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1

Measures on Mixing Angles  

E-print Network

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1)^2\\SU(3)/U(1)^2. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3 x 3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed value are now rather likely, and there does not seem to be any fine tuning. Our results suggest that the choice of Kobayashi-Maskawa angles is closely linked to the observed mass hierarchy. We close by discussing the corresponding case of neutrinos.

Gary W. Gibbons; Steffen Gielen; C. N. Pope; Neil Turok

2008-10-27

2

Measures on mixing angles  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1){sup 2}/SU(3)/U(1){sup 2}. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3x3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed value are now rather likely, and there does not seem to be any fine-tuning. Our results suggest that the choice of Kobayashi-Maskawa angles is closely linked to the observed mass hierarchy. We close by discussing the corresponding case of neutrinos.

Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Pope, C. N. [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Turok, Neil [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2009-01-01

3

Measures on Mixing Angles  

E-print Network

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1)^2\\SU(3)/U(1)^2. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3 x 3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed val...

Gibbons, Gary W; Pope, C N; Turok, Neil

2008-01-01

4

4.MD,G Finding an unknown angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In the figure, $ABCD$ is a rectangle and $\\angle CAD = 31^{\\circ}$. Find $\\angle BAC$....

5

Mixing angle of hadrons in QCD: A new view  

SciTech Connect

A new method for calculation of the mixing angle between the hadrons within QCD sum rules is proposed. In this method, the mixing is expressed in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom. As an application, the detailed calculation of the mixing angle between heavy cascade baryons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '}, Q=c, b is presented and it is found that the mixing angle between {Xi}{sub b} ({Xi}{sub c}) and {Xi}{sub b}{sup '} ({Xi}{sub c}{sup '}) is given by {theta}{sub b}=6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. ({theta}{sub c}=5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.).

Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-01

6

Determination of the mixing angle between new charmonium states  

E-print Network

Using the pictures for $X(3872)$ as a mixture of charmonium and molecular $D^{\\ast 0}D^0$ states; $Y(3940)$ as a mixture of $\\chi_{c0}$ and $D^\\ast D^{\\prime\\ast}$ states, and $Y(4260)$ as a mixture of the tetra-quark state with charmonium states, the corresponding mixing angles are estimated within the QCD sum rules. We obtain that our predictions for the mixing angles of the $X(3872)$, $Y(4260)$ and $Y(3940)$ states are considerably smaller compared to works in which mixing angles are estimated from the condition in reproducing the the mass of these states. Our conclusion is that the considered pictures for the $X(3872)$, $Y(4260)$ and $Y(3940)$ states are not successful in describing these states.

Aliev, T M

2014-01-01

7

Multivariate statistical approach to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end members  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multivariate statistical method is presented, which includes principal components analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing model to estimate unknown end-member hydrochemical compositions and the relative mixing proportions of those end members in mixed waters. PCA, together with the Hotelling T2 statistic and a conceptual model of groundwater flow and mixing, was used in selecting samples that best approximate end members, which then were used as initial values in optimization of the end-member mixing model. This method was tested on controlled datasets (i.e., true values of estimates were known a priori) and found effective in estimating these end members and mixing proportions. The controlled datasets included synthetically generated hydrochemical data, synthetically generated mixing proportions, and laboratory analyses of sample mixtures, which were used in an evaluation of the effectiveness of this method for potential use in actual hydrological settings. For three different scenarios tested, correlation coefficients (R2) for linear regression between the estimated and known values ranged from 0.968 to 0.993 for mixing proportions and from 0.839 to 0.998 for end-member compositions. The method also was applied to field data from a study of end-member mixing in groundwater as a field example and partial method validation.

Valder, Joshua F.; Long, Andrew J.; Davis, Arden D.; Kenner, Scott J.

2012-01-01

8

Multivariate statistical approach to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA multivariate statistical method is presented, which includes principal components analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing model to estimate unknown end-member hydrochemical compositions and the relative mixing proportions of those end members in mixed waters. PCA, together with the Hotelling T2 statistic and a conceptual model of groundwater flow and mixing, was used in selecting samples that best approximate end members, which then were used as initial values in optimization of the end-member mixing model. This method was tested on controlled datasets (i.e., true values of estimates were known a priori) and found effective in estimating these end members and mixing proportions. The controlled datasets included synthetically generated hydrochemical data, synthetically generated mixing proportions, and laboratory analyses of sample mixtures, which were used in an evaluation of the effectiveness of this method for potential use in actual hydrological settings. For three different scenarios tested, correlation coefficients (R2) for linear regression between the estimated and known values ranged from 0.968 to 0.993 for mixing proportions and from 0.839 to 0.998 for end-member compositions. The method also was applied to field data from a study of end-member mixing in groundwater as a field example and partial method validation.

Valder, Joshua F.; Long, Andrew J.; Davis, Arden D.; Kenner, Scott J.

2012-08-01

9

Weak mixing angles from semileptonic decays in the quark model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the constituent-quark model to predict the electron spectra in semileptonic meson decays. Particular attention is paid to the end-point region of the spectrum in B decays, which is important to the determination of the b-->u weak mixing angle.

Benjamin Grinstein; Mark B. Wise; Nathan Isgur

1986-01-01

10

Precision measurement of the weak mixing angle in Møller scattering.  

PubMed

We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Møller) scattering: A(PV) = [-131 +/- 14(stat) +/- 10(syst)] x 10(-9), leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle sin2(thetaW(eff) = 0.2397 +/- 0.0010(stat) +/- 0.0008(syst), evaluated at Q2 = 0.026 GeV2. Combining this result with the measurements of sin2(thetaW(eff) at the Z0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6sigma significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale. PMID:16196849

Anthony, P L; Arnold, R G; Arroyo, C; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Bower, G; Cahoon, J; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gary, M; Gustafsson, K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Keller, L; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; LaViolette, P; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marshall, Z; Mastromarino, P; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Niedziela, J; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Woods, M; Younus, I

2005-08-19

11

Searching for the Neutrino Mixing Angle Theta-13 at Reactors  

E-print Network

Two neutrino mixing angles have been measured, and much of the neutrino community is turning its attention to the unmeasured mixing angle, $\\quq$, whose best limit comes from the reactor neutrino experiment CHOOZ.\\cite{bib:chooz} New two detector reactor neutrino experiments are being planned, along with more ambitious accelerator experiments, to measure or further limit $\\quq$. Here I will overview how to measure $\\quq$ using reactor neutrinos, mention some experiments that were considered and are not going forward, and review the current status of four projects: Double Chooz in France, Daya Bay in China, RENO in South Korea and Angra in Brazil. Finally I will mention how the neutrino observer can gauge progress in these projects two years from now as we approach the times corresponding to early estimates for new results.

Maury Goodman

2007-06-04

12

Review of weak mixing angle results at SLC and LEP  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors review recent precise measurements of the weak mixing angle by the SLD experiment at SLC and by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL experiments at LEP. If they assume that the Minimal Standard Model provides a complete description of the quark and lepton couplings to the Z boson, they find sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23143 {+-} 0.00028. If this assumption is relaxed to apply to lepton couplings only, they find sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23106 {+-} 0.00035. They compare these results with other precision electroweak tests.

Woods, M.

1995-10-01

13

Large mixing angles from many right-handed neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beautiful understanding of the smallness of the neutrino masses may be obtained via the seesaw mechanism, whereby one takes advantage of the key qualitative distinction between the neutrinos and the other fermions: right-handed neutrinos are gauge singlets, and may therefore have large Majorana masses. The standard seesaw mechanism, however, does not address the apparent lack of hierarchy in the neutrino masses compared to the quarks and charged leptons, nor the large leptonic mixing angles compared to the small angles of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. In this paper, we will show that the singlet nature of the right-handed neutrinos may be taken advantage of in one further way in order to solve these remaining problems: Unlike particles with gauge interactions, whose numbers are constrained by anomaly cancellation, the number of gauge singlet particles is essentially undetermined. If large numbers of gauge singlet fermions are present at high energies—as is suggested, for example, by various string constructions—then the effective low-energy neutrino mass matrix may be determined as a sum over many distinct Yukawa couplings, with the largest ones being the most important. This can reduce hierarchy, and lead to large mixing angles. Assuming a statistical distribution of fundamental parameters, we will show that this scenario leads to a good fit to low-energy phenomenology, with only a few qualitative assumptions guided by the known quark and lepton masses. The scenario leads to predictions of a normal hierarchy for the neutrino masses, and a value for the |mee| mass matrix element of about 1-6 meV.

Feldstein, Brian; Klemm, William

2012-03-01

14

Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1fb-1. From the dominant uu¯, dd¯??*/Z??-?+ process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin?2?eff=0.2287±0.0020(stat.)±0.0025(syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hänsel, S.; Hoch, M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Trauner, C.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Benucci, L.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hammad, G. H.; Hreus, T.; Marage, P. E.; Raval, A.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Adler, V.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; McCartin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, J.; Ceard, L.; Cortina Gil, E.; de Favereau de Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Grégoire, G.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Ovyn, S.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; da Costa, E. M.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Darmenov, N.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Mateev, M.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Cabrera, A.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Lelas, K.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Sillou, D.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Marionneau, M.; Millischer, L.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Elgammal, S.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Greder, S.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Mikami, Y.; van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bedjidian, M.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Le Grand, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Lomidze, D.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

2011-12-01

15

Neutrino interactions in astrophysics and the third neutrino mixing angle theta13  

E-print Network

The third neutrino mixing angle theta13 is the least known one. In this contribution, after a brief discussion of the current efforts to determine the value of this angle better, various astrophysical implications of a non-zero value of theta13 are summarized.

A. B. Balantekin

2010-06-14

16

Large neutrino mixing angles for type-I see-saw mechanism in SO(10) GUT  

E-print Network

We consider the neutrino mixing angles in an SO(10) GUT with the usual Higgs structure in which neutrino masses are explained by the type-I see-saw mechanism. The Dirac-neutrino Yukawa matrix then has a structure similar to that of the $u$-quark. We determine the light neutrino mass matrix through type-I see-saw mechanism using the experimentally consistent $u$-quark Yukawa matrix. We find that large neutrino mixing-angles emerge naturally in this model.

Bipin R. Desai; G. Rajasekaran; U. Sarkar

2005-04-08

17

Angles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows the Brownstone Kids teaching others how to dance. Illustrates angles as they turn and sing 'Get the Angles.' The group goes to a community center for playing pool in 'Calling Shoots.' Discusses angles showing the 90-degree, 45-degree, and 180-degree...

1994-01-01

18

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet enables students, using estimation and measurement skills, to investigate angles. Teachers can use this page for demonstrating how to read a protractor, and the protractor can be hidden to give students practice in estimating angle measures. The size of the angle can be controlled or chosen randomly.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

19

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables students to investigate acute, obtuse, and right angles. The student decides to work with one or two transversals and a pair of parallel lines. Angle measure is given for one angle. The student answers a short series of questions about the size of other angles, identifying relationships such as vertical and adjacent angles and alternate interior and alternate exterior angles. In addition to automatically checking the student's answers, the applet can keep score of correct answers. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans and a handout with a grid for showing the relationship between all possible angles that occur when parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

20

An SO(10) GUT Model With Lopsided Mass Matrix and Neutrino Mixing Angle theta_13  

E-print Network

An alternative supersymmetric SO(10) grand unification model with lopsided fermion mass matrices is introduced. It generates a large solar-neutrino-mixing angle through the neutrinos' Dirac mass matrix constrained by the SO(10) group structure, avoiding the fine-tuning required in the Majorana mass matrix of right-handed neutrinos. The model fits well the known data on masses and mixings of quarks and leptons, and predicts a sizable lepton mixing $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}\\simeq 0.074$, which is significantly larger than that of the original lopsided model.

Xiangdong Ji; Yingchuan Li; R. N. Mohapatra

2005-10-27

21

Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to different types of angles including acute, obtuse, and right. The lesson also introduces ways to compare angles such as alternate interior, corresponding, and many others. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to angles as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

22

Radiative Generation of Quark Masses and Mixing Angles in the Two Higgs Doublet Model  

E-print Network

We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zero-th order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy $|V_{ub}|,|V_{cb}|\\ll |V_{us}|$. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

Alejandro Ibarra; Ana Solaguren-Beascoa

2014-03-10

23

Radiative Generation of Quark Masses and Mixing Angles in the Two Higgs Doublet Model  

E-print Network

We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zero-th order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy $|V_{ub}|,|V_{cb}|\\ll |V_{us}|$. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

Ibarra, Alejandro

2014-01-01

24

Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $?_{13}$ with the Double Chooz detector  

E-print Network

The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power plant. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties with respect to previous publications, whereas the efficiency of the $\\bar\

Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadón; K. Crum; A. S. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; J. Dhooghe; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Göger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. López-Castaño; J. M. LoSecco; B. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Röhling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schönert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; D. Shrestha; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stüken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; N. Walsh; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

2014-06-30

25

Mixing in Turbulent Free Jets Issuing from Isosceles Triangular Orifices with Different Apex Angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on mixing in turbulent free jets issuing from isosceles triangular orifices with apex angles of 10°C, 20°C and 30°C. The results obtained in a contoured nozzle round jet are also presented for comparison. The measurements were made with an x-array hot-wire probe and a pitot-static tube in isothermal, incompressible jets issuing from the orifices into still surrounding air. The Reynolds number, based on the equivalent diameter of the triangular orifices (the same as the diameter of the contoured round nozzle), was on average 1.93 × 105 in all the jets. The results for the mean streamwise centerline velocity decay and jet entrainment suggest that the 10°C jet has the highest mixing rate and that the contoured nozzle round jet has the lowest mixing rate among all the jets tested.

Azad, M.; Quinn, W. R.; Groulx, D.

2011-09-01

26

Independent measurement of the neutrino mixing angle ?13 via neutron capture on hydrogen at Daya Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new measurement of the ?13 mixing angle has been obtained at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment via the detection of inverse beta decays tagged by neutron capture on hydrogen. The antineutrino events for hydrogen capture are distinct from those for gadolinium capture with largely different systematic uncertainties, allowing a determination independent of the gadolinium-capture result and an improvement on the precision of the ?13 measurement. With a 217-day antineutrino data set obtained with six antineutrino detectors and from six 2.9 GWth reactors, the rate deficit observed at the far hall is interpreted as sin22?13=0.083±0.018 in the three-flavor oscillation model. When combined with the gadolinium-capture result from Daya Bay, we obtain sin22?13=0.089±0.008 as the final result for the six-antineutrino-detector configuration of the Daya Bay experiment.

An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Ge, L. Q.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, G. H.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, W. C.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Nemchenok, I.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tam, Y. H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, J. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, B.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

2014-10-01

27

High concentration measurement of mixed particle suspensions using simple multi-angle light scattering system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple multiple-angle light scattering system was developed for the differential measurement of particle concentrations in suspension even in high concentration where multiple scattering effects are significant based on size. The system combines multiple-angle detection to collect scattered angle dependent light intensities, and Partial Least Square Regression method (PLS-R) to compose the predictive models for analyzing scattered signal obtain concentrations of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs a diode lasers (red AlGaInP-based) as a light source and a silicon photodiode as a detector and optical components, all of which are readily available. The technique was validated using 1.1 ?m and 3.0?m polystyrene latex beads in both mono-dispersed and poly-dispersed suspensions. The measurement results showed good agreement between the measured results and reference values. Their deviations from the reference values are 2.4% and 1.5% relating to references' concentrations of 1.3×108 and 1.2times;107 particles/ml for 1.1 m and 3.0 ?m in mono-dispersed solutions and 2.3 % and 3.5% relating to references' concentrations of 1.1times;108 and 4.4 times;105 particles/ml for 1.1 ?m and 3.0 ?m in mixed solutions, respectively. This system is a compact but high performance system allowing multiple particle sizes in high concentration to be measured simultaneously.

Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Prins, A. D.; Sweeney, S. J.

2012-04-01

28

Structural behaviour of mixed cationic surfactant micelles: a small-angle neutron scattering study.  

PubMed

Self-assembly in mixtures of two single-chain cationic surfactants, with different tail lengths (CTAB and DTAB) as well as of a single-chain (DTAB) and a double-chain (DDAB) cationic surfactant, with identical tail lengths, have been investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rationalised in terms of bending elasticity properties. The growth behaviour of micelles with respect to surfactant composition appears completely different in the two surfactant mixtures. DTAB form small oblate spheroidal micelles in presence of [NaBr]=0.1 M that transform into prolate spheroidal mixed CTAB/DTAB micelles upon adding moderate amounts of CTAB, so as to give a mole fraction y=0.20 in solution. Most unexpectedly, upon further addition of CTAB the mixed CTAB/DTAB micelles grow with an almost equal rate in both length and width directions to form tablets. In contrast to this behaviour, mixed DDAB/DTAB micelles grow virtually exclusively in the length direction, in presence of [NaBr]=0.1 M, to form elongated ellipsoidal (tablet-shaped) and subsequently long wormlike micelles as the fraction of DDAB in the micelles increases. Mixed DDAB/DTAB micelles grow to become as long as 2000Å before an abrupt transition to large bilayer structures occurs. This means that the micelles are much longer at the micelle-to-bilayer transition as compared to the same mixture in absence of added salt. It is found that the point of transition from micelles to bilayers is significantly shifted towards higher fractions of aggregated DTAB as an appreciable amount of salt is added to DDAB/DTAB mixtures, indicating a considerable reduction of the spontaneous curvature with an increasing [NaBr]. By means of deducing the various bending elasticity constants from our experimental results, according to a novel approach by ours, we are able to conclude that the different growth behaviours appear as a consequence of a considerably lower bending rigidity, as well as higher saddle-splay constant, for DDAB/DTAB surfactant mixtures in presence of [NaBr]=0.1 M, as compared to mixtures of CTAB/DTAB in [NaBr]=0.1 M and DDAB/DTAB in absence of added salt. PMID:22683217

Bergström, L Magnus; Garamus, Vasil M

2012-09-01

29

The MOLLER Experiment: An Ultra-Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle Using Møller Scattering  

E-print Network

The physics case and an experimental overview of the MOLLER (Measurement Of a Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction) experiment at the 12 GeV upgraded Jefferson Lab are presented. A highlight of the Fundamental Symmetries subfield of the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan was the SLAC E158 measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{PV}$ in polarized electron-electron (M{\\o}ller) scattering. The proposed MOLLER experiment will improve on this result by a factor of five, yielding the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle at low or high energy anticipated over the next decade. This new result would be sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as $\\sim 10^{-3}\\cdot G_F$ from as yet undiscovered dynamics beyond the Standard Model. The resulting discovery reach is unmatched by any proposed experiment measuring a flavor- and CP-conserving process over the next decade, and yields a unique window to new physics at MeV and multi-TeV scales, complementary to direct searches at high energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The experiment takes advantage of the unique opportunity provided by the upgraded electron beam energy, luminosity, and stability at Jefferson Laboratory and the extensive experience accumulated in the community after a round of recent successfully completed parity-violating electron scattering experiments

MOLLER Collaboration; J. Benesch; P. Brindza; R. D. Carlini; J-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; S. Covrig; M. M. Dalton; A. Deur; D. Gaskell; A. Gavalya; J. Gomez; D. W. Higinbotham; C. Keppel; D. Meekins; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; Y. Roblin; R. Suleiman; R. Wines; B. Wojtsekhowski; G. Cates; D. Crabb; D. Day; K. Gnanvo; D. Keller; N. Liyanage; V. V. Nelyubin; H. Nguyen; B. Norum; K. Paschke; V. Sulkosky; J. Zhang; X. Zheng; J. Birchall; P. Blunden; M. T. W. Gericke; W. R. Falk; L. Lee; J. Mammei; S. A. Page; W. T. H. van Oers; K. Dehmelt; A. Deshpande; N. Feege; T. K. Hemmick; K. S. Kumar; T. Kutz; R. Miskimen; M. J. Ramsey-Musolf; S. Riordan; N. Hirlinger Taylor; J. Bessuille; E. Ihloff; J. Kelsey; S. Kowalski; R. Silwal; G. De Cataldo; R. De Leo; D. Di Bari; L. Lagamba; E. NappiV. Bellini; F. Mammoliti; F. Noto; M. L. Sperduto; C. M. Sutera; P. Cole; T. A. Forest; M. Khandekar; D. McNulty; K. Aulenbacher; S. Baunack; F. Maas; V. Tioukine; R. Gilman; K. Myers; R. Ransome; A. Tadepalli; R. Beniniwattha; R. Holmes; P. Souder; D. S. Armstrong; T. D. Averett; W. Deconinck; W. Duvall; A. Lee; M. L. Pitt; J. A. Dunne; D. Dutta; L. El Fassi; F. De Persio; F. Meddi; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Cisbani; C. Fanelli; F. Garibaldi; K. Johnston; N. Simicevic; S. Wells; P. M. King; J. Roche; J. Arrington; P. E. Reimer; G. Franklin; B. Quinn; A. Ahmidouch; S. Danagoulian; O. Glamazdin; R. Pomatsalyuk; R. Mammei; J. W. Martin; T. Holmstrom; J. Erler; Yu. G. Kolomensky; J. Napolitano; K. A. Aniol; W. D. Ramsay; E. Korkmaz; D. T. Spayde; F. Benmokhtar; A. Del Dotto; R. Perrino; S. Barkanova; A. Aleksejevs; J. Singh

2014-11-15

30

Scalar resonance effects on the B{sub s} - {bar B}{sub s} mixing angle.  

SciTech Connect

The B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi} and B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980) decays are analyzed within generalized QCD factorization including all leading-order corrections in {alpha}{sub s}{sup -}. They point out that the ratio of their calculated widths, {Gamma}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(980) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}(B{sub 2}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi},{phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}), strongly indicates that S-wave effects in the f{sub 0}(980)'s daughter pions or kaons cannot be ignored in the extraction of the B{sub s}-{bar B}{sub s} mixing angle, -2{beta}{sub s}, from the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}J/{psi} decay amplitudes.

Leitner, O.; Dedonder, J.-P.; Loiseau, B.; El-Bennich, B. (Physics); (Marie Curie Univ.)

2010-10-21

31

Small-angle solution scattering using the mixed-mode pixel array detector  

PubMed Central

Solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were obtained using a 128 × 128 pixel X-ray mixed-mode pixel array detector (MMPAD) with an 860?µs readout time. The MMPAD offers advantages for SAXS experiments: a pixel full-well of >2 × 107 10?keV X-rays, a maximum flux rate of 108?X-rays pixel?1 s?1, and a sub-pixel point-spread function. Data from the MMPAD were quantitatively compared with data from a charge-coupled device (CCD) fiber-optically coupled to a phosphor screen. MMPAD solution SAXS data from lysozyme solutions were of equal or better quality than data captured by the CCD. The read-noise (normalized by pixel area) of the MMPAD was less than that of the CCD by an average factor of 3.0. Short sample-to-detector distances were required owing to the small MMPAD area (19.2?mm × 19.2?mm), and were revealed to be advantageous with respect to detector read-noise. As predicted by the Shannon sampling theory and confirmed by the acquisition of lysozyme solution SAXS curves, the MMPAD at short distances is capable of sufficiently sampling a solution SAXS curve for protein shape analysis. The readout speed of the MMPAD was demonstrated by continuously monitoring lysozyme sample evolution as radiation damage accumulated. These experiments prove that a small suitably configured MMPAD is appropriate for time-resolved solution scattering measurements. PMID:21335900

Koerner, Lucas J.; Gillilan, Richard E.; Green, Katherine S.; Wang, Suntao; Gruner, Sol M.

2011-01-01

32

Improving large mixing angle predictions with nonstandard interactions: Neutrino decay in solar matter?  

SciTech Connect

It has been known for some time that the well-established large mixing angle (LMA) solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for Super-Kamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with nonstandard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the {nu}{sub {alpha}}{nu}{sub {beta}} and {nu}{sub {alpha}}e vertices that affect both the propagation of neutrinos in the Sun and their detection. We find that, among the many possibilities for nonstandard couplings, only the diagonal imaginary ones lead to a solution to the tension between the LMA predictions and the data, implying neutrino instability in the solar matter. Unitarity requirements further restrict the solution and a neutrino decay into an antineutrino and a Majoron within the Sun is the one favored. Antineutrino probability is however too small to open the possibility of experimentally observing antineutrinos from the Sun due to NSI.

Das, C. R.; Pulido, Joao [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-03-01

33

Conflict between the identification of cosmic neutrino source and the sensitivity to mixing angles in neutrino telescope  

E-print Network

Neutrino fluxes at telescopes depend on both initial fluxes out of astronomical bursts and flavor mixing during their travel to the earth. However, since the information on the initial composition requires better precision in mixing angles and vice versa, the neutrino detection at telescopes for itself cannot provide solutions to the both problems. Thus, a probability to be measured at long baseline oscillation is considered as a complement to the telescope, and problems like source identification and parameter degeneracy are examined under a few assumptions.

Ggyoung-Riun Hwang; Kim Siyeon

2007-11-20

34

Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on nonionic and two cationic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation in mixed water systems based on nonionic surfactant, i.e., heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C14E7), and cationic surfactants, i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), has been investigated using the small-angle neutron scattering method. The preliminary results of the study of the behavior of C14E7 aqueous solutions (for a concentration of 0.17%) when adding various small amounts of classical cationic surfactants (CTAB and CTAC) have been presented.

Rajewska, A.; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E.

2014-01-01

35

Glue content and mixing angle of the eta - eta' system. The effect of the isoscalar 0- continuum  

E-print Network

Masses and topological charges of the eta and eta' mesons are expressed in terms of the singlet-octet mixing angle theta. Contributions of the pseudoscalar 0- continuum are evaluated in a model independant way. Applications to the decay eta --> 3pi and to the radiative decay of vector mesons involving eta and eta' are considered. Agreement with experiment is in general good and the results quite stable for -30.5 <= theta <= -18.5

N. F. Nasrallah

2004-10-18

36

Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

2000-01-01

37

Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A  

E-print Network

Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

Oleg Lychkovskiy

2006-04-12

38

Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A  

E-print Network

Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

Lychkovskiy, O

2006-01-01

39

Glue content and mixing angle of the {eta}-{eta}{sup '} system: The effect of the isoscalar 0{sup -} continuum  

SciTech Connect

Masses and topological charges of the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} mesons are expressed in terms of the singlet-octet mixing angle {theta}. Contributions of the pseudoscalar 0{sup -} continuum are evaluated in a model independent way. Applications to the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi} and to the radiative decay of vector mesons involving {eta} and {eta}{sup '} are considered. Agreement with experiment is, in general, good and the results quite stable for -30.5 deg. < or approx. {theta} < or approx. -18.5 deg.

Nasrallah, N.F. [Faculty of Science, Lebanese University, Tripoli (Lebanon)

2004-12-01

40

Two-loop radiative corrections of electroweak mixing angle and branching fraction for Z going to bb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I develop a numerical technique which is based on the Mellin-Barnes representation to calculate two-loop Feynman integrals. The resulting complex integrals of high dimensions are being applied with some treatments, such as the variable transform, reduction formulas, etc, to improve the convergence of the integrals. The approach is adopted to compute the two-loop radiative corrections of the electroweak mixing angle, sin theta W, and the hadronic branching ratio Rb for the process Z ? bb¯. I focus on contributions with an internal fermion sub-loop using the on-shell renormalization scheme. The results will help to derive improved constraints on the Higgs particle.

