the quantum angle by expressing two Fock states crossing a beam splitter in terms of phase states and relate the quantum angle to off-diagonal matrix elements in the phase representation. Then we consider an experiment with two beam splitters, where two experimenters make dichotomic measurements with two interferometers and detectors that are far apart; the results lead to violations of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (valid for local-realistic theories, including classical descriptions of the phase). Finally, we discuss an experiment where particles from each of two sources are either deviated via a beam splitter to a side collector or proceed to the point of interference. For a given interference result, we find ''population oscillations'' in the distributions of the deviated particles, which are entirely controlled by the quantum angle. Various versions of population oscillation experiments are discussed, with two or three independent condensates.

Mullin, W. J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Laloee, F. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)

2010-07-15

488

Classical phases and quantum angles in the description of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interference of two Bose-Einstein condensates, initially in Fock states, can be described in terms of their relative phase, treated as a random unknown variable. This phase can be understood either as emerging from the measurements or pre-existing to them; in the latter case, the originating states could be phase states with unknown phases, so an average over all their possible values is taken. Both points of view lead to a description of probabilities of results of experiments in terms of a phase angle, which plays the role of a classical variable. Nevertheless, in some situations, this description is not sufficient: another variable, which we call the “quantum angle,” emerges from the theory. This article studies various manifestations of the quantum angle. We first introduce the quantum angle by expressing two Fock states crossing a beam splitter in terms of phase states and relate the quantum angle to off-diagonal matrix elements in the phase representation. Then we consider an experiment with two beam splitters, where two experimenters make dichotomic measurements with two interferometers and detectors that are far apart; the results lead to violations of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (valid for local-realistic theories, including classical descriptions of the phase). Finally, we discuss an experiment where particles from each of two sources are either deviated via a beam splitter to a side collector or proceed to the point of interference. For a given interference result, we find “population oscillations” in the distributions of the deviated particles, which are entirely controlled by the quantum angle. Various versions of population oscillation experiments are discussed, with two or three independent condensates.

Mullin, W. J.; Laloë, F.

2010-07-01

489

Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be included during viscosity measurements. The use of practical shear rates results in reasonable mixing and compaction temperatures for hot mix asphalt design and construction with modified asphalt binders. It was found that application of the shear rate concept, rather than the traditional approach used for unmodified binders, can reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures from between roughly 10 and 30°C, depending on the type and the amount of modifier.

Yildirim, Yetkin

490

A roadmap for fever of unknown origin in children.  

PubMed

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is conventionally defined by the occurrence of body temperatures above 38.3 degrees C (101 degrees F) for a period of 3 weeks without any identified etiology after a period of 1-week hospitalization. The issue of FUO in pediatrics is rather hazy and still represents a challenging diagnostic dilemma. Most of the available data are limited to nationwide cohorts of patients of any age. The major difficulty in establishing a diagnosis is that the characteristic features rendering specific disorders clinically recognizable are absent or subtle, hence only a painstaking questioning on family background may elicit the correct investigative path. No diagnostic algorithms are actually available and clinicians must rely on a very careful step-by-step evaluation of the single patient. The need for invasive diagnostic techniques should be closely taken into consideration when laboratory tests or simple imaging procedures fail to discern the origin of FUO. Fevers with no reasonable explanation and no localizing signs often conceal different common diseases in children, which tend to display an unusual or atypical pattern. The principal causes behind FUO in pediatric age remain infections, followed by collagen vascular diseases and neoplastic disorders, although most children with malignancies present other systemic signs or suggestive laboratory abnormalities. The possibility of autoinflammatory syndromes, drug fever, and factitious fever should also be taken into account. PMID:23755747

Rigante, D; Esposito, S

491

Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

Niranjan, Ajay, E-mail: niranjana@upmc.ed [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2010-08-01

492

Linkage disequilibrium testing when linkage phase is unknown.  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium, the nonrandom association of alleles from different loci, can provide valuable information on the structure of haplotypes in the human genome and is often the basis for evaluating the association of genomic variation with human traits among unrelated subjects. But, linkage phase of genetic markers measured on unrelated subjects is typically unknown, and so measurement of linkage disequilibrium, and testing whether it differs significantly from the null value of zero, requires statistical methods that can account for the ambiguity of unobserved haplotypes. A common method to test whether linkage disequilibrium differs significantly from zero is the likelihood-ratio statistic, which assumes Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of the marker phenotype proportions. We show, by simulations, that this approach can be grossly biased, with either extremely conservative or liberal type I error rates. In contrast, we use simulations to show that a composite statistic, proposed by Weir and Cockerham, maintains the correct type I error rates, and, when comparisons are appropriate, has similar power as the likelihood-ratio statistic. We extend the composite statistic to allow for more than two alleles per locus, providing a global composite statistic, which is a strong competitor to the usual likelihood-ratio statistic.

Schaid, Daniel J

2004-01-01

493

Detecting unknown sequences with DNA microarrays: explorative probe design strategies.  

