Science.gov

Sample records for unmarked plastic explosives

  1. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person...

  2. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person...

  3. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person...

  4. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...true Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person...

  5. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...true Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person...

  6. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person shall manufacture any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent. (b) No...

  7. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person shall manufacture any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent. (b) No...

  8. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person shall manufacture any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent. (b) No...

  9. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person shall manufacture any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent. (b) No...

  10. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.180 Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (a) No person shall manufacture any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent. (b) No...

  11. Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins

    E-print Network

    Ravenel, Douglas

    Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

  12. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  13. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  14. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  15. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  16. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other...

  17. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  18. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  19. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  20. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  1. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  2. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.183 Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24,...

  3. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.183 Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24,...

  4. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.183 Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24,...

  5. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.183 Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24,...

  6. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997...EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.183 Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24,...

  7. Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Landsystems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future application is outlined.

  8. Mesoscale numerical modeling of plastic bonded explosives under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Hailin; Zhao, Feng; Ji, Guangfu; Fu, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Mesoscale responses of plastic bonded explosives under shock loading are investigated using material point method as implemented in the Uintah Computational Framework. The two-dimensional geometrical model which can approximately reflect the mesoscopic structure of plastic bonded explosives was created based on the Voronoi tessellation. Shock loading for the explosive was performed by a piston moving at a constant velocity. For the purpose of investigating the influence of shock strength on the responses of explosives, two different velocities for the piston were used, 200 m/s and 400 m/s, respectively. The simulation results indicate that under shock loading there forms some stress localizations on the grain boundary of explosive. These stress localizations lead to large plastic deformations, and the plastic strain energy transforms to thermal energy immediately, causing temperature to rise rapidly and form some hot spots on grain boundary areas. The comparison between two different piston velocities shows that with increasing shock strength, the distribution of plastic strain and temperature does not have significant change, but their values increase obviously. Namely, the higher the shock strength is, the higher the hot spot temperature will be.

  9. Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

    SciTech Connect

    CASE JR.,ROGER S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

  10. Mechanical modeling of the plastic bonded explosive LX17 

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Kyle Martin

    2001-01-01

    The current research attempts to develop a model for a polycrystalline, composite solid with viscoelastic matrix known as LX17. It is a highly-filled plastic bonded explosive with a shelf-life of up to 50 years. Experimentation is too costly...

  11. Decomposition of Nitroplasticizer in Plastic Bonded Explosive PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauler, D. K.; Kress, J. D.; Lightfoot, J. M.; Woods, L.; Russell, B. G.

    2006-07-01

    In the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501, a 50/50 mixture of Estane 5703 (a polyester urethane random copolymer) and nitroplasticizer (NP) binds the HMX explosive crystals. Chemical kinetic mechanisms are being developed for the thermal degradation of NP for high temperatures (explosions) and low temperatures (natural and accelerated aging studies). The goal of this work is to investigate reaction mechanisms using density functional electronic structure theory in addition to the data obtained from explosion and aging experiments. Very little is known of the mechanisms for the oxidation of polymers by oxidants other than molecular oxygen. As the first step in the aging of PBX 9501 in a low moisture and low oxygen environment, we propose that NP decomposes into oxidizing gases (NO2 and NO).

  12. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5 and Cast Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Steven; Caipen, Terry; Grady, Dennis; Anderson, Mark

    2009-06-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B. Furthermore, the DMGIR model will extended to predict results of non-shock mechanical insults for moldable plastic explosives such as C4 and PrimaSheet.

  13. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5 and Cast Explosive: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Mark; Todd, Steven; Caipen, Terry; Jensen, Charlie; Hughs, Chance

    2009-06-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B. Furthermore, the DMGIR model will extended to predict results of non-shock mechanical insults for moldable plastic explosives such as C4 and PrimaSheet.

  14. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  15. On the Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2006-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Land Systems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future uses are outlined.

  16. Decomposition of Nitroplasticizer in Plastic Bonded Explosive PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauler, Denise

    2005-07-01

    In the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501, a 50/50 mixture of Estane 5703, a polyester urethane random copolymer, and nitroplastizer (NP) binds the HMX explosive crystals. Chemical kinetic mechanisms are being developed for the thermal degradation of NP for high temperatures (explosions) and low temperatures (natural and accelerated aging studies). The goal of this work is to investigate reaction mechanisms using density functional electronic structure theory in addition to the data obtained from explosion and aging experiments. NP consists of a 50/50 mixture of bis-2,2-dinitropropyl acetal and formal. Using 2,2-dinitro-1-methoxypropane as a model compound, a library of reactions was investigated to propose a mechanism for the decomposition of NP. The current mechanism begins with the elimination of HONO, which remains trapped within the material. HONO then adds onto the backbone of NP, which can lead to the formation of esters and oximes that may react further to produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and NOx gases. This work is supported by the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign and the Advanced Simulation and Computing program.

  17. Transient Detonation Processes in a Plastic Bonded Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keith A.; Martin, Eric S.; Kennedy, James E.; Garcia, Ismael A.; Foster, Joseph C.

    2002-07-01

    Experiments involving the transfer of detonation from small booster charges of PBXN-5 (95% HMX and 5% Viton A) into larger charges of various plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) have produced some surprising results and have stimulated investigation into the factors governing observed responses. To understand these results, we conducted a series of tests with different miniature detonator-booster configurations using laser velocimetry to quantify the pressure pulse that is transmitted from the PBXN-5 booster. Models were used to determine the ideal explosive behavior for comparison with the measured results. The differences are interpreted as being due to transient behavior and late-time energy release from the booster charge. We characterize these behaviors as evidence of microdetonics, where we define microdetonics as the study of less-than-CJ detonation performance due to curvature and/or transient behavior. This provides useful insights into the fundamentals of the detonation process that can feed into advanced modeling approaches such as Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD).

  18. Plastic explosive RDX: Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and handling of plastics explosive RDX. Production, decomposition, toxicology studies, and desensitizing techniques are discussed. RDX detection in munitions plant wastewater and air samples is described along with methods of eliminating this explosive from the effluent. Molecular dynamics, sensitivity to shock and heat, burning behavior, and explosion velocity are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Plastic explosive RDX: Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and handling of plastics explosive RDX. Production, decomposition, toxicology studies, and desensitizing techniques are discussed. RDX detection in munitions plant wastewater and air samples is described along with methods of eliminating this explosive from the effluent. Molecular dynamics, sensitivity to shock and heat, burning behavior, and explosion velocity are presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5: Theoretical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, S. N.; Vogler, T. J.; Caipen, T. L.; Grady, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    A "damage-initiated reaction" (DMGIR) computational model is presented for prediction of explosive response to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and the growth to detonation. The DMGIR model was embedded into an existing shock-physics computational code to utilize those existing, predictive capabilities as the basis for these non-shock predictions. The numerical approach is presented, with comparisons of DMGIR predictions to recent experiments utilizing non-shock initiation of the plastic bonded explosive PBXN-5. This model has been developed, and is presently being validated for plastic bonded explosives. Extension of the DMGIR model is planned for cast- and moldable-type explosives.

  1. Development of a high-tensile-strain plastic-bonded TATB explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C.; McGuire, R.; Clements, R.

    1990-04-05

    Typical plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) with greater than 90 weight-percent explosive filler in a fluorocarbon binder have tensile strains which range from 0.2 to 0.6{percent}. We have recently developed a TATB-based PBX with a tensile strain approaching 1{percent} while maintaining a high-volume loading of the crystalline explosive component. We discuss our formulation efforts to design a TATB/poly(styrene-(ethylene-butylene)-styrene)(Kraton){sup 1} PBX and the critical processing parameters which affect the ultimate mechanical properties of this PBX. 9 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. uicide bombers, plastic explosives strapped to their bodies, approach

    E-print Network

    (1 THz is 1012 Hz), promise to peer through clothing, revealing concealed weapons and explosives. Terahertz devices, so named because they detect electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz frequency range.The technique could also be used to seek out structural defects in materials, to detect skin cancer

  3. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D.; Rainwater, K.A.; Lightfoot, J.M.; Richardson, B.R.

    1998-09-01

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Marked vs. Unmarked Structures in Modern Written Arabic (Part I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalji, Abdel-Majid I.

    1986-01-01

    Considers marked and unmarked structures in modern Arabic in terms of defending a basic unmarked structure which carries the least presuppositional background to which other surface orders can be related and a lexical treatment of number in Arabic. (CB)

  5. Dynamic strength of cylindrical fiber-glass shells and basalt plastic shells under multiple explosive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrunin, M. A.; Fedorenko, A. G.

    2006-08-01

    We have shown experimentally that, for cylindrical shells made of oriented fiberglass platic and basalt plastic there exists a critical level of deformations, at which a structure sustains a given number of explosions from the inside. The magnitude of critical deformation for cylindrical fiberglass shells depends linearly on the logarithm of the number of loads that cause failure. For a given type of fiberglass, there is a limiting level of explosive action, at which the number of loads that do not lead to failure can be sufficiently large (more than ˜ 102). This level is attained under loads, which are an order of magnitude lower than the limiting loads under a single explosive action. Basalt plastic shells can be repeatedly used even at the loads, which cause deformation by ˜ 30-50% lower than the safe value ˜ 3.3.5% at single loading.

  6. Non-Shock Initiation of the Plastic Bonded Explosive PBXN-5: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappo, K. N.; Todd, S. N.; Anderson, M. U.; Vogler, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    The plastic bonded explosive PBXN-5 was studied under impulsive loading experiments to relate impact-induced mechanical damage to the onset of, and the extent of reaction produced. A small diameter projectile generated shock and release conditions at the impact interface, on the microsecond time scale during the initial portion of the impulsive loading. These shock and release wave interactions generate significant damage, resulting in a porous, powder compaction-type initiation behavior. Experimental measurements show an energy threshold for initiation of reaction which relates to impact-induced kinetic energy. These results are implemented in the model development and validation phases of the damage-induced reaction (DMGIR) model, which is used to simulate impact scenarios of explosives, explosive components, and explosive systems.

  7. Quantification of reaction violence and combustion enthalpy of plastic bonded explosive 9501 under strong confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, W. Lee; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    The confinement experienced by an explosive during thermal self-initiation can substantially affect performance in terms of deflagration-to-detonation characteristics and explosion/detonation violence. To this end, we have developed an experiment to quantitatively observe enthalpy change and reaction violence in thermally initiated plastic bonded explosive (PBX) 9501. Traditionally, researchers attempt to quantify violence using terminal observations of fragment size, fragment velocity, and through subjective observations. In the work presented here, the explosive was loaded into a heated gun assembly where we subjected a 300 mg charge to a cook-off schedule and a range of static and inertial confinements. Static confinement was controlled using rupture disks calibrated at 34.5 and 138 MPa. The use of 3.15 and 6.3 g projectile masses provided a variation in inertial confinement. This was a regime of strong confinement; a significant fraction of the explosive energy was required to rupture the disk, and the projectile mass was large compared to the charge mass. The state variables pressure and volume were measured in the breech. From these data, we quantified both the reaction enthalpy change and energy release rate of the explosive on a microsecond time scale using a thermodynamic analyisis. We used these values to unambiguously quantify explosion violence as a function of confinement at a fixed cook-off schedule of 190 C for 1 h. P2?, a measure of critical shock energy required for shock ignition of an adjacent explosive was also computed. We found variations in this confinement regime to have a weak effect on enthalpy change, power, violence and shock energy. Violence was approximately 100 times lower than detonating trinitrotoluene, but the measured shock energy approached the critical shock energy for initiating secondary high explosives.

  8. Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.

    2010-03-01

    There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.

  9. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  10. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  11. Creep Testing Plastic-Bonded Explosives in Uni-axial Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J

    2008-03-13

    High fidelity measurements of time-dependent strain in the plastic-bonded explosives LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 have been performed under constant, uni-axial, compressive load using a custom designed apparatus. The apparatus uses a combination of extensometers and linear variable differential transformers coupled with a data acquisition system, thermal controls, and gravitational loading. The materials being tested consist of a crystalline explosive material mixed with a polymeric binder. The behavior of each material is related to the type of explosive and to the percentage and type of binder. For any given plastic-bonded explosive, the creep behavior is also dependent on the stress level and test temperature. Experiments were conducted using a 3 x 3 stress-temperature matrix with a temperature range of 24 C to 70 C and with stresses ranging from 250-psi to 780-psi. Analysis of the data has shown that logarithmic curve fits provide an accurate means of quantification and facilitate a long-term predictive capability. This paper will discuss the design of the apparatus, experimental results, and analyses.

  12. Clean, agile alternative binders, additives and plasticizers for propellant and explosive formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Hawkins, T.W.; Lindsay, G.A.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) a clean, agile manufacturing of explosives, propellants and pyrotechniques (CANPEP) effort set about to identify new approaches to materials and processes for producing propellants, explosives and pyrotechniques (PEP). The RDX based explosive PBXN-109 and gun propellant M-43 were identified as candidates for which waste minimization and recycling modifications might be implemented in a short time frame. The binders, additives and plasticizers subgroup identified cast non-curable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) formulations as possible replacement candidates for these formulations. Paste extrudable explosives were also suggested as viable alternatives to PBXN-109. Commercial inert and energetic TPEs are reviewed. Biodegradable and hydrolyzable binders are discussed. The applicability of various types of explosive formulations are reviewed and some issues associated with implementation of recyclable formulations are identified. It is clear that some processing and weaponization modifications will need to be made if any of these approaches are to be implemented. The major advantages of formulations suggested here over PBXN-109 and M-43 is their reuse/recyclability. Formulations using TPE or Paste could by recovered from a generic bomb or propellant and reused if they met specification or easily reprocessed and sold to the mining industry.

  13. Aspects of the Tribology of the Plastic Bonded Explosive LX-04

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Chandler, J B

    2004-07-08

    The coefficient of friction, {mu}, of the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-04 was measured on stainless steel, aluminum, Teflon and the explosive itself as a function of temperature between ambient and 135 C at a rotational speed of 0.0025 rad/sec{sup -1}. An optical profilometer was used to analyze the mean surface roughness, R{sub a}, of the various materials. LX-04 is a composite of the explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitroazacyclooctane (HMX) and Viton A in an 85/15 weight ratio. The average roughness of the pressed explosive surface was R{sub a} = 0.55 {micro}m. The coefficient of friction for LX-04 on stainless steel of R{sub a} = 0.40 {micro}m decreased from 0.38 at ambient to 0.18 at 95 C. Above this temperature {mu} was nearly constant to about 125 C, where the coefficient began to increase again. The opposite behavior was observed with aluminum with R{sub a} = 0.31 {micro}m. The coefficient of friction increased from about 0.3 at ambient to 0.46 at 125 C. At this temperature or above, {mu} tended to increase during the measurement, indicating that the sample may have been sticking to the counter surface. The coefficient of friction against Teflon of R{sub a} = 0.054 {micro}m was nearly constant from ambient to 65 C at 0.43 {+-} 0.02, then decreased to 0.17 at 100 C and remained there up to 135 C. Against LX-04 itself at temperatures between 35 and 95 C the coefficient of friction averaged 0.64, but tended to increase during the measurement, probably due to adhesion of the Viton to itself. Above 95 C the coefficient dropped off and became nearly constant again at 0.16 from 115 up to 135 C. Some preliminary measurements on stainless steel with the mock explosive RM-04-BR, a composite of cyanuric acid and Viton A in the same weight ratio as the actual explosive, were made to evaluate the set up procedures and safety of the operation with live explosive. Both pressed, R{sub a} = 0.37 {micro}m, and machined, R{sub a} = 1.7 {micro}m, surfaces were evaluated for the mock. Results compared reasonably well with the explosive itself on steel, indicating that the binder plays a major role in determining the coefficient of friction for these types of composites.