Huang, Yi-Cheng

41

Calculation of the flow field including boundary layer effects for supersonic mixed compression inlets at angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow field in supersonic mixed compression aircraft inlets at angle of attack is calculated. A zonal modeling technique is employed to obtain the solution which divides the flow field into different computational regions. The computational regions consist of a supersonic core flow, boundary layer flows adjacent to both the forebody/centerbody and cowl contours, and flow in the shock wave boundary layer interaction regions. The zonal modeling analysis is described and some computational results are presented. The governing equations for the supersonic core flow form a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. The equations for the characteristic surfaces and the compatibility equations applicable along these surfaces are derived. The characteristic surfaces are the stream surfaces, which are surfaces composed of streamlines, and the wave surfaces, which are surfaces tangent to a Mach conoid. The compatibility equations are expressed as directional derivatives along streamlines and bicharacteristics, which are the lines of tangency between a wave surface and a Mach conoid.

Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

1982-01-01

42

Small-angle neutron-scattering studies of mixed micellar structures made of dimeric surfactants having imidazolium and ammonium headgroups.  

PubMed

Planar imidazolium cation based gemini surfactants [16-Im-n-Im-16], 2Br(-) (where n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12), exhibit different morphologies and internal packing arrangements by adopting different supramolecular assemblies in aqueous media depending on their number of spacer methylene units (CH(2))(n). Detailed measurements of the small-angle neutron-scattering (SANS) cross sections from different imidazolium-based surfactant micelles in aqueous media (D(2)O) are reported. The SANS data, containing the information of aggregation behavior of such surfactants in the molecular level, have been analyzed on the basis of the Hayter and Penfold model for the macro ion solution to compute the interparticle structure factor S(Q) taking into account the screened Coulomb interactions between the dimeric surfactant micelles. The characteristic changes in the SANS spectra of the dimeric surfactant with n = 4 due to variation of temperature have also been investigated. These data are then compared with the SANS characterization data of the corresponding gemini micelles containing tetrahedral ammonium ion based polar headgroups. The critical micellar concentration of each surfactant micelle (cmc) has been determined using pyrene as an extrinsic fluorescence probe. The variation of cmc as a function of spacer chain length has been explained in terms of conformational variation and progressive looping of the spacer into the micellar interior upon increasing the n values. Small-angle neutron-scattering (SANS) cross sections from different mixed micelles composed of surfactants with ammonium headgroups, 16-A(0), [16-Am-n-Am-16], 2Br(-) (where n = 4), 16-I(0), and [16-Im-n-Im-16], 2Br(-) (where n = 4), in aqueous media (D(2)O) have also been analyzed. The aggregate composition matches with that predicted from the ideal mixing model. PMID:22994933

Pal, Asish; Datta, Sougata; Aswal, V K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2012-11-01

43

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN  

E-print Network

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, NaHCO3, and NaOH Test the solubility of your acid first in neutral water, in NaOH/H2O, and in NaHCO3 to 30 drops. Swirl/mix well. Use of small stir bar helps. · Water Test: Only acids with small numbers

Jasperse, Craig P.

44

Human Cryptosporidiosis Diagnosed in Western Australia: a Mixed Infection with Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium Mink Genotype, and an Unknown Cryptosporidium Species  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of cryptosporidiosis from an immunocompetent patient from Perth, Western Australia, suffering from diarrhea and a spectrum of other symptoms. Molecular identification revealed that this patient was infected with three Cryptosporidium species—Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23637295

Combs, Barry; MacKenzie, Brian; Ryan, Una

2013-01-01

45

Measures on mixing angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1)2\\\\SU(3)\\/U(1)2. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of

Gary W. Gibbons; Steffen Gielen; C. N. Pope; Neil Turok

2009-01-01

46

Measures on mixing angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation\\u000ain the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make\\u000astatements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a\\u000anatural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient\\u000aU(1)^2\\\\SU(3)\\/U(1)^2. We review several possible, geometrically motivated\\u000achoices of

Gary W. Gibbons; Steffen Gielen; C. N. Pope; Neil Turok

2009-01-01

47

Measures on mixing angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1)²\\/SU(3)\\/U(1)². We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of

Gary W. Gibbons; Steffen Gielen; C. N. Pope; Neil Turok

2009-01-01

48

The MOLLER Experiment: An Ultra-Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle Using M{\\o}ller Scattering  

E-print Network

The physics case and an experimental overview of the MOLLER (Measurement Of a Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction) experiment at the 12 GeV upgraded Jefferson Lab are presented. A highlight of the Fundamental Symmetries subfield of the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan was the SLAC E158 measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{PV}$ in polarized electron-electron (M{\\o}ller) scattering. The proposed MOLLER experiment will improve on this result by a factor of five, yielding the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle at low or high energy anticipated over the next decade. This new result would be sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as $\\sim 10^{-3}\\cdot G_F$ from as yet undiscovered dynamics beyond the Standard Model. The resulting discovery reach is unmatched by any proposed experiment measuring a flavor- and CP-conserving process over the next decade, and yields a unique window to new physics at MeV and multi-TeV scales, complem...

Benesch, J; Carlini, R D; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Deur, A; Gaskell, D; Gavalya, A; Gomez, J; Higinbotham, D W; Keppel, C; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Roblin, Y; Suleiman, R; Wines, R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Cates, G; Crabb, D; Day, D; Gnanvo, K; Keller, D; Liyanage, N; Nelyubin, V V; Nguyen, H; Norum, B; Paschke, K; Sulkosky, V; Zhang, J; Zheng, X; Birchall, J; Blunden, P; Gericke, M T W; Falk, W R; Lee, L; Mammei, J; Page, S A; van Oers, W T H; Dehmelt, K; Deshpande, A; Feege, N; Hemmick, T K; Kumar, K S; Kutz, T; Miskimen, R; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Riordan, S; Taylor, N Hirlinger; Bessuille, J; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Kowalski, S; Silwal, R; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Bellini, E NappiV; Mammoliti, F; Noto, F; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, C M; Cole, P; Forest, T A; Khandekar, M; McNulty, D; Aulenbacher, K; Baunack, S; Maas, F; Tioukine, V; Gilman, R; Myers, K; Ransome, R; Tadepalli, A; Beniniwattha, R; Holmes, R; Souder, P; Armstrong, D S; Averett, T D; Deconinck, W; Duvall, W; Lee, A; Pitt, M L; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; De Persio, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Cisbani, E; Fanelli, C; Garibaldi, F; Johnston, K; Simicevic, N; Wells, S; King, P M; Roche, J; Arrington, J; Reimer, P E; Franklin, G; Quinn, B; Ahmidouch, A; Danagoulian, S; Glamazdin, O; Pomatsalyuk, R; Mammei, R; Martin, J W; Holmstrom, T; Erler, J; Kolomensky, Yu G; Napolitano, J; Aniol, K A; Ramsay, W D; Korkmaz, E; Spayde, D T; Benmokhtar, F; Del Dotto, A; Perrino, R; Barkanova, S; Aleksejevs, A; Singh, J

2014-01-01

49

Small-angle neutron scattering study of the mixed state of Yb3Rh4Sn13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique we investigated the vortex lattice (VL) in the mixed state of the stannide superconductor Yb3Rh4Sn13. We find a single domain VL of slightly distorted hexagonal geometry for field strengths between 350 and 18 500 G and temperatures between T =0.05 and 6.5 K. We observe a clear in-plane rotation of the VL for different magnetic field directions relative to the crystallographic axes. We also find that the hexagonal symmetry of the VL is energetically favorable in Yb3Rh4Sn13 for external fields oriented along axes of different symmetries: twofold [110], threefold [111], and fourfold [100]. The observed behavior is different from other conventional and unconventional superconductors. The superconducting state is characterized by an isotropically gapped order parameter with an amplitude of ? (0)=1.57±0.05 meV. At the lowest temperatures, the field dependence of the magnetic form factor in our material reveals a London penetration depth of ?L=2508±17 Å and a Ginzburg coherence length of ? =100±1.3 Å, i.e., it is a strongly type-II superconductor, ? =?L/?=25.

Mazzone, D.; Gavilano, J. L.; Sibille, R.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Kenzelmann, M.

2014-07-01

50

Viewing Lepton Mixing through the Cabibbo Haze  

E-print Network

We explore the hypothesis that the Cabibbo angle is an expansion parameter for lepton as well as quark mixing. Cabibbo effects are deviations from zero mixing for the quarks but are deviations from unknown mixings for the leptons, such that lepton mixing is veiled by a Cabibbo haze. We present a systematic classification of parametrizations and catalog the leading order Cabibbo effects. We find that the size of the CHOOZ angle is not always correlated with the observability of CP violation. This phenomenological approach has practical merit both as a method for organizing top-down flavor models and as a guideline for planning future experiments.

Lisa L. Everett

2005-10-19

51

Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC  

E-print Network

A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell–Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The ...

Alver, Burak Han

52

Exploring the Unknown  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

2012-01-01

53

A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method  

SciTech Connect

The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

Rajewska, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland)

2007-09-15

54

Analysis of Bd,s mixing angles in the presence of new physics and an update of Bs?K¯0*K0*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a simple approach to measure the weak mixing angles ?s and ?d of the Bs and Bd systems in the presence of New Physics. We present a new expression that allows one to measure directly ?d,sNP if New Physics contributes significantly to the mixing only. We apply the method to specific penguin-mediated B?PP, B?PV and B?VV modes. We provide a very stringent and simple bound on the direct CP asymmetries of all these modes, the violation of which is a signal of New Physics in decay. Within the same theoretical framework, an updated prediction for the branching ratio of Bs?K0*K¯0* is presented, which can be compared with a recent LHCb analysis.

Descotes-Genon, Sébastien; Matias, Joaquim; Virto, Javier

2012-02-01

55

Variables and Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated PowerPoint lesson demonstrates how to substitute the value of a variable in place of the variable's symbol in an algebraic expression, and presents the concept of solving an equation for an unknown variable value.

Link, Don

2006-07-01

56

Improved Measurement of B^ \\to\\rho^ \\rho^0 and Determination of the Quark-Mixing Phase Angle~\\alpha  

SciTech Connect

The authors present improved measurements of the branching fraction {Beta}, the longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L}, and the direct CP asymmetry A{sub CP} in the B meson decay channel B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}. The data sample was collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. The results are {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0}) = (23.7 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -6}, f{sub L} = 0.950 {+-} 0.015 {+-} 0.006, and A{sub CP} = -0.054 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.010, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Based on these results, they perform an isospin analysis and determine the CKM weak phase angle {alpha} to be (92.4{sub -6.5}{sup +6.0}){sup 0}.

Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J.Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /Annecy, LAPP /Barcelona U., ECM /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U.

2009-07-14

57

The impact of particle shape on the angle of internal friction and the implications for sediment dynamics at a steep, mixed sand-gravel beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of particle shape on the angle of internal friction, and the resulting impact on beach sediment dynamics, is still poorly understood. In areas characterized by sediments of specific shape, particularly non-rounded particles, this can lead to large departures from the expected sediment dynamics. The steep slope (1 : 10) of the mixed sand-gravel beach at Advocate Harbour is stable in large-scale morphology over decades, despite a high tidal range of 10 m or more, and intense shore-break action during storms. The Advocate sand (d < 2 mm) was found to have an elliptic, plate-like shape (Corey Shape Index, CSI ? 0.2-0.6). High angles of internal friction of this material were determined using direct shear, ranging from ? ? 41 to 49°, while the round to angular gravel was characterized as ? = 33°. The addition of 25% of the elliptic plate-like sand-sized material to the gravel led to an immediate increase in friction angle to ? = 38°. Furthermore, re-organization of the particles occurred during shearing, characterized by a short phase of settling and compaction, followed by a pronounced strong dilatory behavior and an accompanying strong increase of resistance to shear and, thus, shear stress. Long-term shearing (24 h) using a ring shear apparatus led to destruction of the particles without re-compaction. Finally, submerged particle mobilization was simulated using a tilted tray submerged in a water-filled tank. Despite a smooth tray surface, particle motion was not initiated until reaching tray tilt angles of 31° and more, being ≥7° steeper than for motion initiation of the gravel mixtures. In conclusion, geotechnical laboratory experiments quantified the important impact of the elliptic, plate-like shape of Advocate Beach sand on the angles of internal friction of both pure sand and sand-gravel mixtures. The resulting effect on initiation of particle motion was confirmed in tilting tray experiments. This makes it a vivid example of how particle shape can contribute to the stabilization of the beach face.

Stark, N.; Hay, A. E.; Cheel, R.; Lake, C. B.

2014-08-01

58

Observation of B stretchy="false">¯(s)0?J /? f1(1285) Decays and Measurement of the f1(1285) Mixing Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decays of B stretchy="false">¯s0 and B stretchy="false">¯0 mesons into J /? ?+?-?+?- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B stretchy="false">¯(s)0?J /?f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq stretchy="false">¯ structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed.

Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorbounov, P.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.

2014-03-01

59

Precise determination of the weak mixing angle from a measurement of A{sub LR} in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} Z{sup 0}  

SciTech Connect

In the 1993 SLC/SLD run, the SLD recorded 50,000 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (63.0{+-}1.1)%. The authors measure the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production, A{sub LR}, to be 0.1628{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0028(syst.) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sup eff}{sub W} = 0.2292 {+-} 0.0009(stat.) {+-} 0.0004(syst.).

Woods, M.

1994-05-01

60

The Unknown Fossil Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project challenges the students ingenuity, creativity, and resourcefulness! They each receive a fossil of unknown identity (general geographic locality may be given, e.g., I-55 south of St. Louis, MO). The specimen is described in as much detail as possible. Their report should include taxonomic classification (as complete as they can), age, paleoecology, Earth history, and other interpretations they can infer. Identification may require library work, Internet search, etc.

Reams, Max

61

Mixed treatment comparison of repeated measurements of a continuous endpoint: an example using topical treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.  

PubMed

Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analyses estimate relative treatment effects from networks of evidence while preserving randomisation. We extend the MTC framework to allow for repeated measurements of a continuous endpoint that varies over time. We used, as a case study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements from randomised controlled trials evaluating topical ocular hypotensives in primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension because IOP varies over the day and over the treatment course, and repeated measurements are frequently reported. We adopted models for conducting MTC in WinBUGS (The BUGS Project, Cambridge, UK) to allow for repeated IOP measurements and to impute missing standard deviations of the raw data using the predictive distribution from observations with standard deviations. A flexible model with an unconstrained baseline for IOP variations over time and time-invariant random treatment effects fitted the data well. We also adopted repeated measures models to allow for class effects; assuming treatment effects to be exchangeable within classes slightly improved model fit but could bias estimated treatment effects if exchangeability assumptions were not valid. We enabled all timepoints to be included in the analysis, allowing for repeated measures to increase precision around treatment effects and avoid bias associated with selecting timepoints for meta-analysis.The methods we developed for modelling repeated measures and allowing for missing data may be adapted for use in other MTC meta-analyses. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21728183

Dakin, Helen A; Welton, Nicky J; Ades, A E; Collins, Sarah; Orme, Michelle; Kelly, Steven

2011-09-10

62

Measurement of CP asymmetries and branching fractions in a time-dependent Dalitz analysis of B0?(??)0 and a constraint on the quark mixing angle ?2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B0??+?-?0 decays based on a 414fb-1 data sample that contains 449×106B Bmacr pairs. The data were collected on the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider. Combining our analysis with information on charged B decay modes, we perform a full Dalitz and isospin analysis and obtain a constraint on the quark mixing angle ?2, 68°

Kusaka, A.; Wang, C. C.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Barberio, E.; Bedny, I.; Belous, K.; Bitenc, U.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Dash, M.; Eidelman, S.; Gabyshev, N.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S.-W.; Liu, Y.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Matyja, A.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Moloney, G. R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Peak, L. S.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibuya, H.; Shwartz, B.; Singh, J. B.; Somov, A.; Stani?, S.; Stari?, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Tikhomirov, I.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Ueno, K.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Zyukova, O.

2008-04-01

63

22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

64

Learning for an Unknown Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

Barnett, Ronald

2012-01-01

65

Angle Sums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this applet, students can examine the angles in a triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon or octagon. They can change the shape of the figure by dragging the vertices; the size of each angle is shown and the sum of the interior angles calculated. Students are challenged to find a relationship between the number of sides and the sum of the interior angles.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

66

Learning for an Unknown Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but our opening question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge if not urgency in the contemporary age. Indeed, it could be said that our opening question has never been generally acknowledged to be a significant motivating curricular and…

Barnett, Ronald

2004-01-01

67

Angles (elementary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to acute, obtuse, and right angles. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to angles as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

68

Angle Hunting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a hand-made protractor to measure angles they find in playground equipment. Learners will observe that angle measurements do not change with distance, because they are distance invariant, or constant. Note: The "Pocket Protractor" activity should be done ahead as a separate activity (see related resource), but a standard protractor can be used as a substitute.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

69

Measurement of forward-backward asymmetry A{sub FB} and of the weak mixing angle in processes of dilepton production in proton-proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained by measuring the forward-backward asymmetry (A{sub FB}) of Drell-Yan lepton pairs in proton-proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV at the LHC are presented. This asymmetry is measured as a function of the dilepton mass and rapidity in the dielectron and dimuon channels. The values of A{sub FB} were found for invariant masses of dileptons in the range of 40 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To M{sub ll} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 600 GeV. The results for the effective weak mixing angle that were deduced from data on dimuon production in Drell-Yan processes are also presented. The respective data sample was collected by using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector over the period spanning the years 2010 and 2011. The measured asymmetry and the effective weak mixing are consistent with the respective Standard Model predictions.

Gorbunov, I. N., E-mail: Ilya.Gorbunov@cern.ch; Shmatov, S. V., E-mail: shmatov@cern.ch [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15

70

NAME:_______________ BIO 251 Unknown Tables  

E-print Network

Gelatin hydrolysis Catalase test Oxidase test SIM Agar Hydrogen sulfide Indole Motility Indole production Methyl red test (MR) Voges-Proskaeur test (VP) Citrate utilization TABLE 2 #12;NAME: Unknown to Identify Bacteria (Continued) Body ­ Describe the purpose of each test. Tentative genus identification

Ahmad, Sajjad

71

Semi-Empirical Flavor Mixing Phenomenology and T2K Theta_13 Data  

E-print Network

Stimulated by recent T2K indications on a surprisingly large neutrino mixing theta_13 angle we suggest that this last unknown angle is not independent but determined by the known large solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation angles via simple, symmetric, positive-definite equation. Encouragingly, it appears in agreement with recent new long base-line appearance nu-mu to nu-e neutrino oscillation T2K data. At zero approximation this equation determines benchmark bimaximal neutrino mixing matrix as its unique solution with one texture zero. Extension to quark mixing angles leads to definite equation with unit mixing matrix as sole solution. All six realistic neutrino and quark mixing angles are explicitly expressed as small deviations from the zero approximation benchmark ones by one small empirical universal parameter. Thus in the considered semi-empirical flavor phenomenology the system of two related neutrino and quark equations is the source of the known main empirical rule of 'large neutrino mixing angles versus small quark ones' as well as other particle mixing regularities.

E. M. Lipmanov

2011-07-06

72

Measurement of CP Asymmetry in a Time-Dependent Dalitz Analysis of B0?(??)0 and a Constraint on the Quark Mixing Matrix Angle ?2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement of CP asymmetry using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B0??+?-?0 decays based on a 414fb-1 data sample containing 449×106BB¯ pairs. The data was collected on the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider. Combining our analysis with information on charged B decay modes, we perform a full Dalitz and isospin analysis and obtain a constraint on the CKM angle ?2, 68°

Kusaka, A.; Wang, C. C.; Ishino, H.; Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Anipko, D.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Barberio, E.; Bay, A.; Bedny, I.; Belous, K.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blyth, S.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, M.-C.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, K.-F.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Cole, S.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Dragic, J.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Fratina, S.; Fujikawa, M.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gershon, T.; Gokhroo, G.; Golob, B.; Ha, H.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, S.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, K.; Imoto, A.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kaji, H.; Kakuno, H.; Kang, J. H.; Kapusta, P.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Khan, H. R.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S.-W.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Marlow, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mori, T.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Onuki, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Park, K. S.; Peak, L. S.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Poluektov, A.; Sakai, Y.; Satoyama, N.; Schneider, O.; Schümann, J.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibuya, H.; Singh, J. B.; Somov, A.; Soni, N.; Stani?, S.; Stari?, M.; Stoeck, H.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Tajima, O.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tian, X. C.; Tikhomirov, I.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Varner, G.; Villa, S.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Wedd, R.; Won, E.; Xie, Q. L.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.

2007-06-01

73

Angle Measurer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet gives students practice in creating an angle measuring between zero and 180 degrees. Two buttons control the increase or decrease of the opening between two rays. Points are awarded for accuracy.

2011-01-01

74

Right Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article gives teachers background information on right angles. It provides geometric and practical examples, a paper folding construction method, and some history of the usage of the term 'right.'

Goldenberg, Paul

2011-06-09

75

Observation of the process. nu. \\/sub. mu. \\/ + e⁻. -->. nu. \\/sub. mu. \\/ + e⁻ at high energies. [Preliminary results, Weinberg-Salam model, mixing angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were 5 events of the reaction ..nu..\\/sub ..mu..\\/ + e⁻ ..-->.. ..nu..\\/sub ..mu..\\/ + e⁻ in a sample of approximately 50,000 charged current neutrino interactions in a heavy neon-hydrogen mixture in the 15 foot bubble chamber at Fermilab. This result is in rough agreement with the prediction of the Weinberg-Salam model with the currently favored value of the mixing

C. Baltay; D. Caroumbalis

1978-01-01

76

Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

2010-01-01

77

Calculation of the flow field in supersonic mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack using the three-dimensional method of characteristics with discrete shock wave fitting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of molecular transport is included in the computation by treating viscous and thermal diffusion terms in the governing partial differential equations as correction terms in the method of characteristics scheme. The development of a production type computer program is reported which is capable of calculating the flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed-compression aircraft inlets. The results agreed well with those produced by the two-dimensional method characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are computed. For three-dimensional flow fields, the results agree well with experimental data except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal.

Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

1978-01-01

78

The Senses of "Unknown Creatures"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use earthworms as "unknown creatures" from the South American jungle to find out how animals use senses. Learners are given supplies to devise their own experiments and test the response of the earthworms to light, touch and chemicals. Learners collect data and draw conclusions based on this data. Learners return the earthworms to their natural habitat (a flower or garden bed) when they are finished with the experiments.

Chudler, Eric

2009-01-01

79

NAME:_______________ BIO 351 Unknown Tables  

E-print Network

H 5 pH 7 pH 9 Optimum NaCl % 0.5% NaCl (Regular TSB) 2% NaCl 5% NaCl 8% NaCl 11% NaCl Catalase test Oxidase test Glucose fermentation growth (+/-) acid (+/-) gas (+/-) Lactose fermentation growth (+/-) acid #:______ Property Unknown #1 (+/-) Descriptions/drawings Indole production Methyl red test (MR) Voges-Proskaeur test

Ahmad, Sajjad

80

Classifying unknowns: the idiopathic problem.  

PubMed

The term, idiopathic, emerged as a key concept in the classification of disease in the 18th century and has become ingrained in our terminology in defining diseases and their aetiologies throughout all fields of medicine. Despite, or perhaps because of this, little has been written about the meaning or meanings of the word itself. Although most medical professionals will be able to offer a definition of idiopathic, different definitions of the word are in use and are often confused or used without an appreciation of the range of meanings. This article aims to clarify these different meanings with reference to historic and current uses. The change from the earlier nosological definition of 'primary' to the most widely accepted current definition, 'of unknown cause', occurred in the late 19th century, reflecting changing perspectives of disease causation. Far from being an innocent translation of 'unknown', idiopathic creates problems for future terminology and adds little to medical understanding. In masking the unknown, the term idiopathic maintains a paternalistic patient-practitioner relationship, and so should be avoided in modern medical terminology. PMID:23449847

Beaney, Thomas

2013-12-01

81

Estimating Angles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash game for one or two players gives students practice in estimating the size of angles. A circle and a radius pointing in a random direction are given. The student activates a second sweeping radius, which can move in either direction, and tries to stop it at the specified measure. Three difficulty levels control the range of angle measures. Points are awarded based on closeness of the estimate. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-06-01

82

Angle detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

Parra, G. T. (inventor)

1978-01-01

83

Search in unknown random environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N searchers are sent out by a source in order to locate a fixed object which is at a finite distance D , but the search space is infinite and D would be in general unknown. Each of the searchers has a finite random lifetime, and may be subject to destruction or failures, and it moves independently of other searchers, and at intermediate locations some partial random information may be available about which way to go. When a searcher is destroyed or disabled, or when it “dies naturally,” after some time the source becomes aware of this and it sends out another searcher, which proceeds similarly to the one that it replaces. The search ends when one of the searchers finds the object being sought. We use N coupled Brownian motions to derive a closed form expression for the average search time as a function of D which will depend on the parameters of the problem: the number of searchers, the average lifetime of searchers, the routing uncertainty, and the failure or destruction rate of searchers. We also examine the cost in terms of the total energy that is expended in the search.

Gelenbe, Erol

2010-12-01

84

[Energy drinks: an unknown risk].  

PubMed

The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

2012-05-01

85

A Simulation Study Comparison of Bayesian Estimation with Conventional Methods for Estimating Unknown Change Points  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of a Bayesian approach for estimating unknown change points using Monte Carlo simulations. The univariate and bivariate unknown change point mixed models were presented and the basic idea of the Bayesian approach for estimating the models was discussed. The performance of Bayesian…

Wang, Lijuan; McArdle, John J.

2008-01-01

86

Calculating Flow-Angle Deviation in Rotary Pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New mathematical formula calculates difference between angle of impeller blade and angle of flow. Formula used for inducers of mixed-flow pumps. With formula, calculations made more quickly and accurately than previously available formulas.

Meng, S. Y.; Furst, R. B.

1986-01-01

87

Unknown, Placeholder, or Variable: What Is "X"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the…

Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

2012-01-01

88

Unknown/Ill-defined Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Unknown and Ill-Defined Primary Sites C760–C768, C809 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 98 All unknown and ill-defined disease sites, WITH or WITHOUT surgical treatment Surgical

89

Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents  

PubMed Central

This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

2004-01-01

90

53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

91

Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 11E, Serovariant 11Av and Mixed Populations by High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) Spectroscopy and Flow Cytometric Serotyping Assay (FCSA)  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11E and serovariant 11Av among isolates previously typed as 11A by classical serotyping methods. Serotype 11E and serovariant 11Av differ from serotype 11A by having totally or partially inactive wcjE, a gene in cps locus coding for an O-acetyl transferase. Serotype 11E is rare among carriage isolates but common among invasive isolates suggesting that it survives better during invasion. Aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiology of serotype 11A in a pneumococcal collection using a new serotyping approach based on High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy to distinguish serotypes 11A and 11E. Methods A collection of 48 (34 invasive and 14 carriage) S. pneumoniae isolates from Italy, previously identified as serotype 11A by the Quellung reaction, were investigated by wcjE sequencing, HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the reference flow cytometric serotyping assay (FCSA) based on monoclonal antibodies. Results HR-MAS NMR spectra from serotypes 11A and 11E showed different NMR peaks indicating that HR-MAS NMR could be used to distinguish these serotypes, although HR-MAS NMR could not distinguish serotype 11Av from serotype 11E unambiguously. Thirty-eight isolates were confirmed to be serotype 11A, 8 isolates with a mutated wcjE were serotype 11E, 1 isolate belonged to serovariant 11Av, and 1 isolate was a mixed population 11A/11Av. All 11E isolates were identified among invasive isolates. Conclusions We proved that HR-MAS NMR can be of potential use for pneumococcal serotyping. The detection of serotype 11E among invasive isolates in our collection, supports previous epidemiological studies suggesting that mutations in wcjE can represent a mechanism promoting pneumococcal survival during invasion. The discovery of a spectrum of immunochemical diversity within established serotypes should stimulate efforts to develop new serotyping approaches. PMID:24967818

Camilli, Romina; Spencer, Brady L.; Moschioni, Monica; Pinto, Vittoria; Berti, Francesco; Nahm, Moon H.; Pantosti, Annalisa

2014-01-01

92

Taking on the UnknownA Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Unknown Relationship Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aside from noting the dramatic rise in their numbers, homicides with unknown victim\\/offender relationships have attracted little research attention. This study uses Qualitative Comparative Analysis and data from the Supplementary Homicide Reports for 1976 through 1998 to examine the nature of unknown relationship homicides and changes in their structure over time. The findings indicate that a large number of unknown

Wendy C. Regoeczi; Terance D. Miethe

2003-01-01

93

Unknown, placeholder, or variable: what is x?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the idea of the placeholder, the birth of symbolic algebra, and the development of the variable. Focusing on these changes in practice, we interpret some classroom examples of 8th-grade students who interpret letters in terms of their experience with unknowns, rather than in terms of variables, to the confusion and dismay of the teachers. We also discuss how particular curricular and pedagogical treatments can support student learning by deliberately focusing on these changes in practice in the transition from unknowns to variables in the middle grades.

Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

2012-03-01

94

Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems.

Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, ?aslav

2014-09-01

95

Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

96

Robust Residual Generation Using Unknown Input Observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The generation of robust residuals is the most important task in model-based fault diagnosis techniques. As pointed out in\\u000a Section 2.11, the disturbance de-coupling based approaches are the dominant approaches for robust residual generation. For\\u000a those approaches, uncertain factors in system modeling are considered to act via an unknown input (or disturbance) on a linear\\u000a system model. Although the unknown

Jie Chen; Ron J. Patton

97

Breast augmentation with an unknown substance.  

PubMed

Before the widespread use of silicone implants various foreign substances were injected directly into the breasts. The nature of these materials sometimes remains unknown and can cause various complications requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative diagnostic imaging can help characterise the type and distribution of the injected material, thereby assisting in making decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of breast augmentation with an unknown substance, aiming to highlight some imaging characteristics of different breast augmentation substances. PMID:24957586

Ebrahim, Lamya; Morrison, David; Kop, Alan; Taylor, Donna

2014-01-01

98

On graphically representing the confidence region for an unknown rotation in three dimensions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In assessing the errors involved in reconstructing tectonic plate rotations, it is desirable to have confidence regions for the unknown rotation. This paper presents a method for graphing such confidence regions, which exhibits the dependence of the range of possible angles of rotation on the axis considered. Namely, the minimum and maximum angles of rotation are graphed as functions of axis longitude and latitude. A FORTRAN 77 program SPHEREREGRESS is given which, under a variety of probabilistic models for the data, generates grid matrices which are used to draw contour maps of the minimum and maximum angles of rotation. ?? 1990.

Hanna, M. S.; Chang, T.

1990-01-01

99

Weak cloning of an unknown quantum state  

E-print Network

The impossibility to clone an unknown quantum state is a powerful principle to understand the nature of quantum mechanics, especially within the context of quantum computing and quantum information. This principle has been generalized to quantitative statements as to what extent imperfect cloning is possible. We delineate an aspect of the border between the possible and the impossible concerning quantum cloning, by putting forward an entanglement-assisted scheme for simulating perfect cloning in the context of weak measurements. This phenomenon we call weak cloning of an unknown quantum state.

Erik Sjöqvist; Johan Åberg

2005-06-15

100

[Fever of unknown origin in adults].  

PubMed

Fever of unknown origin has been defined as axillary temperature higher than 37.8 degrees C on several occasions, persisting without diagnosis for at least 3 weeks in spite of at least 1 week's investigation in hospital. Lately, the definition has been modified and extended to reflect evolutionary changes in clinical practice. In response to this new evolving environment, cases of fever of unknown origin are currently classified as: classic, nosocomial, in neutropenia, and human immunodeficiency virus-related. The objective of our review was to try and define and to update the information on the subject. PMID:16410928

Lambertucci, José Roberto; Avila, Renata Eliane de; Voieta, Izabela

2005-01-01

101

Protocol for Counterfactually Transporting an Unknown Qubit  

E-print Network

Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, "Alice" and "Bob". Here, using a novel "dual" version of the chained quantum Zeno effect, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob - no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

Hatim Salih

2014-04-08

102

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics: past discoveries and present challenges QuarkNet 2002, FSU Laura Reina #12; Outline #15; What is Particle Physics? #15; The origins of Particle Physics and future experimental facilities ! example: the search for the Higgs particle #12; What is Particle Physics

McQuade, D. Tyler

103

Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

Baker, Lynne M.

2012-01-01

104

Distributed Navigation in an Unknown Physical Environment  

E-print Network

-Sheva, 84-105, Israel felner@bgu.ac.il ABSTRACT We address the problem of navigating from an initial node of navigation from an initial node to a goal node in an unknown physical environment, by a group of agents from an initial node to a goal node. When navigating, the task is to reach the goal node as soon

Meisels, Amnon

105

A Chronological Evaluation of Unknown Malcode Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature-based anti-viruses are very accurate, but are limited in detecting new malicious code. Dozens of new malicious codes are created every day, and the rate is expected to increase in coming years. To extend the generalization to detect unknown malicious code, heuristic methods are used; however, these are not successful enough. Recently, classification algorithms were used successfully for the detection

Robert Moskovitch; Clint Feher; Yuval Elovici

2009-01-01

106

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

107

Problems Dealing with Unknown Quantities and Two Different Levels of Representing Unknowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article centers on studying the progress of algebraic syntax once students have surmounted initial obstacles found in the transition toward symbolic algebra. It specifically analyzes students' progress concerning the operation on the unknown, when the latter is represented by an expression that involves a 2nd unknown. In curricular terms,…

Filloy, Eugenio; Rojano, Teresa; Solares, Armando

2010-01-01

108

Alcohol Unknown (NMR)/Synthesis of Aspirin 27 Alcohol Unknowns and Aspirin  

E-print Network

Alcohol Unknown (NMR)/Synthesis of Aspirin 27 Alcohol Unknowns and Aspirin Part 1: Microscale Synthesis of Aspirin Intro Aspirin is among the most versatile drugs known to medicine, and is among the oldest (the first known use of an aspirin-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece

Jasperse, Craig P.

109

Describe Angle Pair Relationships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will explain the types of pairs of angles you will find in Geometry. Note taking time on page 5: Angle Information Now, let's see if you get it: Angle Relationship Quiz (fun) Ok! Now for your assignment, #8 on page 38! Class Zone Geometry Textbook ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-09-01

110

What's Your Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students devise procedures for using a protractor to measure the number of degrees in an angle, and use inductive reasoning to develop "angle sense." Then they describe circumstances and careers that require a working knowledge of angles and their measurements.

2010-01-01

111

Angles All Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standard: Identify and measure right, obtuse, and acute angles. This is a two day activity. OBJECTIVE: We have learned about five different types of angles: right, acute, obtuse, straight, and reflex. We have also learned how to use a protractor to measure angles. With this lesson, you will practice what ...

Bennett, Mrs.

2011-12-14

112

Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

2010-04-01

113

Unknown Malcode Detection Using OPCODE Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growth in network usage has motivated the creation of new malicious code for various purposes, including economic ones. Today's signature-based anti-viruses are very accurate, but cannot detect new malicious code. Recently, classification algorithms were employed successfully for the detection of unknown malicious code. However, most of the studies use byte sequence n-grams representation of the binary code of

Robert Moskovitch; Clint Feher; Nir Tzachar; Eugene Berger; Marina Gitelman; Shlomi Dolev; Yuval Elovici

2008-01-01

114

Schemes of Neutrino Mixings (Oscillations) and Their Mixing Matrices  

E-print Network

Three schemes of neutrino mixings (oscillations) together with their mixing matrices (analogous to Kabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices) are considered. In these schemes neutrino transitions are virtual if neutrino masses are different. Two of them belong to the so called mass mixing schemes (mixing parameters are expressed by elements of mass matrices) and the third scheme belongs to the charge mixing scheme (mixing parameters are expressed through charges). In the first scheme system of 6 equations for determination of the all elements of the mass matrix (neutrino masses and transition widths) by using experimental data are obtained. In the second and third ones the neutrino mixing angles are equal or close to maximal angles ($\\pi/4$). It is obvious that the experiment must give an answer to the following question: Which of these schemes is realized indeed?

Kh. M. Beshtoev

2004-06-10

115

Space Invariant Independent Component Analysis and ENose for Detection of Selective Chemicals in an Unknown Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a space invariant architecture to enable the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to solve chemical detection from two unknown mixing chemical sources. The two sets of unknown paired mixture sources are collected via JPL 16-ENose sensor array in the unknown environment with, at most, 12 samples data collected. Our space invariant architecture along with the maximum entropy information technique by Bell and Sejnowski and natural gradient descent by Amari has demonstrated that it is effective to separate the two mixing unknown chemical sources with unknown mixing levels to the array of two original sources under insufficient sampled data. From separated sources, they can be identified by projecting them on the 11 known chemical sources to find the best match for detection. We also present the results of our simulations. These simulations have shown that 100% correct detection could be achieved under the two cases: a) under-completed case where the number of input (mixtures) is larger than number of original chemical sources; and b) regular case where the number of input is as the same as the number of sources while the time invariant architecture approach may face the obstacles: overcomplete case, insufficient data and cumbersome architecture.

Duong, Tuan A.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Duong, Vu A.

2007-01-01

116

[Identification of unknown cadavers--multidisciplinary approach].  

PubMed

The comparison of fingerprints, dentition, genetic profile, imaging data and anthropological characteristics constitute the scientific basis for identification of unknown cadavers. The complexity of the identification process stems from a variety of factors such as the circumstances surrounding the death, the preservation state of the cadaver, availability of identification data and their quality, which affect the feasibility of the identification. This article reviews the most common identification techniques, the various sources of data accessible to the forensic scientist and the strategic decisions through which the unidentified body and the missing person are integrated. PMID:24450030

Bublil, Nurit; Kahana, Tzipi; Shenfeld, Michal; Freund, Maya; Hiss, Jehuda

2013-10-01

117

Anticoagulation therapy in haemophilia. Managing the unknown.  

PubMed

Patients with haemophilia (PWH) are relatively protected from cardiovascular death. Recent insights have shown that this is not due to less formation of atherosclerosis than in non-haemophilic men, therefore protection from the final occlusive thrombus will be the major determinant. Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular disease (especially non-fatal events) are scarce, although ongoing studies are addressing this issue. Meanwhile, because the haemophilia population is aging, we are increasingly confronted with cardiovascular events. The main cardiovascular risk factors that should be part of regular screening programs are hypertension, overweight, lipometabolic disorders and smoking. Anticoagulation therapy in haemophilia is feasible, provided that individual tailored coagulation therapy and close monitoring is provided. Here, we present our view on anticoagulation management in PWH. There is an absolute need for risk assessment tools and prospective validation of suggested anticoagulation management strategies in PWH. Until then, we are managing the unknown. PMID:23446851

Schutgens, R E G; Tuinenburg, A; Fischer, K; Mauser-Bunschoten, E P

2013-01-01

118

[Fever of unknown origin caused by anaplasmosis].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old man in good clinical condition presented with complaints of recurrent fever up to 38 degrees C and diffuse thoracic pain, both present for several weeks. Antibiotic therapy did not result in disappearance of the symptoms. Except for a picture of chronic inflammation and a positive Anaplasma IgM antibody titre, serology yielded no indication ofthe diagnosis. Further investigation, including imaging, showed no convincing cause. 'Anaplasma infection' remained the working diagnosis. One month after hospitalisation, the patient was free of fever without any type of therapy. Control blood tests revealed seroconversion to Anaplasma IgG antibodies, constituting serological evidence of a recent infection. The prevalence ofanaplasmosis is increasing. Mice are the principal reservoir for the intracellular bacteria and the infection is transmitted by ticks. In case of fever of unknown origin, since the transmission takes place in the same manner, one should consider both Borrelia and an infection with Anaplasma. PMID:17225790

Verheyen, J; Govaert, K; Eykens, L; De Cauwer, H

2006-12-16

119

Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

2009-01-01

120

Multiple sensor fusion under unknown distributions  

SciTech Connect

In a system of N sensors, the sensor {ital S{sub i}}, i = 1, 2 ..., N, outputs {ital Y}{sup (i)} {element_of} {Re}, according to an unknown probability distribution P{sub Y{sup (i)}}{vert_bar}X, corresponding to input X {element_of} {Re}. A training {ital n}-sample (X{sub 1}, Y{sub 1}), (X{sub 2},Y{sub 2}), ..., (X{sub n},Y{sub n}) is given where {ital Y{sub i}} = (Y{sub i}{sup (1)},Y{sub i}{sup (2)},...,Y{sub i}{sup (N)}) such that Y{sub i}{sup (j)} is the output of S{sub j} in response to input X{sub i}. The problem is to design a fusion rule expected square error: I({ital f}) = {integral}[X - f (Y)]{sup 2}dP{sub y{vert_bar}X}dPx, where Y=(Y{sup (1)}, Y{sup (2)},..., Y({sup N)}),is minimized over a family of functions {ital F}. Let f{sup *} minimize I(.) over {ital F}; in general, f{sup *} cannot be computed since the underlying distributions are unknown. We consider sufficient conditions based on smoothness and/or combinatorial dimensions of {ital F} to ensure that an estimator {cflx {ital f}} satisfies P[I({cflx {ital f}}) - I(f{sup *}) > {epsilon}] < {delta} for any {epsilon} > 0 and 0 < {delta} < 1. We present two methods for computing {cflx {ital f}} based on feedforward sigmoidal networks and Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Design and performance characteristics of the two methods are discussed, based both on theoretical and simulation results.

Rao, N.S.V.

1996-10-01

121

Polygon Angle Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet supports the investigation of the relationship between the number of vertices of a polygon and its interior angle sum. Learners choose and locate the vertices, the angle measures are displayed, and then the student can drag the measures into a circle to see them summed relative to 360 degrees.

Exner, Nicholas

2000-05-31

122

What's My Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive module offers learners the opportunity to check their knowledge of angle measure and estimation, and the use of a protractor. There are ten activities that vary the tasks and the degree of precision. The site is designed for whiteboard demonstration as well, and it includes a tutorial on angle types and protractor use.

2011-01-01

123

SunAngle Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SunAngle is an on-line tool that calculates solar angles and related information for a given location, date, and time. It computes the declination of the Sun, sunrise and sunset times, azimuth of the Sun, solar time and more. Complete instructions and definitions of variables are included.

Gronbeck, Christopher

124

Special Angle Pairs Discovery Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson uses a discovery approach to identify the special angles formed when a set of parallel lines is cut by a transversal. During this lesson students identify the angle pair and the relationship between the angles. Students use this relationship and special angle pairs to make conjectures about which angle pairs are considered special angles.

Henry, Barbara

2012-04-16

125

? and ?' mixing from lattice QCD.  

PubMed

We present a lattice QCD computation of ? and ?' masses and mixing angles, for the first time controlling continuum and quark mass extrapolations. The results for M(?) = 551(8)(stat) (6)(yst) MeV and M(?') = 1006(54)(stat)(38)(syst)(+61)(ex) MeV are in excellent agreement with experiment. Our data show that the mixing in the quark flavor basis can be described by a single mixing angle of Ø = 46(1)(stat)(3)(syst)° indicating that the ?' is mainly a flavor singlet state. PMID:24237506

Michael, C; Ottnad, K; Urbach, C

2013-11-01

126

Metabolic phenotypes in primary unknown metastatic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate expression of metabolism-related proteins in primary unknown metastatic carcinoma (PUMC) and associated implications for treatment. Methods A tissue microarray containing 77 cases of PUMC was constructed and immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate expression of the following proteins: Glycolysis-related: Glut-1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX, and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4; Glutaminolysis-related: glutaminase1 (GLS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2); and Mitochondrial-related: ATP synthase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, and SDHB. The association between immunohistochemical staining results and clinicopathologic parameters was evaluated. Results The expression of metabolism-related proteins was different depending on the histologic subtype. Compared to other subtypes, squamous cell carcinomas (SQ) expressed more Glut-1 (p?=?0.028), while adenocarcinomas (AD) expressed more SDHB in the stroma (p?=?0.025). The expression of metabolism-related proteins was also different depending on the clinical subtypes. Glut-1 was expressed most in the nodal type and the least in carcinomatosis type, when compared to other subtypes (p?=?0.021). The metabolic phenotypes also showed other trends: when the stroma showed no glutaminolysis, the tumor mostly invaded lymph node, bone, and brain, while the tumor invaded regions other than lymph node, bone, and brain when the stroma showed glutaminolysis (p?=?0.003). When the stroma showed the mitochondrial metabolic type, the histologic subtype was mainly AD, but the non-mitochondrial type was associated more with SQ (P?=?0.049). Conclusion For PUMC, the expression of metabolism-related proteins, such as Glut-1 and SDHB, differs in the tumor or stroma depending on the clinical and histologic tumor subtype. PMID:24387319

2014-01-01

127

'Magic Angle Precession'  

SciTech Connect

An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

Binder, Bernd [Quanics.com, Germany, 88679 Salem, P.O. Box 1247 (United States)], E-mail: binder@quanics.com

2008-01-21

128

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

129

1. Photocopy of a measured drawing, delineator unknown, April 1919 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of a measured drawing, delineator unknown, April 1919 PLANS, SECTION, AND ELEVATIONS OF KRONPRINSENSGADE COMMERCIAL BUILDING (ADDRESS UNKNOWN) - Kronprinsensgade Area Study, Commercial Building, Crown Prince Street, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, VI

130

Mixed cryoglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B-cell lymphomas. The first-line treatment of MC should focus on eradication of HCV by combined interferon-ribavirin treatment. Pathogenetic treatments (immunosuppressors, corticosteroids, and/or plasmapheresis) should be tailored to each patient according to the progression and severity of the clinical manifestations. Long-term monitoring is recommended in all MC patients to assure timely diagnosis and treatment of the life-threatening complications. The overall prognosis is poorer in patients with renal disease, liver failure, lymphoproliferative disease and malignancies. PMID:18796155

Ferri, Clodoveo

2008-01-01

131

Mixed cryoglobulinemia.  

PubMed

Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B-cell lymphomas. The first-line treatment of MC should focus on eradication of HCV by combined interferon-ribavirin treatment. Pathogenetic treatments (immunosuppressors, corticosteroids, and/or plasmapheresis) should be tailored to each patient according to the progression and severity of the clinical manifestations. Long-term monitoring is recommended in all MC patients to assure timely diagnosis and treatment of the life-threatening complications. The overall prognosis is poorer in patients with renal disease, liver failure, lymphoproliferative disease and malignancies. PMID:18796155

Ferri, Clodoveo

2008-01-01

132

Entanglement entropy and determination of an unknown quantum state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial unknown quantum state can be determined with a single measurement apparatus by letting it interact with an auxiliary, ancilla, system as proposed by Allahverdyan, Balian, and Nieuwenhuizen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 120402 (2004)]. In the case of two qubits, this procedure allows one to reconstruct the initial state of the qubit of interest, S , by measuring three commuting observables and therefore by means of a single apparatus, for the total system S+A at a later time. The determinant of the matrix of the linear transformation connecting the measurements of three commuting observables at time t>0 to the components of the polarization vector of S at time t=0 is used as an indicator of the reconstructability of the initial state of the system S . We show that a connection between the entanglement entropy of the total system S+A and such a determinant exists, and that for a pure state a vanishing entanglement individuates, without a need for any measurement, those intervals of time for which the reconstruction procedure is least efficient. This property remains valid for a generic dimension of S . In the case of a mixed state, this connection is lost.

Aquino, Gerardo; Giraldi, Filippo

2008-12-01

133

The Matrix of Unitarity Triangle Angles for Quarks  

E-print Network

In the context of quark (as for lepton) mixing, we introduce the concept of the matrix of unitarity triangle angles $\\Phi$, emphasising that it carries equivalent information to the complex mixing matrix $V$ itself. The angle matrix $\\Phi$ has the added advantage, with respect to $V$, of being both basis-and phase-convention independent and consequently observable (indeed several $\\Phi$-matrix entries, eg. $\\Phi_{cs}=\\alpha$, $\\Phi_{us}=\\beta$ etc. are already long-studied as directly measurable/measured in $B$-physics experiments). We give complete translation formulae between the mixing-matrix and angle-matrix representations. We go on to consider briefly the present state of the experimental data on the full angle matrix and some of the prospects for the future, with reference to both the quark and lepton cases.

P. F. Harrison; S. Dallison; W. G. Scott

2009-04-20

134

Using Inscribed Angles and Polygons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you about inscribed angles, intercepted arcs, their measures, inscribed polygons, and their associated theorems. OK, time for notes! Define Inscribed Angles, using the following website (Only define the inscribed angle from this site): Inscribed Angle Definition Using this new idea, you can use the following activity to figure out the formula for the measure of an inscribed angle: Inscribed Angle Formula Discovery The whole lesson depends upon this definition. Define Intercepted Arc, Inscribed polygons, ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-10

135

What Is the Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions, and a worksheet that will help students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold. The students will explore all the angles of sunlight with a few thermometers and a heat lamp and understand why there is such a dramatic temperature change between the equator and the South Pole.

136

What's the Angle?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity helps students understand how the angle of the Sun affects temperatures around the globe. After experimenting with a heat lamp and thermometers at differing angles, students apply what they learned to explain temperature variations on Earth. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about temperature patterns, detailed experiment directions and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of seasonal temperature changes and why Antarctica is always so cold.

137

Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second most common cause of blindness. It has been linked to muta- tions in the myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) genes, although mutations have been found in 5% of patients. The pathologic mechanism(s) of POAG remain unknown but may include retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, which causes progres- sive damage to axons at the

Khaled K. Abu-Amero; Jose Morales; Thomas M. Bosley

2006-01-01

138

Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography  

E-print Network

We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...

Frikel, Jürgen

2011-01-01

139

State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is presented. The developed theory is used to estimate vertical tire forces and predict tripped rollovers in situations involving road bumps, potholes, and lateral unknown force inputs. To estimate the tire-road friction coefficients at each individual tire of the vehicle, algorithms to estimate longitudinal forces and slip ratios at each tire are proposed. Subsequently, tire-road friction coefficients are obtained using recursive least squares parameter estimators that exploit the relationship between longitudinal force and slip ratio at each tire. The developed approaches are evaluated through simulations with industry standard software, CARSIM, with experimental tests on a Volvo XC90 sport utility vehicle and with experimental tests on a 1/8th scaled vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the developed approaches can reliably estimate the vehicle parameters and state variables needed for effective ESC and rollover prevention applications.

Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

140

Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.  

PubMed

For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller. PMID:24238360

Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

2014-07-01

141

Single platform passive Doppler geolocation with unknown emitter frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel particle filter technique to geolocate radio frequency emitters with unknown emitter frequency using passive, Doppler-shifted frequency measurements. Doppler-based geolocation algorithms suffer in general, from the non-linear and coupled relationship between the unknown emitter location, unknown emitter frequency, and observed Doppler-shifted frequency measurements. This non-linearity precludes a computationally efficient, closed-form implementation and directs algorithmic solutions toward

Hanna Witzgall; Brad Pinney; Michael Tinston

2010-01-01

142

Find Angle Measures in Polygons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce you to polygons and their angle measures. Focus on the Interior angles and exterior angles and their properties. First, let's discuss diagonals. What is a diagonal in a polygon? Play with and take notes on the following web site: Diagonals of a Polygon Now you are ready to learn the Polygon Interior Angles Theorem. It involves finding the measure of all of the angles inside a polygon, no matter how big or little ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-02-09

143

Angles in the Sky?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.

Behr, Bradford

2005-09-01

144

Ejs Brewsterâs Angle Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Brewsterâs Angle model displays the electric field of an electromagnetic wave incident on a change of index of refraction. The simulation allows an arbitrarily linearly (in parallel and perpendicular components) polarized wave to encounter the change of index of refraction. The initial electric field and incidence angle change of index of refraction can all be changed via sliders. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Brewsterâs Angle model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_brewster.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-20

145

Small Angle Neutron Scattering  

SciTech Connect

Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

Urban, Volker S [ORNL

2012-01-01

146

Configuration Mixing of Quark States in Baryons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing angles are used to describe the SU(6) ? O(3) symmetry breaking in [70, 1?] multiplet in the sector of the lowest mass nucleon resonances, which are investigated extensively in constituent quark models\\u000a for baryon spectroscopy. The transition amplitudes for the meson photoproduction off nucleon can also be expressed in terms\\u000a of the mixing angles to take into account the

B. Saghai; Z. Li

2010-01-01

147

Cancers by Body Location/System: Unknown Primary  

Cancer.gov

Cancers by Body Location/System: Unknown Primary To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm CellGynecologicHead and NeckHematologic/Blood MusculoskeletalNeurologicRespiratory/ThoracicSkinUnknown

148

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

149

Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams of Mobile Robots  

E-print Network

Collaborative Exploration of Unknown Environments with Teams of Mobile Robots Wolfram Burgard 1 of exploring an unknown envi­ ronment by a team of robots. As in single­robot exploration the goal is to mini­ mize the overall exploration time. The key problem to be solved in the context of multiple robots

Burgard, Wolfram

150

Unknown Input Observers and Fault Tolerant Control Allocation Andrea Cristofaro  

E-print Network

Johansen Abstract This research report focuses on the use of unknown input observers for detection in order to make relevant faults observable. The case study of an overactuated marine vessel supports is to present the use of unknown input observers for fault detection/isolation and control reconfiguration

Johansen, Tor Arne

151

Interval estimation for systems with unknown input delays and gains  

E-print Network

and nonlinear time-delay systems in the output canonical form. The theoretical results are supported of a nonlinear delayed system contains parametric and signal uncertainties, or when the delay is time-Pierre Richard, Zongxia Jiao Abstract--The estimation problem of a system with unknown time-delay and unknown

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Adaptive control of unknown plants using dynamical neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we are dealing with the problem of controlling an unknown nonlinear dynamical system. The algorithm is divided into two phases. First a dynamical neural network identifier is employed to perform “black box” identification and then a dynamic state feedback is developed to appropriately control the unknown system. We apply the algorithm to control the speed of a

George A. Rovithakis; Manolis A. Christodoulou

1994-01-01

153

Template matching based object recognition with unknown geometric parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the problem of locating an object in an image when size and rotation are unknown. Previous work has shown that with known geometric parameters, an image restoration method can be useful by estimating a delta function at the object location. When the geometric parameters are unknown, this method becomes impractical because the likelihood surface to be minimized across

Roger M. Dufour; Eric L. Miller; Nikolas P. Galatsanos

2002-01-01

154

Robust Multi-loop Airborne SLAM in Unknown Wind Environments  

E-print Network

Robust Multi-loop Airborne SLAM in Unknown Wind Environments Jonghyuk Kim Department of Engineering presents a robust multi-loop airborne SLAM structure which also augments wind information. The air velocity. This can be tackled by augmenting the unknown wind velocity into the state vector of SLAM, simultaneously

Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

155

Wide Angle Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

156

Inference of ancestry: constructing hierarchical reference populations and assigning unknown individuals  

PubMed Central

The ability to infer personal genetic ancestry is being increasingly utilised in certain medical and forensic situations. Herein, the unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms structure, is employed to analyse 377 autosomal short tandem repeats typed on 1,056 individuals from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain Human Diversity Panel. Individuals of known geographical origin were hierarchically classified into a framework of increasingly homogeneous clusters to serve as reference populations into which individuals of unknown ancestry can be assigned. The groupings were characterised by the geographical affinities of cluster members and the accuracy of these procedures was verified using several genetic indices. Fine-scale substructure was detectable beyond the broad population level classifications that previously have been explored in this dataset. Metrics indicated that within certain lines, the strongest structuring signals were detected at the leaves of the hierarchy where lineage-specific groupings were identified. The accuracy of unknown assignment was assessed at each level of the hierarchy using a 'leave one out' strategy in which each individual was stripped of cluster membership and then re-assigned using the supervised Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in GeneClass2. Although most clusters at all levels of resolution experienced highly accurate assignment, a decline was observed in the finer levels due to the mixed membership characteristics of some individuals. The parameters defined by this study allowed for assignment of unknown individuals to genetically defined clusters with measured likelihood. Shared ancestry data can then be inferred for the unknown individual. PMID:16460647

2006-01-01

157

Cabibbo Haze in Lepton Mixing  

E-print Network

Quark-lepton unification suggests Cabibbo-sized effects in lepton mixings, which we call Cabibbo haze. We give simple examples and explore possible Wolfenstein-like parametrizations of the MNSP matrix which incorporate leptonic Cabibbo shifts. We find that the size of the CHOOZ angle is not always correlated with the observability of CP violation.