PubMed

Designing environmental DNA microarrays that can be used to survey the extreme diversity of microorganisms existing in nature, represents a stimulating challenge in the field of molecular ecology. Indeed, recent efforts in metagenomics have produced a substantial amount of sequence information from various ecosystems, and will continue to accumulate large amounts of sequence data given the qualitative and quantitative improvements in the next-generation sequencing methods. It is now possible to take advantage of these data to develop comprehensive microarrays by using explorative probe design strategies. Such strategies anticipate genetic variations and thus are able to detect known and unknown sequences in environmental samples. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the probe design strategies currently available to construct both phylogenetic and functional DNA microarrays, with emphasis on those permitting the selection of such explorative probes. Furthermore, exploration of complex environments requires particular attention on probe sensitivity and specificity criteria. Finally, these innovative probe design approaches require exploiting newly available high-density microarray formats. PMID:21895914

Dugat-Bony, Eric; Peyretaillade, Eric; Parisot, Nicolas; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Jaziri, Faouzi; Hill, David; Rimour, Sébastien; Peyret, Pierre

2011-09-05

494

Pitch angle variations in spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed photometric study and measurements of spiral arm pitch angles for a sample of 50 non-barred or weakly barred grand-design spiral galaxies selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In order to find pitch angles, we used a new method based on the window Fourier analysis of their images. This method allows us not only to infer the average pitch angle, but to obtain its value as a function of galactocentric radius as well. Our main results are as follows: (1) Spiral arms of most galaxies cannot be described by a single value of the pitch angle. About 2/3 of galaxies demonstrate pitch angle variations exceeding 20 per cent. In most galaxies in the sample their pitch angle decreases by increasing the distance from the centre. (2) Pitch angle variations correlate with the properties of galaxies - with the shape of the surface brightness distribution (envelope-type or truncated disc), and with the sign of stellar disc colour gradient. (3) More luminous and bright bulges produce more tightly wound spiral arms, that is in agreement with current models for spiral arms formation.

Savchenko, S. S.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

2013-09-01

495

Analysis of quark mixing using binary tetrahedral flavor symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the binary tetrahedral group T', the three angles and phase of the quark CKM mixing matrix are pursued by symmetry-breaking which involves T'-doublet VEVs and the Chen-Mahanthappa CP-violation mechanism. The NMRT'M, next-to-minimal renormalizable-T' model is described, and its one parameter comparison to experimental data is explored.

Eby, David A.; Frampton, Paul H.; Matsuzaki, Shinya

2009-09-01

496

Generation mixing and CP-violation, standard and beyond  

SciTech Connect

We discuss several issues related to the observed generation pattern of quarks and leptons. Among the main topics: Masses, angles and phases and possible relations among them, a possible fourth generation of quarks and leptons, new bounds on neutrino masses, comments on the recently observed mixing in the B - anti B system, CP-violation, and recent proposals for a b-quark ''factory''.

Harari, H.

1987-05-01

497

THERMAL INSTABILITY OF MIXED CONVECTION FLOW OVER INCLINED SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vortex instability of laminar mixed convection flow over isothermal, inclined flat plates is investigated by the linear stability theory. Critical Grashof and Reynolds numbers that predict the first occurrence of vortex rolls are obtained for fluids having a Prandtl number of 0.7 under various buoyancy force intensities and over a range of angles of inclination. It is found that

T. S. Chen; A. Moutsoglou; B. F. Armaly

1982-01-01

498

Generalized hidden Z{sub 2} symmetry of neutrino mixing  

SciTech Connect

We explore the consequences of the neutrino mass matrix having a hidden Z{sub 2} symmetry and one zero eigenvalue. When implemented, these two conditions give relations among the mixing angles. In addition, fitting these relations to the existing oscillation data allows limits to be placed on the parameter of the symmetry.

Dicus, Duane A. [Physics Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Ge Shaofeng [Physics Department, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Energy Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Repko, Wayne W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan 48824 (United States)

2011-05-01

499

Proton decay and the origin of quark and lepton mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently proposed that all flavor mixing has a single source, namely the mixing of the three quark and lepton families with "extra" vectorlike fermions in 5 + multiplets of SU(5). This was shown to lead to several testable predictions including neutrino masses and CP-violating phases. Here it is shown that the mixing angles within grand unified fermion multiplets are also predicted. Proton decay branching ratios would thus give several independent tests of the model. Certain model parameters could be determined independently from the quark and lepton spectrum and from proton decay.

Barr, S. M.; Chen, Heng-Yu

2013-10-01

500

Advanced robotics handling and controls applied to Mixed Waste characterization, segregation and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Mixed Waste Operations program of the Department of Energy Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), a key emphasis is developing a total solution to the problem of characterizing, handling and treating complex and potentially unknown mixed waste objects. LLNL has been successful at looking at the problem from a system perspective and addressing some

E. Grasz; L. Huber; J. Horvath; P. Roberson; K. Wilhelmsen; R. Ryon

1994-01-01