  14. Effect of subcritical damage on sensitivity of a plastic bonded explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunny, George; Krawietz, Thomas; Cox, John; Jordan, Jennifer; Rumchik, Chad

    2014-03-01

    As energetic materials are subjected to increasingly extreme environments, a more thorough understanding of the relationships between mechanical insult and changes in explosive sensitivity is desired. To that end, a Shock Wave Apparatus, originally developed at TDW (Schrobenhausen, Germany), has been employed to induce subcritical shocks of up to 0.7 GPa in a plastic bonded explosive sample while preserving the sample for further study. Changes in density due to the subcritical shocks are measured, and the sensitivity of the damaged explosive is determined through a TDW/AFRL Modified Gap Test configuration that allows the run-to-detonation (RTD) to be determined for a given shock loading. Changes in sensitivity are determined by comparing the RTD for each damaged sample with corresponding RTD for pristine (i.e. undamaged) samples. Confined Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar experiments are also conducted in order to understand the effects of damage at lower strain-rates and pressures. Finally, the effects on sensitivity due to multiple shocks are also investigated in this study. Support was provided by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant FY12RW03COR.

  15. Aspects of the Tribology of the Plastic Bonded Explosive (PBX) 9404

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Chandler, J B

    2004-07-08

    The coefficient of friction, {mu}, of the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) 9404 was measured on stainless steel, aluminum, Teflon and the explosive itself as a function of temperature between ambient and 135 C at a rotational speed of 0.0025 rad/sec{sup -1}. An optical profilometer was used to analyze the mean surface roughness, R{sub a}, of the various materials. PBX 9404 is a composite of the explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitroazacyclooctane (HMX) chloroethyl phosphate (CEF) and nitrocellulose in an 96/3/3 weight ratio. The average roughness of the pressed explosive surface was R{sub a} = 1.37 {micro}m. The coefficient of friction for PBX 9404 on stainless steel of R{sub a} = 0.40 {micro}m increased from 0.22 at ambient to 0.34 at 95 C. Above this temperature {mu} decreased to about 0.23 at 125 C. Similar behavior was observed with aluminum with R{sub a} = 0.31 {micro}m. The coefficient of friction increased from about 0.08 at ambient to 0.48 at 115 C. Above this temperature, {mu} tended to decrease slightly. The coefficient of friction against Teflon of R{sub a} = 0.054 {micro}m was sigmoidal, increasing from about 0.3 at ambient to about at 0.49 {+-} 0.002 above 115 C. Against a PBX 9404 counter surface, the coefficient of friction averaged 0.54 over the entire test temperature range, but tended to increase during the measurement, probably due to adhesion of the nitrocellulose to itself.

  16. Microwave frequency material properties and ignition predictions of neat and plastic bound explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, M.; Son, S.; Glover, B.; Groven, L.

    2013-06-01

    Microwave energy has been considered for ignition, enhanced burning, and detection/defeat of energetic materials. However, the very limited data set of electromagnetic properties for both neat and plastic bound explosives has severely limited design and implementation of detection, defeat, and initiation devices. In this work, we report complex permittivity measurements for both neat and plastic bonded energetic materials such as HMX, RDX, PBX9501, etc. These measurements provide a new, more extensive set of self-consistent data that can be used to predict the response of such materials to electromagnetic energy. Using this data in conjunction with finite element analysis software, a high localized field experimental microwave applicator was designed and microwave heating predictions were calculated. Predictions show the feasibility of heating low-loss energetic materials in such cavities with high local electric fields without the need for susceptor particles. For the plastic bound materials, the effect of the binder is presented, showing that electromagnetic energy is preferentially absorbed in the more absorptive binder, resulting in significant gradients within individual energetic crystals (e.g., HMX crystals in PBX 9501). These predictions are now being used to aid experimental work with the applicator cavity and have demonstrated the feasibility of volumetrically heating energetic materials in short time scales with low microwave power levels.

  17. Thermal expansion of PBX 9501 and PBX 9502 plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Darla Graff; Brown, Geoff W; Deluca, Racci; Giambra, Anna; Sandstrom, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Two applications of thermal expansion measurements on plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) composites are described. In the first dilatometer application, thermal expansion properties of HMX-based PBX 9501 are measured over a broad thermal range that includes glass and domain-restructuring transitions in the polymeric binder. Results are consistent with other thermal measurements and analyses performed on the composite, as well as on the binder itself. The second application used the dilatometer to distinguish the reversible and irreversible components of thermal expansion in PBX 9502, a TATB-based explosive. Irreversible expansion of the composite is believed to derive from the highly-anisotropic coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values measured on single T A TB crystals, although the mechanism is not well understood. Effects of specimen density, thermal ramp rate, and thermal range variation (warm first or cold first) were explored, and the results are presented and discussed. Dilatometer measurements are ongoing towards gaining insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for PBX 9502 irreversible thermal expansion.

  18. Pilot-scale pressurized base hydrolysis of HMX plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.A.; Brewer, G.R.; Harradine, D.M.; Polston, C.E.; Le, L.A.; Bishop, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Flesner, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    A pilot-scale, pressurized, base hydrolysis reactor has been designed and its construction is nearly completed. Up to 120 L of 1--6 M NaOH aqueous solutions will convert as much as 25 kg of consolidated, explosive pieces to non-energetic compounds. Temperatures approaching 155 C in the pressurized unit will reduce reaction times significantly for the destruction of plastic-bonded explosives compared to previous atmospheric-pressure reactors. The hydrolysis effluent is then pumped into a holding tank where it is fed into a hydrothermal oxidation reactor for complete destruction to non-hazardous products. The hydrothermal unit operates at 480 C and 100 MPa and hydrogen peroxide fed into the reactor at two points will ensure complete destruction of all organic species and nitrogen-containing salts. The entire system is comprised of eight major components and is assembled on five separate and transportable skids. Following construction and preliminary testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the unit will be shipped to the Pantex Plant where it will be used for continuous demilitarization activities.

  19. Performance evaluation of booster materials in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 in a hemispherical wave breakout test

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Daniel E; Morris, John S; Hill, Larry G; Francois, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    An explosive booster is normally required to initiate detonation in an insensitive high explosive (lHE). Booster materials must be ignitable by a conventional detonator and deliver sufficient energy and favorable pulse shape to initiate the IHE charge. The explosive booster should be as insensitive as reasonably possible to maintain the overall safety margin of the explosive assembly. A hemispherical wave breakout test termed the on ionskin test is one of the methods of testing the performance of booster materials in an initiation train assembly. There are several variations of this basic test which are known by other names. In this test, the wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemispherical IHE acceptor charge is recorded, and the relative uniformity of breakout allows qualitative comparison between booster candidates and quantitative comparison of several metrics. The results of a series of onionskin experiments evaluating the performance of some new booster formulations in the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TA TB) -based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 will be presented. The boosters were tested in an onionskin arrangement in which the booster pellet was cylindrical, and the tests were performed at a temperature of-55{sup o}C to emphasize variations in spreading performance. The modification from the traditional hemispherical geometry facilitated efficient explosive fabrication and charge assembly, but the results indicate that this geometry was not ideal for several reasons. Despite the complications arising from geometry, promising performance was observed from booster formulations including 3,3' -diamino-4,4'azoxyfurazan.

  20. Meso-scale Origins of the Low- Pressure Equation of State and High Rate Mechanical Properties of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Joseph C., Jr.; Glenn, Joseph G.; Gunger, Mike

    1999-06-01

    Most modern high explosives are formulated from a selection of energetic crystalline materials and plastics to create a material that accommodates the performance and sensitivity characteristic of the desired application.1 These materials are exposed to a variety of thermal-mechanical loads during their service life. Recent interest has focused research on safety and survivability under conditions that produce long duration low amplitude loads. The interest is on ignition of deflagration rather than intiation of detonation. A fully coupled thermal-mechanical/ chemical kinetic representation of the problem is contained in a modified form of the Frank-Kamenetskii eqautions.2 Experimental techniques have been developed to characterize the low-pressure equation of state 3 and the high-rate mechanical behavior of a representative material.4 Samples recovered from these experiments have been subjected to expensive microscopic analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy. These data illustrate the presence of stress chains and stress bridging among the high explosive particle embedded in the polymer. The mechanical properties of the explosive crystal are quite different from those of the polymer. Significant inelastic response of the explosive crystal is apparent even in specimens which appear to have under gone only elastic deformation. The explosive crystals are clearly cleaved during the collapse of the stress bridges during the apparent elastic response of the bulk material. 1. LASL Shock Hugoniot Data, ed. Stanley P.Marsh, University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04008-2, 1080 2. Foster, Jr., J. C., Christopher, F. R., Wilson, L. L., Osborn, J., "Mechanical Ignition Of Combustion In Condensed Phase High Explosives," presented at the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Amherst, MA, August, 1997. 3.Foster, Jr. Joseph C., ‘Low Pressure Equation of State Measurements of Explosives using Piston Test Techniques,” ," presented at the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Amherst, MA, August, 1997. 4. Christopher, F. R., Foster, Jr., J. C., Wilson, L. L, Gilland, H. "The Use Of Impact Techniques To Characterize The High Rate Mechanical Properties Of Plastic Bonded Explosive," 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass CO, 1998

  1. THE CURIOUS MODULI SPACES OF UNMARKED KLEINIAN SURFACE GROUPS

    E-print Network

    Canary, Dick

    THE CURIOUS MODULI SPACES OF UNMARKED KLEINIAN SURFACE GROUPS RICHARD D. CANARY AND PETER A. STORM an augmented deformation space AH(S), which is the analogue of Date: July 18, 2010. Canary was partially and the Roberta and Stanley Bogen Visiting Professorship at Hebrew University. 1 #12;2 RICHARD D. CANARY AND PETER

  2. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Bartram, Brian D; Sanchez, Nathaniel J

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  3. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. III. Kraton block copolymer binder and plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Caley, L.E.; Hoffman, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and molecular weight distribution of two experimental polymer bonded explosives, X-0287 and X-0298, maintained at 23, 60, and 74/sup 0/C for 3 years were examined. X-0287 is 97% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane explosive, 1.8% Kraton G-1650, and 1.2% B/sup 2/ was 170. X-0298 is 97.4% explosive, 1.4% Kraton G-1650, and 1.2% Cenco Hi-vac oil. The relaxation associated with the Kraton rubber block glass transition is observed in both X-0287 and X-0298. In the unaged X-0298 it occurs at -59/sup 0/C and in the aged explosive at 50/sup 0/C. This is caused by migration of the oil plasticizer out of the explosive. In X-0287 the Kraton rubber block T/sub g/ is weak and broad due to the presence of the wax plasticizer. X-0287 has a second broad relaxation associated with the melting of the wax from 10 to 65/sup 0/C. The molecular weight of the Kraton binder decreased with increasing accelerated aging temperature. The oil plasticizer had no stabilizing effect, but below its melting point the wax reduced Kraton chain scission considerably. The simple random chain scission model predicted a 20.5 year use-life for X-0298, but X-0287 was stabilized against degradation below the wax melting point.

  4. Implementation of strength and burn models for plastic-bonded explosives and propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2009-05-07

    We have implemented the burn model in LS-DYNA. At present, the damage (porosity and specific surface area) is specified as initial conditions. However, history variables that are used by the strength model are reserved as placeholders for the next major revision, which will be a completely interactive model. We have implemented an improved strength model for explosives based on a model for concrete. The model exhibits peak strength and subsequent strain softening in uniaxial compression. The peak strength increases with increasing strain rate and/or reduced ambient temperature. Under triaxial compression compression, the strength continues to increase (or at least not decrease) with increasing strain. This behaviour is common to both concrete and polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) because the microstructure of these composites is similar. Both have aggregate material with a broad particle size distribution, although the length scale for concrete aggregate is two orders of magnitude larger than for PBX. The (cement or polymer) binder adheres to the aggregate, and is both pressure and rate sensitive. There is a larger bind binder content in concrete, compared to the explosive, and the aggregates have different hardness. As a result we expect the parameter values to differ, but the functional forms to be applicable to both. The models have been fit to data from tests on an AWE explosive that is HMX based. The decision to implement the models in LS-DYNA was based on three factors: LS-DYNA is used routinely by the AWE engineering analysis group and has a broad base of experienced users; models implemented in LS-DYNA can be transferred easily to LLNL's ALE 3D using a material model wrapper developed by Rich Becker; and LS-DYNA could accommodate the model requirements for a significant number of additional history variables without the significant time delay associated with code modification.

  5. Numerical and Theoretical Analysis of Plastic Response of 5A06 Aluminum Circular Plates Subjected to Underwater Explosion Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion loading has been always an interesting field for researchers. Understanding the deformation and failure mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in an actual project under this kind of loading. In this paper, the deformation and failure characteristics of 5A06 aluminum circular plates were investigated computationally and theoretically. The computational study was based on a Johnson-cook material parameter mode which was obtained from several previous studies provides a good description of deformation and failure of 5A06 aluminum circular plates under underwater explosion loading. The deformation history of the clamped circular plate is recorded; the maximum deflection and the thickness reduction measurements of target plates at different radii were conducted. The computational approach provided insight into the relationship between the failure mechanism and the strength of impact wave, and a computing formulae for strain field of the specimen was derived based on the same volume principle and rigid-plastic assumption. The simulation and theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments results. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO:11272057).

  6. Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; King, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Few species are distributed uniformly in space, and populations of mobile organisms are rarely closed with respect to movement, yet many models of density rely upon these assumptions. We present a hierarchical model allowing inference about the density of unmarked populations subject to temporary emigration and imperfect detection. The model can be fit to data collected using a variety of standard survey methods such as repeated point counts in which removal sampling, double-observer sampling, or distance sampling is used during each count. Simulation studies demonstrated that parameter estimators are unbiased when temporary emigration is either "completely random" or is determined by the size and location of home ranges relative to survey points. We also applied the model to repeated removal sampling data collected on Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvancia) in the White Mountain National Forest, USA. The density estimate from our model, 1.09 birds/ha, was similar to an estimate of 1.11 birds/ha produced by an intensive spot-mapping effort. Our model is also applicable when processes other than temporary emigration affect the probability of being available for detection, such as in studies using cue counts. Functions to implement the model have been added to the R package unmarked.

  7. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  8. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  9. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  10. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  11. Evaluation of unmarked deletion mutants as improved Brucella vaccine strains in the mouse and goat models 

    E-print Network

    Kahl, Melissa Marie

    2006-10-30

    that in order for a vaccine to be efficacious, it must survive in the host. In order to test this, we constructed marked and unmarked deletion mutants of B. abortus and B. melitensis in genes previously demonstrated by transposon mutagenesis to attenuate in vivo...

  12. Non-Native Language as the Unmarked Code in Bilingual Utterances of Libyan Children in USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, Azza

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of multiple cultures and languages on the bilingual utterances of Libyan children who live in the United States and who have acquired English after they arrived there at ages from 3 to 5. Data analysis is based on the Markedness Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993) in order to determine which language is the unmarked code…

  13. GPR and bulk ground resistivity surveys in graveyards: locating unmarked burials in contrasting soil types.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James D; Pringle, Jamie K; Goodwin, Jon

    2014-04-01

    With graveyards and cemeteries globally being increasingly designated as full, there is a growing need to identify unmarked burial positions to find burial space or exhume and re-inter if necessary. In some countries, for example the U.S. and U.K., burial sites are not usually re-used; however, most graveyard and cemetery records do not have maps of positions. One non-invasive detection method is near-surface geophysics, but there has been a lack of research to-date on optimal methods and/or equipment configuration. This paper presents three case studies in contrasting burial environments, soil types, burial styles and ages in the U.K. Geophysical survey results reveal unmarked burials could be effectively identified from these case studies that were not uniform or predicted using 225 MHz frequency antennae GPR 2D 0.5 m spaced profiles. Bulk ground electrical surveys, rarely used for unmarked burials, revealed 1 m probe spacings were optimal compared to 0.5 m, with datasets needing 3D detrending to reveal burial positions. Results were variable depending upon soil type; in very coarse soils GPR was optimal; whereas resistivity was optimal in clay-rich soils and both were optimal in sandy and black earth soils. Archaeological excavations revealed unmarked burials, extra/missing individuals from parish records and a variety of burial styles from isolated, brick-lined, to vertically stacked individuals. Study results, evidence unmarked burial targets were significantly different from clandestine burials of murder victims which are used as analogues. PMID:24559798

  14. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. (a) Individuals reviewing NSI records of permanent historical value under the automatic or systematic review provisions of E.O. 12958 may come upon...

  15. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. (a) Individuals reviewing NSI records of permanent historical value under the automatic or systematic review provisions of E.O. 12958 may come upon...

  16. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. (a) Individuals reviewing NSI records of permanent historical value under the automatic or systematic review provisions of E.O. 12958 may come upon...

  17. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. (a) Individuals reviewing NSI records of permanent historical value under the automatic or systematic review provisions of E.O. 12958 may come upon...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. (a) Individuals reviewing NSI records of permanent historical value under the automatic or systematic review provisions of E.O. 12958 may come upon...

  19. Application of an inducible system to engineer unmarked conditional mutants of essential genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuji; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tomida, Junko; Tokuda, Hajime; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2010-09-01

    The Phi CTX-based integration vector pYM101 harboring a tightly controlled modified phage T7 early gene promoter/LacI(q) repressor (T7/LacI) system was constructed for the generation of unmarked conditional mutants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Promoter activity of the T7/LacI system was demonstrated to be dependent on the presence of the inducer isopropyl -beta-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), as evaluated by measuring beta-galactosidase activity. In the absence of the inducer, the promoter was silent as its activity was lower than those of a promoter-less lacZ control. Unmarked conditional mutants of four predicted essential genes (lolCDE (PA2988-86), lpxC (PA4406), rho (PA5239), and def (PA0019)) were successfully constructed using this recombination system. In the absence of IPTG, the growth of all mutants was repressed; however, the addition of either 0.1 or 1mM IPTG restored growth rates to levels nearly identical to wild-type cells. It was therefore demonstrated that the inducible integration vector pYM101 is suitable for the creation of unmarked conditional mutants of P. aeruginosa, and is particularly useful for examining the function of essential genes. PMID:20538017

  20. ASL & Plasticity Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    ASL & Plasticity #12;Plasticity Plasticity From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Plasticity has four meanings: · Plasticity (physics): In physics and engineering, plasticity is the propensity of a material to undergo permanent deformation under load. · Phenotypic plasticity: Describes the degree

  1. Atomic-Scale Theoretical Studies of Fundamental Properties and Processes in CHNO Plastic-Bonded Explosive Constituent Materials under Static and Dynamic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The results of recent theoretical atomic-scale studies of CHNO plastic-bonded explosive constituent materials will be presented, emphasizing the effects of static and dynamic compression on structure, vibrational spectroscopy, energy redistribution, and dynamic deformation processes. Among the chemical compounds to be discussed are pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX), nitromethane, and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Specific topics to be discussed include pressure-dependent terahertz IR absorption spectra in crystalline PETN and RDX, microscopic material flow characteristics and energy localization during and after pore collapse in shocked (100)-oriented RDX, establishment of local thermodynamic temperature and the approach to thermal equilibrium in shocked (100)-oriented nitromethane, and structural changes and relaxation phenomena that occur in shocked amorphous cis-HTPB. In the case of shocked HTPB, comparisons will be made between results obtained using fully-atomic and coarse-grained (united atom) molecular dynamics force field models. Rather than attempting to discuss any given topic in extended detail, 3-4 vignettes will be presented that highlight outstanding scientific questions and the predictive methods and tools we are developing to answer them. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Office of Naval Research supported this research.

  2. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  3. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. 1045.45 Section 1045.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents...

  4. Detection of Marked and Unmarked Burial Sites in Louisiana Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Nunn, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been used in both north and south Louisiana, to locate marked and unmarked graves. Burials in Oak Ridge, Louisiana, which is in the northern part of the state, were in a church cemetery. Dates of burial ranged from the late 1800s to the present. The survey was conducted to determine the location of empty plots within the cemetery that could be used for future burials and to locate any unmarked burials. Burials in St. Gabriel, Louisiana, which is in the southern portion of the state, consisted of three marked graves on private property. Date of burials occurred in the 1970s. This survey was performed to confirm that the headstones were correctly placed over the bodies. A large surface depression was observed near the presumed location of the graves. Information regarding the exact location of the bodies was not known and one or more bodies were possibly buried in the area beneath the observed large surface depression. A Sensors and Software SmartCart bistatic ground penetrating radar unit equipped with 200-megahertz antennas with 0.5 meters of separation was used at both locations. Penetration was to a sufficient depth in order to determine locations of the burials at both sites. Longer wavelength antennas were available but not used because the 200-megahertz antennas adequately characterized the near subsurface. Sediments in the Oak Ridge site consisted of silty loams and a comparatively deeper depth of penetration was achieved. Sediment in the St. Gabriel site consisted of clays with less depth of penetration than in the Oak Ridge site. Previous studies by others in Baton Rouge, Louisiana just to the north of St. Gabriel have had poor results due to limited depth of penetration except in areas where the soil is covered by concrete or asphalt and thus remains dry year round. Both grave sites were surveyed while the soil was dry in order to ensure maximum depth of penetration. Data interpretation was completed on site during each survey using the display unit of the ground penetrating radar equipment. Further interpretation or manipulation of the data off site was deemed unnecessary for locating grave sites. On site interpretation of the data displayed on the radar unit proved to be fast and effective, as the majority of anomalies indicative of the presence of graves were observed and easily identified as strong, shallow reflectors. Ground penetrating radar can be used as a fast and effective device to evaluate potential burials and unmarked graves within Louisiana.

  5. Spatially explicit models for inference about density in unmarked or partially marked populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) models represent a major advance over traditional capture–recapture (CR) models because they yield explicit estimates of animal density instead of population size within an unknown area. Furthermore, unlike nonspatial CR methods, SCR models account for heterogeneity in capture probability arising from the juxtaposition of animal activity centers and sample locations. Although the utility of SCR methods is gaining recognition, the requirement that all individuals can be uniquely identified excludes their use in many contexts. In this paper, we develop models for situations in which individual recognition is not possible, thereby allowing SCR concepts to be applied in studies of unmarked or partially marked populations. The data required for our model are spatially referenced counts made on one or more sample occasions at a collection of closely spaced sample units such that individuals can be encountered at multiple locations. Our approach includes a spatial point process for the animal activity centers and uses the spatial correlation in counts as information about the number and location of the activity centers. Camera-traps, hair snares, track plates, sound recordings, and even point counts can yield spatially correlated count data, and thus our model is widely applicable. A simulation study demonstrated that while the posterior mean exhibits frequentist bias on the order of 5–10% in small samples, the posterior mode is an accurate point estimator as long as adequate spatial correlation is present. Marking a subset of the population substantially increases posterior precision and is recommended whenever possible. We applied our model to avian point count data collected on an unmarked population of the northern parula (Parula americana) and obtained a density estimate (posterior mode) of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19–1.64) birds/ha. Our paper challenges sampling and analytical conventions in ecology by demonstrating that neither spatial independence nor individual recognition is needed to estimate population density—rather, spatial dependence can be informative about individual distribution and density.

  6. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  7. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clement, Matthew; O'Keefe, Joy M; Walters, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    While numerous methods exist for estimating abundance when detection is imperfect, these methods may not be appropriate due to logistical difficulties or unrealistic assumptions. In particular, if highly mobile taxa are frequently absent from survey locations, methods that estimate a probability of detection conditional on presence will generate biased abundance estimates. Here, we propose a new estimator for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. The estimator assumes that the target population conforms to a fission-fusion grouping pattern, in which the population is divided into groups that frequently change in size and composition. If assumptions are met, it is not necessary to locate all groups in the population to estimate abundance. We derive an estimator, perform a simulation study, conduct a power analysis, and apply the method to field data. The simulation study confirmed that our estimator is asymptotically unbiased with low bias, narrow confidence intervals, and good coverage, given a modest survey effort. The power analysis provided initial guidance on survey effort. When applied to small data sets obtained by radio-tracking Indiana bats, abundance estimates were reasonable, although imprecise. The proposed method has the potential to improve abundance estimates for mobile species that have a fission-fusion social structure, such as Indiana bats, because it does not condition detection on presence at survey locations and because it avoids certain restrictive assumptions.

  8. Explosive nucleosynthesis

    E-print Network

    M. Hernanz

    2001-03-26

    Many radioactive nuclei relevant for gamma-ray astrophysics are synthesized during explosive events, such as classical novae and supernovae. A review of recent results of explosive nucleosynthesis in these scenarios is presented, with a special emphasis on the ensuing gamma-ray emission from individual nova and supernova explosions. The influence of the dynamic properties of the ejecta on the gamma-ray emission features, as well as the still remaining uncertainties in nova and supernova models is also reviewed.

  9. Geophysical Investigation of an Abandoned Cemetery: Teachers Discover Evidence of Unmarked Graves in Prairie View, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Baldwin, R.; Kahera, A.; Thoms, A.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2007, a group of nineteen K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface. In a period of two weeks, the group acquired and interpreted 59 GPR profiles in Wyatt Chapel Cemetery and surrounding areas in order to determine the local stratigraphy and try to locate unmarked graves. The sandy soil in this area is ideally suited for GPR investigations and numerous geophysical anomalies were identified. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850's. Participants in a summer course at Rice University conducted a geophysical investigation of the site. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. GPR is an excellent tool for investigating the sandy soil encountered at Wyatt Chapel Cemetery. The stratigraphy in the area consists of 3-6 feet of reddish-brown, medium-grained sand overlying a light gray, highly compacted clay. The sand-clay boundary appears as a strong reflector on the GPR profiles. Participants identified numerous anomalies in the GPR data and two were excavated. One consisted of a pair of bright hyperbolae, suggesting two edges of a metal object. This excavation resulted in the discovery of a metal plank thought to be a burial cover. The second anomaly consisted of a break in the horizon representing the top of the clay layer, and subsequent excavation revealed a grave shaft. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used geophysics for community service (i.e. restoring an abandoned cemetery). Through background research, they derived a rich historical context for their investigation and learned to appreciate the multi-disciplinary aspect of solving real-world scientific problems.

  10. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  11. An Analytic Tool to Investigate the Effect of Binder on the Sensitivity of HMX-Based Plastic Bonded Explosives in the Skid Test

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Hayden

    2005-02-01

    This project will develop an analytical tool to calculate performance of HMX based PBXs in the skid test. The skid-test is used as a means to measure sensitivity for large charges in handling situations. Each series of skid tests requires dozens of drops of large billets. It is proposed that the reaction (or lack of one) of PBXs in the skid test is governed by the mechanical properties of the binder. If true, one might be able to develop an analytical tool to estimate skid test behavior for new PBX formulations. Others over the past 50 years have tried to develop similar models. This project will research and summarize the works of others and couple the work of 3 into an analytical tool that can be run on a PC to calculate drop height of HMX based PBXs. Detonation due to dropping a billet is argued to be a dynamic thermal event. To avoid detonation, the heat created due to friction at impact, must be conducted into the charge or the target faster than the chemical kinetics can create additional energy. The methodology will involve numerically solving the Frank-Kamenetskii equation in one dimension. The analytical problem needs to be bounded in terms of how much heat is introduced to the billet and for how long. Assuming an inelastic collision with no rebound, the billet will be in contact with the target for a short duration determined by the equations of motion. For the purposes of the calculations, it will be assumed that if a detonation is to occur, it will transpire within that time. The surface temperature will be raised according to the friction created using the equations of motion of dropping the billet on a rigid surface. The study will connect the works of Charles Anderson, Alan Randolph, Larry Hatler, Alfonse Popolato, and Charles Mader into a single PC based analytic tool. Anderson's equations of motion will be used to calculate the temperature rise upon impact, the time this temperature is maintained (contact time) will be obtained from the work of Hatler et. al., and the reactive temperature rise will be obtained from Mader's work. Finally, the assessment of when a detonation occurs will be derived from Bowden and Yoffe's thermal explosion theory (hot spot).

  12. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  13. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga

    2007-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

  14. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  15. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  16. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  17. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  18. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  19. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  20. In-Frame and Unmarked Gene Deletions in Burkholderia cenocepacia via an Allelic Exchange System Compatible with Gateway Technology.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Mustafa; Harrison, Joe J; Gambino, Michela; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis, which are often difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Understanding the genetic basis of virulence in this emerging pathogen is important for the development of novel treatment regimes. Generation of deletion mutations in genes predicted to encode virulence determinants is fundamental to investigating the mechanisms of pathogenesis. However, there is a lack of appropriate selectable and counterselectable markers for use in B. cenocepacia, making its genetic manipulation problematic. Here we describe a Gateway-compatible allelic exchange system based on the counterselectable pheS gene and the I-SceI homing endonuclease. This system provides efficiency in cloning homology regions of target genes and allows the generation of precise and unmarked gene deletions in B. cenocepacia. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its utility by deleting the Bcam1349 gene, encoding a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-responsive regulator protein important for biofilm formation. PMID:25795676

  1. The Generation of Successive Unmarked Mutations and Chromosomal Insertion of Heterologous Genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Using Natural Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Soares-Bazzolli, Denise M.; Li, Yanwen; Wren, Brendan W.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a simple method of generating scarless, unmarked mutations in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by exploiting the ability of this bacterium to undergo natural transformation, and with no need to introduce plasmids encoding recombinases or resolvases. This method involves two successive rounds of natural transformation using linear DNA: the first introduces a cassette carrying cat (which allows selection by chloramphenicol) and sacB (which allows counter-selection using sucrose) flanked by sequences to either side of the target gene; the second transformation utilises the flanking sequences ligated directly to each other in order to remove the cat-sacB cassette. In order to ensure efficient uptake of the target DNA during transformation, A. pleuropneumoniae uptake sequences are added into the constructs used in both rounds of transformation. This method can be used to generate multiple successive deletions and can also be used to introduce targeted point mutations or insertions of heterologous genes into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome for development of live attenuated vaccine strains. So far, we have applied this method to highly transformable isolates of serovars 8 (MIDG2331), which is the most prevalent in the UK, and 15 (HS143). By screening clinical isolates of other serovars, it should be possible to identify other amenable strains. PMID:25409017

  2. Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2004-05-10

    The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

  3. Explosion risks from nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

  4. Stress Growth Measurements for the Explosive IRX-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit T.

    2002-07-01

    Embedded gauge experiments were performed to measure the shock reactivity of IRX-4, a plastic-bonded explosive that contains HMX, Al, AP and HTPB binder. The pressure-time profiles obtained are similar to those obtained for similar composite explosives. Hugoniot points obtained are in agreement with those obtained with mixture theory.

  5. Universe Explosions

    E-print Network

    Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

    2012-09-24

    A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

  6. 49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 173.62, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... being carried dry plastics,textile, plastic coated or lined rubber textile, rubberized textile... of explosive substance (quantity corresponding to dry substance); b. each inner packaging must...

  7. 49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... being carried dry plastics,textile, plastic coated or lined rubber textile, rubberized textile... of explosive substance (quantity corresponding to dry substance); b. each inner packaging must...

  8. Plastic Containers 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    strategy to mitigate environmental variation is phenotypic plasticity: the production of alternative phenotypes in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity yields multiple characters that may enable organisms to better optimize phenotypic...

  9. Plastic Jellyfish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  10. Chaotic Explosions

    E-print Network

    Eduardo G. Altmann; Jefferson S. E. Portela; Tamás Tél

    2015-01-22

    We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

  11. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Peter; Rae, Philip John; Foley, Timothy J.; Novak, Alan M.; Armstrong, Christopher Lee; Baca, Eva V.; Gunderson, Jake Alfred

    2015-09-30

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  12. Method for digesting a nitro-bearing explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein superoxide radicals from superoxide salt are used to break down the explosive compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for degrading explosives, and operates at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. Because the superoxide molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The superoxide salt generates reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro-bearing compound.

  13. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  14. FLP-FRT-based method to obtain unmarked deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and large genomic fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei; Lu, Xuemei

    2014-10-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  15. Initiative for Explosives Detection

    E-print Network

    Initiative for Explosives Detection Highly Concealed Bulk Explosives Detection This focus area emphasizes the detection of explosives or IEDs hidden in vehicles, buildings or various types of containers of highly concealed explosives include the development of enhanced energy sources, improved electronics

  16. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  17. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  18. Modeling ‘Hot-Spot’ Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  19. Bioremediation of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

  20. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Explosive Families: Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, S. N.; Anderson, M. U.; Caipen, T. L.; Grady, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    A damage initiated reaction (DMGIR) computational model is being developed for the CTH shock physics code to predict the response of an explosive to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. The DMGIR model is a complement to the History Variable Reactive Burn (HVRB) model embedded in the current CTH code. Specifically designed experiments are supporting the development, implementation, and validation of the DMGIR numerical approach. PBXN-5 was the initial explosive material used experimentally to develop the DMGIR model. This explosive represents a family of plastically bonded explosives with good mechanical strength and rigid body properties. The model has been extended to cast explosives represented by Composition B.

  1. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  2. The Use of Complementary GPR Surveys with Different Grid Spacing to Locate Unmarked Graves in a 19th Century Cemetery in Selinsgrove PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Zawacki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical survey tool with many archaeological applications, including the search for graves. A 400 megahertz GPR was employed to locate unmarked graves and buried headstones in a neglected Pennsylvania cemetery dating from the 19th century. The site was initially scanned using a grid pattern with 50cm transect spacings. A smaller site within the cemetery was then selected and scanned at a higher 'resolution,' using smaller transect spacings, to determine whether this improved the accuracy of the findings. Supplementary perpendicular transects were also added. A number of potential sources of error were identified and their consequences were outlined. Short transects with small spacings were found to significantly improve the quality of the obtained data, as was the addition of perpendicular transects. The results are applicable to the search for graves and, more broadly, the use of GPR to identify and locate other subsurface features.

  3. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Fitch, Michael J.; Osiander, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has been demonstrated as a promising tool for detection of explosives and is being developed for aviation screening and sensing of improvised explosive devices. THz radiation is attractive for many applications due to its ability to penetrate through a wide range of dielectric materials including clothing, paper, cardboard, plastics, and wood. Of course, metals block THz waves as is the case for microwave, IR, and visible light. Our work has involved investigating the reflection spectroscopy of a variety of materials including explosives such as RDX and PETN, plastic explosive taggants such as DMDNB, and other organic materials. We have also investigated the changes of the reflection spectra in varying grades of sucrose. Spectral differences are observed between three grades of crystalline sugar in the region from 0.1 to 1 THz. By exploiting the unique spectral features, the discrimination capabilities of THz reflection spectroscopy points to the broad applicability of identifying a wide variety of materials.

  4. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  5. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  6. The search for high energy low vulnerability explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, E. von; Scribner, K.; Moody, G.; McGuire, R.

    1990-03-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently attempting to formulate explosives which have approximately 30% greater energy than our current TATB/Kel-F explosive, while still passing the Department of Energy's (DOE) Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) criteria. The new formulations are comprised of HMX, TATB, and high density fluoropolymers and fluoroplasticizers. Variables in the study include the particle size of HMX, type of TATB (wet or dry aminated), the ratios of polymers to plasticizers, and formulation techniques. Initial small scale sensitivity tests and thermal testing have shown promising results. This paper will relate the up-to-date status of the project. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C.; Jessop, E.; McGuire, R.

    1990-03-13

    There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNO{sub 3}, Al and a low modulus binder system. The binder system uses nitroglycerin/triacetin as an energetic plasticizer. This paper discusses the experimental results to date in vulnerability, performance and processing. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  9. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  10. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  11. "Fooling fido"--chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids.

    PubMed

    Kranz, William D; Strange, Nicholas A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-12-01

    Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportation of explosives have given rise to the development of "pseudo-explosive" training aids. These products attempt to emulate the odor of real explosives while remaining inert. Therefore, a canine trained on a pseudo-explosive should respond to its real-life analog. Similarly, a canine trained on an actual explosive should respond to the pseudo-explosive as if it was real. This research tested those assumptions with a focus on three explosives: single-base smokeless powder, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and a RDX-based plastic explosive (Composition C-4). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction as a pre-concentration technique, we determined that the volatile compounds given off by pseudo-explosive products consisted of various solvents, known additives from explosive formulations, and common impurities present in authentic explosives. For example, simulated smokeless powders emitted terpenes, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Simulated TNT products emitted 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene. Simulated C-4 products emitted cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and dimethyldinitrobutane. We also conducted tests to determine whether canines trained on pseudo-explosives are capable of alerting to genuine explosives and vice versa. The results show that canines trained on pseudo-explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the pseudo-explosives they are trained on. Similarly, canines trained on actual explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the actual explosives on which they were trained. PMID:25424725

  12. The development of an inert simulant for HNS/teflon explosive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elban, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    The report describes the development and evaluation of an inert simulant for the thermally stable, heat-resistant plastic-bonded explosive HNS/Teflon. The simulant is made by dry blending vinylidene fluoride, melamine and Teflon which when compared has a pressed density and thermal properties corresponding closely to the explosive. In addition, the machinability and handling characteristics of the simulant are similar to the explosive.

  13. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  14. Plastics Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 16 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of plastics technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and would…

  15. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  16. Explosives detection with quadrupole resonance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Thorson, Benjamin D.; Beevor, Simon; West, Rebecca; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1997-02-01

    The increase in international terrorist activity over the past decade has necessitated the exploration of new technologies for the detection of plastic explosives. Quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA) has proven effective as a technique for detecting the presence of plastic, sheet, and military explosive compounds in small quantities, and can also be used to identify narcotics such as heroin and cocaine base. QRA is similar to the widely used magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, but has the considerable advantage that the item being inspected does not need to be immersed in a steady, homogeneous magnetic field. The target compounds are conclusively identified by their unique quadrupole resonance frequencies. Quantum magnetics has develop and introduced a product line of explosives and narcotics detection devices based upon QRA technology. The work presented here concerns a multi-compound QRA detection system designed to screen checked baggage, cargo, and sacks of mail at airports and other high-security facilities. The design philosophy and performance are discussed and supported by test results from field trials conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This detection system represents the current state of QRA technology for field use in both commercial and government sectors.

  17. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  18. Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

  19. Reaction of preshocked explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, R.N.

    1998-07-31

    In experiments in which an explosive is subjected to two successive shocks ({approximately}2.5 and {approximately}6.0 GPa), detonation of the explosive is delayed. High compaction resulting from shock compression of an explosive probably results in the removal of voids from the material. To the extent that these voids comprise the hotspots in the material, the shock-compressed explosive might be expected to behave as a homogeneous material, and initiate more like a liquid explosive than like a normal solid PBX. While some evidence is available from the data record to support this idea that detonation develops in a homogeneous manner, predominant aspects of the data indicate heterogeneous development of detonation in the preshocked material.

  20. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  1. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  2. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  3. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  4. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  5. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials.... Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN . EDNA . Ednatol. EDNP . EGDN . Erythritol...

  6. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  7. Disorder induces explosive synchronization

    E-print Network

    Per Sebastian Skardal; Alex Arenas

    2014-06-02

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on either the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  8. Explosive Collisions at RHIC?

    E-print Network

    Adrian Dumitru; Robert D. Pisarski

    2001-02-02

    Motivated by experimental results from RHIC, we suggest how a condensate for the Polyakov loop might produce explosive behavior at the QCD phase transition. This is due to a rapid rollover of the condensate field below the transition temperature.

  9. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  10. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  11. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  12. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment.

  13. Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects

    E-print Network

    David Arnett

    1999-08-16

    Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

  14. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  15. ( 'tams Dlvllan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ~ ( ·'tams Dlvl·lan LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE THERMAL CONSTRAINTS LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE presents the study of LSPE High Explosive Package and transport frame stowage thermal constraints subsequent to LM touchdown and prior to lunar deployment. Approved by: #12;LSPE EXPLOSIVE PACKAGE STOWAGE

  16. Direct real-time detection of vapors from explosive compounds.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Robert G; Clowers, Brian H; Atkinson, David A

    2013-11-19

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX, and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances was demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a nonradioactive ionization source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was accomplished in less than 5 s at ambient temperature without sample preconcentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provided a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3(-) and NO3(-)·HNO3), enabled highly sensitive explosives detection from explosive vapors present in ambient laboratory air. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicated detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284, and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX, and NG, respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations sampled in ambient laboratory air, including double base propellants, plastic explosives, and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN, and RDX product ions. PMID:24090362

  17. Modeling the Effects of Confinement during Cookoff of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. Self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Explosives with low melting points, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) are complex since melting and flow need to be considered when simulating cookoff. Cookoff of composite explosives such as Comp-B (mixture of TNT and RDX) are even more complex since dissolution of one component increases the reactivity of the other component. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems that contain explosives. Sandia National Laboratories is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Explosive Welding and Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuken, D.; Carton, E. P.

    2004-07-01

    Explosive welding or cladding is usually performed on relative thick plates by means of a large scale parallel plate set-up. At TNO-PML several of the explosive welding configurations that were developed mainly in the nineteen sixties and seventies are being investigated for their potential use in modern industrial applications. Configurations for explosive cladding of curved surfaces such as tubes and rods are also being examined. This can be used to make special bimetallic heat exchanger tubes, or for the protection of electrodes that are used in electrolysis. Explosive line and seam welding are important bonding techniques that allow the welding of both similar and dissimilar metal plates and sheets. Here, bonding occurs over a small overlapping fraction of the two surfaces. This requires only a small amount of explosive (e.g. 5 g/m for line welds in thin ductile sheets). Explosive foil cladding can be used as an alternative coating technique. Plates that are clad with a foil on one or both sides were fabricated in one process step. They can be further machined or deformed using conventional techniques, due to the ductility of the bond and clad material.

  19. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

  20. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  1. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  2. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  3. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  4. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  5. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  6. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Alistair P.; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  7. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  8. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  9. Molecular models for explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

  10. Recycling and disposal of munitions and explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, N.H.A. van

    1998-07-01

    In the Netherlands, demilitarization research is concentrated at the organization for applied scientific research TNO. Over 150 years of experience with munitions and explosives of the TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory adds up to the almost 50 years of experience in waste treatment, incineration technology and exhaust cleaning of the TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation. Starting with the reversed assembly of munitions, followed by the separation of explosives and metal parts, TNO studied possibilities for recycling these components. Metal parts and plastics can be recycled. From the investigations it turned out that controlled combustion is the most mature, promising and universally applicable technique for the disposal of organic explosives that are not suitable for recycling. Controlled combustion makes use of a closed furnace system; most promising for the situation in the Netherlands seems to be the Fluidized Bed Oven (FBO). Additional scrubbing systems (dry chemical/wet) are employed to remove the remaining hazardous products like HCl, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}.

  11. Explosive Synchronization is Discontinuous

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Vlasov; Yong Zou; Tiago Pereira

    2014-11-25

    Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated to the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite size graphs are well described by our predictions.

  12. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

    2009-12-28

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  14. An explosion in Tunguska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Ioan

    A detailed History of exploration of the place at Podkamennaya Tunguska, where a well known explosion has occured on 30 June 1908 is given with emphasys on the role by Leonid Kulik (1928-29). A short biography of Leonid Kulik is given. A review of subsequent expeditions is given. A review of existing theories concerning the explosion at Podkamennaya Tunguska on 30 June 1908 is given, including that of a meteor impact, asteroid impact, atomic explosion (F. Zigel and other), comet impact (V.G. Fesenkov and other). The theory sustained by author is that of a methan gas explosion initialazed by a meteor in a volume of about 0.25-2.5 billions m3 of methan. The shape of the place could be explained by few gaseous pouches, which could explode in a chain reaction. A review of similar explosions on the level of ground is given in the USSR as well as elsewhere. The soil fluidization is reviewed during earthquakes and similar phenomena. The original hypothesis by author was published in the "Lumea" N 41 magazin (Romania) on October 12 1989. The author disagree with atomic hypotesis enounced by F. Zigel, while the main factor of the explosion is the formation of one or few methan pouches above the soil. The programe of one of the most important international workshops (Tunguska 96 in Bologna on July 14-17) is attached. The site by Ioan Nistor gives a collection of informations about the event from elsewhere as well as the "gaseous pouches" hypothesis by the author.

  15. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. PMID:22858504

  16. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  17. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

  18. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  19. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  20. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver....

  1. Explosion at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire 

    E-print Network

    Jones, T.A.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT GLYNCORRWG COLLIERY, GLAMORGANSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire, on 13th January, ...

  2. Explosion at Walton Colliery Yorkshire 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, T. A.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT WALTON COLLIERY YORKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Walton Colliery, Yorkshire, on 22nd April, 1959 by T. A. ROGERS, C.B.E. H.M. ...

  3. Explosion at Cardowan Colliery Lanarkshire 

    E-print Network

    Houston, H. R.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT CARDOWAN COLLIERY LANARKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Cardowan Colliery, Lanarkshire, on 25th July, 1960 BY H. R. HOUSTON, C.B.E ...

  4. Explosive inventory program

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.; Taylor, R.S.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the computer program used at the Tonopah Test Range to maintain the explosive inventory. The program, which uses dBASE III or dBASE III Plus and runs on an IBM PC or compatible, has the capabilities to update (add or subtract) items, edit or delete, append, and generate various reports.

  5. Naked Singularity Explosion

    E-print Network

    Tomohiro Harada; Hideo Iguchi; Ken-ichi Nakao

    2000-03-09

    It is known that the gravitational collapse of a dust ball results in naked singularity formation from an initial density profile which is physically reasonable. In this paper, we show that explosive radiation is emitted during the formation process of the naked singularity.

  6. Ecotoxicology of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Giffen, Neil R; Morrill, Valerie; Jenkins, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecological receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

  7. Explosive Z Pinch

    E-print Network

    Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

    2006-11-08

    We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

  8. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  9. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  10. Crashing Waves, Awesome Explosions,

    E-print Network

    Varadarajan, Veeravalli S.

    's an exploding fire- ball in Star Wars: Episode 3 or a swirling maelstrom in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World in movie and video game special effects include water, fire, smoke, explosions, rigid body dynamics-based special effects for smoke, fire, water, and other fluids have become much more prevalent. The governing

  11. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Administration (OSHA); Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; termination. SUMMARY: In this notice, OSHA is terminating... its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109 (36 FR 10553-10562). OSHA based the... revisions to the standard (37 FR 6577, 57 FR 6356, and 63 FR 33450). On July 29, 2002, the Institute...

  12. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  13. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues. PMID:24314527

  14. Fracture of explosively compacted aluminum particles in a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, David; Loiseau, Jason; Goroshin, Sam; Zhang, Fan; Milne, Alec; Longbottom, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    The explosive compaction, fracture and dispersal of aluminum particles contained within a cylinder have been investigated experimentally and computationally. The aluminum particles were weakly confined in a cardboard tube and surrounded a central cylindrical burster charge. The compaction and fracture of the particles are visualized with flash radiography and the subsequent fragment dispersal with high-speed photography. The aluminum fragments produced are much larger than the original aluminum particles and similar in shape to those generated from the explosive fracture of a solid aluminum cylinder, suggesting that the shock transmitted into the aluminum compacts the powder to near solid density. The casing of the burster explosive (plastic-, copper-, and un-cased charges were used) had little influence on the fragment size. The effect of an air gap between the burster and the aluminum particles was also investigated. The particle motion inferred from the radiographs is compared with the predictions of a multimaterial hydrocode.

  15. Effects of water states on steam explosion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wenjie; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The work aimed to identify the complexity and roles of water states in steam explosion process of corn stalk to enhance the treatment efficiency. Results showed that two main water states with different mobility existed in corn stalk and influenced steam explosion treatment. By correlating dynamic water states data to feedstock mechanical properties and treatment process characteristics, the bound water being the excellent plasticizer that reduced the mechanical strength of fibers by over 30%, was conducive to treatment; while, the free water presenting buffering effects in treatment by hindering heat transfer which was reflected by the increase of temperature rising time by 1.29 folds and steam consumption by 2.18 folds, was not conducive. The distinguished point of these two waters was fiber saturated point. By considering treatment efficacy and energy consumption, the significance of fiber saturated point was highlighted as the optimal water states for steam explosion of corn stalk. PMID:26364827

  16. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  17. LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

  18. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  19. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  20. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  1. Prediction of the explosion effect of aluminized explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Xiang, Cong; Liang, HuiMin

    2013-05-01

    We present an approach to predict the explosion load for aluminized explosives using a numerical calculation. A code to calculate the species of detonation products of high energy ingredients and those of the secondary reaction of aluminum and the detonation products, velocity of detonation, pressure, temperature and JWL parameters of aluminized explosives has been developed in this study. Through numerical calculations carried out with this code, the predicted JWL parameters for aluminized explosives have been compared with those measured by the cylinder test. The predicted JWL parameters with this code agree with those measured by the cylinder test. Furthermore, the load of explosion for the aluminized explosive was calculated using the numerical simulation by using the JWL equation of state. The loads of explosion for the aluminized explosive obtained using the predicted JWL parameters have been compared with those using the measured JWL parameters. Both of them are almost the same. The numerical results using the predicted JWL parameters show that the explosion air shock wave is the strongest when the mass fraction of aluminum powder in the explosive mixtures is 30%. This result agrees with the empirical data.

  2. Ignition criterion and safety prediction of explosives under low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang; Dai, Kaida

    2013-09-01

    Due to the complexity of impact-induced reaction, it is difficult to predict and evaluate the ignition and safety of explosives under low velocity impact. Plastic deformation is very important to explosive ignition under impact loading. At low strain rates, plastic deformation can be treated as an isothermal process. The deformation under high-strain-rate is usually seen as an adiabatic process, and the deformation work is transformed into heat with the attendant temperature increase of the explosive. In this paper, we proposed an ignition criterion in terms of effective plastic work and specific plastic power to predict the ignition of explosives under low velocity impact. The plastic work begins to accumulate, when the specific plastic power (i.e., the plastic strain rate) in a local region meets a threshold value; and when the plastic work is sufficient enough, the ignition occurs. The criterion parameters are determined by numerical simulation using LS-DYNA. Numerical simulation is compared with experimental data in order to calibrate the numerical model. The threshold values of this ignition criterion for different configurations are determined. In order to evaluate the validity of the criterion, the predictions of the ignition time, ignition zone, threshold velocities in Steven test with different PBX size designs and various projectiles, as well as the ignition threshold conditions in a modified drop weight test, Susan test, and Spigot test, are carried out. The predicted results show a good agreement with experimental results, and the errors of the ignition threshold are less than 15% for all the experimental configurations.

  3. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-04-06

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  4. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  5. The using of LS-DYNA for the simulation of heat transfer in explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šelešovský, Jakub; Krupka, Miloslav

    2007-07-01

    The using of FEM and especially LS-DYNA3D code for the simulation of a heat transfer during the heating of the explosive charge is discussed in this paper. The characterization of explosive material properties (density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat of decomposition, the decomposition kinetics) is described. LS-DYNA3D code is used for the fitting of the appropriate kinetic model and for the simulation of the heat transfer during the slow cookoff test. The results of simulations are compared to the experimental values for the SEMTEX 1A plastic bonded explosive.

  6. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  7. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  8. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

  9. Non-shock initiation model for explosive families : experimental results.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark U.; Jensen, Charles B.; Todd, Steven N.; Hugh, Chance G.; Caipen, Terry L.

    2010-03-01

    The 'DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction' (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  10. Non-Shock Initiation Model for Explosive Families: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. U.; Todd, S. N.; Caipen, T. L.; Jensen, C. B.; Hughs, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    The "DaMaGe-Initiated-Reaction" (DMGIR) computational model has been developed to predict the response of high explosives to non-shock mechanical insults. The distinguishing feature of this model is the introduction of a damage variable, which relates the evolution of damage to the initiation of a reaction in the explosive, and its growth to detonation. Specifically designed experiments were used to study the initiation process of each explosive family with embedded shock sensors and optical diagnostics. The experimental portion of this model development began with a study of PBXN-5 to develop DMGIR model coefficients for the rigid plastic bonded family, followed by studies of the cast, and bulk-moldable explosive families. The experimental results show an initiation mechanism that is related to input energy and material damage, with well defined initiation thresholds for each explosive family. These initiation details will extend the predictive capability of the DMGIR model from the rigid family into the cast and bulk-moldable families.

  11. Plastic encapsulated parts

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, T.

    1994-10-01

    Plastic semiconductor packages were characterized as possible alternatives for canned devices, which are susceptible to internal shorts caused by conductive particles. Highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) as well as electrical and mechanical testing were conducted on plastic technology devices.

  12. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  13. Plastics in Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeist, Irving, Ed.

    The evaluation and use of plastics in the construction industry are explained. The contributors offer extensive, timely, and thoroughly researched data on the chemistry, properties, functions, engineering behavior, and specific applications of plastics to building requirements. The major subjects discussed in depth are--(1) the role of plastics in…

  14. Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity Across Species ABSTRACT: Plasticity is a typical feature of development and can lead to diver- gent phenotypes. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in developmental plasticity. Thus, in the context of the concept of developmental homology, epigenetic mechanisms

  15. Processing of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Albert

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

  16. Tomorrow's Plastic World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Averil

    2005-01-01

    Far from being just cheap packaging materials, plastics may be the materials of tomorrow. Plastic can conduct electricity, and this opens up a host of high-tech possibilities in the home and in energy generation. These possibilities are discussed here along with how plastic can be recycled and perhaps even grown.

  17. Biodegradability of Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Ugwu, Charles U.; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed. PMID:19865515

  18. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  19. Simplified explosive-weld evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclarty, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Weld surfaces, coated with commercially available molybdenum disulfide, allow visual inspection of significant indications of bond quality. Process reduces number of trial welds, making explosive bonding more competitive.

  20. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  1. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  2. Towards optoelectronic detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Rutecka, B.; Medrzycki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.

    2013-06-01

    Detection of explosives is an important challenge for contemporary science and technology of security systems. We present an application of NOx sensors equipped with concentrator in searching of explosives. The sensors using CRDS with blue — violet diode lasers (410 nm) as well as with QCL lasers (5.26 ?m and 4.53 ?m) are described. The detection method is based either on reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides emitted by explosives or to NOx produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX the detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved.

  3. Shock and High Strain Rate Characterization of HTPB with Varying Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaigne, Didier; Neel, Christopher; Gould, Peter; Molek, Christopher; Jordan, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) has long been used as a binder in propellants and explosives. However, cured HTPB rubbery polyurethanes have not been characterized in a systematic fashion as function of plasticizer content. In this study, four isocyanate-cured HTPB variants with different amounts of plasticizer have been formulated. The materials were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis and quasi-static and dynamic compression experiments. Additionally, the shock Hugoniot was measured on the two extremes of the material - no plasticizer and maximum plasticizer. The properties of the HTPB were predicted using the Porter-Gould model for polymers.

  4. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

  5. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

  6. Laser machining of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  7. Explosive components facility certification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D.

    1995-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

  8. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

  9. Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

    2003-06-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide. PMID:12773843

  10. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations 

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    test method was found to be flawed. It used pressure as the only criterion for a dust explosion, utilized high energy ignition sources, limited the amount of oxygen, and had no requirement for a dust to have a minimum explosible concentration (MEC...

  11. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  12. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  13. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  14. Explosion proof battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A. S.

    1985-07-16

    Apparatus for eliminating the possibility of propagation of gas ignition from the outside to the interior of wet cell batteries such as those used in autos, boats, tractors and the like. The invention in its simplest form is characterized by a set of chambers attached to or incorporated with the structure of a wet cell battery to form a single compact explosion proof battery assembly. The chambers contain non flammable liquid through which gases traveling to and from the interior of the battery pass and thereby create a barrier to the propagation of ignition from the outside of the battery to the interior of the battery. Supporting inventive means are provided to make the apparatus fully functional and practical. Such supporting means include an injection fill means, a liquid level indicator and a pressure release tube for conducting gases safely away from the apparatus.

  15. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  16. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  17. The Interaction of Explosively Generated Plasma with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Douglas; LANL Team

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that the temperature of explosively generated plasma (EGP) is of the order of 1 eV and plasma ejecta can be focused to achieve velocities as high as 25 km/s. These high velocity plasma can readily penetrate a wide range of materials including metals. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to determine if EGP could be used for explosive ordnance demolition and other applications. The test goals were: to benignly disable ordnance containing relatively sensitive high performance explosives (PBX-9501); and to investigate the possibility of interrupting an ongoing detonation in a powerful high explosive (again PBX-9501) with EGP. Experiments were performed to establish the optimum sizes of plasma generators for the benign deactivation of high explosives, i.e., the destruction of the ordnance without initiating a detonation or comparable violent event. These experiments were followed by attempts to interrupt an ongoing detonation by the destruction of the unreacted explosive in its path. The results were encouraging. First, it was demonstrated that high explosives could be destroyed without the initiation of a detonation or high order reaction. Second, ongoing detonations were successfully interrupted with EGP. LA-UR-15-20612.

  18. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  19. Paste extrudable explosives: Their history and their current status

    SciTech Connect

    von Holtz, E.; Scribner, K.; Whipple, R.; Carley, J.

    1990-03-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing effort in the development of Paste Extrudable Explosives (PEX) for use in high performance munitions. Upon request, the paste could be injected into place just prior to warhead launch, giving enhanced safety during transport, storage, and deployment. The desire for high energy (greater than Comp B) required the development of an energetic plasticizer which would not freeze in the range of {minus}54 to +74C, and yet be compatible with the desired crystalline explosive. These materials are highly viscous and extremely pseudoplastic in nature. Extensive rheological testing has been done, using a capillary rheometer, and the behavior has been fit to power law (Ostwald-deWaele) and Buckingham-Reiner models. This report will also cover the safety testing conducted on these materials, as well as the processing techniques required for their manufacture. 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, we examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. We also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

  1. Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

  2. The evolution of microstructural changes in pressed HMX explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Phillips, D.S.; Howe, P.M.; Mang, J.T.; Romero, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Recently developed techniques for investigating the microstructure of plastic-bonded explosives have been applied to HMX explosives pressed to various levels of porosity. Microstructural changes in PBX 9501 area followed from the early stages of prill consolidation through typical density to very low porosity (0.6%). As porosity is reduced, the following sequence is observed. Large inter- and intra-prill voids are eliminated with first damage to HMX crystals occurring at prill boundaries. This is followed by increased incidence of crystal twinning and cracking. At the lowest porosities, spall pullout artifacts are observed, cracks associated with particle contact points are more obvious, and the results of intercrystalline indentation or intergrowth migration processes are apparent. A comparison is made, at lowest porosities achieved, with PX 9404 and X-0242 (a formulation like PBX 9501 with higher binder volume). Possible implications on porosity trends in shock sensitivity data are discussed.

  3. Rinse food containers. PLASTIC CONTAINERS

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Elizabeth A.

    Rinse food containers. PLASTIC CONTAINERS PLASTIC BOTTLES & BOTTLE CAPS PLASTIC CUPS EXCEPT FOAM CUPS PLASTIC LIDS PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SANDWICH BAGS BUBBLE WRAP ALUMINUM/STEEL CANS GLASS of any color - www.jmu.edu/stewardship JMU WASTE BIN GUIDE Food residue, liquids and trash contaminate the recycling

  4. Shock desensitizing of solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shockwave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in support of these ideas.

  5. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  6. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  7. An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.

    1991-06-01

    The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP. Static electricity generated by the plastic bags represents a potential ignition source for other fuels, such as methane gas or hydrogen gas, during transportation and during the test phase. The potential danger of explosion due to hydrogen gas or methane gas generation has not yet been resolved. This report investigates that potential hazard and examines documented ignitions, fires, explosions and incidents of overpressurization of containers at generating and storage sites planning to send transuranic waste to the WIPP for disposal. 68 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading. PMID:10794911

  9. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  10. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  11. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  12. Detecting plastics in seedcotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US cotton industry wants to increase market share and value by supplying pure cotton. Removing contamination requires developing a means to detect plastics in seedcotton. This study was conducted to determine if Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) could be used to find small amounts of plastic in ...

  13. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Viney, Mark; Diaz, Anaid

    2012-01-01

    Model systems, including C. elegans, have been successfully studied to understand the genetic control of development. A genotype’s phenotype determines its evolutionary fitness in natural environments, which are typically harsh, heterogeneous and dynamic. Phenotypic plasticity, the process by which one genome can produce different phenotypes in response to the environment, allows genotypes to better match their phenotype to their environment. Phenotypic plasticity is rife among nematodes, seen both as differences among life-cycles stages, perhaps best exemplified by parasitic nematodes, as well as developmental choices, such as shown by the C. elegans dauer/non-dauer developmental choice. Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypically plastic traits will probably explain the function of many genes whose function still remains unclear. Understanding the adaptive benefits of phenotypically plastic traits requires that we understand how plasticity differs among genotypes, and the effects of this in diverse, different environments. PMID:24058831

  15. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  16. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Joshua David

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  17. The Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-10-01

    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue). PMID:26439348

  18. The Supernova Explosion Code (SNEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giryanskaya, Viktoriya; Ott, Christian; Piro, Anthony; Renzo, Mathieu; Couch, Sean; Clausen, Drew; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke

    2015-04-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code that solves for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), taking into account recombination effects and the presence of radioactive nickel. Given a model of the progenitor star and an explosion energy, the code generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different observed wavelength bands in the blackbody approximation. Using SNEC, we present lightcurves resulting from explosions of a grid of pre-explosion stars (computed with the MESA code) whose hydrogen envelopes have been systematically stripped to different extents and at different points of their evolution. This work is partially supported by NSF under Award Nos. AST-1205732 and AST-1212170.

  19. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  20. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  1. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  3. The heterogeneous explosive reaction zone

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Kershner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The calculated reaction zone of PBX-9404 using solid HMX Arrhenius kinetics is stable to perturbations. The calculated reaction zone Von Neumann spike pressure agrees with the experimental observations within experimental uncertainty associated with different experimental techniques. The calculated homogengeous explosive reaction zone thickness is larger than observed for the heterogeneous explosive. The effect of two volume percent air holes on the reaction zone was modeled using the three-dimensional Eulerian reactive hydrodynamic code, 3DE. The air holes perturb the reaction zone. A complicated, time-dependent, multidimensional reaction region proceeds through the heterogeneous explosive. The experimentally observed reaction zone characteristic of heterogeneous explosives are mean values of an irregular, three-dimensional reaction region. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives... of explosives or detonators and kept free of all extraneous materials. (11) Kept clean and dry in...

  5. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  6. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  9. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  10. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  12. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  13. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  14. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  15. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  16. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  18. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  20. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  2. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  4. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  5. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  6. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  7. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  8. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  9. Studies on explosively driven cracks under confining in-situ stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Simha, K.R.Y.; Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful explosive gas well stimulation requires a thorough understanding of explosively driven cracks under confining in-situ stresses. In a previous paper (Simha, et al 1983) the problem of explosively driven cracks was experimentally investigated to reveal the features of crack propagation. It was observed that the explosively driven crack propagation is the result of two different but overlapping phases. The first phase involving the initiation and early time crack propagation is entirely governed by the explosively generated stress transients. The rapidly decaying stress transients then lead to the second phase of crack propagation largely controlled by the in-situ stresses. The purpose of this paper is to more fully understand the characteristics of the first phase concerning the initiation and early time propagation of explosively driven cracks. Experiments are conducted with plastic models under biaxial compression and the dynamic event is observed with a high speed multiple spark gap camera of the Cranz-Schardin type. The experimental observations are utilized to propose analytical models of crack initiation under explosive loading to aid in the design of multiple fracturing necessary for successful application of modern well stimulation techniques. 8 references, 4 figures.

  10. U. S. S. Iowa Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the Navy's technical investigation of the April 1989 explosion aboard the U.S.S. Iowa, GAO enlisted the assistance of the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories. This report contains Sandia's final report, which concludes that it is unclear whether the turret explosion that killed 47 sailors was due to sabotage or an accident. In fact, Sandia suggests as a possible cause the excessive speed of ramming powder bags into the chamber of a 16-inch gun.

  11. System for analysis of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  12. Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmel, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

  13. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  14. Microbial remediation of explosive waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-05-01

    Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed. PMID:22497284

  15. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  16. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

  17. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Explosive Materials dated November 17, 2010 (Docket No. ATF 42N, 75 FR 70291). Notice of List of Explosive... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials.... DIPAM . Dipicryl sulfone. Dipicrylamine. Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN ....

  18. Interplay of explosive thermal reaction dynamics and structural confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, W. Lee; Zucker, Jonathan; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2007-04-01

    Explosives play a significant role in human affairs; however, their behavior in circumstances other than intentional detonation is poorly understood. Accidents may have catastrophic consequences, especially if additional hazardous materials are involved. Abnormal ignition stimuli, such as impact, spark, friction, and heat may lead to a very violent outcome, potentially including detonation. An important factor influencing the behavior subsequent to abnormal ignition is the strength and inertia of the vessel confining the explosive, i.e., the near-field structural/mechanical environment, also known as confinement (inertial or mechanical). However, a comprehensive and quantified understanding of how confinement affects reaction violence does not yet exist. In the research discussed here, we have investigated a wide range of confinement conditions and related the explosive response to the fundamentals of the combustion process in the explosive. In our experiments, a charge of an octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX 9501) was loaded into a gun assembly having variable confinement conditions and subjected to a heating profile. The exploding charge breached the confinement and accelerated a projectile down the gun barrel. High bandwidth pressure and volume measurements were made and a first-law analysis was used to obtain enthalpy and power from the raw data. These results were then used to quantify reaction violence. Enthalpy change and power ranged from 0-1.8 kJ and 0-12 MW for 300 mg charges, respectively. Below a confinement strength of 20 MPa, violence was found to decline precipitously with decreasing confinement, while the violence for the heaviest confinement experiments was found to be relatively constant. Both pressure and pressurization rate were found to have critical values to induce and sustain violent reaction.

  19. Detection of Volatile Vapors Emitted from Explosives with a Hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert Gordon; Miller, Carla Jean

    2001-11-01

    Vapor detection of plastic explosives is difficult because of the low vapor pressures of explosive components (i.e. RDX and PETN) present in the complex elastomeric matrix. To facilitate vapor detection of plastic explosives, detection agents (taggants) with higher vapor pressures can be added to bulk explosives during manufacture. This paper investigates the detection of two of these taggants, ethyleneglycol dinitrate (EGDN) and 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB), using a handheld ion mobility spectrometer. These two taggants were detected both from neat vapor sources as well as from bulk explosives (nitroglycerin (NG)-dynamite and C-4 tagged with DMNB). EGDN was detected from NG-dynamite as EGDN·NO3- at a reduced mobility value of 1.45 cm2 V-1 s-1 with detection limits estimated to be about 10 ppbv. DMNB was identified from tagged C-4 as both negative and positive ions with reduced mobility values of 1.33 cm2 V-1 s-1 for DMNB·NO2- and 1.44 cm2 V-1s-1 for DMNB·NH4+. Positive ions for cyclohexanone were also apparent in the spectra from tagged C-4 producing three additional peaks.

  20. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  1. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. [[Page...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  2. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  3. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...Initiating tube systems. K KDNBF [potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxane]. L Lead azide...Picramide. Picrate explosives. Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric...Polyolpolynitrate-nitrocellulose explosive gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate...

  4. 13.9 Firearms Explosives and Ammunition Page 1 of 1 Firearms, Explosives and Ammunition

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    13.9 Firearms Explosives and Ammunition Page 1 of 1 Firearms, Explosives and Ammunition Original Implementation: Unpublished Last Revision: July 29, 2014 Firearms, ammunition, explosive devices, or illegal

  5. Plasticity of amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lautz, Julian; Moseler, Michael; Pastewka, Lars

    2014-03-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to probe the plastic response of representative bulk volumes of amorphous carbon at densities from 2.0 g cm-3 to 3.3 g cm-3 in simple and triaxial shear. After an initial elastic response the samples yield with only little strain hardening or softening. Individual plastic events in this network forming glass are strikingly similar to those observed for bulk metallic glasses: We find that plasticity is carried by fundamental rearrangements of regions of around 100 atoms, the shear transformation zone. In the simple shear geometry, those events coalesce to form a shear-band on longer time scales. During plastic deformation, the material changes its hybridization by transforming sp3 carbon atoms to sp2. We provide evidence that this transformation of the structural state occurs before the material yields, hence weakening the material. This work was supported by the European Commission (Marie-Curie IOF 272619).

  6. A Plastic Menagerie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  8. Breccias related to explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, John A.

    Explosive breccia pipes were formed in the phreatomagmatic eruption of Taal volcano 60 km south of Manila, Philippines in September 1976. They were photographed in eruption which consisted of a series of small explosions occurring during the peak of activity at 10 sec intervals. These four breccia pipes formed on the collapse fault marking the margin of the much more intense eruption of 28 September 1965 when a diatreme 800 m in diameter formed. Renewed eruption in October 1977 on one of the breccia pipes blasted out the sealed plug and breccia fragments in all stages of alteration were included in the tephra. They ranged from barely agglomerated to strongly cemented through argillized and pyritized to totally replaced by silica and pyrite, fragments indistinguishable from those found in many mining districts. The violence of the explosion initiating a phreatomagmatic eruptive sequence results in strong crackling of the walls of the pipe and the crakle zone may become mineralized (cf. Braden, Chile). Usually the crater collapses on ring faults after eruption, forming a marginal tectonic breccia which can be mineralized (cf. Balatoc, Philippines.) The small craters with steep inner walls and tapering outer slopes which form during phreatomagmatic eruptions, sometimes containing lakes, are called maars and they are the surficial expression of an explosive breccia pipe or diatreme. Superficially similar craters are formed over kimberlite pipes. Hydrothermal explosion craters are somewhat similar. Collapse breccia pipes can form in the same sequence with explosive pipes. When one rising plug encounters ground water and explodes, fluostatic pressure on any other cupolas rising from the same magma drops rapidly, resulting in withdrawal of magma and collapse of walls and roof (Perry 1961). "Fluidization" is not thought to be of any significance in formation of breccia pipes (Wolfe 1980) contrary to Reynolds (1954) and many authors who have cited that work. An explosive breccia pipe is like an open window resulting in rapid depression of the isotherms of a pluton. A concentrated brine front can build up in minutes after an explosion. The very rapid cooling may explain why many explosive breccia pipes are altered by silica and pyrite only, the system being cooled before metallic solutions have time to replace breccia matrix or fragments.

  9. The Need for Plastics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of Plastics Engineers, Inc., Stamford, CT.

    In view of a lack of trained personnel in the industry, the Plastics Education Foundation proposes that educators (1) add more plastics programs, (2) establish plastics engineering degrees at appropriate 4-year institutions, (3) add plastics processing technology to current engineering curricula, and (4) interest younger students in courses and/or…

  10. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  11. The Quiet Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole. "Since the masses and energies involved ar

  12. Coupled Damage and Plasticity Modelling in Transient Dynamic Analysis of Concrete

    E-print Network

    Coupled Damage and Plasticity Modelling in Transient Dynamic Analysis of Concrete F. Gatuingt Abstract In a concrete structure subjected to an explosion, for example a concrete slab, the material on the same concrete. Computations of split Hopkinson tests on confined concrete, a tensile test with scabbing

  13. 75 FR 3160 - Commerce in Explosives-Storage of Shock Tube With Detonators (2005R-3P)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...detonators because these materials when stored together do not pose a mass detonation hazard. Shock tube is a small diameter plastic laminate tube coated with a very thin layer of explosive material. When initiated, it transmits a low energy wave from...

  14. FEM analysis of escape capsule suffered to gas explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-lu; Mei, Rui-bin; Li, Chang-sheng; Cai, Ban; Liu, Xiang-hua

    2013-05-01

    Escape capsules are new devices for underground coal mines that provide air, water, food and supplies in the event of an emergency in where miners are unable to escape. It is difficult to carry out the experiments of explosion and safety because the danger and nonrepeatability of explosion. The structure deformation and distribution of equivalent stress has been investigated under different impact pressure conditions including unimodal and bimodal loads based on the FEM and software LS-DYNA. The results show that the distribution of deformation and equivalent stress has the same trend on the same surface with the increment of explosion pressure. The deformation and stress are larger with side impact pressure compared with that of the same front impact pressure. Furthermore, the maximum equivalent stress is 246MPa and 260MPa on the front and sides of capsule with five times for national standard impact pressure 1.5MPa. Under these conditions, the deformation is less than about 9.97mm and 10.47mm, respectively. When the front impact pressure is 2.0MPa, the deformation of capsule still belongs to elasticity but the less plastic deformation occurs on the Ushape stiffening channels with the same side impact pressure. However, it is safe for capsule structure because the equivalent stress 283MPa is much less than the tensile strength. It is noted that bimodal load accelerates the capsule deformation so that it is more dangerous compared with unimodal load.

  15. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Greenfield, Margo T; Scharff, R J; Rabitz, Herschel A; Roslund, J

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  16. Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

  17. Pattern formation in colloidal explosions

    E-print Network

    Arthur V. Straube; Ard A. Louis; Jörg Baumgartl; Clemens Bechinger; Roel P. A. Dullens

    2011-07-23

    We study the non-equilibrium pattern formation that emerges when magnetically repelling colloids, trapped by optical tweezers, are abruptly released, forming colloidal explosions. For multiple colloids in a single trap we observe a pattern of expanding concentric rings. For colloids individually trapped in a line, we observe explosions with a zigzag pattern that persists even when magnetic interactions are much weaker than those that break the linear symmetry in equilibrium. Theory and computer simulations quantitatively describe these phenomena both in and out of equilibrium. An analysis of the mode spectrum allows us to accurately quantify the non-harmonic nature of the optical traps. Colloidal explosions provide a new way to generate well-characterized non-equilibrium behaviour in colloidal systems.

  18. Explosive evaporation in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

  19. Evidence for Nearby Supernova Explosions

    E-print Network

    Narciso Benitez; Jesus Maiz-Apellaniz; Matilde Canelles

    2002-01-23

    Supernova explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. Scientists have speculated for decades about the possible consequences for life on Earth of a nearby supernova, but plausible candidates for such an event were lacking. Here we show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at~130 parsecs from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. We find that the deposition on Earth of 60Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ~2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

  20. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  1. Design of explosive logic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Los Alamos has been exploring explosive logic systems to see if they might provide advantages in weapon safety or weapon command and control. We use the extrudable explosive EXTEX (80% PETN, 20% Sylgard) for this work. These systems contain at least one but usually several discrete logic elements, and the worth - the reliability - of the system is directly dependent on the reliability of these elements. We perceive that the troubles encountered in the early attempts to use explosive logic can be attributed to the lack of a truly reliable design for one or more of the elements being used. At Los Alamos, we express this as the need for a Safety/Reliability Window. In this short presentation, that concept will be emphasized. The development of three elements for which working windows are available will be discussed.

  2. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  3. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  4. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

  5. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  6. Numerical simulation study on thermal response of PBX explosive by low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Jianfeng; Zhou, Tingting; Zhang, Yangeng; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-06-01

    It is a great threat for both bare dynamite and shell charge when subjected to low velocity impact involved in traffic accidents or charge piece drops. The impact sensitivity is an important index in evaluating the safety and performance of explosives. The Steven Test is an effective tool to evaluate the relative sensitivity of various explosives. In 1993, Chidester et al. preliminarily designed the Steven Test, and then applied it to delay detonation (XDT) phenomenon study. Subsequently, a series of low velocity impact Steven Tests on HMX based explosives were carried out by S K Chidester, D J Idar, R J Scammon, S Wortley et al. In this paper, we built the numerical simulation method involving mechanical, thermo and chemical properties of Steven Test based on the thermo-mechanical coupled material model. In the model, the stress-strain relationship is described by dynamic plasticity model, the thermal effect of the explosive induced by impact is depicted by isotropic thermal material model, the chemical reaction of explosives is described by Arrhenius reaction rate law, and the effects of heating and melting on mechanical properties and thermal properties of materials are also taken into account. Specific to the standard Steven Test, the thermal and mechanical response rules of PBX9501 at different impact velocities were numerical analyzed, and the threshold velocity of explosive initiation was obtained. In addition, the effect of confine condition of test device to the threshold velocity was explored.

  7. Experimental measurements of the detonation wave profile in a TATB based explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyer, V.; Doucet, M.; Decaris, L.

    We report results of the experimental measurements of the detonation wave profile of the TATB based plastic bonded explosive T2 (97 w. % of TATB) using VISAR and Heterodyne Velocimetry (HV - same as Photon Doppler Velocimetry). The experiment consists in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. In order to obtain the particle velocity history in the reaction zone, we measure particle velocity at the interaction of the detonation front with an aluminized window or the free surface velocity of a metallic foil. Lithium Fluoride (LIF), PMMA and steel have been tested. Several shots have been performed for different lengths of explosive. We compare the VISAR and HV measurements. With LIF and steel, VISAR and HV diagnostics give very similar profiles. The ZND profile obtained on LIF is resolved with both techniques. With PMMA, HV gives a more accurate profile than VISAR in the reaction zone. There is no evidence of the influence of the explosive cylinder length.

  8. Study on the effect of temperature rise on grain refining during fabrication of nanocrystalline copper under explosive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxiang; Yang, Rui; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Nanocrystalline (NC) copper was fabricated by severe plastic deformation of coarse-grained copper at a high strain rate under explosive loading. The feasibility of grain refinement under different explosive loading and the influence of overall temperature rise on grain refinement under impact compression were studied in this paper. The calculation model for the macroscopic temperature rise was established according to the adiabatic shock compression theory. The calculation model for coarse-grained copper was established by the Voronoi method and the microscopic temperature rise resulted from severe plastic deformation of grains was calculated by ANSYS/ls-dyna finite element software. The results show that it is feasible to fabricate NC copper by explosively dynamic deformation of coarse-grained copper and the average grain size of the NC copper can be controlled between 200˜400 nm. The whole temperature rise would increase with the increasing explosive thickness. Ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosive was adopted and five different thicknesses of the explosive, which are 20 mm, 25 mm, 30 mm, 35 mm, 45 mm, respectively, with the same diameter using 20 mm to the fly plate were adopted. The maximum macro and micro temperature rise is up to 532.4 K, 143.4 K, respectively, which has no great effect on grain refinement due to the whole temperature rise that is lower than grain growth temperature according to the high pressure melting theory.

  9. The plasticity of clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  10. Apparatus for monitoring linear explosive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques provide performance monitoring standard for acceptance, lot qualification, and comparison testing of devices. Exhibit high degree of simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Apparatus simultaneously measures explosive pressure stimulus energy, explosive cutting, or rupturing, ability, and detonation propagation rate.

  11. Explosion at Ingham Colliery, Thornhill, Yorkshire 

    E-print Network

    Bryan, A. M.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT INGHAM COLLIERY, THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending the Explosion which occurred at Ingham Colliery Thornhill, Yorkshire) on the 9th September, ...

  12. Explosion at Hapton Valley Colliery, Lancashire 

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, H. S.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT HAPTON VALLEY COLLIERY, LANCASHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Hapton Valley Colliery, Lancashire, on 22nd March, 1962 By H. S. ...

  13. Explosion at Harrington No. 10 Colliery, Cumberland 

    E-print Network

    Felton, John

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT HARRINGTON No. 10 COLLIERY, CUMBERLAND REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending the Explosion which occurred at the Harrington No. 10 Colliery, Lowca,Cumberland, on ...

  14. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  15. Soft container for explosive nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

    1981-01-01

    Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

  16. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  17. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  18. Laser initiation of secondary explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.; Trott, Wayne M.

    Several experiments were performed to investigate the effects of explosive material parameters on energy thresholds for direct laser initiation of secondary explosives. Laser energy requirements for initiation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were decreased for small particle size powder and low density pressings. Promptness of detonation, however, was aided by higher densities. Initiation of PETN was achieved at energies at or below 10 mJ (power densities approximately 0.2 GW sq cm) at laser wavelengths of 1.06 micrometers, 532 nm and 355 nm and strong confinement of the explosive sample assisted build-up to detonation. At 355 and 308 nm PETN could be initiated by irradiation on the bare explosive surface. Hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) was initiated at 308 nm but not at 1.06 micrometers. Hexanitrostibene (HNS) by direct irradiation at any of these wavelengths was successful. The results suggest that if sufficient energy is deposited, a fast deflagration or convective burn is achieved and that this grows to detonation via a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

  20. Explosive Separation of Electrical Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    Concept proposed for separating electrical cable that connects the Space Shuttle to deployable payloads could be used to sever electrical connections in other inaccessible environments. Although triggered explosively, connector would not release combustion products that could damage sensitive electronics. Suggested applications are undersea exploration, chemical processing and areas with high levels of radiation.

  1. Microbial treatment of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.

    1997-07-01

    Both DOE and DOD use water and/or steam in the process of removing high explosives, resulting in large quantities of contaminated water, which is then run through activated carbon, which then has to be decontaminated. Research has been underway to utilize microorganisms to degrade RDX and HMX.

  2. Explosives for Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Explosive charges of various sizes were investigated for use in lunar seismic studies. Program logistics, and the specifications for procurement of bulk explosives are described. The differential analysis, thermal properties, and detonation velocity measurements on HNS/Teflon 7C 90/10 are reported along with the field tests of the hardware. It is concluded that nearly all large explosive charges crack after fabrication, from aging or thermal shock. The cracks do not affect the safety, or reliability of the explosives.

  3. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  4. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-10-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  5. Explosives: The Ammonium Nitrate in Oil Exemption Order, 1958 

    E-print Network

    Agnew, W.G.

    1958-01-01

    Under section 50 of the Explosives Act, 1875, certain explosives there named and any other explosives prescribed by Order in Council (or the purpose are exempted from certain provisions of the Act requiring that explosives ...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  8. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  11. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  12. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Identification of explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of...

  13. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  19. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  8. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  10. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  8. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  10. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  12. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  13. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  3. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Identification of explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of...

  4. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

  5. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Explosives magazine changes. 555.63 Section 555...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Licenses and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  10. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives#

    E-print Network

    Aslam, Tariq

    Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives ###. At the edges of the explosive# D n ### is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive#containing systems. Key words# Detonation# Curvature e#ect# Edge interactions

  11. USING 1D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    USING 1­D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS. Computer Science Las Cruces, NM 88003 ABSTRACT A radar observes the result of a space explosion. Due astronomical processes are slow; however, sometimes, space explosions happen: starts become supernovae, plan

  12. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives

    E-print Network

    Aslam, Tariq

    Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives(). At the edges of the explosive, Dn() is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive-containing systems. Key words: Detonation, Curvature eect, Edge interactions

  13. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEISMIC AND INFRASOUND SIGNALS FROM MINING EXPLOSIONS a) Explosion Source

    E-print Network

    Stump, Brian W.

    THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEISMIC AND INFRASOUND SIGNALS FROM MINING EXPLOSIONS a) Explosion Source CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINING EXPLOSIONS Black Thunder Cast Blast REGIONAL SYNTHETIC| AMPLITUDES COMPARED TO DATA body Morenci Event 7 In-mine acoustic Log Freq (Hz) 0 100 RelAmp(dB) ExplosiveWeight(lbs) 10,000 100,000 1

  14. USING 1-D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    USING 1-D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS Science Las Cruces, NM 88003 ABSTRACT A radar observes the result of a space explosion. Due to radar's low astronomical processes are slow; however, sometimes, space explosions happen: starts become supernovae, plan

  15. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ..., 75 FR 1085). Notice of List of Explosive Materials Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 841(d) and 27 CFR 555.23, I... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials.... Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN . EDNA . Ednatol. EDNP . EGDN . Erythritol...

  16. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... 31, 2008 (Docket No. ATF 28N, 73 FR 80428). Notice of List of Explosive Materials Pursuant to 18 U.S... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials.... DIPAM . Dipicryl sulfone. Dipicrylamine. Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN ....

  17. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ..., 76 FR 64974). Notice of List of Explosive Materials Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 841(d) and 27 CFR 555.23, I... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials.... Display fireworks. DNPA . DNPD . Dynamite. E EDDN . EDNA . Ednatol. EDNP . EGDN . Erythritol...

  18. Critical temperature analysis for a hemispherical charge of a binary explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The adiabatic induction period for a hemispherical charge of a binary explosive (13.9 wt % pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 86.1 wt % plastic bonded explosive (PBX9407)) enclosed in an aluminum/ceramic housing was measured by conventional cook-off tests over the temperature range of 150 to 250{degree}C. Simulated adiabatic induction time curves for an intimate mixture of PETN and PBX9407 were recorded with accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Apparent heat-transfer coefficients approximating conductive and convective modes of heat-transfer were calculated from cooling curves recorded for the charge housing loaded with mock explosive powder (diphenyl silane diol) and water, respectively. Predicted critical temperatures based on models utilizing Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii boundary constraints were in good agreement with experimental results determined from the cook-off test. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Detection of explosives in groundwater samples using a continuous flow immunosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bart, J.C.; Hoffman, K.E.; Judd, L.L.

    1996-10-01

    Cleaning up groundwater sources on military bases which have been contaminated with explosives is a major task facing the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The field-portable biosensor being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory is designed to assay aqueous samples quickly and with a high degree of sensitivity and selectivity. Antibodies raised against the specific explosives to be analyzed provide the selectivity needed when assaying complex mixtures, and the use of a sulfoindocyanine dye, which fluoresces at a wavelength (667 nm) where no naturally-occurring species are expected to fluoresce, gives the low part per billion sensitivity necessary for regulatory compliance. The synthesis of the dye-labeled analog of the plastic explosive RDX will be described. Additionally, data will be presented for field tests conducted at two DoD sites in Oregon and Washington State.

  20. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel..., shall be deemed for the purpose of these Regulations to be an explosive vessel....

  1. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel..., shall be deemed for the purpose of these Regulations to be an explosive vessel....

  2. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel..., shall be deemed for the purpose of these Regulations to be an explosive vessel....

  3. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel..., shall be deemed for the purpose of these Regulations to be an explosive vessel....

  4. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel..., shall be deemed for the purpose of these Regulations to be an explosive vessel....

  5. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-print Network

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks David J. Braun, Matthew Howard and Sethu actuation is advantageous to robot control once high-performance, explosive tasks, such as throwing, hitting highly dynamic, explosive movements. Such movements are characterised by a large release of energy over

  6. 78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...Amdt. No. 420-6A] RIN 2120-AJ73 Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction AGENCY...regulations to the requirements for siting explosives under a license to operate a launch...and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. The FAA inadvertently did not...

  7. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  8. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  9. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  10. Numerical approximation of SDE with explosions.

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Numerical approximation of SDE with explosions. Joint work with Ju´an D´avila, U. de Chile Juli of the largest crack. The explosion time corresponds to the time of ultimate damage or fatigue failure in the material. #12;The Feller Test for Explosions provides a precise criteria to de- termine, in terms of b

  11. Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions

    E-print Network

    Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions Craig C. Chandler, Theodore G. Storey spread following nuclear explosions. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest & Range Expt Sta. 110 pp nuclear explosions. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest & Range Expt Sta. 110 pp., illus. (U.S. Forest

  12. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  13. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  14. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  15. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  16. Culture and Explosion Semiotics, Communication and

    E-print Network

    Markos, Anton

    #12;Culture and Explosion #12;Semiotics, Communication and Cognition 1 Editor Paul Cobley Mouton de Gruyter Berlin · New York #12;Culture and Explosion by Juri Lotman edited by Marina Grishakova'tura i vzryv. English] Culture and explosion / by Juri Lotman ; edited by Marina Gri- shakova

  17. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  18. Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

    2008-05-23

    The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or mixture, the primary purpose of which is to function by explosion; i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  3. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  4. Gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry as a hyphenated technique for improved explosives detection and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercado, AL; Marsden, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is currently being successfully applied to the problem of on-line trace detection of plastic and other explosives in airports and other facilities. The methods of sample retrieval primarily consist of batch sampling for particulate residue on a filter card for introduction into the IMS. The sample is desorbed into the IMS using air as the carrier and negative ions of the explosives are detected, some as an adduct with a reagent ion such as Cl(-). Based on studies and tests conducted by different airport authorities, this method seems to work well for low vapor pressure explosives such as RDX and PETN, as well as TNT that are highly adsorptive and can be found in nanogram quantities on contaminated surfaces. Recently, the changing terrorist threat and the adoption of new marking agents for plastic explosives has meant that the sample introduction and analysis capabilities of the IMS must be enhanced in order to keep up with other detector developments. The IMS has sufficient analytical resolution for a few threat compounds but the IMS Plasmogram becomes increasingly more difficult to interpret when the sample mixture gets more complex.

  5. 2/13/2014 Household explosion replaces population explosion as world concern -UPI.com http://www.upiasia.com/Science-Technology/2014/02/11/Household-explosion-replaces-population-explosion-as-world-concern/UPI-87811392152198/ 1/1

    E-print Network

    2/13/2014 Household explosion replaces population explosion as world concern - UPI.com http://www.upiasia.com/Science-Technology/2014/02/11/Household-explosion-replaces-population-explosion-as-world-concern/UPI-87811392152198/ 1 & Technology / Household explosion replaces population explosion as world concern Science & Technology

  6. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  7. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  8. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  9. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  10. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive materials,...

  11. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  12. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive materials,...

  13. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  14. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  15. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  16. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  17. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  18. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  19. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  20. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  1. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Male Specific Gynecomastia Surgery Hair Replacement Men and Plastic Surgery Minimally Invasive Botulinum Toxin Chemical Peel Dermabrasion ... Videos Video Gallery Do Your Homework Dangers of Plastic Surgery Tourism Patient and Consumer Information Patients of ...

  2. Plastics (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePLUS

    Home Chemicals Plastics Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics ...

  3. Preserving in Plastic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  4. Plastics in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; Holm, D. Andrew

    The materials in this curriculum supplement, developed for middle school or high school science classes, present solid waste problems related to plastics. The set of curriculum materials is divided into two units to be used together or independently. Unit I begins by comparing patterns in solid waste from 1960 to 1990 and introducing methods for…

  5. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  6. 2015 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    2015 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Dr. MichaelW. Neumeister June 25th 2015 McGill University Division of Plastic Surgery #12;PROGRAM THURSDAY, JUNE 25th 2015 7:30 am OSLER AMPHITHEATRE ­ MONTREAL-102 Research Presentations ­ Residents & Graduate Students in Plastic Surgery 10:15 am Coffee Break 10:30 am

  7. Plastics for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Describes three plastics projects (which involve making a styrene fishing bobber, an acrylic salad fork and spoon set, and acetate shrink art) designed to provide elementary level students an opportunity to work with plastics and to learn about careers in plastics production and distribution. (TA)

  8. Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal Morphology and Life History

    E-print Network

    Gotthard, Karl

    Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal wide-ranging. All key REVIEW references should be cited. A summary is required. Adaptive plasticity and plasticity as an adaptation: a selective review of plasticity in animal morphology and life history Karl

  9. Liquids and homemade explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

  10. Photographic laboratory studies of explosions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a series of cinematographic studies of explosions made with a high-speed rotating-mirror streak camera which uses a high-frequency stroboscopic ruby laser as the light source. The results obtained mainly concern explosions initiated by focused laser irradiation from a pulsed neodymium laser in a detonating gas consisting essentially of an equimolar mixture of acetylene and oxygen at an initial pressure of 100 torr at room temperature. Among the most significant observations were observations of a spherical blast wave preceded by a Chapman-Jouguet detonation which is stabilized immediately after initiation, the merging of a spherical flame with a shock front of the blast wave in which the flame is propagating, the division of a spherical detonation front into a shock wave and flame, and the generation of shock waves by a network of spherical flames.

  11. Applying NASA's explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both surface are broken up and ejected by the closing angle to allow atoms to bond through the sharing of valence electrons. This cold-working process produces joints having parent metal properties, allowing a variety of joints to be fabricated that achieve full strength of the metals employed. Successful joining was accomplished in all aluminum alloys, a wide variety of iron and steel alloys, copper, brass, titanium, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, telerium, and columbium. Safety issues were addressed and are as manageable as many currently accepted joining processes.

  12. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Matthew J. Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Muller, Elmar

    2014-10-06

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  13. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  14. Ranchero Explosive Pulsed Power Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Deninger, W.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Herrera, D.H.; King, J.C.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Sena, F.C.; Tabaka, L.J.; Tasker, D.G.; Torres, D.T.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Oro, D.M.; Garcia, O.F.; parker, J.V.; Broste, W.B.

    1999-06-27

    The authors are developing the Ranchero high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. The near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas Capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of {approximately}50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. They have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long.

  15. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  16. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  17. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  18. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on Monday, July 23, 2012 (77 FR 43123). ] At the request of... and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and...

  19. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, V.N.; Malahova, M.N.; Martysevich, P.N.; Mihaylova, N.N.; Nurmagambetov, A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F. D.; Edomin, V.I.

    1996-12-01

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  20. Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

  1. Stress-gradient plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Srinath S.; Curtin, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    A new model, stress-gradient plasticity, is presented that provides unique mechanistic insight into size-dependent phenomena in plasticity. This dislocation-based model predicts strengthening of materials when a gradient in stress acts over dislocation source–obstacle configurations. The model has a physical length scale, the spacing of dislocation obstacles, and is validated by several levels of discrete-dislocation simulations. When incorporated into a continuum viscoplastic model, predictions for bending and torsion in polycrystalline metals show excellent agreement with experiments in the initial strengthening and subsequent hardening as a function of both sample-size dependence and grain size, when the operative obstacle spacing is proportional to the grain size. PMID:21911403

  2. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-Hua; Fu, Jian-Gang; Lin, Qing-Quan; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation. PMID:26337962

  3. Plasticity of loudness perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formby, Craig; Sherlock, Laguinn P.; Gold, Susan L.

    2002-05-01

    Evidence from the management of tinnitus and hyperacusis suggests that loudness perception is plastic and adaptable. We have undertaken a study to evaluate this idea. The motivation followed from clinical observations suggesting that the magnitude of perceived loudness and, in turn, the rate of loudness growth can be manipulated either upward or downward by prolonged reduction or enhancement in the level of background sound to which a listener is exposed. Accordingly, volunteers were fitted bilaterally with in-the-ear noise instruments (NI treatment) or sound-attenuating earplugs (EP treatment). Both treatments produced audibility threshold shifts, mainly above 1000 Hz. The effects of each treatment were evaluated after 2 weeks of continuous use relative to pretreatment loudness response data obtained using the Contour Test of loudness perception. The resulting loudness data for warble tones revealed opposite patterns of plasticity for the two treatments, with steeper and shallower (than pretreatment) loudness growth functions measured, respectively, for the EP and NI treatments. These effects were significantly different for loudness response categories judged to be comfortably loud or louder at both 500 and 2000 Hz. Possible mechanisms for this apparent plasticity of loudness will be discussed. [Research supported by NIDCD.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  5. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  6. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.; Haug, Øystein T.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow explosive volcanic processes, such as kimberlite volcanism, phreatomagmatic and phreatic activity, produce volcanic vents exhibiting a wide variety of morphologies, including vertical pipes and V-shaped vents. In this study we report on experimental and numerical models designed to capture a range of vent morphologies in an eruptive system (Galland et al., 2014). Using dimensional analysis, we identified key governing dimensionless parameters, in particular the gravitational stress-to-fluid pressure ratio (?2=P/rho.g.h), and the fluid pressure-to-host rock strength ratio (?3=P/C). We used combined experimental and numerical models to test the effects of these parameters. The experiments were used to test the effect of ?2 on vent morphology and dynamics. A phase diagram demonstrates a separation between two distinct morphologies, with vertical structures occurring at high values of ?2, and diagonal ones at low values of ?2. The numerical simulations were used to test the effect of ?3 on vent morphology and dynamics. In the numerical models we see three distinct morphologies: vertical pipes are produced at high values of ?3, diagonal pipes at low values of ?3, while horizontal sills are produced for intermediate values of ?3. Our results show that vertical pipes form by plasticity-dominated yielding for high-energy systems (high ?2 and ?3), whereas diagonal and horizontal vents dominantly form by fracturing for lower-energy systems (low ?2 and ?3). Although our models are 2-dimensionnal, they suggest that circular pipes result from plastic yielding of the host rock in a high-energy regime, whereas V-shaped volcanic vents result from fracturing of the host rock in lower-energy systems. Galland, O., Gisler, G.R., Haug, Ø.T., 2014. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations. J. Geophys. Res. 119, 10.1002/2014JB011050.

  7. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, Christos; Baker, Ernest; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steven; Stiel, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of theory and performance for recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives. Traditional high energy explosives used for metal pushing incorporate high loading percentages of HMX or RDX, whereas blast explosives incorporate some percentage of aluminum. However, the high blast explosives produce increased blast energies, with reduced metal pushing capability due to late time aluminum reaction. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder wall velocities and Gurney energies. Our Recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing and high blast energies. Traditional Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. This work demonstrates, with the use of cylinder expansion data and thermochemical code calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH), that eigenvalue detonation theory explains the observed behavior.

  8. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  9. Instrumentation advances in emissions characterization from propellant/explosive combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Morrison, D.J.; Mullins, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Results from a chamber study to characterize emissions from combustion of selected pure energetic materials are presented in this paper. The study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive air pathways risk assessment for a propellant and explosive manufacturing facility that engages in open burning methods for manufacturing waste disposal. Materials selected for emissions characterization in this study included both aluminized and non-aluminized composite propellant, a double base propellant and a plastic bonded explosive. Combustion tests in a specialized chamber revealed very low emissions for gaseous products of incomplete combustion such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Analysis of gaseous and aerosol emission products for a pre-selected target analyte list that included both volatile and semi-volatile organics revealed either low or non-detectable emissions for the four energetic types tested. Hydrogen chloride was detected as a major emission product from propellants containing ammonium perchlorate. Results from this work reveal that about one-half of the chlorine in the original material is released as hydrogen chloride. Based on earlier work, the balance of the chlorine emissions is expected to be in the form of chlorine gas.

  10. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  11. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  12. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  13. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular remnants. This type of supernova is thought to be caused by a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf, and is often used by astronomers as "standard candles" for measuring cosmic distances. On the other hand, the remnants tied to the "core-collapse" supernova explosions were distinctly more asymmetric. This type of supernova occurs when a very massive, young star collapses onto itself and then explodes. "If we can link supernova remnants with the type of explosion", said co-author Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, also of University of California, Santa Cruz, "then we can use that information in theoretical models to really help us nail down the details of how the supernovas went off." Models of core-collapse supernovas must include a way to reproduce the asymmetries measured in this work and models of Type Ia supernovas must produce the symmetric, circular remnants that have been observed. Out of the 17 supernova remnants sampled, ten were classified as the core-collapse variety, while the remaining seven of them were classified as Type Ia. One of these, a remnant known as SNR 0548-70.4, was a bit of an "oddball". This one was considered a Type Ia based on its chemical abundances, but Lopez finds it has the asymmetry of a core-collapse remnant. "We do have one mysterious object, but we think that is probably a Type Ia with an unusual orientation to our line of sight," said Lopez. "But we'll definitely be looking at that one again." While the supernova remnants in the Lopez sample were taken from the Milky Way and its close neighbor, it is possible this technique could be extended to remnants at even greater distances. For example, large, bright supernova remnants in the galaxy M33 could be included in future studies to determine the types of supernova that generated them. The paper describing these results appeared in the November 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Scie

  14. Evaluation of surface storage facilities for explosives, blasting agents and other explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, J.

    1983-06-01

    The histories of recent and past magazine explosions were reviewed; present explosive storage conditions and practices were observed; and existing Federal regulations on explosive storage were examined. A recent increase in magazine explosion frequency must be attributed to a large increase in deliberate explosions; fires of various origins account for the remaining explosions of the past decade. During 1884-1926 several lightning generated explosions occurred in nonmetal magazines. It appears that the contents of a well constructed metal magazine are immune to direct lightning strikes, regardless of whether the magazine is grounded or not. Grounding a metal magazine cannot be harmful, but it maywell be superfluous. Mine Safety and Health Administration and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms standards on explosive storage appear to cover safety aspects adequately. Certain revisions are recommended to clarify some of the standards and to reduce inconsistencies in their enforcement.

  15. Flixborough revisited - an explosion simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Høiset, S; Hjertager, B H; Solberg, T; Malo, K A

    2000-10-01

    A literature study of explosion estimation reports from the Flixborough accident was performed and commented. The results from this survey were compared to the results obtained from explosion simulations. The simulations were done with a computer model of the Flixborough plant using the EXSIM software simulation tool. The comparison showed that explosion magnitude estimates in the literature based on visual inspection are much lower than the simulated results, while the estimates based on calculations to a large degree conform with the simulations. The simulations also showed that the exact location of the ignition source does not seem to be significant for the magnitude of the explosion. PMID:10946115

  16. The Safety Aspects of Handling Primary Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Neha; Oyler, Karl; Cheng, Gartung

    2013-06-01

    Primary Explosives, unlike secondary explosives, show a very rapid transition from deflagration to detonation and are considerably sensitive to small stimuli, such as impact,friction, electrostatic discharge, and heat. Primary explosives generate either a large amount of heat or a shockwave which makes the transfer of the detonation to a less sensitive propellant or secondary explosive possible. Primary explosives are key components in detonators and primers, which are the initiating elements to many military items such as small, medium and large caliber munitions, mortars, artilleries, warheads, etc. The two most common military primary explosives are lead azide and lead styphnate. Lead based compounds such as these are well-established hazards to health and the environment. To overcome these concerns, we are seeking to replace lead azide in common U.S. Army detonators and primers with DBX-1. Further, in order to minimize the dangers to personnel and equipment associated with synthesizing and handling primary explosives, we have developed a dedicated, remote-operated facility for the synthesis and testing of primary explosives. This paper will present the characterization capabilities and testing methods of primary explosives safe, along with the automation process developed.

  17. The explosion problem in a flow

    E-print Network

    Henri Berestycki; Alexander Kiselev; Alexei Novikov; Lenya Ryzhik

    2009-07-29

    We consider the explosion problem in an incompressible flow introduced in the paper of H. Berestycki, L. Kagan, G. Joulin and G. Sivashinsky. We use a novel $L^p-L^\\infty$ estimate for elliptic advection-diffusion problems to show that the explosion threshold obeys a positive lower bound which is uniform in the advecting flow. We also identify the flows for which the explosion threshold tends to infinity as their amplitude grows and obtain an effective description of the explosion threshold in the strong flow asymptotics in a two-dimensional one-cell flow.

  18. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Moore, David Steven (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  19. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials. 555.26 Section 555.26...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES...

  20. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials. 555.26 Section 555.26...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES...