Sample records for unmarked plastic explosives

  1. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section...Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives. (4) Plastic explosive means an explosive...detonate by means of a blasting cap when unconfined....

  2. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section...Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives. (4) Plastic explosive means an explosive...detonate by means of a blasting cap when unconfined....

  3. Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins

    E-print Network

    Ravenel, Douglas

    Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

  4. Microscopical examination of plastic-bonded explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Skidmore; D. S. Phillips; N. B. Crane

    1997-01-01

    Polarized Light Microscopy is a powerful technique for the identification of powdered explosives. The authors apply the technique here to the characterization in bulk of composite, plastic-bonded explosives, typically consisting of 95 w\\/o explosive particulate and 5 w\\/o polymeric binder. Mounting and polishing techniques are described, along with attendant issues of mount dyeing and some complications of cleaning very soft

  5. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

  6. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

  7. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

  8. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

  9. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic explosives. 555.181 Section 555.181 Alcohol...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of...

  10. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Campbell

    Aging processes that change the mechanical properties of the binder of plastic bonded explosives (PBX) could have a significant effect on the composite mechanical properties. It is essential to understand how the binder ages; however, it is more realistic to test the change of mechanical properties of aging PBX. Because PBX's and Mocks have only a small amount of binder,

  11. Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Landsystems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future application is outlined.

  12. Microscopical examination of plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Phillips, D.S.; Crane, N.B.

    1997-10-01

    Polarized Light Microscopy is a powerful technique for the identification of powdered explosives. The authors apply the technique here to the characterization in bulk of composite, plastic-bonded explosives, typically consisting of 95 w/o explosive particulate and 5 w/o polymeric binder. Mounting and polishing techniques are described, along with attendant issues of mount dyeing and some complications of cleaning very soft samples. The microstructures of PBX 9501 (based on cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine, or HMX), PBX 9502 (based on triaminotrinitrobenzene or TATB), and X-0535 (based on diaminotetrazine dioxide, or TZX) are compared and contrasted. Selected case studies are presented in which development of prominent structural characteristics, such as particle size and crack density, are tracked from the starting powders through formulation and pressing to serviceable, formed articles.

  13. Decomposition of Nitroplasticizer in Plastic Bonded Explosive PBX 9501

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Pauler

    2005-01-01

    In the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501, a 50\\/50 mixture of Estane 5703, a polyester urethane random copolymer, and nitroplastizer (NP) binds the HMX explosive crystals. Chemical kinetic mechanisms are being developed for the thermal degradation of NP for high temperatures (explosions) and low temperatures (natural and accelerated aging studies). The goal of this work is to investigate reaction mechanisms

  14. Decomposition of Nitroplasticizer in Plastic Bonded Explosive PBX 9501

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Pauler; J. D. Kress; J. M. Lightfoot; L. Woods; B. G. Russell

    2006-01-01

    In the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501, a 50\\/50 mixture of Estane 5703 (a polyester urethane random copolymer) and nitroplasticizer (NP) binds the HMX explosive crystals. Chemical kinetic mechanisms are being developed for the thermal degradation of NP for high temperatures (explosions) and low temperatures (natural and accelerated aging studies). The goal of this work is to investigate reaction mechanisms

  15. Developmental studies of constitutive models for plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.M.; Peeters, R.L.; Oakes, W.R. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Typically, elastic and elastic-plastic theory are used in structural analysis computer programs to model the mechanical behavior of high explosives; these models, however, do not fit the observed behavior of plastic-bonded explosives. The development of an equation-of-state creep model and a linear viscoelastic model for the analysis of these material systems is discussed and comparisons between experimental results and analytical model predictions are shown.

  16. Microstructural characterization of simulated plastic-bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, John David

    2011-12-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) are highly complex molecular composites. Recent mechanical investigations of PBX properties, in particular deformation and failure under uniaxial and cyclic loading, have revealed microstructure-dependent fracture behavior. A methodology of characterizing the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of PBX materials has been developed and tested on simulated materials with particular focus on the interface. Synchrotron X-ray studies of molecular crystals, explosive binders and formulated simulant composites revealed some intriguing possibilities in real-time observation of cracks, bubbles, delamination, and void collapse during high-speed loading events. A surface energy and thermomechanical study of several molecular crystals, including explosives, and potential binder candidates revealed thermodynamic interactions were not likely to be more important than mechanical properties for insensitive explosives. Ellipsometry and neutron reflectometry were used to identify the interfacial structure of polymer-acetaminophen (an explosive simulant) composites. The crystal-polymer interfacial structure was altered by inclusion of a plasticizing agent -- an important result considering the commonality of plasticizing polymers in PBX formulation. The difference in interfacial properties was also observed mechanically with nanoindentation. Specifically, the plasticizer inhibited formation of a large, diffuse interface / interphase and resulted in a composite which was more likely to experience film delamination than the non-plasticized composite. The difference in mechanical behavior caused by the difference in interfacial structure has important implications for crack initiation and explosive sensitivity. Additionally, certain crystalbinder composites were investigated with a new delamination test, which, while preliminary, resulted in additional insights into fracture behavior. The methodology presented herein provides a pathway for studying PBXs, or similar composites, from the nano-scale to the macro-scale, both in terms of structure and processing, and shows important relationships between interfacial properties and mechanical behavior.

  17. Mechanical modeling of the plastic bonded explosive LX17

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Kyle Martin

    2001-01-01

    The current research attempts to develop a model for a polycrystalline, composite solid with viscoelastic matrix known as LX17. It is a highly-filled plastic bonded explosive with a shelf-life of up to 50 years. Experimentation is too costly...

  18. Decomposition of Nitroplasticizer in Plastic Bonded Explosive PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauler, D. K.; Kress, J. D.; Lightfoot, J. M.; Woods, L.; Russell, B. G.

    2006-07-01

    In the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501, a 50/50 mixture of Estane 5703 (a polyester urethane random copolymer) and nitroplasticizer (NP) binds the HMX explosive crystals. Chemical kinetic mechanisms are being developed for the thermal degradation of NP for high temperatures (explosions) and low temperatures (natural and accelerated aging studies). The goal of this work is to investigate reaction mechanisms using density functional electronic structure theory in addition to the data obtained from explosion and aging experiments. Very little is known of the mechanisms for the oxidation of polymers by oxidants other than molecular oxygen. As the first step in the aging of PBX 9501 in a low moisture and low oxygen environment, we propose that NP decomposes into oxidizing gases (NO2 and NO).

  19. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  20. On the Unreacted Hugoniots of Three Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.

    2006-07-01

    There is a continuing interest in determining the detonation characteristics of loaded plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The UK licensing agency for explosives, DOSG, wishes to better understand the response of insensitive high explosives. This has required more detailed investigation of the transit of reaction from the unreacted state to products. The starting condition, before application of a kinetic scheme to describe reaction, is thus the unreacted Hugoniot for the material. In this work three PBXs, manufactured by BAE Land Systems, are investigated and modelled. All contain RDX in differing quantities in an HTPB binder. One of them contains aluminium. Two of the materials have the same weight percentage of filler and binder but differ in the grain size distribution entrained. The experimental Hugoniots are presented, and a composite equation of state is derived using an engineering model and shown to describe the measurements well. Further applications of the technique are described and future uses are outlined.

  1. Taylor impact tests and simulations of plastic bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Brad E.; Thompson, Darla; Luscher, D. J.; DeLuca, Racci; Brown, Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact tests were conducted on plastic bonded explosives PBX 9501 and PBXN-9 for impact velocities between 80 and 214 m/s. High-speed photography was used to image the impact event at a rate of one frame for every 25 ?s. For early times, PBXN-9 showed large-deformation mushrooming of the explosive cylinders, followed by fragmentation by an amount proportional to the impact speed, was observed at all velocities. PBX 9501 appeared to be more brittle than PBXN-9, the latter demonstrated a more viscoelastic response. The post-shot fragments were collected and particle size distributions were obtained. The constitutive model ViscoSCRAM was then used to model the Taylor experiments using the finite element code ABAQUS. Prior to the Taylor simulations, ViscoSCRAM was parameterized for the two explosives using uniaxial stress-strain data. Simulating Taylor impact tests validates the model in situations undergoing extreme damage and fragmentation.

  2. Decomposition of Nitroplasticizer in Plastic Bonded Explosive PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauler, Denise

    2005-07-01

    In the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501, a 50/50 mixture of Estane 5703, a polyester urethane random copolymer, and nitroplastizer (NP) binds the HMX explosive crystals. Chemical kinetic mechanisms are being developed for the thermal degradation of NP for high temperatures (explosions) and low temperatures (natural and accelerated aging studies). The goal of this work is to investigate reaction mechanisms using density functional electronic structure theory in addition to the data obtained from explosion and aging experiments. NP consists of a 50/50 mixture of bis-2,2-dinitropropyl acetal and formal. Using 2,2-dinitro-1-methoxypropane as a model compound, a library of reactions was investigated to propose a mechanism for the decomposition of NP. The current mechanism begins with the elimination of HONO, which remains trapped within the material. HONO then adds onto the backbone of NP, which can lead to the formation of esters and oximes that may react further to produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and NOx gases. This work is supported by the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign and the Advanced Simulation and Computing program.

  3. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  4. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  5. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  6. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  7. 27 CFR 555.183 - Importation of plastic explosives on or after April 24, 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported contains a detection agent as required by 27 CFR...of perjury that the plastic explosive to be imported is a “small...purposes and is exempt from the detection agent requirement pursuant...

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Discrimination between Explosives and Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Hua

    2012-04-01

    A method to distinguish explosives from plastics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is discussed. A model for classification with cross-validation theory is built based on the partial least-square discriminant analysis method. Seven types of plastics and one explosive are used as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has the capacity to discriminate explosives from plastics combined with chemometrics methods. The results could be useful for prospective research of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on the differentiation of explosives and other materials.

  9. Effects of Endothermic Binders on Times to Explosion of HMX- and TATB-Based Plastic Bonded Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig M. Tarver; Jake G. Koerner

    2007-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) based on octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) formulated with the endothermic binders Estane, Viton, or Kel-F exhibit longer times to thermal explosion than do pure HMX and TATB in the one-dimensional time to explosion (ODTX) and in other thermal experiments. Previous chemical kinetic thermal decomposition models for HMX- and TATB- based PBXs assumed that the binders decomposed

  10. Dynamic mechanical signatures of aged LX17-1 plastic bonded explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mark Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    The complex shear modulus of the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-17-1 from stockpile returns, core tests and historical billets was measured over the temperature range from ?150 to 120°C at five frequencies from 0.1 to 10 Hz. LX-17-1 is composed of 92.5% insensitive high explosive triaminotrinitro-benzene (TATB) and 7.5% plastic binder, KF-800. Three relaxations were observed as peaks in the

  11. Thermal properties and shelf life of HMX–HTPB based plastic-bonded explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinn-Shing Lee; Chung-King Hsu

    2002-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) with different amounts of polymer and based on explosives with different particle size distributions have been compared for their thermal properties and shelf life. Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology has extensive experience with the processing of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based PBXs. The investigation showed that the shelf life of HMX-based formulations is longer than 60

  12. The Hugoniot and shock sensitivity of a plastic-bonded TATB explosive PBX 9502

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Dick; C. A. Forest; J. B. Ramsay; W. L. Seitz

    1988-01-01

    The plane shock response of PBX 9502 was measured from 0.5 to 25 GPa. The explosive is 95-wt. % triamino-trinitrobenzene powder coated with Kel-F 800 plastic; porosity was 2.6%. Shock initiation sensitivity, the Hugoniot, and dynamic yield behavior were studied. Experiments done were explosively driven wedge tests and particle velocity history measurements using electromagnetic gauges at a light-gas gun. A

  13. Distance sampling analysis in unmarked Richard Chandler

    E-print Network

    Creel, Scott

    the data into R. The simplest option is to use the read.csv function to import a .csv file that has been not recorded in discrete distance intervals, a .csv file could be imported that contains a row for each csv(system.file("csv", "distdata.csv", package="unmarked")) > head(dists, 10) distance transect 1

  14. The shock Hugoniot of a plastic bonded explosive and inert simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C F Millett; N K Bourne

    2004-01-01

    For safe handling and storage of munitions it is necessary to assess the response of energetic materials. In this work, a method to determine the unreacted Hugoniot of a plastic bonded explosive (PBX) using commercial manganin pressure transducers is described. The Hugoniot for the PBX has been measured using single stage gas guns. The unreacted Hugoniot states determined have been

  15. Vapor phase detection of plastic explosives using a SAW resonator immunosensor array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hun Lee; D. D. Stubbs; W. D. Hunt; P. J. Edmonson

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments demonstrating on-the-spot detection of low vapor pressure plastic explosives containing nitro groups such as RDX, TNT, and their analogous substances, facilitated by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Lab. A set of antibody coated SAW resonators inside the flow cell detect the presence of the target molecules diffusing from the sample. Monoclonal

  16. Quantification of reaction violence and combustion enthalpy of plastic bonded explosive 9501 under strong confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, W. Lee; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    The confinement experienced by an explosive during thermal self-initiation can substantially affect performance in terms of deflagration-to-detonation characteristics and explosion/detonation violence. To this end, we have developed an experiment to quantitatively observe enthalpy change and reaction violence in thermally initiated plastic bonded explosive (PBX) 9501. Traditionally, researchers attempt to quantify violence using terminal observations of fragment size, fragment velocity, and through subjective observations. In the work presented here, the explosive was loaded into a heated gun assembly where we subjected a 300 mg charge to a cook-off schedule and a range of static and inertial confinements. Static confinement was controlled using rupture disks calibrated at 34.5 and 138 MPa. The use of 3.15 and 6.3 g projectile masses provided a variation in inertial confinement. This was a regime of strong confinement; a significant fraction of the explosive energy was required to rupture the disk, and the projectile mass was large compared to the charge mass. The state variables pressure and volume were measured in the breech. From these data, we quantified both the reaction enthalpy change and energy release rate of the explosive on a microsecond time scale using a thermodynamic analyisis. We used these values to unambiguously quantify explosion violence as a function of confinement at a fixed cook-off schedule of 190 C for 1 h. P2?, a measure of critical shock energy required for shock ignition of an adjacent explosive was also computed. We found variations in this confinement regime to have a weak effect on enthalpy change, power, violence and shock energy. Violence was approximately 100 times lower than detonating trinitrotoluene, but the measured shock energy approached the critical shock energy for initiating secondary high explosives.

  17. Measurement of Explosion Time as a Function of Impact Pressure for PBX 950 (Plastic Bonded Explosive)

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, B.F.; ASay, B.W.; Dickson, P.M.; Fugard, C.S.; Funk D.J.

    1998-08-31

    We report measurements of the surface temperature from confined PBX 9501 subject to impact in the range 0.5-1 GPa. The temperatures were obtained by IR radiometry with 80 {micro}m and 1 {micro}s spatial and temporal resolution, respectively. Two distinct types of experiment are reported. In one the shock was coupled into the sample through a sharp edged, shearing impactor, resulting in high, localized temperatures in the sheared boundary of the explosive. In the second a planar shock was used, and SiC particulate was spread uniformly across the explosive to induce frictional heating. Very high, uniformly distributed surface temperatures were observed in this case. In both types of experiment the temperature profile as a function of time exhibits a sharp rise, followed by a constant induction period of localized ignition. The measured induction time and temperature compare favorably with that predicted by the thermal decomposition model of HMX proposed by McGuire and Tarver.

  18. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  19. Creep Testing Plastic-Bonded Explosives in Uni-axial Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J

    2008-03-13

    High fidelity measurements of time-dependent strain in the plastic-bonded explosives LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 have been performed under constant, uni-axial, compressive load using a custom designed apparatus. The apparatus uses a combination of extensometers and linear variable differential transformers coupled with a data acquisition system, thermal controls, and gravitational loading. The materials being tested consist of a crystalline explosive material mixed with a polymeric binder. The behavior of each material is related to the type of explosive and to the percentage and type of binder. For any given plastic-bonded explosive, the creep behavior is also dependent on the stress level and test temperature. Experiments were conducted using a 3 x 3 stress-temperature matrix with a temperature range of 24 C to 70 C and with stresses ranging from 250-psi to 780-psi. Analysis of the data has shown that logarithmic curve fits provide an accurate means of quantification and facilitate a long-term predictive capability. This paper will discuss the design of the apparatus, experimental results, and analyses.

  20. Study of initiation reactivity of some plastic explosives by vacuum stability test and non-isothermal differential thermal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Chovancová; Svatopluk Zeman

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of 18 high explosives by means of the Czech Vacuum Stability Test (VST) STABIL, a relationship has been specified between the results of this test and those of Russian manometric method. The said relationship was used to predict the Arrhenius parameters (Ea and logA values) of four plastic explosives based on RDX and one high

  1. Clean, agile alternative binders, additives and plasticizers for propellant and explosive formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hawkins, T.W. [Phillips Lab., Edwards AFB, CA (United States); Lindsay, G.A. [Naval Weapons Station, China Lake, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) a clean, agile manufacturing of explosives, propellants and pyrotechniques (CANPEP) effort set about to identify new approaches to materials and processes for producing propellants, explosives and pyrotechniques (PEP). The RDX based explosive PBXN-109 and gun propellant M-43 were identified as candidates for which waste minimization and recycling modifications might be implemented in a short time frame. The binders, additives and plasticizers subgroup identified cast non-curable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) formulations as possible replacement candidates for these formulations. Paste extrudable explosives were also suggested as viable alternatives to PBXN-109. Commercial inert and energetic TPEs are reviewed. Biodegradable and hydrolyzable binders are discussed. The applicability of various types of explosive formulations are reviewed and some issues associated with implementation of recyclable formulations are identified. It is clear that some processing and weaponization modifications will need to be made if any of these approaches are to be implemented. The major advantages of formulations suggested here over PBXN-109 and M-43 is their reuse/recyclability. Formulations using TPE or Paste could by recovered from a generic bomb or propellant and reused if they met specification or easily reprocessed and sold to the mining industry.

  2. On the Nature of Variations in Density and Composition within TATB-based Plastic Bonded Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J H; Willey, T M; Overturf, G

    2006-06-27

    Initiation of insensitive high explosives is affected by porosity in the 100 nm to micron size range. It is also recognized that as-pressed plastic bonded explosives (PBX) are heterogeneous in composition and density at much coarser length scale (10 microns-100 microns). However, variations in density and composition of these explosives have been poorly characterized. Here, we characterize the natural variations in composition and density of TATB-based PBX LX-17 with synchrotron radiation tomography and ultra small angle x-ray scattering. Large scale variations in composition occur as a result of binder enrichment at the prill particle boundaries. The pore fraction is twice as high in the prill particle as in the boundary. The pore distribution is bimodal, with small pores of 50-100 nm in radius and a broader distribution of pores in the 0.5-1.5 micron size range. The higher pore density within the prill particle is attributed to contact asperities between the crystallites that might inhibit complete consolidation and binder infiltration.

  3. Aspects of the Tribology of the Plastic Bonded Explosive (PBX) 9404

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Chandler, J B

    2004-07-08

    The coefficient of friction, {mu}, of the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) 9404 was measured on stainless steel, aluminum, Teflon and the explosive itself as a function of temperature between ambient and 135 C at a rotational speed of 0.0025 rad/sec{sup -1}. An optical profilometer was used to analyze the mean surface roughness, R{sub a}, of the various materials. PBX 9404 is a composite of the explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitroazacyclooctane (HMX) chloroethyl phosphate (CEF) and nitrocellulose in an 96/3/3 weight ratio. The average roughness of the pressed explosive surface was R{sub a} = 1.37 {micro}m. The coefficient of friction for PBX 9404 on stainless steel of R{sub a} = 0.40 {micro}m increased from 0.22 at ambient to 0.34 at 95 C. Above this temperature {mu} decreased to about 0.23 at 125 C. Similar behavior was observed with aluminum with R{sub a} = 0.31 {micro}m. The coefficient of friction increased from about 0.08 at ambient to 0.48 at 115 C. Above this temperature, {mu} tended to decrease slightly. The coefficient of friction against Teflon of R{sub a} = 0.054 {micro}m was sigmoidal, increasing from about 0.3 at ambient to about at 0.49 {+-} 0.002 above 115 C. Against a PBX 9404 counter surface, the coefficient of friction averaged 0.54 over the entire test temperature range, but tended to increase during the measurement, probably due to adhesion of the nitrocellulose to itself.

  4. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of the compatibility of the explosive PETN with candidate plastic bonding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vannet, M.D.; Wang, P.S.; Moddeman, W.E.; Bowling, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility of the explosive PETN with two plastic bonding materials, ethyl cellulose and a halogenated vinyl polymer (FPC 461), was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both were found to coat the PETN crystals, and no change in chemical composition was found in the PETN or the plastic due to either the process or their mutual presence. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Feasibility study on continuous processing of castable plastic-bonded explosives. Interim report, completion of Phase I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Scribner; F. H. Magness

    1979-01-01

    In September 1979, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory submitted an unsolicited proposal to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of continuous processing of castable plastic-bonded explosives. The proposal was for a three-year effort. The first year, at a very modest expenditure, would be devoted to research on what has been done in the past, who is currently working in the field, and

  6. Physical model for shock-wave initiation of detonation of plastic-bounded TATB-based explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Grebenkin; A. L. Zherebtsov; M. V. Taranik; S. K. Tsarenkova; A. S. Shnitko

    2006-01-01

    A physical model for the macrokinetics of shock-wave initiation of detonation in plastic-bounded TATB-based explosive is proposed\\u000a that is based on the assumption of electronic energy transfer from hot spots. Results of numerical modeling of experiments\\u000a on shock-wave initiation of detonation of LX-17 are presented.

  7. Thermal expansion of PBX 9501 and PBX 9502 plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Darla Graff [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Geoff W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giambra, Anna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandstrom, Mary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Two applications of thermal expansion measurements on plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) composites are described. In the first dilatometer application, thermal expansion properties of HMX-based PBX 9501 are measured over a broad thermal range that includes glass and domain-restructuring transitions in the polymeric binder. Results are consistent with other thermal measurements and analyses performed on the composite, as well as on the binder itself. The second application used the dilatometer to distinguish the reversible and irreversible components of thermal expansion in PBX 9502, a TATB-based explosive. Irreversible expansion of the composite is believed to derive from the highly-anisotropic coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values measured on single T A TB crystals, although the mechanism is not well understood. Effects of specimen density, thermal ramp rate, and thermal range variation (warm first or cold first) were explored, and the results are presented and discussed. Dilatometer measurements are ongoing towards gaining insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for PBX 9502 irreversible thermal expansion.

  8. Effects of temperature and pressure on the glass transitions of plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.S.; Garcia, D.; Idar, D.

    1998-12-31

    Various plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) contain about 5-wt% polymer, plasticizer, and stabilizer as binder. The glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) determines, in part, if the binder will reduce or increase the sensitivity of the PBX to impact. A soft binder reduces the impact sensitivity; however, too soft a binder compromises the mechanical strength below that desirable for dimensional stability. Glass transitions were measured by temperature modulated DSC for PBXs before and after pressing. Pressing temperature was 90 C. The T{sub g} of Estane, a polyester/polyurethane used in some PBX binders, was investigated. Only small changes were observed in the low temperature T{sub g} of the soft segments but larger changes were seen in the higher temperature transitions due to the relaxation of the hard segments. The T{sub g} of Kel F 800, a binder used in insensitive PBX 9502, was observed near ambient temperature. The PBX 9502 had a lower T{sub g} than the neat polymer. Mechanical strength will be measured for the samples.

  9. Performance evaluation of booster materials in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 in a hemispherical wave breakout test

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    An explosive booster is normally required to initiate detonation in an insensitive high explosive (lHE). Booster materials must be ignitable by a conventional detonator and deliver sufficient energy and favorable pulse shape to initiate the IHE charge. The explosive booster should be as insensitive as reasonably possible to maintain the overall safety margin of the explosive assembly. A hemispherical wave breakout test termed the on ionskin test is one of the methods of testing the performance of booster materials in an initiation train assembly. There are several variations of this basic test which are known by other names. In this test, the wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemispherical IHE acceptor charge is recorded, and the relative uniformity of breakout allows qualitative comparison between booster candidates and quantitative comparison of several metrics. The results of a series of onionskin experiments evaluating the performance of some new booster formulations in the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TA TB) -based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 will be presented. The boosters were tested in an onionskin arrangement in which the booster pellet was cylindrical, and the tests were performed at a temperature of-55{sup o}C to emphasize variations in spreading performance. The modification from the traditional hemispherical geometry facilitated efficient explosive fabrication and charge assembly, but the results indicate that this geometry was not ideal for several reasons. Despite the complications arising from geometry, promising performance was observed from booster formulations including 3,3' -diamino-4,4'azoxyfurazan.

  10. Fatigue behaviour in a plastic strain-controlled mode of an austenitic stainless steel treated by explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gerland; J. P. Dufour; L. Fouilland-Paillé; P. Violan; H. N. Presles; J. Mendez

    1996-01-01

    A surface-treatment technique using primary explosive was applied to a 316L type stainless steel. Some characterizations of the induced mechanical or metallurgical effects are given such as surface roughness, microhardness, residual stresses, microstructure. Fatigue tests were performed in tension-compression in the plastic strain-controlled mode with amplitudes in the range 10-3 to 5×10-3. The cyclic behaviour of the treated samples is

  11. Line-imaging velocimetry for observing spatially heterogeneous mechanical and chemical responses in plastic bonded explosives during impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolme, C. A.; Ramos, K. J.

    2013-08-01

    A line-imaging velocity interferometer was implemented on a single-stage light gas gun to probe the spatial heterogeneity of mechanical response, chemical reaction, and initiation of detonation in explosives. The instrument is described in detail, and then data are presented on several shock-compressed materials to demonstrate the instrument performance on both homogeneous and heterogeneous samples. The noise floor of this diagnostic was determined to be 0.24 rad with a shot on elastically compressed sapphire. The diagnostic was then applied to two heterogeneous plastic bonded explosives: 3,3'-diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) and PBX 9501, where significant spatial velocity heterogeneity was observed during the build up to detonation. In PBX 9501, the velocity heterogeneity was consistent with the explosive grain size, however in DAAF, we observed heterogeneity on a much larger length scale than the grain size that was similar to the imaging resolution of the instrument.

  12. Shock-wave sensitivity of a TATB-based plasticized explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Aminov; A. V. Vershinin; O. V. Kostitsyn; B. G. Loboiko; V. S. Lyubimov; S. N. Lyubyatinskii; G. N. Rykovanov; M. A. Strizhenok

    1995-01-01

    The results of numerical modelling of experiments on the investigation of shock-wave sensitivity of a TATB-based explosive are presented. A model for the macrokinetics of decomposition of the explosive has been constructed within the framework of a hypothesis of hot spots.

  13. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olney, K. L.; Chiu, P. H.; Higgins, A.; Serge, M.; Weihs, T. P.; Fritz, G.; Stover, A.; Benson, D. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  14. Numerical and Theoretical Analysis of Plastic Response of 5A06 Aluminum Circular Plates Subjected to Underwater Explosion Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion loading has been always an interesting field for researchers. Understanding the deformation and failure mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in an actual project under this kind of loading. In this paper, the deformation and failure characteristics of 5A06 aluminum circular plates were investigated computationally and theoretically. The computational study was based on a Johnson-cook material parameter mode which was obtained from several previous studies provides a good description of deformation and failure of 5A06 aluminum circular plates under underwater explosion loading. The deformation history of the clamped circular plate is recorded; the maximum deflection and the thickness reduction measurements of target plates at different radii were conducted. The computational approach provided insight into the relationship between the failure mechanism and the strength of impact wave, and a computing formulae for strain field of the specimen was derived based on the same volume principle and rigid-plastic assumption. The simulation and theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments results. Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion loading has been always an interesting field for researchers. Understanding the deformation and failure mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in an actual project under this kind of loading. In this paper, the deformation and failure characteristics of 5A06 aluminum circular plates were investigated computationally and theoretically. The computational study was based on a Johnson-cook material parameter mode which was obtained from several previous studies provides a good description of deformation and failure of 5A06 aluminum circular plates under underwater explosion loading. The deformation history of the clamped circular plate is recorded; the maximum deflection and the thickness reduction measurements of target plates at different radii were conducted. The computational approach provided insight into the relationship between the failure mechanism and the strength of impact wave, and a computing formulae for strain field of the specimen was derived based on the same volume principle and rigid-plastic assumption. The simulation and theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments results. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO:11272057).

  15. Implementation of strength and burn models for plastic-bonded explosives and propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2009-05-07

    We have implemented the burn model in LS-DYNA. At present, the damage (porosity and specific surface area) is specified as initial conditions. However, history variables that are used by the strength model are reserved as placeholders for the next major revision, which will be a completely interactive model. We have implemented an improved strength model for explosives based on a model for concrete. The model exhibits peak strength and subsequent strain softening in uniaxial compression. The peak strength increases with increasing strain rate and/or reduced ambient temperature. Under triaxial compression compression, the strength continues to increase (or at least not decrease) with increasing strain. This behaviour is common to both concrete and polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) because the microstructure of these composites is similar. Both have aggregate material with a broad particle size distribution, although the length scale for concrete aggregate is two orders of magnitude larger than for PBX. The (cement or polymer) binder adheres to the aggregate, and is both pressure and rate sensitive. There is a larger bind binder content in concrete, compared to the explosive, and the aggregates have different hardness. As a result we expect the parameter values to differ, but the functional forms to be applicable to both. The models have been fit to data from tests on an AWE explosive that is HMX based. The decision to implement the models in LS-DYNA was based on three factors: LS-DYNA is used routinely by the AWE engineering analysis group and has a broad base of experienced users; models implemented in LS-DYNA can be transferred easily to LLNL's ALE 3D using a material model wrapper developed by Rich Becker; and LS-DYNA could accommodate the model requirements for a significant number of additional history variables without the significant time delay associated with code modification.

  16. Mechanisms of high strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olney, Karl; Chiu, Po-Hsun; Higgins, Andrew; Serge, Matthew; Fritz, Gregory; Stover, Adam; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2013-06-01

    Laminate materials composed of thin Ni and Al foils have shown promise as material systems used in reactive material applications due to the ability of the material to support a self-sustaining reaction between the Al and Ni layers. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, ignition may occur in the shear bands developed during mechanical loading. The thick-walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on samples of Ni-Al laminate materials with two different mesostructues; concentric and corrugated both constructed using alternating layers of Ni and Al thin foils on the order of 20-30 micron foil thickness. These TWC experiments were performed to examine how these materials accommodated large plastic strain during the collapse which may be used to tailor reactivity in the material system. Large scale numerical simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide an insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow during collapse of the thick walled laminate material during the explosive loading. Funding was provided by ONR MURI N00014-07-1-0740 (Program Officer Dr. Clifford Bedford)

  17. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  18. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly...DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly...Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or...

  19. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly...DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly...Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or...

  20. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly...DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly...Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or...

  1. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly...DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly...Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or...

  2. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly...DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly...Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or...

  3. Construction Sets and Unmarked Forms: A Case Study for Hungarian Verbal Agreement

    E-print Network

    Steels, Luc

    Construction Sets and Unmarked Forms: A Case Study for Hungarian Verbal Agreement Katrien Beuls Abstract Construction application can be made more efficient by organizing con- structions into sets and by imposing an ordering on when a construction set should be considered. This technique gives us moreover

  4. Atomic-Scale Theoretical Studies of Fundamental Properties and Processes in CHNO Plastic-Bonded Explosive Constituent Materials under Static and Dynamic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The results of recent theoretical atomic-scale studies of CHNO plastic-bonded explosive constituent materials will be presented, emphasizing the effects of static and dynamic compression on structure, vibrational spectroscopy, energy redistribution, and dynamic deformation processes. Among the chemical compounds to be discussed are pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX), nitromethane, and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Specific topics to be discussed include pressure-dependent terahertz IR absorption spectra in crystalline PETN and RDX, microscopic material flow characteristics and energy localization during and after pore collapse in shocked (100)-oriented RDX, establishment of local thermodynamic temperature and the approach to thermal equilibrium in shocked (100)-oriented nitromethane, and structural changes and relaxation phenomena that occur in shocked amorphous cis-HTPB. In the case of shocked HTPB, comparisons will be made between results obtained using fully-atomic and coarse-grained (united atom) molecular dynamics force field models. Rather than attempting to discuss any given topic in extended detail, 3-4 vignettes will be presented that highlight outstanding scientific questions and the predictive methods and tools we are developing to answer them. The results of recent theoretical atomic-scale studies of CHNO plastic-bonded explosive constituent materials will be presented, emphasizing the effects of static and dynamic compression on structure, vibrational spectroscopy, energy redistribution, and dynamic deformation processes. Among the chemical compounds to be discussed are pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX), nitromethane, and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Specific topics to be discussed include pressure-dependent terahertz IR absorption spectra in crystalline PETN and RDX, microscopic material flow characteristics and energy localization during and after pore collapse in shocked (100)-oriented RDX, establishment of local thermodynamic temperature and the approach to thermal equilibrium in shocked (100)-oriented nitromethane, and structural changes and relaxation phenomena that occur in shocked amorphous cis-HTPB. In the case of shocked HTPB, comparisons will be made between results obtained using fully-atomic and coarse-grained (united atom) molecular dynamics force field models. Rather than attempting to discuss any given topic in extended detail, 3-4 vignettes will be presented that highlight outstanding scientific questions and the predictive methods and tools we are developing to answer them. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Office of Naval Research supported this research.

  5. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  6. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. III. Kraton block copolymer binder and plasticizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Caley; D. M. Hoffman

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and molecular weight distribution of two experimental polymer bonded explosives, X-0287 and X-0298, maintained at 23, 60, and 74°C for 3 years were examined. X-0287 is 97% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane explosive, 1.8% Kraton G-1650, and 1.2% B² was 170. X-0298 is 97.4% explosive, 1.4% Kraton G-1650, and 1.2% Cenco Hi-vac oil. The relaxation associated with the Kraton rubber

  7. Explosives tester

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  8. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  9. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  10. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  11. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...possession, or receipt of explosive materials is in furtherance...receipt, or possession of the explosive materials is in furtherance...or possession of plastic explosives that do not contain a detection agent. [ATF No....

  12. Geophysical Investigation of an Abandoned Cemetery: Teachers Discover Evidence of Unmarked Graves in Prairie View, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Baldwin, R.; Kahera, A.; Thoms, A.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2007, a group of nineteen K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface. In a period of two weeks, the group acquired and interpreted 59 GPR profiles in Wyatt Chapel Cemetery and surrounding areas in order to determine the local stratigraphy and try to locate unmarked graves. The sandy soil in this area is ideally suited for GPR investigations and numerous geophysical anomalies were identified. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850's. Participants in a summer course at Rice University conducted a geophysical investigation of the site. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. GPR is an excellent tool for investigating the sandy soil encountered at Wyatt Chapel Cemetery. The stratigraphy in the area consists of 3-6 feet of reddish-brown, medium-grained sand overlying a light gray, highly compacted clay. The sand-clay boundary appears as a strong reflector on the GPR profiles. Participants identified numerous anomalies in the GPR data and two were excavated. One consisted of a pair of bright hyperbolae, suggesting two edges of a metal object. This excavation resulted in the discovery of a metal plank thought to be a burial cover. The second anomaly consisted of a break in the horizon representing the top of the clay layer, and subsequent excavation revealed a grave shaft. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used geophysics for community service (i.e. restoring an abandoned cemetery). Through background research, they derived a rich historical context for their investigation and learned to appreciate the multi-disciplinary aspect of solving real-world scientific problems.

  13. White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.

    PubMed

    Pande, T K; Pandey, S

    2004-03-01

    Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

  14. An Analytic Tool to Investigate the Effect of Binder on the Sensitivity of HMX-Based Plastic Bonded Explosives in the Skid Test

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Hayden

    2005-02-01

    This project will develop an analytical tool to calculate performance of HMX based PBXs in the skid test. The skid-test is used as a means to measure sensitivity for large charges in handling situations. Each series of skid tests requires dozens of drops of large billets. It is proposed that the reaction (or lack of one) of PBXs in the skid test is governed by the mechanical properties of the binder. If true, one might be able to develop an analytical tool to estimate skid test behavior for new PBX formulations. Others over the past 50 years have tried to develop similar models. This project will research and summarize the works of others and couple the work of 3 into an analytical tool that can be run on a PC to calculate drop height of HMX based PBXs. Detonation due to dropping a billet is argued to be a dynamic thermal event. To avoid detonation, the heat created due to friction at impact, must be conducted into the charge or the target faster than the chemical kinetics can create additional energy. The methodology will involve numerically solving the Frank-Kamenetskii equation in one dimension. The analytical problem needs to be bounded in terms of how much heat is introduced to the billet and for how long. Assuming an inelastic collision with no rebound, the billet will be in contact with the target for a short duration determined by the equations of motion. For the purposes of the calculations, it will be assumed that if a detonation is to occur, it will transpire within that time. The surface temperature will be raised according to the friction created using the equations of motion of dropping the billet on a rigid surface. The study will connect the works of Charles Anderson, Alan Randolph, Larry Hatler, Alfonse Popolato, and Charles Mader into a single PC based analytic tool. Anderson's equations of motion will be used to calculate the temperature rise upon impact, the time this temperature is maintained (contact time) will be obtained from the work of Hatler et. al., and the reactive temperature rise will be obtained from Mader's work. Finally, the assessment of when a detonation occurs will be derived from Bowden and Yoffe's thermal explosion theory (hot spot).

  15. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  16. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  17. The Generation of Successive Unmarked Mutations and Chromosomal Insertion of Heterologous Genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Using Natural Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Soares-Bazzolli, Denise M.; Li, Yanwen; Wren, Brendan W.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a simple method of generating scarless, unmarked mutations in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by exploiting the ability of this bacterium to undergo natural transformation, and with no need to introduce plasmids encoding recombinases or resolvases. This method involves two successive rounds of natural transformation using linear DNA: the first introduces a cassette carrying cat (which allows selection by chloramphenicol) and sacB (which allows counter-selection using sucrose) flanked by sequences to either side of the target gene; the second transformation utilises the flanking sequences ligated directly to each other in order to remove the cat-sacB cassette. In order to ensure efficient uptake of the target DNA during transformation, A. pleuropneumoniae uptake sequences are added into the constructs used in both rounds of transformation. This method can be used to generate multiple successive deletions and can also be used to introduce targeted point mutations or insertions of heterologous genes into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome for development of live attenuated vaccine strains. So far, we have applied this method to highly transformable isolates of serovars 8 (MIDG2331), which is the most prevalent in the UK, and 15 (HS143). By screening clinical isolates of other serovars, it should be possible to identify other amenable strains. PMID:25409017

  18. Nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broyles, A. A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  19. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy techniques for explosives detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa; Michael J. Fitch; Robert Osiander

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopy in the terahertz frequency range has demonstrated unique identification of both pure and military-grade explosives.\\u000a There is significant potential for wide applications of the technology for nondestructive and nonintrusive detection of explosives\\u000a and related devices. Terahertz radiation can penetrate most dielectrics, such as clothing materials, plastics, and cardboard.\\u000a This allows both screening of personnel and through-container screening. We review

  1. Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benziger; Theodore M

    1976-01-01

    A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

  2. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  3. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  4. Stress Growth Measurements for the Explosive IRX-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit T.

    2002-07-01

    Embedded gauge experiments were performed to measure the shock reactivity of IRX-4, a plastic-bonded explosive that contains HMX, Al, AP and HTPB binder. The pressure-time profiles obtained are similar to those obtained for similar composite explosives. Hugoniot points obtained are in agreement with those obtained with mixture theory.

  5. Modified detonation macrokinetics model of a tatb-based explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Aminov; A. V. Vershinin; N. S. Es’kov; O. V. Kostitsyn; G. N. Rykovanov; V. A. Sibilev; M. A. Strizhenok

    1997-01-01

    A one-stage detonation macrokinetics model of a low-sensitivity heterogeneous explosive is considered. Within the framework\\u000a of the model, we have managed to describe uniformly a wide class of experiments on initiation of aTATB-based plasticized explosive, including the initiation from the impact by a metallic plate and compact metallic fragments.

  6. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  7. Non-Solid Explosives for Shaped Charges. Part III. Metal Liner Devices Used in Explosive Ordnance Disposal Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cartwright; Peter J. Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of time-expired and unexploded ordnance has proved problematical in the past because of the procedures adopted; i.e., attach an explosive charge and cause the munition to function or long-range projectile attack. Improvements used explosively driven metallic liners to impact on the munition but detonation occurred with the standard plastic explosive fillings. If the munition can be persuaded to burn

  8. Analysis of Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jehuda Yinon; John C. Hoffsommer

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of explosives is of major importance in several analytical fields:1. Forensic identification of explosives is a major problem in the criminalistic investigation of a bombing which involves connecting the type of explosive used with the suspect. The detection and identification of explosive residues in debris material constitutes a highly difficult task. The thermal instability of most explosives, along

  9. Universe Explosions

    E-print Network

    Ram Brustein; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

    2012-09-24

    A scenario for a quantum big crunch to big bang transition is proposed. We first clarify the similarities between this transition and the final stages of black hole evaporation. The black hole and the universe are thought of as quantum states. The importance of an external observer for understanding the big crunch to big bang transition is emphasized. Then, relying on the similarities between the black hole and the universe, we propose that the transition should be described as an explosion that connects the contracting phase to the expanding one. The explosion occurs when entropy bounds are saturated, or equivalently when the states cease to be semiclassically (meta)stable. We discuss our scenario in three examples: collapsing dust, a brane universe falling into a bulk black hole in anti-de Sitter space, and a contracting universe filled with a negative cosmological constant and a small amount of matter. We briefly discuss the late time observables that may carry some information about the state of the universe before the transition.

  10. FLP-FRT-Based Method To Obtain Unmarked Deletions of CHU_3237 (porU) and Large Genomic Fragments of Cytophaga hutchinsonii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhiquan; Cao, Jing; Guan, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a widely distributed cellulolytic bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes. It can digest crystalline cellulose rapidly without free cellulases or cellulosomes. The mechanism of its cellulose utilization remains a mystery. We developed an efficient method based on a linear DNA double-crossover and FLP-FRT recombination system to obtain unmarked deletions of both single genes and large genomic fragments in C. hutchinsonii. Unmarked deletion of CHU_3237 (porU), an ortholog of the C-terminal signal peptidase of a type IX secretion system (T9SS), resulted in defects in colony spreading, cellulose degradation, and protein secretion, indicating that it is a component of the T9SS and that T9SS plays an important role in cellulose degradation by C. hutchinsonii. Furthermore, deletions of four large genomic fragments were obtained using our method, and the sizes of the excised fragments varied from 9 to 19 kb, spanning from 6 to 22 genes. The customized FLP-FRT method provides an efficient tool for more rapid progress in the cellulose degradation mechanism and other physiological aspects of C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25063660

  11. Chaotic Explosions

    E-print Network

    Eduardo G. Altmann; Jefferson S. E. Portela; Tamás Tél

    2015-01-22

    We investigate chaotic dynamical systems for which the intensity of trajectories might grow unlimited in time. We show that (i) the intensity grows exponentially in time and is distributed spatially according to a fractal measure with an information dimension smaller than that of the phase space,(ii) such exploding cases can be described by an operator formalism similar to the one applied to chaotic systems with absorption (decaying intensities), but (iii) the invariant quantities characterizing explosion and absorption are typically not directly related to each other, e.g., the decay rate and fractal dimensions of absorbing maps typically differ from the ones computed in the corresponding inverse (exploding) maps. We illustrate our general results through numerical simulation in the cardioid billiard mimicking a lasing optical cavity, and through analytical calculations in the baker map.

  12. Method for digesting a nitro-bearing explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein superoxide radicals from superoxide salt are used to break down the explosive compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for degrading explosives, and operates at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. Because the superoxide molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The superoxide salt generates reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro-bearing compound.

  13. Supernova Explosions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-06

    In this activity, students are reminded that the Universe is made up of elements and that the heavier elements are created inside of a star, as they learned in the "Elements and You" activity. They are introduced to the life cycle of a star and to the way in which a star's mass affects its process of fusion and eventual death. Students discuss the physical concept of equilibrium as a balancing of forces and observe an experiment to demonstrate what happens to a soda can when the interior and exterior forces are not in equilibrium. An analogy is made between this experiment and core collapse in stars, to show the importance of maintaining equilibrium in stars. Finally, students participate in an activity which demonstrates how mass is ejected from a collapsed star in a supernova explosion, thereby dispersing heavier elements throughout the Universe. This activity is part of a series that has been designed specifically for use with Girl Scouts, but the activities can be used in other settings. Most of the materials are inexpensive or easily found. It is recommended that a leader with astronomy knowledge lead the activities, or at least be available to answer questions, whenever possible.

  14. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  15. Initiative for Explosives Detection

    E-print Network

    of highly concealed explosives include the development of enhanced energy sources, improved electronics. For terrorist organizations and insurgents, the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) has become a weapon of choice

  16. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  17. Explosive Detection Equipment Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    As the Technical Direction Agent for the Department of Defense's Explosive Detection Equipment Program, the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division provides leadership in the pursuit of effective and suitable technology for concealed threat device detection. This program seeks explosive detection equipment that will effectively and economically confirm the presence or absence of energetic materials in or on: 1) mail\\/parcels\\/cargo,

  18. Plastic welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swain, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Low-cost, self-contained, portable welder joins plastic parts by induction heating. Welder is useable in any atmosphere or in vacuum and with most types of thermoplastic; plastic components can be joined in situ. Device is applicable to aerospace industry and in automobile, furniture, and construction industries. Power requirements are easily met by battery or solar energy. In welder, toroidal inductor transfers magnetic flux through thermoplastic to screen. Heated screen causes plastic surface on either side to melt and flow into it to form joint.

  19. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  20. Milk Plastic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners transform everyday milk into small plastic figurines and jewelry. Use this activity to introduce learners to monomers and polymers. Note: this activity requires adult supervision.

  1. EPDM plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Godail, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic extender oils used as EPDM plasticizers are discussed in detail. Particular attention is given to viscosity, volatility, specific gravity, and aromatic content.

  2. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  3. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 ?m. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  4. Shock initiation of explosive pellets at low temperature. [PETN, PBX9407, HNS-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    Electrically-driven flyer plates have been used to initiate the high explosives PETN, PBX-9407 and HNS-1 at 194°K and 77°K. Electrically-exploded aluminum foils accelerated 51-..mu..m thick plastic flyer plates to impact the explosive pellets. The flyer-plate components and the explosive pellets were cooled to the desired temperature by immersing them in dry ice (194°K) or liquid nitrogen (77°K). Two firing systems

  5. Modeling an Active (!!) Explosive Volcano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is an active simulation of an explosive volcanic eruption. The model volcano is a plastic 35 mm film cannister that erupts (the lid blows off) when gas pressure generated by dissolving alka seltzer is sufficiently high. It is realistic in that the timing of the eruption is difficult to predict precisely and in that the eruption occurs when the pressure of the gas exceeds the confining pressure of the lid. The experiment can be modified to show that an eruption will not occur if there is not enough gas pressure generated or if gas is allowed to escape gradually. Students will explain how the build-up of gas from dissolving alka seltzer causes the lid of a film cannister to blow off, explain that build-up of gas pressure causes eruption of explosive volcanoes, and that the pressure comes from heating of dissolved gases in the magma, and they will delineate the similarities and differences between the model and an actual volcano.

  6. Shale oil explosives

    SciTech Connect

    York, E.D.; Porter, D.D.

    1984-10-09

    Ammonium nitrate shale oil explosives are provided which are effective, powerful, inexpensive, and safe. The explosives contain about 2% to 10% by weight shale oil and about 90% to 98% by weight ammonium nitrate. The shale oil can be whole shale oil or heavy shale oil containing from 0.1% to 65% by weight oil shale dust. The ammonium nitrate is preferably in the form of explosive grade ammonium nitrate prills.

  7. Underwater explosive welding of thin tungsten foils and copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Manikandan; J. O. Lee; K. Mizumachi; A. Mori; K. Raghukandan; K. Hokamoto

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability to clad pure tungsten foils on copper plate using underwater shock waves generated by the detonation of explosive. Microstructural characterization revealed that a higher preset inclination results in wavy morphology. Weld formed at lower inclination exhibit a planar interfacial layer comprising fine grained particles of both components. The plastic flow of tungsten is ascribed to

  8. Supercritical Solubility of Binders Used in Explosive Formulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Bell

    2002-12-18

    In-situ ultraviolet spectroscopy was used to measure the dissolution of polymers in supercritical carbon dioxide. Absorbance versus time data were taken to obtain both solubilities and diffusion coefficients. The tested polymers were potential binders for plastic-bonded explosives.

  9. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suhithi M. Peiris; Jared C. Gump

    2008-01-01

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or

  10. Modeling the Effects of Confinement during Cookoff of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. Self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Explosives with low melting points, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) are complex since melting and flow need to be considered when simulating cookoff. Cookoff of composite explosives such as Comp-B (mixture of TNT and RDX) are even more complex since dissolution of one component increases the reactivity of the other component. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems that contain explosives. In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. Self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Explosives with low melting points, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) are complex since melting and flow need to be considered when simulating cookoff. Cookoff of composite explosives such as Comp-B (mixture of TNT and RDX) are even more complex since dissolution of one component increases the reactivity of the other component. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems that contain explosives. Sandia National Laboratories is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Query Nuclear Explosions Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    NUCEXP, National Geoscience Database, provided by the Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO), contains entries on nuclear explosions around the world since 1945, with the location, time and size of explosions. To view the records, users must select site and country conducting the test and beginning/end dates.

  12. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and

  13. Shale oil explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. York; D. D. Porter

    1984-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate shale oil explosives are provided which are effective, powerful, inexpensive, and safe. The explosives contain about 2% to 10% by weight shale oil and about 90% to 98% by weight ammonium nitrate. The shale oil can be whole shale oil or heavy shale oil containing from 0.1% to 65% by weight oil shale dust. The ammonium nitrate is

  14. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  15. Coal dust explosibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Cashdollar

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental

  16. Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

  17. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  18. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  19. Estimation of point explosion parameters by body-wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Kereselidze, Zurab

    2014-05-01

    Radial model of point explosion is presented. According to this model the epicenter are consists with two qualitatively different spherical area. In the first sphere the explosion energy is spent on plastic deformations. The second spherical area, where the medium are elastically, presents area where the body waves are generated. The frequency spectrum of this wave can presents the intrinsic frequency of natural oscillations of the point explosion. The Euler radial equation was used during the modeling of this process. Using analytical equation of discrete frequency spectrum is possible to solve the inverse seismological problem. In other words it is possible to calculate the internal and external radius of elastic area. Finally we can obtain a sufficiently correct analytic solution to define the linear characteristics of the point explosion area and estimating the energy released.

  20. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  1. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  2. FOUDRE ET ATMOSPHERES EXPLOSIVES LIGHTNING AND EXPLOSIVES ATMOSPHERES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    97-36 FOUDRE ET ATMOSPHERES EXPLOSIVES LIGHTNING AND EXPLOSIVES ATMOSPHERES HALAMA S., 1NERIS l'utilisation de produits sensibles pouvant provoquer facilement des incendies et des explosions. C inflammables. Les atmospheres explosives gazeuses et poussiereuses ainsi que les conditions favorisant [eur

  3. Evaluation of flame resistance of polymer materials under the effect of explosions of acetylene-oxygen mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotushkin, V.V.; Chernykh, E.M.; Krikunov, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    ABS-2020 plastic is used extensively in the manufacture of protective devices positioned on gas generators and lines for the transport of fuel and dangerously explosive gases. The strength characteristics of the material used for construction of the device must exceed the maximum fracturing capacity of the explosion of the given gas and must be retained on a permissible level during service. To evaluate flame resistance the authors introduce a new criterion, i.e., the number of explosions of acetylene-oxygen mixtures acting on the plastic without impairing its load-carrying capacity. The authors present and solve an equation from which they obtain the critical number of explosions (n /SUB cr/ = 29). Thus, the fire resistance of the protecting device made of ABS-2020 plastic will be ensured at the number of repeated explosions of the acetylene-oxygen mixture of n <29 and the protecting device should be replaced after 28 flashbacks.

  4. Direct real-time detection of vapors from explosive compounds.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Robert G; Clowers, Brian H; Atkinson, David A

    2013-11-19

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX, and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances was demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a nonradioactive ionization source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was accomplished in less than 5 s at ambient temperature without sample preconcentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provided a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3(-) and NO3(-)·HNO3), enabled highly sensitive explosives detection from explosive vapors present in ambient laboratory air. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicated detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284, and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX, and NG, respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations sampled in ambient laboratory air, including double base propellants, plastic explosives, and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN, and RDX product ions. PMID:24090362

  5. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  6. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  7. Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects

    E-print Network

    David Arnett

    1999-08-16

    Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

  8. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  9. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Mader; Michael Gittings

    2007-01-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible

  10. Splashes from Underwater Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kolsky; J. P. Lewis; M. T. Sampson; A. C. Shearman; C. I. Snow

    1949-01-01

    The splashes from the underwater explosions of 1 and 10 1b. charges of P.E. no. 2 and Nobel's Explosive '808' at various depths have been photographed with cine-cameras. The experiments were carried out in a sheltered pond which enabled the surface phenomena to be studied in greater detail than has been done hitherto, and a number of new phenomena have

  11. Evaluation of EL836 explosive stimulation of Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, T G

    1980-07-01

    This report presents an evaluation of EL836, an explosive developed at E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company Laboratories, in stimulating gas shale. EL836 is a water gel type explosive with a high aluminum content. The computational evaluation of EL836 involved four one-dimensional cyclindrical geometry calculations to assess the influence of two equation-of-state descriptios of EL836, the effect or rock yielding and the effect of internal crack pressurization. Results of a computational evaluation of the EL836 explosive in stimulating Devonian gas shale suggest the following: Extensive plastic yielding will occur in a region immediate to the borehole. Extensive tensile fracture will occur in a region that begins at the outer boundary of plastic deformation and terminates at more than 100 borehole radii. Without a mechanism of ;near-wellbore fracture, such as crushing or pre-cracking during drilling or intentional borehole grooving, the plastic flow that occurs adjacent to the wellbore causes stress redistributions which prohibit early-time (less than a millisecond) tensile fracture immediate to the wellbore and thus prohibits gas penetration from the wellbore into the crack system. The barrier that the near-wellbore plastic zone presents to gas flow from the wellbore is reduced in radial dimension as time increases. Natural fractures in the wellbore wall or cataclysmic deformation and fracture adjacent to the wellbore, as a result of the explosive detonation, will likely assist in breaking down the barrier to gas flow. Very significatn enhancement is achieved in the EL836 stimulation treatment when gases penetrate the stress-wave induced radial cracks. Only minor differences were observed in the EL836 stimulation effects when comparison is made between two different explosive equations-of-state. 33 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems The explosion time Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J. Fern´andez Bonder, UBA J.D. Rossi, UBA ERPEM, November 29th, 2006 Pablo Groisman UBA Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

  13. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  14. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  15. A numerical investigation of high-explosive grain size effects on the performance of boosters

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, P.K.

    1987-10-01

    Initiation of insensitive high explosives requires use of a boosting system with a more sensitive and typically more energetic explosive. However, problems arise if the booster material is too energetic. The initiability of some insensitive but not so energetic high explosives can be enhanced by lowering the density and decreasing the grain size; thus those explosives can be used as booster materials. A class of experiments, commonly called onionskins, has been used to detect the divergence pattern of the detonation wave and determine the performance of the booster. With reactive burn model in a hydrodynamic code, numerical simulations can be performed to obtain the same objectives. Examples are presented using low-density superfine and ultrafine triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) as booster explosives to initiate plastic-bonded TATB-base high explosive.

  16. Recycling and disposal of munitions and explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, N.H.A. van [TNO Prins Mauritus Lab., Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    In the Netherlands, demilitarization research is concentrated at the organization for applied scientific research TNO. Over 150 years of experience with munitions and explosives of the TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory adds up to the almost 50 years of experience in waste treatment, incineration technology and exhaust cleaning of the TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation. Starting with the reversed assembly of munitions, followed by the separation of explosives and metal parts, TNO studied possibilities for recycling these components. Metal parts and plastics can be recycled. From the investigations it turned out that controlled combustion is the most mature, promising and universally applicable technique for the disposal of organic explosives that are not suitable for recycling. Controlled combustion makes use of a closed furnace system; most promising for the situation in the Netherlands seems to be the Fluidized Bed Oven (FBO). Additional scrubbing systems (dry chemical/wet) are employed to remove the remaining hazardous products like HCl, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}.

  17. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C. [Stake Technology Ltd., Norval, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H. [MS J566, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lee, R. J. [Lndian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  19. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  20. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

  1. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  2. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal.

  3. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal.

  4. Mechanical modeling of the plastic bonded explosive LX17 

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Kyle Martin

    2001-01-01

    , for the strain formulation, equation (17), when it goes through a Laplace transfomz, can be written as: le J1 ? ? ? 6 o. +2Jo // 3 3 // kk // (30) Since equations (28) and (30) are inverses of each other in Laplace space, the moduli and compliances... formulation of the constitutive relationship, equation (28), can be written in the following matrix form so that the given experimental relaxation data can be entered into SADISTIC for each term in the matrix: rrzz 033 crzz /r/3 o/z 4G K+ 3 2G 3 2G...

  5. Explosion at Walton Colliery Yorkshire 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, T. A.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT WALTON COLLIERY YORKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Walton Colliery, Yorkshire, on 22nd April, 1959 by T. A. ROGERS, C.B.E. H.M. ...

  6. Explosion at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire 

    E-print Network

    Jones, T.A.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT GLYNCORRWG COLLIERY, GLAMORGANSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Glyncorrwg Colliery, Glamorganshire, on 13th January, ...

  7. Explosion at Cardowan Colliery Lanarkshire 

    E-print Network

    Houston, H. R.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT CARDOWAN COLLIERY LANARKSHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the explosion which occurred at Cardowan Colliery, Lanarkshire, on 25th July, 1960 BY H. R. HOUSTON, C.B.E ...

  8. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    the dust for explosibility based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 1226 to ensure proper regulation of facilities. Dusts found in cotton gins were tested to determine if they are explosible. Safety Consulting Engineers Inc. (SCE...

  9. Detonation of a thin explosive layer in evacuated tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mitrofanov; V. A. Subbotin

    1998-01-01

    Detenation of thin layers of dispersed primary and secondary high explosives (HE) on the outer surface of glass and plastic\\u000a tubes 0.6–3 mm in diameter was examined at an initial air pressure inside the tube of 0.1 MPa to 30 Pa. It is shown that,\\u000a under these conditions, the air practically does not influence the detonation velocity, which for secondary

  10. Underwater explosive welding of thin tungsten foils and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, P.; Lee, J. O.; Mizumachi, K.; Mori, A.; Raghukandan, K.; Hokamoto, K.

    2011-11-01

    This study demonstrates the ability to clad pure tungsten foils on copper plate using underwater shock waves generated by the detonation of explosive. Microstructural characterization revealed that a higher preset inclination results in wavy morphology. Weld formed at lower inclination exhibit a planar interfacial layer comprising fine grained particles of both components. The plastic flow of tungsten is ascribed to the synergistic influence of high pressure and high strain rate at the collision point.

  11. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suhithi M. Peiris; Jared C. Gump

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials,\\u000a span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of\\u000a the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or\\u000a plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or

  12. Portable Raman explosives detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Moore; R. Jason Scharff

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics,\\u000a as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy,\\u000a both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  13. Environmental fate of explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith C. Pennington; James M. Brannon

    2002-01-01

    Waste disposal practices associated with military production of weapons, especially before and during World War II, have resulted in significant contamination of soils and ground water with high explosives such as TNT, RDX and HMX. Development of remediation and risk management strategies for these contaminated sites as well as development of approaches for sustainable use of active training and weapons

  14. Explosive Z Pinch

    E-print Network

    Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

    2006-11-08

    We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

  15. Ecotoxicology of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Morrill, Valerie [U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground; Jenkins, Thomas [U.S. Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory

    2009-04-01

    Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecological receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

  16. Explosive vaporization in microenclosures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Romera-Guereca; J. Lichtenberg; A. Hierlemann; D. Poulikakos; B. Kang

    2006-01-01

    The explosive vaporization of a liquid above planar microheaters induces a fast increase of pressure that is exploited in many thermally driven actuators in MEMS components such as ink jet printer cartridges, pumps, valves and optical switches. Some of these components need to enclose the working fluid as it is the case of valves in which the heated liquid is

  17. CBC: Halifax Explosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the evening of December 6, 1917, a massive explosion rocked the harbor of the rapidly growing city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, located in eastern Canada. Caused by the collision of two ships (one of which was carrying a tremendous amount of explosive material), the explosion killed over 1500 people outright, and devastated the settlements around the area. Working with various historical groups, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has created this engrossing multimedia look into the events leading up to that dreadful incident, along with offering a broader historical perspective on the development of the city of Halifax and the aftermath of these tragic events. Starting from the main page, visitors will learn about Halifax's history, along with having the opportunity to view significant interactive features, such as maps of the area and recently-discovered archival footage of the city and its environs. The interactive features here are quite amazing, as visitors can view video clips of survivors' recollections, and watch footage of various commemoration activities associated with the explosion.

  18. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues. PMID:24314527

  19. A plasticity concrete material model for DYNA3D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Javier Malvar; John E. Crawford; James W. Wesevich; Don Simons

    1997-01-01

    Lagrangian finite element codes with explicit time integration are extensively used for the analysis of structures subjected to explosive loading. Within these codes, numerous material models have been implemented. However, the development of a realistic but efficient concrete material model has proven complex and challenging.The plasticity concrete material model in the Lagrangian finite element code DYNA3D was assessed and enhanced.

  20. Elastic–plastic response spectra for exponential blast loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charis J. Gantes; Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2004-01-01

    The design of structures subjected to loads due to explosions is often treated by means of elastic–plastic response spectra. Such spectra that are currently available in the literature were computed on the basis of triangular shape of blast pressure with respect to time. In the present paper, response spectra based on an exponential distribution of blast pressure, which is in

  1. NQR: From imaging to explosives and drugs detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osán, Tristán M.; Cerioni, Lucas M. C.; Forguez, José; Ollé, Juan M.; Pusiol, Daniel J.

    2007-02-01

    The main aim of this work is to present an overview of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy capabilities for solid state imaging and detection of illegal substances, such as explosives and drugs. We briefly discuss the evolution of different NQR imaging techniques, in particular those involving spatial encoding which permit conservation of spectroscopic information. It has been shown that plastic explosives and other forbidden substances cannot be easily detected by means of conventional inspection techniques, such as those based on conventional X-ray technology. For this kind of applications, the experimental results show that the information inferred from NQR spectroscopy provides excellent means to perform volumetric and surface detection of dangerous explosive and drug compounds.

  2. Response surface study on production of explosively-welded aluminum-titanium laminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Ege; O. T. Inal; C. A. Zimmerly

    1998-01-01

    This research was undertaken to produce strong and stiff, aluminum-titanium, multi-layered composites (laminates) by explosive welding, for applications requiring light-weight. The purpose of lamination is to create a material with superior mechanical properties resulting from plastic deformation produced by shock wave passage throughout each layer and from the presence of the explosively welded interfaces. A response surface study was performed

  3. Large Area and Short-Pulse Shock Initiation of a Tatb\\/hmx Mixed Explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Guiji; Sun Chengwei; Chen Jun; Liu Cangli; Zhao Jianheng; Tan Fuli; Zhang Ning

    2007-01-01

    The large area and short-pulse shock initiation experiments on the plastic bonded mixed explosive of TATB(80%) and HMX(15%) have been performed with an electric gun where a Mylar flyer of 10-19 mm in diameter and 0.05~0.30 mm in thickness was launched by an electrically exploding metallic bridge foil. The cylindrical explosive specimens (Phi16 mm×8 mm in size) were initiated by

  4. Large Area and Short Pulsed Shock Initiation of A TATB\\/HMX Mixed Explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiji Wang; Chengwei Sun; Jun Chen; Cangli Liu; Fuli Tan; Ning Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The large area and short pulsed shock initiation experiment on a plastic bonded mixed explosive of TATB(80%) and HMX(15%) has been performed with an electric gun where a mylar flyer of 19mm in diameter and 0.05˜0.30mm in thickness is launched by an electrically exploding metallic bridge foil. The cylindrical explosive specimens (phi16mm x 8mm in size) were initiated by the

  5. Critical temperature analysis for a hemispherical charge of a binary explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pickard

    1989-01-01

    The adiabatic induction period for a hemispherical charge of a binary explosive (13.9 wt % pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 86.1 wt % plastic bonded explosive (PBX9407)) enclosed in an aluminum\\/ceramic housing was measured by conventional cook-off tests over the temperature range of 150 to 250°C. Simulated adiabatic induction time curves for an intimate mixture of PETN and PBX9407 were recorded

  6. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  7. Safe explosives for shaped charges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Scribner; J. O. Davis

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that high-performance shaped charges could be developed using as the explosive charge mixtures of ingredients that are not, by themselves, considered explosives. At least one of the ingredients needed to be a liquid, stored separately, that could be quickly injected into the shaped charge cavity to generate the active explosive. Precision copper shaped charge cones in diameters

  8. LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

  9. EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    EXPLOSIONS AND ARBITRAGE IOANNIS KARATZAS Abstract The Feller and Khas'minskii tests provide conditions, under which a given dif- fusion process X(·) in a domain D can have explosions. If such explosions happen with positive probability, what is the distribution F(t, x) = Px(S t) , 0

  10. Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation

    E-print Network

    s & Dt^boooo^j Risø-R-525 Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation (Small-Scale Experiments EXPLOSION CHARACTERIZATION, WAVE PROPAGATION (Small-Scale Experiments) G.C. Larsen Abstract. A number; EXPLOSIONS; HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES; METHANE; NITROGEN; OXYGEN; PRESSURE MEASUREMENT; REFLECTION; SIMULATION

  11. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  12. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  13. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  14. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  15. Ignition criterion and safety prediction of explosives under low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang; Dai, Kaida

    2013-09-01

    Due to the complexity of impact-induced reaction, it is difficult to predict and evaluate the ignition and safety of explosives under low velocity impact. Plastic deformation is very important to explosive ignition under impact loading. At low strain rates, plastic deformation can be treated as an isothermal process. The deformation under high-strain-rate is usually seen as an adiabatic process, and the deformation work is transformed into heat with the attendant temperature increase of the explosive. In this paper, we proposed an ignition criterion in terms of effective plastic work and specific plastic power to predict the ignition of explosives under low velocity impact. The plastic work begins to accumulate, when the specific plastic power (i.e., the plastic strain rate) in a local region meets a threshold value; and when the plastic work is sufficient enough, the ignition occurs. The criterion parameters are determined by numerical simulation using LS-DYNA. Numerical simulation is compared with experimental data in order to calibrate the numerical model. The threshold values of this ignition criterion for different configurations are determined. In order to evaluate the validity of the criterion, the predictions of the ignition time, ignition zone, threshold velocities in Steven test with different PBX size designs and various projectiles, as well as the ignition threshold conditions in a modified drop weight test, Susan test, and Spigot test, are carried out. The predicted results show a good agreement with experimental results, and the errors of the ignition threshold are less than 15% for all the experimental configurations.

  16. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-04-06

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  17. Explosive welding of pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Drennov; O. Burtseva; A. Kitin

    2006-01-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their

  18. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Burtseva

    2007-01-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their

  19. Adhesion of explosives.

    PubMed

    Chaffee-Cipich, Michelle N; Sturtevant, Bryce D; Beaudoin, Stephen P

    2013-06-01

    It is of increasing importance to understand how explosive particles adhere to surfaces in order to understand how to remove them for detection in airport or other security settings. In this study, adhesion forces between royal demolition explosive (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in their crystalline forms and aluminum coupons with three finishes, acrylic melamine (clear coating), polyester acrylic melamine (white coating) automotive finishes, and a green military-grade finish, were measured and modeled. The force measurements were performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) method. Explosive particles were mounted on AFM cantilevers and repeatedly brought in and out of contact with the surfaces of interest while the required force needed to pull out of contact was recorded. An existing Matlab-based simulator was used to describe the observed adhesion force distributions, with excellent agreement. In these simulations, the measured topographies of the interacting surfaces were considered, although the geometries were approximated. The simulations were performed using a van der Waals force-based adhesion model and a composite effective Hamaker constant. It was determined that certain combinations of roughness on the interacting surfaces led to preferred particle-substrate orientations that produced extreme adhesion forces. PMID:23510004

  20. Explosives signatures and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  1. Adhesive properties of some fluoropolymer binders with the insensitive explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Yeager; A. M. Dattelbaum; E. B. Orler; D. F. Bahr; D. M. Dattelbaum

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion between binders and explosive crystals is of critical importance for the mechanical performance of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The surface properties of several prospective binders have been determined from static advancing contact angle measurements. The surface energies have been used to calculate theoretical work of adhesion to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), a common insensitive high explosive. The fluorinated terpolymer Oxy-461™, and Kel-F™

  2. In-Situ Monitoring of the Microstructure of TATB-based Explosive Formulations During Temperature Cycling using Ultra-small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T M Willey; D M Hoffman; T van Buuren; L Lauderbach; J Ilavsky; R H Gee; A Maiti; G Overturf; L Fried

    2008-01-01

    TATB (1,3,5 triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), an extremely insensitive explosive, is used both in plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) and as an ultra-fine pressed powder (UFTATB). With both PBXs and UFTATB, an irreversible expansion occurs with temperature cycling known as ratchet growth. In TATB-based explosives using Kel-F 800 as binder (LX-17 and PBX-9502), additional voids, sizes hundreds of nanometers to a few microns account for

  3. Metaplasticity: the plasticity of synaptic plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wickliffe C. Abraham; Mark F. Bear

    1996-01-01

    In thi paper, we review experimental evidence for a novel form of persistent synaptic plasticity we call metaplasticity. Metaplasticity is induced by synaptic or cellular activity, but it is not necessarilly expressed as a change in the efficacy of normal synaptic transmission. Instead, it is manifest as a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity such as long-term

  4. Plastic encapsulated parts

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, T.

    1994-10-01

    Plastic semiconductor packages were characterized as possible alternatives for canned devices, which are susceptible to internal shorts caused by conductive particles. Highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) as well as electrical and mechanical testing were conducted on plastic technology devices.

  5. Facial Plastic Surgery Today

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Meet the President Leadership Committees Code of Ethics Position Statements Unique AAFPRS Training Past Presidents 50th ... plastic surgeons heed the call, Faces of Honor COPYRIGHT 2015 | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FACIAL PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE ...

  6. Linear accelerator for explosive detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Whitham; R. C. Miller; H. Anamkath; J. R. Clifford; R. B. Miller; K. Habiger

    1991-01-01

    A 14 MeV, S-band linear accelerator has been designed and built by Beta Development for use in the MIDEP explosive detection program at Titan\\/Spectron Division. The explosive detection technique utilizes photoneutron activation of the nitrogen which is an integral component in most commercial and military explosives. The accelerator was designed to be a small, high power, light weight, and portable

  7. Booster for relatively insensitive explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cook; H. E. Farnam; S. D. Malstrom; W. H. Peterson

    1962-01-01

    Insensitive explosives, containing a high percentage of ammonium nitrate (NHD4UNOD3U) and containing nonexplosive organic sensitizers, have found wide application as blasting explosives. Prilled NHD4UNOD3U containing 94% NHD4UNOD3U and 6% fuel oil, and aqueous slurries of TNT-NHD4UNOD3U are examples of such insensitive explosives. The compositions are not detonable by blasting caps and prior art methods for detonating them include the use

  8. Explosives solve downhole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Defrank, P.

    1981-11-01

    Shaped charges were first used more than 30 years ago to perforate casing, cement sheath and reservoir to provide selective communication between the reservoir and well bore. Since then, advances have been made in design of shaped charge sand ancillary equipment. Penetration has increased considerably. Miniaturization of equipment allows passing through relatively small restrictions and effectively communicating with reservoirs. Gun debris has been drastically reduced and in some designs eliminated. Deep reservoirs can be effectively penetrated under down-hole environments exceeding 500 F and 20,000 psi. This work covers the problems encountered and reviews successful devices employing shaped charge and explosive technology.

  9. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

  10. Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, K.; Yokoi, N.; Hoshino, M.

    2013-06-01

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  11. Modeling of explosion thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, K. L.; Stanchits, L. K.; Stankevich, Yu. A.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic and radiation processes accompanying explosions of chemical explosives and fuel-air mixtures have been considered. Computer modeling of the radiation from a fire ball of explosion and a flame of diffusion combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has been performed. The dependences of the heat flux density from the region occupied by explosion and combustion products on its temperature and geometric characteristics have been determined. Thermal load distributions on targets of different orientations in the vicinity of the energy release zone have been obtained. A comparison of the thermal parameters on radiation detectors with the criteria of thermal affection of people and ignition of combustible materials has been made.

  12. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  13. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  14. Polycrystal Plasticity -Multiple Slip"

    E-print Network

    Rollett, Anthony D.

    Polycrystal Plasticity - Multiple Slip" 27-750 Texture, Microstructure & Anisotropy A.D. Rollett;2 Objective" The objective of this lecture is to show how plastic deformation in polycrystals requires of Los Alamos polycrystal plasticity, LApp; also the Viscoplastic Selfconsistent code, VPSC; also

  15. Plastics in Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeist, Irving, Ed.

    The evaluation and use of plastics in the construction industry are explained. The contributors offer extensive, timely, and thoroughly researched data on the chemistry, properties, functions, engineering behavior, and specific applications of plastics to building requirements. The major subjects discussed in depth are--(1) the role of plastics in…

  16. Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical approximations Adaptive numerical scheme Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions Pablo Groisman University of Buenos Aires Joint work with J Stochastic Differential Equations with explosions #12;Introduction Explosions in evolution problems Numerical

  17. Shock and High Strain Rate Characterization of HTPB with Varying Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaigne, Didier; Neel, Christopher; Gould, Peter; Molek, Christopher; Jordan, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) has long been used as a binder in propellants and explosives. However, cured HTPB rubbery polyurethanes have not been characterized in a systematic fashion as function of plasticizer content. In this study, four isocyanate-cured HTPB variants with different amounts of plasticizer have been formulated. The materials were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis and quasi-static and dynamic compression experiments. Additionally, the shock Hugoniot was measured on the two extremes of the material - no plasticizer and maximum plasticizer. The properties of the HTPB were predicted using the Porter-Gould model for polymers.

  18. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room

  19. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

  20. Biodegradability of Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Ugwu, Charles U.; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed. PMID:19865515

  1. Rejection of fluorescence from Raman spectra of explosives by picosecond optical Kerr gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Ida; Zachhuber, Bernhard; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes how optical Kerr gating can be used for effective rejection of fluorescence from Raman spectra of explosives and explosives precursors. Several explosives are highly fluorescent, and this method enables Raman detection of explosives materials that would else be complicated or impossible to identify. Where electronic cameras (intensified charge-coupled devices, ICCDs) have showed not yet to be sufficiently fast to be used for rejection of this fluorescence, Kerr gating is here proved to be an efficient alternative, demonstrated by measurements on plastic explosives. Results were obtained using a gating time of ~30 ps. The Kerr gate was driven by the fundamental mode of an Nd:YAG laser, at 1064 nm, with pulses of ~8 mJ, 50 Hz and 30 ps. CS2 was used as a Kerr medium and Glan polarizing prisms were important features of the system. Raman spectra were obtained using a 532 nm probe wavelength, from the same Nd:YAG laser being frequency doubled, with a ~2 mJ pulse energy. Gating times of ~30 ps were thus achieved, with a fluorescence rejection factor of more than 1300, for the first time revealing detailed characteristics in Raman spectra from highly fluorescent PETN based plastic explosive.

  2. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations 

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    personnel listed dust found in cotton gins, or gin dust, fueled two explosions in the past. OSHA is required by law to regulate facilities handling explosible dusts to provide a safe working environment for employees. The dust handling facilities must test...

  3. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  4. Explosive welding of metal plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. A. Akbari-Mousavi; L. M. Barrett; S. T. S. Al-Hassani

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study of explosive welding of metal plates. The properties of a locally prepared mix of 77\\/23 ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) explosive and the dynamics of the plates are investigated and the results from welding tests presented. The strength of the clad plates is measured and ultrasonic inspection performed to identify and locate defects. The

  5. After an explosion, what happens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    Whenever an explosion or fire occurs in the presence of LP-gas, an investigation is usually necessary to determine the cause and to protect the marketer from unreasonable lawsuits. Haag Engineering Co., Dallas, urges that the evidence be studied carefully so that mistakes do not obliterate evidence before a conclusion is reached. Overall effects of the explosion should be examined to

  6. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301 ...Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be...

  11. 77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...facilities at a launch site where solid propellants, energetic liquids, or other explosives...basis of the type and quantity of solid propellants, energetic liquids, and other explosives...division 1.1 explosives and liquid propellants with trinitrotoluene (TNT)...

  12. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  13. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  14. Reaction of Shocked but Undetonated HMX-Based Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P.; Salisbury, D. A.; Markland, L. S.; Winter, R. E.

    2001-06-01

    Cylindrical samples of the pressed plastic bonded HMX-based explosive EDC37, backed by metal discs, were shocked through a stainless steel attenuator by an explosive donor. Reaction of the EDC37 sample was diagnosed with embedded PVDF pressure gauges and a run distance to detonation for the geometry was determined. Sample length was then reduced to less than the observed run distance and laser interferometry was used to record the free surface velocity of the metal backing disc. The results provide data on the metal driving energy liberated by the explosive which is shocked and reacting but not detonated. The results are compared with Eulerian hydrocode calculations incorporating the three term Lee and Tarver reaction model with desensitisation. It is found that a parameter set for the reaction model which replicates the PVDF pressure profiles before reflection also gives good agreement to the metal disc velocity history at early times. The results show that an appreciable fraction of the metal driving potential of an explosive can be released without detonation being established.

  15. Non-Solid Explosives for Shaped Charges I: Explosive Parameters Measurements for Sensitized Liquid Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cartwright; D. Lloyd-Roach; P. J. Simpson

    2007-01-01

    The disposal of time-expired and unexploded ordnance is a major problem for the NATO countries. Simple functioning of the device, either in its design mode or by attachment of additional explosive and firing, requires extended safety zones. Inducing deflagration could reduce co-lateral damage within the safety zone. One solution to the problem, with current explosive fillings, of producing predictable performance

  16. The evolution of microstructural changes in pressed HMX explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Phillips, D.S.; Howe, P.M.; Mang, J.T.; Romero, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Recently developed techniques for investigating the microstructure of plastic-bonded explosives have been applied to HMX explosives pressed to various levels of porosity. Microstructural changes in PBX 9501 area followed from the early stages of prill consolidation through typical density to very low porosity (0.6%). As porosity is reduced, the following sequence is observed. Large inter- and intra-prill voids are eliminated with first damage to HMX crystals occurring at prill boundaries. This is followed by increased incidence of crystal twinning and cracking. At the lowest porosities, spall pullout artifacts are observed, cracks associated with particle contact points are more obvious, and the results of intercrystalline indentation or intergrowth migration processes are apparent. A comparison is made, at lowest porosities achieved, with PX 9404 and X-0242 (a formulation like PBX 9501 with higher binder volume). Possible implications on porosity trends in shock sensitivity data are discussed.

  17. An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.

    1991-06-01

    The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP. Static electricity generated by the plastic bags represents a potential ignition source for other fuels, such as methane gas or hydrogen gas, during transportation and during the test phase. The potential danger of explosion due to hydrogen gas or methane gas generation has not yet been resolved. This report investigates that potential hazard and examines documented ignitions, fires, explosions and incidents of overpressurization of containers at generating and storage sites planning to send transuranic waste to the WIPP for disposal. 68 refs., 6 figs.

  18. An explicit model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to high explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, R.L.; Prime, M.B.; Anderson, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A viscoplastic constitutive model was formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion of thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations. This model provides insight into the development of plastic instabilities, which occur on the surface of the shells prior to failure. The effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence were incorporated using the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. This model was implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user material subroutine. A cylindrical copper shell was modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. The high explosive material inside of the cylinder was simulated using the high explosive burn model in ABAQUS/Explicit. Two experiments were conducted involving explosive-filled, copper cylinders and good agreement was obtained between the numerical results and experimental data.

  19. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  20. Plasticized phenolphthalein polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Phenolphthalein polycarbonate was successfully plasticized with polychlorinated biphenyls (e.g., Aroclor 1231) or tricresyl phosphate and cast from tetrahydrofuran to give clear films without loss of fire resistance. At loadings of 20 to 30 percent plasticizer the Tg was lowered to approximately 100 C which would render phenolphthalein polycarbonate easily moldable. Although these materials had some mechanical integrity as shown by their film forming ability, the room temperature toughness of the plasticized polymer was not significantly improved over unmodified polymer.

  1. Noise From Shallow Underwater Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, Alexander G.

    Naval activities such as ordnance disposal, demolition and requisite training, can involve detonation of small explosive charges in shallow water that have the potential to harm nearby marine life. Measurements of the underwater sound generated by sub-surface explosions were collected as part of a naval training exercise. In this thesis the noise levels from these explosions will be investigated using peak pressure, sound exposure level and energy spectral density. Measurements of very-low frequency Scholte interface waves will also be presented and used to investigate elastic parameters in the sediment.

  2. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  3. Optimized thermal desorption for improved sensitivity in trace explosives detection by ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Najarro, Marcela; Dávila Morris, Melissa E; Staymates, Matthew E; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2012-06-01

    In this work we evaluate the influence of thermal desorber temperature on the analytical response of a swipe-based thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection of trace explosives. IMS response for several common high explosives ranging from 0.1 ng to 100 ng was measured over a thermal desorber temperature range from 60 °C to 280 °C. Most of the explosives examined demonstrated a well-defined maximum IMS signal response at a temperature slightly below the melting point. Optimal temperatures, giving the highest IMS peak intensity, were 80 °C for trinitrotoluene (TNT), 100 °C for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 160 °C for cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and 200 °C for cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX). By modifying the desorber temperature, we were able to increase cumulative IMS signal by a factor of 5 for TNT and HMX, and by a factor of 10 for RDX and PETN. Similar signal enhancements were observed for the same compounds formulated as plastic-bonded explosives (Composition 4 (C-4), Detasheet, and Semtex). In addition, mixtures of the explosives exhibited similar enhancements in analyte peak intensities. The increases in sensitivity were obtained at the expense of increased analysis times of up to 20 seconds. A slow sample heating rate as well as slower vapor-phase analyte introduction rate caused by low-temperature desorption enhanced the analytical sensitivity of individual explosives, plastic-bonded explosives, and explosives mixtures by IMS. Several possible mechanisms that can affect IMS signal response were investigated such as thermal degradation of the analytes, ionization efficiency, competitive ionization from background, and aerosol emission. PMID:22498665

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  5. Careers in Plastics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this video as part of a series on advanced technological education. Filmed at NPE: The International Plastics Showcase, the video features careers in the plastics industry. Degrees that lead to careers in plastics are discussed. The video also talks about emerging green technologies and how they relate to the plastics industry. The video may be viewed online or downloaded. To download the clip, users must create a free login for Teachers' Domain. Running time for this QuickTime video is 2:13. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material.

  6. Plastics and health risks.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics. PMID:20070188

  7. Liquefaction process for a hydrothermally treated waste mixture containing plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoyuki Sugano; Akihiro Komatsu; Masanori Yamamoto; Mika Kumagai; Takayuki Shimizu; Katsumi Hirano; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2009-01-01

    Most landfilled plastic waste is a mixture or is in the form of composites with incombustible wastes such as glass, metals,\\u000a and ceramics. After hydrothermal treatment, including a steam-explosion process, the separation of mixed waste (MW) into organic\\u000a and inorganic substances becomes easy. However, the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on the subsequent liquefaction of\\u000a organic substances from MW is not

  8. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  9. Microscopic Approaches to Decomposition and Burning Processes of a Micro Plastic Resin Particle under Abrupt Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohiwa, Norio; Ishino, Yojiro; Yamamoto, Atsunori; Yamakita, Ryuji

    To elucidate the possibility and availability of thermal recycling of waste plastic resin from a basic and microscopic viewpoint, a series of abrupt heating processes of a spherical micro plastic particle having a diameter of about 200 ?m is observed, when it is abruptly exposed to hot oxidizing combustion gas. Three ingenious devices are introduced and two typical plastic resins of polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene are used. In this paper the dependency of internal and external appearances of residual plastic embers on the heating time and the ingredients of plastic resins is optically analyzed, along with appearances of internal micro bubbling, multiple micro explosions and jets, and micro diffusion flames during abrupt heating. Based on temporal variations of the surface area of a micro plastic particle, the apparent burning rate constant is also evaluated and compared with those of well-known volatile liquid fuels.

  10. Studies of plastic insulators under shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Oona, H. (Henn); Goforth, J. H. (James H.); Tasker, D. G. (Douglas G.); King, J. C. (James Carrel); Sena, F. C. (Francis C.); Kiuttu, G.; Casvassos, T.

    2001-01-01

    As experiments done with explosively driven switches and magnetic flux compression generators become complex, the details become increasingly important. In most experiments the detonation of explosives is done through hyers of material that include metal and plastic, which may retard the detonation, and at the same time the insulating materials must maintain their integrity at high voltages. We have initiated some small-scale experiments that use a few hundred grams of explosives to study effects on shocked materials. These studies look at effects on detonation through various materials as a function of their thickness, and will be compared with hydrodynamic computer modeling done with the MESA2D code. Another related series of experiments observed the voltage breakdown o f insulators under shock conditions. In this set of experiments insulators made of polyethylene, Teflon and Mylar were placed between two electrodes and exposed to 12OKV during a shock. The timing of the shock was determined from light produced at a flash gap. Photo-diodes coupled to optical fibers were used to transmit the signals to the diagnostic bunker. A Pearson probe was used to monitor the voltage at the insulator during the breakdown. The timing of the breakdown relative to the shock arrival time was recorded. The breakdown data as a function of materials and geometry are provided in this report. Also, these data are compared with computer simulations that may suggest material conditions at the time of insulator failure.

  11. Comparative analysis of physical mechanisms of detonation initiation in HMX and in a low-sensitive explosive (TATB)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Grebenkin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of hot spots, the basic physical factors determining the macrokinetics of chemical reactions in heterogeneous\\u000a crystalline explosives are estimated. The macrokinetics in plasticized TATB is shown to be basically determined by the velocity\\u000a of combustion propagation from microscopic reaction spots (hot spots), whereas the macrokinetics in plasticized HMX is determined\\u000a by the density of hot spots.

  12. Disaster management following explosion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making. PMID:18522253

  13. Explosive actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  14. Explosive actuated valves

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, Jr., Lawrence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a generally tubular housing having an end portion forming a chamber to receive the sensitive portion of an explosive squib, a plunger within said housing having an end portion exposed to said chamber, squib retaining means for engaging said housing and a said squib to releasably maintain the squib in close proximity to said plunger end portion including a retaining ring of fusible material spaced outwardly from and encircling at least part of a said squib and part of its sensitive portion for reception of heat from an external source prior to appreciable reception thereof by the sensitive portion of the squib, an annular compression spring bearing at one end against said housing for urging at least a portion of the squib retaining means and a said squib away from said housing and from said plunger end portion upon subjection of the fusible material to heat sufficient to melt at least a portion thereof, and guide means for said spring to maintain even expansion thereof as a said squib is being urged away from said housing.

  15. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples. PMID:25086347

  16. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  18. Explosives detection with hard-wired moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

  19. Detonation characteristics of powerful insensitive explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Bogdanova; S. A. Gubin; B. L. Korsunskii; V. I. Pepekin

    2009-01-01

    Experimental and calculated detonation characteristics of powerful insensitive explosives are given. Features of explosives\\u000a with a high hydrogen content are discussed. The relationship between the power and sensitivity characteristics of explosives\\u000a and the structure of their molecules are considered. Prospects for the development of powerful explosives are discussed.

  20. EXPLOSIVE WELDING SIMULATION OF MULTILAYER TUBES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Akbari Mousavi; G. Joodaki

    Summary. Explosive welding is a process which uses explosive detonation to propel the flyer plate material into the base material to produce a sound joint. Experimental tests have been performed to explosively welded aluminum 5056, aluminum 1015 and stainless steel 304 tubes in one step. The tests have been carried out using various stand-off distances and explosive ratios. Various interface

  1. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  2. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics...Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In addition, new information shows...All workers of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis...

  3. Microbial remediation of explosive waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-05-01

    Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed. PMID:22497284

  4. Localization of plastic deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rice

    1976-01-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and

  5. Reinforced plastics durability

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, G. (ed.)

    1999-01-01

    Written especially for first-time users of reinforced plastics. The book offers substantial introductory information with key concepts. Chapters examine the long-term threats to the integrity of reinforced plastics: outdoor weathering, solvent/water attack, high temperatures, and repetitive stress.

  6. Plasticity in fretting contact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ambrico; M. R. Begley

    2000-01-01

    The fretting problem of a cyclically loaded cylinder on a flat elastic–plastic surface is analyzed under the assumption of plane strain. Severe fretting conditions are modeled by applying a constant normal load and a cyclic tangential load to the cylinder and describing the contact behavior using a Coulomb friction law. Detailed numerical results are presented for the evolution of plastic

  7. Interplay of explosive thermal reaction dynamics and structural confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, W. Lee; Zucker, Jonathan; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2007-04-01

    Explosives play a significant role in human affairs; however, their behavior in circumstances other than intentional detonation is poorly understood. Accidents may have catastrophic consequences, especially if additional hazardous materials are involved. Abnormal ignition stimuli, such as impact, spark, friction, and heat may lead to a very violent outcome, potentially including detonation. An important factor influencing the behavior subsequent to abnormal ignition is the strength and inertia of the vessel confining the explosive, i.e., the near-field structural/mechanical environment, also known as confinement (inertial or mechanical). However, a comprehensive and quantified understanding of how confinement affects reaction violence does not yet exist. In the research discussed here, we have investigated a wide range of confinement conditions and related the explosive response to the fundamentals of the combustion process in the explosive. In our experiments, a charge of an octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX 9501) was loaded into a gun assembly having variable confinement conditions and subjected to a heating profile. The exploding charge breached the confinement and accelerated a projectile down the gun barrel. High bandwidth pressure and volume measurements were made and a first-law analysis was used to obtain enthalpy and power from the raw data. These results were then used to quantify reaction violence. Enthalpy change and power ranged from 0-1.8 kJ and 0-12 MW for 300 mg charges, respectively. Below a confinement strength of 20 MPa, violence was found to decline precipitously with decreasing confinement, while the violence for the heaviest confinement experiments was found to be relatively constant. Both pressure and pressurization rate were found to have critical values to induce and sustain violent reaction.

  8. Core collapse supernovae: magnetorotational explosion

    E-print Network

    G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; S. G. Moiseenko; N. V. Ardeljan

    2005-11-10

    Core-collapse supernovae are connected with formation of neutron stars. Part of the gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed in SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. The mechanism of transformation is not simple, because the overwhelming majority of the energy is going into weakly interacting neutrino. The attempts to use this energy for the explosion were not successful during about 40 years of investigation. We consider the explosion mechanism in which the source of energy is the rotation, and magnetic field serves for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of explosion. 2-D MHD simulations of this mechanism were performed. After the collapse the core consists of a rapidly rotating proto-neutron star with a differentially rotating envelope. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy generated by the differential rotation grows as quadratic function with time at the initial stage of the evolution of the magnetic field. The linear growth of the toroidal magnetic field is terminated by the development of magnetohydrodynamic instability, when the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal field, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. At the moment when the magnetic pressure becomes comparable to the gas pressure at the periphery of the proto-neutron star the MHD compression wave appears and goes through the envelope of the collapsed core. It transforms into the fast MHD shock and produces a supernova explosion. Our simulations give the energy of the explosion $0.6\\cdot 10^{51}$ ergs. The amount of the mass ejected by the explosion is $\\sim 0.14M_\\odot$. The implicit numerical method, based on the Lagrangian triangular grid of variable structure, was used for the simulations.

  9. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  10. LINEARIZED PLASTICITY IS THE EVOLUTIONARY -LIMIT OF FINITE PLASTICITY

    E-print Network

    Stefanelli, Ulisse

    LINEARIZED PLASTICITY IS THE EVOLUTIONARY -LIMIT OF FINITE PLASTICITY ALEXANDER MIELKE AND ULISSE in plasticity. By taking the small-deformations limit, we prove via -convergence for rate-independent processes plastic evolution by means of a deli- cate recovery sequence construction relating energy and dissipation

  11. Fundamental microstructural issues associated with severe plastic deformation: Applications of transmission electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Vanessa Esquivel

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the microstructural response of several metals and alloys to severe plastic deformation (SPD) in the form of shock wave loading, impact cratering, explosive welding, and ballistic penetration. Microstructural issues that will be addressed include dynamic recrystallization, adiabatic shear bands, and microbands and microtwins. Other relevant issues are stacking fault free energy (SFE), shock wave geometry and

  12. Some features of the fabrication of multilayer fiber composites by explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotov, V. A.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Cabelka, D.

    1985-01-01

    The fabrication of multilayer fiber composites by explosive welding is characterized by intense plastic deformation of the matrix material as it fills the spaces between fibers and by high velocity of the collision between matrix layers due to acceleration in the channels between fibers. The plastic deformation of the matrix layers and fiber-matrix friction provide mechanical and thermal activation of the contact surfaces, which contributes to the formation of a bond. An important feature of the process is that the fiber-matrix adhesion strength can be varied over a wide range by varying the parameters of impulsive loading.

  13. Pattern formation in colloidal explosions

    E-print Network

    Arthur V. Straube; Ard A. Louis; Jörg Baumgartl; Clemens Bechinger; Roel P. A. Dullens

    2011-07-23

    We study the non-equilibrium pattern formation that emerges when magnetically repelling colloids, trapped by optical tweezers, are abruptly released, forming colloidal explosions. For multiple colloids in a single trap we observe a pattern of expanding concentric rings. For colloids individually trapped in a line, we observe explosions with a zigzag pattern that persists even when magnetic interactions are much weaker than those that break the linear symmetry in equilibrium. Theory and computer simulations quantitatively describe these phenomena both in and out of equilibrium. An analysis of the mode spectrum allows us to accurately quantify the non-harmonic nature of the optical traps. Colloidal explosions provide a new way to generate well-characterized non-equilibrium behaviour in colloidal systems.

  14. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  15. Explosive evaporation in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

  16. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  17. Saccharification of explosively dried corn

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.H.; Zaragosa, E.M.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1986-08-01

    Very rapid or explosive drying of grains such as corn leads to obvious physical changes in the macrostructure of the grain kernel, probable alteration in starch molecular structure, and reduction in starch average molecular weight. These changes lead to greater susceptibility to attack by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes. Rates of formation of nonreducing and reducing sugars by liquefying and saccharifying enzymes applied to explosively dried and milled yellow dent corn and small-kernel flint corn were 3.3-10.6 times greater then rates for the normally milled grains. The enzymatic conversion of explosively dried flint corn containing absorbed ethyl alcohol, as would be the case if it had been used as an adsorbent to dewater aqueous ethyl alcohol, was not significantly different from that of ethyl-alcohol-free flint corn. 15 references.

  18. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B. (ed.) (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to as low as 5.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson[sup 8] provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10[sup [minus]1].

  19. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  20. Introduction to Plastics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this video as part of a series on advanced technological education. This video illustrates the basics of the plastics industry. The clip teaches the physical properties of plastics, including examples of common plastics. It also includes an animation depicting how monomers join to form polymers, which plastics are made up of. The video goes on to show how polymers and resins are produced. The video may be viewed online or downloaded. To download the clip, users must create a free login for Teachers' Domain. Running time for this QuickTime video is 2:36. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material.

  1. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the teeth and to recreate a normal appearance. Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease is diagnosed when gingival or gum ... changes and extending to periodontal plastic surgery. Treating Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease does not always respond to conservative ...

  2. Careers in Plastics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2010-07-11

    Learn about opportunities for working in the growing field of plastics, including the emerging area of green technologies, in this video segment adapted from Pennsylvania College of Technology and WVIA.

  3. Plasticity of amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lautz, Julian; Moseler, Michael; Pastewka, Lars

    2014-03-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to probe the plastic response of representative bulk volumes of amorphous carbon at densities from 2.0 g cm-3 to 3.3 g cm-3 in simple and triaxial shear. After an initial elastic response the samples yield with only little strain hardening or softening. Individual plastic events in this network forming glass are strikingly similar to those observed for bulk metallic glasses: We find that plasticity is carried by fundamental rearrangements of regions of around 100 atoms, the shear transformation zone. In the simple shear geometry, those events coalesce to form a shear-band on longer time scales. During plastic deformation, the material changes its hybridization by transforming sp3 carbon atoms to sp2. We provide evidence that this transformation of the structural state occurs before the material yields, hence weakening the material. This work was supported by the European Commission (Marie-Curie IOF 272619).

  4. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for referrals to ASPS Member Surgeons and to learn more about cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. The ... publication and is subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advances and as practice patterns evolve. ...

  5. The Plastic Ocean Michael Gonsior

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    The Plastic Ocean Michael Gonsior Bonnie Monteleone, William Cooper, Jennifer O'Keefe, Pamela Seaton, and Maureen Conte #12;#12;#12;Plastic does not biodegrade it photo-degrades breaking down is the plastic cheese wrap? Unfortunately, marine creatures mistake plastics in the ocean for food #12

  6. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  7. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-06-11

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  8. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

  9. Laser cutting plastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancleave, R. A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000 watt CO2 laser was demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics were laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposal tooling made from acrylic.

  10. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  11. Extruded plastic scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau, Alan D. Bross and Kerry L. Mellott

    1999-04-16

    As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

  12. Biodegradation of plastics.

    PubMed

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes. PMID:11404101

  13. Experimental measurements of the detonation wave profile in a TATB based explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyer, V.; Doucet, M.; Decaris, L.

    We report results of the experimental measurements of the detonation wave profile of the TATB based plastic bonded explosive T2 (97 w. % of TATB) using VISAR and Heterodyne Velocimetry (HV - same as Photon Doppler Velocimetry). The experiment consists in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. In order to obtain the particle velocity history in the reaction zone, we measure particle velocity at the interaction of the detonation front with an aluminized window or the free surface velocity of a metallic foil. Lithium Fluoride (LIF), PMMA and steel have been tested. Several shots have been performed for different lengths of explosive. We compare the VISAR and HV measurements. With LIF and steel, VISAR and HV diagnostics give very similar profiles. The ZND profile obtained on LIF is resolved with both techniques. With PMMA, HV gives a more accurate profile than VISAR in the reaction zone. There is no evidence of the influence of the explosive cylinder length.

  14. Explosive response model evaluation using the explosive H6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerrit T. Sutherland; Joseph Burns

    2000-01-01

    Reactive rate model parameters for a two term Lee Tarver [simplified ignition and growth (SIG)] model were obtained for the explosive H6 from modified gap test data. These model was used to perform simulations of the underwater sensitivity test (UST) using the CTH hydrocode. Reaction was predicted in the simulations for the same water gaps that reaction was observed in

  15. Studies on Shock Attenuation in Plastic Materials and Applications in Detonation Wave Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Ritu; Gautam, P. C.; Rai, Rajwant; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, A. C.; Singh, Manjit, Dr

    2012-07-01

    Pressure in plastic materials attenuates due to change of impedance, phase change in the medium and plastic deformation. A lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to the attenuation of shock wave produced by the impact of explosive driven flyer plate. However comparatively less work has been done on the attenuation of shock waves due to contact explosive detonation. Present studies deal with the attenuation of explosive driven shock waves in various plastic materials and its applications in design of Hybrid Detonation Wave Generator In present work shock attenuating properties of different polymers such as Perspex, Teflon, nylon, polypropylene and viton has been studied experimentally using rotating mirror streak camera and electrical position pins. High explosive RDX/TNT and OCTOL of diameter 75-100mm and thickness 20 to 50mm were detonated to induce shock wave in the test specimens. From experimental determined shock velocity at different locations the attenuation in shock pressure was calculated. The attenuation of shock velocity with thickness in the material indicates exponential decay according to relation US = UOexp(-ax). In few of the experiments manganin gauge of resistance 50 ohms was used to record stress time profile across shock wave. The shock attenuation data of Viton has successfully been used in the design of hybrid detonation wave generator using Octol as high explosive. While selecting a material it was ensured that the attenuated shock remains strong enough to initiate an acceptor explosive. Theoretical calculation were supported by Autodyne 2D hydro-code simulation which were validated with the experiments conducted using high speed streak photography and electrical shock arrival pins. Shock attenuation data of Perspex was used to establishing card gap test and wedge test in which test items is subjected to known pressure pulse by selecting the thickness of the plastic material.

  16. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  17. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...maximum quantities of liquid and solid propellants and other explosives to be located...the class and division for each solid explosive and the hazard and compatibility group for each liquid propellant; and (3) A description...

  18. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...maximum quantities of liquid and solid propellants and other explosives to be located...the class and division for each solid explosive and the hazard and compatibility group for each liquid propellant; and (3) A description...

  19. Explosion at Ingham Colliery, Thornhill, Yorkshire 

    E-print Network

    Bryan, A. M.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT INGHAM COLLIERY, THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending the Explosion which occurred at Ingham Colliery Thornhill, Yorkshire) on the 9th September, ...

  20. Explosion at Harrington No. 10 Colliery, Cumberland 

    E-print Network

    Felton, John

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT HARRINGTON No. 10 COLLIERY, CUMBERLAND REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending the Explosion which occurred at the Harrington No. 10 Colliery, Lowca,Cumberland, on ...

  1. Explosion at Hapton Valley Colliery, Lancashire 

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, H. S.

    MINISTRY OF POWER EXPLOSION AT HAPTON VALLEY COLLIERY, LANCASHIRE REPORT On the causes of, and circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Hapton Valley Colliery, Lancashire, on 22nd March, 1962 By H. S. ...

  2. Astrophysics: A lithium-rich stellar explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Margarita

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of explosions known as novae to the lithium content of the Milky Way is uncertain. Radioactive beryllium, which transforms into lithium, has been detected for the first time in one such explosion. See Letter p.381

  3. Calculation of the Shock Wave from an Underground Nuclear Explosion in Granite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THEODORE R. BUTKOVICI-I

    1965-01-01

    The capability of calculating the close-in effects of the shock wave from an underground nuclear explosion is demonstrated. Agreement was obtained between calculation and measurements using a spherically symmetric, hydrodynamic, elastic-plastic theoretical model for the Hardhat event, a 5-kiloton nuclear detonation in granite. This capability is dependent upon having a more or less complete description of the elastic and dynamic

  4. Non-linear analysis of blast walls and stiffened panels subjected to hydrocarbon explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Louca; M. Punjani; J. E. Harding

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results on the response of a typical blast wall and a tee-stiffened panel subjected to hydrocarbon explosions with geometries typical of those used in current offshore structures. The panels have been modelled using a non-linear finite element analysis package (DYNA3D) with thin shell elements for both the plate and stiffener components accounting for the effects of plasticity,

  5. Remote detector of explosive traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergey M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Viktor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.; Aksenov, Valery A.; Kikhtenko, Andrey V.; Tivileva, Maria I.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the research of possibility of remote detection of explosive traces using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) approach. Experimental data on the detection of traces of cyclonite in fingerprints at a distance of 4 m are presented.

  6. BEST: Baikal Explosion Seismic Transect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Thybo; M. Jensen; A. R. Ross; V. Suvorov; A. Emanov; V. Seleznev; V. Soloviov; G. Tatkov; E. Perchuc

    2002-01-01

    The Baikal Explosion Seismic Transect is composed of two deep seismic profiles: one across the Baikal Rift Zone at the southern end of Lake Baikal and a second profile along the axis of the rift into the Tunga depression. The main field project was carried out in October 2003 after a pilot project (BASE) in September 2002. Our primary goal

  7. A model of vulcanian explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Woods

    1995-01-01

    We present a model of the initial stages of the explosive eruption of magma from a volcanic conduit as occurs in Vulcanian style eruptions. We assume there is a volatile rich (1–10 wt%) mixture of magma, vaporised groundwater and exsolved volatiles, trapped at high pressure (1–100 atm) just below a plug in a volcanic conduit. If the plug disrupts, there

  8. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

  10. Type IA Supernova Explosion Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Hillebrandt; Jens C. Niemeyer

    2000-01-01

    Because calibrated light curves of type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white

  11. Explosively Actuated Opening for Rapid Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.

    1982-01-01

    Flexible linear-shaped charge provides explosive energy to create opening and to jettison panel. Container around explosive charge protects pilot from effects of explosion. Exterior steel strip receives most of force of explosion to jettison severed panel. System allows pilot to bail out from left side of airplane by creating opening where no door exists. Egress system is simple and highly responsive, requiring minimal modifications to airplane.

  12. Initiation of Heated PBX-9501 Explosive When Exposed to Dynamic Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M; Garcia, F

    2005-08-16

    Shock initiation experiments on the heated PBX9501 explosive (95% HMX, 2.5% estane, and 2.5% nitro-plasticizer by weight) were performed at temperatures 150 C and 180 C to obtain in-situ pressure gauge data. A 101 mm diameter propellant driven gas gun was utilized to initiate the PBX9501 explosive and manganin piezo-resistive pressure gauge packages were placed between sample slices to measure time resolved local pressure histories. The run-distance-to-detonation points on the Pop-plot for these experiments showed the sensitivity of the heated material to shock loading. This work shows that heated PBX-9501 is more shock sensitive than it is at ambient conditions. Proper Ignition and Growth modeling parameters were obtained to fit the experimental data. This parameter set will allow accurate code predictions to be calculated for safety scenarios involving PBX9501 explosives at temperatures close to those at which experiments were performed.

  13. Explosives: The Ammonium Nitrate in Oil Exemption Order, 1958 

    E-print Network

    Agnew, W.G.

    1958-01-01

    Under section 50 of the Explosives Act, 1875, certain explosives there named and any other explosives prescribed by Order in Council (or the purpose are exempted from certain provisions of the Act requiring that explosives ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  16. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  18. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  20. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  2. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  11. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  13. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  15. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  1. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  13. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Classes of explosive materials. 555.202 Section 555.202...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section 1926.903...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  1. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movement of explosive materials. 555.205 Section 555.205...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 57.6302 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56.6305...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6302 - Separation of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Separation of explosive material. 56.6302 Section 56.6302...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6302 Separation of explosive material. Explosives and blasting...

  14. 49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...column of the Explosives Table specifies the Packing Instruction (PI) which must be used for packaging the explosive. The Explosives...applicable international regulations. Explosives Table ID# PI UN0004 112 UN0005 130 UN0006 130 UN0007 130...

  15. 49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...column of the Explosives Table specifies the Packing Instruction (PI) which must be used for packaging the explosive. The Explosives...applicable international regulations. Explosives Table ID# PI UN0004 112 UN0005 130 UN0006 130 UN0007 130...

  16. 49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...column of the Explosives Table specifies the Packing Instruction (PI) which must be used for packaging the explosive. The Explosives...applicable international regulations. Explosives Table ID# PI UN0004 112 UN0005 130 UN0006 130 UN0007 130...

  17. USING 1D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    USING 1­D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS. Computer Science Las Cruces, NM 88003 ABSTRACT A radar observes the result of a space explosion. Due astronomical processes are slow; however, sometimes, space explosions happen: starts become supernovae, plan

  18. USING 1-D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    USING 1-D RADAR OBSERVATIONS TO DETECT A SPACE EXPLOSION CORE AMONG THE EXPLOSION FRAGMENTS Science Las Cruces, NM 88003 ABSTRACT A radar observes the result of a space explosion. Due to radar's low astronomical processes are slow; however, sometimes, space explosions happen: starts become supernovae, plan

  19. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives

    E-print Network

    Aslam, Tariq

    Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives(). At the edges of the explosive, Dn() is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive-containing systems. Key words: Detonation, Curvature eect, Edge interactions

  20. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives#

    E-print Network

    Aslam, Tariq

    Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives 1 Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives ###. At the edges of the explosive# D n ### is supplemented with boundary conditons. By direct numerical simulation for simulating complex explosive#containing systems. Key words# Detonation# Curvature e#ect# Edge interactions

  1. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. McFee; Steve Achal; Anthony A. Faust; Eldon Puckrin; Andrew House; Damon Reynolds; William McDougall; Adam Asquini

    2009-01-01

    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments

  2. Risk Assessment Study for Storage Explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Saiful Azhar; M. Abdul Rahman; M. Saari; K. Farizul Hafiz; D. Suhardy

    In Malaysia, there has been rapidly increasing usage in amount of explosives due to widely expansion in quarrying and mining industries. The explosives are usually stored in the storage where the safety precaution had given high attention. As the storage of large quantity of explosive can be hazardous to workers and nearby residents in the events of accidental denotation of

  3. Polymer sensors for nitroaromatic explosives detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Toal; William C. Trogler

    2006-01-01

    Several polymers have been used to detect nitroaromatic explosives by a variety of transduction schemes. Detection relies on both electronic and structural interactions between the sensing material and the analyte. Quenching of luminescent polymers by electron deficient nitroaromatic explosives, such as trinitrotoluene, may be monitored to detect explosives. Resistive sensing using carbon black particles that have been coated with different

  4. Non?traditional explosives: Potential detection problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmie C. Oxley

    1993-01-01

    Most explosive detection technologies have been focused on nitro?based military explosives because, indeed, they have figured in international terrorist incidents Not only are they readily available through purchase or theft or from sponsoring states, but methods for home synthesis of TNT, PETN and RDX are widely available. Presently substantial resources are being committed to developing explosive detection technologies to protect

  5. Numerical approximation of SDE with explosions.

    E-print Network

    Groisman, Pablo

    Numerical approximation of SDE with explosions. Joint work with Ju´an D´avila, U. de Chile Juli of the largest crack. The explosion time corresponds to the time of ultimate damage or fatigue failure in the material. #12;The Feller Test for Explosions provides a precise criteria to de- termine, in terms of b

  6. Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions Craig C. Chandler, Theodore G. Storey spread following nuclear explosions. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest & Range Expt Sta. 110 pp nuclear explosions. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest & Range Expt Sta. 110 pp., illus. (U.S. Forest

  7. Partitioning effect on a dust explosion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Partitioning effect on a dust explosion J.M. Pascaud Université d'Orléans 63, avenue de Lattre de explosion and the formation of overpressures inside a partitioned vessel. A calculation methodology of the explosion from one compartment to another adjacent compartment by the means of the hot flow through

  8. Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

    2008-05-23

    The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

  9. On the geophysical fingerprint of Vulcanian explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottsmann, J.; De Angelis, S.; Fournier, N.; Van Camp, M.; Sacks, S.; Linde, A.; Ripepe, M.

    2011-06-01

    Extrusion of viscous magma and the subsequent formation of a lava dome is often interspersed by short-lived vigorous (Vulcanian) explosions. The causes for and the timing of the transition from effusive to explosive activity during dome formation are poorly understood and forecasting this transition remains a challenge. Here, we describe and interpret a robust and unique multi-parameter data set documenting the subsurface processes associated with Vulcanian explosions at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (W.I.) in July and December 2008. We quantify explosion priming by processes in either the shallow (< 2 km depth) or the deep magmatic system and quantify syn-eruptive processes. The July 29 explosion has a signature related exclusively to shallow dynamics including conduit destabilisation, syn-eruptive decompression and magma fragmentation, conduit emptying and expulsion of juvenile pumice. In contrast, the December 3 explosion was triggered by unprecedented sudden pressurisation of the entire plumbing system from depths of about 10 km (including the magma chambers) resulting in surficial dome carapace failure, a violent cannon-like explosion, propagation of pressure waves and pronounced ballistic ejection of dome fragments. With timescales for explosion priming on the order of a few minutes, the precursory geophysical signatures are indicative of the nature of ensuing Vulcanian explosions. The short precursory phases characterise Vulcanian explosions as freak events triggered by abrupt rather than gradual changes in subsurface dynamics. Our findings provide important constraints for theoretical and experimental investigations of the effusive to explosive transition, forecasting of Vulcanian explosions and volcanic risk mitigation.

  10. EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER: AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Altgilbers

    The modern army is currently striving to make their weapon systems smaller, lighter, and cheaper and at the same time more powerful. One of the enabling technologies that permit this is Explosive Pulsed Power (EPP). Explosive Pulsed Power consists of those devices that convert the chemical energy in explosives into electrical energy. In 2004, a series of Army Small Business

  11. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-print Network

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks David J. Braun, Matthew Howard and Sethu actuation is advantageous to robot control once high-performance, explosive tasks, such as throwing, hitting highly dynamic, explosive movements. Such movements are characterised by a large release of energy over

  12. `Strangelove ocean' before the Cambrian explosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Hsu; Hedi Oberhänsli; J. Y. Gao; Sun Shu; Chen Haihong; Urs Krähenbühl

    1985-01-01

    The Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras were terminated by faunal changes involving mass extinction of the old and explosive evolution of the new fauna, but the fossil record shows only a Cambrian Explosion at the end of the Precambrian. Stanley speculated that the explosion was only possible after the ubiquitous algae community had been largely eliminated1; ecological niches were thus liberated

  13. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  14. Fast and sensitive recognition of various explosive compounds using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonki; Park, Aaron; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Choi, Namhyun; Park, Jun-Qyu; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Baek, Sung-June; Choo, Jaebum

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the development of methods for the identification of explosive materials that are faster, more sensitive, easier to use, and more cost-effective has become a very important issue for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. However, limited applicability of several analytical methods such as, the incapability of detecting explosives in a sealed container, the limited portability of instruments, and false alarms due to the inherent lack of selectivity, have motivated the increased interest in the application of Raman spectroscopy for the rapid detection and identification of explosive materials. Raman spectroscopy has received a growing interest due to its stand-off capacity, which allows samples to be analyzed at distance from the instrument. In addition, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to detect explosives in sealed containers such as glass or plastic bottles. We report a rapid and sensitive recognition technique for explosive compounds using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). Seven hundreds of Raman spectra (50 measurements per sample) for 14 selected explosives were collected, and were pretreated with noise suppression and baseline elimination methods. PCA, a well-known multivariate statistical method, was applied for the proper evaluation, feature extraction, and identification of measured spectra. Here, a broad wavenumber range (200- 3500 cm-1) on the collected spectra set was used for the classification of the explosive samples into separate classes. It was found that three principal components achieved 99.3 % classification rates in the sample set. The results show that Raman spectroscopy in combination with PCA is well suited for the identification and differentiation of explosives in the field.

  15. TeachingPlastics.org: Your Virtual Plastics Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, operated by the American Plastics Council, has a huge amount of plastics resources for both teachers and students. The site is divided into two main sections. Hands On Plastics is geared primarily for middle and high school levels, and Hands On Plastics Jr. is better for elementary school. Educators will find many lesson plans and activities to help them introduce various topics, and they can order a free supplement kit with plastic products. Interactive multimedia walk-throughs of the activities show exactly what needs to be done and how to do it. There is also a large hyperlink list with information about many aspects of plastics.

  16. 2/13/2014 Household explosion replaces population explosion as world concern -UPI.com http://www.upiasia.com/Science-Technology/2014/02/11/Household-explosion-replaces-population-explosion-as-world-concern/UPI-87811392152198/ 1/1

    E-print Network

    2/13/2014 Household explosion replaces population explosion as world concern - UPI.com http://www.upiasia.com/Science-Technology/2014/02/11/Household-explosion-replaces-population-explosion-as-world-concern/UPI-87811392152198/ 1 & Technology / Household explosion replaces population explosion as world concern Science & Technology

  17. On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven K. Chidester; Craig M. Tarver; Leroy G. Green; Paul A. Urtiew

    1997-01-01

    Twenty large scale experiments were conducted to determine the levels of violence of thermal explosions produced by various confinement and heat flow conditions. Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2°C\\/min to 3.3°C\\/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform

  18. Brain plasticity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B; Whishaw, I Q

    1998-01-01

    Brain plasticity refers to the brain's ability to change structure and function. Experience is a major stimulant of brain plasticity in animal species as diverse as insects and humans. It is now clear that experience produces multiple, dissociable changes in the brain including increases in dendritic length, increases (or decreases) in spine density, synapse formation, increased glial activity, and altered metabolic activity. These anatomical changes are correlated with behavioral differences between subjects with and without the changes. Experience-dependent changes in neurons are affected by various factors including aging, gonadal hormones, trophic factors, stress, and brain pathology. We discuss the important role that changes in dendritic arborization play in brain plasticity and behavior, and we consider these changes in the context of changing intrinsic circuitry of the cortex in processes such as learning. PMID:9496621

  19. Explosive events on the Sun.

    PubMed

    Harra, Louise K

    2002-12-15

    I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System--the explosive flares that can occur when plasma is confined by magnetic fields and the large-scale ejections of material known as 'coronal mass ejections'. These explosive events are poorly understood and yet occur in a variety of contexts in the Universe, ranging from planetary magnetospheres to active galactic nuclei. Understanding why flares and coronal mass ejections occur is a major goal across a wide range of space physics and astrophysics. Although explosive events from the Sun have dramatic effects on Earth, flares in other stars, for example, can be vastly more energetic and have an even more profound effect on their environment. We are now in the unprecedented position of having access to a number of space observatories dedicated to the Sun: the Yohkoh spacecraft, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. These cover a wide wavelength range from white light to gamma rays with both spectroscopy and imaging, and allow huge progress to be made in understanding the processes involved in such large explosions. The high-resolution data show dramatic and complex explosions of material on all spatial scales on the Sun. They have revealed that the Sun is constantly changing everywhere on its surface--something that was never imagined before. One of the mechanisms that has been proposed to account for the large energy release is magnetic reconnection. Recent observations from space increasingly support this view. This article will discuss those observations that support this model and also those that suggest different processes. The current space missions have given us an excellent insight into the actual explosive processes in the Sun. However, they have provided us with only a tantalizing glimpse of what causes the elusive trigger. Future missions such as Solar-B (the follow-on to Yohkoh), the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Solar Orbiter mission will allow us to probe the trigger in a way that was not dreamt of a decade ago, by providing stereo views, measurements from Sun-grazing orbit, and much higher spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. It is an exciting time for solar physics and everything that we learn about the Sun will improve our ability to understand other magnetic phenomena in the Universe. PMID:12630406

  20. Plastic heliostat enclosure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. J.

    1984-12-01

    The conceptual design and cost analysis of an enclosed plastic heliostat for a 50-MW/sub e/ central receiver solar thermal electric power plant are presented. The purpose of the study was to analyze the most recent design of the Boeing enclosed plastic heliostat for cost and compare results with a reference second generation glass heliostat case provided by Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. In addition, sensitivities of busbar energy costs to variations in capital cost (installed cost), operation and maintenance most and overall reflectivity were evaluated.

  1. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  2. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  3. Thermal explosion theory for shear localizing energetic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Joseph M.

    1999-03-01

    The behaviour of energetic solids subjected to simple shear loading is modelled to predict ignition. The model is transient, one dimensional and includes effects of thermal diffusion, plastic work and exothermic reaction with one-step irreversible Arrhenius kinetics. A common power-law constitutive model for shear stress which accounts for strain hardening, strain-rate hardening and thermal softening is used. For the energetic solid composite LX-14 subjected to an average strain rate of \\bardot{\\gamma} = 2800 s^-1explosion theory which enforces spatially homogeneous stress, temperature and reaction progress as well as accounting for the early-time dominance of plastic work over exothermic reaction allows the development of simple analytic expressions for the temporal evolution of all variables. The simple expressions give predictions which agree well with both: (a) numerical predictions of a spatially homogeneous theory which allows simultaneous influences of reaction and plastic work and (b) numerical predictions of a spatially inhomogeneous theory which accounts for spatial stress distributions, thermal diffusion and spatially localized reaction. In particular, the induction time to ignition is captured accurately by the approximate theory; hence, while reactive shear localization may accompany an ignition event, ignition causality is most dependent on plastic work done during the time of spatially homogeneous shear.

  4. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  5. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Matthew J.; Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Muller, Elmar; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  6. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper.

  7. Applying NASA's explosive seam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1991-12-01

    The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both surface are broken up and ejected by the closing angle to allow atoms to bond through the sharing of valence electrons. This cold-working process produces joints having parent metal properties, allowing a variety of joints to be fabricated that achieve full strength of the metals employed. Successful joining was accomplished in all aluminum alloys, a wide variety of iron and steel alloys, copper, brass, titanium, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, telerium, and columbium. Safety issues were addressed and are as manageable as many currently accepted joining processes.

  8. Liquids and homemade explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

  9. Stellar explosions, instabilities, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Miles, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7500 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Muthsam, H. J. [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Nordbergstr. 15, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Plewa, T. [School of Computational Science, Florida State University, DSL 443, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    It has become very clear that the evolution of structure during supernovae is centrally dependent on the pre-existing structure in the star. Modeling of the pre-existing structure has advanced significantly, leading to improved understanding and to a physically based assessment of the structure that will be present when a star explodes. It remains an open question whether low-mode asymmetries in the explosion process can produce the observed effects or whether the explosion mechanism somehow produces jets of material. In any event, the workhorse processes that produce structure in an exploding star are blast-wave driven instabilities. Laboratory experiments have explored these blast-wave-driven instabilities and specifically their dependence on initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that the relative importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities varies with the initial conditions and does so in ways that can make sense of a range of astrophysical observations.

  10. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.griffith@newcastle.edu.au; Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C. [Priority Research Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia); Muller, Elmar [AEL Mining Services Ltd., 1 Platinum Drive, Modderfontein, Johannesburg, 1645 (South Africa)

    2014-10-06

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  11. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  12. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Chidester; K S Vandersall; C M Tarver

    2009-01-01

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data

  13. Thermally stable emulsion explosive composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Lawrence, L.D.

    1982-03-30

    A thermally stable, cap-sensitive, water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition is described which has a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase containing calcium nitrate, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid or organic phase, an emulsifier, and a density reducing agent. The salt solution contains calcium nitrate in an amount of at least 20% by weight based on the total composition. 9 claims.

  14. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Reichenbach; P Neuwald; A L Kuhl

    2010-01-01

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from

  15. Energy transfer in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Fried, L.E.; Ruggiero, A.J.; Calef, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    The nonequilibrium Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring theory of detonation in solid explosives is extended to include recent nanosecond and picosecond experimental and theoretical results on each of the four main regions of the reaction zone. The first region is the three-dimensional, Mach stem dominated leading shock front which excites the phonon modes of the explosive molecules in less than a picosecond. The second region is the multiphonon up-pumping process in which the excited phonons anharmonically couple to the low frequency (doorway) vibrational modes which in turn equilibrate with the higher frequency modes by internal vibrational redistribution. This process may require on the order of tens of picoseconds. The third region is the chemical reconstitution region in which the vibrationally equilibrated transition state decomposes in a series of chain reaction steps into highly vibrationally excited diatomic and triatomic molecules in approximately one nanosecond. The fourth region is dominated by vibrational deexcitation and solid species formation as chemical and thermal equilibrium is approached. This is the region measured by current nanosecond resolution techniques and can last from nanoseconds to microseconds depending on the oxygen balance of the solid explosive.

  16. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  17. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  18. Preserving in Plastic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  19. Neural Plasticity in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Haracz

    1985-01-01

    No current biological hypothesis can assimilate the genetic, environmental, and clinical features of schizophrenia. If, as some authors contend, environmental factors have important effects on the course of schizophrenia, then a fruitful research concern may be the adaptation of neuronal circuitry to environmental changes. The plasticity of neuronal connections has been studied by subjecting animals to neurosurgical lesions, brain electrostimulation,

  20. Adult stem cell plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Poulsom; Malcolm R. Alison; Stuart J. Forbes; Nicholas A. Wright

    2002-01-01

    Observations made in the last few years support the existence of pathways, in adult humans and rodents, that allow adult stem cells to be surprisingly flexible in their differentiation repertoires. Termed plasticity, this property allows adult stem cells, assumed, until now, to be committed to generating a fixed range of progeny, to switch, when they have been relocated, to make

  1. Music drives brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Music is becoming more and more of an issue in the cognitive neurosciences. A major finding in this research area is that musical practice is associated with structural and functional plasticity of the brain. In this brief review, I will give an overview of the most recent findings of this research area. PMID:20948610

  2. Synaptic plasticity: hippocampal LTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan U Larkman; J Julian B Jack

    1995-01-01

    One of the most intensively studied forms of synaptic plasticity is long-term potentiation (LTP). The past year has seen further evidence advanced on both sides of the presynaptic\\/postsynaptic locus of expression debate, without an obvious path to reconcile the two views. Real progress has been made, however, in clarifying the possible role of nitric oxide as a retrograde messenger and

  3. Synaptic plasticity and addiction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Kauer; Robert C. Malenka

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is caused, in part, by powerful and long-lasting memories of the drug experience. Relapse caused by exposure to cues associated with the drug experience is a major clinical problem that contributes to the persistence of addiction. Here we present the accumulated evidence that drugs of abuse can hijack synaptic plasticity mechanisms in key brain circuits, most importantly in the

  4. Fused Plastic Wallet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oakland Discovery Centers

    2012-01-01

    In this up-cycling activity, learners recycle plastic bags and repurpose them into useful wallets. Learners cut and iron grocery bags into new shapes and designs so that they can be reused as wallets. Use this activity to introduce learners to polymers, biodegradable materials, and up-cycling.

  5. Share This: Plastic Day

    E-print Network

    Cakoni, Fioralba

    of Delaware's Earth Week activities surrounding the observance of the 42nd Earth Day on April 22. DENINShare This: Upcoming Events April 18 Plastic Day: Book Discussion & Film April 28 Ag Day The DENIN to strengthen our efforts to understand, predict, and adjust to Earth's changing climate. One mild winter does

  6. Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal Morphology and Life History

    E-print Network

    Gotthard, Karl

    Adaptive Plasticity and Plasticity as an Adaptation: A Selective Review of Plasticity in Animal wide-ranging. All key REVIEW references should be cited. A summary is required. Adaptive plasticity and plasticity as an adaptation: a selective review of plasticity in animal morphology and life history Karl

  7. 2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Dr. Mutaz B. Habal June 6, 2013 McGill University Division of Plastic Surgery 2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Special thanks to our sponsors: Representative Surgery MUHC McGill University Campagne Les meilleurs soins pour la vie The Best Care for Life Campaign

  8. Intravesical explosions during transurethral endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R

    2007-01-01

    Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising. PMID:17171415

  9. Particle size analysis of prepared solutions and fingerprint deposits of high explosive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) was tasked via the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct various studies involving the detection and measurement of explosive materials and their associated residues. This report details the results of an investigation to determine the particle size characteristics of the explosive materials used in the design, development, and testing of trace explosives detection systems. These materials, in the form of water suspensions of plastic explosives, are used to provide a quantitative means of monitoring the performance characteristics of the detection systems. The purpose of this investigation is to provide data that allows a comparison between the particles deposited using the suspension standards and the particles deposited from fingerprints. This information may support the development of quality control aids, measurement methods, or performance criteria specifications for the use of trace explosives detection systems. For this report, particle size analyses were completed on explosives standard suspensions/solutions for composition C-4, Semtex-H, and Detasheet and fingerprints for C-4, Detasheet, and pentolite. Because of the difficulty in collecting microscopic images of the particles in the suspensions from test protocol surfaces, this paper discusses the characteristics of the particles as they are found on metal, glass, and paper. The results of the particle characterization analyses indicate that the water suspensions contain particulate composed of binder materials and dissolved portions of the explosive compounds. Upon drying of the water suspensions, significant particle nucleation and growth is observed. The nucleated particulate is comparable to the particulate deposited by fingerprints.

  10. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.; Haug, Øystein T.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow explosive volcanic processes, such as kimberlite volcanism, phreatomagmatic and phreatic activity, produce volcanic vents exhibiting a wide variety of morphologies, including vertical pipes and V-shaped vents. In this study we report on experimental and numerical models designed to capture a range of vent morphologies in an eruptive system (Galland et al., 2014). Using dimensional analysis, we identified key governing dimensionless parameters, in particular the gravitational stress-to-fluid pressure ratio (?2=P/rho.g.h), and the fluid pressure-to-host rock strength ratio (?3=P/C). We used combined experimental and numerical models to test the effects of these parameters. The experiments were used to test the effect of ?2 on vent morphology and dynamics. A phase diagram demonstrates a separation between two distinct morphologies, with vertical structures occurring at high values of ?2, and diagonal ones at low values of ?2. The numerical simulations were used to test the effect of ?3 on vent morphology and dynamics. In the numerical models we see three distinct morphologies: vertical pipes are produced at high values of ?3, diagonal pipes at low values of ?3, while horizontal sills are produced for intermediate values of ?3. Our results show that vertical pipes form by plasticity-dominated yielding for high-energy systems (high ?2 and ?3), whereas diagonal and horizontal vents dominantly form by fracturing for lower-energy systems (low ?2 and ?3). Although our models are 2-dimensionnal, they suggest that circular pipes result from plastic yielding of the host rock in a high-energy regime, whereas V-shaped volcanic vents result from fracturing of the host rock in lower-energy systems. Galland, O., Gisler, G.R., Haug, Ø.T., 2014. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations. J. Geophys. Res. 119, 10.1002/2014JB011050.

  11. Explosive response model evaluation using the explosive H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit T.; Burns, Joseph

    2000-04-01

    Reactive rate model parameters for a two term Lee Tarver [simplified ignition and growth (SIG)] model were obtained for the explosive H6 from modified gap test data. These model was used to perform simulations of the underwater sensitivity test (UST) using the CTH hydrocode. Reaction was predicted in the simulations for the same water gaps that reaction was observed in the UST. The expansions observed for the UST samples were not simulated correctly, and this is attributed to the density equilibrium conditions imposed between unreacted and reacted components in CTH for the Lee-Tarver model.

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory/Photon Sciences Subject: NSLS Explosives Training (de minimis quantities)

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Brookhaven National Laboratory/Photon Sciences Subject: NSLS Explosives Training (de minimis. Ackerman Approved By: K. Klaus Explosives Hazards Experimentation at NSLS may include explosives in small minimis quantities of explosives, (explosives, and explosives

  13. Instrumentation advances in emissions characterization from propellant/explosive combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Morrison, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mullins, S.E. [Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Rocket Center, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results from a chamber study to characterize emissions from combustion of selected pure energetic materials are presented in this paper. The study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive air pathways risk assessment for a propellant and explosive manufacturing facility that engages in open burning methods for manufacturing waste disposal. Materials selected for emissions characterization in this study included both aluminized and non-aluminized composite propellant, a double base propellant and a plastic bonded explosive. Combustion tests in a specialized chamber revealed very low emissions for gaseous products of incomplete combustion such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Analysis of gaseous and aerosol emission products for a pre-selected target analyte list that included both volatile and semi-volatile organics revealed either low or non-detectable emissions for the four energetic types tested. Hydrogen chloride was detected as a major emission product from propellants containing ammonium perchlorate. Results from this work reveal that about one-half of the chlorine in the original material is released as hydrogen chloride. Based on earlier work, the balance of the chlorine emissions is expected to be in the form of chlorine gas.

  14. Explosive Vapor Detection Using Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Explosive-based terrorism is an eminent threat to a civilized and free society. Accurate and cost-effective explosive sensors are, therefore, essential for combating the terrorist threat. Some of the main performance characteristics for explosive sensors include sensitivity, selectivity, and real-time fast operation. As the vapor pressures of commonly used explosives are extremely small, highly sensitive sensors are essential for detecting trace quantities of explosives. Moreover, the sensors should have high selectivity to have an acceptable rate of false positives. Also, these sensors should have the capability of mass deployment because of the breadth of terrorist threats involving explosives [1]. Finally, these sensors should have fast detection and regeneration time for fast operation. Currently available sensors are unable to satisfy these requirements.

  15. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  16. Estimation of body exposure to explosion.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William R; Baker, Andrew M; Powell, James D; Cotone, Chris M; Meeker, Jeffrey

    2002-09-01

    An ordnance-disposal expert was killed while disposing of a cache of explosives. The likely position of the body was reconstructed by modeling the explosion as an omnidirectional emission of particles from a model of the explosion site and noting the distribution of particles on a model of a human. The applications and limitations of this method in reconstructing the events and correlation with the injuries noted at autopsy are discussed. PMID:12198351

  17. Threat localization in QR explosive detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Robert; P. J. Prado

    2004-01-01

    The detection of explosives for the purpose of aviation security is an important task for preventing terrorism acts and smuggling.\\u000a A number of methods for explosive screening have been developed. For the purpose of aviation security, the inspections are\\u000a performed on passengers, their carry-on luggage, checked baggage, and cargo containers. An effective explosive detection system\\u000a should be capable of reporting

  18. Explosive Initiation of Creative Processes in Nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Adushkin

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction of explosive–fill dams, of which Academician M. A. Lavrent'ev was an enthusiast. His contribution to the construction of the Alma–Ata mud dam is described. The experience of industrial explosions is used to show the possibility of including the potential of nature in human creative activity by means of explosion energy. Large–scale processes of rocksliding

  19. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A Lewis; David A Newcombe; Ronald L Crawford

    2004-01-01

    The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other

  20. Scaling explosive activity at Stromboli Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    marchetti, emanuele; ripepe, maurizio

    2013-04-01

    Ordinary explosive activity at Stromboli volcano is sometimes interrupted by Paroxysms and more often by Major Explosions. Major explosion represent a primary element of risk, given the large amount of material ejected, able to reach Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and the other summit trails, and the frequency of occurrence (2.1 events/year). However, while paroxysms are easy to be identified and there is a general consensous on their occurrence this does not necessarily hold for Major Explosions. Generally, Major Explosions are defined as based on the amount of material emitted and on the area covered by the ejecta dispersal, as well as on the properties of material emitted, but this is not always possible nor suitable for a near-real time information delivery to Civil Defence Authorities. With this purpose we have analyzed the seismic, tilt and infrasonic data collected at Stromboli since 2008 for a total database >400000 events to provide a geophysical classification of major explosions. We assumed that seismic (in the VLP band), ground tilt, and the acoustic excess pressure are efficient signals to discriminate different explosive energy. We show how ordinary activity is confined below a seismic VLP ground displacement of 8x10-6 m, a deformation of 0.25 ?rad and an infrasonic excess pressure of 100 Pa. A separate cluster of events, characterized by tilt and seismic displacement significantly larger than these threshold are defined as Major Explosions. Here we propose these threshold can be used to quantitatively discriminate between ordinary activity and Major explosions. While above these precise threshold we have several explosions which can be considered as Major Explosions, the two paroxysms are associated to orders of magnitude (ground displacement of 10-3 m and tilt of 10 ?rad) larger ground tilt and seismic VLP displacement. Besides our classification is suggesting the existence of a possible energy gap between Major and Paroxysms explosive dynamics which has not been filled yet.

  1. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  2. An analysis of spectral differences between Nevada Test Site and Shagan River nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Denny, Marvin D.

    1991-04-01

    Spectral ratio discrimination studies carried out on events located in the western United States and Soviet Union (S.U.) illustrate that pronounced differences in radiated explosion-source spectra relative to nearby earthquakes exist between the two regions. Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions are characterized by the existence of more low-frequency and/or less high-frequency energy (greater low-to high-frequency spectral ratios) than western U.S. earthquakes. The opposite pattern is observed in the S.U. with nuclear explosions appearing to have more high-frequency (and/or less low-frequency) energy than earthquakes. These observations may be caused by at least two principal effects that are probably acting in parallel: (1) variations in depth-dependent effects of attenuation acting between the shallow explosions and deeper earthquakes and (2) differences in the dynamic response of the near-source geology to the passing explosion shock wave. Anelastic synthetic seismogram calculations illustrate that depth-dependent attenuation effects may explain the spectral observations. However, a number of observations using near- and far-field data from NTS explosions suggest that near-source effects are the dominant factor. A quasi-empirical explosion source model is proposed that simultaneously fits the spectral ratio data from both the U.S. and S.U. relative to earthquakes in each of the respective regions. Additionally, the model fits the trends of the spectral ratios observed as a function of magnitude. The key to the model is the shape of the pressure time history acting at the elastic radius. For explosions detonated in weak, porous rock, the radiated shock wave divides into a two-wave system consisting of an elastic precursor followed by a plastic wave. The generation of this two-wave system introduces a rise time into the pressure time history. In the frequency domain a second corner frequency is established in a third-order model (with an ?-3 high-frequency decay) whose value is inversely proportional to the time separation of the two waves. In higher-strength, saturated rocks (or for overburied explosions) the effective rise time is short, and a second-order model is appropriate (with an ?-2 high-frequency decay). The second-order model provides a good fit to the S.U. data. In contrast, a hybrid model is required to fit the NTS data with an ?-3 high-frequency decay for shallow explosions detonated in unsaturated tuff that evolves to an ?-2 decay as depth of burials reach higher-strength, saturated rocks below the water table.

  3. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  4. Explosions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... where your family spends time: work, daycare and school. If no plans exist, consider volunteering to help create one. Knowing your community's warning systems and disaster plans, including evacuation routes . Notify caregivers and babysitters ...

  5. Evaluation of surface storage facilities for explosives, blasting agents and other explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, J.

    1983-06-01

    The histories of recent and past magazine explosions were reviewed; present explosive storage conditions and practices were observed; and existing Federal regulations on explosive storage were examined. A recent increase in magazine explosion frequency must be attributed to a large increase in deliberate explosions; fires of various origins account for the remaining explosions of the past decade. During 1884-1926 several lightning generated explosions occurred in nonmetal magazines. It appears that the contents of a well constructed metal magazine are immune to direct lightning strikes, regardless of whether the magazine is grounded or not. Grounding a metal magazine cannot be harmful, but it maywell be superfluous. Mine Safety and Health Administration and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms standards on explosive storage appear to cover safety aspects adequately. Certain revisions are recommended to clarify some of the standards and to reduce inconsistencies in their enforcement.

  6. Explosive Detection by Microthermal Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asaf Zuck; Jeremy Greenblatt; Adi Zifman; Amalia Zaltsman; Shay Kendler; Gad Frishman; Sheffer Meltzer; Ilanit Fisher

    2008-01-01

    Differential scanning microcalorimetry at high heating rates of ? 300°C\\/s was performed on 30- to 100-µm-size explosive particles using two MEMS-based thermal conductivity gauges in air and under N2. The gauges consist of a thin-film Si3Nx membrane with a centrally located Al thin-film heater, which is surrounded by six thin-film Si\\/Al junctions, creating a temperature-sensitive thermopile (? 1.3 mV\\/K) with an effective sensitive

  7. Big Explosions and Strong Gravity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This guide has been developed to assist people who would like to run the Big Explosions and Strong Gravity event with their local Girl Scout Council. The event is a one-day event in which a group of Girl Scouts spends their time doing a series of hands-on activities on spectroscopy, cosmic abundances, supernovae, and black holes. Professional scientists, engineers, and graduate students assist with these activities, giving the scouts a chance to interact with professionals in science and technology fields.

  8. The explosion problem in a flow

    E-print Network

    Henri Berestycki; Alexander Kiselev; Alexei Novikov; Lenya Ryzhik

    2009-07-29

    We consider the explosion problem in an incompressible flow introduced in the paper of H. Berestycki, L. Kagan, G. Joulin and G. Sivashinsky. We use a novel $L^p-L^\\infty$ estimate for elliptic advection-diffusion problems to show that the explosion threshold obeys a positive lower bound which is uniform in the advecting flow. We also identify the flows for which the explosion threshold tends to infinity as their amplitude grows and obtain an effective description of the explosion threshold in the strong flow asymptotics in a two-dimensional one-cell flow.

  9. Neurotrophins and Neuronal Plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Thoenen

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that neurotrophins (NTs) are involved in processes of neuronal plasticity besides their well-established actions in regulating the survival, differentiation, and maintenance of functions of specific populations of neurons. Nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, NT-4\\/5, and corresponding antibodies dramatically modify the development of the visual cortex. Although the neuronal elements involved have not yet been identified,

  10. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  11. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  12. Plastic footwear for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Antia, N H

    1990-03-01

    The anaesthetic foot in leprosy poses the most major problem in the rehabilitation of its patients. Various attempts have been made to produce protective footwear such as the microcellular rubber-car-tyre sandals. Unfortunately these attempts have had little success on a large scale because of the inability to produce them in large numbers and the stigma attached to such unusual footwear. While such footwear may be superior to the 'tennis' shoe in protecting the foot from injury by the penetration of sharp objects, it fails to distribute the weight-bearing forces which is the major cause of plantar damage and ulceration in the anaesthetic foot. This can be achieved by providing rigidity to the sole, as demonstrated by the healing of ulcers in plaster of paris casts or the rigid wooden clog. A new type of moulded plastic footwear has been evolved in conjunction with the plastic footwear industry which provides footwear that can be mass produced at a low price and which overcomes the stigma of leprosy. Controlled rigidity is provided by the incorporation of a spring steel shank between the sponge insole and the hard wearing plastic sole. Trials have demonstrated both the acceptability of the footwear and its protective effects as well as its hard wearing properties. PMID:2319903

  13. 27 CFR 555.221 - Requirements for display fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in assembling fireworks or...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  14. 27 CFR 555.221 - Requirements for display fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in assembling fireworks or...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  15. 27 CFR 555.221 - Requirements for display fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...fireworks, pyrotechnic compositions, and explosive materials used in assembling fireworks or...BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage §...

  16. Investigations into seismic discrimination between earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. F. Kopnichev; F. F. Aptikaev; L. V. Antonova

    1995-01-01

    In this report we describe some results of investigations on a problem of discrimination between nuclear explosions, chemical explosions and earthquakes, carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Records of underground nuclear explosions from the Semipalatinsk test site, and from region the Pre-Caspian depression, and

  17. The mechanism of instability and localized reaction in the explosively driven collapse of thick walled Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, P. H.; Olney, K. L.; Higgins, A.; Serge, M.; Benson, D. J.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    Thick-walled cylinders constructed from alternating concentric layers of Ni and Al foils were explosively collapsed. The prevalent mode of the high strain, high strain rate plastic deformation was the cooperative buckling of the foils originating in the interior layers. This phenomenon was reproduced in numerical simulations. Its mechanism is qualitatively different than that of shear localization seen in all previously investigated homogeneous solid and granular materials and from the independent buckling of single thin-walled cylinders. Localized chemical reactions were observed in the apex areas of the Ni foils, consistent with the localization of temperature due to high strain plastic deformation.

  18. [Update: blast and explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements. PMID:21769579

  19. Potential for detection of explosive and biological hazards with electronic terahertz systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ki; Bettermann, Alan; van der Weide, D W

    2004-02-15

    The terahertz (THz) regime (0.1-10 THz) is rich with emerging possibilities in sensing, imaging and communications, with unique applications to screening for weapons, explosives and biohazards, imaging of concealed objects, water content and skin. Here we present initial surveys to evaluate the possibility of sensing plastic explosives and bacterial spores using field-deployable electronic THz techniques based on short-pulse generation and coherent detection using nonlinear transmission lines and diode sampling bridges. We also review the barriers and approaches to achieving greater sensing-at-a-distance (stand-off) capabilities for THz sensing systems. We have made several reflection measurements of metallic and non-metallic targets in our laboratory, and have observed high contrast relative to reflection from skin. In particular, we have taken small quantities of energetic materials such as plastic explosives and a variety of Bacillus spores, and measured them in transmission and in reflection using a broadband pulsed electronic THz reflectometer. The pattern of reflection versus frequency gives rise to signatures that are remarkably specific to the composition of the target, even though the target's morphology and position is varied. Although more work needs to be done to reduce the effects of standing waves through time-gating or attenuators, the possibility of mapping out this contrast for imaging and detection is very attractive. PMID:15306524

  20. Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and applications on drugs and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W. H.; Zhao, W.; Cheng, G. H.; Burnett, A. D.; Upadhya, P. C.; Cunningham, J. E.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.

    2008-03-01

    Many materials of interest to the forensic and security services, such as explosives, drugs and biological agents, exhibit characteristic spectral features in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. These spectral features originate from inter-molecular interactions, involving collective motions of molecules. Broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system have been used to analyze a number of drugs-of-abuse and explosives that are of interest to the forensic and security services. These samples ranged from crystalline powders, pressed into pellets, to thin sheets of plastic explosives, and all being measured in transmission geometry in the frequency range 0.1 - 8 THz. To well understand the nature of the observed spectral features and the effects of thermal broadening on these far-infrared signatures, temperature-dependent THz-TDS measurements have also been performed at temperatures as low as 4 K, especially for two types of cocaine. Well-resolved low-frequency absorption peaks were observed in the frequency range 0.1 - 3 THz with high resolution. Some of absorption peaks were found clearly to become more intense and shift to higher frequencies as the temperature was reduced. The results confirm that the low-frequency collective modes are highly sensitive to the structural and spatial arrangement of molecules. Furthermore, a number of common postal packaging materials made from paper, cardboard, even several types of plastic, have been tested with drug sample to assess the ability of THz-TDS in a hostile detection environment.

  1. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Pulse and Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes prior work related to low frequency (< 100 Hz) EMP (ElectroMagnetic Pulse) observed from explosions. It focuses on how EMP signals might, or might not, be useful in monitoring underground nuclear tests, based on the limits of detection, and physical understanding of these signals. In summary: (1) Both chemical and nuclear explosions produce an EMP. (2) The amplitude of the EMP from underground explosions is at least two orders of magnitude lower than from above ground explosions and higher frequency components of the signal are rapidly attenuated due to ground conductivity. (3) In general, in the near field, that is distances (r) of less than 10s of kilometers from the source, the amplitude of the EMP decays approximately as 1/r{sup 3}, which practically limits EMP applications to very close (<{approx}1km) distances. (4) One computational model suggests that the EMP from a decoupled nuclear explosion may be enhanced over the fully coupled case. This has not been validated with laboratory or field data. (5) The magnitude of the EMP from an underground nuclear explosion is about two orders of magnitude larger than that from a chemical explosion, and has a larger component of higher frequencies. In principle these differences might be used to discriminate a nuclear from a chemical explosion using sensors at very close (<{approx}1 km) distances. (6) Arming and firing systems (e.g. detonators, exploding bridge wires) can also produce an EMP from any type of explosion. (7) To develop the understanding needed to apply low frequency EMP to nuclear explosion monitoring, it is recommended to carry out a series of controlled underground chemical explosions with a variety of sizes, emplacements (e.g. fully coupled and decoupled), and arming and firing systems.

  2. Pre-explosive conduit conditions of the 1997 Vulcanian explosions at Soufrire Hills Volcano, Montserrat: I. Pressure and vesicularity distributions.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Pre-explosive conduit conditions of the 1997 Vulcanian explosions at Soufrière Hills Volcano of Vulcanian eruptive dynamics is the series of 88 explosions that occurred between August and October 1997 explosion is still poorly understood, but conditions the eruptive style. This study establishes such a pre-explosive

  3. The Formation of a Blast Wave by a Very Intense Explosion. II. The Atomic Explosion of 1945

    E-print Network

    Ravelet, Florent

    The Formation of a Blast Wave by a Very Intense Explosion. II. The Atomic Explosion of 1945 of a blast wave by a very intense explosion. 11. The atomic explosion of 1945 BYSIRGEOBFREYTAYLOR,P.R.S. (Received 10 November 1949) [Plates 7 t o 91 Photographs by J.E. Mack of the first atomic explosion in New

  4. Submerged explosives detection platforms using immunosensing technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott P. Veitch; Robert J. Fratantonio; Peter J. Egli; Alfred K. Hanson; Anne W. Kusterbeck; Paul T. Charles; Jeffrey R. Deschamps; Andre A. Adams

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult aspects of maintaining port and maritime security is the detection, localization, and classification of submerged explosive devices, biochemical agents, and contraband including narcotics. The Explosives Ordnance Disposal (EOD) community has expressed the need for improved methods of detection to augment current capabilities. SubChem Systems Inc. and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been working

  5. Evaluation of automatic explosive detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Murray; K. Riordan

    1995-01-01

    The implications of legislation, acts of terrorism directed at air transport, have led to the development of a number of pieces of equipment that are capable of automatically screening luggage items for explosive materials. These systems, known as explosive detection systems (EDSs) have the high throughput combined with realistic detection and false alarm rates that mass screening at busy airports

  6. Advances in accelerator based explosives detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsahi Gozani

    1993-01-01

    Great strides were made over the last several years in the development of nuclear-based explosive detection systems (EDS). Charged particle accelerators are playing an important role as the preferred source of interrogating radiation. Thermal neutron analysis, based on thermal neutron capture in nitrogen, is the most mature of the explosive detection techniques. It can employ a 252Cf radioisotope or a

  7. The challenge of standoff explosives detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Parmeter; John Ethan

    2004-01-01

    While there currently are a number of effective technologies and methodologies for explosive screening when close proximity to the person, package, or vehicle being screened is feasible, the problem of detecting explosives at significant standoff distances remains one of the most difficult - and most important - challenges confronting physical security specialists. Among the major detection techniques, trace detection suffers

  8. Nuclear-based techniques for explosive detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsahi Gozani; Richard E. Morgado; Chris C. Seher

    1986-01-01

    The status of bulk explosive detection techniques based on nuclear interrogation methods is reviewed. The desirable characteristics of an operational system capable of meeting the requirements for civil aviation security are compared with what can be expected from nuclear-based techniques. The comparison is limited to those techniques that utilize penetrating neutron and photon probes on the target elements of explosives

  9. Explosions inside Ejecta and Most Luminous Supernovae

    E-print Network

    S. I. Blinnikov

    2008-12-28

    The extremely luminous supernova SN2006gy is explained in the same way as other SNIIn events: light is produced by a radiative shock propagating in a dense circumstellar envelope formed by a previous weak explosion. The problems in the theory and observations of multiple-explosion SNe IIn are briefly reviewed.

  10. Supra-Pressure Detonation of Aluminized Explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Brown; B. Karosich; J. Gamble; J. Stork; A. Biesterveld; T. Moore; J. Sinibaldi; M. Walpole; A. Lindfors; K. Jackson; R. Koontz; D. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Results suggest that there is a continuum of reactions induced behind a supra-pressure convergent shock front in explosive cores of coaxial charges. The pressures in convergent fronts continually increase at an increasing rate from the circumference to the charge axis. Furthermore the unreacted explosive enveloped within the front is pre-pressurized at Von Neumann states much greater than from divergent detonation.

  11. Water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Takeuchi; M. Takahashi

    1983-01-01

    A water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition which has enhanced storage stability is described. The explosive composition comprises a disperse phase formed of an aqueous oxidizer solution consisting of (1) ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and another oxidizer salt, (2) water and (3) a specifically limited weak acid salt or condensed phosphate, (4) a continuous phase consisting of fuel

  12. Numerical Simulations of Explosive Wall Breaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Akers; Richard Weed; Denis Rickman; Kent Danielson

    2005-01-01

    Explosive wall breaching will be a key war fighter capability in future military operations by dismounted soldiers in urban terrain environments where the close proximity of urban structures, possibly occupied by noncombatants, significantly restricts the use of large demolition charges or large caliber direct-fire weapons. The US Army Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC) is currently investigating new explosive wall

  13. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  14. On the geophysical fingerprint of Vulcanian explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gottsmann; S. De Angelis; N. Fournier; M. Van Camp; S. Sacks; A. Linde; M. Ripepe

    2011-01-01

    Extrusion of viscous magma and the subsequent formation of a lava dome is often interspersed by short-lived vigorous (Vulcanian) explosions. The causes for and the timing of the transition from effusive to explosive activity during dome formation are poorly understood and forecasting this transition remains a challenge. Here, we describe and interpret a robust and unique multi-parameter data set documenting

  15. The Initial Stages of Explosion in Nitroglycerine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. R. Mulcahy; R. G. Vines

    1947-01-01

    The sequence of events which occurs in a thin confined film of nitroglycerine, after an explosion is initiated by a condenser spark, has been examined by means of a rotating drum camera. It has been found that in a very thin film (< 0\\\\cdot 01 mm. thick) the explosion begins as a gentle process which is propagated through the nitroglycerine

  16. Surface Motion from Large Underground Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Carder; W. K. Cloud

    1959-01-01

    Seismic effects of several underground nuclear explosions were measured in terms of ground surface motion by suitable seismographs from 1200 ft to nearly 10 miles from the source and with teleseismic instruments at great distances. Prior to the Rainier explosion (a 1.7-kt nuclear shot detonated 900 ft underground) empirical formulas were developed which predicted ground effects from the Rainier shot

  17. Whistler Observations in Connection with Nuclear Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold E. Dinger; William E. Garner

    1963-01-01

    During part of the Plumbbob series of nuclear explosions at the Nevada ; testing grounds in September 1957, whistlers were obtained that proved to be two-; hop whistlers orig-nating in electromagnetic pulses associated with the ; explosions. It is shown that the probability of a naturally-excited whistler ; (from lightning) occurring at the exactly correct tirnes in each case is

  18. Mathematical theory of combustion and explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. B. Zeldovich; G. I. Barenblatt; V. B. Librovich; G. M. Makhviladze

    1985-01-01

    Various topics in the area of combustion and explosives are discussed. The general subjects considered include: basic physical concepts of the science of combustion, the time-independent theory of thermal explosions, time-dependent statement of the problem of the initiation of chemical reaction waves in fuel mixtures, laminar flames, complex and chain reactions in flames, the gas dynamics of combustion, and diffusional

  19. Redundant, Confined-Explosive Severance Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Noncontaminating, long, explosive joint with highly reliable separation capability invented for such applications as separation of rocket-motor stages of spacecraft from rockets or Space Shuttle. Two explosive cords housed in tubes held in place by two notched doublers and commercially available fasteners. When either cord fired, its tube expands, bending doublers and causing fracture at adjacent notch.

  20. Sand control with resin and explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Dees; W. J. Begnaud; N. L. Sahr

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid

  1. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  2. Explosion resistance of welded cylindrical titanium shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Rusak; V. A. Ryzhanskii; A. G. Ivanov; S. N. Zaikin

    1994-01-01

    Results are provided for an experimental study of the reaction to internal explosive loading of titanium alloy PT-3V welded cylindrical shells filled with air or water. It is established that shell failure develops a strong scale effect in the form of a sharp reduction in explosion resistance with an increase in dimensions. Recommendations are made for weakening the effect of

  3. Method for laser machining explosives and ordnance

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross E.; Rivera, Thomas; Sanchez, John A.

    2003-05-06

    Method for laser machining explosives and related articles. A laser beam is directed at a surface portion of a mass of high explosive to melt and/or vaporize the surface portion while directing a flow of gas at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion. The gas flow sends the melted and/or vaporized explosive away from the charge of explosive that remains. The method also involves splitting the casing of a munition having an encased explosive. The method includes rotating a munition while directing a laser beam to a surface portion of the casing of an article of ordnance. While the beam melts and/or vaporizes the surface portion, a flow of gas directed at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion sends it away from the remaining portion of ordnance. After cutting through the casing, the beam then melts and/or vaporizes portions of the encased explosive and the gas stream sends the melted/vaporized explosive away from the ordnance. The beam is continued until it splits the article, after which the encased explosive, now accessible, can be removed safely for recycle or disposal.

  4. Evaluation of ferrocyanide\\/nitrate explosive hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cady

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of

  5. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  6. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  7. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  8. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the diesel power package such as the air cleaner...exhaust gas dilution system. (iii) Fill...tests of the intake system as follows: ...the diesel power package in an explosion...tests of the exhaust system as follows: ...the diesel power package for explosion...

  9. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the diesel power package such as the air cleaner...exhaust gas dilution system. (iii) Fill...tests of the intake system as follows: ...the diesel power package in an explosion...tests of the exhaust system as follows: ...the diesel power package for explosion...

  10. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the diesel power package such as the air cleaner...exhaust gas dilution system. (iii) Fill...tests of the intake system as follows: ...the diesel power package in an explosion...tests of the exhaust system as follows: ...the diesel power package for explosion...

  11. IGNITION AND PYROLISIS OF EXPLOSIVE COMPONENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Almada; J. Campos; J. C. Gois

    Pyrolisis reactions, existing in explosive components and mixtures, are very difficult to follow by experiments, because these processes are very fast and proceed with increasing pressure and temperature. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests and conventional cook-off methods do not give precise and correct answer to the problem of detecting the life time of chemical explosive or

  12. Influence of Mechanical Properties of Aerial Shells made from Biodegradable Plastics on Smaller Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Makoto; Murata, Kenji; Kamata, Satoru; Hamada, Fumio

    In this paper, a new aerial shell made of biodegradable plastics was developed and explosion tests were carried out using 2.5-10 gou-size firework aerial shells at a ground test site in order to observe the fragmentation. The dispersed fragments were then collected and their size and distribution measured. In order to monitor the fragmentation visually, a high-speed camera was used to film the ignition of the bursting charge and the scattering of the shell fragments. The shell fragments became much smaller, because mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics that were added improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chaff powder (CP). Fibrillation was seen in PBS/PVA/CP, and it seemed effective for mechanical properties. As a result, safer aerial shells which disperse into smaller fragments on explosion were successfully developed.

  13. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544... Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544... Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so...

  15. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544... Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544... Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so...

  17. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213 Section 1544... Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6960 - Mixing of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Mixing of explosive material. 57.6960 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Underground Only § 57.6960 Mixing of explosive material. (a) The mixing...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.902 - Surface transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Surface transportation of explosives. 1926.902 Section 1926.902...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.902 Surface transportation of explosives. (a) Transportation of...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed,...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75.1314...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1314 Sheathed explosive units. (a) A separate...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1302 - Vehicles used to transport explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Vehicles used to transport explosives. 77.1302 Section 77.1302...WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1302 Vehicles used to transport explosives. (a) Vehicles used to...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6201 - Separation of transported explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Separation of transported explosive material. 56.6201 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6201 Separation of transported explosive material. Detonators shall...

  6. Combinatorial explosion in model gene networks R. Edwardsa)

    E-print Network

    Glass, Leon

    Combinatorial explosion in model gene networks R. Edwardsa) Department of Mathematics Received 31 January 2000; accepted for publication 16 May 2000 The explosive growth in knowledge here that there is actually a combinatorial explosion of different logical structures possible

  7. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56.6900 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75.1314...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1314 Sheathed explosive units. (a) A separate...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56.6900 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed,...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6201 - Separation of transported explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Separation of transported explosive material. 57.6201 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground...57.6201 Separation of transported explosive material. Detonators shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6201 - Separation of transported explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Separation of transported explosive material. 56.6201 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6201 Separation of transported explosive material. Detonators shall...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57.6100 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6201 - Separation of transported explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Separation of transported explosive material. 57.6201 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground...57.6201 Separation of transported explosive material. Detonators shall not...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.902 - Surface transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Surface transportation of explosives. 1926.902 Section 1926.902...CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.902 Surface transportation of explosives. (a) Transportation of...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75.1314...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1314 Sheathed explosive units. (a) A separate...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 57.6205 Section...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed,...

  20. THE EXPLOSION TIME IN STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH SMALL

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Julio D.

    THE EXPLOSION TIME IN STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH SMALL, under suitable hypotheses, the explosion time converges almost surely to the one of the ODE. 1. Introduction Explosions in one dimensional ODEs is a very well known phenom- ena. Let u