AseshKrishna Datta; Lisa Everett; Pierre Ramond

2005-03-22

158

Angles and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 10 of PDF), learners approximate the area of the uppermost cross section of an impact crater using a variety of square grids. They conclude which angle of impact results in the greatest area. There are two versions of this activity: Challenge, where students construct a launcher and create their own craters; and Non-Challenge where students analyze pictures of craters. Includes a pre-lesson activity (p54). The Moon Math: Craters! guide follows a 5E approach, applying concepts of geometry, modeling, data analysis to the NASA lunar spacecraft mission, LCROSS.

Nasa

2012-05-08

159

Variable angle correlation spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

Lee, Y.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Biodynamics Div.

1994-05-01

160

Vector meson {omega}-{phi} mixing and their form factors in the light-cone quark model  

SciTech Connect

The vector meson {omega}-{phi} mixing is studied in two alternative scenarios with different numbers of mixing angles, i.e., the one-mixing-angle scenario and the two-mixing-angle scenario, in both the octet-singlet mixing scheme and the quark flavor mixing scheme. Concerning the reproduction of experimental data and the Q{sup 2} behavior of transition form factors, the one-mixing-angle scenario in the quark flavor scheme performs better than that in the octet-singlet scheme, while the two-mixing-angle scenario works well for both mixing schemes. The difference between the two mixing angles in the octet-singlet scheme is bigger than that in the quark flavor scheme.

Qian Wen; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2008-10-01

161

Triangles: Finding Interior Angle Measures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, students will start with a hands-on activity and then experiment with a GeoGebra-based computer model to investigate and discover the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem. Then they will use the Triangle Angle Sum Theorem to write and solve equations and find missing angle measures in a variety of examples.

2012-11-25

162

Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

2010-01-01

163

Narrow Angle movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

164

Solar Neutrino Data, Neutrino Magnetic Moments and Flavor Mixing  

E-print Network

The results of all currently operating solar neutrino experiments are analyzed in the framework of the resonant neutrino spin--flavor precession scenario including the effects of neutrino mixing. Nine different profiles of the solar magnetic field are used in the calculations. It is shown that the available experimental data can be accounted for within the considered scenario. The Ga--Ge data lead to an upper limit on the neutrino mixing angle: $\\sin 2\\theta_0 \\aprle 0.25$. One can discriminate between small mixing angle ($\\sin 2\\theta_0 \\aprle 0.1$) and moderate mixing angle solutions by studying the solar $\\bar{\

E. Kh. Akhmedov; A. Lanza; S. T. Petcov

1994-11-15

165

2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ca. 1937 NORTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

166

76. photographer unknown undated STRUCTURAL STEEL TRUSSES FOR DOWNSTREAM THIRD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. photographer unknown undated STRUCTURAL STEEL TRUSSES FOR DOWNSTREAM THIRD STEP COFFERDAM IN PLACE. TWO PADS FOR THIS COFFERDAM ARE LAYING ON THE BAFFLES TO THE LEFT OF THE TRUSSES. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

167

15. Photocopy of photograph (original in WACC), photographer unknown, c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of photograph (original in WACC), photographer unknown, c. 1917 BEN ERICKSON IN WWI UNIFORM STANDING IN FRONT OF SOUTH LIVING ROOM WINDOW (ADOBE WALLS) - Faraway Ranch, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

168

27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

169

356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

170

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, NORTHWEST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

171

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, SOUTHWEST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

172

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

173

23. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, DETAIL OF PENTHOUSE CONSTRUCTION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

174

21. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, NORTHEAST ELEVATION From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

175

39. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

176

47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

177

40. Photocopy of photogaph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Photocopy of photogaph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. Shows original front porch. VIEW SOUTHEAST - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

178

43. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1960). VIEW WEST, EAST SIDE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

179

41. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. Shows trolley with Trolley Barn and Administration Building in background. VIEW NORTHEAST - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

180

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

2012-01-01

181

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

2014-01-01

182

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

2011-01-01

183

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

2010-01-01

184

16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous...rags, odd lots, secondhand materials, textile by-products, or waste...

2013-01-01

185

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

186

Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

187

System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns  

DOEpatents

One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

Wagner, J.S.

1999-07-20

188

Autonomous Flight in Unstructured and Unknown Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

189

32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR UNITS AND STORAGE UNIT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

190

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2012-01-01

191

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2011-01-01

192

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2010-01-01

193

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2014-01-01

194

10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or other pertinent property of fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if the unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron...

2013-01-01

195

Autonomous flight in unstructured and unknown indoor environments  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design, implementation, and validation of a system that enables a micro air vehicle to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. Such a vehicle would be of considerable ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

2009-01-01

196

4. VIEW OF BORING MILL IN OPERATION, operator unknown (note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF BORING MILL IN OPERATION, operator unknown (note console in background). - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

197

3. VIEW OF BORING MILL IN OPERATION, operator unknown (note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF BORING MILL IN OPERATION, operator unknown (note console in background). - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

198

Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

199

Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information, "is ...

200

80. photographer unknown 7 June 1937 PLACING MAIN THRUST BEARING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. photographer unknown 7 June 1937 PLACING MAIN THRUST BEARING ASSEMBLY IN UNIT NO 2. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

201

17. photographer unknown undated TRIMMED FACE OF LOWER LAND THRUST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. photographer unknown undated TRIMMED FACE OF LOWER LAND THRUST WALL OF LOCK. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

202

35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

203

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

204

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "POWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

205

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "ROLLING DAM AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

206

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "HANDLING ROCK - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

207

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "ROLLING DAM IN SPILLWAY AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

208

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "GENERATORS IN POWER PLANT; DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

209

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "SWITCHBOARD IN POWER PLANT AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

210

1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

211

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

212

Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?  

PubMed

It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. PMID:24140073

Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

2014-04-01

213

Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Unknowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners identify an unknown liquid by comparing its behavior to known liquids. Learners drop liquids onto different surfaces and see how the liquids behave. Learners realize that using a combination of results from two or more tests will allow them to successfully identify the unknown. Use the related activity "Look-alike Liquids" from the same resource (see related resources) to introduce the behavior of the liquids on different surfaces.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

214

Selective families, superimposed codes, and broadcasting on unknown radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective families, a weaker variant of superimposed codes [KS64, F92, 197, CR96], have been recently used to design Deterministic Distributed Broadcast (DDB) protocols for unknown radio networks (a radio network is said to be unknown when the nodes know nothing about the network but their own label) [CGGPR00, CGOR00].We first provide a general almost tight lower bound on the size

Andrea E. F. Clementi; Angelo Monti; Riccardo Silvestri

2001-01-01

215

Relating quark mixing neutrino mixing and {delta}{sub lep}  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed that all flavor mixing is caused by the mixing of the three quark and lepton families with vectorlike fermions in 5+5-bar multiplets of SU(5). The entire 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 complex mass matrix of the neutrinos M{sub {nu}} is then found to have a simple expression in terms of two complex parameters and an overall scale. Thus, all the presently unknown neutrino parameters are predicted. The best fits are for {theta}{sub atm} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 Degree-Sign The leptonic Dirac CP phase is found to be somewhat greater than {pi}.

Barr, S. M.; Chen Hengyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware (United States)

2013-05-23

216

Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

217

Chinese unknown word recognition for PCFG-LA parsing.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

2014-01-01

218

Structural studies of mixed glass former 0.35Na2O + 0.65[xB2O3 + (1 - x)P2O5] glasses by Raman and 11B and 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies.  

PubMed

The mixed glass former (MGF) effect (MGFE) is defined as a nonlinear and nonadditive change in the ionic conductivity with changing glass former composition at constant modifier composition. In this study, sodium borophosphate 0.35Na(2)O + 0.65[xB(2)O(3) + (1 - x)P(2)O(5)], 0 ? x ? 1, glasses which have been shown to exhibit a positive MGFE have been prepared and examined using Raman and (11)B and (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopies. Through examination of the short-range order (SRO) structures found in the ternary glasses, it was determined that the minority glass former, B for 0.1 ? x ? 0.7 and P for 0.7 ? x ? 0.9, is "overmodified" and contains more Na(+) ions than would be expected from simple linear mixing of the binary sodium borate, x = 1, and sodium phosphate, x = 0, glasses, respectively. Changes in the intermediate range order (IRO) structures were suggested by changes in the NMR spectral chemical shifts and Raman spectra wavenumber shifts over the full composition range x in the Raman and MAS NMR spectra. The changes observed in the chemical shifts of (31)P MAS NMR spectra with x are found to be too large to be caused solely by changing sodium modification of the phosphate SRO structural groups, and this indicates that internetwork bonding between phosphorus and boron through bridging oxygens (BOs), P-O-B, must be a major contributor to the IRO structure of these glasses. While not fully developed, a first-order thermodynamic analysis based upon the Gibbs free energies of formation of the various SRO structural units in this system has been developed and can be used to account for the preferential formation of tetrahedral boron groups, B(4), by the reaction of B(3) with P(2) groups to form B(4) and P(3) groups, respectively, where the superscript denotes the number of BOs on these units, in these glasses. This preference for B(4) units appears to be a predominate cause of the changing modifier to glass former ratio with composition x in these ternary MGF glasses and appears to be associated with the large negative value of the Gibbs free energy of formation of this group. PMID:23281937

Christensen, Randilynn; Olson, Garrett; Martin, Steve W

2013-02-21

219

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

220

The Effect of Deciduous Cuspid Extraction on the IMPA Angle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of deciduous cuspid extractions on the IMPA angle. Records were reviewed of 340 children receiving mixed dentition orthodontic care. Twenty-two (22) were found to have had no lingual arch placed after ...

B. H. Mueller, P. P. L'Homme, F. A. Schoenbrodt, W. A. Ayer

1976-01-01

221

Different Orthodontic Treatment Effects in Angle Class III Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the different treatment effects observed in Angle Class III patients treated either exclusively in the primary dentition or receiving treatment initiated during the early mixed dentition. 14 patients from five families were enrolled in this retrospective study. The treatment course, appliances, treatment length and treatment outcomes were compared. The skeletal changes were

Joachim Tränkmann; Jörg A. Lisson; Christiane Treutlein

2001-01-01

222

Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoids  

PubMed Central

Epidermoids, or congenital cholesteatomas, constitute about 0.2% to 1.5% of intracranial tumors, and 3% to 5% of tumors of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). We review the surgical management of CPA epidermoids in 13 patients at the House Ear Clinic for the years 1978 to 1993. There were seven male and six female patients, ranging in age from 27 to 59 years (average, 40 years). Tumors ranged in size from 3.5 cm to 7.0 cm, and the surgical approach was tailored to the tumor extent and location. All patients complained at presentation of unilateral hearing loss, and nine had poor speech discrimination (less than 50%) preoperatively. Serviceable hearing was preserved in two patients. Two patients presented with facial nerve symptoms, and four cases had postoperative permanent facial nerve paralysis (House-Brackmann Grade V or VI). There were no surgical deaths. Four patients required second surgeries to remove residual cholesteatoma. Compared with prior series, we describe a higher rate of total tumor removed, as well as a higher rate of second operations, indicating a more aggressive approach to these lesions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170950

Doyle, Karen Jo; De la Cruz, Antonio

1996-01-01

223

Modeling Buoyancy Driven Mixed Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-order modeling technique for stratified turbulent flows with application to buoyancy driven mixed layers is presented.The models of pressure terms, dissipation and destruction of temperature variance are to a great extent based on invariant techniques. The unknown constants in these models were determined empirically. The turbulent transport model, based on solutions to the approximated rate equations for the third-order

Otto Zeman; Jonn L. Lumley

1976-01-01

224

Mixed Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Symptoms Mixed dementia symptoms may vary, depending on the types of brain ... one type of dementia is present. Learn more: Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease , Key Types of Dementia Sign up for our ...

225

Magma Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Earth and Ocean Sciences Department at the University of British Columbia, this module on magma mixing is based on ideas and theories taken from papers authored by Stephen Blake and Gregory N. Ivey. A short movie, which can be viewed at the site, shows a lab experiment where two different magmas are mixed to form a hybrid magma. Users can then peruse information (including photographs and some diagrams) on the geological concepts involved.

226

Generalization of the Euler Angles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

2002-01-01

227

8.G Find the Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In triangle $\\Delta ABC$, point $M$ is the point of intersection of the bisectors of angles $\\angle BAC$, $\\angle ABC$, and $\\angle ACB$. The measure o...

228

The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

Froehle, Peter H.

2009-01-01

229

Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum associated with pancytopenia of unknown origin  

PubMed Central

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown origin. Clinically it starts with a pustule, nodule or bulla that rapidly progresses and turns into a painful ulcer with raised, undermined borders. The etiopathogenesis of PG remains unknown. However it is frequently associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), haematological disorders or arthritis. The latest multicentric retrospective analysis published by Ghazal et al. shows that anaemia has been observed very often in German patients suffering from PG (in 45.6% of 259) so this disorder is supposed to be a possible cofactor in the pathogenesis of PG. According to its progressive course, patients require intensive diagnostic procedures and rapid initiation of the treatment. In this article, we report a case of bullous pyoderma gangrenosum in association with pancytopenia of unknown origin, according to its diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties.

Wolska, Katarzyna; Michalska-Jakubus, Malgorzata; Pucula, Joanna; Chodorowska, Grazyna; Dzida, Grzegorz; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Prystupa, Andrzej; Podhorecka, Monika

2014-01-01

230

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

231

Guidance law against maneuvering targets with intercept angle constraint.  

PubMed

This study explores the guidance law against maneuvering targets with the intercept angle constraint. The limitation of the traditional guidance law, which simply treats the unknown target acceleration as zero, has been analyzed. To reduce this limitation, a linear extended state observer is constructed to estimate the acceleration of the maneuvering target to enhance the tracking performance of the desired intercept angle. Furthermore, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode control scheme is adopted to design the sliding surface, which is able to avoid the singularity in the terminal phase of guidance. Simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed guidance law outperforms the traditional guidance law in the sense that more accurate intercept angle can be achieved. PMID:24773919

Xiong, Shaofeng; Wang, Weihong; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Sen; Chen, Zengqiang

2014-07-01

232

Naskah Angling Darma Ambya Madura  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAK Angling Darma adalah cerita Jawa yang mengisahkan perjalanan seorang raja yang terpaksa meninggalkan kerajaannya sebagai dharma untuk menebus dosa-dosa yang dilakukannya. Angling Darma Ambya Madura ditulis dalam bahasa Madura dialek Sumenep. Oleh kerana proses penulisannya yang diduga melalui teknik penyaduran, versi Madura ini banyak sekali meng- gunakan kata dan ungkapan yang diadaptasi dari bahasa Jawa, sehingga kata dan ungkapan

A. SYUKUR GHAZALI

233

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

234

On Differential Photometric Reconstruction for Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs  

E-print Network

of photometric stereo, we show that just two measurements of spatial and temporal image derivatives, from unknown which it is observed. Photo- metric reconstruction methods seek to recover shape from images using source), they may be eliminated · M. Chandraker is with NEC Laboratories America, at Cupertino, CA 95014

O'Brien, James F.

235

On Differential Photometric Reconstruction for Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs  

E-print Network

of photometric stereo, we show that just two measurements of spatial and temporal image derivatives, from unknown which it is observed. Photo- metric reconstruction methods seek to recover shape from images using Laboratories America, at Cupertino, CA 95014. E-mail: manu@nec-labs.com · J. Bai and R. Ramamoorthi

O'Brien, James F.

236

177. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1925 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

177. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1925 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). ROSE HILL SCHOOL. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

237

Determination of Polymer Unknowns Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this laboratory exercise, you will evaluate several unknown polymers using XPS to provide their proper identities. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should: ⢠Have an understanding of XPS as a tool for surface analysis. ⢠Understand the importance of the surface state of polymeric materials.

Derosa, Rebecca L.

2008-09-04

238

Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

2009-01-01

239

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman 1931 BLUEPRINT OF 1932 ADDITIONS, DETAIL PLAN AND ELEVATIONS OF LOADING DOCK AND CANOPY From the Collection of Walker and Walker, Architects-Engineers - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

240

45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

241

42. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1950). Shows Trolley Barn in background and Administration Building on right. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

242

Overall, in this case, Prob(happy, unknown employment)  

E-print Network

Overall, in this case, Prob(happy, unknown employment) = |M · U(t) · |cemployedl|2 · Prob(employed) + |M · U(t) · |c employed l|2 · Prob( employed). It should be clear that in such a case" reasoner is still uncertain about whether she will be employed. The crucial difference is that in this case

Aerts, Diederik

243

362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

244

374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

245

Design of unknown input observers and robust fault detection filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault detection filters are a special class of observers that can generate directional residuals for the purpose of fault isolation. This paper proposes a new approach to design robust (in the disturbance de-coupling sense) fault detection filters which ensure that the residual vector, generated by this filter, has both robust and directional properties. This is done by combining the unknown

JIE CHEN; RON J. PATTON; HONG-YUE ZHANG

1996-01-01

246

Application of incremental unknowns to the Burgers equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article, we make a few remarks on the role that attractors and inertial manifolds play in fluid mechanics problems. We then describe the role of incremental unknowns for approximating attractors and inertial manifolds when finite difference multigrid discretizations are used. The relation with direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation is also mentioned.

Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger

1993-01-01

247

23. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "View across dam from right bank showing drift. Mr. Jacobs and Watchman Hansen in foreground." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

248

178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

249

THE KNOWN UNKNOWNS OF MOBILE A Research Agenda  

E-print Network

's health behaviour Evidence-based medicine, Clinical outcome research Expectation ­ experience What is done the doc can do for you What you can do for you The Known Unknown Technology Clinical medicine Patient FACILITIES hospital architechture TECHNOLOGY ICT, electronic devices Process-based layouts Sensors

Sadeh, Norman M.

250

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

251

Discover the Unknown Chekhov in Your ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher, believes that for stories to be a successful tool in classroom instruction, they need to have universal themes, and they must deal with situations that the students could readily identify with regardless of their language, culture, or religion. In this article, she introduces the unknown…

Beliavsky, Ninah

2007-01-01

252

AUTOMATICALLY INCORPORATING UNKNOWN WORDS IN JUPITER Grace Chung  

E-print Network

AUTOMATICALLY INCORPORATING UNKNOWN WORDS IN JUPITER½ Grace Chung Spoken Language Systems Group) words in the JUPITER weather information system. Specifically our objective is to deal with weather in the JUPITER domain, and this paper will detail the development of a system that uses an ANGIE-based framework

253

6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

254

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

255

15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE RAMMED EARTH WALL (NORTH WALL OF CHANCEL) AT LEFT; HOLES WERE LEFT BY WOODEN BRACES USED TO HOLD WALL FORMS DURING CONSTRUCTION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

256

Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

2002-01-01

257

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

258

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, July 1911 (original print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "ORANGE-PEEL EXCAVATOR DREDGING OUTLET CHANNEL" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

259

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 4 April 1911 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 4 April 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LOOKING SOUTH FROM INTAKE OF CONDUIT. LIDGERWOOD EXCAVATOR WORKING ON TRENCH EXCAVATION. TEMPORARY TOWER ON RIGHT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

260

Page 1 of 2 UNKNOWN CHEMICAL WASTE CHARACTERIZATION FORM  

E-print Network

label, CAS#, chemical formula, NFPA codes or hazard symbols)? If so describe: 6. Where was container a list of the chemicals normally used in this research area. Acids: Bases: Solvents: Other: #12;Page 1 of 2 UNKNOWN CHEMICAL WASTE CHARACTERIZATION FORM Please provide as much information

Pawlowski, Wojtek

261

15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

262

diagnosis and awareness. Others suspect that yet-unknown factors  

E-print Network

diagnosis and awareness. Others suspect that yet-unknown factors may be partly to blame. Although the exact causes of autism are unclear, research sug- gests that both genes and the environ- ment play important roles. Autism affects a child's development in different ways, and so it's known as a devel

Ungerleider, Leslie G.

263

Optimizing Robust Limit Cycles for Legged Locomotion on Unknown Terrain  

E-print Network

challenging task for a legged robot to negotiate unknown terrain. Control systems for legged robots nominal periodic trajectories for legged robots that maximize a measure of robustness against uncertainty compass gait walker, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of steps taken over moderate terrain

Tedrake, Russ

264

Handling Advertisements of Unknown Quality in Search Advertising  

E-print Network

Handling Advertisements of Unknown Quality in Search Advertising Sandeep Pandey Christopher Olston@yahoo-inc.com Abstract We consider how a search engine should select advertisements to display with search results well the displayed advertisements appeal to users. The main difficulty stems from new ad- vertisements

Olston, Christopher

265

KNOWN AND UNKNOWN RESULTS ON ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

KNOWN AND UNKNOWN RESULTS ON ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY PROBLEMS Gerd Grubb Copenhagen Univ. Math. Dept., Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail grubb@math.ku.dk In a survey article by W. N. Everitt and L pointwise radial limits for r 1. They claim on p. 480: 1 #12;2 GERD GRUBB "It is an unsolved problem

Grubb, Gerd

266

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1956 (original print located ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1956 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Pacific Northwest Office, Boise, Idaho). "INTERIOR OF POWERPLANT AT BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

267

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

268

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

269

Detection of multiple transient signals with unknown arrival times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimal detection of signal transients with unknown arrival times contaminated by additive Gaussian noise is considered. The transients are assumed to be time continuous and belong to a parameterized family with the uncertainty about the parameters described by means of an a priori distribution. Under the assumption of a negligible probability that the independent transient observations overlap

Daniel E. Asraf; Mats G. Gustafsson

2005-01-01

270

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

271

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

272

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

273

22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Keechelus Crib Dam. View dam from right bank of river, showing downstream face and apron of dam". - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

274

10. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 28 March 1935 PIERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 28 March 1935 PIERS AND ARCHES FOR TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT ACROSS HATCHERY GROUNDS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

275

11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 3 May 1935 PART ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 3 May 1935 PART OF 1.4 MILLION POUNDS OF REINFORCING STEEL USED IN THE TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

276

13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 30 October 1935 TANNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 30 October 1935 TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT COMPLETE, AWAITING INSTALLATION OF RAILROAD TRACKS. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

277

12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated COLLAPSIBLE FORM FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated COLLAPSIBLE FORM FOR CONCRETE AREA ON TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. NOTE: PRINT FROM 8X10 NEGATIVE - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

278

On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals Over Fading Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter addresses the problem of energy detection of an unknown signal over a multipath channel. It starts with the no-diversity case, and presents some alternative closed-form expressions for the probability of detection to those recently reported in the literature. Detection capability is boosted by implementing both square-law combining and square-law selection diversity schemes

Fadel F. Digham; Mohamed-slim Alouini; Marvin K. Simon

2007-01-01

279

Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

280

Flash mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing novel methods for robust protocol design, to substitute for costly zero-knowledge schemes, we are able to produce a mixing scheme with significantly lower costs of operation than all previously known such schemes. The scheme takes a list of ElGamal encrypted messages, and produces as output a permuted list of encryptions of the same plaintext messages, such that corresponding

Markus Jakobsson

1999-01-01

281

Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene sequence. The results demonstrate that the new methods complement routine screening procedures by providing direct conclusive evidence and may also be useful to resolve masking of unknown events by known events. PMID:19937431

Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

2010-03-01

282

Simple multifunctional angle measurement method in orthopaedic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few types of angle measurementin orthopedic diagnosis process have been studied (Cobb’s Angle, Q-Angle, Bohler’s Angle and Intermetatarsal Angle). A standard and simple multifunctional angle measurement method was identified to help diagnosis and analysis work in orthopedic radiology. Some basic mathematic theorems and equations have been applied to make sure the reliability of the method. The angle measurement method was

Lee Thian Seng; Abdul Yazid Mohd Kassim; Siti Fairuz Yusof; Suhail Abdulah; Shahril Yusof; Hamzaini Abdul Hamid; Riza Sulaiman

2008-01-01

283

Success probabilities for universal unambiguous discriminators between unknown pure states  

E-print Network

A universal programmable discriminator can perform the discrimination between two unknown states, and the optimal solution can be approached via the discrimination between the two averages over the uniformly distributed unknown input pure states, which has been widely discussed in previous works. In this paper, we consider the success probabilities of the optimal universal programmable unambiguous discriminators when applied to the pure input states. More precisely, the analytic results of the success probabilities are derived with the expressions of the optimal measurement operators for the universal discriminators and we find that the success probabilities have nothing to do with the dimension d while the amounts of the copies in the two program registers are equal. The success probability of programmable unambiguous discriminator can asymptoticly approach to that of usual unambiguous discrimination (state comparison) as the number of copies in program registers (data register) goes to infinity.

Tao Zhou

2013-08-03

284

Compact Right-Angle Connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New right-angle connector between hose and "quick-disconnect" coupler smaller and simpler than its predecessor. Employs fewer parts and therefore cheaper and less likely to leak. Connector consists of only two major parts.

Barajas, Salvador L.; Pierson, Vonde E.

1989-01-01

285

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

286

Two Comments on Bond Angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

Glaister, P.

1997-09-01

287

Governing uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the capabilities of three different governance regimes for adequately handling uncertain and unknown effects of genetically modified (GM) crops. Adequate handling requires the development of sound procedures for identification of uncertainty and ignorance (U&I), reduction of U&I, decisions on how to treat irreducible U&I and monitoring of unexpected effects. The nature of U&I implies, however, that these

Valborg Kvakkestad; Arild Vatn

2011-01-01

288

Spread-Spectrum Carrier Estimation With Unknown Doppler Shift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a method for the frequency estimation of a BPSK modulated, spread-spectrum carrier with unknown Doppler shift. The approach relies on a classic periodogram in conjunction with a spectral matched filter. Simulation results indicate accurate carrier estimation with processing gains near 40. A DSP-based prototype has been implemented for real-time carrier estimation for use in New Mexico State University's proposal for NASA's Demand Assignment Multiple Access service.

DeLeon, Phillip L.; Scaife, Bradley J.

1998-01-01

289

[Identification of an exhumed unknown infant through DNA analysis].  

PubMed

The article reports on the exhumation and subsequent DNA analysis of the skeletal remains of an unknown male newborn from 1988. Molecular biological methods confirmed the maternity of a woman who was already convicted of infanticide. Since homicide could not be clearly proven and manslaughter becomes barred by the statute of limitation after 20 years, the woman cannot be held accountable for the alleged killing of her first child. PMID:25004622

Jopp, Eilin; Püschel, Klaus; Warschke, Christian; Kaufmann, Richard; Krebs, Oliver

2014-01-01

290

1. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, before 1892. City of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, before 1892. City of Philadelphia Records Department, Photo No. 41097. Original print in the Penrose Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. View was taken before 1892, when the addition of the Friends Institute was made at the southwest corner. Note the William Penn Charter School at right. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

291

Adapting to Unknown Sparsity by controlling the False Discovery Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to recover an $n$-dimensional vector observed in white noise,\\u000awhere $n$ is large and the vector is known to be sparse, but the degree of\\u000asparsity is unknown. We consider three different ways of defining sparsity of a\\u000avector: using the fraction of nonzero terms; imposing power-law decay bounds on\\u000athe ordered entries; and controlling the $\\\\ell_p$ norm

Felix Abramovich; Yoav Benjamini; David L. Donoho; Iain M. Johnstone

2005-01-01

292

Prevalence and Treatment Outcome of Cervicitis of Unknown Etiology  

PubMed Central

Background Mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) is a clinical syndrome characterized by mucopurulent discharge from the cervix and other signs of inflammation. This was a phase III, multi-center study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of placebo versus empiric antibiotic treatment for clinical cure of MPC of unknown etiology at 2 months follow-up. Unfortunately, enrollment was terminated due to low accrual of women with cervicitis of unknown etiology but important prevalence and outcome data were obtained. Methods Five hundred seventy-seven women were screened for MPC. Women with MPC were randomized to the treatment or placebo arm of the study and the two arms were evaluated based upon the etiology, clinical cure rates, adverse events (AEs) and rates of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Results One hundred thirty-one or 23% (131/577) of screened women were found to have MPC. Eighty-seven were enrolled and randomized. After excluding women with sexually transmitted infections and other exclusions, 61% (53/87) had cervicitis of unknown etiology. The overall clinical failure rate was 30% (10/33) and the clinical cure rate was only 24% (8/33). Rates were not significantly different between the arms. There were 24 gastrointestinal (GI) AEs in the treatment arm compared to 1 AE in the placebo arm. Conclusion Over half of the cases of MPC were of unknown etiology. Clinical cure rates for the placebo and treatment arms were extremely low, with most women concluding the study with a partial response. Gastrointestinal AEs were higher in the treatment arm. PMID:23588127

Taylor, Stephanie N.; Lensing, Shelly; Schwebke, Jane; Lillis, Rebecca; Mena, Leandro A.; Nelson, Anita L.; Rinaldi, Anne; Saylor, Lisa; McNeil, Linda; Lee, Jeannette Y.

2013-01-01

293

Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War II period. During drives to encourage purchase of war bonds, posters featuring female shipyard workers were widely distributed purchasers were allowed one vote for each bond bought. Votes were cast and the woman who got the most votes was named "War Bond Girl." The contest was won by Kay McGinty, 4th row, 2nd column. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

294

FDG PET\\/CT in carcinoma of unknown primary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of metastatic malignancies in which a primary tumor could not\\u000a be detected despite thorough diagnostic evaluation. Because of its high sensitivity for the detection of lesions, combined\\u000a 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)\\/computed tomography (CT) may be an excellent alternative to\\u000a CT alone and conventional magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the

Thomas C. Kwee; Sandip Basu; Gang Cheng; Abass Alavi

2010-01-01

295

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 May 1911 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 May 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). TEAM WORK ON OUTLET TRENCH NEAR STA. 24 AND LIDGERWOOD EXCAVATOR ON TRENCH NEAR STA. 17. SLUICING WASTE BANK RIGHT OF MACHINE AND GRAVEL PLANT SHOWS ON LEFT. TAKEN FROM DAM SITE NEAR STA. 7, LOOKING NORTH" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

296

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 July 1911 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LIDGERWOOS-CRAWFORD EXCAVATOR AT WORK ON OUTLET TRENCH STA. 22-00 SHOWING DUMP ON THE RIGHT, AND OLD RIVER CHANNEL ON THE LEFT IN THE FOREGROUND. PICTURE TAKEN NEAR STA. 24-00 LOOKING NORTH" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90 , Easton, Kittitas County, WA

297

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

298

13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

299

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

300

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

301

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW SHOWING LOCATION OF PROPOSED DAM SITE AT OUTLET OF LAKE KACHESS, WN., JUST BELOW PRESENT OLD DAM" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

302

Improved eddy current angle probe  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for detecting flaws in a tubular workpiece in a single scan. The coils of a dual coil bobbin eddy current inspection probe are wound at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the transverse axis of the probe, one coil having an angular position about the axis about 90/sup 0/ relative to the angular position of the other coil, and the angle of intersection of the planes containing the coils being about 60/sup 0/.

Nance, R.A.; Hartley, W.H.; Caffarel, A.J.

1982-02-11

303

Riser unit covers all angles  

SciTech Connect

A riser angle positioning system (RAPS), which measures the angle of selected joints in the riser system and, through the use of a mini-computer develops information on the vessel-wellhead position reference, is described. The system currently is employed on the drillship, Discoverer Seven Seas, which is currently drilling wells in approx. 4000 ft of water. The RAPS provides a backup system for more conventional acoustic systems. Sample calculations are included. (BLM)

Dean, Q.W.

1980-06-05

304

Microarray-based method for detection of unknown genetic modifications  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the increased use of genetic modifications in crop improvement, there is a need to develop effective methods for the detection of both known and unknown transgene constructs in plants. We have developed a strategy for detection and characterization of unknown genetic modifications and we present a proof of concept for this method using Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). The approach relies on direct hybridization of total genomic DNA to high density microarrays designed to have probes tiled throughout a set of reference sequences. Results We show that by using arrays with 25 basepair probes covering both strands of a set of 235 vectors (2 million basepairs) we can detect transgene sequences in transformed lines of A. thaliana and rice without prior knowledge about the transformation vectors or the T-DNA constructs used to generate the studied plants. Conclusion The approach should allow the user to detect the presence of transgene sequences and get sufficient information for further characterization of unknown genetic constructs in plants. The only requirements are access to a small amount of pure transgene plant material, that the genetic construct in question is above a certain size (here ? 140 basepairs) and that parts of the construct shows some degree of sequence similarity with published genetic elements. PMID:18088429

Tengs, Torstein; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Berdal, Knut G; Thorstensen, Tage; Butenko, Melinka A; Nesvold, Havard; Holst-Jensen, Arne

2007-01-01

305

Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

Royle, J.A.; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

2007-01-01

306

Configuration Mixing of Quark States in Baryons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing angles are used to describe the SU(6) ? O(3) symmetry breaking in [70, 1-] multiplet in the sector of the lowest mass nucleon resonances, which are investigated extensively in constituent quark models for baryon spectroscopy. The transition amplitudes for the meson photoproduction off nucleon can also be expressed in terms of the mixing angles to take into account the configuration mixing. Those amplitudes are derived as a function of the mixing angles between {|N^2P_M{J}^-rangle} and {|N^4P_M{J}^-rangle} states, with J = 1/2 and 3/2, for the processes ?p ? ?p, K + ?, K + ? °, K ° ? +. The present status of our knowledge on the mixing angles between S 11(1535) and S 11(1650) ( ? S ), as well as between D 13(1520) and D 13(1700) ( ? D ) is reported. Since these resonances play very important role in the threshold region for both ? and kaon production mechanisms, they are expected to provide crucial tests of different quark models for the baryon spectroscopy.

Saghai, B.; Li, Z.

2010-01-01

307

Measurements of the CKM Angle phi3/gamma  

SciTech Connect

We present a review on the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} ({phi}{sub 3}){sup 1} as performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP-II and KEKB. These measurements are using either charged or neutral B decays. For charged B decays the modes {tilde D}{sup 0}K{sup -}, {tilde D}*{sup 0}K{sup -}, and {tilde D}{sup 0}K*{sup -} are employed, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. Direct CP violation is exploited. It is caused by interferences between V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} accessible transitions that generate asymmetries in the final states. For these decays various methods exist to enhance the sensitivity to the V{sub ub} transition, carrying the weak phase {gamma}. For neutral B decays, the modes D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} are used. In addition to the V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} interferences, these modes are sensitive to the B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, so that time dependent analyses are performed to extract sin(2{beta} + {gamma}). An alternative method would use the lower branching ratios decay modes {tilde D}{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} where much larger asymmetries are expected. The various available methods are mostly ''theoretically clean'' and always free of penguins diagrams. In some cases a high sensitivity to {gamma} is expected and large asymmetries may be seen. But these measurements are always experimentally difficult as one has to face with either low branching ratios, or small asymmetries, or additional technical/theoretical difficulties due to Dalitz/SU(3) and re-scattering models needed to treat/estimate nuisance parameters such as unknown strong phases and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of the interfering ''V{sub ub}'' transitions. Thus at the present time only a relatively limited precision on {gamma} can be extracted from these measurements. The current world average is {gamma} = (78{sub -26}{sup +19}){sup o} [1]. For other methods and long term perspectives, as discussed in details, the reader is invited to consult the proceedings of the recent CKM workshop that was held in Nagoya (Japan) in December 2006 [2].

Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

2007-06-27

308

Predictions from high scale mixing unification hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the renormalization group evolution of masses and mixing angles of Majorana neutrinos under the "high scale mixing unification" hypothesis. Assuming the unification of quark-lepton mixing angles at a high scale, we show that all the experimentally observed neutrino oscillation parameters can be obtained, within the 3-? range, through the running of corresponding renormalization group equations provided neutrinos have the same charge parity and are quasidegenerate. One of the novel results of our analysis is that ?23 turns out to be nonmaximal and lies in the second octant. Furthermore, we derive new constraints on the allowed parameter space for the unification scale, supersymmetry breaking scale and tan?, for which the high scale mixing unification hypothesis works.

Abbas, Gauhar; Gupta, Saurabh; Rajasekaran, G.; Srivastava, Rahul

2014-05-01

309

A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.

Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.

1993-01-01

310

Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry.  

PubMed

This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A?, S? and ?(96). PMID:23645075

King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph

2013-05-01

311

Transition mixing study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer model capable of analyzing the flow field in the transition liner of small gas turbine engines is developed. A FORTRAN code has been assembled from existing codes and physical submodels and used to predict the flow in several test geometries which contain characteristics similar to transition liners, and for which experimental data was available. Comparisons between the predictions and measurements indicate that the code produces qualitative results but that the turbulence models, both K-E and algebraic Reynolds Stress, underestimate the cross-stream diffusion. The code has also been used to perform a numerical experiment to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the mixing process in transition liners. Comparisons illustrate that geometries with significant curvature show a drift of the jet trajectory toward the convex wall and weaker wake region vortices and decreased penetration for jets located on the convex wall of the liner, when compared to jets located on concave walls. Also shown were the approximate equivalency of angled slots and round holes and a technique by which jet mixing correlations developed for rectangular channels can be used for can geometries.

Reynolds, R.; White, C.

1986-01-01

312

30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2010-07-01

313

30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2011-07-01

314

30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2011-07-01

315

30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Headframes and Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979,...

2010-07-01

316

Fermion masses and mixings from heterotic orbifold models  

SciTech Connect

We search for a possibility of getting realistic fermion mass ratios and mixing angles from renormalizable couplings on the Z6-I heterotic orbifold with one pair of Higgs doublets. In the quark sector, we find cases with reasonable results if we ignore the first family. In the lepton sector, we can fit the charged lepton mass ratios, the neutrino mass squared difference ratio, and the lepton mixing angles, considering all three families00.

Park, Jae-hyeon [School of Physics, KIAS, Cheongnyangni-dong, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-12-02

317

A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.

Aliev, T. M. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Permanent institute: Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ozpineci, A. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zamiralov, V. S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-12-28

318

Optimal unambiguous comparison of two unknown squeezed vacua  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for the unambiguous state comparison (USC) of two unknown squeezed vacuum states of the electromagnetic field. Our setup is based on linear optical elements and photon-number detectors, and it achieves optimal USC in an ideal case of unit quantum efficiency. In realistic conditions, i.e., for nonunit quantum efficiency of photodetectors, we evaluate the probability of getting an ambiguous result as well as the reliability of the scheme, thus showing its robustness in comparison to previous proposals.

Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A. [CNISM UdR Milano Universita, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Sedlak, Michal [Research Centre for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Rapsan, Peter [Research Centre for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Busek, Vladimir [Research Centre for Quantum Information, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-01-15

319

Inverse boundary value problems with unknown boundaries: Optimal stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we obtain essentially best possible stability estimates for a class of inverse problems associated to elliptic boundary value problems in which the role of the unknown is played by an inaccessible part of the boundary and the role of the data is played by overdetermined boundary data for the elliptic equation assigned on the remaining, accessible, part of the boundary. We treat the case of arbitrary space dimension n?2 . Such problems arise in applied contexts of nondestructive testing of materials for either electric or thermal conductors, and are known to be ill-posed.

Alessandrini, Giovanni; Beretta, Elena; Rosset, Edi; Vessella, Sergio

320

Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff results in both firms increasing their prices, an increase in both expected sales and expected profits for the home firm, and a decrease in both expected sales and expected profits for the foreign firm.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2009-09-01

321

Optimal unambiguous comparison of two unknown squeezed vacua  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme for unambiguous state comparison (USC) of two unknown squeezed vacuum states of an electromagnetic field. Our setup is based on linear optical elements and photon-number detectors, and achieves optimal USC in an ideal case of unit quantum efficiency. In realistic conditions, i.e., for non-unit quantum efficiency of photodetectors, we evaluate the probability of getting an ambiguous result as well as the reliability of the scheme, thus showing its robustness in comparison to previous proposals.

Stefano Olivares; Michal Sedlak; Peter Rapcan; Matteo G. A. Paris; Vladimir Buzek

2010-10-14

322

Prediction approach to multistage sampling when cluster sizes are unknown  

SciTech Connect

A model for two-stage cluster sampling when sample cluster sizes are unknown is used to derive an optimal (model-based) estimator for the population total and to determine robust sampling strategies. In an empirical study using 1970 and 1980 census data for Los Angeles and surrounding counties, comparisons are made between the model based estimator and conventional estimators. The results favor the new estimator over those derived from randomization theory. In addition, the empirical study shows that the robust sampling strategies suggested by the theory can reduce biases, improve efficiency, and decrease the frequencies of large errors. 7 refs.

Kelly, E.J.; Cumberland, W.G.

1985-01-01

323

High angle of attack: Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict high angle of attack, nonlinear, aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles, including aircraft, has made significant progress in the last 25 years using computational tools and analyses. The key technological element which has made these analyses possible is the ability to account for the influence of the shed vortical flow, prevalent in this angle of attack range, on geometries of interest. Using selected analysis techniques, applications have also been made to wing design in order to improve their high speed maneuver performance. Various techniques, associated with different levels of accuracy, exist to model this vortical flow influence. The ones included in this paper cover: suction analogy with extensions; free vortex filaments; free vortex sheet modeling; and Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions. Associated relevant features of vortices are also addressed, including: the wing and flow conditions which cause vortex formation; and how the vortex strength varies with angle of attack and wing sweep.

Lamar, John E.

1992-01-01

324

Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle  

SciTech Connect

In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.

Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg Institut) Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Malinsky, Michal [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-02-01

325

Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise  

E-print Network

LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequ...

Vitale, Stefano; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

2014-01-01

326

Learned navigation in unknown terrains: A retraction method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of learned navigation of a circular robot R, of radius delta (is greater than or equal to 0), through a terrain whose model is not a-priori known is considered. Two-dimensional finite-sized terrains populated by an unknown (but, finite) number of simple polygonal obstacles are also considered. The number and locations of the vertices of each obstacle are unknown to R. R is equipped with a sensor system that detects all vertices and edges that are visible from its present location. In this context two problems are covered. In the visit problem, the robot is required to visit a sequence of destination points, and in the terrain model acquisition problem, the robot is required to acquire the complete model of the terrain. An algorithmic framework is presented for solving these two problems using a retraction of the freespace onto the Voronoi diagram of the terrain. Algorithms are then presented to solve the visit problem and the terrain model acquisition problem.

Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Stoltzfus, N.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

1989-01-01

327

Autophagy and redox status in carcinoma of an unknown primary.  

PubMed

Aim and background. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role and clinical implications of autophagy and reactive oxygen species-related proteins in carcinoma of an unknown primary (CUP). Methods and study design. Tissue microarray was constructed for a total of 77 CUP cases. Immunohistochemical stains conducted were as follows: autophagy-related beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B, and p62; redox-related catalase, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase ?, thioredoxin-interacting protein, and manganese superoxide dismutase. Immunohistochemical results were then related to their clinicopathologic parameters. Results. The degree of LC3A expression showed a difference according to histologic subtype. In undifferentiated carcinoma, LC3A had the highest expression and adenocarcinoma had the lowest expression (P = 0.021). According to clinical subtype, there was a significant difference between LC3A and glutathione S-transferase ? in expression. LC3A had the highest expression in single-organ types and the lowest in intermediate and carcinomatosis types (P = 0.003). Glutathione S-transferase ? showed the highest expression in nodal-type tumors and the lowest in carcinomatosis types (P = 0.010). In univariate analysis, shorter overall survival was related to tumor glutathione S-transferase ? negativity (P = 0.030). Conclusions. Different expression levels of the autophagy and reactive oxygen species-related proteins, LC3A and glutathione S-transferase ?, were observed according to histologic and/or clinical subtype of carcinoma of an unknown primary. PMID:25296602

Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

2014-01-01

328

Identification of unknown homeopathic remedies by delayed luminescence.  

PubMed

A quality control method of highly diluted and potentized homeopathic remedies is important for curing patients applying homeopathic therapy. Lenger detected photons in highly potentized homeopathic remedies by delayed luminescence. The photons of Argentum metallicum 100MK and Cantharis 100MK magnetically bound to their carrier substances ethanol or saccharose were separated by their resonating magnetic field of about 2.06 MHz. The photons of these 100MK potency levels and of their reference substances were determined to be standard values calculated by the B2-values of Bajpai's equation derived from the Hamiltonian equation. The stability of ethanolic Argentum metallicum 100MK and Cantharis 100MK declined to 1/3 of their photons within a month in contrast to saccharose globules with Argentum metallicum 100MK having been stable during the period of these investigations for almost 1 year. Some remedies delivered as CMK potency had been proved to be ethanol. The testing amount of high ethanolic potencies is limited to 40 ?l because 80 ?l resulted in an attenuation of the photons; 40 ?l equal 16 medicated saccharose globules. Six unknown homeopathic remedies could be identified as increasing potency levels of Argentum metallicum from 100MK to 1.000MK which indicates a calibration curve. The homeopathic factories having sent the unknown remedies confirmed the measurements. A quality control of homeopathic remedies is possible by comparing the different B2-values of the remedies and their carrier substances. PMID:23872840

Lenger, Karin; Bajpai, Rajendra P; Spielmann, Manfred

2014-03-01

329

Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise  

E-print Network

LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequency-dependent background noise. The method uses noise marginalisation in connection with averaged Welch's periodograms to achieve unbiased parameter estimation, together with a consistent, non-parametric estimate of the residual PSD. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively re-weighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD, and to analyze differential acceleration from several experiments with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

Stefano Vitale; Giuseppe Congedo; Rita Dolesi; Valerio Ferroni; Mauro Hueller; Daniele Vetrugno; William Joseph Weber; Heather Audley; Karsten Danzmann; Ingo Diepholz; Martin Hewitson; Natalia Korsakova; Luigi Ferraioli; Ferran Gibert; Nikolaos Karnesis; Miquel Nofrarias; Henri Inchauspe; Eric Plagnol; Oliver Jennrich; Paul W. McNamara; Michele Armano; James Ira Thorpe; Peter Wass

2014-04-18

330

Charged lepton mixing via heavy sterile neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudoscalar meson decay leads to an entangled state of charged leptons (?,e) and massive neutrinos. Tracing out the neutrino degrees of freedom leads to a reduced density matrix for the charged leptons whose off-diagonal elements reveal charged lepton oscillations. Although these decohere on unobservably small time scales ?10-23 s they indicate charged lepton mixing as a result of common intermediate states. The charged lepton self-energy up to one loop features flavor off-diagonal terms responsible for charged lepton mixing: a dominant “short distance” contribution with W bosons and massive neutrinos in the intermediate state, and a subdominant “large distance” contribution with pseudoscalar mesons and massive neutrinos in the intermediate state. Mixing angle(s) are GIM suppressed, and are momentum and chirality dependent. The difference of negative chirality mixing angles near the muon and electron mass shells is ?L(M?2)-?L(Me2)?GF?U?jmj2Uje* with mj the mass of the neutrino in the intermediate state. Recent results from TRIUMF, suggest an upper bound ?L(p2?M?2)-?L(p2?Me2)<10-14( for one generation of a heavy sterile neutrino with mass MS. We obtain the wavefunctions for the propagating modes, and discuss the relation between the lepton flavor violating process ??e? and charged lepton mixing, highlighting that a measurement of such process implies a mixed propagator ?, e. Furthermore writing flavor diagonal vertices in terms of mass eigenstates yields novel interactions suggesting further contributions to lepton flavor violating process as a consequence of momentum and chirality dependent mixing angles.

Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel

2014-03-01

331

Dilution jet mixing program, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives for the NASA Jet Mixing Phase 3 program were: extension of the data base on the mixing of single sided rows of jets in a confined cross flow to discrete slots, including streamlined, bluff, and angled injections; quantification of the effects of geometrical and flow parameters on penetration and mixing of multiple rows of jets into a confined flow; investigation of in-line, staggered, and dissimilar hole configurations; and development of empirical correlations for predicting temperature distributions for discrete slots and multiple rows of dilution holes.

Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Myers, G.; White, C.

1985-01-01

332

Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

Roscoe, Matt B.

2012-01-01

333

Ring magnet firing angle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons ; (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ; ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage ; wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts ; from zero

M. J. Knott; L. G. Lewis; H. H. Rabe

1975-01-01

334

Radiation impacts on human health: certain, fuzzy, and unknown.  

PubMed

The atomic bomb and other studies have established with certainty that moderate-to-high doses of radiation cause many types of solid cancer and leukemia. Moving down the dose range to the vicinity of 100-200 mSv, the risks become fuzzy and then unknown at low doses on the order of 10-20 mSv. Nor have low-dose experimental studies provided definitive answers: some have suggested there may be adverse biological effects in the range of 5-50 mSv, while others support a "no risk" interpretation. Epidemiologic data contain intrinsic "noise" (variation by known and unknown factors related to genetics, lifestyle, other environmental exposures, sociodemographics, diagnostic accuracy, etc.) so are generally too insensitive to provide compelling answers in the low-dose range. However, there have been recent provocative reports regarding risk from relatively low-dose occupational and medical radiation exposures that warrant careful consideration. Summaries of the largest studies with low-dose or low dose-rate radiation exposure provide suggestive evidence of risk for solid cancer and stronger evidence for leukemia risk. Recently, interest in health endpoints other than cancer also has risen sharply, in particular the degree of cardiovascular and cataract risk following doses under 1 Sv. Data regarding cardiovascular disease are limited and fuzzy, with suggestions of inconsistencies, and the risk at low doses is essentially unknown. The evidence of cataract risk after low dose-rate exposures among those conducting interventional medical radiological procedures is becoming strong. The magnitude of radiation impacts on human health requires fuller documentation, especially for low-dose or low dose-rate exposures. From the epidemiologic vantage point, this will require longer observation of existing irradiated cohorts and development of new informative cohorts, improved accuracy in dose assessments, more attention to confounding variables, and more biosamples from irradiated groups to enable translational radiobiological studies. Introduction of Radiation Impacts on Human Health (Video 2:02, http://links.lww.com/HP/A35). PMID:24378493

Shore, Roy E

2014-02-01

335

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

336

Glory on Venus cloud tops and the unknown UV absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the implications of the observations of the glory phenomenon made recently by Venus Express orbiter. Glory is an optical phenomenon that poses stringent constraints on the cloud properties. These observations thus enable us to constrain two properties of the particles at the cloud tops (about 70 km altitude) which are responsible for a large fraction of the solar energy absorbed by Venus. Firstly we obtain a very accurate estimate of the cloud particles size to be 1.2 ?m with a very narrow size distribution. We also find that for the two observations presented here the clouds are homogenous, as far as cloud particles sizes are concerned, on scale of at least 1200 km. This is in contrast to previous estimates that were either local, from entry probes data, or averaged over space and time from polarization data. Secondly we find that the refractive index for the data discussed here is higher than that of sulfuric acid previously proposed for the clouds composition (Hansen, J.E., Hovenier, J.W. [1974]. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160; Ragent, B. et al. [1985]. Adv. Space Res. 5, 85-115). Assuming that the species contributing to the increase of the refractive index is the same as the unknown UV absorber, we are able to constrain the list of candidates. We investigated several possibilities and argue that either small ferric chloride (FeCl3) cores inside sulfuric acid particles or elemental sulfur coating their surface are good explanations of the observation. Both ferric chloride and elemental sulfur have been suggested in the past as candidates for the as yet unknown UV absorber (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1352-1359; Mills, F.P. et al. [2007]. In: Esposito, L.W., Stofan, E.R., Cravens, T.E. (Eds.), Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, vol. 176. AGU Monogr. Ser., Washington, DC, pp. 73-100).

Markiewicz, W. J.; Petrova, E.; Shalygina, O.; Almeida, M.; Titov, D. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Ignatiev, N.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K. D.

2014-05-01

337

Effect of mixing technique on surface characteristics of impression materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the disinfection process, wettability, and mass change of impression materials. Hand-mixed high viscosity impression materials usually result in a material with numerous voids, which contribute to surface roughness and affect the surface characteristics of the material.Purpose. This study evaluated the effect of mixing technique on advancing contact angle, receding contact

Xavier Lepe; Glen H. Johnson; John C. Berg; Tar C. Aw

1998-01-01

338

Dirac CP violation in bipair neutrino mixing  

E-print Network

Two types of bipair neutrino mixing are derived by constraints on the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing matrix $U$ that yield, as the experimentally consistent values of the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ to be: $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}=\\sqrt{2}-1$ from $\\left| {{U_{12}}} \\right| = \\left| {{U_{32}}} \\right|$ and $\\left| {{U_{22}}} \\right| = \\left| {{U_{23}}} \\right|$ (case 1) or $2-\\sqrt{2}$ from $\\left| {{U_{12}}} \\right| = \\left| {{U_{22}}} \\right|$ and $\\left| {{U_{32}}} \\right| = \\left| {{U_{33}}} \\right|$ (case 2) for the vanishing reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}=0$. These predictions are altered by including CP-violating Dirac phase $\\delta$ as well as the nonvanishing $\\theta_{13}$. The solar neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ is determined to be: $\\cos 2{\\theta_{12}} = \\sin^2\\theta_{23} - \\tan^2\\theta_{13}$ (case 1) and $\\cos 2{\\theta_{12}} = \\cos^2\\theta_{23} - \\tan^2\\theta_{13}$ (case 2). If $\\cos\\delta=0$ for maximal Dirac CP violation, $\\theta_{23}$ is calculated up to ${\\cal O}(\\sin^2\\theta_{13})$ to be $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}(\\equiv\\sin^2{\\hat \\theta}_{23}) = \\left({\\sqrt 2 - 1} \\right)\\left({\\cos^2\\theta_{13} + \\sqrt 2 \\sin^2\\theta_{13}} \\right)$ (case 1) and $\\left({\\sqrt 2 - 1} \\right)\\left({\\sin^2\\theta_{13} + \\sqrt 2 \\cos^2\\theta_{13}} \\right)$ (case 2). For arbitrary values of $\\delta$, $\\sin^2{\\hat \\theta}_{23}$ is corrected by terms proportional to the power of ${{\\sin\\theta_{13}}\\cos \\delta\\sin 2{\\theta_{12}}}$ and we perform numerical computation to show relations between $\\delta$ and the mixing angles.

Jun Iizuka; Teruyuki Kitabayashi; Yuki Minagawa; Masaki Yasue

2014-05-16

339

Supercritical Angle Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We explore the potential of a supercritical angle (SA) objective for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This novel microscope objective combines tight focusing by an aspheric lens with strong axial confinement of supercritical angle fluorescence collection by a parabolic mirror lens, resulting in a small detection volume. The tiny axial extent of the detection volume features an excellent surface sensitivity, as is demonstrated by diffusion measurements in model membranes with an excess of free dye in solution. All SA-FCS measurements are directly compared to standard confocal FCS, demonstrating a clear advantage of SA-FCS, especially for diffusion measurements in membranes. We present an extensive theoretical framework that allows for accurate and quantitative evaluation of the SA-FCS correlation curves. PMID:17827221

Ries, Jonas; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Verdes, Dorinel; Schwille, Petra

2008-01-01

340

Testing solar lepton mixing sum rules in neutrino oscillation experiments  

E-print Network

Small discrete family symmetries such as S4, A4 or A5 may lead to simple leading-order predictions for the neutrino mixing matrix such as the bimaximal, tribimaximal or golden ratio mixing patterns, which may be brought into agreement with experimental data with the help of corrections from the charged-lepton sector. Such scenarios generally lead to relations among the parameters of the physical leptonic mixing matrix known as solar lepton mixing sum rules. In this article, we present a simple derivation of such solar sum rules, valid for arbitrary neutrino and charged lepton mixing angles and phases, assuming only {\\theta}13^{\

Ballett, Peter; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A

2014-01-01

341

Testing solar lepton mixing sum rules in neutrino oscillation experiments  

E-print Network

Small discrete family symmetries such as S4, A4 or A5 may lead to simple leading-order predictions for the neutrino mixing matrix such as the bimaximal, tribimaximal or golden ratio mixing patterns, which may be brought into agreement with experimental data with the help of corrections from the charged-lepton sector. Such scenarios generally lead to relations among the parameters of the physical leptonic mixing matrix known as solar lepton mixing sum rules. In this article, we present a simple derivation of such solar sum rules, valid for arbitrary neutrino and charged lepton mixing angles and phases, assuming only {\\theta}13^{\

Peter Ballett; Stephen F. King; Christoph Luhn; Silvia Pascoli; Michael A. Schmidt

2014-10-28

342

Gaia basic angle monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission1 will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft2, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the `Basic Angle', at an operational temperature of 100 K. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability at cryogenic conditions, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system3 for this mission, measuring the relative motion of Gaia's telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to detect Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction on Gaia and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material this paper addresses the specific challenges towards the cryogenic application of the Gaia BAM including design, integration and verification/qualification by testing.

Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Mekking, J.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.; Monteiro, D.

2013-09-01

343

OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ?{sub j} ? 1/5?{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of ?{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ?{sub j,{sub max}} ? 1/5 ? 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2013-11-10

344

Opening Angles of Collapsar Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ? j ~ 1/5?0 and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?0, is a few for existing observations of ? j . The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ? j, max ~ 1/5 ~ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

2013-11-01

345

Neutrino Oscillations in the Scheme of Charge (Couple Constant) Mixings  

E-print Network

In the Standard theory of neutrino oscillations is used scheme of mass mixings, i.e., oscillation parameters are expressed via terms of mass matrix. In this work neutrino oscillations generated by charge (the weak interaction couple constants) mixings are considered. Expressions for angle mixings and lengths of oscillations are obtained. The expressions of the probability for three neutrino oscillations are given. Neutrino oscillations in this scheme (mechanism) are virtual if neutrino masses are not equal and real if neutrino masses are equal.

Kh. M. Beshtoev

2005-06-24

346

Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

Niranjan, Ajay, E-mail: niranjana@upmc.ed [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2010-08-01

347

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

2004-01-01

348

Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 ? was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

2012-06-01

349

Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

2012-06-01

350

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Newcombe, George

2004-07-01

351

Calculating an unknown source activity using modeled and experimental results.  

PubMed

A method is presented that provides a way to calculate the unknown activity of a source by using experimental exposure rate measurements from an ion chamber and exposure rates calculated using the MCNP radiation transport code. The method consists of fitting experimental data to MCNP results with both data sets in the form of (Equation is included in full-text article.)where r is the distance from the source at which the measurement was taken, X? is the exposure rate, and An is an assumed nominal activity of the source. The fit is done by calculating a correction factor for the nominal activity that shifts the experimental data to match the MCNP results. The actual activity of the source in question is found by multiplying the assumed nominal activity by the activity correction factor. The method was used to calculate the activities of the three Cs sources used in the Ohio Emergency Management Agency's instrument calibration range. It was found that the activities were less than the decay-corrected nominal activities by factors ranging from 3% to 10%. PMID:25271929

Rowan, Matthew S; Blue, Thomas E; Herminghuysen, Kevin

2014-11-01

352

Clinical profile of classical Fever of unknown origin (FUO)  

PubMed Central

Background: The etiology of fever of unknown origin (FUO) may differ from different countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the etiology of FUO in patients attending SKIMS, a tertiary care teaching hospital, at Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Methods: From July 2010 to September 2012, this study was done to examine the profile of patients with FUO. The classic FUO was defined as three outpatient visits or three days in the hospital without elucidation of cause of fever. Infectious agents, collagen vascular diseases and hematological malignancies as well as other etiologies were investigated when appropriate. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 91 cases (62 males and 29 females), with age ranging from 16 to 80 years were investigated. The mean duration of fever before hospitalization was 26±4 days. The etiology of FUO was delineated in (66%) of cases, whereas, (25%) remained undiagnosed. Most common group of FUO was that of infectious diseases (44%) followed by collagen vascular diseases and malignancies (12 % each). Amongst the infection group, brucellosis and salmonellosis comprised the majority of cases (25% each). Conclusion: Infections are the most common cause of FUO followed by collagen vascular diseases in our region. PMID:24490012

Mir, Tanveer; Nabi Dhobi, Gulam; Nabi Koul, Ajaz; Saleh, Tajamul

2014-01-01

353

Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

354

Housing Mix, School Mix: Barriers to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent UK policy has emphasised both the development of socially mixed communities and the creation of balanced school intakes. In this paper, we use a case study of an area of mixed tenure in eastern England to explore policy in practice and the extent to which mechanisms of segregation impact on both the creation of socially mixed neighbourhoods…

Camina, M. M.; Iannone, P.

2014-01-01

355

Noncircular-PARAFAC for 2D-DOA estimation of noncircular signals in arbitrarily spaced acoustic vector-sensor array subjected to unknown locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a noncircular-parallel factor (NC-PARAFAC) algorithm for two-dimensional direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of noncircular signals for acoustic vector-sensor array. The proposed algorithm enhances the angle estimation performance via utilizing the noncircularity of the signals, and it can be suitable for arbitrary array subjected to unknown locations and achieve automatically paired two-dimensional angle estimation. The proposed algorithm has better angle estimation performance than estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique, PARAFAC algorithm, and propagator method. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has a lower computational complexity than the PARAFAC algorithm. We also derive the Crámer-Rao bound of DOA estimation of noncircular signal in acoustic vector-sensor array. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Zhang, Xiaofei; Cao, Renzheng; Zhou, Ming

2013-12-01

356

Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians  

SciTech Connect

An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

1987-06-01

357

Airfoil Shaped Flow Angle Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a force-based instrument that measures local flow angle. The preferred embodiment of the invention has a low aspect ratio airfoil member connected to a mounting base. Using a series of strain gauges located at the connecting portion of the probe, aerodynamic forces on the airfoil member can be converted to strain, which in turn can be converted to local air flow measurements. The present invention has no moving parts and is well suited for measuring flow in a transonic and supersonic regime.

Corda, Stephen (Inventor); Vachon, Michael Jake (Inventor)

2003-01-01

358

39 CFR 946.4 - Disposition of property of unknown owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Disposition of property of unknown owners. 946.4...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.4 Disposition of property of unknown owners. (a)...

2011-07-01

359

39 CFR 946.4 - Disposition of property of unknown owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Disposition of property of unknown owners. 946.4...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.4 Disposition of property of unknown owners. (a)...

2012-07-01

360

39 CFR 946.4 - Disposition of property of unknown owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of unknown owners. 946.4...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.4 Disposition of property of unknown owners. (a)...

2010-07-01

361

39 CFR 946.4 - Disposition of property of unknown owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposition of property of unknown owners. 946.4...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.4 Disposition of property of unknown owners. (a)...

2013-07-01

362

42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown...Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined,...

2012-10-01

363

42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown...Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined,...

2010-10-01

364

42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown...Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined,...

2013-10-01

365

42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown...Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined,...

2011-10-01

366

48 CFR 847.305-70 - Potential destinations known but quantities unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. 847.305-70...TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.305-70 Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. When the...

2011-10-01

367

Edge delamination in angle-ply composite laminates, part 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method was developed for describing the edge delamination stress intensity characteristics in angle-ply composite laminates. The method is based on the theory of anisotropic elasticity. The edge delamination problem is formulated using Lekhnitskii's complex-variable stress potentials and an especially developed eigenfunction expansion method. The method predicts exact orders of the three-dimensional stress singularity in a delamination crack tip region. With the aid of boundary collocation, the method predicts the complete stress and displacement fields in a finite-dimensional, delaminated composite. Fracture mechanics parameters such as the mixed-mode stress intensity factors and associated energy release rates for edge delamination can be calculated explicity. Solutions are obtained for edge delaminated (theta/-theta theta/-theta) angle-ply composites under uniform axial extension. Effects of delamination lengths, fiber orientations, lamination and geometric variables are studied.

Wang, S. S.

1981-01-01

368

The driven pendulum at arbitrary drive angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the equation of motion of the driven pendulum and generalize it to arbitrary driving angle. The pendulum will oscillate about a stable angle other than straight down if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough for a given drive angle. The emphasis is on the parameters associated with a simply made demonstration apparatus.

VanDalen, Gordon J.

2004-04-01

369

Finite-time synchronization of non-autonomous chaotic systems with unknown parameters  

E-print Network

Adaptive control technique is adopted to synchronize two identical non-autonomous systems with unknown parameters in finite time. A virtual unknown parameter is introduced in order to avoid the unknown parameters from appearing in the controllers and parameters update laws. The Duffing equation and a gyrostat system are chosen as the numerical examples to show the validity of the present method.

Jianping Cai; Meili Lin

2009-11-02

370

Robust controller design for uncertain multiple-delay systems with unknown actuator parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the controller design problem for a class of uncertain systems with unknown actuator parameters. The considered systems are with multiple time delays and nonlinear uncertainties, and the uncertain nonlinearities are bounded by nonlinear functions with unknown coefficients. The actuator parameters are time-varying and their bounds are unknown, moreover the signs of them are not available. To deal

Chang-Chun Hua; Steven X. Ding; Xin-Ping Guan

371

Adaptive control of time delay nonlinear systems with unknown control direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, robust adaptive control is proposed for a class of time delay nonlinear systems with unknown constant control gain and control direction. The design is based on the principle of sliding mode control and the use of Nussbaum-type function in solving the problem of the completely unknown control gain. The unknown function and the upper bound of the

Tianping Zhang; Hui Wen; Qiuqin Zhu

2010-01-01

372

Small angle neutron scattering studies of vesicle stability  

SciTech Connect

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of mixed colloids of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) with the bile salt, cholylglycine (CG), in D{sub 2}O as a function of pressure (P) and temperature (T). At atmospheric pressure, the system forms an isotropic phase of mixed, single bilayer vesicles (SLV`s). Increasing the external hydrostatic pressure brought about significant changes in particle morphology. At T = 25 C, application of a pressure of 3.5 MPa resulted in the collapse of the SLV`s. Further increase of P, up to 51.8 MPa, resulted in a transition from a phase of ordered (stacked), collapsed vesicles to one of stacked, ribbon-like particles. A similar collapse of the vesicles was observed at higher temperature (T = 37 C) with increasing P, but at this temperature, no ribbon phase was found at the highest pressure explored.

Mang, J.T.; Hjelm, R.P.

1997-10-01

373

Diffraction manipulation by four-wave mixing  

E-print Network

We suggest a scheme to manipulate paraxial diffraction by utilizing the dependency of a four-wave mixing process on the relative angle between the light fields. A microscopic model for four-wave mixing in a Lambda-type level structure is introduced and compared to recent experimental data. We show that images with feature size as low as 10 micrometers can propagate with very little or even negative diffraction. The inherent gain prevents loss and allows for operating at high optical depths. Our scheme does not rely on atomic motion and is thus applicable to both gaseous and solid media.

Katzir, Itay; Firstenberg, Ofer

2014-01-01

374

The effect of injection angle on the interaction between sonic secondary jets and a supersonic free stream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation, as part of a research program on the development of technology for the design of supersonic combustion ramjets, has been conducted to determine the effect of injection angle on the jet penetration, mixing rate, and airstream total-pressure recovery downstream of five laterally spaced sonic hydrogen jets flush mounted on a flat plate. Results of this investigation indicated that at lower injection angles less free-stream momentum loss was required to turn and accelerate the injected gas downstream and, thereby, less flow disturbance and total-pressure loss were produced. In addition, lower injection angles resulted in improved fuel distribution and faster mixing of the injected gas with the free stream. A correlating parameter, developed from considerations of the effective-momentum-flux differences between the injected gas and the free-stream air, predicted greater penetration and faster mixing for the lower injection angles.

Mcclinton, C. R.

1972-01-01

375

Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques. PMID:19939389

Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

2010-02-10

376

A new mixed finite element method for computing viscoelastic flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mixed finite element method for computing viscoelastic flows is presented. The mixed formulation is based on the introduction of the rate of deformation tensor as an additional unknown. Contrary to the popular EVSS method [D. Rajagopalan, R.A. Brown and R.C. Armstrong, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 36 (1990) 159], no change of variable is performed into the constitutive equation.

Robert Guénette; Michel Fortin

1995-01-01

377

Four-wave-mixing interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method of determining in time both the real and the imaginary parts of third-order nonlinear-optical coefficients. In this method the phase-conjugated four-wave-mixing signal beam interferes with one of the transmitted pump beams. By comparing the interference pattern with that of a known reference, we are able to determine the real and the imaginary parts of the third-order optical nonlinearity for an unknown sample. The real and the imaginary parts can also be separated when one incoming beam is delayed. We apply this method to a bis-thienyl polyene molecule containing five conjugate double bonds and find that the hyperpolarizability is gamma 1111 =(-2.5-0.17i) \\times 10 -30 esu.

Tang, N.; Partanen, J. P.

1996-08-01

378

Current concepts on primary open-angle glaucoma genetics: a contribution to disease pathophysiology and future treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucoma is a common, complex, heterogenous disease and it constitutes the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in all populations. Most of the molecular mechanisms leading to POAG development are still unknown. Gene mutations in various populations have been identified by genetic studies and a genetic basis for glaucoma

M Gemenetzi; Y Yang; A J Lotery

2012-01-01

379

Signature extension for sun angle, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Within a restricted zenith sun angle range of 35 - 50 degrees, it was empirically observed that canopy reflectance is mainly Lambertian. Reflectance changes with crop stage were simple shifts in scale in the sun angle range. It was noted that sun angle variations depend on canopy characteristics. Effects of the vegetative canopy were most pronounced at the larger solar zenith angles (20 %). The linear sun angle correction coefficients demonstrate a dependency on both crop stage (15-20 %) and crop type (10-20 %). The use of canopy reflectance modeling allowed for the generation of a simulated data set over an extremely broad envelope of sun angles.

Smith, J. A. (principal investigator); Berry, J. K.; Heimes, F.

1975-01-01

380

Disulfide Bond Dihedral Angles from Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Raman spectra of several compounds containing the CS-SC moiety were obtained (in the solid phase) from 450-800 cm-1 to investigate the S-S and C-S stretching behavior. The S-S stretching frequency varied linearly with the CS-SC dihedral angle (obtained from either x-ray or neutron diffraction or ultraviolet absorption) for compounds whose CC-SS dihedral angles were not very different. The ratio of the intensities of the S-S and C-S stretching bands exhibited no recognizable correlation with either the CS-SC dihedral angle or the CSS bond angle, probably because this ratio is sensitive to the crystalline environment. The linear dependence of the S-S stretching frequency on dihedral angle leads to a dihedral angle for the plant hormone, malformin A, that is in excellent agreement with that estimated from the longest wavelength CS-SC ultraviolet absorption band. PMID:16592108

Van Wart, Harold E.; Lewis, Aaron; Scheraga, Harold A.; Saeva, Frank D.

1973-01-01

381

A ciliary body tumor preventing angle closure.  

PubMed

We present a case report of a 60-year-old white woman, found to have advanced angle closure glaucoma in the right eye and appositional closure for about half of the left eye and no glaucoma. The remaining angle of the left eye was open with localized heavy pigmentation of the ciliary body band and trabecular meshwork. Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed a ciliary body tumor displacing the iris root centripetally preventing angle closure. PMID:23117627

Mehanna, Chadi; Desjardins, Laurence; Puech, Michel; Cohn, Howard

2014-02-01

382

Zero texture lepton mass matrices and near tribimaximal mixing in the SO(10) theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have described the quark and lepton masses and mixings in context of non-SUSY SO(10) and "four-zero-texture" (FZT). In the FZT case, the fermion masses and the mixing angles can be related. We predict the neutrino masses using the near tribimaximal (TBM) mixing and the triminimal mixing. Our results show that under TBM, the neutrinos have a normal, but weak hierarchy. Variations of the neutrino masses under the "Near TBM-scenario" are also discussed.

Bhatti, A. Aziz; Fritzsch, Harald

2014-04-01

383

Experimental study on turbulent mixing of spray droplets in crossflow  

SciTech Connect

Centrifugal spray injected at various angles in gas crossflow has been studied experimentally using PIV visualization system and image-processing techniques. Experiments were carried out inside a rectangular duct (95 mm x 95 mm in cross-section) at ambient temperature and pressure, with different gas Reynolds numbers (vary from 12,900 to 45,000) and three injection angles (60 , 90 and 120 ). The spray angle of the centrifugal nozzle is 80 , with D{sub 32} of 80 {mu}m. The instantaneous images of droplets distribution and the values of the line-averaged D{sub 32} at different positions on the cross-sections along the flow field for each condition were obtained, and their flow field configurations were achieved. Quantitative assessments of mixing degree between two phases for different injection angles were determined using a spatial unmixedness parameter. It is found that the addition of droplets into the gas crossflow enhanced the turbulence intensity of the gas crossflow and caused different-scale vortices. The flow field structure, to a great extent, is dependent on the injection angle. The entrainment and centrifugal force of large vortex lead to uneven droplet distribution and moreover influence the mixing of droplets and gas crossflow. A better mixing result can be obtained with the injection angle of nozzles of 60 . (author)

Bai, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Liu, Li; Sun, Hui-Juan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2009-09-15

384

The Retroacetabular Angle Determines the Safe Angle for Screw Placement in Posterior Acetabular Fracture Fixation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. A method for the determination of safe angles for screws placed in the posterior acetabular wall based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) is described. It defines a retroacetabular angle and determines its variation in the population. Methods. The retroacetabular angle is the angle between the retroacetabular surface and the tangent to the posterior acetabular articular surface. Screws placed through the marginal posterior wall at an angle equal to the retroacetabular angle are extraarticular. Medial screws can be placed at larger angles whose difference from the retroacetabular angle is defined as the allowance angles. CT scans of all patients with acetabular fractures treated in our institute between September 2002 to July 2007 were used to measure the retroacetabular angle and tangent. Results. Two hundred thirty one patients were included. The average (range) age was 42 (15–74) years. The average (range) retroacetabular angle was 39 (30–47) degrees. The average (range) retroacetabular tangent was 36 (30–45)?mm. Conclusions. Placing the screws at an average (range) angle of 39 (33–47) degrees of anterior inclination with the retroacetabular surface makes them extraarticular. Angles for medial screws are larger. Safe angles can be calculated preoperatively with a computer program. PMID:24959359

Tadros, Ayman M. A.; Oxland, Thomas R.; O'Brien, Peter

2013-01-01

385

AKA unknown male Foxtrot 23/4: alias assignment for unidentified emergency room patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To introduce a unique system of alias assignment for patients whose identity is initially unknown at time of admission to the emergency unit; to prevent confusion and cases of mistaken identity. METHODS: At the triage area the "unknown" patient is given a "forename" using the phonetic alphabet according to the stage of the current name cycle. The sex of the patient is included as well as the unknown status and a "surname" is added as the numerical date. Thus an unknown male patient admitted on the 24th of April at the start of a new name cycle would be known as "unknown male Alpha 24/4". RESULTS: Ten thousand alias assignments have been issued to patients since the introduction of the system in 1985. CONCLUSION: This system is a simple yet effective, tried and tested method for the unique identification of unknown patients, which allows easy communication and retrieval of data for inquiries. PMID:10353040

Brooks, A J; Macnab, C; Boffard, K

1999-01-01

386

8.G Find the Missing Angle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In the picture below, lines $l$ and $m$ are parallel. The measure of angle $\\angle PAX$ is $31^\\circ$, and the measure of angle $\\angle PBY$ is $54^\\ci...

387

Pitch Angle of Galactic Spiral Arms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

2014-06-01

388

Roughness effects on contact angle measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a simple and economical procedure to demonstrate the effects of roughness and wetting fraction on the equilibrium contact angles of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Contact angles for droplets placed on a rough surface, which wet only a portion of the surface, are larger than the contact angles of droplets formed by condensation of steam, which wet the surface more completely. These contact angle data facilitate assessments of changes in true surface area, due to surface roughening, as well as changes in the fractional contact areas of the water droplets, due to the formation of air pockets between the rough surface and the droplet.

Ryan, Bernard J.; Poduska, Kristin M.

2008-11-01

389

Mixing in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

Fryer, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-07

390

Divergent-ray projection method for measuring the flapping angle, lag angle, and torsional angle of a bumblebee wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A divergent-ray projection (DRP) method was developed for measuring the flapping angle, lag angle, and torsional angle of bumblebee wing during beating motion. This new method can measure the spatial coordinates of an insect wing by digitizing the images that are projected by two divergent laser rays from different directions. The advantage of the DRP method is its ability to measure those three angles simultaneously using only one high-speed camera. The resolution of the DRP method can be changed easily by adjusting system parameters to meet the needs of different types of objects. The measurement results for these angles of a bumblebee wing probe the effectiveness of the DRP method in studying the flight performance of insects.

Zeng, Lijiang; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Kawachi, Keiji

1996-11-01

391

Mixed Outcome Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Policymakers and planners have broadly conceptualized and widely adopted the mixed-income approach to provision of low-income housing. Yet, few case studies examine the relationship between theoretical propositions about how mixed-income tenancy can help lift families out of poverty and the actual dynamics of a mixed-income housing development.Purpose: I address this gap by examining the social dynamics within a mixed-income

Erin M. Graves

2011-01-01

392

Update of ?-?' mixing from J/?-->VP decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-?' mixing angle is deduced from an updated phenomenological analysis of J/? decays into a vector and a pseudoscalar meson. Its value in the quark-flavour basis is found to be ?P = (40.5±2.4)°, in agreement with most recent analyses. Corrections due to non-ideal ?-? mixing are shown to be negligible. The newly reported values of B(J/????) by the BABAR and BES Collaborations are crucial to get a consistent description of data.

Escribano, R.

2008-08-01

393

Mixed Strategy Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed strategy is a probability distribution one uses to randomly choose among available actions in order to avoid being predictable. In a mixed strategy equilibrium each player in a game is using a mixed strategy, one that is best for him against the strategies the other players are using. In laboratory experiments the behavior of inexperienced subjects has generally

Mark Walker; John Wooders

394

Chaotic Mixing in Microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to mix or stir liquids in microchannels. At practical pressure gradients, these flows in uniform channels are laminar and mixing occurs only by diffusion. We have demonstrated experimentally a new method for mixing streams of liquid flowing in a microchannel under the influence of a steady pressure gradient. This method uses a herringbone pattern of bas-relief structures

Abraham Stroock; Stephan Dertinger; Armand Ajdari; Igor Mezic; Howard Stone; George Whitesides

2001-01-01

395

Vision only Presented angle (Visual / Body)  

E-print Network

Vision only Presented angle (Visual / Body) 45º / 30º 60º / 40º 75º / 50º Reproductedrotationangle rotation Vision + Body (same gain) Presented angle (Visual / Body) 45º / 30º 60º / 40º 75º / 50º Reproductedrotationangle(º) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Visual rotation Body rotation Vision + Body (different gain

396

Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.  

PubMed

In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

Honda, H; Fisher, J B

1978-02-24

397

Tree Branch Angle: Maximizing Effective Leaf Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature.

Hisao Honda; Jack B. Fisher

1978-01-01

398

Air entrainment in angled dip coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coating flow examined here, labelled angled dip coating, is that where a substrate enters a pool of liquid forming an angle ? with the vertical so that it intersects the liquid along a wetting line which is not perpendicular to the direction of its motion. This flow situation is distinctly different from that where the substrate, inclined in the

Olivier Cohu; Hadj Benkreira

1998-01-01

399

Classification procedure in limited angle tomography system  

SciTech Connect

In this work we propose the use of limited angle reconstruction algorithms combined with a procedure for defect detection and feature evaluation in three dimensions. The procedure consists of the following steps: acquisition of the X-ray projections, approximated limited angle 3D image reconstruction, and image preprocessing and classification.

Chlewicki, W.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Chady, T.; Brykalski, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Westpomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

2011-06-23

400

Effective contact angle for rough boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide rigorous justification for the classical Wenzel equation for the roughness enhanced effective contact angle. The minimization of the total surface energy is reformulated into a variational problem. As the size of the roughness becomes small, we show convergence of the minimizer. The limiting minimizer and effective contact angle are explicitly calculated to verify the Wenzel equation.

Chen, Xinfu; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Xianmin

2013-01-01

401

Practical evaluation of action-angle variables  

SciTech Connect

A practical method is described for establishing action-angle variables for a Hamiltonian system. That is, a given nearly integrable Hamiltonian is divided into an exactly integrable system plus a perturbation in action-angle form. The transformation of variables, which is carried out using a few short trajectory integrations, permits a rapid determination of trajectory properties throughout a phase space volume.

Boozer, A.H.

1984-02-01

402

Let's Do It! Using Geostrips and "Angle-Fixers" to Develop Ideas About Shapes and Angles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Homemade geostrips, "angle-fixers" (cardboard circular sectors) and brass fasteners can be used by students to explore properties of angles, triangles and other polygons. Several games and other activities are suggested. (SD)

Bruni, James V.; Silverman, Helene

1975-01-01

403

Wave propagation, phase mixing and dissipation in Hall MHD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents the theoretical framework required to apply spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) as a diagnostic method for warm dense matter. In particular, the theory is generalised to allow for the description of systems with multiple ion species where all mutual correlations are taken into account within the new approach. Supplemented with the theory presented, XRTS is now a promising diagnostics for high-energy-density matter containing different chemical elements or mixtures of different materials. The signal measured at XRTS contains the unshifted Rayleigh peak and frequency-shifted features. The first is related to elastic scattering from electrons co-moving with the ions whilst the second occurs due to scattering from free electrons and excitation/ionisation events. The focus of this thesis lies on the elastic scattering feature which requires the ion structure and the electron density around the ion as input for the theoretical modelling. The ion structure is obtained from quantum simulations (DFT-MD) and classical hypernetted-chain (HNC) equations. The analysis of the DTF-MD simulation data reveals that partial ionisation yields strong modifications of the ion-ion interactions. Similar effects are found for the form of the electron screening cloud around an ion. On the basis of the newly developed theory and structural models, multicomponent effects on the XRTS signal are studied. It is shown that the Rayleigh feature is very sensitive to the ratio of the elements in the scattering volume and their mutual correlations. These results indicate that XRTS is well-suited to probe the properties of complex materials and the process of mixing in the WDM regime. The advanced theories are finally applied to experimental spectra. The procedure allows for both extracting the basic plasma parameters and assessing the quality of the theoretical models applied. Comparisons with several experiments demonstrated that the non-collective regime (large scattering angle) is reasonably well understood whereas the collective regime (small scattering angle/long wavelength limit) still holds challenges. The collective regime is problematic as here strong correlations and screening are highly relevant and, thus, a yet unknown description for fully coupled quantum systems needs to be applied.

Threlfall, James W.

404

[Drugs and closed-angle glaucoma risk].  

PubMed

Closed-angle glaucomas arise among predisposed patients (narrow iridocorneal angle) in response to various stimuli. Most of the attacks are of iatrogenic origin: all the topical and systemic mydriatic drugs can provoke an angle closure glaucoma attack. Dangerous active ingredients with closed-angle glaucoma are active substances with anticholinergic activity (peripheral action, central action, with anticholinergic side-effects), active ingredients with sympathomimetic alpha activity (alpha 1, alpha and beta with indirect effects), and the active ingredients with parasympathomimetic activity (anticholinesterases). The proprietary medicine, whether or not they are included in the French dictionary Vidal((R)), are classified according to the administration route and their different indications. The closed-angle glaucoma risk after administration of these drugs is noted in the items'contraindications and precautions in the summary of the product characteristics enclosed in the marketing authorization. PMID:11965126

Pozzi, D; Giraud, C; Callanquin, M

2002-01-01

405

A variable geometric state filtering for stochastic linear systems subject to intermittent unknown inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach for state filtering of dynamic stochastic discrete-time systems affected by unknown inputs is presented. The proposed state filtering scheme includes a restricted diagonal detection filter generating a set of minimum variance white detection signals, each of them sensitive to a particular component of the unknown input vector. After having tested the statistical effect of

Jean-Yves Keller; Dominique Sauter

2010-01-01

406

Comment on "Scheme for teleportation of an unknown atomic state without the Bell-state measurement"  

E-print Network

Comment on "Scheme for teleportation of an unknown atomic state without the Bell-state measurement, 054303 2004 have presented a scheme for implementing quantum teleportation of atomic states in cavity QED presented a scheme for implementing quantum teleportation 2 of an unknown atomic state in cavity QED

Wójcik, Antoni

407

A Control Method Based on Modal Transformation for Biped Robots to Climb Unknown Steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a control method based on modal transformation for biped robots to climb unknown steps. This method is able to control the foot position of the biped robot and the ground reaction force acting in vertical direction when the biped robot climbs unknown steps in a double-support phase. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation

Shuhei Shimmyo; Miki Nakazato; Kei Mikami; Tomoya Sato; Sho Sakaino; Kouhei Ohnishi

2010-01-01

408

The Multi-robot Coverage Problem for Optimal Coordinated Search with an Unknown Number of Robots  

E-print Network

The Multi-robot Coverage Problem for Optimal Coordinated Search with an Unknown Number of Robots of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 Email: {hjmin|npapas}@cs.umn.edu Abstract-- This work presents a novel multi-robot coverage scheme for an unknown number of robots; it focuses on optimizing the number of robots and each

Minnesota, University of

409

Provably Safe Navigation for Mobile Robots with Limited Field-of-Views in Unknown Dynamic Environments  

E-print Network

Provably Safe Navigation for Mobile Robots with Limited Field-of-Views in Unknown Dynamic of navigating a mobile robot with a limited field-of-view in a unknown dynamic environment. In such a situation: it guarantees that, if a collision takes place, the robot will be at rest. Passive motion safety is tackled

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Estimation and Rejection of Unknown Sinusoidal Disturbances Using a Generalized Adaptive Forced Balancing Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for estimation and rejection of sinusoidal disturbances with unknown amplitudes and frequencies arising in feedback control systems. A method known as adaptive forced balancing has been used successfully to reject sinusoidal disturbances with known frequency and unknown amplitude in magnetic bearing control systems. The occurrence of such a disturbance is a result of a common

Elnaz Vahedforough; Bahram Shafai; Stuart Beale

2007-01-01

411

Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate change equation  

E-print Network

Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate change equation organic matter (SOM) released from thawing permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. Microbial communities. Wullschleger, and J. K. Jansson. 2011. Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate

412

Practical adaptive neural control of nonlinear systems with unknown time delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical adaptive neural control is presented for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time delays in strict-feedback form. Using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, the unknown time delays are compensated for. Controller singularity problems are solved by prac- tical neural network control. A novel differentiable control function is pro- vided such that the practical design can be carried out in the

Fan Hong; Shuzhi Sam Ge; Tong Heng Lee

2005-01-01

413

Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Two Normal Population Means with One Variance Unknown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the recent work of Maity and Sherman (2006). The two-sample t- test with one variance unknown. The American Statistician 60, 163-166), we investigate, in this paper, confidence intervals for the difference between the means of two normal populations with one variance unknown. Asymptotic coverage probabilities and expected lengths of confidence intervals are derived. Monte Carlo simulations results indicate

Suparat Niwitpong

2009-01-01

414

Efficient Estimation of Models with Conditional Moment Restrictions Containing Unknown Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an estimation method for models of conditional moment restrictions, which contain finite dimensional unknown parameters (theta) and infinite dimensional unknown functions (h). Our proposal is to approximate h with a sieve and to estimate theta and the sieve parameters jointly by applying the method of minimum distance. We show that: (i) the sieve estimator of h is consistent

Chunrong Ai; Xiaohong Chen

2003-01-01

415

Message Terminating Algorithms for Anonymous Rings of Unknown Israel Cidon \\Lambda and Yuval Shavitt  

E-print Network

Message Terminating Algorithms for Anonymous Rings of Unknown Size Israel Cidon \\Lambda and Yuval Abstract We consider a ring of an unknown number of anonymous processors. We focus on message terminating of pairs. Keywords: Algorithms, Anonymous rings, message terminating algorithms, orientation. \\Lambda

Shavitt, Yuval

416

Rejection of unknown periodic load disturbances in continuous steel casting process using learning repetitive control approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a discrete-time repetitive controller for the continuous steel casting process that is used for the rejection of periodic load disturbances with an unknown period. A discrete, recursive scheme is applied to identify the unknown disturbance period and to adaptively change the period setting of the repetitive control algorithm. An experiment was conducted

Thomas J. Manayathara; Tsu-Chin Tsao; Joseph Bentsman

1996-01-01

417

Particle Filter-based Trajectory Estimation with Passive UHF RFID Fingerprints in Unknown Environments  

E-print Network

map unknown environments. Usually, a solution involves simultaneous lo- calization and mapping (SLAM, and the mapping of transponder positions usually requires a reference localization system. One reason in unknown environments. We show how trajectory estimation, a prerequisite of mapping RFID transponder

Zell, Andreas

418

Simultaneous topological map prediction and moving object trajectory prediction in unknown environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve fully autonomous mobile robot in unknown environment, a mapping and localization technique is required. Recently, in unknown dynamic environment, SLAMMOT (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping and Moving Object Tracking) is also attracted the extensive attention in this area. In this paper, we extended SLAMMOT problem to simultaneous map prediction and moving object trajectory prediction. The robot not only passively

Shu Yun Chung; Han Pang Huang

2008-01-01

419

Chaotic granular mixing.  

PubMed

Several models for convective mixing of coarse, freely flowing in granular tumblers have been proposed over the past decade. Powders of practical interest, by contrast, are frequently fine and cohesive, and cannot be analyzed with these models. Moreover, even in the freely flowing regime, mixing transverse to the dominant, convective, direction is typically slow and inefficient. In this paper, we examine two chaotic mixing mechanisms, the first of which can be intentionally applied to increase transverse mixing rates severalfold, with new prospects for further improvements in three-dimensional mixing through judicious process design. The second mechanism occurs spontaneously in fine grains, resulting in mixing rates overwhelmingly exceeding what would be possible in freely flowing grains. Finally, we show that the same chaotic mixing mechanisms seen in simple drum mixers are also found to be at work in more complex blender configurations widely used in batch industrial operations. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779856

Shinbrot, Troy; Alexander, Albert; Moakher, Maher; Muzzio, Fernando J.

1999-09-01

420

Neutrino Mixing and Neutrino Telescopes  

E-print Network

Measuring flux ratios of ultra-high energy neutrinos is an alternative method to determine the neutrino mixing angles and the CP phase delta. We conduct a systematic analysis of the neutrino mixing probabilities and of various flux ratios measurable at neutrino telescopes. The considered cases are neutrinos from pion, neutron and muon-damped sources. Explicit formulae in case of mu-tau symmetry and its special case tri-bimaximal mixing are obtained, and the leading corrections due to non-zero theta_{13} and non-maximal theta_{23} are given. The first order correction is universal as it appears in basically all ratios. We study in detail its dependence on theta_{13}, theta_{23} and the CP phase, finding that the dependence on theta_{23} is strongest. The flavor compositions for the considered neutrino sources are evaluated in terms of this correction. A measurement of a flux ratio is a clean measurement of the universal correction (and therefore of theta_{13}, theta_{23} and delta) if the zeroth order ratio does not depend on theta_{12}. This favors pion sources over the other cases, which in turn are good candidates to probe theta_{12}. The only situations in which the universal correction does not appear are certain ratios in case of a neutron and muon-damped source, which depend mainly on theta_{12} and receive only quadratic corrections from the other parameters. We further show that there are only two independent neutrino oscillation probabilities, give the allowed ranges of the considered flux ratios and of all probabilities, and show that none of the latter can be zero or one.

Werner Rodejohann

2006-12-05

421

unknown title  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper studies the low-pressure burned gas recirculation in spark-ignited engines and shows, at the light of supportive experimental results, that a linear delay system permits to capture the dominant effects of the system dynamics. The modeled transport delay is defined by implicit equations stemming from first principles. This model is shown to be sufficiently accurate to replace a sensor that

D. Bresch-pietri; T. Leroy; J. Chauvin; N. Petit

422

unknown title  

E-print Network

Preliminary version for country introduction Guidelines for an integrated approach to the nutritional care of HIV-infected children (6 months–14 years) Guidelines for an Integrated Approach to the Nutritional care of HIV-infected children (6 months-14 years) Handbook Preliminary version for country introductionWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guidelines for an integrated approach to the nutritional care of HIV-infected children (6 months-14 years). 3 pts: Handbook-- Guide for local adaptation-- Chart booklet Edition " Preliminary version for country introduction" 1.HIV infections- therapy. 2.Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- therapy. 3.Child nutrition disorders- therapy. 4.Nutrition therapy. 5.Delivery of health care, Integrated 6.Community health services. 7.Practice guidelines. 8.Child. I.World Health Organization.

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

NOAA’s climate mission is: “To understand and describe climate variability and change to enhance society’s ability to plan and respond.”This is an end-to-end endeavor focused on providing decisionmakers a predictive understanding of the global climate system and to “translate ” data so the public can incorporate the information and products into their decisions.These outcomes are achieved through implementation of a global observing system, focused research to understand key climate processes, improved modeling capabilities, and the development and delivery of climate information services. Specific objectives follow: • Describe and understand the state of the climate system through integrated observations, analysis, and data stewardship • Reduce uncertainty in the information on atmospheric composition and feedbacks that contribute to changes in Earth’s climate • Provide climate forecasts for multiple time scales to enable regional and national managers to better plan for the impacts of climate variability, and climate assessments and projections to support policy decisions with objective and accurate climate change information • Understand and predict the consequences of climate variability and change on marine ecosystems and people • Provide information and tools to support decisionmakers in improving management of risks to the U.S. economy in sectors and areas that are sensitive to impacts from weather and climate. NOAA relies on its Federal, academic, private, and international partners to achieve its objectives.

unknown authors

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E-print Network

human and financial terms, of medical errors in the U.S. health care system. 1 Two studies cited in the report indicate that between 44,000 and 98,000 people die each year in the United States as a result of medical errors. The national cost to the economy of these errors is between $17 billion and $29 billion. Since the release of the Institute of Medicine’s report, a number of successful initiatives have been launched to help hospitals change their cultures and care processes to produce safer health care environments with fewer medical errors. A growing body of literature describes the link between a hospital’s physical design and its key quality and safety outcomes. Hospital planners, expected to spend nearly $250 billion on new construction in the next 10 years, are consulting this evidence and incorporating it into their designs for capital construction projects. 2 In the midst of this construction boom, hospital planners have an opportunity to create safer and more effective facilities that enhance patient safety, improve

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

Because the Hardy-Weinberg principle tells us what to expect concerning the genetic composition of a sample when no evolutionary forces are operating, one of the first questions population geneticists often ask is “Are the genotypes in this sample present in the expected, i.e., Hardy-Weinberg, proportions? ” We ask that question because we know that if the genotypes

unknown authors

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E-print Network

New iMOTION ™ appliance-motor control mitigates growing energy crisis in China Abstract — Estimates are that more than half of all electricity in China powers motors. The traditional mechanical control scheme wastes half of the electricity it uses. Inverterbased, variable-speed-drive designs can save most of these losses. Advancing the adoption of inverter-based variable speed drives requires finding a means to achieve mechanical simplicity while maintaining the performance necessary to meet high-efficiency goals. A new iMOTION ™ chipset consists of a unique MCE (Motion Control Engine) and a dedicated high-voltage IC to drive a PM (permanent-magnet) motor. This paper presents the chipset in the context of an air-conditioner design with corresponding test data.

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004 Serge Resnikoff, a Donatella Pascolini, a Silvio P Mariotti a & Gopal P Pokharel a Abstract Estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004 have been determined at regional and global levels for people aged 5 years and over from recent published and unpublished surveys. The estimates were based on the prevalence of visual acuity of less than 6/18 in the better eye with the currently available refractive correction that could be improved to equal to or better than 6/18 by refraction or pinhole. A total of 153 million people (range of uncertainty: 123 million to 184 million) are estimated to be visually impaired from uncorrected refractive errors, of whom eight million are blind. This cause of visual impairment has been overlooked in previous estimates that were based on best-corrected vision. Combined with the 161 million people visually impaired estimated in 2002 according to best-corrected vision, 314 million people are visually impaired from all causes: uncorrected refractive errors become the main cause of low vision and the second cause of blindness. Uncorrected refractive errors can hamper performance at school, reduce employability and productivity, and generally impair quality of life. Yet the correction of refractive errors with appropriate spectacles is among the most cost-effective interventions in eye health care. The results presented in this paper help to unearth a formerly hidden problem of public health dimensions and promote policy development and implementation, programmatic decision-making and corrective interventions, as well as stimulate research. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2008;86:63–70. Une traduction en français de ce résumé figure à la fin de l’article. Al final del artículo se facilita una traducción al español..?????? ? ??? ? ????? ? ??? ? ???? ? ? ? ?????? ? ??? ? ?????? ? ???????

unknown authors

428

unknown title  

E-print Network

Context. Star formation (SF) takes place in unusual places such as way out in the intergalactic medium out of material expelled from parent galaxies. Aims. Whether SF proceeds in this specific environment in a similar way than in galactic disks is the question we wish to answer. Particularly, we address the reliability of ultraviolet, H? and mid-infrared as tracers of SF in the intergalactic medium. Methods. We have carried out a multiwavelength analysis of the interacting system NGC 5291, which is remarkable for its extended HI ring hosting numerous intergalactic HII regions. We combined new ultraviolet (GALEX) observations with archival H?, 8µm (Spitzer Space Telescope) and HI (VLA B-array) images of the system. Results. We have found that the morphology of the star forming regions, as traced by the ultraviolet, H?, and 8µm emission is similar. The 8.0µm infrared emission, normalised to emission from dust at 4.5µm, which is known to be dominated by PAH bands, is comparable to the integrated emission of dwarf galaxies of the same metallicity and to the emission of individual HII regions in spirals. The 8.0µm in the intergalactic environment is therefore an estimator of the star formation rate which is as reliable in that extreme environment as it is for spirals. There is a clear excess of ultraviolet emission compared to individual HII regions in spirals, i.e. the [8.0]/[NUV] and [H?]/[NUV] SFR

Médéric Boquien; Pierre-alain Duc; Jonathan Braine; Elias Brinks; Ute Lisenfeld

429

unknown title  

E-print Network

Fuzzy probabilistic method for the safety assessment Abstract The safety of structures may only be realistically assessed provided all input data are appropriately described and a realistic computational model is implemented. Input and model parameters are often only available in the form of uncertain parameters. Statistical methods are only suitable for describing uncertainty to a limited extent, however; the prognoses given by stochastic safety models are thus open to criticism. In this paper a new method of modeling uncertainty is presented, based on the theory of fuzzy random variables. Uncertain parameters, which partly exhibit random properties, but may not be modeled as random variables without an element of doubt, are described using fuzzy probability distributions. These enter the developed fuzzy probabilistic safety assessment as fuzzy probabilistic basic variables (data uncertainty). In contrast to probabilistic concepts, this new safety concept treats uncertain input and model parameters as fuzzy random variables, random variables and fuzzy variables. Random variables are additionally modeled as probabilistic basic variables (data uncertainty); fuzzy variables (model uncertainty) define the fuzzy limit state surface. Using the special extension of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), namely the Fuzzy First Order Reliability Method (FFORM), the fuzzy reliability index is computed by-level optimization. This is compared with required values. Expert estimates are taken into consideration for assessing the fuzzy safety level. The fuzzy probabilistic safety assessment is demonstrated by way of an example. 1

Teilprojekt E; Beurteilung Sicherheitsniveaus Bauwerke; Bearbeiter B. Möller; M. Beer; W. Graf; A. Hoffmann; J. -u. Sickert

430

unknown title  

E-print Network

Sexual assault has been typically recognized as an act of rape by a person the victim does not know – stranger rape. However, in reality 80 to 90 % of the offenders are acquaintances of the victims – acquaintance rape. Contradictory behavior in acquaintance rape has been sometimes observed in which victims have sexual relations with the offender after the initial rape incident for a long period of time, a few months to several years. In addition, victims may face more difficulties than victims who did not experience the contradictory behavior when trying to make others understand, as well as themselves understand, in order to seek help. Thus, the behavior makes the victims significantly difficult to recover from the impacts of rape. This paper explores the reason and the prevalence of the contradictory behavior of acquaintance rape victims by reviewing the previous studies. The results suggest that the behavior may be caused by the psychological impacts of the rape incidents. The victims may be under conditions of actute stress disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, the combination of defense mechanisms such as avoidance and denial of the experience of the initial rape, psychodynamics similar to Stockholm Syndrome and Traumatic Bonding, and the

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

An experimental study on effects of submersed macrophytes on nitrification and denitrification in ammonium-rich aquatic systems Abstract—We have examined the role of microbial communities on the surface of submersed macrophytes and in the underlying sediment for nitrification and denitrification in light and dark in NH4-enriched microcosm systems using isotope pairing and dilution techniques. Potamogeton pectinatus L. and intact sediment cores were collected in a shallow reservoir receiving treated municipal wastewater and containing dense submersed vegetation. Chambers containing P. pectinatus shoots, sediment, or both P. pectinatus shoots and sediment were exposed to 6hofdarkness, 6 h of light, and 6 h of darkness. 14NH and 15 ? 4 NO3 were added at ambient concentrations

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

thors of those mediæval manuscripts could have gained a lot from using TEX: the average paragraph starred ‘Overfull Boxes ’ on just about every second line. Figure 4. The cloister that houses the library of Avranches. Going home Taco, Hans and Siep took the train back to Holland on Wednesday, and this time everything went remarkably smoothly. Erik, however, was tempted into another adventure. The Polish delegation had asked him if it were possible to stay overnight at his place, so they could split their journey back home (2000 km by car) in two equal parts. Naturally he said yes and in spite of lots of rain and fog we managed to reach Groningen at 5AM. Conclusion Though it was a very packed conference (only three days

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection enables infected persons to obtain medical care that can improve the quality and length of their lives and adopt behaviors to prevent further HIV transmission. However, at the end of 2003, approximately one fourth of the estimated 1 million persons living with HIV remained unaware of their infection (1). Among all persons with HIV infection diagnosed in 2005, 38 % received a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) within 1 year of their first positive HIV test (2). To reduce the number of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection, CDC issued recommendations in September 2006 to implement HIV screening as part of routine medical care for all persons aged 13–64 years (3). To establish a baseline for evaluating the effects of these recommendations and other strategies to increase HIV testing, CDC

unknown authors

2008-01-01

434

unknown title  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. In the last few years two factors have helped to significantly advance our understanding of the Myxozoa. First, the phenomenal increase in fin fish aquaculture in the 1990s has lead to the increased importance of these parasites; in turn this has lead to intensified research efforts, which have increased knowledge of the development, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of myxozoans. The hallmark discovery in the 1980s that the life cycle of Myxobolus cerebralis requires development of an actinosporean stage in the oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex, led to the elucidation of the life cycles of several other myxozoans. Also, the life cycle and taxonomy of the enigmatic PKX myxozoan has been resolved: it is the alternate stage of the unusual myxozoan, Tetracapsula bryosalmonae, from

unknown authors

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E-print Network

reliable, and speedy, navigation in peopled office/corridor environments. 7 Conclusions We have presented the curvature-velocity method for local obstacle avoidance, which treats the problem as one of constrained optimization in the velocity space of the robot. Advantages of this formulation include the ability to simultaneously control the speed and heading of the robot, the ease of incorporating constraints from both the environment and the robot dynamics, and the ability to handle trade offs between speed, safety, and goaldirectedness. CVM achieves real-time performance by approximating how far the robot could travel along a given curvature before hitting an obstacle. The approximation is a piecewise constant function, defined by the curvatures tangent to the obstacles. Additional velocity constraints are added based on the physical limits of the robot and the desire to keep it away from obstacles, or at least to travel slowly when passing nearby obstacles. The method has been implemented and tested on Xavier, a synchro-drive robot (it is also applicable to differentially steered vehicles and to non-holonomic vehicles that travel along circular arcs). The implementation is quite efficient, and enables the robot to travel safely in peopled office environments at speeds up to 60 cm/sec. The limiting factor in speed appears to be the rate of the sonar sensors (the limited field of view of the laser prevents it from being the primary obstacle detection sensor). By improving the cycle time of our sensors, we expect to approach one meter per second travel. Future work based on this method includes finding better approximations to the distance function and trying out more sophisticated objective functions. We would also like to investigate extending the curvature-based velocity space approach to multi-step navigation planning problems. This work has shown that by taking vehicle dynamics into account, and by maximizing an objective function that trades off speed, safety and goal-directedness, we can create an efficient, real-time local obstacle avoidance algorithm that produces safe, smooth, speedy travel in obstacle-strewn environments.

unknown authors

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www.elsevier.com/locate/ygcen A serotonin receptor antagonist, but not melatonin, modulates hormonal responses to capture stress in two populations of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus)

unknown authors

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E-print Network

Cognitive enhancers Memory enhancers are often referred to as "smart drugs", "study drugs", [1] "smart nutrients", "cognitive enhancers", "brain enhancers " or in the scientific literature as nootropics. [2] They are drugs that are purported to improve human cognitive abilities. [3][4] The term covers a broad range of substances including drugs, nutrients and herbs with purported cognitive enhancing effects. The word nootropic was coined in 1964 by Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, derived from the Greek words noos, or "mind, " and tropein meaning "to bend/turn". Typically, nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth. However the efficacy of nootropic substances in most cases has not been conclusively determined. This is complicated by the difficulty of defining

unknown authors

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E-print Network

Abstract: A system dynamics analysis of consciousness during a ten-hour religious experience of purgation, which just preceded an estimated four-to-seven second experience of mystical union, gives purgation a scientific structure. Using that structure, my research in comparative religion shows that at the essence or core of each religion resides this same sacred structure and essence. As a result, the analysis forms a general theory of religion: e pluribus unum. The work then goes further, establishing the long-sought-for integration of science and religion by rooting this core of religion in biology. As a byproduct, the analysis solves the central problem in the emerging field of consciousness studies, Chalmers ' hard problem. The presentation contains much personal material on my religious life and experiences. This is necessary as preliminary for the formalized analyses of such material. The fullest presentation of these ideas- with over 400 links- is at:

unknown authors

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The substantial excess risk of abuse and homicide incurred by stepchildren has been abundantly documented in dozens of studies using diverse methodologies (see companion document “The Cinderella effect”). Nevertheless, philosopher David Buller (2005a,b) has recently attempted to call the existence of this phenomenon into question by proposing “that all of the evidence cited in support ” of it (Buller 2005b: 282; emphasis in original) can be explained away as products of a “reporting bias ” such that abusive behaviour by stepparents is more likely to be detected and recorded than identical abusive behaviour by genetic parents. What the papers that Buller cites in support of this conjecture actually contain is very different from what he says they contain. But before going into those details, it is first worth noting how big this imagined bias would have to be in order to make Buller’s speculation work. Why reporting bias cannot possibly explain Cinderella effects Daly & Wilson (2001) estimated rates of fatal batterings of Canadian children under 5 years of age in 1974-1990 at 2.6 deaths per million child-years at risk for those residing with and killed by their (presumed) genetic fathers (based on 74 deaths in 28.3 million child-years at risk) vs 321.6 per million child-years at risk for those residing with and killed by stepfathers (55 in 0.17 million child-years at

Margo Wilson

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E-print Network

Among the elicited and observed procedures used to describe, classify, diagnose, measure change, quantify severity, and plan intervention for persons with aphasia, the measurement of connected spoken language has become a stable and valued procedure for many of these purposes. Though recognized, the most valid, reliable, and efficient methods for sampling connected language has received relatively little experimental attention from clinical and experimental aphasiologists. The recently developed Story Retell Procedure (SRP) (Doyle, et al, 2000) has the unique measurement advantage of predetermined targets for the retold stories thus increasing the validity of measuring the accuracy of the connected sample. However, linguistic measures of SRP performance reflect both comprehension and production processing. While the reliability and concurrent validity of the scoring methods for the forms of the SRP have been investigated (McNeil, et al, 2001; McNeil, et al, 2002), concurrent validation of this procedure with other established connected language sampling procedures has not been investigated. This study sought to compare several aspects of the language generated from one of the four forms of the SRP with two other published procedures for eliciting spoken language in persons with aphasia; the “Cinderella Story ” (Berndt, Wayland, Rochon, Saffran, & Schwartz, 2000) and the five elicitation tasks (WAB & BDAE picture, two sequenced picture; two novel pictures, two procedural language tasks, and two personal information tasks) published by Nicholas and Brookshire (1993).

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Image 78: View into a hot laboratory. Technician Dan Gardner examines irradiated materials using remotely controlled manipulator arms from behind protective walls and shielded windows. (NASA CS–22201) Image 79: The hot laboratory’s safe workarea. Operators are using manipulator arms to work with irradiated experiments in the cells. The hot lab also contained an office, manipulator repair shop, and a decontamination room that connected this “clean” operating area with the radioactive area behind the cells. (NASA C–2003–839) Plum Brook’s Nuclear Facilities 89 Image 80: A health-physics technician uses a hand-held “cutie pie ” radiation detector to check equipment for contamination. These detectors allowed technicians to quickly monitor specific areas or equipment. They worked in conjunction with the permanent systems that constantly monitored radiation levels throughout the facility. (NASA C–2003–840) 90 NASA’s Nuclear Frontier: The Plum Brook Reactor FacilityImage 81: Identical Remote Area Monitoring System (RAMS) detector location panels, found in both the health-safety operations office and the reactor control room, and other monitoring equipment allowed operators to monitor radiation sensors located throughout the facility and to scram the reactor instantly if necessary. The color of the indicator lights corresponds with the elevation of the detectors in the various buildings. The reactor could also shut itself down automatically if monitors detected any sudden irregularities. (2001) (NASA C–2001–01150) Image 82: A Plum Brook technician wearing protective clothing and a mask washes contaminated clothing. The clothing was worn again after it was decontaminated and laundered. The wash water had to be treated as radioactive waste. (2001) (NASA C–2003–841)

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The aging epigenome: DNA methylation from the cradle to the grave Marc Winnefeld 1 and Frank Lyko * 2 Whole-genome methylation analysis of newborns and centenarians reveals widespread epigenetic alterations, and provides new insight into age-related methylation pattern changes. There is growing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in regulating a variety of biological processes, including aging. In addition to histone modifications, DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism that controls gene expression and thereby alters cellular phenotypes. DNA methylation occurs at the carbon-5 position of cytosines located next to a guanosine (CpG dinucleotides). Although the total number of CpG dinucleotides is reduced in the human genome, CpG-rich sequences (CpG islands) are present and often located in promoter regions. More than half of all human genes harbor a CpG island, which is usually unmethylated. However, hypermethylation of specific CpG islands has been demonstrated in a wide range of biological conditions and shows a strong association with decreased gene expression. In addition, DNA methylation marks located outside of promoter regions (gene bodies, for example) can also regulate gene expression and are generating increasing interest [1]. A recent publication has now shed new light on age-related epigenetic changes by studying the methylomes of a newborn and a centenarian [2]. Age-related methylation changes Aging is a multifactorial process that results in a progressive loss of regenerative capacity and tissue functionality. The molecular changes associated with aging are multilayered and are only beginning to be understood. One of the first studies that analyzed the DNA

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This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

Patricia M. Portillo A; Aditya U. Vanarase A; Andrew Ingram B; Jonathan K. Seville C

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Arsenic-rich ( ~ 140–1520 mg.kg ? 1) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50 ?m). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and ?XRD) were used to directly characterize As-bearing phases. The most frequent ones were aggregates of fine clay particles. Their mineralogy varied with particle sources involved. These aggregates were formed by chlorite–phlogopite–kaolinite assemblages during the high flow and chlorite-illite-montmorillonite during the low flow. Among all the observed Ascarriers in SPM, these clay assemblages were the least As-rich (0.10 up to 1.58 wt. % As) and their median As concentrations suggested that they were less concentrated during the high flow than during the low flow. Iron oxyhydroxides were evidenced by ?XRD in these clay aggregates, either as micro- to nano-sized particles and/or as coating. (Mn, Fe)oxyhydroxides were also present as discrete particles. Manganese oxides (0.14–1.26

unknown authors

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What is reflective thinking? The description of reflective thinking: Critical thinking and reflective thinking are often used synonymously. Critical thinking is used to describe: "... the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome...thinking that is purposeful, reasoned and goal directed- the kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions when the thinker is using skills that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task. Critical thinking is sometimes called directed thinking because it focuses on a desired outcome." Halpern (1996). Reflective thinking, on the other hand, is a part of the critical thinking process referring specifically to the processes of analyzing and making judgments about what has happened. Dewey (1933) suggests that reflective thinking is an active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge, of the grounds that support that knowledge, and the further conclusions to which that knowledge leads. Learners are aware of and control their learning by actively participating in reflective

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In North America the process of establishing hunting regulations for waterfowl is conducted annually. In the United States the process involves a number of scheduled meetings in which information regarding the status of waterfowl is presented to individuals within the agencies responsible for setting hunting regulations. In addition the proposed regulations are published in the Federal Register to allow public comment. This report includes the most current breeding population and production information available for waterfowl in North America and is a result of cooperative efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), various State and Provincial conservation agencies, and private conservation organizations. This report is intended to aid the development of waterfowl harvest regulations in the United States for the 2010–2011 hunting season. Cover: 2010–2011 Duck stamp. American wigeon by Robert Bealle, winner of the 2009 federal duck stamp design competition.

U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Canadian Wildlife Service; U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service

2010-01-01

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In North America the process of establishing hunting regulations for waterfowl is conducted annually. In the United States the process involves a number of scheduled meetings in which information regarding the status of waterfowl is presented to individuals within the agencies responsible for setting hunting regulations. In addition, the proposed regulations are published in the Federal Register to allow public comment. This report includes the most current breeding population and production information available for waterfowl in North America and is a result of cooperative efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), various state and provincial conservation agencies, and private conservation organizations. This report is intended to aid the development of waterfowl harvest regulations in the United States for the 2013–2014 hunting season. Cover: 2013–2014 Duck stamp, which features a common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) painted by Robert Steiner of San Francisco, winner of the 2012 federal duck stamp design competition.

U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Canadian Wildlife Service; U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service

2013-01-01

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per year. This is a rough indication, but it seems to check with other indicators. When added to the 100,000 acres estimated to have been cleared for reservoirs (fig. 36), roads, powerlines, and residential development between 1953 and 1975 (Bolsinger 1980), the total estimated area of woodland conversions (990,000 acres) is only 195,000 acres less than the adjusted difference between the 1945 and 1985 inventories (1,185,000 acres). Estimates of conversions between 1966-72 and 1981-84 (see the next section) account for most of the remaining difference. 73 Rangeland clearings were reported in 42 of the State's 58 counties, but of the total area cleared (1.9 million acres), more than half (1.0 million acres, including chaparral) was in

unknown authors

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unknown title  

E-print Network

Little is known about the mammalian fauna of northeastern New Mexico. We conducted an inventory of mammals at Sugarite Canyon State Park, Colfax County, New Mexico, during summers of 2006 and 2007. The park is located on the Raton Mesa Group, a region of high-elevation habitat east of the Sangre de Cristo Range of the Rocky Mountains. Elevations within the park range from 1,890 to 2,536 m and dominant biotic communities include coniferous forests, montane grasslands, montane scrublands, coniferous woodland, and diverse riparian associations. We documented 40 species, of which seven were the first records for Colfax County: meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), Townsend’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), Yuma myotis (Myotis yumanensis), western small-footed myotis (M. ciliolabrum), cougar (Puma concolor), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The state-endangered New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Z. h. luteus) was distributed widely and relatively abundantly in riparian habitats within the park. Another notable capture was an ermine (Mustela erminea), which is a species previously thought to be confined to the higher elevations of the main mass of the Rocky Mountains.

unknown authors

450

unknown title  

E-print Network

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

Amy L. Raybuck A; Christopher E. Moorman A; Cathryn H. Greenberg B; Christopher S. Deperno A

451

unknown title  

E-print Network

Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through nextgeneration sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

S. A. Sonsthagen; G. K. Sage; M. Fowler; A. G. Hope; J. A. Cook; S. L. Talbot; Conservation Genet Resour; Conservation Genet Resour

2012-01-01

452

unknown title  

E-print Network

the K-25 Site, its primary mission was to enrich uranium for use in atomic weapons. After the war, the mission was changed to include the enrichment of uranium for nuclear reactor fuel elements and recycling of uranium recovered from spent fuel, and the name was changed to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In the 1980s, a reduction in the demand for nuclear fuel resulted in the shutdown of the enrichment process, and production ceased. The emphasis of the mission then changed to environmental management and restoration operations, and the name was changed to the East Tennessee Technology Park. Environmental management and remediation operations consist of such operations as waste management, the cleanup of outdoor storage and disposal areas, the demolition and/or cleaning up of the facilities, land restoration, and environmental monitoring. Proper disposal of the huge quantities of waste that were generated over the course of production operations is also a major task. Beginning in the 1990s, reindustrialization (the conversion of underutilized government facilities for use by the private sector) also became a major mission at ETTP. Reindustrialization allows private industry to lease underutilized facilities, thus providing both jobs and a new use for facilities that otherwise would have to be demolished. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) is the prime environmental contractor for the ETTP environmental monitoring and surveillance program, under which two main activities are performed: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. State and federally mandated effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at ETTP involve the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, sediment, and vegetation from ETTP and the surrounding area. Data from the monitoring are used to assess exposures to members of the public and the environment, to assess the performance of treatment systems, to help identify areas of concern and plan remediation efforts, and to evaluate the efficacy of these remediation efforts. In 2010, there was better than 99% compliance with permit standards for emissions from ETTP operations.

unknown authors

453

unknown title  

E-print Network

the K-25 Site, its primary mission was to enrich uranium for use in atomic weapons. After the war, the mission was changed to include the enrichment of uranium for nuclear reactor fuel elements and recycling of uranium recovered from spent fuel, and the name was changed to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In the 1980s, a reduction in the demand for nuclear fuel resulted in the shutdown of the enrichment process, and production ceased. The emphasis of the mission then changed to environmental management and restoration operations, and the name was changed to the East Tennessee Technology Park. Environmental management and remediation operations consist of operations such as waste management, the cleanup of outdoor storage and disposal areas, the demolition and/or cleaning up of the facilities, land restoration, and environmental monitoring. Proper disposal of the huge quantities of waste that were generated over the course of production operations is also a major task. Beginning in the 1990s, reindustrialization (the conversion of underused government facilities for use by the private sector) also became a major mission at ETTP. Reindustrialization allows private industry to lease underused facilities, thus providing both jobs and a new use for facilities that otherwise would have to be demolished. In 2011, UCOR replaced BJC as the prime environmental contractor for ETTP. State and federally mandated effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at ETTP involve the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, sediment, and vegetation from ETTP and the surrounding area. Data from the monitoring are used to assess exposures of members of the public and the environment, to assess the performance of treatment systems, to help identify areas of concern and plan remediation efforts, and to evaluate the efficacy of these remediation efforts. In 2011, there was better than 99% compliance with permit standards for emissions from ETTP operations.

unknown authors

454

unknown title  

E-print Network

Wear appropriate safety equipment • Wear shock absorbent, anatomically shaped shinguards during informal play as well as competition. • Seek professional advice for correct fitting of shin guards and footwear. • Wear external ankle supports (taping or a semirigid orthosis) to decrease inversion and eversion. • Wear mouthguards to prevent dental injury. Modify rules for children • Encourage children to play Rooball, with modified field and ball size, fewer players and shorter playing periods, as a means of developing good skills and technique and reducing injuries. Other safety tips • Coaches should educate players that foul play is not acceptable. • Encourage players to drink adequate water before and during play. • Encourage use of a broad spectrum sunscreen in high UV conditions and discourage play in extreme weather conditions, particularly extreme heat and humidity. • Cooldown adequately after play or training If an injury occurs • Require the players to leave the field immediately. • Ensure all injured soccer players receive adequate treatment and full rehabilitation before they resume play.

unknown authors

455

unknown title  

E-print Network

views. He also created an assessment that could measure students ’ skills in figuring out the most economical way to cut two by fours. Results of this study showed that students in remedial math class who learned to solve the Bart problem were much quicker at solving the ramp problem than were students in the word problem group. After the students figured out where to cut the two by fours, they used their plans to build two large ramps, which they tried out later in the school parking lot. Effect sizes, which are standardized measures of the difference

unknown authors

456

unknown title  

E-print Network

available online at www.studiesinmycology.org Studies in Mycology 64: 85–102. 2009. doi:10.3114/sim.2009.64.04 Multi-locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re-evaluation

K. D. Hyde

457

unknown title  

E-print Network

available online at www.studiesinmycology.org doi:10.3114/sim.2007.58.04 Studies in Mycology 58: 95–104. 2007. Cladosporium leaf-blotch and stem rot of Paeonia spp. caused by Dichocladosporium chlorocephalum gen. nov.

K. Schubert; U. Braun; J. Z. Groenewald; P. W. Crous

458

unknown title  

E-print Network

The apolipoprotein E (apoE) epsilon 4 allele (apoE4) is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A role for apoE in regeneration of synaptic circuitry after neural injury has been shown in several in vitro studies in which apoE3 supports neuronal sprouting better than apoE4. We evaluated sprouting in an in vitro mouse organotypic hippocampal slice culture system derived from transgenic mice expressing apoE3 or apoE4, in which apoEdependent granule cell mossy fiber sprouting in the presence of apoE4 is only 51 % of the level of apoE3. Sprouting supported by apoE4 had a dose response opposite that by supported by apoE3: although increasing E3 expression increased sprouting, increasing E4 expression decreased sprouting, suggesting that the defect in

B. Teter; P-t. Xu; G. M. Cole

459

unknown title  

E-print Network

Summary: Arange of slack vegetation in southern New Zealand was described by detailed sampling of four dune slacks, contrasting in topographic situation and in vegetation. Comparison is made with a slack previously sampled on Stewart Island. The five slacks differed markedly in the plant communities present. One slack, where there was considerable peat accumulation, was dominated by the megaherb Phormium tenax and the restiad Leptocarpus similis. Inanother, the peat was deep and had apparently accumulated over a long period; the vegetation contained the trunked sedge Carex secta and was similar in species composition to carr vegetation described from the region. These two slacks were predominantly native in species composition, though the European Erica lusitanica was a component at the second. The other two slack sites were on substrate largely comprising sand; the vegetation was shorter, and included a mixture of native and exotic species. Many of the exotic species found in these sites have been recorded in European slacks. Communities were defined by Cluster analysis. With rare exceptions, each plant community was specific to one or another of the five sites. Even the few community/site overlaps were in the vegetation of the surrounding dune areas, not of the slack itself. The communities within a site generally formed discrete zones, related to small differences in elevation.

unknown authors

460

unknown title  

E-print Network

The nucleotide sequence of the promoter, 16s rRNA and spacer region of the ribosomal RNA operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and comparison with Mycobacterium leprae precursor rRNA E. KEMPSELL,’? YUAN-EN

Robert A. Cox; L Iris C. E. Estrada-g; M. Joseph Colston

1991-01-01

461

unknown title  

E-print Network

Observations were made on ‘gigantism ’ and albinism in the giant snail, Archachatina marginata. Gigantic snails were initially about twice the size of normal snails of same age. However this growth superiority of ‘gigantic ’ snails apparently slowed down with age. Albinism in the snails was expressed in form of creamy-white bodies instead of the normally brownish colour. Albino snails however retained normal shell colouration. All offspring of these albinos maintained these same characteristics. There was no difference in mortality rates of albino and normal snails. ‘Gigantism ’ and albinism have serious implications for commercial snail farming.

Archachatina Marginata Swainson; Peter Ugochukwu

462

unknown title  

E-print Network

Summary: The pH of wildland fire chemicals can be used as part of an assessment of product stability over time as well as for quality assurance. In addition pH of the water used to prepare some of the fire chemicals can have a significant impact on their physical characteristics. Equipment: Electronic pH meter with combination electrode Standard buffer solutions – pH 4, pH 7, and pH 10 Method: 1. Turn the pH meter on and allow the meter and electrode to stabilize in fresh, pH 7 buffer solution. 2. Ensure that the electrode is clean and thoroughly rinsed with deionized water. 3. Adjust the calibration knob until the meter reads 7.0. 4. Rinse the electrode thoroughly with deionized water and place in the test sample. 5. Allow the reading to stabilize.

unknown authors

463

unknown title  

E-print Network

“ There is an important shift in the strategy concerning caries control because we now have the ability to promote remineralization and protection of the tooth surface.” the balance of demineralization and remineralization, with the former winning out (Figure 2). JBD

unknown authors

464

unknown title  

E-print Network

www.biogeosciences.net/11/4115/2014/ doi:10.5194/bg-11-4115-2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Increasing biomass carbon stocks in trees outside forests in China over the last three decades

Z. D. Guo; H. F. Hu; Y. D. Pan; R. A. Birdsey; J. Y. Fang

2014-01-01

465

unknown title  

E-print Network

Örjan Furtenback. Fuel substitution in district heating plants and CGE modeling with a forest resource. Licentiate Thesis. This thesis contains two papers. Paper I: Demand for waste as fuel in the Swedish district heating sector: a production function approach This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989 to 2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10 % is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0 % and 6.0%, respectively. Paper II: Towards a dynamic Ecol-Econ CGE model with forest as biomass capital This study presents a Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model that combines economic and ecological aspects of forest biomass. A framework is introduced for modeling the growth of a biomass stock which interacts with economic sectors. Harvest of and demand for forest products and forest amenities are determined endogenously in an inter-temporally consistent way. The idea is based on a Markovian growth model of the forest. The study demonstrates an approach for incorporating non-market values of forests, such as carbon sequestration, recreation and biodiversity, into a growth model. A simulation illustrates harvest behavior when the economy is subjected to shocks.

unknown authors

466

unknown title  

E-print Network

This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service’s Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or aesthetic impacts; this guide does not necessarily cover all possible damage agents. Management suggestions are provided where available. The field guide is divided into two sections: one describes both diseases and damage caused by animals and abiotic factors, and the other describes insects. Agents are presented by the type and/or location of the injury on the tree. Written descriptions, color photographs, a general index, an index by host tree species, descriptive tables, and line drawings are all provided to assist users in identifying damaging agents. You may order additional copies of this publication by sending your mailing information in label form through one of the following media. Please specify the publication title and series number.

Kurt K. Allen; James T. Blodgett; Kelly S. Burns; Robert J. Cain; Sheryl L. Costello; Tom J. Eager; Jeri Lyn Harris; Brian E. Howell; Roy A. Mask; Jeffrey J. Witcosky; James J. Worrall Acknowledgments

467

unknown title  

E-print Network

Abstract—Huge losses in apple production are caused by pathogens that cannot be seen shortly after harvest. After-harvest thermotherapy treatments can considerably improve control of storage diseases on apples and become an alternative to chemical pesticides. In the years 2010-2012 carried out research in this area. Apples of ‘Topaz ’ cultivar were harvested at optimal maturity time for long storage and subject to water bath treatment at 45, 50, 52, 55°C for 60, 120, 180 and 240 seconds. The control was untreated fruits. After 12 and 24 weeks and during so called simulated trade turnover the fruits were checked for their condition and the originators of diseases were determined by using the standard phytopathological methods. The most common originator of ‘Topaz’ apple infection during storage were the fungi of genus Gloeosporium. In this paper it was proven that for effective protection of ‘Topaz’ apples against diseases, thermotherapy by using water treatments at temperature range of 50-52°C is quite sufficient. Keywords—apple storage diseases, prolonged fruit storage, ‘Topaz ’ apples, thermotherapeutic treatments.

unknown authors

468

unknown title  

E-print Network

Ministry of Forests Research ProgramThe use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the Government of British Columbia of any product or service to the exclusion of any others that may also be suitable. Contents of this report are presented for discussion purposes only. Funding

Sicamous Creek; Chris Hollstedt; Alan Vyse (editors

1996-01-01

469

unknown title  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: The ayurvedic proprietary antacid preparations available in the Indian market were analysed for their antacid activity and compared with allopathic antacid preparations. This study urges the need for standardization of antacid products with in vitro parameters.

P. R. P Verma; Aparna Shrivastava; Ashwani Pathria

1996-01-01

470

unknown title  

E-print Network

Coccocarpia palmicola is widespread in both New Zealand and Australia. It’s a common epiphyte in humid lowland forests, but also invades bryophyte turves and colonizes clay banks. Its gun-metal grey colour can vary with exposure

unknown authors

471

unknown title  

E-print Network

This manual is the result of coordinated efforts to revise a multitude of related DoD and Navy shipboard guidelines, while widely recognizing the need to update the 1986 “Navy-wide shipboard pest control manual. ” The intent of this revised manual is to provide current and effective guidance for the surveillance, exclusion and control of disease vectors and invasive pest species, which may threaten the health and safety of personnel aboard U.S. naval vessels, or be transported between U.S. and foreign shores. At the date of publication of this edition of the manual, every effort has been made to reference the most currently signed written guidance. Additional relevant references are under revision, and will be included in the next version of this manual. The following individuals and institutions are gratefully acknowledged for their efforts in compiling this edition of the “U.S. Navy Shipboard Pest Control Manual”: Dr. W. Tozer served as formal editor for earlier drafts through the final copy of

unknown authors

472

unknown title  

E-print Network

Passenger ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces. A case of the new influenza A (H1N1) virus aboard a passenger ship is an expected event and would lead to rapid spread of the virus, if preventive measures are not in place. However, many cruise lines have detailed policies and procedures to deal with cases of influenza like illness (ILI). The EU SHIPSAN and SHIPSAN TRAINET projects include in their objectives guidelines for the prevention and control of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships. A literature review showed that from 1997 to 2005, nine confirmed outbreaks of influenza were linked to passenger ships, with attack rates up to 37%. It is important to establish and maintain a surveillance system for ILI aboard passenger ships, in order to systematically collect data that can help to determine the baseline illness levels. Monitoring these will enable early identification of outbreaks and allow timely implementation of control measures.

unknown authors

473

Orientation Angles of a Pulsar's Polarization Vector  

E-print Network

A statistical model of the polarization of pulsar radio emission is used to derive the general statistics of a polarization vector's orientation angles. The theoretical distributions are compared with orientation angle histograms computed from single-pulse, polarization observations of PSR B2020+28. The favorable agreement between the theoretical and measured distributions lends support to the underlying assumptions of the statistical model, and demonstrates, like recent work on other pulsars, that the handedness of circular polarization is associated with the radiation's orthogonally polarized modes. Comprehensive directional statistics of the vector's orientation angles are also derived, and are shown to follow the Watson bipolar and Fisher distributions in its limiting forms.

Mark M. McKinnon

2006-03-17

474

Trigger Angle Targeting for Orbital Rendezvous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital rendezvous missions often have a co-elliptic approach phase where a chaser vehicle approaches an object with a near-constant relative altitude and relative velocity. A well known orbital rendezvous technique is to trigger the Terminal Phase Initiation (TPI) maneuver when the apparent elevation of the target reaches some nominal angle. The best elevation trigger angle on which to initiate the final transfer maneuver must balance favorable performance characteristics and desirable operational simplicity. A detailed analysis is given deriving the best trigger angles and showing how these results correlate to past missions and how they could potentially influence future ones.

Woffinden, David C.; Ben Rose, M.; Geller, David K.

2008-12-01

475

Phase-angle controller for Stirling engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An actuator includes a restraint link adapted to be connected with a pivotal carrier arm for a force transfer gear interposed between the crankshaft for an expander portion of a Stirling engine and a crankshaft for the displacer portion of the engine. The restraint link is releasably trapped hydraulic fluid for selectively establishing a phase angle relationship between the crankshaft. A second embodiment incorporates a hydraulic coupler for use in varying the phase angle of gear-coupled crank fpr a Stirling engine whereby phase angle changes are obtainable.

Mcdougal, A. R. (inventor)

1980-01-01

476

Angle sensing with ferromagnetic nanowire arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hysteresis loops and Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) linewidths of Nickel ferromagnetic nanowire arrays are measured versus angle ?H between the applied magnetic field angle and the common nanowire axis. Using Preisach analysis, we extract from the hysteresis loop an interaction parameter ?i that strongly depends on ?H. Extending the analysis to FMR lineshapes, we deduce a strong dependence of the FMR field linewidth ?H on ?H through the interaction parameter ?i. Existence of a link between static (hysteresis) and dynamic (FMR) cases through ?H might be exploited in contactless absolute angle sensing devices that could compete with inductive, Hall, and magnetoresistive devices.

Tannous, C.; Gieraltowski, J.

2014-01-01

477

Microcontact Printing of Proteins on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers  

E-print Network

,18 alkanethiols coordinate tightly with gold; likewise, in µCP of alkyl- silanes on glass,19. This work explores the generality of this method of patterning proteins by examining the role of surface types of mixed SAMs, the advancing water contact angles on these surfaces nearly coincided. Moreover

Chen, Christopher S.

478

Injection Induced Mixing in Flows Separating From Smooth Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytic model for predicting the effect of unsteady local surface injection on the flow separating from a streamlined body at angle of attack is proposed. The model uses the premise that separation control results from enhanced mixing along the shear ...

J. J. Adamczyk, D. W. Wundrow

2004-01-01

479

Summary of Working Group I - beam-beam instability with crossing angle  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary report from a panel addressing the problem of beam-beam instability in colliding beams at finite crossing angles. This problem arises in the process of increasing luminosity in large circular particle factories. The primary means of increasing luminosity comes down to increasing the number of bunches in each beam, while decreasing the spacing between bunches. This situation favors finite crossing angle collision schemes. However such schemes allow synchro-betatron coupling, as transverse and longitudinal energies are mixed. The authors summarize their discussions on this problem, and the present state of experience with such schemes.

Chen, T.

1995-06-01

480

Cooking with Trail Mix  

E-print Network

soda ? teaspoon baking powder ? teaspoon cinnamon (if you like) ? cup trail mix What you need ? cup all-purpose flour ? teaspoon... it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. 3. In a large bowl, mix sugar, applesauce, oil, egg and milk. 4. Add flour, baking soda, baking powder and cinnamon and mix it thoroughly. 5. Stir...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

481

[Functional disturbances after acute angle closure glaucoma].  

PubMed

This issue presents the results of a study on patients with acute angle closure glaucoma. We analyse the functional disturbances and their long term evolution, and we show some risk factors which lead to severe functional disturbances. PMID:15341106

Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

2004-01-01

482

Optical Fibre Angle Sensor Used in MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for displacement and angle measurements in many movable MEMS structures. The use of fibre optical sensors helps to measure micrometre displacements and small rotation angles. Advantages of this type of transducers are their simple design, high precision of processing, low costs and ability of a non-contact measurement. The study shows an analysis of a fibre-optic intensity sensor used for MEMS movable structure rotation angle measurement. An intensity of the light in the photodetector is basically dependent on a distance between a reflecting surface and a head surface of the fibre transmitting arm, and the deflection angle. Experimental tests were made for PMMA 980/1000 plastic fibres, ?NA=33°. The study shows both analytical and practical results. It proves that calculated and experimental characteristics for the analysed transducers are similar.

Golebiowski, J.; Milcarz, Sz; Rybak, M.

2014-04-01

483

Laser Trabeculoplasty for Open-Angle Glaucoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the hands of ophthalmologists experienced in this technology, argon laser trabeculoplasty is an appropriate treatment for open-angle glaucoma which remains uncontrolled despite maximal tolerated medical treatment. In view of its relatively low level of...

E. Feigenbaum

1984-01-01

484

Adaptive Fuzzy Synchronization of Two Different Chaotic Systems with Stochastic Unknown Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method for synchronizing two different chaotic systems that have unknown parameters that are affected by stochastic variations generated by the Wiener process. The parameters are expressed by the sum of their mean values and the white Gaussian noise multiplied by the diffusion matrices. To describe the unknown nonlinear function yielded by Itô's lemma due to the unknown diffusion matrices, a fuzzy logic system is employed. Using adaptive fuzzy control, the response system is synchronized with the drive system within an arbitrarily small error bound. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Yoo, W. J.; Ji, D. H.; Won, S. C.

485

Hidden tuberculosis revealed by bone marrow biopsy as cause of fever of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Fever of unknown origin is a frequent clinical problem, especially in the elderly, giving cause to hospital admission and multiple investigations. Starting with a case report of an 84-year-old male patient with fever of unknown origin with presence of bone marrow granuloma attributed to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, incidence, risk factors, clinical and biochemical findings of extrapulmonary tuberculosis will be highlighted. This underlines the need of elaborate investigation including bone marrow biopsy when confronted with fever of unknown origin. PMID:17323848

Roelandt, Philip R; Dendooven, Magda; De Groef, Kate; Van Couter, Antoon

2006-01-01

486

Mixed oxide solid solutions  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

2003-01-01

487

Solar Cell Angle of Incidence Corrections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder mission has three different solar arrays each of which sees changes in incidence angle during normal operation. When solar array angle of incidence effects was researched little published data was found. The small amount of-published data created a need to obtain and evaluate such data. The donation of the needed data, which was taken in the fall of 1994, was a major factor in the preparation of this paper.

Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

1995-01-01

488

Choroid Plexus Papilloma of the Cerebellopontine Angle  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a transdural choroid plexus papilloma of the cerebellopontine angle in a 23-year-old woman. Choroid plexus papillomas are rare intracranial tumors, usually occurring intraventricularly. Those found in the cerebellopontine angle are uncommon and almost always subdural. The investigation, treatment, and follow-up are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p156-cFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170859

Panizza, B. J.; Jackson, A.; Ramsden, R. T.; Lye, R. H.

1992-01-01

489

Contact Angle Hysteresis on Superhydrophobic Stripes  

E-print Network

We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, $\\phi_S$. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e. is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with $\\phi_S$, in contrast to predictions of the Cassie equation. To interpret this we develop a simple theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the elastic energy of strong defects at the borders of stripes, which scales as $\\phi_S^2 \\ln \\phi_S$. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except as in a dilute regime, and its value is determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on $\\phi_S$, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at $\\phi_S\\simeq 0.5$. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy