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Sample records for uno spazio europeo

  1. 1 Forma di Jordan Sia V uno spazio vettoriale complesso a dimensione finita e T : V -V

    E-print Network

    Fioresi, Rita

    base B = {v1, . . . , vn} con la seguente proprieta': T(v1) = 1v1 T(v2) = 1v2 + v1 ... T(vr1 ) = 1vr1 + vr1-1 T(vr1+1) = 2vr1+1 T(vr1+2) = 2vr2+2 + vr1+1 ... T(vr2 ) = 2vr2 + vr2-1 . . . Concentriamo la

  2. 6. Matrici normali Sia V uno spazio vettoriale reale o complesso di dimensione finita, munito di prodotto

    E-print Network

    Cornalba, Maurizio

    che U-1 AU sia diagonale, gli autovalori di A sono necessariamente tutti reali. D'altra parte la sono reali a meno che non sia della forma 2k o (2k + 1), dove k `e un intero. Qualcosa si pu soluzione di un sistema omogeneo di equazioni lineari reali. Prendendo le parti reali o immaginarie dei due

  3. Fact Sheet --UNO Master's in English Website: english.uno.edu

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    on campus. Several of our professors, for example--Professors Bryant, Doll, Gery, Loomis, and Schock--have won the UNO "best teacher" award presented by the UNO Alumni each year (Professors Bryant and Doll

  4. UNO student and veteran Eduardo Abreu at the

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    UNO student and veteran Eduardo Abreu at the Opening Ceremonies of the UNO Innsbruck International thanks to the UNO Innsbruck Summer School. Eligible Post-911 veterans can apply for the EdVET scholarship Veterans Coordinator: Dedrick Raby Ph: 504-280-6992 djraby@uno.edu www.registrar.uno.edu/veterans In

  5. Revised 7/2015 UNO PRE-DENTAL PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Revised 7/2015 UNO PRE-DENTAL PROGRAM Pre-Dental Advisor: Dr. Lura Williamson Office: Bio 212 Phone: 504-280-7037 Email: lawillia@uno.edu STEP 1. Dental School is very competitive. You will need a bachelor's degree or equivalent number of credit hours. PRE-DENTAL COURSE INFORMATION * Students interested

  6. Fontenot, UNO and Vlosky, LSU "Exploratory Study of Internet

    E-print Network

    , commitment, power and communication. x The Internet provides a new aspect in relationship marketing in an Internet marketing relationship #12;Fontenot, UNO and Vlosky, LSU Power Issues x Power, as a globalFontenot, UNO and Vlosky, LSU "Exploratory Study of Internet Buyer-Seller Relationships" Renée J

  7. Governance istituzionale degli atenei pubblici: uno sguardo all'estero

    E-print Network

    Marrucci, Lorenzo

    Governance istituzionale degli atenei pubblici: uno sguardo all'estero Lorenzo Marrucci Università di Napoli Federico II Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Governance e finanziamento del sistema universitario italiano ­ Lucca 27 luglio 2006 #12;Governance istituzionale di ateneo: cos'è? La struttura di

  8. Jeanne Pavy, Scholarly Communications Librarian SCHOLARWORKS@UNO

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    2014 we began uploading the scanned archive of Wavelength: New Orleans Music Magazine to the Midlo Center ScholarWorks site. This magazine, published from 1980-1991, was edited by UNO History professor musicians who influenced American popular music. It covered the range of New Orleans music -- jazz

  9. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  10. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  11. Evaluation of XRI-UNO CdTe detector for nuclear medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambi, L. K.; Lees, J. E.; Bugby, S. L.; Tipper, S.; Alqahtani, M. S.; Perkins, A. C.

    2015-06-01

    Over the last two decades advances in semiconductor detector technology have reached the point where they are sufficiently sensitive to become an alternative to scintillators for high energy gamma ray detection for application in fields such as medical imaging. This paper assessed the Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) XRI-UNO semiconductor detector produced by X-RAY Imatek for photon energies of interest in nuclear imaging. The XRI-UNO detector was found to have an intrinsic spatial resolution of <0.5mm and a high incident count rate capability up to at least 1680cps. The system spatial resolution, uniformity and sensitivity characteristics are also reported.

  12. WILLIAM ALEC GAMBLING El Prof William Alec Gambling fue uno de los pioneros ms importantes,

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    WILLIAM ALEC GAMBLING El Prof William Alec Gambling fue uno de los pioneros más importantes pasó a la industria. El Grupo del Prof. Gambling continuó desarrollando nuevas técnicas de fabricación comunicaciones ópticas en uso. El Profesor William Gambling fue investido Doctor Honoris Causa por la Universidad

  13. Lo yoga uno sport, una filosofia di vita o una medicina dell'Occidente?

    E-print Network

    Cortesi, Tino

    Lo yoga è uno sport, una filosofia di vita o una medicina dell'Occidente? I consigli di Federico Squarcini, direttore del Master in "Yoga Studies" della Ca' Foscari: «Oggi si sceglie un corso come se fossimo davanti allo scaffale del supermercato» Mariella Caruso Da tre anni lo yoga, oltre a essere una

  14. Making Americans: UNO Charter Schools and Civic Education. Policy Brief 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feith, David

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the third in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. The UNO Charter School Network includes 13 schools serving some 6,500 students across Chicago. Located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods, the…

  15. Lo uno y lo múltiple: Farsa e incesto en Quíntuples de Sánchez

    E-print Network

    Melé ndez, Priscilla

    1992-10-01

    de Sánchez trata precisamente de la familia Morrison, compuesta por el Gran Divo Papá Morrison y sus quintuples Dafne, Baby, Bianca, Mandrake y Carlota, que ha sido invitada a participar en el Congreso de Asuntos de la Familia. Cada uno de ellos se... respectivos papeles: Francisco Prado recorre la gama desde la 'timidez' fantasiosa de 'Baby Morrison', pasando por la engreída y altanera personalidad de 'Mandrake Morrison' hasta llegar al desbordante y lujurioso 'Papá'. Por su parte, Idalia Pérez Garay...

  16. Outcomes following Kidney transplantation in IgA nephropathy: a UNOS/OPTN analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Aditya; Mathew, Anna T; Sachdeva, Mala; Sison, Cristina P; Shah, Hitesh H; Fishbane, Steven; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2015-10-01

    This study updates assessment of post-transplant outcomes in IgAN patients in the modern era of immunosuppression. Using UNOS/OPTN data, patients ?18 yr of age with first kidney transplant (1/1/1999 to 12/31/2008) were analyzed. Multivariable Cox regression models and propensity score-based matching techniques were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death-censored allograft survival (DCGS) and patient survival in IgAN compared to non-IgAN. Results of multivariable regression were stratified by donor type (living vs. deceased). A total of 107, 747 recipients were included (4589 with IgAN and 103 158 with non-IgAN). Adjusted HR for DCGS showed no significant difference between IgAN and non-IgAN. IgAN had higher patient survival compared to non-IgAN (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.47-0.62, p < 0.0001 for deceased donors; HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.54, p < 0.0001 for living donors). Propensity score-matched analysis was similar, with no significant difference in DCGS between matched groups and higher patient survival in IgAN patients compared to non-IgAN group (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.47, 0.63; p-value <0.0001). IgAN patients with first kidney transplant have superior patient survival and similar graft survival compared to non-IgAN recipients. Results can be used in prognostication and informed decision-making about kidney transplantation in patients with IgAN. PMID:26190417

  17. Lab 2: Blinkie Lab This lab introduces the Arduino Uno as students will need to use the Arduino to control

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    Lab 2: Blinkie Lab Objectives This lab introduces the Arduino Uno as students will need to use the Arduino to control their final robot. Students will build a basic circuit on their prototyping board and wire the board to the Arduino. Students will learn the basic programming structure for the Arduino

  18. August 2015 Catalog | University of New Orleans http://www.uno.edu/registrar/catalog/1516catalog/index.aspx[3/31/2015 3:06:38 PM

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    ACADEMICS ADMISSIONS RESOURCES STUDENT LIFE RESEARCH ATHLETICS #12;August 2015 Catalog | University of New Administration Human Performance and Health Promotion Education Management Business Administration MarketingAugust 2015 Catalog | University of New Orleans http://www.uno.edu/registrar/catalog/1516catalog

  19. L'Internet-dipendenza aumenta l'impulsivit I risultati di uno studio coordinato dall'Universit degli Studi di Milano, con Swansea University e

    E-print Network

    Olivares, Stefano

    relazione fra Internet addiction, depressione e impulsività, in modo da produrre un quadro globale degli'ulteriore validazione del costrutto di Internet Addiction Disorder, suggeriscono che gli individui con dipendenza daL'Internet-dipendenza aumenta l'impulsività I risultati di uno studio coordinato dall

  20. Profesor de la Universidad Pierre y Marie Curie, nacido en Lille (Nord) en 1939, es uno de los ms eminentes investigadores franceses en el campo del

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    Profesor de la Universidad Pierre y Marie Curie, nacido en Lille (Nord) en 1939, es uno de los más universidad pariense Pierre et Marie Curie, así como consejero científico en el Comisariado de Energía Nuclear

  1. N. di Matricola: 00101 Ogni quesito presenta quattro risposte; ce ne possono essere da 0 a 4 vere. Attraversare con una

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    ) R7 [x] rispetto all'usuale prodotto di polinomi. F V c) R rispetto all'usuale somma di numeri reali uno spazio vettoriale di dimensione n sul campo dei numeri reali. Allora F V a) Ogni sottoinsieme di V T dallo spazio vettoriale Mn(R), delle matrici n × n a coefficienti reali, a se stesso sono lineari. F V a

  2. 2.2.5 Determinar los enteros n tales que d|n d = n2 Solucion: Como uno de los divisores va a ser siempre el propio n, bus-

    E-print Network

    Cilleruelo, Javier

    2.2.5 Determinar los enteros n tales que d|n d = n2 . Soluci´on: Como uno de los divisores va a ser pareja r tal que dr = n. Si tuviera m´as divisores, el producto ser´ia mayor, y en el que caso que n sea

  3. Uno strumento per la gestione delle citazioni

    E-print Network

    Sproston, Jeremy

    Cambridge University Libraries Ecole Normale Supérieurp Harvard University Library Library of Congress New Library Catalogue British Library integrated Catalogue WorldCat Amazon.com Biblioteca nacional de Espana York public Library #12;12/03/2012 6 Cliccare la cartellina per aprire il box dei risultati della

  4. 12 dicembre 2007 00101 Marcare con una crocetta le risposte ritenute corrette e consegnare la scheda al termine della prima

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    matrici reali n × n diagonali `e un gruppo commutativo rispetto alla usuale operazione di somma. B) l. 2) Siano A, B e C tre matrici reali n × n invertibili e I la matrice identica n × n. Allora A) B-1'insieme delle successioni reali in cui il quinto termine `e uguale a 0 `e uno spazio vettoriale reale rispetto

  5. 16 Luglio 2015 N. di Matricola: 00101 Ogni quesito presenta quattro risposte; ce ne possono essere da 0 a 4 vere. Attraversare con una

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    matrici citate si devono intendere reali, e su Rn e Mn(R) si devono considerare le operazioni e strutture standard. 1) Si dica se le seguenti affermazioni sono vere o false. V F a) L'insieme dei polinomi reali vere o false. V F a) L'insieme delle matrici reali n×n a determinante nullo `e uno spazio vettoriale

  6. 26 Gennaio 2015 N. di Matricola: 00101 Ogni quesito presenta quattro risposte; ce ne possono essere da 0 a 4 vere. Attraversare con una

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    matrici citate si devono intendere reali, e su Rn e Mn(R) si devono considerare le operazioni e strutture standard. 1) Si dica se le seguenti affermazioni sono vere o false. V F a) L'insieme dei polinomi reali. V F a) L'insieme delle matrici reali n × n triangolari alte non `e uno spazio vettoriale reale

  7. Fact Sheet --UNO Master's in English Website: english.uno.edu

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    . . . Perhaps the best teaching department on campus. Several of our faculty-- Professors Bryant, Doll, Gery each year (Professors Bryant and Doll have both received this award twice). Dedicated teachers

  8. Portfolio Europeo de las Lenguas Acadmico y Profesional

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    Úbeda Mansilla, ETS de Arquitectura, Mª Mar Robisco Martín, EUIT Aeronáutica, y Joaquín Santiago López, EU de Arquitectura Técnica. Diseño de la cubierta: Nieves González Sanmillán (Becaria GI DISCYT, ETS Arquitectura) Colaboración especial en la revisión del banco de descriptores: María Rocha Gil (Becaria GI

  9. 11/11/2002 00101 Marcare con una crocetta le risposte ritenute corrette e consegnare la scheda al termine della prima

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    prodotto per scalari, sono spazi vettoriali sul campo dei numeri reali? A) insieme delle successioni reali campo dei reali e sia B una sua base. Allora A) B `e formata da 7 vettori. B) B `e l'unica base di V . C sottoinsieme X di V di cardinalit`a 7 risulta L(X) = V . 3) Sia V uno spazio vettoriale sul campo dei reali e

  10. PRE-DEPARTURE GUIDE http://inst.uno.edu/writing

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    #12;2 PASSPORT & VISAS PASSPORT: If you do not have a valid passport, you should be applying for one immediately. You can obtain one at a passport agency, many post offices, or online at http://www.travel.state.gov. They can take several weeks to arrive, so be prepared! In the event that you lose your passport in Europe

  11. BOLETIN DE AVES MARINAS LATINOAMERICANAS VOLUMEN 2; NUMERO UNO

    E-print Network

    Duffy, David Cameron

    el manejo de aves marinas y sus lugares de anidaci6n. Informes pueden ser en espanol, ingl~s, 0 publicaci6n es en ingles y los informes pueden ser traducidos por los editores. Para m~s informaci6n 0 para

  12. E uno plurus: psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the age of pluralism.

    PubMed

    Frosch, James Peter

    2007-01-01

    Until 1970 the dominant theoretical framework in American psychoanalysis was Freudian ego psychology. Since then a number of additional theories, such as object relations theory (including, but not restricted to, the Kleinian approach), self psychology, relational psychoanalysis, and attachment theory have evolved and compete with contemporary ego psychology in the current marketplace of psychoanalytic ideas. There is considerable controversy about whether it is advantageous to work from one theoretical model and apply it to all clinical situations, or whether to utilize all the available paradigms, making judgments about which model or combination of them is most useful in a particular clinical situation or at a particular clinical moment. The latter approach might be termed pluralistic. Though a pluralistic approach is not without its philosophic and practical difficulties, such a perspective is helpful in understanding the complexity of human behavior and in facilitating therapeutic growth. A pluralistic approach is familiar to contemporary psychotherapists, who must utilize multiple frameworks in constructing biopsychosocial formulations of their patients. A pluralistic perspective is advantageous in promoting a therapeutic alliance, since it lends itself to a collaborative therapeutic process with patients. A brief clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these ideas. PMID:18097837

  13. Kevin Toshio Uno kevinuno@ldeo.columbia.edu

    E-print Network

    (paleo)ecology: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 110, no. 29, p. 11736- 11741. Kimura-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 110 consumption during the Jomon period, Japan: Journal of Archeological Science, In Press. Saarinen, J., Karme, A

  14. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  15. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  16. L'EDUCAZIONE MATEMATICA SPAZIO PER LA FORMAZIONE FORMATO A4: ARITMETICA E GEOMETRIA CON UN FOGLIO DI CARTA

    E-print Network

    Zaccagnini, Alessandro

    DI CARTA Alessandro ZACCAGNINI1 c L'Educazione Matematica, Anno XXIV, Serie VII 1 (2003), 47`a, ottenendo il formato A1; questi nuovi fogli sono a loro volta dimezzati allo stesso modo, e cos´i via://www.math.unipr.it/zaccagni/Home.html e-mail: alessandro.zaccagnini@unipr.it #12;2 L'EDUCAZIONE MATEMATICA, ANNO XXIV, SERIE VII 1 (2003

  17. Universidad Autnoma de Madrid Cursos de Formacin en Competencias Profesionales 2015-2016

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid UAM Cursos de Formación en Competencias Profesionales 2015.cursosformacion@uam.es EUROPASS: EL CV EUROPEO COMO PASAPORTE AL EMPLEO PRESENTACIÓN El curso pretende ofrecer las claves para realizarán prácticas con el propio CV de los asistentes para que al término del curso cada uno de ellos pueda

  18. ScholarWorks@UNO Guidelines The purpose of ScholarWorks@UNO is to collect, preserve, and share the scholarly and creative work of

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    lifecycle, from calls for papers to the archiving and dissemination of content after the event. The complete submission and review process, including communication with submitters, organization of sessions, and posting

  19. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  20. Los intertextos europeos en el teatro de Florencio Sánchez: El honor y Magda de Hermann Sudermann

    E-print Network

    Dubatti, Jorge A.

    1995-10-01

    abundante crítica sobre su obra permiten relacionar sus piezas con los estímulos, mayores o menores, provenientes de esta textualidad dramática y/o espectacular europea. En muchas páginas de investigación, sin embargo, el afán por encontrar vínculos... accedió frecuentemente a los escenarios porteños, contó con ediciones nacionales, se intertextualizó en la producción de los dramaturgos argentinos, generó muchas páginas críticas y testimonios de lectores y espectadores. Con el fin de señalar algunos...

  1. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  2. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

  3. Ex Uno Plures: Clonal Reinforcement Drives Evolution of a Simple Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Kinnersley, Margie; Wenger, Jared; Kroll, Evgueny; Adams, Julian; Sherlock, Gavin; Rosenzweig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of genetics is to define the relationship between phenotype and genotype, while a major goal of ecology is to identify the rules that govern community assembly. Achieving these goals by analyzing natural systems can be difficult, as selective pressures create dynamic fitness landscapes that vary in both space and time. Laboratory experimental evolution offers the benefit of controlling variables that shape fitness landscapes, helping to achieve both goals. We previously showed that a clonal population of E. coli experimentally evolved under continuous glucose limitation gives rise to a genetically diverse community consisting of one clone, CV103, that best scavenges but incompletely utilizes the limiting resource, and others, CV101 and CV116, that consume its overflow metabolites. Because this community can be disassembled and reassembled, and involves cooperative interactions that are stable over time, its genetic diversity is sustained by clonal reinforcement rather than by clonal interference. To understand the genetic factors that produce this outcome, and to illuminate the community's underlying physiology, we sequenced the genomes of ancestral and evolved clones. We identified ancestral mutations in intermediary metabolism that may have predisposed the evolution of metabolic interdependence. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the lineages that gave rise to this community diverged early, as CV103 shares only one Single Nucleotide Polymorphism with the other evolved clones. Underlying CV103's phenotype we identified a set of mutations that likely enhance glucose scavenging and maintain redox balance, but may do so at the expense of carbon excreted in overflow metabolites. Because these overflow metabolites serve as growth substrates that are differentially accessible to the other community members, and because the scavenging lineage shares only one SNP with these other clones, we conclude that this lineage likely served as an “engine” generating diversity by creating new metabolic niches, but not the occupants themselves. PMID:24968217

  4. UNO-ADVANCED COURSE OFFERING-SPRING 2016 ADVANCED COMPOSITION AND SYNTAX IN FRENCH

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    . This course, conducted in English, is an introduction to film aesthetics through the screening of motion translation by W.S. Mervin. New York: A Mentor Classic, 1962. Pérez Galdós, Benito. El abuelo. E-book. http://www.casadellibro

  5. Linea abierta -- Comunicacion en espanol. Nivel Uno (Open Line -- Communication in Spanish. Level One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This text is the first of a series of four units concerning language skills for Spanish speakers of limited English-speaking ability in grades 6-9. The text includes a variety of learning experiences designed to develop competence in the student's cognitive and affective skills derived from the following basic areas: listening, speaking, reading,…

  6. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the following…

  7. 1 Il Teorema Spettrale In questa sezione vogliamo enunciare e dimostrare uno dei risultati piu' im-

    E-print Network

    Fioresi, Rita

    - efficienti reali e poi ne daremo una interpretazione in termini di prodotti scalari. Cominciamo con il autovalore reale. Proof. A e' una matrice a coefficienti reali, tuttavia poiche' i reali sono con- tenuti nel abbiamo 0 = 0. Concludiamo osservando che poiche' 0 e' reale e anche A e' a coefficienti reali, l

  8. DIRECTIVA 2002/96/CE DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO Y DEL CONSEJO de 27 de enero de 2003

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Tratado constitutivo de la Comunidad Europea, y en particular el apartado 1 de su artículo 175, Vista la Tratado (4 ), a la vista del texto conjunto aprobado por el Comité de Conciliación el 8 de noviembre de

  9. Acidi grassi e Neuropatia periferica La rivista Cell Metabolism pubblica uno studio internazionale coordinato da ricercatori dell'Universit

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    Olivares, Stefano

    dipartimento di Chirurgia e Medicina Traslazionale dell'Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, l'Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta di Milano, l'Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele di Milano, l'Instituto Cajal e l­Marie­Tooth, mentre quelle acquisite si sviluppano durante l'invecchiamento, in seguito a traumi fisici, oppure come

  10. BANDO 5 BORSE DI STUDIO PROGRAMMA LEONARDO MOBILITA' PLM VISTA la Decisione n. 1720/2006/CE del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio del 15

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    Pettenella, Davide

    programma LLP-Leonardo da Vinci e inerente alla mobilità di laureati per tirocini all'estero; VISTI gli programma LLP Leonardo da Vinci (People in the Labour Market) ed approvato dall'Unione Europea tramite l1 BANDO 5 BORSE DI STUDIO ­ PROGRAMMA LEONARDO MOBILITA' PLM VISTA la Decisione n. 1720/2006/CE del

  11. GLI ITALIANI SCOPRONO IL MECCANISMO CHE CONTROLLA LA DISSEMINAZIONE BATTERICA Science pubblica la ricerca dell'Istituto Europeo di Oncologia e dell'Universit Statale di Milano

    E-print Network

    Olivares, Stefano

    Statale che, studiando l'origine delle malattie del tratto gastrointestinale, ha scoperto una nuova attraverso il sangue, al fegato e di invadere l'organismo. La scoperta apre prospettive finora insperate per sistema immunitario, provocando un'infezione. Si pensava che l'epitelio dell'intestino (la parte più

  12. Se entiende por lenguaje sexista, no incluyente o no integrador el uso exclusivo de uno de los dos gneros (habitualmente el masculino) para

    E-print Network

    especificación de sexo o construcciones impersonales : o Los investigadores el personal investigador o Como brillantes Algunas mentes brillantes Sustituir las construcciones copulativas que exijan un adjetivo en masculino por otras construcciones: ej. tener o sentir + sustantivo o construcciones reflexivas o

  13. August 2014 Catalog | University of New Orleans http://www.uno.edu/registrar/catalog/1415catalog/index.aspx[8/21/2014 9:35:18 AM

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    Li, X. Rong

    Performance and Health Promotion Education Management Business Administration Marketing Busin Home University Catalogs August 2014 Catalog August 2014 - 2015 Catalog Table of Contents Academic Research and Academic Centers and Institutes Student Life Tuition Fees The University University Calendar

  14. "Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It's like a time bomb]": A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Diabetes Among First-Degree Relatives of Latino Patients With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rivas, Erida; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2014-02-01

    Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be "cured" through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes were knowledgeable about the risks and consequences of diabetes. However, some participants felt that being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes made one destined to have diabetes. Addressing this misperception through culturally tailored interventions has implications for diabetes prevention and may help to stem the diabetes epidemic in Latino communities. PMID:26246756

  15. Un bicchiere di vino bianco protegge cuore e reni Uno studio pubblicato su Plos One coordinato da Alberto Bertelli dell'Universit di Milano dimostra che

    E-print Network

    Olivares, Stefano

    sanguigni, ma anche il rene. La recente pubblicazione dello stesso autore in collaborazione con l Alberto Bertelli dell'Università di Milano dimostra che l'acido caffeico contenuto nel vino bianco insorgono con l'aumentare dell'età e delle condizioni di stress. Tradizionalmente viene associato a tale

  16. Let's Help Each Other. Economic Organization Booklet 3. Teacher's Edition=Ayudemonos uno al otro. Organizacion economica libro 3. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  17. Dear New/Re-Entering UNO Student: On behalf of the staff of Student Health Services, welcome to the University of New Orleans.

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    , RUBELLA, DIPHTHERIA and TETANUS, in addition a MENINGOCOCCAL immuniza- tion is required. The Proof of the Louisiana State Health Department: 1. Diphtheria-Tetanus (DT) immunizations in the last ten years. 2. If you 1957, there is no measles-mumps-rubella requirement. 4. If you were born before 1957, the diphtheria-tetanus

  18. Aerospace Workforce Development: The Nebraska Proposal; and Native View Connections: A Multi-Consortium Workforce Development Proposal. UNO Aviation Monograph Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Russell, Valerie; Vlasek, Karisa; Avery, Shelly; Calamaio, Larry; Carstenson, Larry; Farritor, Shane; deSilva, Shan; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) continues to recognize the necessity of increasing the quantity and quality of highly skilled graduates and faculty involved with NASA. Through NASA Workforce Development funds awarded in 2002, NSGC spearheaded customer- focused workforce training and higher education, industry and community partnerships that are significantly impacting the state s workforce in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) competencies. NSGC proposes to build upon these accomplishments to meet the steadily increasing demand for STEM skills and to safeguard minority representation in these disciplines. A wide range of workforce development activities target NASA s need to establish stronger connections among higher education, industry, and community organizations. Participation in the National Student Satellite Program (NSSP), Community Internship Program, and Nebraska Science and Technology Recruitment Fair will extend the pipeline of employees benefiting NASA as well as Nebraska. The diversity component of this proposal catapults from the exceptional reputation NSGC has built by delivering geospatial science experiences to Nebraska s Native Americans. For 6 years, NSGC has fostered and sustained partnerships with the 2 tribal colleges and 4 reservation school districts in Nebraska to foster aeronautics education and outreach. This program, the Nebraska Native American Outreach Program (NNAOP), has grown to incorporate more than educational institutions and is now a partnership among tribal community leaders, academia, tribal schools, and industry. The content focus has broadened from aeronautics in the school systems to aerospace technology and earth science applications in tribal community decision-making and workforce training on the reservations. To date, participants include faculty and staff at 4 Nebraska tribal schools, 2 tribal colleges, approximately 1,000 Native American youth, and over 1,200 community members. This Native American Initiative of the NSGC addresses Nebraska workforce development and serves as a model to others. Following a structured evaluation process, NSGC proposes to sustain delivery of the training funded by NASA in 2002 to tribal entities through partnerships linking academic programs and industry leaders.

  19. Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Uno (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Richard

    Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum, written in Spanish, provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing social studies curriculum in grade 1. Using short stories, field trips, and class discussions, the 11 lessons on…

  20. Spazi Vettoriali Reali e Complessi E. C. Mistretta

    E-print Network

    Candilera, Maurizio

    Spazi Vettoriali Reali e Complessi E. C. Mistretta 30 novembre 2011 1 Struttura di spazio complesso in W (restringendosi ai soli reali), e che una base di W come spazio vettoriale reale `e W = {w1, iw1 spazi vettoriali reali, 1 : V - ker(A - iIn) , e 2 : V - ker(A + iIn) . Suggerimento: dimostrare che

  1. Please be aware that this application is for the Department of Fine Arts. It is one of two required applications. The other UNO Graduate school application must be sent directly to UNO Graduate Admissions, along with the application fee, transcripts and G

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    (postmarked): Fall: February 1st Spring: October 15 Name: Address: Telephone: Email Address: Social Security Number: Date and Place of Birth: Citizen of what country? CITY CELL STREET HOME STATE ZIP In which studio area do you intend to major? Digital Media Painting Photography Printmaking Sculpture In which studio area

  2. Planetary Nebulae as astronomical tools, Gdansk, POLAND, June 28 -July 2, 2005 c M. Steffen et al., AIP, 2005 Modeling X-ray Emission from

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    Scienza dello Spazio, Firenze, Italy E. Landi Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD, USA Introduction. Recent wind matter is well es- tablished (marked in red). Heat conduction strongly influences the structure

  3. A&A manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    Astronomia, Unit`a di Ricerca di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I­50125 Firenze, Italy 3 Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universit`a di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 5, I­50125 Firenze, Italy Received

  4. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 547:11671177, 2001 February 1 ( 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Chibbaro, Sergio

    =dif.unipi.it SERGIO CHIBBARO3 Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, di Firenze, 50125 Firenze, Italy Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5344; rdahlbur=lcp.nrl.navy.mil AND MARCO VELLI1 Dipartimento di Astronomia

  5. University of New Orleans Financial Conflict of Interest (FCOI) Information Digest The purpose of this Document is to provide to UNO researchers an overview of the 2011 revised U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) FCOI regulation

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    and Interest was revised to meet those regulatory requirements. This revised policy is effective November 1 and Quality (AHRQ), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of the Inspector General (OIG); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA

  6. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  7. Hbitat del bisbita alpino (Anthus spinoletta) y de la collalba gris (Oenanthe oenanthe) en el Parque Nacional de los Picos

    E-print Network

    Seoane, Javier

    de 2010 #12;2 Resumen Los ecosistemas europeos montanos han poseído, históricamente un buen estatus son amenazas locales al buen estado de conservación de los ecosistemas alpinos. Globalmente, otro época de la reproducción. #12;3 Introducción Históricamente, los ecosistemas de montaña europeos, han

  8. Le origini del mondo Giuseppe Longo

    E-print Network

    Santorelli, Pietro

    studio implica una lotta ininterrotta contro il "senso comune" · Il Big Bang non è un'esplosione nel senso comune: non si tratta dell'esplosione di una "bomba" in una stanza vuota ... · Il Big Bang si è in un punto ... · L'esplosione si verifica in quattro dimensioni (spazio-tempo) Riflessione 1 #12;Big

  9. Carla Guerrini 2008/11/18 Integrazione numerica

    E-print Network

    Guerrini, Carla

    base di funzioni per tale spazio, chiamate funzioni CARDINALI, per cui vale i(xj) = 1 se i = j 0 se i = j Le funzioni cardinali risolvono il problema di interpolazione per i punti (xi, yi), i = 0, 1'interpolante espresso nella base delle funzioni cardinali permette di esprimere banalmente la soluzione di un problema

  10. Carla Guerrini 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

    E-print Network

    Guerrini, Carla

    ] , allora esiste una base di funzioni per tale spazio, chiamate funzioni CARDINALI, per cui vale i(xj) = 1 se i = j 0 se i = j Le funzioni cardinali risolvono il problema di interpolazione per i punti (xi, yi. Osservazione L'interpolante espresso nella base delle funzioni cardinali permette di esprimere ba- nalmente la

  11. Carla Guerrini 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

    E-print Network

    Guerrini, Carla

    funzioni per tale spazio, chiamate funzioni CARDINALI, per cui vale i(xj) = 1 se i = j 0 se i = j Le funzioni cardinali risolvono il problema di interpolazione per i punti (xi, yi), i = 0, 1, . . . , n'interpolante espressa nella base delle funzioni cardinali permette di esprimere ba- nalmente la soluzione di un problema

  12. ciclo di conferenze organizzato da Politecnico di Milano,

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    'Informazione, Corso di laurea in Ingegneria delle Telecomunicazioni, Liceo Scientifico Statale Leonardo da Vinci al di'Informazione Politecnico di Milano 02.2399.9714 quintafacolta@polimi.it Liceo Scientifico Statale Leonardo da Vinci Centro dello spazio, al di là del tempo Liceo Scientifico Statale Leonardo da Vinci Centro Congressi

  13. Universit`a degli Studi di Padova facolt`a di scienze matematiche, fisiche e naturali

    E-print Network

    Relatore: Prof. Massimo Cerdonio Chiaromonte Correlatore: Dott. Jean-Pierre Zendri Laureando: Alessandro dal gruppo Auriga volta alla progettazione di un nuovo tipo di rivelatore massivo di onde gravita massa informa lo spazio, il quale a sua volta detta alla prima le regole del moto, secondo una catena di

  14. Roma, 3 Febbraio 2009 Esperimenti di

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    processing: - Quantum cryptography - Quantum metrology - Quantum computation - Quantum simulation Fisica'Informazione Meccanica Quantistica Spazio di Hilbert H2 di dimensione 2 with basis Quantum bit (qubit): quantum state in H2 Informazione Quantistica 1,10 22 =++ eCcon { }1,0 Quantum Information Classical Information #12

  15. SCRITTO DI FISICA MATEMATICA 1 -14 luglio 2004. Esercizio n.1

    E-print Network

    Catenacci, Roberto

    monodimensionale con Lagrangiana L q 2q 2 (a) Studiare qualitativamente il moto a energia non nulla nello spazio delle fasi. Dopo aver risolto il punto (b) descrivere in dettaglio il caso delle orbite di energia nulla di massa 1, in un campo di forze con energia potenziale: Ux x10 2x5 #12;CENNO DI SOLUZIONI: (a) L'energia

  16. Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    Testi, Leonardo

    Spazio, Universit`a di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 5, Firenze, Italy 4 Centro Galileo Galilei, Santa Cruz De with the CAISMI­CNR for the TNG (the Italian National Telescope Galileo at La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, Instrumentation: polarimeters, Near Infrared 1. Introduction The 3.5m Italian National Telescope Galileo (TNG

  17. In collaborazione con: 3,2,1...IGNITION!Il lancio del satellite Lisa Pathfinder

    E-print Network

    Moschitti, Alessandro

    IMG>©ESA In collaborazione con: 3,2,1...IGNITION!Il lancio del satellite Lisa Pathfinder e l'esplorazione dello spazio-tempo PRESENTAZIONE DELLA MISSIONE SPAZIALE LISA PATHFINDER Giovedì 26 novembre ore 18 spaziale Lisa Pathfinder e docente del Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università di Trento Sessione Domande

  18. La verit`a matematica da Kant a Godel Alessandro Berarducci

    E-print Network

    Berarducci, Alessandro

    pensatore poco pi`u di un secolo prima. Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 "La rappresentazione dello spazio non puLa verit`a matematica da Kant a G¨odel Alessandro Berarducci Pisa, 15 Marzo 2010 Questa `e la evidentemente essa non `e una scienza sperimentale? Kant 1787. L'intuizione Sentiamo cosa diceva un altro grande

  19. I rapporti tra i fondamenti della matematica e della fisica: dialogo1

    E-print Network

    Longo, Giuseppe

    parla di struttura matematica, i numeri interi per esempio, o i reali, lo spazio cartesiano o, come rapporti di numeri interi (modulo l'equivalenza delle proporzioni), e poi i reali, in quanto importante perché fondamento dell' "oggettività" dei numeri reali. Si potrebbe dire molto sulle costruzioni

  20. 1. Spazi metrici 1.1 Definizione ed esempi

    E-print Network

    Presilla, Carlo

    1.4 Esempio. Sia X = R l'insieme dei numeri reali (oppure X = C) e sia d(x, y) := |x - y| . La "infinito dimensionale"). Consideriamo lo spazio R di tutte le successioni reali e, date due successioni x

  1. Codice: 000 Universit degli Studi di Torino

    E-print Network

    Anselma, Luca

    'unità a disco B) L'unità a nastro C) La memoria primaria #12;D) Il processore E) I dispositivi di Input/Output 9'occupazione di spazio su disco (o DVD, o nastro) C) A deframmentare i dati su disco D) Nessuna della altre

  2. A&A manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-print Network

    BT61 9DG, Northern Ireland. E­mail: sba@star.arm.ac.uk 3 C.N.R., Gruppo Nazionale di Astronomia, Unit Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universit`a degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 5, I

  3. Curriculum Vitae INFORMAZIONI PERSONALI Aurora Silleni

    E-print Network

    Curriculum Vitae INFORMAZIONI PERSONALI Aurora Silleni aurorasilleni@yahoo.it Sesso F | Data di parlamento europeo ALLEGATI Si allega certificato di laurea con voti In fede, Roma 23/04/2014 Aurora Silleni

  4. Introduccin Los ecosistemas acuticos salinos, tanto

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    Introducción Los ecosistemas acuáticos salinos, tanto humedales como ríos, se caracterizan por un los ecosistemas acuáticos salinos, por otro lado, mayoritariamente ibéricos en un contexto europeo EMBLEMÁTICAS DE LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA Biodiversidad de macroinvertebrados en los ecosistemas acuáticos salinos

  5. Limnetica, 29 (2): x-xx (2011)Limnetica, 30 (1): 59-70 (2011) c Asociacion Iberica de Limnologia, Madrid. Spain. ISSN: 0213-8409

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    2011-01-01

    las ´areas m´as ´aridas del Mediterr´aneo occidental, pre- senta una amplia variedad de ecosistemas acu´aticos, algunos de los cuales son raros a nivel europeo. En dichos ecosistemas, englobados en 12

  6. Nota de prensa Valencia CSIC c o m u n i c a c i n

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    , Pilar Campins, entregó el premio dotado con 12.000 euros en la gala de los XXVII Premios Literarios obra galardonada con el XXI Premio Europeo de Divulgación Científica Estudi General, dotado con 12

  7. Nota de prensa Valencia CSIC c o m u n i c a c i n

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    Neurobiología del Desarrollo, dotado con 20.000 euros, fue creado en 2006 El Instituto de Neurociencias, centro Almela", dotado con 20.000 euros, está dirigido a reconocer el trabajo de un investigador europeo que

  8. GRADUATESTUDENTHANDBOOK Graduate Student Handbook

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    ....................................... 25 Parking .................................................. 26 University Police ............................... 28 Computer Labs................................... 28 UNO Counseling Services

  9. Includes the University of New Orleans Student Code of Conduct Student Handbook

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Administrators and Deans 4 Building Names 5 Links to Campus Maps 5 Academic Information You Should Know 6 UNO Life at UNO 20 UNO Student Code of Conduct 21 Campus Policies for All Students 30 Campus Information and the educational opportunities, services, and life experiences available to you as a UNO student. For your

  10. Universit degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" Via Flaminia, 359 -00196 Roma -P.IVA 02133771002

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    della prof. Luciano De Licio, responsabile scientifico della ricerca progetto Europeo TURAS ( Urban Resilience Sustainability climate change urban regeneration green infrastructure adaptive governance urban sprawl short circuit economy SME flood risk GIS infrastructure transition strategy ) - Visto l'art. 5 del

  11. Mujeres Hombres Total Hombres Total 16 5 21 0 10

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    VOLUNTARIADO LOCAL 9 Enseñanzas Técnicas 0 Ciencias de la Salud 3 No estudiante de UAM 0 #12;Año Mujeres Jurídicas 7 Enseñanzas Técnicas 2 Ciencias de la Salud 0 4 1 5 3 9 4 Número de voluntarios/as: mujeres/as: hombres, mujeres y totales. 2.1. Servicio de Voluntariado Europeo (SVE) Ciencias de la Salud 0 Humanidades

  12. La batalla de Niza JAVIER ELORZA

    E-print Network

    Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

    tenían como principal objetivo completar lo que el Tratado de Amsterdam no pudo lograr (los célebres left. El Tratado de Niza se ha valorado con luces y sombras, pero, soñadores aparte, para los analistas por la presidencia francesa. Desde un punto de vista europeo en general, el nuevo Tratado, al concluir

  13. Ricerca e ricercatori in Italia e nell'Eurozona: quali finanziamenti, personale, governo?

    E-print Network

    Bellin, Gianluigi

    Europeo per la Ricerca Nucleare) di Ginevra, il britannico Tim Berners-Lee ed il belga Robert Cailliau and Communication Act del 1991, per iniziativa del senatore Al Gore. Nell'ottobre 1994 Tim Berners-Lee lasci`o il

  14. Passione Yoga Se anche l'Universit Ca' Foscari di Venezia istituisce il primo

    E-print Network

    Cortesi, Tino

    Passione Yoga Se anche l'Università Ca' Foscari di Venezia istituisce il primo master europeo di Yoga Studies significa che questa disciplina va oltre la tendenza. I numeri parlano chiaro: oltre 20'Ashram Joytinat di Corinaldo, nelle Marche, una dimora dell'Ottocento che propone tutto l'anno corsi di yoga

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubel, Jose Maria Esteve; Valero, Miguel Angel Molina; Stephens, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the Espacio Europeo de Educacion Superior (European Higher Education Area) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with a minimal musical knowledge. The data for this study arise from a…

  16. Nato a Bassano del Grappa, il 5 Agosto 1948. Laureato in Fisica all'Universit di Padova

    E-print Network

    Olivares, Stefano

    degli acceleratori ALPI e SPES ai LNL, e del progetto europeo EURISOL. L'attività di ricerca si svolge in Fisica Nucleare Teorica. E' autore (coautore) di più di 250 articoli su riviste internazionali con finita. c) spreading width delle risonanze giganti, con l'importante risultato di una debole dipendenza

  17. Seleccin y gestin de materiales de reproduccin para proyectos de revegetacin

    E-print Network

    Rey Benayas, José María

    tenacissima (esparto). Se desea frenar la erosión de unos taludes de una autovía sobre de suelos yesíferos en tenacissima (esparto). Se desea frenar la erosión de unos taludes de una autovía sobre de suelos yesíferos en

  18. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Organ Sharing (UNOS), which maintains a centralized computer network linking all regional organ procurement organizations (OPOs) ... the OPO reports to UNOS, and a central computer generates a ranked list of compatible recipients. The ...

  19. United Network for Organ Sharing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transplant careers About ABOUT UNOS Mission, vision and values Strategic goals History of UNOS Leadership Governance Financials Annual report SERVICES Research and technology Meeting planning Advertising Education Online store ...

  20. Space simulation techniques and facilities for SAX STM test campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giordano, Pietro; Raimondo, Giacomo; Messidoro, Piero

    1994-01-01

    SAX is a satellite for X-Ray astronomy. It is a major element of the overall basic Science Program of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and is being developed with the contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). The scientific objectives of SAX are to carry out systematic and comprehensive observations of celestial X-Ray sources over the 0.1 - 300 KeV energy range with special emphasis on spectral and timing measurements. The satellite will also monitor the X-Ray sky to investigate long-term source variability and to permit localization and study of X-Ray transients. Alenia Spazio is developing the satellite that is intended for launch in the second half of 1995 in a low, near-equatorial Earth orbit. At system level a Structural Thermal Model (STM) has been conceived to verify the environmental requirements by validating the mechanical and thermal analytical models and qualifying satellite structure and thermal control. In particular, the following tests have been carried out in Alenia Spazio, CEA/CESTA and ESTEC facilities: Modal Survey, Centrifuge, Acoustic, Sinusoidal/Random Vibration and Thermal Balance. The paper, after a short introduction of the SAX satellite, summarizes the environmental qualification program performed on the SAX STM. It presents test objectives, methodologies and relevant test configurations. Peculiar aspects of the test campaign are highlighted. Problems encountered and solutions adopted in performing the tests are described as well. Furthermore, test results are presented and assessed.

  1. Equipe : Dagmara Manorek Brian Rodrigues William Podetti Gary Sotiropoulos Suiveur : Laurent Ferrier

    E-print Network

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    : Laurent Ferrier REALISATION D'UNE ENCEINTE BLUETOOTH Projet 1: Transmission entre 2 arduino Projet 2: Transmission d'un téléphone à l'arduino Arduino Uno + NFC + Bluetooth + Téléphone portable Arduino Uno émetteur et carte SD Arduino Uno récepteur et décodeur mp3 + 2 Modules bluetooth

  2. Student Handbook IncludestheUniversityofNewOrleansStudentCodeofConduct

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    in campus life, staying healthy, seeking a job and finding resources to enrich your life. Within each and Deans 4 Building Names 5 Links to Campus Maps 5 Academic Information You Should Know 6 UNO Technology 8 Life at UNO 20 UNO Student Code of Conduct 21 Campus Policies for All Students 30 Campus Information

  3. Los soportes histórico y científico de la pieza Humboldt & Bonpland, taxidermistas de Ibsen Martínez

    E-print Network

    Obregó n, Osvaldo

    1999-10-01

    reales, los célebres naturalistas europeos Alexander Von Humboldt (1769- 1859) y Aimé Bonpland (1773-1858), que lograron un prestigio internacional con motivo de la expedición americana comenzada en 1799, cuando sus edades sumaban apenas 56 años y que... Humboldt es otro rasgo que lo distingue de Bonpland. El barón es el que se ocupa de la correspondencia y de las relaciones en general, con autoridades, benefactores, congéneres naturalistas de Europa y América, lo que incluye también el asunto de los...

  4. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 31, Number 2: Book Reviews

    E-print Network

    1998-04-01

    manera en que suturan y disectan la relación de los sujetos con su cultura, su memoria y sus utopías. Gustavo Geirola Whittier College Discépolo, Armando. Obra dramática. Vol. III. Ed. Osvaldo Pellettieri. Buenos Aires: Galerna, 1996.317 pp. Este es... tratados históricos sobre Costa Rica, y de algunos estudios sobre teatro latinoamericano y europeo, como el de Susan Bryan sobre el teatro popular mexicano durante el Porfiriato, el de Pedro Bravo Elizondo sobre el teatro obrero en Chile, el de John...

  5. Echoes generation systems: SHARAD experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, G.; Galiero, G.; Moccia, A.; Palmese, G.; Sacchettino, M.; Salzillo, G.

    2005-10-01

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, MRO, scheduled for launch in 2005, will be equipped with a sounder to find subsurface water and ice: Shallow Radar, SHARAD. This radar has been developed by Alenia Spazio and funded by Italian Space Agency, ASI. An integral part of such kind missions is the development of an EGSE (Electrical Ground Support Equipment) capable to test all the radar functionalities. CORISTA has been responsible to define the EGSE technical requirements and to design, build and test the Mars Echoes Generation System (MEGS). This paper describes the activities developed and the results obtained during the test campaigns of SHARAD. An architectural description of the MEGS will be given with emphasis on the technical aspects related to the signal generation of Mars Echoes and possible operating modes.

  6. KSC-05PD-0732

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers prepare to remove one of the hatches on the Node-2 module. The hatches are being removed in preparation for shipment to the Marshall Space Flight Center, Ala., for re- balance certification. The Node-2 will launch on mission 10A, STS-120, to the International Space Station (ISS) currently scheduled for Fall 2006. The installation of the Node-2 on the ISS will signify the completion of the U.S. stage of assembly and increase the living and working space inside the Station to approximately 18,000 cubic feet. Under contract to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, led a consortium of European subcontractors to build Node-2. The module was built for NASA under an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) in exchange for launch of the European Columbus Laboratory.

  7. KSC-05PD-0736

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers guide one of the hatches from the Node-2 module onto a shipping container. The hatches are being removed in preparation for shipment to the Marshall Space Flight Center, Ala., for re-balance certification. The Node-2 will launch on mission 10A, STS-120, to the International Space Station (ISS) currently scheduled for Fall 2006. The installation of the Node-2 on the ISS will signify the completion of the U.S. stage of assembly and increase the living and working space inside the Station to approximately 18,000 cubic feet. Under contract to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, led a consortium of European subcontractors to build Node-2. The module was built for NASA under an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) in exchange for launch of the European Columbus Laboratory.

  8. KSC-05PD-0733

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers are removing one of the hatches on the Node-2 module. The hatches are being removed in preparation for shipment to the Marshall Space Flight Center, Ala., for re-balance certification. The Node-2 will launch on mission 10A, STS-120, to the International Space Station (ISS) currently scheduled for Fall 2006. The installation of the Node-2 on the ISS will signify the completion of the U.S. stage of assembly and increase the living and working space inside the Station to approximately 18,000 cubic feet. Under contract to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, led a consortium of European subcontractors to build Node-2. The module was built for NASA under an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) in exchange for launch of the European Columbus Laboratory.

  9. KSC-05PD-0735

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers prepare to move one of the hatches from the Node-2 module to a shipping container. The hatches are being removed in preparation for shipment to the Marshall Space Flight Center, Ala., for re-balance certification. The Node-2 will launch on mission 10A, STS-120, to the International Space Station (ISS) currently scheduled for Fall 2006. The installation of the Node-2 on the ISS will signify the completion of the U.S. stage of assembly and increase the living and working space inside the Station to approximately 18,000 cubic feet. Under contract to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, led a consortium of European subcontractors to build Node-2. The module was built for NASA under an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) in exchange for launch of the European Columbus Laboratory.

  10. KSC-05PD-0737

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers finish packing one of the hatches from the Node-2 module inside a shipping container. The hatches are being removed in preparation for shipment to the Marshall Space Flight Center, Ala., for re-balance certification. The Node-2 will launch on mission 10A, STS-120, to the International Space Station (ISS) currently scheduled for Fall 2006. The installation of the Node-2 on the ISS will signify the completion of the U.S. stage of assembly and increase the living and working space inside the Station to approximately 18,000 cubic feet. Under contract to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, led a consortium of European subcontractors to build Node-2. The module was built for NASA under an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) in exchange for launch of the European Columbus Laboratory.

  11. KSC-05PD-0734

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers are removing one of the hatches on the Node-2 module. The hatches are being removed in preparation for shipment to the Marshall Space Flight Center, Ala., for re-balance certification. The Node-2 will launch on mission 10A, STS-120, to the International Space Station (ISS) currently scheduled for Fall 2006. The installation of the Node-2 on the ISS will signify the completion of the U.S. stage of assembly and increase the living and working space inside the Station to approximately 18,000 cubic feet. Under contract to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, led a consortium of European subcontractors to build Node-2. The module was built for NASA under an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) in exchange for launch of the European Columbus Laboratory.

  12. Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  13. COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kirschman Hall Room 308

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Philosophy of Sex and Love LITERATURE ENGLISH 2020 Medieval Hollywood 2020 Greed & Cyborgs 2020 The Graphic.advisor@uno.edu http://registrar.uno.edu/ Popular Non-Business Electives ARTS FINE ARTS 1005 Monuments of World Art Jazz 1004 Contemporary Jazz 2001 Survey of Popular Music HUMANITIES ENGLISH 2151 Non-Fiction Writing

  14. SEMINARI FEL: Aula Grassano alle ore 14:30 Martedi' 13 Gennaio : Introduzione alla teoria del laser ad elettroni liberi.

    E-print Network

    Morante, Silvia

    di tale interazione si ha uno scambio di energia tra materia e campo EM. L'assorbimento di EM porta atomi e molecole in uno stato eccitato. L'energia assorbita è infatti trasferita ai moti atomici e EMsorgente EM Energia EM B rivelatore EMsorgente di energia campione #12;Classicamente la radiazione EM

  15. 366 UNA DEMOSTRACCI ON DE UN HOMEOMORFISMO ENTRE P3 Y SO(3) Una demostracion constructiva de un

    E-print Network

    González Pérez, Pedro Daniel

    problema de las tijeras de Dirac (ver [6]), que consiste en lo siguiente: tomemos unas tijeras y una silla, pasemos una cuerda por uno de los agujeros de la tijera y uno de los huecos del respaldo de la silla la silla, y entonces pegamos los dos extremos de la cuerda (de modo que ahora tenemos que la cuerda

  16. 14 Settembre 2015 N. di Matricola: 00101 Ogni quesito presenta quattro risposte; ce ne possono essere da 0 a 4 vere. Attraversare con una

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    diversamente le matrici citate si devono intendere reali, e su Rn e Mn(R) si devono considerare le operazioni e prodotto per uno scalare. V F b) Tutti gli spazi vettoriali reali ammettono uno e un solo sistema di affermazioni sono vere o false. V F a) Esistono matrici reali invertibili la cui trasposta non `e invertibile

  17. What Every Patient Needs to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood type, and tissue type—into the UNOS computer system. 2. A list is generated. The UNOS computer system matches a list of candidates who have ... Each organ follows different criteria for allocation. The computer ranks candidates based on the allocation policy for ...

  18. Development of an Open-Source Smart Energy House for K-12 Education

    E-print Network

    , with actual loads, using an Arduino Uno electronics platform as an interface to a PC. A reference program on the work development board Arduino Uno, the work of MIT on project Scratch, and the expansion has funded the construction of the first 10 houses. Energyville has funded the electronics and Arduino

  19. Construction of the Caltech Ch 6 CP-FTMW Spectrometer P. Brandon Carroll

    E-print Network

    Blake, Geoffrey

    to be a guide to the construction and implementation of Arduino control of an AD 9914 DDS board for generation this we chose an Arduino Uno micro controller board (http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardUno). The board), highlighted in red. Once this is done, the Arduino can be used to control the 9914. An overview of the Arduino

  20. Intestine Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sharing (UNOS) is committed to providing accurate and reliable information for transplant patients. The content on this page was originally created on August 1, 2003 by UNOS and last modified on October 10, 2003. The following sources were used as references: Park, Berverly Kosmach MSN, ...

  1. Historia, Nación y Género: La representación de la historia en El ataúd de uso y No pertenezco a este siglo de Rosa María Britton 

    E-print Network

    George, Ana

    2010-07-14

    tambi?n en otros pa?ses europeos. En el resto de Europa, las guerras napole?nicas evocaron un profundo sentimiento y entendimiento de nacionalismo, en 4 forma de resistencia contra la conquista napole?nica. Para Luk?cs, la novela hist?rica de Scott... est? relacionada con el desarrollo socio- hist?rico de la sociedad, y lo explica de la siguiente manera: 5 To fulfil the aims of the novel all that is required is to show convincingly and powerfully the irresistible course of social...

  2. G. Marconi: A Data Relay Satellite for Mars Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisio, C.; Marcozzi, M.; Landriani, C.

    2002-01-01

    Mars has always been a source of intrigue and fascination. Recent scientific discoveries have stimulated this longstanding interest, leading to a renaissance in Mars exploration. Future missions to Mars will be capable of long-distance surface mobility, hyperspectral imaging, subsurface exploration, and even life-detection. Manned missions and, eventually, colonies may follow. No mission to the Red Planet stands alone. New scientific and technological knowledge is passed on from one mission to the next, not only improving the journey into space, but also providing benefits here on Earth. The Mars Relay Network, an international constellation of Mars orbiters with relay radios, directly supports other Mars missions by relaying communications between robotic vehicles at Mars and ground stations on Earth. The ability of robotic visitors from Earth to explore Mars will take a gigantic leap forward in 2007 with the launch of the Guglielmo Marconi Orbiter (GMO), the first spacecraft primarily dedicated to providing communication relay, navigation and timing services at Mars. GMO will be the preeminent node of the Mars Relay Network. GMO will relay communications between Earth and robotic vehicles near Mars. GMO will also provide navigation services to spacecraft approaching Mars. GMO will receive transmissions from ground stations on Earth at X-band and will transmit to ground stations on Earth at X- and Ka-bands. GMO will transmit to robotic vehicles at Mars at UHF and receive from these vehicles at UHF and X-band. GMO's baseline 4450 km circular orbit provides complete coverage of the planet for telecommunication and navigation support. GMO will arrive at Mars in mid-2008, just before the NetLander and Mars Scout missions that will be its first users. GMO is designed for a nominal operating lifetime of 10 years and will support nominal commanding and data acquisition, as well as mission critical events such as Mars Orbit Insertion, Entry, Descent and Landing, and Mars Ascent Vehicle launch and Orbiting Sample Canister detection for the Mars Sample Return mission. The GMO mission is a close collaboration between the Italian and American national space agencies and two implementing organizations: Alenia Spazio in Italy and JPL in the United States. As the Italian prime contractor, Alenia Spazio is to design and fabricate the spacecraft bus, integrate the Italian and JPL payloads, support integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle, support launch, and conduct mission operations. GMO will use Alenia' s PRIMA spacecraft bus in a deep space configuration. The PRIMA bus is a new design concept, developed under ASI funding, that combines flexibility, low cost and high efficiency. Its modular design makes it adaptable for several classes of missions, including interplanetary.

  3. Marco Antonio de la Parra: Matatangos y la resemantización de su causa ausente

    E-print Network

    Dí az-Ortiz, Oscar A.

    1996-04-01

    . Túlio Carella nos da una definición de lo que el tango significó para los argentinos: El tango afianza la personalidad portueña prescindiendo de todo y de todos. La dura carrera de iniciación del tango se debe a que nació en un "habitat" de miseria... Dos en su actuación de veleta y a su carácter mercantil como vemos en: Uno: ¿Llamada? Tres: ¿A quién llamas Carlitos? Dos (Parco): A una amiga. Uno (Irónico): Ahhh, Carlitos tiene amigas . . . Tres: Amigas ricas. Uno: Gringas que mean oro. Tres...

  4. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and anti-rejection. Reference and Publication Information > > United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) is committed to providing accurate and reliable information for transplant patients. The content on this page was originally created on August ...

  5. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... activity you enjoy. Reference and Publication Information > United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) is committed to providing accurate and reliable information for transplant patients. The content on this page was originally created on August ...

  6. APPROVAZIONE ATTI BANDO 6/2013 Affissione 10/07/2013

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    : - Dott.ssa Igina Maria Breccia punti 85/100 Art. 3 Per effetto di quanto sopra disposto dall'art. 2 si procederà al conferimento di 1 (uno) Contratto di prestazione occasionale alla dott.ssa Igina Maria Breccia

  7. Using Genetic Programming to Learn Models Containing Temporal Relations from Spatio-Temporal Data

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    the rules of snap, and uno by observation; and predicting a person's course through a network of CCTV with learning from video the structure of a set of mock CCTV cameras. There has been much previous work

  8. Can I Donate My Organs If I've Had Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National organizations and websites* United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Toll-free number: 1-888-894-6361 ( ... First report of the United Network for Organ Sharing Transplant Tumor Registry: Donors with a history of ...

  9. Matching Organs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UNOS) maintains a centralized computer network called UNet SM . Transplant professionals can access this computer network 24 ... ranked list of patients who are suitable to receive each organ. This list is called a "match ...

  10. Securing software : an evaluation of static source code analyzers

    E-print Network

    Zitser, Misha, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis evaluated five static analysis tools--Polyspace C Verifier, ARCHER, BOON, Splint, and UNO--using 14 code examples that illustrated actual buffer overflow vulnerabilities found in various versions of Sendmail, ...

  11. El acelerado incremento en las ltimas dcadas de impactos ambientales negati-vos como la destruccin y fragmentacin de ambientes naturales, la contamina-

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    selva seca es uno de los ecosistemas más diversos de México. Sin embargo, enfrenta una de las tasas de%, y su tasa de deforestación anual es del 2%, una de las más altas entre los ecosistemas del país

  12. Memorias del Segundo Simposio Internacional Sobre Polticas, Planificacin y Economa de los Programas de Proteccin Contra Incendios Forestales: Una Visin Global Memorias del Segundo Simposio Internacional Sobre Polticas, Planificacin y Economa de los Progra

    E-print Network

    sustentan unos 73 000 000 ha forestales, incluyendo ecosistemas adaptados al fuego o influidos por éste. Sin manejo ecológico, integrado del fuego, en ecosistemas y localidades que se presten para ello, y con

  13. Los desafíos de tratar con las atmósferas: Entrada, Descenso y Aterrizaje - Duration: 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ya sea aterrizando en Marte o de regreso a la Tierra, uno de los mayores desafíos de cualquier misión es la entrada, descenso y aterrizaje. Solo piense -- una nave espacial que pasa volando a toda ...

  14. Entrevista a Ilonka Vargas

    E-print Network

    Espinosa Domí nguez, Carlos

    1983-04-01

    compañeros de Guayaquil, donde funcionan algunos colectivos, uno de ellos con sede propia. También es un hecho muy significativo el que en varias provincias del Ecuador se esté haciendo tea tro. Como ejemplos están Riobamba, Ambato, Lonja, Ibarra...

  15. El Espacio Expositivo 2014-15 8 edicin

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    sede de la UPC School. El edificio, dotado de equipamientos y medios audiovisuales de última generación la percepción y la sensibilidad, para poder entender el lugar donde tendrán que actuar. Cada uno de

  16. Voseo to Tuteo Accommodation among Two Salvadoran Communities in the United States 

    E-print Network

    Sorenson, Travis Doug

    2011-08-08

    , the government of General Humberto Romero organized presidential elections, and the opposition fielded a slate of candidates. On election day, the opposition coalition, the Uni?n Nacional Opositora or UNO, asserted it had won the popular vote and accused...

  17. Nueva dramaturgia mexicana

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Guillermo

    1984-10-01

    autor y miran al texto dramático como un pretexto, además están ebrios de las corrientes europeas de dirección escénica. Uno de ellos, quizás el más dotado, Luis de Tavira, ha dicho: "mostrar teatro contemporáneo mexicano es ser ana crónico." Por...

  18. U.S. Transplantation Data

    MedlinePLUS

    ... paired donation Honoring donors Connecting donor families & recipients Organ donation facts Policy Policy development Policy brochures Membership Data ... trends Data resources Technology Get Involved EDUCATE Promote organ donation Share through social media VISIT Attend a UNOS ...

  19. Publications for Mats Olsson Ballen, C., Shine, R., Olsson, M. (2015). Developmental

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    , C., Matsuda, Y., Olsson, M. (2014). Identification of the linkage group of the Z sex chromosomes="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.11.010">[More Information] Srikulnath, K., Matsubara, K., Uno, Y., Nishida

  20. Heartrending Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Patricia C.; Marple, Jennifer; Knight, Sharon M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the responsibilities of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and its decision making process as to who receives an organ for transplant. Presents an activity exploring ethics, human values, and human anatomy. (YDS)

  1. Sistemas de Decisin Celular con Mltiples Posiciones

    E-print Network

    Enciso, Germán

    Sistemas de Decisión Celular con Múltiples Posiciones Germán podemos hacer mejores mediciones a nivel molecular, la biología celular ha individuales. DECISION CELULAR Uno de los sistemas mas estudiados en

  2. Estimating and simulating Poisson processes having trends or multiple periodicities

    E-print Network

    are computed over the observation interval. Evaluation of the ®tting procedure is based on plotted tolerance of liver-transplant donors and patients for the UNOS Liver Allocation Model [1], we found some arrival

  3. Proceedings of the 1995 Winter Simulation Conference ed. C. Alexopoulos, K. Kang, W. R. Lilegdon, and D. Goldsman

    E-print Network

    Kuhl, Michael E.

    of the fitting procedure is based on plotted tolerance bands for the rate and mean-value functions together in analyzing the ar- rival streams of liver-transplant donors and patients for the UNOS Liver Allocation Model

  4. Lung Center Data Profile

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Registry of Transplant Recipients contract. Organ Procurement & Transplantation Network U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health ... Questions? Contact UNOS serves as the OPTN: United Network for Organ Sharing Post Office Box 2484 Richmond, ...

  5. Liver Center Data Profile

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Registry of Transplant Recipients contract. Organ Procurement & Transplantation Network U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health ... Questions? Contact UNOS serves as the OPTN: United Network for Organ Sharing Post Office Box 2484 Richmond, ...

  6. An assessment model for quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völcker, Chr.; Cass, A.; Dorling, A.; Zilioli, P.; Secchi, P.

    2002-07-01

    SYNSPACE together with InterSPICE and Alenia Spazio is developing an assessment method to determine the capability of an organisation in the area of quality management. The method, sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA), is called S9kS (SPiCE- 9000 for SPACE). S9kS is based on ISO 9001:2000 with additions from the quality standards issued by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and ISO 15504 - Process Assessments. The result is a reference model that supports the expansion of the generic process assessment framework provided by ISO 15504 to nonsoftware areas. In order to be compliant with ISO 15504, requirements from ISO 9001 and ECSS-Q-20 and Q-20-09 have been turned into process definitions in terms of Purpose and Outcomes, supported by a list of detailed indicators such as Practices, Work Products and Work Product Characteristics. In coordination with this project, the capability dimension of ISO 15504 has been revised to be consistent with ISO 9001. As contributions from ISO 9001 and the space quality assurance standards are separable, the stripped down version S9k offers organisations in all industries an assessment model based solely on ISO 9001, and is therefore interesting to all organisations, which intend to improve their quality management system based on ISO 9001.

  7. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  8. Development Activities on an Advanced Propellant Flow Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noci, G.; Siciliano, P.; Fallerini, L.; Kutufa, N.; Rivetti, A.; Galassi, C.; Bruschi, P.; Piotto, M.

    2004-10-01

    A new generation of propellant control equipment for electric propulsion systems is needed in order to improve performance and operating ranges, symplify h/w configuration, reduce mass and dimensions, eliminate mass flow ripple, reduce time response. In this frame, the development of key components, their assembly and experimental investigation/ validation is on-going at Alenia Spazio-Laben/Business Unit Proel Tecnologie ( Proel in the following ) in the frame of an ESA GSTP program. The new components shall support different EP technologies, future EP multi-tasking capability and wide operating ranges. This paper reports about the development effort, its achievements and perspectives. 1. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BOL Beginning of Life CMBR Ceramic multilayer bender ring CTA Constant Temperature Anemometry. DUT Device under test EOL End of Life EP Electric Propulsion GEO Geosyncrhonous Earth Orbit GFCU Gas Flow Control Unit GIT Gridded ion thruster HET Hall Effect Thrusters LEO Low Earth Orbit LPC Low pressure capillary MEOP Maximum Expected Operating Pressure MFS Mass Flow rate Sensor NSSK North-South Station Keeping Pred Reduced pressure Ptank Tank pressure RMT Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster RMTA Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster Assembly ROOV Regulation and On-Off Valve SoW Statement of Work SPT Stationary Plasma Thruster.

  9. Node 2 and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named 'Kibo' (Hope). Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  10. Disease Gravity and Urgency of Need as Guidelines for Liver Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Eghtesad, Bijan; Bronsther, Oscar; Irish, William; Casavilla, Adrian; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Van Thiel, David; Tzakis, Andreas; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    One thousand one hundred and twenty-eight candidates for liver transplantation were stratified into five urgency-of-need categories by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) criteria. Most patients of low-risk UNOS 1 status remained alive after 1 yr without transplantation; the mortality while waiting was 3% after a median of 229.5 days. In contrast, only 3% of those entered at the highest risk UNOS 5 category survived without transplantation; 28% died while waiting, the deaths occurring at a median of 5.5 days. The UNOS categories in between showed the expected gradations, in which at each higher level fewer patients remained as candidates throughout the 1-yr duration of study while progressively more died at earlier and earlier times while waiting for an organ. In a separate study of posttransplantation survival during the same time period, the best postoperative results were in the lowest-risk UNOS 1 and 2 patients (88% combined), and the worst results were those in UNOS 5 (71%). However, a relative risk cross-analysis showed that a negative benefit of transplantation may have been the result in terms of 1-yr survival for the low-risk elective patients, but that a gain in life extension was achieved in the potentially lethal UNOS categories 3, 4 and 5 (greatest for UNOS 3). These findings and conclusions are discussed in terms of total care of patients with liver disease, and in the context of organ allocation policies of the United States and Europe. PMID:8005581

  11. Quíntuples y el vértigo del teatro autoreflexivo de Luis Rafael Sánchez

    E-print Network

    Morell, Hortensia R.

    1994-04-01

    libretista y director), que en un Congreso de Asuntos de la Familia presenta una función de fin de fiesta, pretendiendo improvisar. En secuencia y por separado, cada uno de los Morrison (Dafne, Baby, Bianca, Mandrake el Mago, Carlota y el Gran Divo Papá..., Sánchez se coloca junto con uno de los maestros del juego dramático reflexivo y con una de sus obras de montaje más controvertible precisamente por ese juego metateatral: Shakespeare y Lafierecilla domada.2 Mandrake el Mago también sugiere las...

  12. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Janowski, Tomasz; Reiher, Markus; Pulay, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F2, ozone, and NO2), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr2). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed: finding the UHF solutions, discontinuities on potential energy surfaces, and inclusion of dynamical electron correlation and generalization to excited states.

  13. Fotometría de grupos compactos de galaxias: Shakhbazian 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J. M.; Calderón, J. H.; Gimeno, N. G.; Díaz, R. J.

    Continuando con la fotometría CCD de Grupos de Galaxias Compactos de Shakhbazyan (SCGG) en este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados preliminares sobre los grupos Shakbazyan 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362. EL objeto del proyecto es contribuir al estudio de las propiedades físicas de tales grupos y contribuir a las bases de datos para mejora de las estadísticas. Los datos fueron adquiridos con el Telescopio JKT del Observatorio Norte Europeo. El análisis de las imágenes en las bandas I y B como del índice de color B-I permitió reidentificar las galaxias catalogadas, resultando las mismas muy enrojecidas y verificando que predominan las galaxias tempranas, resultados consistentes con los obtenidos para otros grupos y por otros autores.

  14. Magnetic properties and electronic structures of Ar3U(IV)–L Complexes with Ar = C5(CH3)4H(–) or C5H5(–) and L = CH3, NO, and Cl.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Frédéric; Le Guennic, Boris; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-12-15

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of the U(4+) complexes (C5Me4H)3UNO, (C5Me4H)3UCl, (C5H5)3UCH3, and (C5H5)3UCl are investigated by quantum chemical calculations. On the basis of wave function calculations including spin-orbit (SO) interactions, all complexes have nondegenerate nonmagnetic ground states. However, for L = CH3 and Cl magnetic doublet excited states are very low in energy, rendering the magnetic susceptibility strongly temperature dependent above ca. 50-100 K. In contrast, (C5Me4H)3UNO exhibits temperature-independent paramagnetism even at room temperature. The calculated susceptibilities agree well with available experimental data. An analysis of the ground states and the magnetic behavior is performed using crystal-field (CF) models with parameters extracted from the ab initio calculations, and with the help of natural orbitals contributing to the electron density, generated from scalar relativistic and SO wave functions for the ground states and selected excited states. Electronic g-factors calculated from the CF models agree well with ab initio data. The U-NO bond order in (C5Me4H)3UNO decreases somewhat due to SO coupling, because U-NO bonding ? orbitals with strong U 5f? character mix with nonbonding 5f? orbitals under the SO interaction. This complex also exhibits pronounced multireference character. All complexes afford U-ligand 5f covalent character. PMID:25426844

  15. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

  16. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

  17. Impact: an Integrated Approach (Space and Ground) for Monitoring the Threat of Earth Orbit Corssing Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussolino, L.; Somma, R.

    The threat of possible collision of asteroids and comets with our planet has reached an international stage since 1990 when U.S.A. Congress set up a dedicated committee for the analysis and the assessment of this problem.The U.N. organized a congress later on to summarize the current knowledge on this subject as well as the Europea Council recommended its member states to conduct studies to further deepen the understanding in terms of tackling and solving this kind of problem interesting the entire world. IMPACT is the acronym for " International Monitoring Program for Asteroids and Comets Threats " coming out as proposal from a study funded by the italian region PIEMONTE throughout the Civil Protection Bureau and performed by the Planetology Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Torino ( Italy ) and Alenia Spazio for the engineering part. They have carried out a series of analyses aimed at contributing in subsequent steps to the solution of the two fundamental problems associated to the potential impact threat : the assessment of the numbers of killers/terminators and the impact rates from one side and the development of the idea of considering space segments for supporting activities of discovery as well as the physical and mineralogical characterization using satellites in orbit around the Earth. other additional studies also funded by the European Space Agency where the space technology appears to offer a great contribution if conveniently integrated with the Earth networks for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids ( PHA ) detection. An international approach for monitoring this threat for the Earth is then proposed.

  18. National Workshop on Astrobiology: the life science involvement of AAS-I Laben.

    PubMed

    Adami, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry. PMID:17171428

  19. The Digital Electronic Subsystem of Marsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltecca, L.; Pecora, M.; Scandelli, L.

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) is one of the Instrument of the ESA Mars Express mission, to be launched in June 2003 with a Soyuz/Fregate. Its primary objective is to map the distribution of water, both liquid and solid, in the upper portions of the crust of Mars. Secondary objectives are subsurface geologic probing, surface characterisation and ionosphere sounding. The MARSIS instrument is a low-frequency nadir-looking pulse limited radar sounder and altimeter with ground penetration capabilities, which uses synthetic aperture techniques and a secondary-receiving antenna to isolate subsurface reflections. Functionally and also from the responsibility point of view of each organisation involved in MARSIS, the instrument can be split into three subsystems: - Antenna: ANT - Radio Frequency Subsystem: RFS (TX+RX) - Digital Electronics Subsystem: DES MARSIS is an international co-operation between Italian Space Agency (ASI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The experiment has an Italian Principal investigator (from Infocom Dept. of University of Rome "La Sapienza"), an U.S. Co-PI (from Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and Co-I~@~Ys from Italy, the U.S. and other countries. Italy is the lead for the experiment definition with the participation of the U.S.. In particular Alenia Spazio/Rome is the Prime Contractor of the industrial team and also supplier of part of the RF subsystem. Laben (a company of Finmeccanica) is the supplier of the Digital Electronic Subsystem (DES), including its basic and application SW, as subcontractor of ALS. The purpose of this paper is to describe the DES from HW and SW point of view, including the Test Equipment and the special simulator developed used for DES validation.

  20. RA-2 radar altimeter: instrument operation concept and system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resti, A.; Idler, S.; Provvedi, F.; Zelli, C.

    1996-02-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has awared a contract to DAIMLER-BENZ Aerospace, Dornier to fly on ENVISAT-1 mission the Radar Altimeter RA-2 developed by Alenia Spazio SpA. RA-2 is a nadir pointing pulse limited radar altimeter operating at two frequencies: 13.575 Ghz (Ku-band) and 3.2 Ghz (S-band). Its key feature is represented by a new on board signal processing algorithm (Model Free Tracker-MFT) able to autonomously detect, acquire, lock-on and track the earliest part of the radar echoes at Ku band from ocean, ice and land surfaces without interruption, irrespective of sudden changes in surface characteristics and elevation. The radar echo samples collected at Ku-band are processed by the MFT algorithm to adjust the radar resolution and receiver gain to values which allow the proper sampling of the earliest part of the radar echo. Four resolutions are available corresponding to the transmitted pulse bandwidth of 320, 80, 20 MHz and CW pulse. The radar echo samples at S-band are collected at fixed resolution corresponding to a transmitted pulse bandwidth of 160 Mhz. They are processed on ground to remove from the height measurement performed at Ku-band the bias error introduced by the propagation through the ionosphere. Point Target Responce (PTR) measurements are also collected at every transmission without interrupting the tracking to monitor the variation of the parameters which have been calibrated on ground. To assess validity of the design, a series of simulation runs over a variety of simulated test scenarios, representing typical operative conditions as tracking over mountains, ice regions, wet lands, have been performed.

  1. The SAX Italian scientific satellite. The on-board implemented automation as a support to the ground control capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martelli, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the capabilities implemented in the SAX system for an efficient operations management during its in-flight mission. SAX is an Italian scientific satellite for x-ray astronomy whose major mission objectives impose quite tight constraints on the implementation of both the space and ground segment. The most relevant mission characteristics require an operative lifetime of two years, performing scientific observations both in contact and in noncontact periods, with a low equatorial orbit supported by one ground station, so that only a few minutes of communications are available each orbit. This operational scenario determines the need to have a satellite capable of performing the scheduled mission automatically and reacting autonomously to contingency situations. The implementation approach of the on-board operations management, through which the necessary automation and autonomy are achieved, follows a hierarchical structure. This has been achieved adopting a distributed avionic architecture. Nine different on-board computers, in fact, constitute the on-board data management system. Each of them performs the local control and monitors its own functions while the system level control is performed at a higher level by the data handling applications software. The SAX on-board architecture provides the ground operators with different options of intervention by three classes of telecommands. The management of the scientific operations will be scheduled by the operation control center via dedicated operating plans. The SAX satellite flight mode is presently being integrated at Alenia Spazio premises in Turin for a launch scheduled for the end of 1995. Once in orbit, the SAX satellite will be subject to intensive check-out activities in order to verify the required mission performances. An overview of the envisaged procedure and of the necessary on-ground activities is therefore depicted as well.

  2. El teatro de Osvaldo Dragún

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Donald L.

    1969-04-01

    refleja simbólicamente en el embarazo de Laura, y en la figura semi-real de un viejo que aparece varias veces, y, representando al mundo, canta un epílogo a la obra: "¡Los viejos cuentos terminaron!/ ¡Estoy a punto de parir!" (p. 116). SPRING 1969 15... amores de Paco y Giuliana. Paco es un hombre de unos treinta años cuyo modo de vivir todavía es bastante adolescente, y Giuliana es una viuda de cuarenta años con un hijo, Rodolfo, de unos veinte. Éste sufrió por accidente una pierna quebrada a manos...

  3. Dos comunicaciones.

    E-print Network

    Dí az, Jorge

    1970-10-01

    protección contra el robo y la piratería. La idea de la propiedad literaria, del copyright había nacido. La xerografía—selector de cerebros que puede usar todo el mundo—anuncia los tiempos de la edición instantánea. Cualquiera puede ser escritor y editor.... Tome unos cuantos libros sobre cualquier tema y hágase un libro a su medida, copiando simplemente un capítulo de uno, un capítulo de otro. .. ! un robo instantáneo! (McLuhan) Eso es lo que hice: ¡un robo instantáneo! y descubrí que el lenguaje...

  4. Otro monólogo más (D´après Oscar Villegas, Un señor y una señora)

    E-print Network

    Cypess, Sandra M.

    1993-04-01

    teatro latinoamericano teatro revista) —Pero ¿tenemos que registrarnos a las 5? Eso del monólogo de Pepe Triana en la Unión es como un aperitivo, es preámbulo del congreso. "No, no estoy loco de nada, pero estos fantasmas que pueblan mis sueños... Lawrence. Ah, ¿qué restorán escoger? Hay muchos, y vamos a poder ir probándolos con calma; après tout, tenemos 5 días en Lawrence, vamos a poder probarlos uno por uno. (Se oye desde arriba una carcajada satánica con redoble.) Una buena comida en el...

  5. ORORGENES DE LA GEOMETRGENES DE LA GEOMETRA PROYECTIVAA PROYECTIVA Mara Emilia Alonso Departamento de lgebra, UCM

    E-print Network

    Ruiz, Jesús M.

    Brianchon, que es el enunciado dual del Teorema de Pascal. En efecto, utilizando la dualidad asociada a una descrito anteriormente. Tal vez uno de los ejemplos más bellos de dualidad sea el denominado Teorema de opuestos son concurrentes en un punto. Teorema de Brianchon J.-V. Poncelet COORDENADAS HOMOGÉNEAS La

  6. 532. Jahrgang DezemberInhalt Nr. 5 rund um die Kugel

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    532. Jahrgang DezemberInhalt Nr. 5 rund um die Kugel ·· siehe Seite 2 2007R e g e n s b u r g e r U-Fachexkursion 10 Kooperationen 11 aus der Forschung 13 Die UNO im Blick 14 Lebensraum Universität 15 Uni Regensburg Telegramm Jubiläums-Ausstellung DieAusstellung "40 Jahre Forschung und Lehre an der Universität

  7. MATEMATICA COMPUTABLE ANTONIO MONTALBAN

    E-print Network

    computabilidad y la matem´atica computable. Todos sabe- mos que en matem´atica hay construcciones o computabilidad donde uno estudia la complejidad de construcciones, procesos, demostraciones y estructuras matem´aticas. Hay varias formas de medir la complejidad de una construcci´on. La que usaremos en este art´iculo se

  8. Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green River

    E-print Network

    Gani, M. Royhan

    Chapter 3 Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological 1:'_i 'I I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green email: mgani@uno.edu t",. The Green River Formation comprises the world's largest deposit of oil-shale characterization of these lacustrine oil-shale deposits in the subsurface is lacking. This study analyzed ~300 m

  9. Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria,

    E-print Network

    Markina, Irina

    An = Cn. Sea > 0. Si x C, entonces existe al menos uno espacio Cn tal que x Cn. Luego existe an An, tal que dist(x, an) Tal como an An y An no mas que numerable, entonces, espacio C es separable. 3} es una familia equicontinua en C(X), existe > 0 tal que |fn(x) - fn(y)|

  10. Gaining and Sustaining TEL in a 1:1 Laptop Initiative: Possibilities and Challenges for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindqvist, Marcia J. P. Håkansson

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and use of digital technologies is studied in Unos Umeå, a joint one-to-one (1:1) research project between Umeå University and the municipality of Umeå in Sweden. This article presents the results of the third phase of the classroom work with laptops. Using the ecology of resources model (Luckin, 2010), these possibilities and…

  11. CENTRALIZACIN GIS Oficina de Gerencia y Presupuesto

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    /sincronización: Usando ArcGIS Server 9.3, agencias como JP, ARPE, DTOP publican, uno o más servicios web mapping, en los. "Push" : No todas las agencias productoras de datos necesitarán instalar ArcGIS Server. En estos casos licencia de ArcGIS Editor y ArcSDE personal, los cuales están integrados en el mismo licenciamiento

  12. UNIVERSIT DI BRESCIA FACOLT DI INGEGNERIA

    E-print Network

    Cassinis, Riccardo

    ) Adattamento della libreria Aria al protocollo SCIP 2.0 per il laser Hokuyo UHG-08LX Elaborato di esame di'adattamento della libreria Aria per supportare tale protocollo, la realizzazione di due programmi dimostrativi: uno centrale del lavoro descritto nella presente relazione riguarda la modifica della libreria Aria al fine di

  13. Flujomultfaseenlacelda16delCabril Flujo multifases en la celda 16 de "El Cabril"

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    ;Flujomultfaseenlacelda16delCabril Unos cálculos Dos suelos separados por aire con temperatura diferente cuando ya no hay flujo difusivo de vapor. 0 0difj e= = aireSuelo Suelo T = 200C Pmat = 0 T = 200C + T Pmat = ? 0 2 4 6

  14. ADMINISTERED BY: Office of the President EFFECTIVE DATE

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    DATE: AP-OP-09.2 UNO Disaster/Emergency Plan(s) March 14, 2014 Fall 2016 PURPOSE To set forth of a natural or manmade emergency or disaster. AUTHORITY Part Two, Chapter III, Section IV of the Bylaws to disaster/emergency preparedness and response. DEFINITIONS 1. Critical Emergency Personnel are the UNOPD

  15. Theatre Reports

    E-print Network

    1976-04-01

    Campesino, circa 1967. But the critiques spelled out that Trucha should stick to their time tested locuras instead of burrowing into the hole of dull dogmatism. (Regla Número Uno: "Con comedia hay risa, pero con retórica hay pedo.") El Teatro Desengaño...

  16. Using Genetic Programming to Learn Predictive Models from Spatio-Temporal Data

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    's course through a network of CCTV cameras. This thesis also describes the incorporation of qualitative on the card game Uno, and predicting a person's course through a network of CCTV cam- eras. This work a person's course through a network of CCTV cameras, aircraft turnarounds, and the game of Tic Tac Toe

  17. GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK Master of Arts in English

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    writing or who wish to pursue PhDs or teach in one of these fields. The UNO Catalog and English GraduateGRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK Master of Arts in English Revised, Fall 2012 #12;Graduate Student Handbook - Master of Arts in English Revised, Fall 2012 Page 2 of 51 CONTENTS Page I. Objectives

  18. INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate on the basis of gender, age,

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Department of Roads Craig Derickson USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service Jim Douglas Nebraska GameINSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES It is the policy of the University of Nebraska Antlfinger Department of Biology, UNO Dennis Brink Department of Animal Science, UNL Merlyn Carlson Nebraska

  19. ChiaraMocenni-SistemiDinamiciComplessi Chiara Mocenni

    E-print Network

    Mocenni, Chiara

    25 novembre 11 #12;ChiaraMocenni-SistemiDinamiciComplessi · Si racconta che Heisenberg, uno dei padri relatività e perché la turbolenza. Almeno sulla prima spero di ottenere una risposta...". Werner Karl Heisenberg venerdì 25 novembre 11 #12;ChiaraMocenni-SistemiDinamiciComplessi · Arrivata a Saturno, la prima

  20. La Gaceta de la RSME, Vol. 16 (2013), Nm. 4, Pgs. 761775 761 Mirando hacia el futuro

    E-print Network

    Jaikin Zapirain, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    agujeros negros. Allí las reglas y las costumbres cambian y los matemáticos ya no se dividen por los que si uno ha entrado en alguno de estos agujeros, nunca más quiere volver a su planeta. Os queremos contar sobre un agujero que se llama «Expanders». Pero tened mucho cuidado porque os podéis quedar

  1. DM Svealand 2003 Flen Resultat dubbel, 7 juni

    E-print Network

    Alm, Sven Erick

    Andersson EBP 2 Marcus Träffe, Johan Westberg KLO 3 Anna-Maria Ericsson, Lisa Andersson EBP 4 Robin Sjöberg, Johanna Löfqvist LBJ 5 Marianne Henriksson, Inga Gustavsson MÄL 5 Iris Heinonen, Anna-Lena Ericsson EBP NIL 5 Lasse Karlsson, Uno Stebner GÄS 5 Daisy Olsson, Evert Olsson KRY 5 John Sallander, Folke

  2. Verbale della Riunione del Collegio dei Docenti del Corso di Dottorato di Ricerca cicli XXIX e XXX, in data 4 dicembre 2014

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    XXIX e XXX, in data 4 dicembre 2014 L'anno 2014 il giorno 4 dicembre, alle ore 13:30, presso il programma di collaborazione del China Scolarship Council; 7) Rappresentanti dei Dottorandi cicli XXIX e XXX XXX ciclo. Si raccomanda di arrivare alla nomina con la scelta di uno dei due nominativi non

  3. Elettronica Digitale Alessandro Bogliolo Facolt di Ingegneria Universit di Ferrara A.A. 2000/2001 1

    E-print Network

    Bogliolo, Alessandro

    Elettronica Digitale © Alessandro Bogliolo Facoltà di Ingegneria ­ Università di Ferrara ­ A vengono ignorati. Questo consente di definire una libreria di componenti tra i quali scegliere di volta in volta quelli utili. 2. Linea LC Definiamo uno stadio LC che rappresenta a parametri concentrati un

  4. Page 1 of 4 ADMINISTERED BY: Office of Vice

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    , Beverages, and Alcohol at UNO Events March 14, 2014 Spring 2016 PURPOSE To establish a consistent policy Substances) and FB-IV.VII.-1 (Sale and Distribution of Alcoholic Beverages). DEFINITIONS 1. Alcohol. Alcoholic Beverage: a.) Liquor, Hard Liquor: Any alcoholic beverage with an alcohol content in excess of 6

  5. Lab 8: Sensor Characterization Lab (Analog) This lab introduces the methods and importance for characterizing sensors. Students will

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    . The Virtuaboticx Accelerometer is a has a MEMS chip that can measure acceleration in three directions. While. Students will characterize an accelerometer by attaching the sensor to a servo motor and taking readings at different angles. Materials 1) Arduino Uno 2) MakeBlock Shield 3) Virtuabotix Accelerometer 4) Make

  6. {00012710;1} Fecha efectiva: 23 de septiembre de 2013

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    SALUD DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE CALIFORNIA DAVIS ESTE AVISO DESCRIBE CÓMO LA INFORMACIÓN DE SALUD SOBRE USTED DETENIDAMENTE. SISTEMA DE SALUD DE UC DAVIS El Sistema de Salud de UC Davis es uno de los componentes de la facultades de medicina y otras escuelas profesionales de salud de UC, las áreas de servicios de salud para

  7. Disposal: Science and Theory Disposal: Science and Theory

    E-print Network

    Benson, Eric R.

    Disposal: Science and Theory #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se ubica el carretón con el enfriamiento Ventiladores de túnel de viento #12;Disposal: Science and Theory · Se estaciona el remolque en uno: Science and Theory · Se usa un equipo de dos personas para hacer funcionar el sistema: ­ Operario del

  8. Febrero 2009 3 de febrero de 2009, 10:07:27 AM

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    considerar a los medios acuáticos continentales como uno de los ecosistemas más amenazados del planeta, sobre más de doscientas especies de vertebrados asociados a ecosistemas acuáticos se encuentran en regresión ecosistemas y se saldan con una pérdida continua de especies. Por otro lado, aunque históricamente los

  9. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Evaluacin de la Diversidad Estructural

    E-print Network

    Los incendios son uno de los disturbios naturales mas generalizados en los ecosistemas forestales natural que contribuye al mantenimiento de los mismos (Omi 2005). Prácticamente todos los ecosistemas estructura y composición de las especies dentro de dicho ecosistema. La presencia de disturbios naturales en

  10. BIODIVERSIDAD ESCARABAJOS ACU ATICOS Y CONSERVACI ON DE LA NATURALEZA

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    ´erico, a pesar de ser una de las zonas m´as ´aridas de Europa, atesora una gran diversidad de ecosistemas acu un lenguaje popular, unos buenos indicadores de la biodiversidad que atesoran los ecosistemas acu sus ecosistemas acu´aticos pa- sa por la protecci´on real de los arroyos de cabecera y vega media del

  11. Comisario CientfiCo Bernardo Herradn

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    contribuye a la mejora de nuestra calidad de vida, trabajando en los grandes retos alimentarios, energéticos futuro. ¿QUÉ ES LA QUÍMICA? La molécula de agua está formada por dos átomos de hidrógeno (H) y uno de mejoró considerablemente la calidad de vida, en cuestiones como la cocción de alimentos, la fabricación

  12. Comparacin de la dinmica de sedimentos suspendidos entre una baha tropical abierta y una baha tropical cerrada

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    explorado completamente. Su estudio es esencial para definir la calidad del agua, lo que conlleva una gran de sedimentos suspendidos (TSS) constituye uno de los parámetros de calidad de agua más importantes arcilla, el limo y la arena (Miller et al. 2004). Además de afectar la calidad del agua, el TSS es

  13. Directrices instan al ejercicio a pacientes con cáncer y supervivientes

    Cancer.gov

    Los beneficios del ejercicio están bien documentados en relación con varios tipos de cáncer. Una panel de expertos en cáncer, acondicionamiento físico, obesidad y entrenamiento físico, convocados por el Colegio Americano de Medicina Deportiva, está pasando la voz sobre uno de los más importantes mensajes para los pacientes con cáncer y los supervivientes: hay que evitar la inactividad física.

  14. Matematica Discreta Segundo de Ingenieria Informatica UAM

    E-print Network

    Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

    distintas? 8. Cada miembro de un grupo de personas tiene una lista de k libros que quiere sacar de la biblioteca. Suponemos que cada libro aparece en exactamente k listas. Probar que el n´umero de personas y libros coincide y que es posible distribuir los libros entre las personas de tal forma que cada uno tenga

  15. Uso de herramientas informticas para analizar la autora e influencias mutuas de los libros

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    Uso de herramientas informáticas para analizar la autoría e influencias mutuas de los libros del de control, se ha utilizado el mismo procedimiento para comparar libros de autores conocidos de sus 27 libros y cómo se influyeron unos a otros duran desde hace siglos y constituyen E S T U D I

  16. HTML5 una specifica di HTML che ha introdotto nel linguaggio funzionalit che vanno ben oltre il markup tradizionale

    E-print Network

    Goy, Anna

    1 HTML5 è una specifica di HTML che ha introdotto nel linguaggio funzionalità che vanno ben oltre5/] HTML5 - I Un esempio di tali funzionalità è il supporto alla multimedialità: ­ Con HTML5 è API definiti nel (nuovo) DOM · Le specifiche di HTML5 sono una W3C Recommendation (non ancora uno

  17. Initial Results of On-Line Earth System Science Course Offerings at the University of Nebraska-Omaha Through the Earth System Science Education Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N. F.; Schnase, W. L.; Hamersky, S.; Moshman, R.

    2008-12-01

    The University of Nebraska at Omaha has been offering on-line Earth System Science coursework to teachers in Nebraska since 2002. UNO was one of the initial members in the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and has offered three different ESSEA courses, with nearly 200 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. Our experiences in delivering this coursework have involved both teachers who have received a stipend to take the course and those who have paid their own tuition and fees and received graduate credit for the course. We will report on the online behavior of teachers from both populations and also discuss pros and cons of each approach. UNO has also experimented with different approaches in the support and management of the course, including using undergraduate majors as content experts. This improves access of teachers to content-related feedback and is a positive experience for the undergraduate major. Feedback surveys from earlier ESSEA offerings indicate a strongly positive perception of the courses by the teachers enrolled in the coursework. Project impact has been documented in teacher projects, quotes, and lessons associated with the coursework activities. We will also describe online course modules being developed within the UNO online course efforts, including one focusing on the global amphibian crisis.

  18. BELLE-PREPRINT-2003-12 KEK-PREPRINT-2003-44

    E-print Network

    , 6 K. Ueno, 22 S. Uno, 6 G. Varner, 5 K. E. Varvell, 35 C. C. Wang, 22 C. H. Wang, 21 M.-Z. Wang, 22, 10 S.-K. Choi, 4 Y. Choi, 34 Y. K. Choi, 34 A. Chuvikov, 30 L. Y. Dong, 8 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges, 10

  19. KEK preprint 2002123 Belle preprint 200238

    E-print Network

    . Uno, 8 G. Varner, 7 K. E. Varvell, 39 C. C. Wang, 25 C. H. Wang, 24 J. G. Wang, 51 M.­Z. Wang, 25 Y. G. Cheon, 38 R. Chistov, 12 S.­K. Choi, 6 Y. Choi, 38 Y. K. Choi, 38 M. Danilov, 12 L. Y. Dong, 10 A

  20. KEK preprint 2002-109 Belle preprint 2002-34

    E-print Network

    . Uno h , G. Varner g , C. H. Wang w , J. G. Wang at , M.-Z. Wang x , E. Won o , B. D. Yabsley at , Y , R. Chistov ` , S.-K. Choi f , Y. Choi ai , Y. Choi ai , M. Danilov ` , L. Y. Dong j , S. Eidelman b

  1. KEK Preprint 20026 Belle Preprint 20028

    E-print Network

    , 3 S. Uno, 9 Y. Ushiroda, 9 K. E. Varvell, 41 C. C. Wang, 28 C. H. Wang, 27 J. G. Wang, 53 M.­Z. Wang, 7 Y. Choi, 40 M. Danilov, 14 L. Y. Dong, 12 J. Dragic, 23 A. Drutskoy, 14 S. Eidelman, 2 V. Eiges

  2. Observation of B ! p pK K. Abe 9 , K. Abe 40 , R. Abe 30 , T. Abe 41 , I. Adachi 9 , Byoung Sup Ahn 17 , H. Aihara 42 , M. Akatsu 23 , Y. Asano 47 ,

    E-print Network

    Browder, Tom

    . Unno 3 , S. Uno 9 , K. E. Varvell 37 , C. C. Wang 27 , C. H. Wang 26 , J. G. Wang 49 , M.-Z. Wang 27 , L. Y. Dong 12 , J. Dragic 22 , A. Drutskoy 14 , S. Eidelman 2 , V. Eiges 14 , Y. Enari 23 , C. W

  3. An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Demonstrating Prey Preference in Snakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Aaron J.; Abramson, Charles I.

    2006-01-01

    The recent promotion of inquiry-based learning techniques (Uno, 1990) is well suited to the use of animals in the classroom. Working with living organisms directly engages students and stimulates them to actively participate in the learning process. Students develop a greater appreciation for living things, the natural world, and their impact on…

  4. A User Level Framework for Ad hoc Routing Jeremie Allard Paul Gonin

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    , minoo, golden}@cs.uno.edu Abstract The availability of inexpensive wireless networking hardware (e.g., based on the IEEE 802.11 standards) has generated interest in a large class of wireless applica- tions variety of operating systems and requires no kernel hacking. 1. Introduction Research into ad hoc routing

  5. Proc. Nadl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 89, pp. 319-323, January 1992

    E-print Network

    of tension during muscle contraction CLARENCE E. SCHUTT* AND UNO LINDBERGt *Henry H. Hoyt Laboratory filaments can untwist into ribbons having an increased intersubunit repeat. Regular patterns of actomyosin for a theory ofmuscle contraction. The central problem of muscle contraction is to account for the mechanism

  6. Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation Frank Adelstein

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Automatically Creating Realistic Targets for Digital Forensics Investigation Frank Adelstein ATC@cs.uno.edu Abstract The need for computer forensics educa- tion continues to grow, as digital evidence is present in computer forensics is hands-on, realistic laboratory assignments. Creating detailed, realistic lab

  7. Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics Yixin Chen, Vassil Roussev, Golden G. Richard III, Yun Gao

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics Yixin Chen, Vassil Roussev, Golden G. Richard, vassil, golden, ygao}@cs.uno.edu ABSTRACT Digital forensic investigators are often faced with the task, such as a web hosting service. Current forensic tools are woefully inadequate in facilitating this process

  8. Bluepipe: A Scalable Architecture for On-the-Spot Digital Forensics Golden G. Richard III

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Bluepipe: A Scalable Architecture for On-the-Spot Digital Forensics Yun Gao Golden G. Richard III}@cs.uno.edu Abstract Traditional digital forensics methods are based on the in-depth examination of computer systems motivate the need for on-the-spot digital forensics tools that supplement lab meth- ods and discuss

  9. erch mai tanta gente sogna di

    E-print Network

    Finkelstein, Noah

    prima della riunione di re- dazione), studi di yoga e ristoranti (uno per tutti: Sherpa, dove si scopre «L'apertura mentale è quello che più attrae di Boulder» YOGA, LIBRI E CAFFÈ Tunde Borrego ha 31 anni e da 10 insegna al Core Power Yoga Studio (a sinistra: con un'allieva; sopra, al Chautauqua National

  10. Desarrollo de un motor de paralelizacion especulativa con soporte para aritmetica de

    E-print Network

    Llanos, Diego R.

    ´on procesada en paralelo, para detectar y corregir las violaciones de dependencia que puedan aparecer en el lugar a violaciones de dependencia en su ejecuci´on paralela tanto, si cada uno consolida sus resultados la escritura y detecta violaciones de de- pendencia espor´adicas

  11. Ingeniera Cuntica Mdulo 3 del Curso de Actualizacin 2007

    E-print Network

    Rosas-Ortiz, Jose Oscar

    Ingeniería Cuántica Módulo 3 del Curso de Actualización 2007 ITESM Ponente: Oscar Rosas exposición de 10 min. La nota se establecerá en base a la participación durante el curso de cada asistente y a la exposición de equipo. Programa: El curso está integrado por tres capítulos, cada uno de ellos

  12. Ignorance is Almost Bliss: Near-Optimal Stochastic Matching With Few Queries

    E-print Network

    explore the application of (adaptations of) these algorithms to the kidney exchange problem, where pa and on real data from the first 169 match runs of the UNOS nationwide kidney exchange that even a very small, kidney exchange 1. INTRODUCTION In the stochastic matching problem, we are given an undirected graph G

  13. Universidad Autnoma de Madrid Cursos de Formacin en Competencias Profesionales 2015-2016

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    .cursosformacion@uam.es TALLER DE ORIENTACIÓN LEGAL Y FISCAL PARA EMPRENDEDORES PRESENTACIÓN Uno de los factores que ha sido, de medidas de apoyo al emprendedor y de estímulo del crecimiento y de la creación de empleo y 14/2013, de 27 de septiembre, de apoyo a los emprendedores y su internacionalización incluyen medidas

  14. COMPARAZIONE DI MODELLI DI INTERAZIONE UOMO MACCHINA BASATA SULLA TASK ANALYSIS PER SITI WEB DI

    E-print Network

    Schreiber, Fabio A.

    aspetti più critici dello shopping online per beni di largo consumo è rappresentato dall'usabilità dei siti: l'esperienza di shopping online comporta, infatti, un cambiamento radicale delle abitudini e/informatico, uno degli aspetti più critici dello shopping online è rappresentato dall'usabilità dei siti che può

  15. 19 gennaio 2007 N. di Matricola: 00101 Marcare con una crocetta le risposte ritenute corrette e consegnare la scheda al termine della prima

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    'insieme delle matrici reali 4 × 4 con traccia positiva `e un gruppo rispetto alla usuale ope- razione di usuali operazioni di somma e prodotto per uno scalare. b) l'insieme delle matrici reali 5 × 5 simmetriche successioni reali a coefficienti tutti diversi da zero, dotato delle usuali opera- zioni di somma e prodotto

  16. essaridro Reali; docente e ricerca_ _ di Pavia ha ricevuto un prestigiosi

    E-print Network

    Segatti, Antonio

    essaridro Reali; docente e ricerca_ _ di Pavia ha ricevuto un prestigiosi . :ónoscnne{{S ktd appassiona ogni giorno". Alessandro Reali, 38 anni, è uno dei nomi di spicco della ricerca pavese nel mondo, Reali è stato recentemente insigni- to della "Hans Fischer" Fel- lowship, assegnata dalla Te- chnical

  17. 22 luglio 2004 00101 Marcare con una crocetta le risposte ritenute corrette e consegnare la scheda al termine della prima

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    . 1) Si consideri l'insieme R2 [t] dei polinomi nella indeterminata t a coefficienti reali di grado un gruppo. 2) Siano A, B e C tre matrici reali n×n simmetriche. Quali delle seguenti affermazioni delle usuali operazioni di somma e prodotto per uno scalare, sono spazi vettoriali sul campo dei reali

  18. 13 dicembre 2006 00101 Marcare con una crocetta le risposte ritenute corrette e consegnare la scheda al termine della prima

    E-print Network

    Frosini, Patrizio

    matrici reali 4×4 con determinante strettamente positivo `e un gruppo rispetto alla usuale operazione di e prodotto per uno scalare. B) l'insieme delle matrici reali 5×5 a traccia nulla `e un sottospazio. D) l'insieme delle successioni reali non convergenti, dotato delle usuali operazioni di somma e

  19. News: Otorgan el Tirso de Molina 1992 a dramaturgo puertorriqueño

    E-print Network

    1993-04-01

    THEATRE REVIEW Otorgan el Tirso de Molina 1992 a dramaturgo puertorriqueño1 (Madrid-San Juan, EFE)—El dramaturgo puertorriqueño Roberto Ramos- Perea obtuvo el XXII Premio Teatral Tirso de Molina, 1992, dotado con dos millones de pesetas (unos $20...

  20. SMARTx: An Embedded Proximity Detection System for Reducing CS4000: Individual Studies in Computer Science -SMARTx: Software and

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sunho

    detection, we explored development with the use of Arduino boards and compatible sensors. We spend many hours learning how to set up and program our Arduino Uno boards and sensors. It was a great learning we had created a server/client Arduino based system that notified a user when each device was within

  1. Robotic Maze-Mapping as a Junior-Level Design Project Olivia Gustafson, B.S. `14, M.Eng. `15

    E-print Network

    Afshari, Ehsan

    wirelessly to a video controller that shows the maze as it is being mapped. The robot's Arduino waits until to another Arduino. When it is done exploring the maze, the robot stops. The video station's Arduino receives the students with the Arduino Uno, the microcontroller used for the robot and video station. In the second lab

  2. Supporting Information Self-Sensing Flapping Wings for MAVs

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 1 Data Acquisition with the Arduino Platform Data collection from the cantilevers was performed with an Arduino Uno R3, a commercially) controller and to control a digital potentiometer with serial peripheral interface (SPI). The Arduino's six

  3. Homing a Teleoperated Car using Monocular SLAM Nuno Ribeiro, Ricardo Ferreira, Jos Gaspar

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    possible the communication between the user's pc, the Axis camera and the Arduino; and (iii) Design- ing and Software Setup A car is assembled based in a network (IP) camera, one Arduino Uno, one Motor Shield and two with the objective of processing user's instructions and sends the corresponding signals to the Arduino board. Once

  4. The Vanderbilt Haptic Paddle Assembly Guide and Parts List

    E-print Network

    accompanies the complete CAD files, Simulink files, lab manuals, and Arduino code provided on the VHP website #12;5 Connect Electronic Components The VHP electronics include an Arduino Uno microcontroller to an Arduino analog input, and the Ardumoto shield is stacked on top of the Arduino as shown in Figure 7

  5. Lab 3: Fading Lab This lab introduces for loops and while loops through control of LEDs, piezo buzzers, and

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    the same actions with the two loops. Materials 1) Arduino Uno 2) MakeBlock Shield 3) 1 × LED 4) 1 × 220 on top of the Arduino. This device provides simple phone cord connections (RJ25) between ports SOURCE BEFORE CHECKING WITH TAs). Supplying too much power and wrong connections can damage the Arduino

  6. UNIVERSIT DI BRESCIA FACOLT DI INGEGNERIA

    E-print Network

    Cassinis, Riccardo

    ) Dimostratore funzionamento sonar con Arduino Elaborato di esame di: Elisa Lazzari, Massimo Pellini. 25 Gennaio 2013Consegnato il: #12;#12;Dimostratore funzionamento sonar con Arduino 1 Sommario Il lavoro svolto consiste nel pilotaggio di un sonar tramite computer, utilizzando il dispo- sitivo Arduino Uno. Nello

  7. PH-315 Portland State University INTRODUCTION to MICRO-CONTROLLERS

    E-print Network

    of communication with your computer, downloading the proper software, and programming code. An "Arduino Leonardo.1 Arduino Microcontroller and its advantages This lab will be using the single board Arduino Leonardo Microcontroller[2]. It is similar to #12;the Arduino Uno[4], with the major difference being that the latter uses

  8. Continuous-bed chromatography for the analysis and purification of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Garke, G; Radtschenko, I; Anspach, F B

    1999-10-01

    The chromatographic properties of the commercial cation exchanger UNO-S1 (35x7 mm) was investigated using lysozyme from hen egg white as model protein and recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF) from a high cell density cultivation of E. coli. The dynamic capacity for lysozyme (c(o) = 1 mg/ml) in 100 mM acetate buffer, pH 5 was 27 mg per ml sorbent. It was found independent of the flow-rate from 78 to 935 cm/h owing to the absence of mass transfer restrictions with this column concept. Regarding the selectivity for rh-bFGF and the capacity for lysozyme, no changes were apparent after cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures with 0.5 M NaOH. Clogging of the column by a clarified crude cell homogenate of E. coli was not critical as precipitates were removed by reversal of the flow during CIP. Rh-bFGF elutes in three consequent peaks from the UNO-S1 column, which could be attributed to soluble rh-bFGF aggregates of different size. The dynamics of rh-bFGF aggregation and reaggregation in the crude feedstock was monitored by fast gradient elution chromatography. PMID:10536832

  9. Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yixin

    , New Orleans, LA 70148, USA e-mail: hchen2@uno.edu 4 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology it is feared that many of the earth's species will be lost before they can be discovered and described. The job

  10. Kidney Exchange in Dynamic Sparse Heterogenous Pools Itai Ashlagi Patrick Jaillet Vahideh H. Manshadi Michael A. Rees

    E-print Network

    Jaillet, Patrick

    a healthy person wishes to donate a kidney but is incompatible with her intended recipient (for a patient@utoledo.edu. Dr. Rees is the medical director of the Alliance for Paired Donation. We thank participants Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) searches for matches weekly while the National Kidney Registry (NKR

  11. The future direction of the adult heart allocation system in the United States.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D M; Rogers, J G; Edwards, L B; Callahan, E R; Webber, S A; Johnson, M R; Vega, J D; Zucker, M J; Cleveland, J C

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring equitable and fair organ allocation is a central charge of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) as the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) through its contract with the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The OPTN/UNOS Board initiated a reassessment of the current allocation system. This paper describes the efforts of the OPTN/UNOS Heart Subcommittee, acting on behalf of the OPTN/UNOS Thoracic Organ Transplantation Committee, to modify the current allocation system. The Subcommittee assessed the limitations of the current three-tiered system, outcomes of patients with status exceptions, emerging ventricular assist device (VAD) population, options for improved geographic sharing and status of potentially disenfranchised groups. They analyzed waiting list and posttransplant mortality rates of a contemporary cohort of patient groups at risk, in collaboration with the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients to develop a proposed multi-tiered allocation scheme. This proposal provides a framework for simulation modeling to project whether candidates would have better waitlist survival in the revised allocation system, and whether posttransplant survival would remain stable. The tiers are subject to change, based on further analysis by the Heart Subcommittee and will lead to the development of a more effective and equitable heart allocation system. PMID:25534445

  12. Diabetes mellitus. Una enfermedad crnica asociada con niveles anormalmente altos del azcar de la glucosa en sangre. La causa de esta anormalidad es el hecho de

    E-print Network

    Fitze, Patrick

    Diabetes mellitus. Una enfermedad crónica asociada con niveles anormalmente altos del azúcar de la glucosa que se necesita absorber con la ayuda de la hormona insulina. La diabetes se debe a uno de estos acción de la insulina. Diabetes no insulinodependiente. Véase la entrada «Diabetes tipo 2». Diabetes tipo

  13. Alberto Montresor 1 Algoritmi e Strutture Dati

    E-print Network

    Montresor, Alberto

    disco più grande su uno più piccolo Muovendo al massimo un disco alla volta Utilizzando il piolo-ricorsiva(integer n, integer origine, integer destinazione, integer intermedio) if n = 1 then % Trasferisci un disco) % Trasferisci un disco da origine a destinazione (2) hanoi-ricorsiva(n 1, intermedio, destinazione, origine

  14. Sistemi Operativi Giuseppe Prencipe

    E-print Network

    Prencipe, Giuseppe

    accesso al disco, il SO utilizza uno o più file system Due problemi nella progettazione di un FS dispositivo per leggere/scrivere blocchi fisici nel disco Ogni blocco fisico si identifica con un indirizzo è a conoscenza dei blocchi logici dei file e dei blocchi fisici nel disco Conscendo la locazione dei

  15. Embedding Science Facts in Leisure Skill Instruction Conducted by Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetko, Erin E.; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Spriggs, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of using peer tutors to teach a chained leisure skill (i.e., UNO card game) to three middle school students with disabilities using a simultaneous prompting procedure within a multiple probe design. The investigation also assessed whether the students with disabilities would acquire four unrelated…

  16. ZHOU ET AL. VOL. XXX ' NO. XX ' 000000 ' XXXX www.acsnano.org

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , the CdSe NW is an attractive potential candidate to replace ZnO NWs in hybrid energy harvest- ing correspondence to zlwang@gatech.edu, wzhou@uno.edu. Received for review May 18, 2012 and accepted June 26, 2012

  17. SISTEMAS DE ECUACIONES POLINOMIALES Alicia Dickenstein

    E-print Network

    Cortiñas, Guillermo

    ) Consideremos un brazo de robot que se mueve en un plano consistente de dos barras de longitudes 1 y 2, con uno de los extremos de la primer barra fijo a un punto que consideramos el origen, con posibilidad de girar en cualquier direcci´on, y la segunda barra unida al extremo de la primera, tambi´en con

  18. Festival Report: XI Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro de Cádiz

    E-print Network

    Reverte Bernal, Concepció n

    1997-10-01

    destacaba su fuerza plástica; no en vano Diego Pombo es uno de los grandes pintores colombianos. Esta misma historia sobre la relatividad de la verdad fue puesta en escena en FALL 1997 145 Cádiz durante el Festival de 1988, por la Compañía São Paulo...

  19. Diseo e Implementacin en FPGA de un Microprocesador Self-Timed de 16 bits, utilizando el

    E-print Network

    Boemo, Eduardo

    presenta la metodología de implementación, la descripción de la arquitectura y la comunicación entre las dispositivo Virtex II FPGA. 2.1 Implementación de la arquitectura El microprocesador ST desarrollado en este trabajo tiene 16 bits, una arquitectura RISC con 6 etapas de pipeline, correspondientes a cada uno de los

  20. la brecha salaria en espaa: realidades y desafos 1 Las desiguaLdades

    E-print Network

    Fernández Pascual, Ricardo

    igualdad de retribución entre traba- jadoras y trabajadores como uno de sus principios, a partir del cual y el empleo, en esa misma proporción han de ser recompensadas. El reto de la igualdad salarial las políticas de igualdad, pues lo abarca todo (segregación de espacios, reparto del tiempo, valor

  1. MPLM On-Orbit Interface Dynamic Flexibility Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Tinson, Ian; Fleming, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    Now that the International Space Station (ISS) is being constructed, payload developers have to not only verify the Shuttle-to-payload interface, but also the interfaces their payload will have with the ISS. The Multi Purpose Logistic Module (MPLM) being designed and built by Alenia Spazio in Torino, Italy is one such payload. The MPLM is the primary carrier for the ISS Payload Racks, Re-supply Stowage Racks, and the Resupply Stowage Platforms to re-supply the ISS with food, water, experiments, maintenance equipment and etc. During the development of the MPLM there was no requirement for verification of the on-orbit interfaces with the ISS. When this oversight was discovered, all the dynamic test stands had already been disassembled. A method was needed that would not require an extensive testing stand and could be completed in a short amount of time. The residual flexibility testing technique was chosen. The residual flexibility modal testing method consists of measuring the free-free natural frequencies and mode shapes along with the interface frequency response functions (FRF's). Analytically, the residual flexibility method has been investigated in detail by, MacNeal, Martinez, Carne, and Miller, and Rubin, but has not been implemented extensively for model correlation due to difficulties in data acquisition. In recent years improvement of data acquisition equipment has made possible the implementation of the residual flexibility method as in Admire, Tinker, and Ivey, and Klosterman and Lemon. The residual flexibility modal testing technique is applicable to a structure with distinct points (DOF) of contact with its environment, such as the MPLM-to-Station interface through the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM). The CBM is bolted to a flange on the forward cone of the MPLM. During the fixed base test (to verify Shuttle interfaces) some data was gathered on the forward cone panels. Even though there was some data on the forward cones, an additional modal test was performed to better characterize its behavior. The CBM mounting flange is the only remaining structure of the MPLM that no test data was available. This paper discusses the implementation of the residual flexibility modal testing technique on the CBM flange and the modal test of the forward cone panels.

  2. Color Image of Death Valley, California from SIR-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image shows the area of Death Valley, California and the different surface types in the area. Radar is sensitive to surface roughness with rough areas showing up brighter than smooth areas, which appear dark. This is seen in the contrast between the bright mountains that surround the dark, smooth basins and valleys of Death Valley. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan (green crescent feature) at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. Several other alluvial fans (semicircular features) can be seen along the mountain fronts in this image. The dark wrench-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using these radar data to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology including how alluvial fans form and change through time in response to climatic changes and earthquakes. The image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. Colors in the image represent different radar channels as follows: red =L-band horizontally polarized transmitted, horizontally polarized received (LHH); green =L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received (LHV) and blue = CHV.

    SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  3. MRO/CRISM Observations of Putative Paleolakes on Mars: Evidence of Water-related Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, T. L.; Marzo, G.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.

    2009-12-01

    Putative paleolakes in Martian impact craters have been the subject of local and regional studies as valuable targets for exploration [1 and references therein] since they should provide information about the dynamics of the sedimentary processes and the climate under which they were formed. We identified 20 sites from the 222 suggested by Orofino et al. [2,3] based upon them having: well-developed, regular, and well-defined edges; no evidence of major modification due to subsequent impact; diameters >20 km; and inlet channels with a length > the crater diameter. MRO/CRISM [4] data have previously been used to identify hydrated/hydroxylated materials in other putative paleolakes on Mars [e.g. 5 and references therein]. Here we report our initial analyses of CRISM observations for 10 of the 20 putative paleolakes identified above using spectral data spanning the ~1-2.5 micrometer range, to evaluate the possible presence of mineral spectral signatures indicative of the past presence of water. Such minerals include hydrated/hydroxylated silicates, hydrous sulfates, and hydrous and/or anhydrous carbonates. Spectra from one site provide evidence for features near 1.4, 2.38 and possibly near 2 micrometers. Such features in CRISM [4] data have previously been attributed to hydrated minerals [e.g. 5,6]. These spectra are closely associated with the various morphological features within the putative paleolakes. Although the numbers are small these results suggest ~10% of the putative paleolakes observed as part of our effort exhibit spectral behavior that is consistent with aqueous activity in these locations. [1] Cabrol, N. & E. Grin (1999) Icarus, 142, 160-172 [2] Orofino, V. et al. (2004) Proceedings Planetary Science: Fifth Italian meeting, A. Blanco, E. Dotto, and V. Orofino Eds., pp. 103-108, Alenia Spazio, Gallipoli, Italy [3] Orofino, V. et al. (2009) Icarus, 200, 426-435 [4] Murchie, S. et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res., 112, E05S03 [5] Murchie, S. et al. (2009), J. Geophys. Res., in press [6] Mustard, J.F. et al. (2008) Nature, 454, 305-309 GM and TLR acknowledge support for this research from NASA’s Mars Data Analysis Program.

  4. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  5. Space Radar Image Isla Isabela in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional view of Isabela, one of the Galapagos Islands located off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image on a digital elevation map produced by TOPSAR, a prototype airborne interferometric radar which produces simultaneous image and elevation data. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles)west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii and reflect the volcanic processes that occur where the ocean floor is created. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been more than 60 recorded eruptions on these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. Vertical exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults, and fractures) and topography. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  6. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  7. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. Space Radar Image of Namib Desert in Southern Namib

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a C-band, VV polarization radar image of the Namib desert in southern Namibia, near the coast of South West Africa. The image is centered at about 25 degrees South latitude, 15.5 degrees East longitude. This image was one of the first acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it was taken on orbit 4 from the shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The area shown is approximately 78 kilometers by 20 kilometers. The dominant features in the image are complex sand dune patterns formed by the prevailing winds in this part of the Namib desert. The Namib desert is an extremely dry area formed largely because of the influence of the cold Benguela ocean current that flows northward along the coast of Namibia. The bright areas at the bottom of the image are exposed outcrops of Precambrian rocks. This extremely barren area is a region rich in diamonds that through the centuries have washed down from the mountains. The town of Luderitz is located just to the south of the area shown. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Aumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstaltfuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), he major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  10. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  11. Space Radar Image of Niya ruins, Taklamakan desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwestern corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China's Sinjiang Province. This oasis was part of the famous Silk Road, an ancient trade route from one of China's earliest capitols, Xian, to the West. The image shows a white linear feature trending diagonally from the upper left to the lower right. Scientists believe this newly discovered feature is a man-made canal which presumably diverted river waters toward the settlement of Niya for irrigation purposes. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 106th orbit on April 16, 1994, and is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. Areas in mottled white and purple are low-lying floodplains of the Niya River. Dark green and black areas between river courses are higher ridges or dunes confining the water flow. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstaltfuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  12. Thirty-three years of recruiting and graduating minority students at the University of New Orleans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L. F.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2006-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) began a formal program to recruit minority geoscience students in 1974 when Dr. Louis Fernandez initiated the program through a grant from the National Science Foundation. A major tool in the original program was to take minority high school students on a field trip. That early program was a major success at a time when even one African American student graduating with a B.S. degree in Geology or Geophysics from any university in the U.S. was considered to be significant. The field trip has continued every year since the program began and it continues to be part of a very successful recruiting effort. Over the last approximately 15 years, the minority geoscience undergraduate student population at UNO rose to approximately 40% with African American students making up the largest single ethnic group. The retention and graduation rates of these minority undergraduates at UNO are high and minority students are often graduating at or near the top of their class. Despite the disproportionate displacement of African Americans from the New Orleans area after Hurricane Katrina, those minority geoscience students who can return to UNO are doing so in significant numbers. Thus, the minority program appears to have achieved a high level of sustainability. Recently we took a closer look at the program to determine the possible explanations for its success. Although availability of scholarships, tutoring and mentors clearly contributes to our success, the key to the success of the program remains the field trip. The trip not only serves as an academic opportunity for students to see geological features first hand and develop a curiosity for earth sciences, but it also affords an opportunity to build trust and a relationship between the faculty on the trip and the meet other potential students. That trust may be the most important key to our successful recruitment of minority students at UNO. In addition, the approximately 2 week field trip is spent traveling in areas where minorities, particularly African Americans, are uncommon (southern Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, etc). Perhaps it is the thrill of feeling that they are traveling in hostile territory combined with the close living quarters and continuous interactions as a group, as well as the outstanding instruction, during the trip, that gives them the incentive to go to UNO and study geology.

  13. Controlled rephasing of single spin-waves in a quantum memory based on cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrera, Pau; Albrecht, Boris; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Quantum Photonics With Solids; Atoms Team

    2015-05-01

    Quantum memories for light allow a reversible transfer of quantum information between photons and long lived matter quantum bits. In atomic ensembles, this information is commonly stored in the form of single collective spin excitations (spin-waves). In this work we demonstrate that we can actively control the dephasing of the spin-waves created in a quantum memory based on a cold Rb87 atomic ensemble. The control is provided by an external magnetic field gradient, which induces an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We show that acting on this gradient allows to control the dephasing of individual spin-waves and to induce later a rephasing. The spin-waves are then mapped into single photons, and we demonstrate experimentally that the active rephasing preserves the sub-Poissonian statistics of the retrieved photons. Finally we show that this rephasing control enables the creation and storage of multiple spin-waves in different temporal modes, which can be selectively readout. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum memory for quantum repeaters. We acknowledge support from the ERC starting grant, the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, and the International PhD- fellowship program ``la Caixa''-Severo Ochoa @ICFO.

  14. Metabolic potential of the organic-solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E deduced from its annotated genome

    PubMed Central

    Udaondo, Zulema; Molina, Lazaro; Daniels, Craig; Gómez, Manuel J; Molina-Henares, María A; Matilla, Miguel A; Roca, Amalia; Fernández, Matilde; Duque, Estrella; Segura, Ana; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas putida?DOT-T1E is an organic solvent tolerant strain capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we report the DOT-T1E genomic sequence (6?394?153?bp) and its metabolic atlas based on the classification of enzyme activities. The genome encodes for at least 1751 enzymatic reactions that account for the known pattern of C, N, P and S utilization by this strain. Based on the potential of this strain to thrive in the presence of organic solvents and the subclasses of enzymes encoded in the genome, its metabolic map can be drawn and a number of potential biotransformation reactions can be deduced. This information may prove useful for adapting desired reactions to create value-added products. This bioengineering potential may be realized via direct transformation of substrates, or may require genetic engineering to block an existing pathway, or to re-organize operons and genes, as well as possibly requiring the recruitment of enzymes from other sources to achieve the desired transformation. Funding Information Work in our laboratory was supported by Fondo Social Europeo and Fondos FEDER from the European Union, through several projects (BIO2010-17227, Consolider-Ingenio CSD2007-00005, Excelencia 2007 CVI-3010, Excelencia 2011 CVI-7391 and EXPLORA BIO2011-12776-E). PMID:23815283

  15. Artist meets computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggin, Marzia

    1997-04-01

    I would like to share my experience ofusing the computer for creating art. I am a graphic designer originally trained without any exposure to the computer. I graduated in July of 1994 from a four-year curriculum of graphic design at the Istituto Europeo di Design in Milan Italy. Italy is famous for its excellent design capability. Art and beauty influence the life ofnearly every Italian. Everywhere you look on the streets there is art from grandiose architecture to the displays in shop windows. A keen esthetic sense and a search and appreciation for quality permeate all aspects of Italian life, manifesting in the way people cut their hair, the style ofthe clothes and how furniture and everyday objects are designed. Italian taste is fine-tuned to the appreciation ofrefined textiles and quality materials are often enhanced by simple design. The Italian culture has a long history ofexcellent artisanship and good craftsmanship is highly appreciated. Gadgets have never been popular in Italian society. Gadgets are considered useless objects which add nothing to a person's life, and since they cost money they are actually viewed as a waste. The same is true for food, exception made in the big cities filled with tourists, fast food chains have never survived. Genuine and simple food is what people truly desire. A typical Italian sandwich, for example, is minimalist, the essential ingredients are left alone without additional sauces because if something is delicious by itselfwhy would anyone want to disgnise its taste?

  16. La opacidad atmosférica del CASLEO a ondas milimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareilles, F.; Olalde, J.; Picardo, C.; Guarrera, L.; Arnal, E. M.; Morras, R.; Perilli, D.; Salazar, P.

    Mediante el uso de un radiómetro que trabaja en la frecuencia de 210 GHz, se han realizado mediciones de la transparencia de la atmósfera a esa frecuencia. Los sitios en los que se han realizado las medidas, corresponden al Cerro Negro de la Tina (Cerro Burek), ubicado a unos 2650 m de altura, y a un sitio ubicado a unos 3400 m de altura, localizado en la Pampa del Jarillal. Las mediciones forman parte de una campaña que cubrirá un lapso de tres años, durante la cual se caracterizan distintas zonas ubicadas en la cordillera. Los resultados que se comunican fueron obtenidos durante el período diciembre de 2002 a septiembre de 2003. Se realiza una comparación preliminar entre la opacidad atmosférica de los lugares mencionados y aquélla de otros sitios en los que se encuentran instaladas facilidades observacionales que operan en la banda milimétrica y submilimétrica del espectro.

  17. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  18. Algebra II Primer Cuatrimestre de 2011 Practica 3

    E-print Network

    Cortiñas, Guillermo

    . Determinar si existe un grupo K tal que G sea el producto semidirecto de H y K en cada uno de los siguientes´on de G/S en X tal que ¯a · x = a · x a G y x X. 8. Sea X un conjunto finito. Determinar el n grupo G no abeliano tal que G/Z(G) sea abeliano. 10. Sea p un primo. (a) Sea G un grupo no abeliano tal

  19. Algebra II Segundo Cuatrimestre de 2014 Practica 3

    E-print Network

    Cortiñas, Guillermo

    . Determinar si existe un grupo K tal que G sea el producto semidirecto de H y K en cada uno de los siguientes´on de G/S en X tal que ¯a · x = a · x a G y x X. 8. Sea X un conjunto finito. Determinar el n grupo G no abeliano tal que G/Z(G) sea abeliano. 10. Sea p un primo. (a) Sea G un grupo no abeliano tal

  20. Incomunicación múltiple en el Teatro breve de Solórzano

    E-print Network

    Higuero, Francisco Javier

    1992-10-01

    el que los personajes no poseen el mínimo control, capaz de asegurar una existencia no angustiada. Las obras dramáticas de Carlos Solórzano aquí estudiadas y recopiladas en Teatro breve son El zapato, Cruce de vías, El sueño del ángel, Mea culpa... los personajes no se comunican dialogalmente entre ellos es porque con anterioridad existe un vacío total dentro de cada uno de ellos en los momentos de introspección interna. Por ejemplo, en Afea culpa, el Hombre va a confesarse en busca de...

  1. Jorge Enrique Adoum en París.

    E-print Network

    Rozental, Geneviè ve

    1975-04-01

    americanos. Su espectáculo es poco costoso, porque lo realizó con unas cuantas cajas pintadas de negro, algunos metros de tela roja y unos objetos—¡magníficos! —dibujados por Oswaldo Guayasamin en Quito y fabricados en París por Fran chise Darne. Los... efectos logrados con las luces y tan poco material son notables. Las cajas, dispuestas o apiladas de diversos modos, pueden ser barco, isla, trono, cárcel, etc. . . . Las manos de los prisioneros que salen retorciéndose por los agujeros especiales de...

  2. Ajuste dinamico de profundidad en el algoritmo Daniel Micol1

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Alicante pablo@dccia.ua.es Resumen Desde los inicios de la teor´ia de computaci´on en juegos, di- versas t´ecnicas han sido desarrolladas con el fin de mejorar la calidad de juego de la m´aquina a la vez que se reduce el tiempo de respuesta. Uno de los algoritmos m´as extendidos para la b´usqueda en juegos es el

  3. DiMaggio Residence 

    E-print Network

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    2011-08-29

    Virgiliana di Scienze Lettere e Arti, Miscellanea, 12. Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 2004. VIII + 209 pp. The papers collected in this volume derive from a conference held under the auspices of the Accademia Nazionale Virgiliana and dedicated to humanistic... in the motif of Renaissance consciousness. Vincenzo Fera in turn notes, correctly, that imitation ?? uno dei motori di tutta la cultura umanistica, la chiave di tutte le NEO-LATIN NEWS 225 metodologie? (23) associated with language study. His title, ?L...

  4. Curvas de rotación - Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, C.

    Se está elaborando un atlas con imágenes y datos publicados en las revistas principales por diversos autores, de las curvas de rotación en galaxias observadas en diferentes frecuencias. Las curvas de rotación constituyen uno de los medios más apropiados para el estudio de las diferencias cinemáticas entre los diversos componentes y quizá la mejor prueba observacional de la existencia de materia oscura en el universo. Este atlas tiene el propósito de servir como una guía cualitativa y cuantitativa para estos estudios.

  5. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 20, Number 2: Book Reviews

    E-print Network

    1987-04-01

    SPRING 1987 139 Book Reviews Giordano, Enrique. La teatralización de la obra dramática. De Florencio Sánchez, a Roberto Arlt. México: Premia Editora, 1982. 255 pp. Este importante estudio de Enrique Giordano nos pone frente a uno de los serios... dramática que Giordano propone. La primacía del texto dramático. Aquí el autor hace una revisión de las relaciones entre obra dramática y obra teatral, o entre texto dramático y espectáculo, pasando revista a la obra de varios importantes teóricos con...

  6. Belle Prerpint 2002-18 KEK Preprint 2002-59

    E-print Network

    z , C. H. Wang y , J. G. Wang ba , M.-Z. Wang z , Y. Watanabe at , E. Won o , B. D. Yabsley ba , Y , R. Chistov ` , Y. Choi am , Y. K. Choi am , M. Danilov ` , L. Y. Dong j , J. Dragic u , A. Drutskoy. Uehara h , K. Ueno z , Y. Unno c , S. Uno h , Y. Ushiroda h , G. Varner g , K. E. Varvell an , C. C. Wang

  7. Belle Preprint 2003-13 KEK Preprint 2003-45

    E-print Network

    . Tsukamoto, 7 S. Uehara, 7 K. Ueno, 24 S. Uno, 7 G. Varner, 6 C. C. Wang, 24 C. H. Wang, 23 J. G. Wang, 50 M.-Z A. Chuvikov, 32 M. Danilov, 11 L. Y. Dong, 9 A. Drutskoy, 11 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges, 11 Y. Enari. Wang, 24 Y. Watanabe, 44 E. Won, 14 B. D. Yabsley, 50 Y. Yamada, 7 A. Yamaguchi, 42 Y. Yamashita, 26 M

  8. BELLE Preprint 2002-10, KEK Preprint 2002-15, KUNS-1785 Radiative B Meson Decays into K and K Final States

    E-print Network

    . Uno, 10 Y. Ushiroda, 10 G. Varner, 9 K. E. Varvell, 40 C. C. Wang, 28 C. H. Wang, 27 J. G. Wang, 51 M.-Z, 39 M. Danilov, 14 L. Y. Dong, 12 A. Drutskoy, 14 S. Eidelman, 2 V. Eiges, 14 Y. Enari, 24 C. Fukunaga. Wang, 28 Y. Watanabe, 46 E. Won, 38 B. D. Yabsley, 51 Y. Yamada, 10 A. Yamaguchi, 44 H. Yamamoto, 44 Y

  9. BellePreprint20045 KEKPreprint 2003132

    E-print Network

    , 22 C. H. Wang, 21 M.­Z. Wang, 22 M. Watanabe, 25 Y. Yamada, 6 A. Yamaguchi, 39 Y. Yamashita, 24 M, 47 L. Y. Dong, 8 J. Dragic, 18 A. Drutskoy, 10 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges, 10 Y. Enari, 19 F. Fang, 5 S. Tsukamoto, 6 S. Uehara, 6 T. Uglov, 10 S. Uno, 6 Y. Ushiroda, 6 G. Varner, 5 K. E. Varvell, 35 C. C. Wang

  10. KEK preprint 2002-17 Belle preprint 2002-11

    E-print Network

    #12; S. Uno 9 , S. E. Vahsen 35 , G. Varner 8 , K. E. Varvell 40 , C. H. Wang 26 , J. G. Wang 52 , M.-Z 13 , L. Y. Dong 11 , S. Eidelman 2 , V. Eiges 13 , Y. Enari 23 , F. Fang 8 , C. Fukunaga 47 , T. Wang 27 , Y. Watanabe 46 , E. Won 38 , B. D. Yabsley 52 , Y. Yamada 9 , A. Yamaguchi 44 , Y. Yamashita

  11. Belle preprint 2003-7 KEK preprint 2003-24

    E-print Network

    . Wang 52 , M.-Z. Wang 27 , Y. Watanabe 46 , E. Won 17 , B. D. Yabsley 52 , Y. Yamada 10 , A. Yamaguchi. Chistov 14 , S.-K. Choi 8 , Y. Choi 39 , M. Danilov 14 , L. Y. Dong 12 , J. Dragic 22 , A. Drutskoy 14 , S , S. Uno 10 , S. E. Vahsen 35 , G. Varner 9 , K. E. Varvell 40 , C. C. Wang 27 , C. H. Wang 26 , J. G

  12. BELLE KEK Preprint 2002-96 Belle Preprint 2002-32

    E-print Network

    , 47 M.-Z. Wang, 22 Y. Watanabe, 41 E. Won, 12 B. D. Yabsley, 47 Y. Yamada, 6 A. Yamaguchi, 39 Y, 4 Y. Choi, 34 M. Danilov, 9 L. Y. Dong, 7 J. Dragic, 18 A. Drutskoy, 9 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges, 9 C. Tsukamoto, 6 S. Uehara, 6 S. Uno, 6 G. Varner, 5 K. E. Varvell, 35 C. C. Wang, 22 C. H. Wang, 21 J. G. Wang

  13. Observation of D + K and evidence for D +

    E-print Network

    . Uno, 9 Y. Ushiroda, 9 G. Varner, 8 K. E. Varvell, 40 C. C. Wang, 26 C. H. Wang, 25 J. G. Wang, 52 M.-Z. Chistov, 13 S.-K. Choi, 7 Y. Choi, 39 M. Danilov, 13 L. Y. Dong, 11 A. Drutskoy, 13 S. Eidelman, 2 V. Wang, 26 Y. Watanabe, 46 E. Won, 15 B. D. Yabsley, 52 Y. Yamada, 9 A. Yamaguchi, 44 Y. Yamashita, 28 M

  14. BELLE Preprint 2003-6 KEK Preprint 2003-19

    E-print Network

    , 25 J. G. Wang, 50 M.-Z. Wang, 26 Y. Watanabe, 44 E. Won, 15 B. D. Yabsley, 50 Y. Yamada, 8 A. Danilov, 12 L. Y. Dong, 10 J. Dragic, 21 A. Drutskoy, 12 S. Eidelman, 2 V. Eiges, 12 Y. Enari, 22 C. Tsuboyama, 8 T. Tsukamoto, 8 S. Uehara, 8 S. Uno, 8 G. Varner, 7 K. E. Varvell, 38 C. C. Wang, 26 C. H. Wang

  15. Study of three-body charmless B decays The Belle Collaboration

    E-print Network

    . Wang 26 , J. G. Wang 50 , M.-Z. Wang 27 , Y. Watanabe 44 , E. Won 37 , B. D. Yabsley 9 , Y. Yamada 9. Chistov 14 , S.-K. Choi 7 , Y. Choi 38 , L. Y. Dong 12 , A. Drutskoy 14 , S. Eidelman 2 , V. Eiges 14 , F. Trabelsi 8 , T. Tsukamoto 9 , S. Uehara 9 , K. Ueno 27 , S. Uno 9 , Y. Ushiroda 9 , C. C. Wang 27 , C. H

  16. Evidence for B 0 ! 0 0 S. H. Lee, 35 K. Suzuki, 7 K. Abe, 7 K. Abe, 40 T. Abe, 7 I. Adachi, 7 Byoung Sup Ahn, 14

    E-print Network

    J. G. Wang, 48 M.-Z. Wang, 24 Y. Watanabe, 43 E. Won, 14 B. D. Yabsley, 48 Y. Yamada, 7 A. Yamaguchi, 24 B. G. Cheon, 36 R. Chistov, 11 S.-K. Choi, 5 Y. Choi, 36 A. Chuvikov, 32 M. Danilov, 11 L. Y. Dong. Tsukamoto, 7 S. Uehara, 7 Y. Unno, 2 S. Uno, 7 G. Varner, 6 K. E. Varvell, 37 C. C. Wang, 24 C. H. Wang, 23

  17. KEK Preprint 2001-172 Belle Preprint 2002-6

    E-print Network

    , J. G. Wang 52 , M.-Z. Wang 28 , Y. Watanabe 46 , E. Won 38 , B. D. Yabsley 9 , Y. Yamada 9 , M. Chistov 14 , S.-K. Choi 7 , Y. Choi 39 , L. Y. Dong 12 , J. Dragic 23 , A. Drutskoy 14 , S. Eidelman 2 , V. Unno 3 , S. Uno 9 , Y. Ushiroda 9 , S. E. Vahsen 36 , K. E. Varvell 40 , C. C. Wang 28 , C. H. Wang 27

  18. KEK preprint 2001-118 Belle preprint 2001-13

    E-print Network

    47 , M.-Z. Wang 25 , Y. Watanabe 41 , E. Won 34 , B. D. Yabsley 9 , Y. Yamada 9 , M. Yamaga 39 , A. Dong 12 , A. Drutskoy 14 , S. Eidelman 2 , Y. Enari 21 , F. Fang 8 , H. Fujii 9 , C. Fukunaga 42 , M , Y. Unno 3 , S. Uno 9 , Y. Ushiroda 9 , K. E. Varvell 36 , C. C. Wang 25 , C. H. Wang 24 , J. G. Wang

  19. KEK preprint 2001-150 Belle preprint 2001-20

    E-print Network

    , C. H. Wang 28 , J. G. Wang 52 , M.-Z. Wang 29 , Y. Watanabe 46 , E. Won 39 , B. D. Yabsley 9 , Y.-K. Choi 7 , Y. Choi 40 , L. Y. Dong 12 , A. Drutskoy 14 , S. Eidelman 2 , V. Eiges 14 , C. W. Everton 23 , S. Uehara 9 , K. Ueno 29 , Y. Unno 3 , S. Uno 9 , Y. Ushiroda 9 , K. E. Varvell 41 , C. C. Wang 29

  20. KEK Preprint 2001165 Belle Preprint 20022

    E-print Network

    , 51 M.­Z. Wang, 28 Y. Watanabe, 45 E. Won, 37 B. D. Yabsley, 9 Y. Yamada, 9 M. Yamaga, 43 A. Yamaguchi P. Chang, 28 Y. Chao, 28 B. G. Cheon, 38 R. Chistov, 14 S.­K. Choi, 7 Y. Choi, 38 L. Y. Dong, 12 J. Ueno, 28 Y. Unno, 3 S. Uno, 9 Y. Ushiroda, 9 K. E. Varvell, 39 C. C. Wang, 28 C. H. Wang, 27 J. G. Wang

  1. KEK Preprint 200387 Belle Preprint 200326

    E-print Network

    . G. Wang, 47 M.­Z. Wang, 23 M. Watanabe, 26 Y. Yamada, 7 A. Yamaguchi, 40 H. Yamamoto, 40 Y. Cole, 36 M. Danilov, 11 M. Dash, 47 L. Y. Dong, 9 J. Dragic, 19 A. Drutskoy, 11 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges. Tsuboyama, 7 T. Tsukamoto, 7 S. Uehara, 7 K. Ueno, 23 T. Uglov, 11 S. Uno, 7 G. Varner, 6 C. H. Wang, 22 J

  2. KEK-Preprint-2003-71 BELLE-Preprint-2003-23

    E-print Network

    #22;p#25; + , B 0 ! p#22;pK 0 , and B + ! p#22;pK #3;+ M.-Z. Wang, 23 K. Abe, 7 K. Abe, 40 T. Abe, 7 I, 36 P. H. Chu, 23 A. Chuvikov, 31 M. Danilov, 11 L. Y. Dong, 9 A. Drutskoy, 11 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges. Tsuboyama, 7 T. Tsukamoto, 7 S. Uehara, 7 S. Uno, 7 G. Varner, 6 K. E. Varvell, 37 C. H. Wang, 22 J. G. Wang

  3. hep-ex/0307014 Belle Preprint 2003-8

    E-print Network

    . H. Wang, 22 J. G. Wang, 47 M.-Z. Wang, 23 M. Watanabe, 26 Y. Watanabe, 41 E. Won, 13 B. D. Yabsley.-K. Choi, 5 Y. Choi, 35 Y. K. Choi, 35 M. Danilov, 10 M. Dash, 47 L. Y. Dong, 8 A. Drutskoy, 10 S. Eidelman. Tsukamoto, 7 K. Ueno, 23 Y. Unno, 2 S. Uno, 7 Y. Ushiroda, 7 G. Varner, 6 K. E. Varvell, 36 C. C. Wang, 23 C

  4. BELLE-CONF-0344 KEK Preprint 2003-47

    E-print Network

    C. H. Wang, 23 J. G. Wang, 50 M.-Z. Wang, 24 Y. Watanabe, 44 E. Won, 14 B. D. Yabsley, 50 Y. Yamada. Danilov, 11 L. Y. Dong, 9 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges, 11 Y. Enari, 20 J. Flanagan, 7 C. Fukunaga, 45 K, 24 Y. Unno, 2 S. Uno, 7 Y. Ushiroda, 7 S. E. Vahsen, 32 G. Varner, 6 K. E. Varvell, 38 C. C. Wang, 24

  5. Belle preprint 2002-39 KEK preprint 2002-127

    E-print Network

    J. G. Wang, 50 M.-Z. Wang, 25 Y. Watanabe, 44 E. Won, 15 B. D. Yabsley, 50 Y. Yamada, 8 A. Yamaguchi. Dong, 10 J. Dragic, 21 A. Drutskoy, 12 S. Eidelman, 1 V. Eiges, 12 Y. Enari, 22 F. Fang, 7 C. Fukunaga. Tsukamoto, 8 S. Uehara, 8 Y. Unno, 2 S. Uno, 8 G. Varner, 7 K. E. Varvell, 38 C. C. Wang, 25 C. H. Wang, 24

  6. Metodologa de la Programacin Paralela 2015-2016 Prctica Computacin Hbrida y Heterognea

    E-print Network

    Giménez, Domingo

    mooshak los trabajos MPI se pueden lanzar a marte y a mercurio, por ejemplo "marte 3 mercurio 2" indica que se pondrán en marcha 3 procesos MPI en marte y 2 en mercurio. Si uno de los dos nodos está ocupado los experimentos en marte, con 6 cores, las combinaciones de procesos x hilos pueden ser 1x6, 2x3, 3x2

  7. Un hombre de teatro significa un ser humano integral: Entrevista a Orlando Rodríguez

    E-print Network

    Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

    1987-04-01

    hombre de teatro significa un ser humano integral: Entrevista a Orlando Rodríguez Francisco Garzón Céspedes Orlando Rodríguez B. (Chile, 1929), crítico, investigador, profesor, director y actor, es uno de los hombres de teatro más prestigiosos de... nuestra América, y su vida y obra, su ejercicio profesional, constituyen un ejemplo de talento, de rigor, de dignidad y de entrega generosa a la lucha de nuestros pueblos por su crecimiento. Orlando Rodríguez sabe que el teatro como arte "contribuye a...

  8. IA Science Service Feature Released upon receipt

    E-print Network

    any warning that anything so unusual was going t o occur control. to go uno the clock in a flat s:h. hal,~eniiig. down; That was one of the ideas that flashed through rqy mind as it v?as A flat by the giant winds; completely out Of control; going up, up, up. mWbe it passed away from me, that A t about 10

  9. La proyección teatral de la masacre de las bananeras

    E-print Network

    Velasco, Marí a Mercedes

    1989-10-01

    denuncian los abusos de los militares, la explotación y la violación de los derechos humanos. Soldados, ubicada en el momento de los hechos, analiza las contradicciones vividas por los soldados, que son instrumentos de la represión oficial. Los... que causan el abuso y la violación de los derechos humanos. En las dos piezas los militares están al servicio de las clases dirigentes que reprimen al pueblo y lo explotan en beneficio de unos pocos. Son obras que analizan la lucha de obreros y...

  10. El carácter del teatro cubano contemporáneo

    E-print Network

    Palls, Terry L.

    1980-07-01

    los gastos. Bajo esta nueva estructura cultural se establecieron nuevas casas editoriales y centros de documentación y enseñanza, se iniciaron nuevos periódicos y revistas culturales y se instituyeron concursos y festivales artísticos con par... palangana de Raúl de Cárdenas y La casa vieja de Abelardo Estorino.4 Las diferencias de enfoque temporal y orientación entre estos dos grupos de dramas realista-revolucionarios producen peculiaridades estilísticas en cada uno de ellos, que son...

  11. Principles of Computer Graphics CSCI 4631/4631G Section 001

    E-print Network

    Summa, Christopher M.

    Summa Lab: Math 307 Phone: (504) 280-2400 email: csumma@uno.edu (preferred) Meets: 11:00AM - 11:50 AM M,W,F in Math 214 Office Hours: 9AM-11AM M,T,Th, Office hours will be conducted in Math 307. Other times by appointment only Prerequisite: CSCI 2125 and MATH 2511 with a grade of C or better or consent of department

  12. ATTENZIONE: all'esame i test potranno proporre una scelta tra cinque opzioni.

    E-print Network

    Pandolfi, Luciano

    ) esistono infiniti polinomi a coefficienti reali e di grado minimo che hanno per radici i numeri i, -1, 2i 2 potenza di 3 10. Il polinomio x3 + 2x2 - 3 (a) non ha zeri reali (b) ha almeno uno zero reale (c) ha tre zeri reali (d) ha due zeri reali e due non reali 11. Il polinomio x5 + 2x2 + 4 (a) `e il polinomio di

  13. Conference Report: Primer Encuentro de Artes Escénicas

    E-print Network

    Nigro, Kirsten F.

    1989-04-01

    ; vr. gracia, "Prácticas sobre investigación y experimentación," "Práctica del teatro dentro de las instituciones," "Historia y tendencias de las artes escénicas," "La enseñanza de las artes escénicas," "Dramaturgia en las artes escénicas." Pero... dentro de esta diversidad, había unos seis temas que se reiteraban con frecuencia: 1) la crisis perpetua de las artes escénicas en Mexico debido a presiones económicas y políticas; 2) la falta de una "memoria" de las artes escénicas debido a la...

  14. El discurso dramático-teatral latinoamericano y el discurso crítico: Algunas reflexiones estratégicas

    E-print Network

    Villegas, Juan

    1984-10-01

    potencial y real en el momento de la producción del texto. 4) La práctica discursiva teatral no corresponde necesariamente a la ideología de la práctica del discurso crítico. Estos principios originan una serie de preguntas tanto en el plano teórico... emisores y destinatarios de cada uno de estos niveles de discursos y sus consecuencias. Por ejemplo, el destinatario potencial del discurso crítico teórico está limitado a un reducido número de especialistas, generalmente profesores universitarios. En...

  15. El sexagésimo aniversario del Teatro Experimental de la Universidad de Chile

    E-print Network

    Piga, Domingo

    2001-04-01

    sptiembre de 1973. Destaco el momento histórico político-social-económico que produjo nuestra generación del 41, los nombres del rector fundador Juvenal Hernández, y del actor Lucho Córdoba, el de Pedro de la Barra y tantos que han sido pilares sobre los... del Campo). ¿Qué importaba que Pedro de la Barra, SPRING 2001 193 o Parada o Miranda fueran unos pocos años mayores si respondían a los mismos valores humanos, sociales, culturales, ideológicos y artísticos que los que éramos un poco menores...

  16. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  17. Arnoldo Hax nace en Santiago de Chile en 1936. Estudia la carrera de Ingeniero Industrial en la Universidad Catlica de Chile, donde se grada, con

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    Arnoldo Hax nace en Santiago de Chile en 1936. Estudia la carrera de Ingeniero Industrial en la Universidad Católica de Chile, donde se gradúa, con el número uno de su promoción y la más alta distinción, en Universidad de Michigan, vuelve a Chile para hacerse cargo de la Dirección de la Escuela de Ingeniería de la

  18. Desde Chile

    E-print Network

    Noguera, Hé ctor; Hurtado, Marí a de la Luz; Meza, Gustavo

    1983-10-01

    Chile• . . Héctor Noguera, María de la Luz Hurtado, y Gustavo Meza En los últimos años, la dramaturgia chilena ha retomado vitalidad, siendo uno de los lugares privilegiados donde se realiza una reflexión crítica acerca de la sociedad chilena actual... Universidad de Chile presenta, por su parte, Mama Rosa de Fernando Debesa, y el Teatro de Comediantes con el Teatro Pedro de la Barra llevan casi un año exhibiendo La remolienda de Alejandro Sieveking. Isidora Aguirre, también miembro de esta generación de...

  19. Patterns and Outcomes Associated with Patient Migration for Liver Transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Croome, Kristopher P.; Lee, David D.; Burns, Justin M.; Perry, Dana K.; Keaveny, Andrew P.; Taner, C. Burcin

    2015-01-01

    Background Traveling to seek specialized care such as liver transplantation (LT) is a reality in the United States. Patient migration has been attributed to organ availability. The aims of this study were to delineate patterns of patient migration and outcomes after LT. Study Design All deceased donor LT between 2008–2013 were extracted from UNOS data. Migrated patients were defined as those patients who underwent LT at a center in a different UNOS region from the region in which they resided and traveled a distance > 100 miles. Results Migrated patients comprised 8.2% of 28,700 LT performed. Efflux and influx of patients were observed in all 11 UNOS regions. Regions 1, 5, 6, and 9 had a net efflux, while regions 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 11 had a net influx of patients. After multivariate adjustment for donor and recipient factors, graft (p = 0.68) and patient survival (p = 0.52) were similar between migrated and non-migrated patients. Conclusion A significant number of patients migrated in patterns that could not be explained alone by regional variations in MELD score and wait time. Migration may be a complex interplay of factors including referral patterns, specialized services at centers of excellence and patient preference. PMID:26469071

  20. The University of Nebraska at Omaha Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandgenett, Neal

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of innovative coursework and other educational activities, we are proposing the establishment of a University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Center for the Use of Space Data in Teaching and Learning. This Center will provide an exciting and motivating process for educators at all levels to become involved in professional development and training which engages real life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The Center will facilitate innovative courses (including online and distance education formats), systematic degree programs, classroom research initiatives, new instructional methods and tools, engaging curriculum materials, and various symposiums. It will involve the active participation of several Departments and Colleges on the UNO campus and be well integrated into the campus environment. It will have a direct impact on pre-service and in-service educators, the K12 (kindergarten through 12th grade) students that they teach, and other college students of various science, mathematics, and technology related disciplines, in which they share coursework. It is our belief that there are many exciting opportunities represented by space data and imagery, as a context for engaging mathematics, science, and technology education. The UNO Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning being proposed in this document will encompass a comprehensive training and dissemination strategy that targets the improvement of K-12 education, through changes in the undergraduate and graduate preparation of teachers in science, mathematics and technology education.

  1. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, UnicOne, and Protaper Universal in Simulated Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Matos Maia Filho, Etevaldo; de Castro Rizzi, Cláudia; Bandeca Coelho, Matheus; Freitas Santos, Sara; Mayanne Oliveira Costa, Luzia; Nunes Carvalho, Ceci; Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Rudys; Alves Soares, Janir

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the shaping effects, preservation of the original curvature, and transportation of the apical foramen of Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), UnicOne (Medin, Nové M?sto na Morav?, Czech Republic), and Protaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in simulated root canals. Thirty resin blocks with simulated curved root canals were distributed into three groups (n = 10), and prepared using Reciproc (RCp), UnicOne (UnO) and the Protaper Universal (PTu). Standardized photographs were taken before and after the instrumentation, after which they were superimposed. Measurements were taken of the quantity of resin removed from the inner and outer walls of the curvature at 6 levels, the curvature angles before and after instrumentation, and the transportation of the apical foramen. RCp obtained the highest values for amount of resin removed from the inner wall while UnO demonstrated similar shaping on both the inner and outer walls. PTu produced the greatest transportation of foramen when compared to the reciprocating instruments. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the change in angle (P > 0.05). All the instruments were capable of maintaining the original curvature of the root canal; however, the UnO, which used reciprocating movement, produced more conservative shapes with lower foramen transportation. PMID:25950022

  2. Disparities in the utilization of live donor renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gore, J L; Danovitch, G M; Litwin, M S; Pham, P-T T; Singer, J S

    2009-05-01

    Despite universal payer coverage with Medicare, sociodemographic disparities confound the care of patients with renal failure. We sought to determine whether adults who realize access to kidney transplantation suffer inequities in the utilization of live donor renal transplantation (LDRT). We identified adults undergoing primary renal transplantation in 2004-2006 from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). We modeled receipt of live versus deceased donor renal transplant on multilevel multivariate models that examined recipient, center and UNOS region-specific covariates. Among 41 090 adult recipients identified, 39% underwent LDRT. On multivariate analysis, older recipients (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.56-0.68 for 50-59 year-olds vs. 18-39 year-old recipients), those of African American ethnicity (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.50-0.59 vs. whites) and of lower socioeconomic status (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.67-0.79 for high school-educated vs. college-educated recipients; OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.71-0.87 for lowest vs. highest income quartile) had lower odds of LDRT. These characteristics accounted for 14.2% of the variation in LDRT, more than recipient clinical variables, transplant center characteristics and UNOS region level variation. We identified significant racial and socioeconomic disparities in the utilization of LDRT. Educational initiatives and dissemination of processes that enable increased utilization of LDRT may address these disparities. PMID:19422338

  3. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, UnicOne, and Protaper Universal in Simulated Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos; Rizzi, Cláudia de Castro; Coelho, Matheus Bandeca; Santos, Sara Freitas; Costa, Luzia Mayanne Oliveira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Soares, Janir Alves

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the shaping effects, preservation of the original curvature, and transportation of the apical foramen of Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), UnicOne (Medin, Nové M?sto na Morav?, Czech Republic), and Protaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in simulated root canals. Thirty resin blocks with simulated curved root canals were distributed into three groups (n = 10), and prepared using Reciproc (RCp), UnicOne (UnO) and the Protaper Universal (PTu). Standardized photographs were taken before and after the instrumentation, after which they were superimposed. Measurements were taken of the quantity of resin removed from the inner and outer walls of the curvature at 6 levels, the curvature angles before and after instrumentation, and the transportation of the apical foramen. RCp obtained the highest values for amount of resin removed from the inner wall while UnO demonstrated similar shaping on both the inner and outer walls. PTu produced the greatest transportation of foramen when compared to the reciprocating instruments. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the change in angle (P > 0.05). All the instruments were capable of maintaining the original curvature of the root canal; however, the UnO, which used reciprocating movement, produced more conservative shapes with lower foramen transportation. PMID:25950022

  4. SPace Radar Image of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false color L-band and C-band image of the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, centered at about 15 degrees north latitude, 120.5 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 78 on April 13, 1994. The false-color composite is made by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HV return in blue. The area shown is approximately 45 by 68 kilometers (28 by 42 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions, and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano, are easily seen in this image. The red color on the high slopes show the rougher ash deposited during the 1991 eruption. The dark drainages are the smooth mudflows which continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Radar images such as this one can be used to identify the areas flooded by mudflows, which are difficult to distinguish visually, and to assess the rate at which the erosion and deposition continues. A key aspect of the second SIR-C/X-SAR mission in August 1994 will be to collect a second image of Pinatubo during the summer monsoon season -- new mudflows will have occurred -- and to evaluate the short-term changes. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines is well known for its near-global effects on the atmosphere and climate due to the large amount of sulfur dioxide that was injected into the upper atmosphere. What is less widely known is that even today the volcano continues to be a major hazard to the people who have returned to the area around the volcano. Dangerous mudflows (called 'lahars') are often generated by heavy rains, and these can still sweep down river valleys and wash out roads and villages, or bury low lying areas in several meters of mud and volcanic debris. These mudflows will continue to be a severe hazard around Pinatubo for the next 10 to 15 years. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  5. Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study the ancient city. The SIR-C/X-SAR data are being used by archaeologists at the World Monuments Fund and the Royal Angkor Foundation to understand how the city grew, flourished and later fell into disuse over an 800-year period. The data are also being used to help reconstruct the vast system of hydrological works, canals and reservoirs, which have gone out of use over time. Research teams from more than 11 countries will be using this data to study the Angkor complex.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  6. DREAMS: a payload on-board the ExoMars EDM Schiaparelli for the characterization of Martian environment during the statistical dust storm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molfese, Cesare; Esposito, Francesca; Debei, Stefano; Bettanini, Carlo; Arruego Rodríguez, Ignacio; Colombatti, Giacomo; Harri, Ari-Matty.; Montmessin, Franck; Wilson, Colin; Aboudan, Alessio; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pirrotta, Simone; Marchetti, Ernesto; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    F. Esposito1, S. Debei2, C. Bettanini2, C. Molfese1, I. Arruego Rodríguez3, G. Colombatti2, A-M. Harri4, F. Montmessin5, C. Wilson6, A. Aboudan2, S. Abbaki5, V. Apestigue3, G. Bellucci7, J-J. Berthelier5, J. R. Brucato8, S. B. Calcutt6, F. Cortecchia1, F. Cucciarrè2, G. Di Achille1, F. Ferri2, F. Forget9, E. Friso2, M. Genzer4, P. Gilbert5, H. Haukka4, J. J. Jiménez3, S. Jiménez10, J-L. Josset11, O. Karatekin12, G. Landis13, R. Lorenz14, J. Martinez3, L. Marty1, V. Mennella1, D. Möhlmann15, D. Moirin5, R. Molinaro1, E. Palomba7, M. Patel16, J-P. Pommereau5, C.I. Popa1, S. Rafkin17, P. Rannou18, N.O. Renno19, P. Schipani1, W. Schmidt4, E. Segato2, S. Silvestro1, F. Simoes20, A. Spiga9, F. Valero21, L. Vázquez21, F. Vivat5, O. Witasse22, R. Mugnuolo23, S. Pirrotta23, E.Marchetti23 1INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy, 2CISAS - Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy, 3INTA, Spain, 4Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI),Helsinki, Finland, 5LATMOS - CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, France, 6Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, 7INAF - Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), 8INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, 9CNRS, LMD, France, 10Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain, 11Space Exploration Institute, Switzerland, 12Royal Observatory of Belgium,Belgium, 13NASA, GRC, USA, 14JHU Applied Physics Lab (JHU-APL), USA, 15DLR PF Leitungsbereich, Berlin, Germany, 16Open University, UK, 17SwRL, Switzerland, 18GSMA, France, 19University of Michigan, USA, 20NASA, GSFC, USA, 21Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Spain, 22ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 23Italian Space Agency, Italy DREAMS (Dust characterization, Risk assessment and Environment Analyzer on the Martian Surface) package is an integrated multi-sensor scientific payload dedicated to characterizing the landing site environment in dusty conditions. It will measure pressure, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, temperature, the solar irradiance, the dust opacity, and the atmospheric electric properties close to the surface of Mars. It will fly in January 2016 on-board the Schiaparelli Entry, Descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars space mission. It is foreseen to land on Mars in late October 2016 during the statistical dust storm season. Therefore, DREAMS might have the unique chance to make scientific measurements to characterize the Martian environment in a dusty scenario also performing the first ever measurements of atmospheric electric field on Mars. The relationship between the process of dust entrainment in the atmosphere during dust events and the enhancement of atmospheric electric field has been widely studied in an intense field test campaign in the Sahara desert. In order to better characterize this physical process, we performed atmospheric and environmental measurements comparable to those that DREAMS will acquire on Mars. Preliminary results will be discussed. DREAMS is in a high development state. A first model has been delivered to ESA and has been integrated in the EDM Flight Model. Integration tests are on-going. The DREAMS Flight Model will be delivered at the end of March this year.

  7. Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is also one of the primary calibration sites for SIR-C/X-SAR. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner reflectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the shuttle passes overhead. Thirty triangular-shaped reflectors (they look like aluminum pyramids) have been deployed by the calibration team from JPL over a 40- by 40-kilometer (25- by 25-mile) area in and around Death Valley. The calibration team will also deploy transponders (electronic reflectors) and receivers to measure the radar signals from SIR-C/X-SAR on the ground. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  9. Europlanet Integrated and Distributed Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.

    2009-04-01

    During the past decades the various disciplines in planetary sciences have developed to a very high international standard. But the collaboration between the different fields should be improved. To overcome the current fragmentation of the EU Planetary Science community and thereby to increase the scientific return of the related investment, the EU commission is funding via its Framework Program 7 the development of the "Europlanet Research Infrastructure -Europlanet RI". The Europlanet RI will consolidate the integration of the European Planetary Science community which started with Europlanet's FP6 project and will integrate major parts of the related distributed European infrastructure to be shared, fed and expanded by all planetary scientists. This infrastructure encompasses as diverse components as space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory experiments and numerical modeling teams. Europlanet RI aims at bringing scientists from Europe and beyond together who are working in these fields, support the exchange of experts and ideas and make as many resources and data as possible available to the research community. A central part of Europlanet RI is the "Integrated and Distributed Information Service" or Europlanet-IDIS. The task of IDIS as central part of Europlanet is to provide an easy-to-use Web-based platform to locate teams and laboratories with special knowledge needed to support the own research activities, give access to the wealth of already available data, initiate new research activities needed to interpret accumulated data or to solve open questions, and to exploit synergies between space-based missions and capabilities of ground based observatories. It also offers to a wide range of teams and laboratories the possibility to share their data, advertise their capabilities and increase the scientific return by cooperation. IDIS is organized as an EU FP7 Support Activity, consisting of different access nodes which are connected by integrated search facilities, compatible structures and a common management. Each of these nodes concentrates on a special field of planetary sciences, has its own team of related international experts and is responsible for the access to information and data centres related to its area of competence. Integrated keyword-based search-possibilities direct inquiries to those node(s), most likely to return the wanted information. These nodes are hosted by the following organizations: - The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) in Helsinki, Finland, hosts the Technical Node for a wide range of support activities and provides the network management. - The Institute of Planetary Research (IPR) of DLR in Berlin, Germany, hosts the Planetary Surfaces and Interiors Node, concentrating on internal structure, formation and evolution of the planets, their moons, asteroids and comets. - The Institut für Weltraumforschung, IWF (Space Research Institute) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW) in Graz hosts the Planetary Plasma Node in close cooperation with the French space plasma data center CDPP in Toulouse. - The Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace in Paris hosts the Planetary Atmospheres Node. - The Paris Observatory hosts the Virtual Observatory Paris Data Center providing among others access to a wide range of atomic and molecular spectral databases. - The Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) in Rome hosts the Small Bodies and Dust Node, in cooperation with the ESA/ESTECs Virtual Meteor Observatory in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, concentrating on research and observations related to solar system asteroids, comets, meteors and interplanetary dust. During the next four years a set of tools for describing, accessing and combining information and data from different sources will be developed, offering finally a Virtual Observatory like access to many data essential for planetary research from European and None-European sources. Web access via any of the mentioned nodes, e.g. the Technical Node at http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/

  10. Space Radar Image of the Lost City of Ubar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the region around the site of the lost city of Ubar in southern Oman, on the Arabian Peninsula. The ancient city was discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. Archeologists believe Ubar existed from about 2800 B.C. to about 300 A.D. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. This image was acquired on orbit 65 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The SIR-C image shown is centered at 18.4 degrees north latitude and 53.6 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area about 50 by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The image is constructed from three of the available SIR-C channels and displays L-band, HH (horizontal transmit and receive) data as red, C-band HH as blue, and L-band HV (horizontal transmit, vertical receive) as green. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes, which are bright reflectors at both L-and C-band. The prominent green areas (L-HV) are rough limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the middle of the image and is shown largely in white due to strong radar scattering in all channels displayed (L and C HH, L-HV). The actual site of the fortress of the lost city of Ubar, currently under excavation, is near the Wadi close to the center of the image. The fortress is too small to be detected in this image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, appear as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks. These tracks have been used in modern times, but field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar in 1992. This image, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on a little known early civilization. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  11. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  12. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the flanks of the volcano. Paths of these flows can be seen as thin lines in various shades of blue and green on the north flank in the center of the image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  13. Space Radar Image of Raco, Michigan, ecological test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of seasonal changes at the ecological test site of Raco, Michigan, located south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The image is centered at about 46 degrees north latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10th, 1994, and on October 1, 1994. The areas shown in red correspond to the April 10th data; the areas in blue correspond to data acquired on October 1, 1994; green indicates the ratio of data acquired on April 10 and October 1, 1994. The area shown is 22.7 kilometers by 53 kilometers (14 miles by 33 miles). Lake Superior in the upper right was frozen in April and had small waves (ripples) on its surface in October. The land area contains mostly forests and, to a lesser extent, agricultural regions. In April the area was covered in wet snow. By October, there agricultural areas were covered with grass. Vegetation and soils were moist due to rainfalls three days before the data was acquired on October 1, 1994. The bright light green/yellow tones in the lower half of the image show the stronger reflections of the snow-covered agricultural fields. The pinkish color corresponds to the coniferous and deciduous forests. The green area represents red pines. These trees are smaller than the surrounding forest cover and allow more radar penetration. The area is green because the radar is sensing the surface, which undergoes great change from snow to grass and fern undergrowth between April and October. The bright green triangle in the upper half of the image is an old airstrip, while the modern airport can be seen on the bottom right side of the image. The Raco site is an important location for monitoring seasonal changes and future global change because it is situated at the ecological transition zone between the boreal forests and the northern temperate forests. This transitional zone is expected to be ecologically sensitive to anticipated global changes resulting from climatic warming. Baseline studies of vegetation are essential in monitoring these expected changes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  14. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more swiftly than is currently possible. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  15. National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry.

  16. Status and Perspectives of Electric Propulsion in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svelto, F.; Marcuccio, S.; Matticari, G.

    2002-01-01

    Electric Propulsion (EP) is recognized as one of today's enabling technologies for scientific and commercial missions. In consideration of EP's major strategic impact on the near and long term scenarios, an EP development programme has been established within the Italian Space Agency (ASI), aimed at the development of a variety of propulsion capabilities covering different fields of application. This paper presents an overview of Electric Propulsion (EP) activities underway in Italy and outlines the planned development lines, both in research institutions and in industry. Italian EP activities are essentially concentrated in Pisa, at Centrospazio and Alta, and in Florence, at LABEN - Proel Tecnologie Division (LABEN/Proel). Centrospazio/Alta and LABEN/Proel have established a collaboration program for joint advanced developments in the EP field. Established in 1989, Centrospazio is a private research center closely related to the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Pisa University. Along the years, Centrospazio lines of development have included arcjets, magneto- plasma-dynamic thrusters, FEEP and Hall thrusters, as well as computational plasma dynamics and low-thrust mission studies. Alta, a small enterprise, was founded in 1999 to exploit in an industrial setting the results of research previously carried out at Centrospazio. Alta's activities include the development of micronewton and millinewton FEEP thrusters, and testing of high power Hall and ion thrusters in specialised facilities. A full micronewton FEEP propulsion system is being developed for the Microscope spacecraft, a scientific mission by CNES aimed at verification of the Equivalence Principle. FEEP will also fly on ASI's HypSEO, a technological demonstrator for Earth Observation, and is being considered for ESA's GOCE (geodesy) and SMART-2 (formation flying), as well as for the intended scientific spacecraft GG by ASI. The ASI-funded STEPS facility will be placed on an external site on the International Space Station to work as a long-duration testbed for EP systems. ASI co-funds the development of a very large testing facility (5.7 m internal diameter) for high power EP testing up to 50 kW. Proel Tecnologie is a Hi-Tech Organization established in 1986, operating in the field of electron (EGA for the TSS- 1and TSS-1R missions), ion and plasma sources for space applications. The Company, become a Division of LABEN S.p.A. (FINMECCANICA Company co-ordinated by Alenia Spazio) since 1995, has identified in the EP the main strategic development line. LABEN/Proel activities include the development of an Ion Thruster in the millinewton range (RMT, ASI technology contract), cathodes/neutralizers for EP in the 0,2-5 kW power range, in- flight diagnostics of EP sub-systems (ARTEMIS, STENTOR, SMART-1), xenon feedlines and flow control units, plasma contactors for the electrostatic charge control on spacecrafts (PLEGPAY experiment on the ISS) and support technologies/facilities for the manufacturing of Hall Thrusters and propellant tanks (the latter by using an advanced process for composite materials polymerization through electron beam irradiation). ASI considers EP development as a National priority and various technology activities are under evaluation. In this context, the Agency is playing a continued role in the process of exploitation of Italian experience and capability and in harmonisation with European efforts in the field.

  17. Space Radar Image of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The image was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this image red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the image is the steep cone of Nyiragongo volcano, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three volcanoes, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira volcano, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active volcanoes constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, located on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the image in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their studies of the last 650 mountain gorillas in the world. The faint lines above the bamboo forest are the result of agricultural terracing by the people who live in the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  18. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging radar missions to help in better understanding the processes responsible for volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  19. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companiesfor the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency,Agenzia SpazialeItaliana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft undRaumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science,operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  20. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  1. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The radar image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/ X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The Landsat Program is managed jointly by NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the United States Geological Survey.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  2. Space Radar Image of the Silk route in Niya, Taklamak, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This composite image is of an area thought to contain the ruins of the ancient settlement of Niya. It is located in the southwest corner of the Taklamakan Desert in China's Sinjiang Province. This region was part of some of China's earliest dynasties and from the third century BC on was traversed by the famous Silk Road. The Silk Road, passing east-west through this image, was an ancient trade route that led across Central Asia's desert to Persia, Byzantium and Rome. The multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar imagery was acquired on orbit 106 of the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The image is centered at 37.78 degrees north latitude and 82.41 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 35 kilometers by 83 kilometers (22 miles by 51 miles). The image is a composite of an image from an Earth-orbiting satellite called Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)and a SIR-C multi-frequency, multi-polarized radar image. The false-color radar image was created by displaying the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red, the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in green, and the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in blue. The prominent east/west pink formation at the bottom of the image is most likely a ridge of loosely consolidated sedimentary rock. The Niya River -- the black feature in the lower right of the French satellite image -- meanders north-northeast until it clears the sedimentary ridge, at which point it abruptly turns northwest. Sediment and evaporite deposits left by the river over millennia dominate the center and upper right of the radar image (in light pink). High ground, ridges and dunes are seen among the riverbed meanderings as mottled blue. Through image enhancement and analysis, a new feature probably representing a man-made canal has been discovered and mapped. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  3. Space Radar Image of Houston, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of Houston, Texas, shows the amount of detail that is possible to obtain using spaceborne radar imaging. Images such as this -- obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavor last fall -- can become an effective tool for urban planners who map and monitor land use patterns in urban, agricultural and wetland areas. Central Houston appears pink and white in the upper portion of the image, outlined and crisscrossed by freeways. The image was obtained on October 10, 1994, during the space shuttle's 167th orbit. The area shown is 100 kilometers by 60 kilometers (62 miles by 38 miles) and is centered at 29.38 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The pink areas designate urban development while the green-and blue-patterned areas are agricultural fields. Black areas are bodies of water, including Galveston Bay along the right edge and the Gulf of Mexico at the bottom of the image. Interstate 45 runs from top to bottom through the image. The narrow island at the bottom of the image is Galveston Island, with the city of Galveston at its northeast (right) end. The dark cross in the upper center of the image is Hobby Airport. Ellington Air Force Base is visible below Hobby on the other side of Interstate 45. Clear Lake is the dark body of water in the middle right of the image. The green square just north of Clear Lake is Johnson Space Center, home of Mission Control and the astronaut training facilities. The black rectangle with a white center that appears to the left of the city center is the Houston Astrodome. The colors in this image were obtained using the follow radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received). Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  4. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  5. Space Radar Image of the Yucatan Impact Crater Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the southwest portion of the buried Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The radar image was acquired on orbit 81 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image is centered at 20 degrees north latitude and 90 degrees west longitude. Scientists believe the crater was formed by an asteroid or comet which slammed into the Earth more than 65 million years ago. It is this impact crater that has been linked to a major biological catastrophe where more than 50 percent of the Earth's species, including the dinosaurs, became extinct. The 180-to 300-kilometer-diameter (110- to 180-mile)crater is buried by 300 to 1,000 meters (1,000 to 3,000 feet) of limestone. The exact size of the crater is currently being debated by scientists. This is a total power radar image with L-band in red, C-band in green, and the difference between C-band L-band in blue. The 10-kilometer-wide (6-mile) band of yellow and pink with blue patches along the top left (northwestern side) of the image is a mangrove swamp. The blue patches are islands of tropical forests created by freshwater springs that emerge through fractures in the limestone bedrock and are most abundant in the vicinity of the buried crater rim. The fracture patterns and wetland hydrology in this region are controlled by the structure of the buried crater. Scientists are using the SIR-C/X-SAR imagery to study wetland ecology and help determine the exact size of the impact crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR. Research on the biological effects of the Chicxulub impact is supported by the NASA Exobiology Program.

  6. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The image is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying radar remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of the magenta indicate differences in the degree of soil moisture change and differences in surface roughness. This seasonal composite demonstrates the sensitivity of radar to changes in agricultural surface conditions such as soil moisture, tillage, cropping and harvesting. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  7. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The image is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The image channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this image, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The radar images reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to mature in Kamchatka's 120-day growing season. The forest industry is managing these forests and practicing selective cutting to allow younger trees time to grow and reseed. X-SAR images will aid in mapping these deforested areas and in encouraging further recultivation efforts. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  8. Mars Express scientists find a different Mars underneath the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Observations by MARSIS, the first subsurface sounding radar used to explore a planet, strongly suggest that ancient impact craters lie buried beneath the smooth, low plains of Mars' northern hemisphere. The technique uses echoes of radio waves that have penetrated below the surface. MARSIS found evidence that these buried impact craters - ranging from about 130 to 470 kilometres in diameter - are present under much of the northern lowlands. The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature. With MARSIS "it's almost like having X-ray vision," said Thomas R. Watters of the National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, and lead author of the results. "Besides finding previously unknown impact basins, we've also confirmed that some subtle, roughly circular, topographic depressions in the lowlands are related to impact features." Studies of how Mars evolved help in understanding early Earth. Some signs of the forces at work a few thousand million years ago are harder to detect on Earth because many of them have been obliterated by tectonic activity and erosion. The new findings bring planetary scientists closer to understanding one of the most enduring mysteries about the geological evolution and history of Mars. In contrast to Earth, Mars shows a striking difference between its northern and southern hemispheres. Almost the entire southern hemisphere has rough, heavily cratered highlands, while most of the northern hemisphere is smoother and lower in elevation. Since the impacts that cause craters can happen anywhere on a planet, the areas with fewer craters are generally interpreted as younger surfaces where geological processes have erased the impact scars. The surface of Mars' northern plains is young and smooth, covered by vast amounts of volcanic lava and sediment. However, the new MARSIS data indicate that the underlying crust is extremely old. “The number of buried impact craters larger than 200 kilometres in diameter that we have found with MARSIS,” said Jeffrey Plaut, MARSIS co-Principal Investigator, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California, “tells us that the underlying crust in the northern lowlands must be very ancient, dating to the Early Noachian epoch (lasting from the planet's birth to about 4 thousand million years ago).” The Early Noachian was an era in which impact cratering was very intense across the Solar System. The results suggest that the crust of the northern lowlands is as old as the oldest exposed southern highlands, also dated to the Noachian epoch, and that the dichotomy between northern and southern hemispheres probably formed very early in the history of Mars. “These results are truly interesting and unprecedented,” added Giovanni Picardi. “MARSIS can contribute to understanding of the geology of Mars through analysis of the surface and subsurface morphology. In addition, from detailed analysis of the instrument’s data, we can obtain valuable information about the composition of the materials.” Note to editors The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature, in the letter headed: “MARSIS radar sounder evidence of buried basins in the northern lowlands of Mars”, by T.R. Watters (National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, USA), C.J. Leuschen (Center for Remote Sensing of Ice-sheets, Univ. of Kansas, USA), J.J. Plaut, A. Safaenili and A.B. Ivanov (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA, USA), G. Picardi (Infocom Dept., Univ. of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy), S.M. Clifford (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Texas, USA), W.M. Farrell (NASA/GSFC, Maryland, USA), R.J. Phillips (Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington Univ., Missouri, USA), and E.R. Stofan (Proxemy Research, Maryland, USA). The MARSIS instrument was developed in the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It was developed by Alenia Spazio under ASI management and the scientific supervision of the University of Rome

  9. Space Radar Image of Rabaul Volcano, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the Rabaul volcano on the island of New Britain, Papua, New Guinea taken almost a month after its September 19, 1994, eruption that killed five people and covered the town of Rabaul and nearby villages with up to 75 centimeters (30 inches) of ash. More than 53,000 people have been displaced by the eruption. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 173rd orbit on October 11, 1994. This image is centered at 4.2 degrees south latitude and 152.2 degrees east longitude in the southwest Pacific Ocean. The area shown is approximately 21 kilometers by 25 kilometers (13 miles by 15.5 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Most of the Rabaul volcano is underwater and the caldera (crater) creates Blanche Bay, the semi-circular body of water that occupies most of the center of the image. Volcanic vents within the caldera are visible in the image and include Vulcan, on a peninsula on the west side of the bay, and Rabalanakaia and Tavurvur (the circular purple feature near the mouth of the bay) on the east side. Both Vulcan and Tavurvur were active during the 1994 eruption. Ash deposits appear red-orange on the image, and are most prominent on the south flanks of Vulcan and north and northwest of Tavurvur. A faint blue patch in the water in the center of the image is a large raft of floating pumice fragments that were ejected from Vulcan during the eruption and clog the inner bay. Visible on the east side of the bay are the grid-like patterns of the streets of Rabaul and an airstrip, which appears as a dark northwest-trending band at the right-center of the image. Ashfall and subsequent rains caused the collapse of most buildings in the town of Rabaul. Mudflows and flooding continue to pose serious threats to the town and surrounding villages. Volcanologists and local authorities expect to use data such as this radar image to assist them in identifying the mechanisms of the eruption and future hazardous conditions that may be associated with the vigorously active volcano. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  10. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit. The area is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). The image was produced by using only the L-band. The three polarization channels HH, HV and VV are illustrated by red, green and blue respectively. The changes in the intensity of each color are related to various surface conditions such as variations in forest stands, frozen or thawed condition of the surface, disturbances (fire and deforestation), and areas of regrowth. Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the white Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are also shown by dark areas in the image. Since most of the logging practice at the Prince Albert area is around the major highways, the deforested areas can be easily detected as small geometrically shaped dark regions along the roads. At the time of the SIR-C/X-SAR overpass a major part of the forest is either frozen or undergoing the spring thaw. The L-band HH shows a high return in the jack pine forest. The reddish areas in the image are old jack pine forest, 12 to 17 meters (40to 55 feet) in height and 60 to 75 years old. The orange-greenish areas are young jack pine trees, 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) in height and 11 to 16 years old. The green areas are due to the relative high intensity of the HV channel which is strongly correlated with the amount of biomass. L-band HV channel shows the biomass variations over the entire region. Most of the green areas, when compared to the forest cover maps are identified as black spruce trees. The dark blue and dark purple colors show recently harvested or regrowth areas respectively. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  11. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR system have validated the interpretation of the radar images. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  12. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR system have validated the interpretation of the radar images. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  13. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image on the left is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. It was acquired on-board the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. In the image on the left, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band HH-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV-polarization to C-band HV-polarization. On the right is a classification map of the surface features which was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The area is about 23 by 46 kilometers (14 by 29 miles). In the classification image, the colors represent the following surfaces: White snow Red frozen lake, covered by snow Brown bare ground Blue lake (open water) Yellow short vegetation (mainly brush) Green sparse forest Dark green dense forest Maps like this one are helpful to scientists studying snow wetness and snow water equivalent in the snow pack. Across the globe, over major portions of the middle and high latitudes, and at high elevations in the tropical latitudes, snow and alpine glaciers are the largest contributors to run-off in rivers and to ground-water recharge. Snow hydrologists are using radar in an attempt to estimate both the quantity of water held by seasonal snow packs and the timing of snow melt. Snow and ice also play important roles in regional climates; understanding the processes in seasonal snow cover is also important for studies of the chemical balance of alpine drainage basins. SIR-C/X-SAR is a powerful tool because it is sensitive to most snow pack conditions and is less influenced by weather conditions than other remote sensing instruments, such as the Landsat satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  14. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the forthcoming Canadian RADARSAT satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

  15. A Conceptual Design for a Small Deployer Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbo, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years, the space scientific and industrial communities have demonstrated a renewed interest for small missions based on new categories of space platforms: micro &nano satellites. The cost reduction w.r.t. larger satellite missions, the shorter time from concept to launch, the risk distribution and the possibility to use this kind of bus both for stand-alone projects and as complementary to larger programs, are key factors that make this new kind of technology suitable for a wide range of space related activities. In particular it is now possible to conceive new mission philosophy implying the realisation of micro satellite constellations, with S/C flying in close formation to form a network of distributed sensors either for near-real time telecommunication or Earth remote sensing and disaster monitoring systems or physics and astronomical researches for Earth-Sun dynamics and high energy radiation studies. At the same time micro satellite are becoming important test- beds for new technologies that will eventually be used on larger missions, with relevant spin-offs potentialities towards other industrial fields. The foreseen social and economical direct benefits, the reduced mission costs and the possibility even for a small skilled team to manage all the project, represent very attractive arguments for universities and research institutes to invest funds and human resources to get first order technical and theoretical skills in the field of micro satellite design, with important influences on the training programs of motivated students that are directly involved in all the project's phases. In consideration of these space market important new trends and of the academic benefits that could be guaranteed by undertaking a micro satellite mission project, basing on its long space activities heritage, University of Rome "La Sapienza" - Aerospace and Astronautics Department, with the support of the Italian Space Agency, Alenia Spazio and of important industrial partners, has started the development of a space mission, named DeSat, focused on a new highly innovative micro satellite bus for LEO, entirely designed by an integrated team of students and researchers. The first mission is scheduled to fly at the end of 2003 on a converted Russian ICBM. The paper is intended to present the main features of DeSat mission, its goals and the activities that have been done by students and researchers to achieve the micro satellite platform design. The principal payload of the entire system is represented by a recirculating ball screw boom whose mass reaches one third of the total mass budget. The goal of the mission is to demonstrate the validity of its design also for space applications, which may range from precise off platform positioning of devices and instruments to GPS interferometry, sensor measurements and robotics. The satellite geometry, when the boom is in deployed configuration, is so stretched that the name "deployable satellite" has come out naturally. The large deployment mechanism, compared to the small bus, has influenced the design of every satellite subsystem leading to innovative solutions in terms of design, materials, equipment and instruments.

  16. Space Radar Image of Glascow, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired using the L-band radar channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarizations combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3,1994. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  17. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  18. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  19. Facts about Raising Children (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Warren, Judith L.

    2002-01-04

    Ratos a solas son tan importantes para individuos como para parejas. Resp?tense uno al otro Insista en los buenos modales de la familia para fundar respeto. Ense?e el bien y el mal Declare sus valores morales y disc?talos con sus ni...?os. Pasen ratos juntos Gocen con juegos y use actividades de familia para crear unidad. Ayude con problemas Sea breve y anime a su ni?o a buscar solu- ciones propias. Anime la independencia Deje que tomen decisiones menores y aumente su...

  20. Obituary: Nuestro Chuchú: Memoria de José de Jesús Martínez

    E-print Network

    1991-04-01

    stream_size 2822 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name latr.v24.n2.170-170.pdf.txt stream_source_info latr.v24.n2.170-170.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 170 LATIN AMERICAN... THEATRE REVIEW Nuestro Chuchu: Memoria de José de Jesús Martínez Chuchu Martínez es de los muertos que dan risa. Aclaro. No es un irrespeto lo que afirmo, sino todo lo contrario. Si existe alguien que uno puede recordar con mayor agrado, originalidad y...

  1. El problema de la imagen y la palabra

    E-print Network

    Martí nez de la Vega, Juan

    1988-04-01

    stream_size 15184 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name latr.v21.n2.041-046.pdf.txt stream_source_info latr.v21.n2.041-046.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 SPRING 1988 41 El... problema de la imagen y la palabra Juan Martínez de la Vega Nuestro teatro está lleno de problemas, y uno, definitivo, que complica por igual a la gente de teatro y al crítico, es su lujuriosa juventud. Nuestra panorámica teatral de apenas cinco décadas...

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The UNO (University of Nebraska at Omaha) Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research) Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  3. Bathymetric survey of the nearshore from Belle Pass to Caminada Pass, Louisiana: methods and data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Hansen, Mark; Kulp, Mark; Reynolds, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans (UNO) and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR), conducted a high-resolution, single-beam bathymetric survey along the Louisiana southern coastal zone from Belle Pass to Caminada Pass. The survey consisted of 483 line kilometers of data acquired in July and August of 2005. This report outlines the methodology and provides the data from the survey. Analysis of the data and comparison to a similar bathymetric survey completed in 1989 show significant loss of seafloor and shoreline retreat, which is consistent with previously published estimates of shoreline change in the study area.

  4. Manual del espectrógrafo multifunción de Bosque Alegre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Paolantonio, S.; Carranza, G.; Goldes, G.

    Este manual consta de 120 páginas y resume las características del Espectrógrafo Multifunción instalado en el telescopio de 1.54 m de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre. En este trabajo se describen, además, las técnicas a emplear para su puesta a punto y la secuencia de operaciones para la obtención de datos en cada uno de los modos que ya se encuentran en funcionamiento. Parte de este trabajo se realizó con el apoyo de la Asociación Argentina de Astronomía, a través de becas otorgadas a R.D. y S.P..

  5. Resonancias colonialistas y heraclitanas en La campana de Julio Ortega

    E-print Network

    Palau de Nemes, Graciela

    1980-10-01

    contemporáneo, harto de teorías, busca el conocimiento a través de la experiencia, no importándole ya la esencia de las cosas sino su funcionamiento. La obsesión con la idea del eterno retorno, piedra de toque del pensamiento heraclitano, es uno de los... movimiento, las conjunciones y las disyunciones, ideas centrales de las teorías de Heraclito. Un fragmento de éste le sirvió a Paz para el título de su poética: El arco y la lira? Horacio Oliveira, protagonista de la novela Rayuela, de Cortázar, al final...

  6. RELACIÓN MÉDICO PACIENTE: DERECHOS DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados. La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  7. Competencias en ética biocéntrica

    PubMed Central

    Stepke, Fernando Lolas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo explora el origen y la conceptualización de la bioética en tanto ética biocéntrica, definida por el pionero Fritz Jahr como un imperativo hipotético que llama a respetar la vida en todas sus formas. Tras describirla como proceso social, procedimiento técnico y producto académico, se enumeran y comentan algunas competencias que debieran presidir el empleo del discurso bioético en cualquier punto del complejo social “investigación médica”: miembros de comités de ética de investigación, investigadores, empresarios, administradores. Cada uno de estos grupos, en su “cultura epistémica” propia, define y explicita los principios básicos en tanto expresión de valores y leyes generales. PMID:23459767

  8. Contigüedad y ambigüedad en La secreta obscenidad de cada día

    E-print Network

    Gilmore, Elsa M.

    1994-10-01

    banco del parque, uno de los escasos objetos de utilería que exige la representación. Sigmund declara que él tiene derechos de antigüedad al asiento y como prueba de ello le indica a Carlos sus iniciales y la significativa fecha—1974—que labró en la... de muertos.4 La aparición del siniestro Romero provoca un nuevo desdoble de Carlos y de Sigmund y una nueva metamorfosis del banco del parque, que de diván de terapia se convierte en equipo de interrogatorio y de tortura. El asiento es el índice...

  9. Surrealism and the Grotesque in the Theatre of Ricardo Monti

    E-print Network

    Podol, Peter L.

    1980-10-01

    : en suma, cada gesto debería ser creado" (p. 5). The clown face or mask that either clashes with or reinforces the identity and emotions of the characters is the very basis for the Italian grotesque theatre of Chiarelli, Pirandello, and others... outeating all of his sons. When Julia marvels at his capacity, Gato comments: "Tragar y cagar es uno y el mismo camino, como dijo el viejo Heraclito. ¡No! Todo es relativo, Julia. ¡Epa! Todo está mezclado. La destrucción y el amor; todo está mezclado" (p...

  10. NASA EPSCoR Nebraska Preparation Grant: Year 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Holmes, Bruce J.; Bartle, John R.; Gogos, George; Hinton, David W.; Lehrer, Henry R.; Moussavi, Massoum; Reed, B. J.; Schaaf, Michaela M.; Smith, Russell L.; Vlasek, Scott E.; Woods, Sara J.

    1999-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCOR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research) Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  11. UPMCOMICLA UNIVERSIDAD ES UNA AVENTURA "Ingeniamos el futuro"

    E-print Network

    Cardeñosa, Jesús

    2015 PROYECTOS REALES DE LA UPM #12;En El año 2012, El IngEnIEro TécnIco dE TElEcomunIcacIonEs por laEnzó a crEar los conTEnIdos dE un curso prEsEncIal para quE los profEsorEs aprEndIEran a uTIlIzar las rEdEsE unos 5 mInuTos, ExplIcando las dIfE- rEnTEs rEdEs socIalEs, como TraBajar En Ellas y como apl

  12. Nebraska Initiative for Aerospace Research and Industrial Development (NIARID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent; Reichenbach, Steve; Ianno, Ned; Farr, Lynne; Tarry, Scott; Narayanan, Ram; Lehrer, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  13. NASA Nebraska Space Grant 5 Year Proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Vlasek, Karisa; Russell, Valerie; Woods, Sara; Webb, Cindy; Schaaf, Michaela; Vlasek, Scott; Wurdeman, Melissa; Lucas, Sarah; Tegeder, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  14. Con Eduardo Pavlovsky, cinco años después

    E-print Network

    Giella, Miguel Á ngel

    1988-10-01

    . Bartis es uno de los grandes actores argentinos y un director de raro talento, que dirigió Telaraña, en el '85. Además, están Elvira Oneto y Susi Evans. Susi me acompaña en Potestad. En realidad estamos trabajando, investigando textos que yo he... julio: Camaralenta, en inglés por el conjunto de Los Angeles, Pablo, también en inglés, y yo, en castellano, con Postestad. Este es más o menos el panorama, que por otro lado, es lo que quiero hacer. Por eso tengo ese grupo humano con el que trabajo...

  15. Revista Iguanazul, Number 4

    E-print Network

    Santopietro, Judith

    2008-01-01

    transición y es la transfiguración de la sociedad en la que uno se envuelve. La poesía no puede ser ni subjetiva ni objetiva, ni cuestiones completamente individuales, tiene que ser, tiene que llevar esta radiografía del medio en que se desenvuelve, de la... el amor de aquella mujer está toda una radiografía de cómo se mueve aquella sociedad que está en función de los que detentan el poder, de los que detentan la riqueza y que el amor pasa a ser arrasado. No sólo es una cuestión subjetiva, sino es una...

  16. El retorno de Egon Wolff

    E-print Network

    Piñ a, Juan André s

    1981-04-01

    retorno de Egon Wolff Juan Andrés Pina El dramaturgo chileno Egon Wolff estrenó en abril de 1980, hace pocos meses, su obra número diez. Conocido en gran parte de América Latina, Estados Unidos y Francia, Wolff es uno de los autores chilenos más... sólidos y coherentes que produjo la prolífica generación de 1957, a la que pertenecen otros como Sergio Vodánovic, Jorge Díaz, Luis Alberto Heiremans, etc. La obra, cuyo título es José, la estrenó el Teatro de Cámara bajo la dirección de Alejandro...

  17. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  18. An Arduino Investigation of the RC Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeriu, Calin; Letson, Cheryl; Esper, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    The experimental investigation of the charging or discharging of a capacitor through a resistor is of fundamental importance to the study of electricity. Students taking the Physics SAT or the AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism test have to prove their knowledge of time-varying behavior in RC circuits. While the classical experiment is done using a voltmeter and a stopwatch, this procedure is tedious and prone to human errors. We have developed an alternative procedure in which the voltage, the current, and the time are all measured electronically with the help of an Arduino Uno microcontroller board.

  19. A bibliography of sunspots

    E-print Network

    Bagby, Lloyd Collier

    1922-01-01

    .) Wolf, Astronomiche Mittlieilungens in Vierteljahrschrift ITaturforschenden G-osollschaft • Part III. Index of Subjects. 6 Causes of Sunspots 1. Sur la nature des taches solaires: barren (1360) C.R. Vol.50, pegs 481 2. Sur la nature des tachos du... soloil: Jeanjoauet (I860) C.P.# Vol. 50, pago 1190 5. IIouvelies otudos sur les tachos solaires: Wolf (1861) C.R. Vol. 52, pago 143 4. Considerations on the Solar Spots: M. Eugene Joanjoauat (1862) M.IT. Vol. 22, pi go 233 5. Sur uno inogalito due...

  20. Conversación con Ricardo Monti

    E-print Network

    Driskell, Charles B.

    1979-04-01

    terminan en una nueva opresión. Es una visión bastante escéptica de la Historia, pero yo siento que los ejemplos históricos que uno tiene a mano no dan para otra cosa. Has dicho en otra parte que la teoría de la relatividad y el psicoanálisis abrieron... las puertas de otro universo estético, ¿Podrías ahondar un poco en lo que querías decir? En lo de la teoría de la relatividad y el psicoanálisis, yo mencioné que están marcando un cambio de comprensión del mundo, de la realidad. ... Y esto...

  1. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  2. Comportamiento Sexual y Autoeficacia para la Negociación de Sexo Más Seguro en Personas Heterosexuales

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    La autoeficacia se le ha identificado como uno de los factores que puede facilitar o dificultar llevar a cabo sexo más seguro. Estudios revelan que las personas que están el relaciones estables usan métodos de protección menos frecuente que quienes tienen parejas casuales. Realizamos un estudio con 447 personas heterosexuales activas sexualmente. Les administramos un cuestionario dirigido a medir el comportamiento sexual, el uso del condón masculino y la práctica de la masturbación mutua, y la autoeficacia para llevar a cabo estas conductas. Los resultados reflejan que los hombres están más activos sexualmente y que el uso del condón y la práctica de la masturbación mutua como alternativa de sexo más seguro es muy baja. En los casos donde se usa el condón esta práctica es realizada en su mayoría por las personas que se encuentran en una relación de pareja casual. No obstante, los/las participantes tienen altos niveles de autoeficacia hacia ambas prácticas. Aunque la autoeficacia es uno de los factores que incide en decidir llevar a cabo sexo más seguro, ésta no es suficiente para que esta meta se logre. PMID:22837585

  3. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  4. Financing the Airport of the Future: The Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, John R.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SATS is to reduce gridlock at hubs, reduce travel times, allow for personal control over travel, and anticipate demand shifts resulting from a migration from suburbs to rural places. The technology is presently available and economical to produce SATS aircraft. The public issue centers on the airports. SATS is a federal program, and many airports in the U.S. are under the control of local governments. The scope of the objective will require thousands of airports in rural and suburban areas to modify their infrastructure and increase their investment. Researchers at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO), and others at other institutions, have prepared reports surveying the relevant issues of implementing SATS. Our UNO team focused on the issues of policy implementation, economic development, management, and finance specific to Nebraska. We are finding that these issues are similar to those in other states in our region and other rural states. This paper discusses how this investment might be financed.

  5. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E; Burger, Peter C; Ambinder, Richard F; Swinnen, Lode J; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2015-10-20

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) datafile. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011-2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  6. National Decline in Donor Heart Utilization With Regional Variability: 1995–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khush, K. K.; Zaroff, J. G.; Nguyen, J.; Menza, R.; Goldstein, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    The severe shortage of donor hearts limits the availability of transplantation for the growing population of patients with end-stage heart disease. We examined national trends in donor heart acceptance for transplant. OPTN data were analyzed for all potential adult cardiac organ donors between 1995 and 2010. Donor heart disposition was categorized as transplanted, declined for transplant or other. We studied changes in the probability of donor heart acceptance according to demographic and clinical characteristics, nationwide and by UNOS region. Of 82 053 potential donor hearts, 34% were accepted and 48% were declined (18% used for other purposes). There was a significant decrease in donor heart acceptance from 44% in 1995 to 29% in 2006, and subsequent increase to 32% in 2010. Older donor age, female sex and medical co-morbidities predicted non-acceptance. Donor age and co-morbidities increased during the study period, with a concomitant decrease in acceptance of hearts from donors with undesirable characteristics. Overall, predictors of heart non-use were similar across UNOS regions, although utilization varied between regions. Regional variation suggests a potential to improve heart acceptance rates in under-performing regions, and supports research and policy efforts aimed at establishing evidence-based criteria for donor heart evaluation and acceptance for transplantation. PMID:25676093

  7. Discos de acreción circumplanares: Modelo de Co-acreción

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; de Elía, G.

    Los discos de acreción circumplanetarios precursores de los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, se pueden formar por cuatro mecanismos (Pollack y otros, 1991, In Uranus, Bergtralh, Miner y Mattews, Eds., p. 469, Univ. de Arizona Press, Tucson). En este trabajo estudiamos uno de tales mecanismos: el Modelo de Co-acreción. En dicho modelo, el disco circumplanetario se forma a partir de las colisiones mutuas entre planetesimales dentro de la esfera de Hill del planeta durante el proceso de formación planetaria. Realizamos un modelo semi-analítico para calcular la masa del disco y compararla con la masa requerida para formar los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes. Hemos obtenido una cota superior para la masa del disco que resulta inferior a la masa de los satélites más grandes de los planetas gigantes. En principio, estos resultados permitirían descartar el modelo de co-acreción como uno de los procesos que podrían dar lugar a la formación de los satélites regulares. Estos resultados permiten obtener restricciones en el escenario de formación planetaria y en los mecanismos de formación de sistemas de satélites.

  8. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  9. Impact of geography on organ allocation: Beyond the distance to the transplantation center

    PubMed Central

    Ghaoui, Rony; Garb, Jane; Gordon, Fredric; Pomfret, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To illustrate the application and utility of Geographic Information System (GIS) in exploring patterns of liver transplantation. Specifically, we aim to describe the geographic distribution of transplant registrations and identify disparities in access to liver transplantation across United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) region 1. METHODS: Based on UNOS data, the number of listed transplant candidates by ZIP code from 2003 to 2012 for Region 1 was obtained. Choropleth (color-coded) maps were used to visualize the geographic distribution of transplant registrations across the region. Spatial interaction analysis was used to analyze the geographic pattern of total transplant registrations by ZIP code. Factors tested included ZIP code log population and log distance from each ZIP code to the nearest transplant center; ZIP code population density; distance from the nearest city over 50000; and dummy variables for state residence and location in the southern portion of the region. RESULTS: Visualization of transplant registrations revealed geographic disparities in organ allocation across Region 1. The total number of registrations was highest in the southern portion of the region. Spatial interaction analysis, after adjusting for the size of the underlying population, revealed statistically significant clustering of high and low rates in several geographic areas could not be predicted based solely on distance to the transplant center or density of population. CONCLUSION: GIS represents a new method to evaluate the access to liver transplantation within one region and can be used to identify the presence of disparities and reasons for their existence in order to alleviate them. PMID:26167251

  10. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Bagci, I E; Zawawi, M A M; Sexton, J; Hulbert, N; Noori, Y J; Young, M P; Woodhead, C S; Missous, M; Migliorato, M A; Roedig, U; Young, R J

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  11. Creating Interdisciplinary STEM Environments at the University of Nebraska at Omaha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N. F.

    2010-12-01

    Effective, integrated and interdisciplinary STEM environments depend upon strong faculty collaboration. During the past decade, the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) has put an emphasis on STEM faculty working together across departments, colleges, and the university system, as well as with local school systems. Supported by a University-wide Content and Pedagogy Committee and a new Office of STEM Education, faculty members have aggressively undertaken and evaluated various interdisciplinary STEM activities. This presentation will briefly describe three of these projects, including evaluation-related data and UNO support mechanisms. First, an interdisciplinary student research project has been developed involving our introductory geology and chemistry courses. The project includes collecting drinking water samples from around Omaha by geology students, the chemical analysis of drinking water by chemistry students, followed by water quality analysis of the chemical data by the geology students. Students learn about the scientific method, potential problems with project design, and limitations of interpretation of real data, while also applying knowledge learned in the class to this real world problem. This project reaches ~600 undergraduate students each year and requires close cooperation between faculty of the Chemistry and Geology programs. Evaluation data indicates that this project has had a positive impact on student attitude towards science in general and towards geology and chemistry in particular. The second project highlighted will be the Silicon Prairie Initiative for Robotics in Information Technology (SPIRIT). The SPIRIT project is a NSF funded collaboration between the UNO College of Education, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln College of Engineering, and local school systems. It strives to integrate the use of educational robotics and sensors in the teaching of STEM topics, particularly at the middle school and high school levels. The project has designed a flexible online curriculum that includes over 200 lessons with technical tutorials, assessments, and various resources. More than 250 teachers have been trained in extended workshops. Criterion-referenced test data of the students involved with these teachers have been encouraging. Further pilot test data also showed increases in positive STEM attitudes. The third project highlighted will be an interdisciplinary online Earth system science course for in-service teachers associated with the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), which includes 42 universities across the U.S.. ESSEA instructional modules have been designed and shared by the participating institutions. UNO has been offering ESSEA coursework with participating faculty from Teacher Education (College of Education) and Geology (College of Arts & Sciences), writing ESSEA modules, and examining student feedback since 2004: involving more than 250 teachers, crossing a wide range of STEM-related teaching certifications. Project effectiveness has been examined by use of surveys, focus groups, and course products. By collaborating with colleagues across disciplines, colleges, and institutions, it is possible to have a positive impact on STEM education, through course offerings at UNO and through teacher professional development.

  12. Nonlinear Propagation of Mag Waves Through the Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Mahajan, S.; Tajima, T.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Una onda de gravitaci5n magneto acustica (GMA), se inicia en el regimen de alta beta cerca de la basa de fot5sfera solar y es segui- da, usando simulaciones numericas, mientras viaja radialmente a traves de la cromosfera, la regi5n de transici6n y dentro de la corona. Se ha' seleccionado parametros iniciales de manera que la beta resulte menor que uno cerca de la parte alta de la regi6n de transici6n. Nuestro interes maximo se concentra en la cantidad y forma del flujo de energia que puede ser llevada por la onda hasta la corona dados una atm6sfera inicial y amplitud de onda especificas. Segun los estudios a la fecha, el flujo de energ1a termico domina, aumentando linealmente con la ampli tud deonda y resulta de aproximadamente i05 ergs/cm2-s en una amplitud de 0.5. El flujo de energia cinetica siempre permanece despreciable, mientras que el flujo de energia magnetica depende de la orientaci5n inicial del campo. Un modo GMA rapido y casi paralelo, el cual es esen- cialmente un modo MHD en la corona se convierte a un modo rapido modificado y a uno lento, cuando la beta atmosferica disminuye a uno. ABSTRACT: A magneto-acoustic-gravity (MAG) wave is initiated in the high-beta regime near the base of the solar photosphere and followed, using numerical siriiulations, as it travels radially through the chromosphere, the transition region, and into the corona. Initial parameters are selected such that beta becomes less than one near the top of the transition region. Our primary interest is in the amount and form of energy flux that can be carried by the wave train into the corona for a specified initial atmosphere and wave amplitude. For the studies conducted to date, the thermal energy flux dominates, it about linearly with wave amplitude and becomes approximately 10 ergs/cm2-s at an amplitude of 0.5. The kinetic energy flux always remains negligible, while the magnetic energy flux depends on the inLtial field orientation. A nearly parallel fast MAG mode, which is essentially an MHI) moAe in the corona, converts to a modified fast and a slow mode, when the atmospheric beta decreases to one. Keq o : HYDROMAGNETICS SUN-CORONA

  13. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Metabolism and Nitrate Utilization at Reduced Nitrate Levels Using a Chamber-Based Approach: Looking Below, Scaling Up, and Thinking Inside the Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijo, C. J.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    As nitrate levels in lotic systems have increased, nutrient reduction strategies have become the centerpiece of water quality standards to protect and restore stream ecosystems. While reducing anthropogenic nitrate (NO3) loads has many positive effects, we lack a fundamental understanding of how lotic systems respond to changing concentrations and no methods exist to characterize nutrient uptake behavior below ambient levels. Therefore, it is difficult to predict whether nutrient reductions will meet management goals. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a chamber-based method which allows characterization of NO3 utilization along the two major uptake pathways at reduced NO3 levels. The chamber blocks flow by insertion into upper sediments but allows light in and sediment-water-air interactions to occur. At Gum Slough Springs, Florida, high-resolution in-situ sensors measured water quality while NO3 reduced from ambient levels (1.40 mg N/L) to below regulatory thresholds (ca. 0.20 mg N/L) within one week. Daytime NO3 uptake, resulting from both plant uptake and denitrification, was consistently greater than nighttime uptake, which is denitrification alone. Using this method, we compared NO3 uptake rates (UNO3) and gross primary production (GPP) across three vegetative regimes (i.e. submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), SAV with epiphytic algae, and algae alone) and related GPP estimates from the chamber to reach scale. Results showed that UNO3 and GPP were greatest in SAV, GPP was negatively correlated to [NO3] in algae, denitrification rates did not vary by vegetation type, and chamber GPP (e.g. 6-8 g O2/m2/day in SAV) was comparable to reach-scale estimates (6-12 g O2/m2/day). Our results suggest UNO3 and GPP differ by vegetation regimes, GPP scales from chamber to reach level, algal presence potentially reduces GPP, and a lack of nutrient limitation even at low [NO3]. Current work includes replicating measurements across systems as well as refining the decoupling of NO3 removal pathways using the N2:Ar approach for denitrification. Overall, this method shows promise as a tool for in-situ ecosystem-scale assessments of nutrient retention below ambient concentrations, and thus may enable future investigations focused on predicting how rivers will respond to enrichment and restoration.

  14. A new priority policy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma awaiting liver transplantation within the model for end-stage liver disease system.

    PubMed

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Camaggi, Valeria; Ravaioli, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Zanello, Matteo; Leoni, Simona; Ballardini, Giorgio; Cavrini, Giulia; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Bolondi, Luigi

    2007-06-01

    The best prioritization of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) waiting for liver transplantation under the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) allocation system is still being debated. We analyzed the impact of a MELD adjustment for HCC, which consisted of the addition of an extra score (based on the HCC stage and waiting time) to the native MELD score. The outcome was analyzed for 301 patients with chronic liver disease listed for liver transplantation between March 1, 2001 and February 28, 2003 [United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)-Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) era, 163 patients, 28.8% with HCC] and between March 1, 2003 and February 28, 2004 (HCC-MELD era, 138 patients, 29.7% with HCC). In the HCC-MELD era, the cumulative dropout risk at 6 months was 17.6% for patients with HCC versus 22.3% for those patients without HCC (P = NS), similar to that in the UNOS-CTP era. The cumulative probability of transplantation at 6 months was 70.3% versus 39.0% (P = 0.005), being higher than that in the UNOS-CTP era for patients with HCC (P = 0.02). At the end of the HCC-MELD era, 12 patients with HCC (29.3%) versus 57 without HCC (58.8%) were still on the list (P = 0.001). Both native and adjusted MELD scores were higher (P < 0.05) and progressed more in patients with HCC who dropped out than in those who underwent transplantation or remained on the list (the initial-final native MELD scores were 17.3-23.1, 15.5-15.6, and 12.8-14.1, respectively). The patients without HCC remaining on the list showed stable MELD scores (initial-final: 15.1-15.4). In conclusion, the present data support the strategy of including the native MELD scores in the allocation system for HCC. This model allows the timely transplantation of patients with HCC without severely affecting the outcome of patients without HCC. PMID:17539006

  15. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development. PMID:26524781

  16. Actividad en la superficie lunar: fenómenos lunares transitorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, A. F. C.

    Los fenómenos lunares transitorios que se presentan en la superficie de la Luna son raros, poco frecuentes y de corta duración, lo que origina que exista poca información al respecto. Esto hace evidente la importancia de estudiarlos con detalle. Han sido registrados como nubes muy brillantes a base de gases residuales de la pasada actividad geológica lunar, de diferentes colores (amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas), de acuerdo con el tiempo de duración cambian su color, con tamaños de pocos kilómetros hasta de centenares de kilómetros. Por lo general, se presentan en ciertos lugares, como cráteres (Aristarco, Plato, Kepler, etc.), y en los bordes de los mares lunares (mar de la Fecundidad, zona de los montes Alpes, etc.).Variando su tiempo de exposición puede ser de unos pocos segundos hasta un poco más de una hora.

  17. Dinámica de planetas extrasolares resonantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauge, C.

    Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos últimos, ocho poseen planetas en órbitas próximas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2/1 de Gliese 876, hasta la resonancia secular de Ups And. En esta presentación analizamos varios aspectos de la dinámica resonante de los planetas extrasolares, incluyendo la existencia de soluciones de equilibrio, construcción de modelos analógicos y métodos para la determinación de masas individuales. También discutimos por qué las resonancias son tan frecuentes en estos sistemas, comparado con nuestro propio Sistema Solar. Por último, intentamos relacionar estos modelos con la hipótesis de migración planetaria, buscando límites en su extensión y en los posibles mecanismos que le dieron origen.

  18. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  19. TRANSMISIÓN VERTICAL DE HTLV-1 EN EL PERÚ

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, Jorge Alarcón; Romaní, Franco Romaní; Torres, Silvia Montano; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    La infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) ha sido descrita en muchas áreas del mundo, como en los países del Caribe, Japón, África, Oceanía y en Sudamérica. En la presente revisión definimos la endemicidad del HTLV-1 en el país, planteando cuatro criterios epidemiológicos. Luego discutimos el tema central de la revisión: la transmisión vertical del HTLV-1, que en nuestro país sería uno de los principales mecanismos de transmisión. Dentro del desarrollo de este aspecto en particular, presentamos una estimación de la tasa de transmisión vertical y los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión vertical sobre la base de una revisión exhaustiva de estudios nacionales y extranjeros. Con esta revisión pretendemos dar una primera aproximación al estudio de la trasmisión vertical de HTLV-1, un aspecto poco estudiado en nuestro medio. PMID:21537777

  20. The 1986-87 atomic mass predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, P. E.

    1987-12-01

    A project to perform a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions has recently been concluded and will be published shortly in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. The project evolved from an ongoing comparison between available mass predictions and reports of newly measured masses of isotopes throughout the mass surface. These comparisons have highlighted a variety of features in current mass models which are responsible for predictions that diverge from masses determined experimentally. The need for a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions was therefore apparent and the project was organized and began at the last mass conference (AMCO-VII). Project participants included: Pape and Anthony; Dussel, Caurier and Zuker; Möller and Nix; Möller, Myers, Swiatecki and Treiner; Comay, Kelson, and Zidon; Satpathy and Nayak; Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada; Spanier and Johansson; Jänecke and Masson; and Wapstra, Audi and Hoekstra. An overview of the new atomic mass predictions may be obtained by written request.

  1. Methods for Raising Children (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Warren, Judith L.

    2002-01-04

    ? quieres ordenar?? a73 Usted piensa que ser?a mejor para su hija ir a una escuela privada: ??A qu? escuela quieres asistir?? 4. En las siguientes situaciones se le da a elegir al ni?o aunque en realidad no tiene qu? elegir. ?C?mo podr?a reaccionar usted... puede permitir hacer esto. ?Qu? puede hacer? a73 Alfonso tiene 15 a?os y no quiere salir a pasear con la familia. 7. ?Qu? ser?an unos l?mites razonables y c?mo los impondr?a en las siguientes situaciones? a73 ni?os viendo la televisi?n a73 ni?o de 4...

  2. Nuclear Half-Lives for Alpha Radioactivity of Elements with 100 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 130

    E-print Network

    P. Roy Chowdhury; C. Samanta; D. N. Basu

    2008-02-29

    Theoretical estimates for the half lives of about 1700 isotopes of heavy elements with Z from 100 to 130 are tabulated using theoretical Q-values. The quantum mechanical tunneling probabilities are calculated within a WKB framework using microscopic nuclear potentials. The microscopic nucleus-nucleus potentials are obtained by folding the densities of interacting nuclei with a density dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The alpha-decay half lives calculated in this formalism using the experimental Q-values were found to be in good agreement over a wide range of experimental data spanning about twenty orders of magnitude. The theoretical Q-values used for the present calculations are extracted from three different mass estimates viz. Myers-Swiatecki [MS], Muntian-Hofmann-Patyk-Sobiczewski [M] and Koura-Tachibana-Uno-Yamada [KUTY].

  3. Efficient Construction of Neighborhood Graphs by the Multiple Sorting Method

    E-print Network

    Uno, Takeaki; Tsuda, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Neighborhood graphs are gaining popularity as a concise data representation in machine learning. However, naive graph construction by pairwise distance calculation takes $O(n^2)$ runtime for $n$ data points and this is prohibitively slow for millions of data points. For strings of equal length, the multiple sorting method (Uno, 2008) can construct an $\\epsilon$-neighbor graph in $O(n+m)$ time, where $m$ is the number of $\\epsilon$-neighbor pairs in the data. To introduce this remarkably efficient algorithm to continuous domains such as images, signals and texts, we employ a random projection method to convert vectors to strings. Theoretical results are presented to elucidate the trade-off between approximation quality and computation time. Empirical results show the efficiency of our method in comparison to fast nearest neighbor alternatives.

  4. An automatic editing algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification, and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires the use of P code pseudorange data and a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips.Analyst intervention was required on 1 percent of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  5. A Temporal View of Soft Tissue Quantitative Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, William D.

    The objective of soft tissue quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is to improve diagnostic ultrasound imaging capabilities via quantitative outcomes. Over the past three or so decades, there have been an increasing number of QUS successes. A temporal view moves us back in history almost six decades when techniques and theoretical developments were in their earliest stages that impacted modern QUS successes. The earliest theoretical developments and techniques some six decades ago can be attributed to Lev Chernov, Philip Morse, Herman Feshbach, Uno Ingard, John Wild and Jack Reid. Later, Floyd Dunn developed important views as to how connective tissue affected the interaction between ultrasound and soft tissue. Then, as the theory of wave propagation in soft tissues with random inhomogeneities was extended and applied by Fred Lizzi, Jim Zagzebski and Mike Insana (and their colleagues), contemporary QUS successes started to emerge.

  6. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  8. Space Radar Image of Death Valley in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This picture is a three-dimensional perspective view of Death Valley, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The SIR-C image is centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude and 117.069 degrees west longitude. We are looking at Stove Pipe Wells, which is the bright rectangle located in the center of the picture frame. Our vantage point is located atop a large alluvial fan centered at the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon. In the foreground on the left, we can see the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells. In the background on the left, the Valley floor gradually falls in elevation toward Badwater, the lowest spot in the United States. In the background on the right we can see Tucki Mountain. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the Valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help the answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Vertical exaggeration is 1.87 times; exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults and fractures) and topography. Death Valley is also one of the primary calibration sites for SIR-C/X-SAR. In the lower right quadrant of the picture frame two bright dots can be seen which form a line extending to Stove Pipe Wells. These dots are corner reflectors that have been set up to calibrate the radar as the shuttle passes overhead. Thirty triangular-shaped reflectors (they look like aluminum pyramids) have been deployed by the calibration team from JPL over a 40- by 40-kilometer (25- by 25-mile) area in and around Death Valley. The signatures of these reflectors were analyzed by JPL scientists to calibrate the image used in this picture. The calibration team here also deployed transponders (electronic reflectors) and receivers to measure the radar signals from SIR-C/X-SAR on the ground. SIR-C/X-SAR radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, in conjunction with aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche

  9. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of a false-color image of the eastern part of the Big Island of Hawaii. It was produced using all three radar frequencies -- X-band, C-band and L-band -- from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the space shuttle Endeavour, overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Visible in the center of the image in blue are the summit crater (Kilauea Caldera) which contains the smaller Halemaumau Crater, and the line of collapse craters below them that form the Chain of Craters Road. The image was acquired on April 12, 1994 during orbit 52 of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 34 by 57 kilometers (21 by 35 miles) with the top of the image pointing toward northwest. The image is centered at about 155.25 degrees west longitude and 19.5 degrees north latitude. The false colors are created by displaying three radar channels of different frequency. Red areas correspond to high backscatter at L-HV polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at C-HV polarization. Finally, blue shows high return at X-VV polarization. Using this color scheme, the rain forest appears bright on the image, while the green areas correspond to lower vegetation. The lava flows have different colors depending on their types and are easily recognizable due to their shapes. The flows at the top of the image originated from the Mauna Loa volcano. Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quartermile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (650 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. Currently, most of the lava that is erupted travels the 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the Pu'u O'o crater (the active vent) just outside this image to the coast through a series of lava tubes, but in the past there have been many large lava flows that have traveled this distance, destroying houses and parts of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. This SIR-C/X-SAR image shows two types of lava flows that are common to Hawaiian volcanoes. Pahoehoe lava flows are relatively smooth, and appear very dark blue because much of the radar energy is reflected away from the radar. In contrast other lava flows are relatively rough and bounce much of the radar energy back to the radar, making that part of the image bright blue. This radar image is valuable because it allows scientists to study an evolving lava flow field from the Pu'u O'o vent. Much of the area on the northeast side (right) of the volcano is covered with tropical rain forest, and because trees reflect a lot of the radar energy, the forest appears bright in this radar scene. The linear feature running from Kilauea Crater to the right of the image is Highway 11leading to the city of Hilo which is located just beyond the right edge of this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA)

  10. Space Radar Image of Mt. Rainer, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of Mount Rainier in Washington state. The volcano last erupted about 150 years ago and numerous large floods and debris flows have originated on its slopes during the last century. Today the volcano is heavily mantled with glaciers and snowfields. More than 100,000 people live on young volcanic mudflows less than 10,000 years old and, consequently, are within the range of future, devastating mudslides. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area shown in the image is approximately 59 kilometers by 60 kilometers (36.5 miles by 37 miles). North is toward the top left of the image, which was composed by assigning red and green colors to the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically, and the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue indicates the C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. In addition to highlighting topographic slopes facing the space shuttle, SIR-C records rugged areas as brighter and smooth areas as darker. The scene was illuminated by the shuttle's radar from the northwest so that northwest-facing slopes are brighter and southeast-facing slopes are dark. Forested regions are pale green in color; clear cuts and bare ground are bluish or purple; ice is dark green and white. The round cone at the center of the image is the 14,435-foot (4,399-meter) active volcano, Mount Rainier. On the lower slopes is a zone of rock ridges and rubble (purple to reddish) above coniferous forests (in yellow/green). The western boundary of Mount Rainier National Park is seen as a transition from protected, old-growth forest to heavily logged private land, a mosaic of recent clear cuts (bright purple/blue) and partially regrown timber plantations (pale blue). The prominent river seen curving away from the mountain at the top of the image (to the northwest) is the White River, and the river leaving the mountain at the bottom right of the image (south) is the Nisqually River, which flows out of the Nisqually glacier on the mountain. The river leaving to the left of the mountain is the Carbon River, leading west and north toward heavily populated regions near Tacoma. The dark patch at the top right of the image is Bumping Lake. Other dark areas seen to the right of ridges throughout the image are radar shadow zones. Radar images can be used to study the volcanic structure and the surrounding regions with linear rock boundaries and faults. In addition, the recovery of forested lands from natural disasters and the success of reforestation programs can also be monitored. Ultimately this data may be used to study the advance and retreat of glaciers and other forces of global change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), the C-band (6 cm) and the X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  11. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A images in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This image shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The image clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite image was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization images. The C-band image was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization image is shown in green, and the ratio of these two images (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the image indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their ratio --or some combination of all three -- respond to the roughness of the radar backscattering surface. Using this coloring scheme, areas that appear bright at both L-band and C-band are colored yellow, while areas that appear brighter at L-band than C-band appear more blue. Detailed analysis of this scene indicates that the separate C-band and L-band images used to produce this color composite have a very similar overall appearance. This suggests that the C-band and the L-band signals are both easily penetrating the thin 1- to 12-centimeter (0.5- to 5-inch) 'average' surface cover of loose windblown sand, and are commonly 'seeing' similar interfaces just below that cover. This radar interface may be at the scattered rocky outcrops on the ground surface, but is more likely to be the shallow underlying surfaces of river gravel or bedrock, which are generally covered by only a few inches of windblown sand. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen, either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as the United States' Landsat or the French SPOT satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Ag

  12. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar color composite shows a portion of the Weddell Sea, which is adjacent to the continent of Antarctica. The image shows extensive coverage of first-year sea ice mixtures and patches of open water inside the ice margin. The image covers a 100 kilometer by 30 kilometer (62 mile by 18.5 mile) region of the southern ocean, centered at approximately 57 degrees south latitude and 3 degrees east longitude, which was acquired on October 3, 1994. Data used to create this image were obtained using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in blue. The sea ice, which appears rust-brown in the image, is composed of loosely packed floes from approximately 1 meter to 2 meters (3 feet to 6.5 feet) thick and ranging from 1 meter to 20 meters (3 feet to 65.5 feet) in diameter. Large patches of open water, shown as turquoise blue, are scattered throughout the area, which is typical for ice margins experiencing off-ice winds. The thin, well-organized lines clearly visible in the ice pack are caused by radar energy reflected by floes riding the crest of ocean swells. The wispy, black features seen throughout the image represent areas where new ice is forming. Sea ice, because it acts as an insulator, reduces the loss of heat between the relatively warm ocean and cold atmosphere. This interaction is an important component of the global climate system. Because of the unique combination of winds, currents and temperatures found in this region, ice can extend many hundreds of kilometers north of Antarctica each winter, which classifies the Weddell Sea as one of nature's greatest ice-making engines. During the formation of sea ice, great quantities of salt are expelled from the frozen water. The salt increases the density of the upper layer of sea water, which then sinks to great depths. Oceanographers believe this process forms most of the oceans' deep water. Sea ice covering all of the southern oceans, including the Weddell Sea, typically reaches its most northerly extent in about September. As periods of daylight become gradually longer in the Southern Hemisphere, ice formation stops and the ice edge retreats southward. By February, most of the sea ice surrounding Antarctica disappears. Imaging radar is extremely useful for studying the polar regions because of the long periods of darkness and extensive cloud cover. The multiple frequencies of the SIR-C/X-SAR instruments allow further study into ways of improving the separation of the various thickness ranges of sea ice, which are vital to understanding the heat balance in the ice, ocean and atmospheric system. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  13. Hurry along please, for the Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Why the hurry? The deadline is set in the form of a favourable launch opportunity just five years from now. The positions of Earth and Mars in their orbits at that time will mean that a spacecraft can reach Mars more quickly, carrying a greater weight of instruments, than from any other launch date in the next decade. A decision to proceed taken towards the end of 1998 would leave less than five years to create, test and launch a complex spacecraft and meet that deadline. Most judgements about Mars Express and its instruments have therefore to be made in advance if the engineers and scientists are to make sure that everything is ready for lift-off in June 2003. The brisk pace is also fitting for the prototype of a new class of Flexi (flexible) missions. Mars Express is the first of what should become a series of relatively inexpensive and quick projects introduced into ESA's space science, to seize special opportunities to broaden the programme. At about one-quarter of the cost of the major Cornerstone missions, which have long lead-times, the Flexi missions replace the previous class of Medium missions, in ESA's forward planning. Streamlined management procedures for the Flexi missions help to keep down the costs to ESA while placing more responsibility on the industrial contractors and the participating scientists. Space scientists advising ESA recognized the special opportunity for Mars Express after the failure of the Russian Mars 96 mission, in November 1996. It left a gap in the international programme for the exploration of Mars, and some of the key instruments which fell into the Pacific Ocean with Mars 96 had been devised by space scientists in ESA member states. The strong scientific interest in Mars within Europe, and the predicted advantage of the mid-2003 launch, led to the proposal to add Mars Express to ESA's programme. A distinctive role in exploring Mars The search for water is one of the main tasks foreseen for Mars Express. The discovery of reservoirs of frozen or liquid water beneath the martian surface would greatly improve the practical possibilities for human ventures to the Red Planet. It would shed light on the chemical history of Mars and on whether conditions were ever right for life to appear there. And the chief motive for all of ESA's deep-space missions is to understand the Earth better. The fate of water on Mars is one of the salient questions about why the planet is very different from the Earth, although it is a near neighbour in the Solar System. A team led by the University of Rome will contribute the Subsurface Sounding Radar/Altimeter on Mars Express. This instrument will map the distribution of ice and liquid water with radar pulses penetrating the martian surface. It will chart the topography of the surface too, and the observed effects of the martian ionosphere on the radar waves will show how the solar wind influences the state of the atmosphere. The link between the solar wind and the fate of water on Mars is the concern of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Kiruna, and the ASPERA experiment lead. Mars may have lost most of its water by solar effects destroying water vapour in the atmosphere. By sensing neutral and charged atomic particles in the planet's vicinity, ASPERA will shed light on any such mechanism for dehydrating Mars. The escape of gas from Mars will also be seen by SPICAM UV, which is the special responsibility of the Service d'Aéronomie at Verrières near Paris. The instrument will examine the martian atmosphere by ultraviolet light. A major aim of SPICAM UV is to clarify the threat that solar ultraviolet rays and oxidizing chemicals (ozone and hydroxyl) may have posed to any life incipient on Mars. Comprehensive observations of the martian atmosphere, and of its gases, dust and weather, will come from PFS, an infrared instrument provided by a team led by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario in Frascati. It measures the intensities of infrared rays at sharply defined wavelengths. PFS will also monitor temperature changes on the surface, and

  14. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow indicates areas of canopy burn and mixed burn with a biomass of between 12 to 20 tons per hectare; light green is mixed burn and on-burn forest with a biomass of 20 to 35 tons per hectare; and green is non-burned forest with a biomass of greater than 35 tons per hectare. Forest recovery from the fire seems to depend on fire intensity and soil conditions. In areas of severe canopy burn and poor soil conditions, crown biomass was still low in 1994 (indicated by the brown areas at the center left), whereas in areas of mixed burn with nutrient-rich soils, seen west of Yellowstone Lake, crown biomass has increased significantly in six years (indicated by the yellow and light green areas). Imaging fire-affected regions with spaceborne radar illustrates SIR-C/X-SAR's keen abilities to monitor regrowth after a fire. Knowing the amount of carbon accumulated in the atmosphere by regenerating forest in the 20 to 50 years following a fire disturbance is also a significant factor in understanding the global carbon cycle. Measuring crown biomass is necessary to evaluate the effects of past and future fires in specific regions. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italian

  15. Estudio teórico de la distribución catiónica en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Laguna, A.

    Los silicatos laminares son unos minerales de gran extensión en la corteza de nuestro y otros planetas, y se ha detectado su presencia en masas de partículas de polvo interplanatario. Están formados por láminas estructuradas en una capa tetraedros de sílice y una de octaédros de oxihidroxido de aluminio. Según el número de capas y la disposición aparecen distintos minerales. Además, también pueden aparecer distintos minerales como consecuencia de la substitución isomórfica de cationes en la capas, en particular, Al(III) por Si en la capa tetraédrica y Fe(III) y/o Mg(II) por Al(III) en la octaédrica. Cuando el catión substituyente presenta un estado de oxidación más bajo que al que substituye genera carga negativa que tiene que neutralizarse con cationes que se disponen en el espacio interlaminar. En este trabajo vamos a estudiar, mediante distintos métodos computacionales, las distribuciones de dichos cationes de substitución en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares 2:1 (dos capas tetraédricas y en medio una octaédrica), en particular, en los minerales esmectitas e ilitas. En primer lugar, estudiaremos la distribución de dichos cationes en la capa octaédrica en un modelo de gas reticular por el método de Monte Carlo, minimizando el número de pares de cationes Al, Fe y Mg de nuestro modelo con respecto a los procedentes de resultados espectroscópicos de muestras de minerales. Posteriormente, y mediante un modelo de potenciales empíricos, estudiamos la energética de las distribuciones binarias en dichos minerales, generando unos potenciales de interacción intercambio a dos y tres cationes (extrapolables a cualquier filosilicato) que son la base para una investigación Monte Carlo-"simulated-annealing" en la que se encuentran las transiciones de fase y las estructuras ordenadas, dependiendo dichas estructuras y la temperatura de cambio de fase de la de la naturaleza y concentración de los cationes de substitución. También se han investigado dichas distribuciones mediante métodos mecano-cuánticos DFT.

  16. Treating and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Saad M.; Kulik, Laura; Baker, Talia; Ryu, Robert K.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Abecassis, Michael; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and potential to downstage patients to within transplantation criteria when treating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the caudate lobe using Y90 radioembolization. Methods: During a 4-year period, 8 of 291 patients treated with radioembolization for unresectable HCC had disease involving the caudate lobe. All patients were followed for treatment-related clinical/biochemical toxicities, serum tumor marker response, and treatment response. Imaging response was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) classification schemes. Pathologic response was reported as percent necrosis at explantation. Results: Caudate lobe radioembolization was successfully performed in all eight patients. All patients presented with both cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Half were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T3 (n = 4, 50%). Fatigue was reported in half of the patients (n = 4, 50%). One (13%) grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was reported. One patient (13%) showed complete tumor response by WHO criteria, and three patients (38%) showed complete response using EASL guidelines. Serum AFP decreased by more than 50% in most patients (n = 6, 75%). Four patients (50%) were UNOS downstaged from T3 to T2, three of who underwent transplantation. One specimen showed histopathologic evidence of 100% complete necrosis, and two specimens demonstrated greater than 50% necrosis. Conclusions: Radioembolization with yttrium-90 appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable caudate lobe HCC. It has the potential to downstage patients to transplantation.

  17. Micro, meso, macro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljenström, Hans; Svedin, Uno

    1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Århem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flåm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.

  18. Overestimating hybrid layer quality in polished adhesive/dentin interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2004-03-15

    The most popular techniques for determining the quality of the hybrid layer (HL) have relied on morphologic characterization of the polished adhesive/dentin (a/d) interfaces before and after acid-bleach chemical treatment. Using these techniques, the existence of smooth, acid-resistant layers has been consistently reported for most adhesive systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether popular specimen preparation techniques that include polishing and acid-bleach treatment modify the a/d interface, mask the complexity of the HL, and lead to inaccurate assessment of the quality of the HL. To understand the impact of specimen preparation techniques on the morphology of the resin-dentin interface, polished and unpolished specimens from the same tooth were closely compared after different acid-bleach chemical treatment procedures. Two one-bottle adhesives, that is, 3M Single Bond and Pulpdent UNO, exhibiting distinct differences in hydrophilic/hydrophobic composition, were used in this investigation. Using specimens from the same tooth, the effect of chemical treatments on the morphology of the resin-dentin interdiffusion zone and the differences in the morphology of polished and unpolished specimens after these same treatments were studied with scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that conventional specimen preparation techniques that include polishing and acid-bleach treatment can adversely affect and even obscure the structural detail of the a/d interface in specimens that possess a porous HL. The results indicated that the Pulpdent UNO/dentin interface had better quality than the 3M Single Bond/dentin interface. The difference in the quality of HL can be attributed to factors such as compositional differences that impact the adhesive interaction with water, that is present within the substrate during wet bonding. The inability of the conventional acid-bleach procedure to reveal the differences in the scanning electron microscopy interfacial morphology was overcome in this investigation by using a multistep technique. PMID:14986328

  19. High rate of unemployment after liver transplantation: analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database.

    PubMed

    Huda, Amina; Newcomer, Robert; Harrington, Charlene; Blegen, Mary G; Keeffe, Emmet B

    2012-01-01

    The goal of liver transplantation (LT) is to maximize the length and quality of a patient's life and facilitate his or her return to full productivity. The aims of this study were (1) to use the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data set to determine the proportions of recipients who were employed and unemployed within 24 months after LT between 2002 and 2008 and (2) to examine the factors associated with a return to employment. UNOS data that were collected since the adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scoring system on February 27, 2002 were analyzed. There were 21,942 transplant recipients who met the inclusion criteria. The employment status of the recipients was analyzed within a 60-day window at the following times after transplantation: 6, 12, and 24 months. Approximately one-quarter of the LT recipients (5360 or 24.4%) were employed within 24 months after transplantation, and the remaining recipients had not returned to work. The demographic variables that were independently associated with posttransplant employment included an age of 18 to 40 years, male sex, a college degree, Caucasian race, and pretransplant employment. Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a significantly lower rate of employment than patients with other etiologies of liver disease. The recipients who were employed after transplantation had significantly better functional status than those who were not employed. In conclusion, the employment rate after LT is low, with only one-quarter of LT recipients employed. New national and individual transplant program policies are needed to assess the root causes of unemployment in recipients who wish to work after LT. PMID:21837745

  20. Dispositional optimism among American and Jordanian college students: are Westerners really more upbeat than Easterners?

    PubMed

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed at assessing some previous research conclusions, based primarily on comparisons of North Americans and East Asians, that Westerners tend to be optimistic while Easterners tend to be pessimistic. Two samples of European American and Jordanian college students were administered a questionnaire consisting of items measuring dispositional optimism along with items pertaining to risk and self-protective behaviors (e.g., seatbelt use, vehicular speeding, smoking) and social and demographic factors (e.g., sex, socioeconomic status, religiosity). The findings uncovered dispositional optimism to be stronger for American compared to Jordanian participants. Separate analyses of optimism versus pessimism revealed that Jordanian participants were more pessimistic, but not less optimistic than their American counterparts. No significant correlations were found between dispositional optimism and sex, socioeconomic status, or religiosity. The levels of optimism displayed by Jordanians in this study are inconsistent with previous claims of an optimistic West and a pessimistic East, and suggest that self-enhancing processes may not be confined to Western or highly individualistic groups. The findings did not uncover an association between dispositional optimism and risk or self-protective behaviors. Multiple regression analyses showed cultural background and sex to be the best predictors of these behaviors. The implications of these findings are discussed. La présente étude avait pour but d'évaluer quelques conclusions de recherches passées, fondées principalement sur des comparaisons de nord-américains et d'asiatiques de l'est, indiquant que les occidentaux tendent à être optimistes alors que les orientaux tendent à être pessimistes. Deux échantillons d'étudiants américains-européens et jordaniens du collège ont rempli un questionnaire ayant des items mesurant l'optimisme dispositionnel avec d'autres items qui portent sur les comportements de risque et d'auto-protection (e.g., la ceinture de sécurité, la vitesse au volant, l'usage de tabac), sur les facteurs sociaux et démographiques (e.g., le sexe, le statut socio-économique, la religiosité). Les résultats ont indiqué que l'optimisme dispositionnel était plus fort chez les américains en comparaison aux participants jordaniens. Des analyses séparées de l'optimisme versus le pessimisme ont montré que les participants jordaniens n'étaient pas pessimistes mais pas moins optimistes que leurs homologues américains. Il n'y avait pas de corrélations significatives entre l'optimisme dispotionnel et le sexe, le statut socio-économique et la religiosité. Les niveaux d'optimisme dispotionnel affichés par les jordaniens dans cette étude sont inconsistents avec les affirmations passées d'un occident optimiste et d'un orient pessimiste et suggèrent que les processus d'auto-amélioration pourraient ne pas être restreints aux occidentaux ou aux groupes hautement individualistes. Les résultats n'ont pas dévoilé une association entre l'optimise dispotionnel et les comportements de risque ou les comportements d'auto-protection. Des analyses de régression multiples ont indiqué que le contexte culturel et le sexe sont les meilleurs prédicteurs de ces comportements. Les implications de ces résultats sont discutées. El presente estudio se basó en la evaluación de algunas conclusiones de investigaciones anteriores, basadas principalmente en comparaciones de habitantes de norteamericanos con habitantes del Asia del este, en las que se proponía que mientras los occidentales tienden a ser optimistas, los orientales tienden a ser pesimistas. En dos muestras de estudiantes de la escuela superior europeo-americanos y jordanos se administró un cuestionario que consiste en preguntas que miden el optimismo disposicional junto con preguntas que evalúan conductas de riesgo y de autoprotección (p.e., uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad de manejo, fumar) así como factores sociales y demográficos (p.e., sexualidad, estatus socioeconómico, reli

  1. Lower Aptian Sequence at Madoz (SE Spain) in Relation to Cretaceous Anoxic Event-1a (OAE- 1a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona-Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Lamolda, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Aptian stage at Madoz in the Sierra de Aralar, NE Spain, shows contrasting lithological succession of intercalated clastic-rich intervals and rudist-rich limestone beds varying between Medium Olive Gray (5Y 5/1) and Olive Gray (5Y 4/1). They are subdivided into different sub-units (Duvernois et al., 1972; Cherchi & Schroeder, 1998) with unit 1, as well as subunits 2a and 2b of "Madoz Limestone" are placed within the Lower Aptian Palorbitolina lenticularis Zone. Their stratigraphic level corresponds at least to the Deshayesites deshayesi ammonite zone, based on the presence of the nominate taxon in clastic Unit 1. Sub-unit 2b includes a distinct 180-cm thick black (Medium to Dark Gray, -N4 to N3) shale layer toward the close of the upper Lower Aptian. Detailed microfacies analysis was carried out on the Lower Aptian interval in order to characterize the different lithofacies and their possible relationship to Cretaceous OAE-1a. Subunit 2a is 20m thick and its microfacies consists of sparse and packed biomicrites, moderate to poorly sorted fine calcirudites and calcarenites composed of 40 - 50% remains of corals, predominantly non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, bryozoans, benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicative of well oxygenated conditions. Matrix and bioclasts are highly affected by neomorphism and growing of micritic envelopes is frequent. Superjacent subunit 2b is also 20m thick, but is lithologically very variable and consists of interbeds of indurated biomicrite with 30 - 50 % fossil fragments dominated by orbitolinids, and echinoids, non-rudist bivalves, benthic foraminifers, and algae as secondary components. These beds also contain 15 - 25 % mostly silt-size quartz grains, and clays. Other indurated biomicrite beds within subunit 2b contain 1 - 20 % fragments of non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, other benthic foraminifers, and algae, but orbitolinids are scarce. Terrigenous components make up 10 - 25 % of the matrix. Subunit 2b also includes soft levels of fossiliferous marls (bioclasts < 10%), calcareous shales and pyritic black shales (bioclasts < 5%) that contain non-rudist bivalves, algae, echinoids and scarce benthic foraminifers. Microfacies of the prominent black shale bed, which occurs about between 14.5 and 16.3 m within subunit 2b, show a matrix composed essentially of clays (> 50%), framboidal pyrite (1-2.5%), and organic matter (5-7 %). Benthic foraminifers and bioturbation are totally absent within this interval, but there are occasional algal fragments, and very rare ostracods. In contrast to the adjacent levels, the absence of benthic foraminifers lack of bioturbation, and increased OM suggest that the black shale level clearly implies development of anoxic to dysoxic conditions within that interval. Based on the presence of D. desahyesi in subunit 1 its relationship to OAE- 1a remains ambiguous, and its occurrence may be related to a possible regional event due to the complexity of the paleogeography of that region during its tectonic development in the Early Cretaceous. Duvernois, Ch., Floquet, M., Humbel, B. 1972. La Sierra d'Aralar (Pyrénées basques Espagnoles): stratigraphie, structure. Thèse de Doctorat de Troisième cycle, Université de Dijon, 240 pp. Cherchi, A., Schroeder, R. 1998. Aptian and Albian large foraminifera at Madoz. 24° Coloquio Europeo de Micropaleontología. Libro Guía. Lamolda, M.A. Ed. 71-73p.

  2. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

  3. Recruiting Minority Geoscientists: A 30 Year Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Hall, F.

    2003-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) is located in a city rich in diversity and industries that employ geoscientists. Thus, it is an ideal place to develop a strong diversity program in geology and geophysics. In 1974, Dr. Louis Fernandez received a grant from the NSF to formally develop a minority recruiting program. The focus of that initial program was a field trip for local minority high school students and that trip has gone continuously every year since then. It is still our best tool for recruiting outstanding minority students into our department. The initial NSF funding disappeared long ago and was replaced variously by support from private industry and creative use of departmental funds which kept the program alive through some lean funding years. As a result of this effort UNO has graduated more minority, particularly African-American, geoscientist than any other institution in the US for most of the past 30 years. The field trip is not the only reason for our success. Indeed, retaining and graduating students, regardless of their ethnicity, required a serious commitment to education on the part of our department. There are six universities in the city of New Orleans and several more within commuting distance from the city. Three of the six local universities are HBCU's with excellent reputations but, fortunately for us, no geoscience degree programs. There are several strong geoscience departments in the non-minority serving institutions in our area that attract many outstanding local students. To meet the competition, we have worked with local K-12 teachers, developed additional programs to interest local 7-12 students, and worked closely with our majors to keep them in the program and help them succeed once they are recruited. This has required a cohesive effort on the part of our faculty and students that is constantly changing to meet new demands as our department has expanded in size and developed its research activities sometimes at the expense of teaching. The result is something we are very proud of-- 40% of our undergraduates and 20% of our graduate students are minority students. This is increasing each year, particularly the graduate enrollment, without any apparent decrease in non-minority enrollment or division within the student body.

  4. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las participantes basado en lo que estas manifestaron en su practica didactica. Dos maestras coinciden en una vision constructivista social de la construccion del conocimiento, del aprendizaje y de los metodos didacticos. La otra manifesto una vision constructivista piagetiana en el aprendizaje, los metodos didacticos y en la construccion del conocimiento. Se espera que este trabajo, ademas de promover los estudios de caso sobre el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza en el contexto puertorriqueno, sirva para que los maestros, que estan transformando su enfoque educativo de uno tradicional a uno constructivista, tengan una vision mas clara de la implantacion de este enfoque. Se espera ademas que sirva para que el Departamento de Educacion y sus programas de adiestramiento y readiestramiento en servicio, asi como las universidades y sus programas de preparacion de maestros, tomen en cuenta los resultados y recomendaciones de este estudio al revisar sus programas.

  5. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el que presenta mas deficiencias en el desarrollo de las competencias. El investigador recomienda disenar e implantar un curriculo basado en competencias y proveer formacion en didactica y procesos de aprendizaje a los profesores.

  6. Inverse modeling of NOx emissions over South Korea using CAPSS emission data and the satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Kim, Y.; Morino, Y.; Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.

    2011-12-01

    Northeast Asia including Korea, China, and Japan is characterized by high emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Among the air pollutants, the emission of NOx is drastically increasing. NOx is transformed to nitric acid and nitrate by physical and chemical transformations during transportation in the air. According to Kim et al. (2011, submitted), the nitrate concentrations at Gosan, Korea increased continuously. Between 1992 and 2008, the NO3- concentration in TSP increased by 317 %, that in PM10 increased by 178 % and that in PM2.5 increased by 307 %. To explain these concentration variations, the emission inventories are essential. However, most of emission inventories are developed by the bottom-up approach, which is based on combinations of activity statistics and emission factors. In bottom-up emission inventories, there are uncertainties associated with the statistics, emission factors, temporal allocation profiles, and grid allocation factors (Kurokawa et al., 2009). To solve the problems of the bottom-up approach, inverse modeling is a powerful method. Kurokawa et al. (2011) developed a simple inversion model for the optimization of NOx emissions based on a regional CTM (CMAQ) and the satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities. In this study, this system was applied to optimize NOx emissions over South Korea between 2001 and 2007. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite observations of NO2 Vertical Column Densities and the CAPSS emission inventory data estimated by National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea (NIER, 2009) was used. References Kim, N.K, Kim, Y.P. and Kang C.H. (2011) Long-term trend of Aerosol Composition and Direct Radiative Forcing due to Aerosols over Gosan: TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 data between 1992 and 2008, submitted. Kurokawa, J. Yumimoto, K., Uno, I. and Ohara, T. (2009) Adjoint inverse modeling of NOx emissions over eastern China using satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities, Atmospheric Environment, 43, 1878-1887. Kurokawa, J., Uno, I., and Ohara, T. (2011) Recent trends for air pollutants emissions in Asia: Update of Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS), Second International Workshop on Emission Inventory in Asia, Tsukuba, Japan, March. National Institute of Environmental Research (2009) National air pollutants emission 2007. Incheon, Korea.

  7. The Nature of Ultra-Luminous Compact X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Makishima, K; Mizuno, T; Ohnishi, T; Tashiro, M; Aruga, Y; Asai, K; Dotani, T; Mitsuda, K; Ueda, Y; Uno, S; Yamaoka, K; Ebisawa, K; Kohmura, Y; Okada, K; Makishima, Kazuo; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Ohnishi, Tomohisa; Tashiro, Makoto; Aruga, Yoichi; Asai, Kazumi; Dotani, Tadayasu; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shin'ichiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Ebisawa, Ken; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Okada, Kyoko

    2000-01-01

    Studies were made of ASCA spectra of seven ultra-luminous compact X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies; M33 X-8 (Takano et al. 1994), M81 X-6 (Fabbiano 1988b; Kohmura et al. 1994; Uno 1997), IC 342 Source 1 (Okada et al. 1998), Dwingeloo 1 X-1 (Reynolds et al. 1997), NGC 1313 Source B (Fabbiano & Trinchieri 1987; Petre et al. 1994), and two sources in NGC 4565 (Mizuno et al. 1999). With the 0.5--10 keV luminosities in the range 10^{39-40} ergs/s, they are thought to represent a class of enigmatic X-ray sources often found in spiral galaxies. For some of them, the ASCA data are newly processed, or the published spectra are reanalyzed. For others, the published results are quoted. The ASCA spectra of all these seven sources have been described successfully with so called multi-color disk blackbody (MCD) emission arising from optically-thick standard accretion disks around black holes. Except the case of M33 X-8, the spectra do not exhibit hard tails. For the source luminosities not to exceed the E...

  8. Peak Serum AST Is a Better Predictor of Acute Liver Graft Injury after Liver Transplantation When Adjusted for Donor/Recipient BSA Size Mismatch (ASTi).

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite the marked advances in the perioperative management of the liver transplant recipient, an assessment of clinically significant graft injury following preservation and reperfusion remains difficult. In this study, we hypothesized that size-adjusted AST could better approximate real AST values and consequently provide a better reflection of the extent of graft damage, with better sensitivity and specificity than current criteria. Methods. We reviewed data on 930 orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Size-adjusted AST (ASTi) was calculated by dividing peak AST by our previously reported index for donor-recipient size mismatch, the BSAi. The predictive value of ASTi of primary nonfunction (PNF) and graft survival was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results. Size-adjusted peak AST (ASTi) was significantly associated with subsequent occurrence of PNF and graft failure. In our study cohort, the prediction of PNF by the combination of ASTi and PT-INR had a higher sensitivity and specificity compared to current UNOS criteria. Conclusions. We conclude that size-adjusted AST (ASTi) is a simple, reproducible, and sensitive marker of clinically significant graft damage. PMID:25009741

  9. CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL, VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA REVISIÓN DEL IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LA POBLACIÓN PERUANA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 ? (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las casas es responsable de aproximadamente 3000 muertes prematuras anuales entre adultos, con otro número desconocido de muertes entre niños debido a infecciones respiratorias. La contaminación del agua tiene como principales causas los desagües vertidos directamente a los ríos, minerales (arsénico) de varias fuentes, y fallas de las plantas de tratamiento. En el Perú, el cambio climático puede impactar en la frecuencia y severidad del fenómeno de El Niño oscilación del sur (ENSO) que se ha asociado con un incremento en los casos de enfermedades como cólera, malaria y dengue. El cambio climático incrementa la temperatura y puede extender las áreas afectadas por enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, además de tener efecto en la disponibilidad del agua y en la contaminación del aire. En conclusión, el Perú, pasa por una transición de factores de riesgo ambientales, donde coexisten riesgos tradicionales y modernos, y persisten los problemas infecciosos y crónicos, algunos de los cuales se asocian con problemas de contaminación de agua y de aire. PMID:25418656

  10. Current management of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashwani K; Jampana, Sarat C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease accounts for significant economic burden with second most common cause for liver transplantation in the US. Although alcohol abstinence is most crucial, morbidity and mortality occur amongst those with continuing alcohol intake and with established end stage liver disease due to lack of specific treatment modalities to manage this disease. Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis, a distinct subset of alcoholic liver disease have a potential for mortality in about 25% within about 1 month despite treatment with available specific agents such as corticosteroids and/or pentoxifylline. Hence, there is clear need for newer and better treatment options to manage these patients. In this article, potential emerging newer targets to manage this disease are discussed including intestinal decontamination, caspase inhibitors, antioxidants, and interlukins. In the background of encouraging emerging data (retrospective data from the UNOS database and data from a case matched prospective French study) on the beneficial effects of liver transplantation amongst patients with alcoholic hepatitis who are non-responders to current medical treatments, this article would also deal controversies surrounding the role and use of liver transplantation in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Issues such as rule of 6 months of abstinence, ethical issues, and shortage of donor organs will be debated. PMID:25323125

  11. Report of depressive symptoms on waiting list and mortality after liver and kidney transplantation: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little research has explored pre-transplantation psychological factors as predictors of outcome after liver or kidney transplantation. Our objective is to determine whether report of depressive symptoms on waiting list predicts outcome of liver and kidney transplantation. Methods Patients on waiting list for liver or kidney transplantation were classified for report or non-report of depressive symptoms on waiting list. 339 were transplanted 6 months later on average, and followed prospectively. The main outcome measures were graft failure and mortality 18 months post-transplantation. Results Among the 339 patients, 51.6% reported depressive symptoms on waiting list, 16.5% had a graft failure and 7.4% died post-transplantation. Report of depressive symptoms on waiting list predicted a 3 to 4-fold decreased risk of graft failure and mortality 18-months post-transplantation, independently from age, gender, current cigarette smoking, anxiety symptoms, main primary diagnosis, UNOS score, number of comorbid diagnoses and history of transplantation. Data were consistent for liver and kidney transplantations. Other baseline predictive factors were: for graft failure, the main primary diagnosis and a shorter length since this diagnosis, and for mortality, older age, male gender and the main primary diagnosis. Conclusion Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of the association between report of depressive symptoms on waiting list and decreased risk of graft failure and mortality after transplantation. PMID:22103911

  12. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  13. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  14. Centre volume and resource consumption in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Christopher W; Shaw, Joshua J; Santry, Heena; Saidi, Reza F; Jabbour, Nicolas; Tseng, Jennifer F; Bozorgzadeh, Adel; Shah, Shimul A

    2012-01-01

    Background Using SRTR/UNOS data, it has previously been shown that increased liver transplant centre volume improves graft and patient survival. In the current era of health care reform and pay for performance, the effects of centre volume on quality, utilization and cost are unknown. Methods Using the UHC database (2009–2010), 63 liver transplant centres were identified that were organized into tertiles based on annual centre case volume and stratified by severity of illness (SOI). Utilization endpoints included hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), cost and in-hospital mortality. Results In all, 5130 transplants were identified. Mortality was improved at high volume centres (HVC) vs. low volume centres (LVC), 2.9 vs. 3.4%, respectively. HVC had a lower median LOS than LVC (9 vs. 10 days, P < 0.0001), shorter median ICU stay than LVC and medium volume centres (MVC) (2 vs. 3 and 3 days, respectively, P < 0.0001) and lower direct costs than LVC and MVC ($90 946 vs. $98 055 and $101 014, respectively, P < 0.0001); this effect persisted when adjusted for severity of illness. Conclusions This UHC-based cohort shows that increased centre volume results in improved long-term post-liver transplant outcomes and more efficient use of hospital resources thereby lowering the cost. A better understanding of these mechanisms can lead to informed decisions and optimization of the pay for performance model in liver transplantation. PMID:22762404

  15. Developing hydrological monitoring networks with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Vega, Andres; Villacis, Marcos; Moulds, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The open source hardware platform Arduino is very cost-effective and versatile for the development of sensor networks. Here we report on experiments on the use of Arduino-related technologies to develop and implement hydrological monitoring networks. Arduino Uno boards were coupled to a variety of commercially available hydrological sensors and programmed for automatic data collection. Tested sensors include water level, temperature, humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Our experiments show that most of the tested analogue sensors are quite straightforward to couple to Arduino based data loggers, especially if the electronic characteristics of the sensor are available. However, some sensors have internal digital interfaces, which are more challenging to connect. Lastly, tipping bucket rain gauges prove the most challenging because of the very specific methodology, i.e. registration of bucket tips instead of measurements at regular intervals. The typically low data generation rate of hydrological instruments is very compatible with available technologies for wireless data transmission. Mesh networks such as Xbee prove very convenient and robust for dispersed networks, while wifi is also an option for shorter distances and particular topographies. Lastly, the GSM shield of the Arduino can be used to transfer data to centralized databases. In regions where no mobile internet (i.e. 3G) connection is available, data transmission via text messages may be an option, depending on the bandwidth requirements.

  16. Recovery of a geocentric reference frame using the present-day GPS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, Rajendra P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1990-01-01

    A geocentric reference frame adopts the center of mass of the earth as the origin of the coordinate axes. The center of mass of the earth is the natural and unambiguous origin of a geocentric satellite dynamical system. But in practice a kinematically obtained terrestrial reference frame may assume an origin other than the geocenter. The establishment of a geocentric reference frame, to which all relevant observations and results can be referred and in which geodynamic theories or models for the dynamic behavior of earth can be formulated, requires the ability to accurately recover a given coordinate frame origin offset from the geocenter. GPS measurements, because of their abundance and broad distribution, provide a powerful tool to obtain this origin offset in a short period of time. Two effective strategies have been devised. Data from the First Central And South America (Casa Uno) geodynamics experiment has been studied, in order to demonstrate the ability of recovering the geocenter location with present day GPS satellites and receivers.

  17. Early liver retransplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abbas; Petrowsky, Henrik; Kaplan, Bruce; Jie, Tun; Porubsky, Marian; Habib, Shahid; Rilo, Horacio; Gruessner, Angelika C; Gruessner, Rainer W G

    2014-02-01

    Up to 23% of liver allografts fail post-transplant. Retransplantation is only the recourse but remains controversial due to inferior outcomes. The objective of our study was to identify high-risk periods for retransplantation and then compare survival outcomes and risk factors. We performed an analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for all adult liver recipients from 2002 through 2011. We analyzed the records of 49,288 recipients; of those, 2714 (5.5%) recipients were retransplanted. Our analysis included multivariate regression with the outcome of retransplantation. The highest retransplantation rates were within the first week (19% of all retransplantation, day 0-7), month (20%, day 8-30), and year (33%, day 31-365). Only retransplantation within the first year (day 0-365) had below standard outcomes. The most significant risk factors were as follows: within the first week, cold ischemia time >16 h [odds ratio (OR) 3.6]; within the first month, use of split allografts (OR 2.9); and within the first year, use of a liver donated after cardiac death (OR 4.9). Each of the three high-risk periods within the first year had distinct causes of graft failure, risk factors for retransplantation, and survival rates after retransplantation. PMID:24112236

  18. [Leprosy--a stigma in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Falus, Orsolya

    2011-02-13

    For the initiation of the French journalist Raoul Follereau in 1954 the UNO inaugurated the Leprosy Day (Martyr's Day) that is celebrated on the last Sunday of January every year. Although the bacterium that causes leprosy was isolated by the Norwegian scientist Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen in 1873 and from 1982 this disease can be cured with a special pharmaceutical complex, still 219.826 new leprous are detected on Earth every year, according to the data published in August, 2010 by WHO-experts. Ancient Chinese and Hindu source-strings from 600 B. C. are referring to leprosy, however, the disease was imported by the army of Alexander the Great from India around 327-326 B. C. Even the Old and the New Testament from the Holy Bible are mentioning leprosy in several details. During the Middle Ages the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, established in the Holy Land in 72 A. D., did pioneer work in nursing leprous. In the process of time the medical attendance concerning leprous was organized in special hospitals called "leprosoriums" built on river-banks. Special office and even services were organized for the treatment and isolation of the people infected. Although medical science has prevailed against leprosy, and almost simultaneously even jurisprudence defended the patients' rights via legislation, still mankind can regrettably not get rid of this disease that stigmatizes seriously. PMID:21296733

  19. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase

    PubMed Central

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. PMID:25974870

  20. Biochemical characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Caldicoprobacter guelmensis.

    PubMed

    Bouacem, Khelifa; Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Laribi-Habchi, Hassiba; Elhoul, Mouna Ben; Hmida-Sayari, Aïda; Hacene, Hocine; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Jaouadi, Bassem; Bejar, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Caldicoprobacter guelmensis isolated from the hydrothermal hot spring of Guelma (Algeria) produced high amounts of extracellular thermostable serine alkaline protease (called SAPCG) (23,000U/mL). The latter was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, UNO Q-6 FPLC and Zorbex PSM 300 HPLC, and submitted to biochemical characterization assays. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer, with a molecular mass of 55,824.19Da. The 19 N-terminal residue sequence of SAPCG showed high homology with those of microbial proteases. The enzyme was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggested its belonging to the serine protease family. It showed optimum protease activity at pH 10 and 70°C with casein as a substrate. The thermoactivity and thermostability of SAPCG were enhanced in the presence of 2mM Ca(2+). Its half-life times at 80 and 90°C were 180 and 60min, respectively. Interestingly, the SAPCG protease exhibited significant compatibility with iSiS and Persil, and wash performance analysis revealed that it could remove blood-stains effectively. Overall, SAPCG displayed a number of attractive properties that make it a promising candidate for future applications as an additive in detergent formulations. PMID:26261082

  1. [Anastomosis dehiscence or enteric fistula? Need for precise definitions in the description of surgical complications, even in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Rendón-Félix, Jorge; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    La complicación más temida de una anastomosis del aparato digestivo es la dehiscencia, la cual consiste en una pérdida de la hermeticidad de la anastomosis, o muy cercana a la línea de sutura, comunicando el interior del tubo digestivo con el espacio extraluminal. Cuando la dehiscencia se acompaña de la formación de una comunicación entre órganos adyacentes o el medio externo, condición necesaria es que ambos estén epitelizados, se denomina fístula del aparato digestivo. Las manifestaciones sistémicas de una dehiscencia dependerán de varios factores, entre los que destacan primordialmente la localización de la anastomosis, la presencia de un sistema de drenaje hacia el exterior y las condiciones propias del paciente. En referencia al artículo publicado por Chávez-Aguilar, et al., en el que describen las complicaciones tempranas de la sustitución esofágica con el intestino grueso por vía retroesternal en niños con dos padecimientos diferentes: atresia esofágica (AE) (n = 6) y quemadura esofágica por cáusticos (n = 13), los autores describen una morbilidad de 37% sin diferenciar en qué niños, de acuerdo al padecimiento, se presentaron las complicaciones. Esta proporción corresponde a 7 casos que sufrieron 14 complicaciones, llevando a la muerte a uno de ellos. PMID:26526488

  2. Estimating fission-barrier height by the spherical-basis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    A novel method of estimating fission-barrier heights is presented in this paper, in which potential energy surfaces are calculated by using the spherical-basis method. This method is based on the idea of configuration mixing of various spherical states for deformed nuclei, which gave the ground-state nuclear-mass calculation presented by our group [H. Koura, T. Tachibana, M. Uno, and M. Yamada, Prog. Theor. Phys., 113, 305 (2005)]. Under the restriction of symmetric fission, a systematical fission-barrier calculation is performed in the heavy and superheavy nuclear-mass region, and some higher (neighboring ^{252}Fm, known) and lower (neighboring ^{278}Ds, unknown) fission-barrier regions are found in the nuclear-mass chart; the origin of these appearances is discussed in the framework of the spherical-basis method. The calculated nuclei are also located in the unknown neutron-deficient superheavy nuclear-mass region, where nuclear fission determines a limit on the existence of nuclei. Three regions that have relatively high fission barriers are predicted in neutron-deficient regions having neutron numbers of around 126, 184, and 228.

  3. Bordetella avium Causes Induction of Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Turkey Tracheal Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, David M.; Ruff, Kristin; Beach, Nathan M.; Dorsey-Oresto, Angella; Masters, Isaac; Temple, Louise M.

    2011-01-01

    Bordetellosis is an upper respiratory disease of turkeys caused by Bordetella avium in which the bacteria attach specifically to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells. Little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this disease, which has a negative impact in the commercial turkey industry. In this study, we produced a novel explant organ culture system that was able to successfully reproduce pathogenesis of B. avium in vitro, using tracheal tissue derived from 26 day-old turkey embryos. Treatment of the explants with whole cells of B. avium virulent strain 197n and culture supernatant, but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), specifically induced apoptosis in ciliated cells, as shown by annexin V and TUNEL staining. LPS and TCT are known virulence factors of B. pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Treatment with whole cells of B. avium and LPS specifically induced NO response in ciliated cells, shown by uNOS staining and diaphorase activity. The explant system is being used as a model to elucidate specific molecules responsible for the symptoms of bordetellosis. PMID:21609777

  4. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  5. Relevamiento de HI en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Un nuevo relevamiento de HI de todo el Hemisferio Austral, comprendido entre -90o <= ? <= -25o, está siendo observado con la antena I del IAR. El mismo es realizado con alta sensibilidad (r.m.s.<= 0.07 K) y alta resolución espectral (1 Km/s). Un total de ~50000 posiciones en el cielo serán observadas, espaciadas en una grilla (lxb) de (0.5o x 0.5o). El intervalo de velocidades cubierto en este relevamiento abarca el rango -450 km/s a +450 km/s en el sistema LSR. Esta base de datos será corregida por efectos de ``stray radiation''. Al presente se ha observado ~70% del total del relevamiento. El mismo es complementario de uno similar realizado en el Hemisferio Norte por Hartman y Burton (1996), con cubrimiento espacial, sensibilidad, resoluciones espaciales y en velocidad, similares a los del IAR. El objetivo final de ambos relevamientos es disponer de una base de datos uniforme en todo el cielo.

  6. An Arduino-Based Resonant Cradle Design with Infant Cries Recognition.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a resonant electric cradle design with infant cries recognition, employing an Arduino UNO as the core processor. For most commercially available electric cradles, the drive motor is closely combined with the bearing on the top, resulting in a lot of energy consumption. In this proposal, a ball bearing design was adopted and the driving force is under the cradle to increase the distance from the object to fulcrum and torque. The sensors are designed to detect the oscillation state, and then the force is driven at the critical time to achieve the maximum output response while saving energy according to the principle of resonance. As for the driving forces, the winding power and motors are carefully placed under the cradle. The sensors, including the three-axis accelerometer and infrared sensor, are tested and applied under swinging amplitude control. In addition, infant cry recognition technology was incorporated in the design to further develop its functionality, which is a rare feature in this kind of hardware. The proposed nonlinear operator of fundamental frequency (f0) analysis is able to identify different types of infant cries. In conclusion, this paper proposes an energy-saving electric cradle with infant cries recognition and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:26247947

  7. Heine-Stieltjes correspondence and a new angular momentum projection for many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2013-09-01

    A new angular momentum projection for systems of particles with arbitrary spins is formulated based on the Heine-Stieltjes correspondence, which can be regarded as the solutions of the mean-field-plus -pairing model in the strong-pairing interaction G?? limit. Properties of the Stieltjes zeros of the extended Heine-Stieltjes polynomials, whose roots determine the projected states, and the related Van Vleck zeros are discussed. An electrostatic interpretation of these zeros is presented. As examples, applications to n nonidentical particles of spin 1/2 and to identical bosons or fermions are made to elucidate the procedure and properties of the Stieltjes zeros and the related Van Vleck zeros. It is shown that the new angular momentum projection for n identical bosons or fermions can be simplified with the branching multiplicity formula of U(N)?O(3) and the special choices of the parameters used in the projection. Especially, it is shown that the solutions for identical bosons can always be expressed in terms of zeros of Jacobi polynomials. However, unlike nonidentical particle systems, the n-coupled states of identical particles are nonorthogonal with respect to the multiplicity label after the projection.

  8. Semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws; consistency and L(infinity)-stability imply convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1988-01-01

    A convergence theory for semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws is developed. It is shown, by a series of scalar counter-examples, that consistency with the conservation law alone does not guarantee convergence. Instead, a notion of consistency which takes into account both the conservation law and its augmenting entropy condition is introduced. In this context it is concluded that consistency and L(infinity)-stability guarantee for a relevant class of admissible entropy functions, that their entropy production rate belongs to a compact subset of H(loc)sup -1 (x,t). One can now use compensated compactness arguments in order to turn this conclusion into a convergence proof. The current state of the art for these arguments includes the scalar and a wide class of 2 x 2 systems of conservation laws. The general framework of the vanishing viscosity method is studied as an effective way to meet the consistency and L(infinity)-stability requirements. How this method is utilized to enforce consistency and stability for scalar conservation laws is shown. In this context we prove, under the appropriate assumptions, the convergence of finite difference approximations (e.g., the high resolution TVD and UNO methods), finite element approximations (e.g., the Streamline-Diffusion methods) and spectral and pseudospectral approximations (e.g., the Spectral Viscosity methods).

  9. Reversible dioxygen binding and arene hydroxylation reactions: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies involving ligand electronic and structural variations

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Kenneth D.; Zhang, Christiana Xin; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Galliker, Benedikt; Kaderli, Susan; Zuberbühler, Andreas D.

    2012-01-01

    Copper-dioxygen interactions are of intrinsic importance in a wide range of biological and industrial processes. Here, we present detailed kinetic/thermodynamic studies on the O2-binding and arene hydroxylation reactions of a series of xylyl-bridged binuclear copper(I) complexes, where the effects of ligand electronic and structural elements on these reactions are investigated. Ligand 4-pyridyl substituents influence the reversible formation of side-on bound ?-?2:?2-peroxodicopper(II) complexes, with stronger donors leading to more rapid formation and greater thermodynamic stability of product complexes [CuII2(RXYL)(O22?)]2+. An interaction of the latter with the xylyl ?-system is indicated. Subsequent peroxo electrophilic attack on the arene leads to C–H activation and oxygenation with hydroxylated products [CuII2(RXYLO2?)(?OH)]2+ being formed. A related unsymmetrical binucleating ligand was also employed. Its corresponding O2-adduct [CuII2(UN)(O22?)]2+ is more stable, but primarily because the subsequent decay by hydroxylation is in a relative sense slower. The study emphasizes how ligand electronic effects can and do influence and tune copper(I)–dioxygen complex formation and subsequent reactivity. PMID:23420124

  10. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir pol?ticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS. Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  11. Neurobiología del autismo y TDAH mediante técnicas de neuroimagen: divergencias y convergencias

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Olvera, Jorge González; Blancas, Aurea S.; Chalita, Pablo J.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    En el área clínica algunos síntomas del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), se presentan en los pacientes con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA). Se ha demostrado que existen alteraciones en circuitos cerebrales que impactan en fallas cognitivas y de comportamiento específicas de cada uno de estos trastornos. Sin embargo, han sido poco estudiados los correlatos cerebrales que hay detrás tanto de las similitudes como de las diferencias sintomatológicas. En la presente revisión se analizaron los estudios meta-analíticos existentes estructurales y funcionales en TDAH y TEA. Por un lado, se observaron convergencias en circuitos como el dorsal atencional, de funciones ejecutivas, visual, somatomotor y circuito de activación por defecto. Estas similitudes posiblemente explican las manifestaciones comórbidas entre los trastornos como la falla en la integración de información, motricidad fina y procesos atencionales específicos. Por otro lado, específicamente en el TDAH se observan déficits en el circuito de recompensa y ventral atencional, sistemas involucrados en la medición de efectos de reforzamiento y monitoreo atencional. En TEA los circuitos más afectados fueron los implicados en procesos de cognición social y lenguaje. En conclusión, existen correlatos neuronales en TEA que explican las manifestaciones clínicas tanto convergentes como divergentes presentes en TDAH. PMID:23897144

  12. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  13. Academic environment and dynamics in response to extreme events: Theory and Practice (Katrina Lessons)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovskaia, Natalia

    2008-03-01

    The possibility of a catastrophic event requires the department as a unit and the university as an organization to devise a comprehensive emergency response plan to minimize the impact and shorten the recovery stage. Does the academic organizational structure and environment possess key features for the possibility of successful response to extreme events? The post Hurricane Katrina experience of Louisiana universities offers data to address this theoretical question. It also emphasizes that the mitigation plan should include two aspects: preparing/protecting a university for/during a catastrophic event and assisting other academic institutions experiencing an extreme event. Short-term and longer-term statistics and other data pertain to the interaction of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (as an assistance unit) with the universities in New Orleans (units in distress), including the dynamics of student population, faculty influx, course adjustments, and response and recovery actions are presented. An attempt is made to categorize the losses and to assess the recovery quality and time. Faculty and institutional administration interviews are summarized to assist in developing future proactive response plans. UL Lafayette and UNO research capabilities and intellectual resources for developing complex models simulating the multi-variable effects of catastrophic events and providing adaptability in the decision-making process are investigated.

  14. The Lagerlunda collision and the introduction of color vision testing.

    PubMed

    Mollon, J D; Cavonius, L R

    2012-01-01

    In histories of vision testing, the origins of occupational screening for color blindness are often traced to a fatal railroad accident that occurred in Sweden on the night of 14-15 November 1875. The scene of the accident was the estate of Baron Lagerfelt in Östergötland, but the critical events were played out at Linköping (the normal passing place for the northbound and southbound expresses) and at Bankeberg (a small station to which the passing place was reassigned at a few minutes' notice). First to arrive at Bankeberg, the northbound express slowed almost to a halt, but then inexplicably accelerated forwards towards the Lagerlunda estate, despite a sequence of signals from the stationmaster, Uno Björkelund, and a lineman, Oskar Johansson. Soon after the accident, the ophthalmologist Frithiof Holmgren suggested that the engineer of the northbound express, Andersson, or his oiler, Larsson, had been color blind. Neither survived to be tested. Using the records of the subsequent trial and other archival materials, we have re-examined the role of color blindness in the Lagerlunda incident and conclude that the accident cannot be attributed to color blindness alone. Yet the accident undoubtedly had a central role in the introduction of color vision testing by European and North American railroads. To persuade the railroad management to introduce universal screening of employees for color blindness, Holmgren used a dramatic coup de theatre and some unashamed subterfuge. PMID:22301271

  15. How Do Management Fees Affect Retirement Wealth under Mexico's Personal Retirement Accounts System?

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior. PMID:25601893

  16. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. I. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos ?/? en el endotelio vascular uterino durante el embarazo

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-? y RE-?, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsable por las adaptaciones endoteliales uterinas durante el embarazo al corto y largo plazo. Las diferencias moleculares y estructurales, junto con los diferentes efectos causados por estos receptores en las células y los tejidos, sugieren que su función varía dependiendo de la manera en la cual el estrógeno se comunica con sus receptores. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la función del estrógeno y sus receptores clásicos en las adaptaciones cardiovasculares durante el embarazo y la expresión de los Res in vivo e in vitro en el endotelio de la arteria uterina durante el ciclo ovárico y el embarazo, a la vez comparado con la expresión en endotelio arterial de tejidos reproductivos y no reproductivos. Estos temas integran el conocimiento actual de este amplio campo científico con interpretaciones e hipótesis diversas relacionadas con los efectos estrogénicos mediados bien sea por uno o los dos REs. Esta revisión también incluye la relación con las adaptaciones vasodilatadoras y angiogénicas requeridas para modular el dramático incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113750

  17. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y ? =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  18. An Arduino-Based Resonant Cradle Design with Infant Cries Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a resonant electric cradle design with infant cries recognition, employing an Arduino UNO as the core processor. For most commercially available electric cradles, the drive motor is closely combined with the bearing on the top, resulting in a lot of energy consumption. In this proposal, a ball bearing design was adopted and the driving force is under the cradle to increase the distance from the object to fulcrum and torque. The sensors are designed to detect the oscillation state, and then the force is driven at the critical time to achieve the maximum output response while saving energy according to the principle of resonance. As for the driving forces, the winding power and motors are carefully placed under the cradle. The sensors, including the three-axis accelerometer and infrared sensor, are tested and applied under swinging amplitude control. In addition, infant cry recognition technology was incorporated in the design to further develop its functionality, which is a rare feature in this kind of hardware. The proposed nonlinear operator of fundamental frequency (f0) analysis is able to identify different types of infant cries. In conclusion, this paper proposes an energy-saving electric cradle with infant cries recognition and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:26247947

  19. Richard H. Bolt introduced me to acoustics, and I am still engaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Ira

    2003-04-01

    I arrived at the MIT Acoustics Laboratory in 1948, and quickly learned from Dick Bolt that U.S. submarines needed coatings to reduce vulnerability via active sonar detection. All who remember Dick will be familiar with his next step: He brought me to Robert Blizzard and A. Wilson Nolle, both then at the Lab, from whom I learned in detail how to measure and then how to understand the dynamic moduli of rubber-like materials. My path, of course, widened to include medical acoustics (under the leadership of Theodore Hueter) and scattering (Phillip Morse and Uno Ingard). Fast-forward to the present. Rubber-like materials are not only in use as submarine coatings to avoid detection by active sonars, but also to reduce noise radiated by submarines. Further, such materials cover submarine acoustic arrays to reduce flow-noise interference with signals received by such arrays. The problem that most engages me today is the stochastic nature of sound propagation in the ocean, a problem that has the practical consequence of degraded sonar performance. In the spirit of Dick, I will present snippets of my current work, with the hope of painting the big picture that he always did so well.

  20. Psycho-physiological training approach for amputee rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Dhal, Chandan; Wahi, Akshat

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are very noisy and difficult to acquire. Conventional techniques involve amplification and filtering through analog circuits, which makes the system very unstable. The surface EMG signals lie in the frequency range of 6Hz to 600Hz, and the dominant range is between the ranges from 20Hz to 150Hz. 1 Our project aimed to analyze an EMG signal effectively over its complete frequency range. To remove these defects, we designed what we think is an easy, effective, and reliable signal processing technique. We did spectrum analysis, so as to perform all the processing such as amplification, filtering, and thresholding on an Arduino Uno board, hence removing the need for analog amplifiers and filtering circuits, which have stability issues. The conversion of time domain to frequency domain of any signal gives a detailed data of the signal set. Our main aim is to use this useful data for an alternative methodology for rehabilitation called a psychophysiological approach to rehabilitation in prosthesis, which can reduce the cost of the myoelectric arm, as well as increase its efficiency. This method allows the user to gain control over their muscle sets in a less stressful environment. Further, we also have described how our approach is viable and can benefit the rehabilitation process. We used our DSP EMG signals to play an online game and showed how this approach can be used in rehabilitation. PMID:25793347

  1. Upgrade to the Cryogenic Hydrogen Gas Target Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Michael; Tribble, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The cryogenic hydrogen gas target at Texas A&M is a vital component for creating a secondary radioactive beam that is then used in experiments in the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS). A stable beam from the K500 superconducting cyclotron enters the gas cell and some incident particles are transmuted by a nuclear reaction into a radioactive beam, which are separated from the primary beam and used in MARS experiments. The pressure in the target chamber is monitored so that a predictable isotope production rate can be assured. A ``black box'' received the analog pressure data and sent RS232 serial data through an outdated serial connection to an outdated Visual Basic 6 (VB6) program, which plotted the chamber pressure continuously. The black box has been upgraded to an Arduino UNO microcontroller [Atmel Inc.], which can receive the pressure data and output via USB to a computer. It has been programmed to also accept temperature data for future upgrade. A new computer program, with updated capabilities, has been written in Python. The software can send email alerts, create audible alarms through the Arduino, and plot pressure and temperature. The program has been designed to better fit the needs of the users. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  2. Installation of a variable-angle spectrometer system for monitoring diffuse and global solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea, O.; Abrahamse, A.; Tolavi, N.; Romero, F.; Urquidi, O.; Pearce, J. M.; Andrews, R.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design and installation of a spectrometer system for monitoring solar radiation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both the light intensity and the spectral distribution affect the power produced by a photovoltaic device. Local variations in the solar spectrum (especially compared to the AM1.5 standard) may have important implications for device optimization and energy yield estimation. The spectrometer system, based on an Ocean Optics USB4000 (300-900nm) spectrometer, was designed to increase functionality. Typically systems only record the global horizontal radiation. Our system moves a fiber-optic cable 0-90 degrees and takes measurements in 9 degree increments. Additionally, a shadow band allows measurement of the diffuse component of the radiation at each position. The electronic controls utilize an Arduino UNO microcontroller to synchronizes the movement of two PAP bipolar (stepper) motors with the activation of the spectrometer via an external trigger. The spectrometer was factory calibrated for wavelength and calibrated for absolute irradiance using a Sellarnet SL1-Cal light source. We present preliminary results from data taken March-June, 2013, and comment on implications for PV devices in Cochabamba.

  3. Solve the organ shortage: let the bidding begin!

    PubMed

    Kevorkian, J

    2001-01-01

    Commercialization of transplantable human organs is the only sure way to end the crisis of their supply. This is best accomplished by implementing a free, non-profit, nationwide, ultimately global online auction market. It should be independent of the current United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) system dealing solely with altruistic donation, and of governmental, sectarian, academic, and other bureaucratic control. The operation of such an auction is described with a hypothetical example. An included provision guarantees equity for poor, uninsured, and indigent recipients. Money accrued can be substantial, and would be disbursed by established formula, with major portions going to donors' families and to special funds to be used to bid for the poor and to defray costs incurred by them. As the organ shortage eases, bid prices should drop, resulting perhaps in eventual altruistic donation. Objections to commericalization based on ethics, bodily sanctity, inequity, pecuniary greed, and the slippery slope tocsin are nullified by cogent arguments and examples. The current situation has worsened despite so-called required request laws, proposed token payments to cover funeral expenses for donor families, and extensive media advertising to spur altruistic donation. Prohibitive national and state laws must be rescinded for the sake of more than 60,000 patients now on lengthening waiting lists. A profession committed to saving lives is duty-bound to endorse, help implement, and participate in an auction system dedicated to that end. PMID:15719515

  4. Donor factors predicting recipient survival after liver retransplantation: the retransplant donor risk index.

    PubMed

    Northup, P G; Pruett, T L; Kashmer, D M; Argo, C K; Berg, C L; Schmitt, T M

    2007-08-01

    The use of extended criteria liver donors (ECD) is controversial, especially in the setting of retransplantation. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of ECD grafts on retransplantation and to develop a predictive mortality index in liver retransplantation based on the previously established donor risk index. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) liver transplant dataset was analyzed for all adult, non-status 1, liver retransplantations occurring in the United States since February 2002. All donors were categorized for multiple characteristics of ECD, and using multivariate survival models a retransplant donor risk index (ReTxDRI) was developed. A total of 1327 retransplants were analyzed. There were 611 (46%) recipients who received livers with at least one ECD criterion. The use of ECD grafts in recipients with HCV did not incur worse survival than the non-ECD grafts. The addition of the cause of recipient graft failure to the donor risk index formed the ReTxDRI. After adjusting for multiple recipient factors, the ReTxDRI was predictive of overall recipient survival and was a strongly independent predictor of death after retransplantation (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.89-3.27, p < 0.0001). The use of the ReTxDRI can improve recipient and donor matching and help to optimize posttransplant survival in liver retransplantation. PMID:17617863

  5. Proton stability in grand unified theories, in strings, and in branes

    E-print Network

    Pran Nath; Pavel Fileviez Perez

    2007-04-23

    A broad overview of the current status of proton stability in unified models of particle interactions is given which includes non - supersymmetric unification, SUSY and SUGRA unified models, unification based on extra dimensions, and string-M-theory models. The extra dimensional unification includes 5D and 6D and universal extra dimensional (UED) models, and models based on warped geometry. Proton stability in a wide array of string theory and M theory models is reviewed. These include Calabi-Yau models, grand unified models with Kac-Moody levels $k>1$, a new class of heterotic string models, models based on intersecting D branes, and string landscape models. The destabilizing effect of quantum gravity on the proton is discussed. The possibility of testing grand unified models, models based on extra dimensions and string-M-theory models via their distinctive modes is investigated. The proposed next generation proton decay experiments, HyperK, UNO, MEMPHYS, ICARUS, LANNDD (DUSEL), and LENA would shed significant light on the nature of unification complementary to the physics at the LHC. Mathematical tools for the computation of proton lifetime are given in the appendices. Prospects for the future are discussed.

  6. Bases para la elaboracion de unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de ciencias (Fisica y Quimica 3 deg ESO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, Elena Lucia

    Este Trabajo Fin de Master tiene como objeto, el estudio previo de la educacion de la ciencia en la actualidad y mas destacable, del diseno de las unidades didacticas segun las metodologias mas frecuentes aplicadas por los diferentes sistemas educativos en el area de las Ciencias teniendo en cuenta la importancia y el efecto de la psicologia del alumnado y todo ello como no puede ser de otro modo bajo el corse de la Legislacion aplicable, Estatal, Autonomica y europea. Con estos antecedentes, se extrae cuales son las preguntas que deben contestarse en la elaboracion de una unidad didactica de calidad en el contexto, generacional (edad y sexo), del Proyecto Educativo de Centro, y de la Programacion del Departamento, discutiendo y justificando cada uno de los apartados en que estructuradamente dividiremos dicha Unidad, con un formato manejable, util, y dinamico en el tiempo que sea un verdadero instrumento educativo de aula. Teniendo en cuenta estas premisas, se procede a hacer una recopilacion de una misma unidad didactica publicada por diferentes editoriales, elegidas no al azar, sino en funcion de su penetracion editorial en nuestros centros de ESO, siendo las elegidas (SM y Oxford). Las diferentes unidades seleccionadas son analizadas de forma critica, atendiendo a los criterios generales de calidad bajo parametros cientificos y normativos, concluyendo con la aportacion final que es la redaccion de unas pautas cientifico-pedagogicas, para redactar unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de la Ciencias, en concreto en la Asignatura de Fisica y Quimica de 3º de ESO.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  8. Preparation of scanning tunneling microscopy tips using pulsed alternating current etching

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, Victor A.; Thaker, Avesh A.; Derouin, Jonathan; Valencia, Damian N.; Farber, Rachael G.; Gebel, Dana A.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2015-03-15

    An electrochemical method using pulsed alternating current etching (PACE) to produce atomically sharp scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips is presented. An Arduino Uno microcontroller was used to control the number and duration of the alternating current (AC) pulses, allowing for ready optimization of the procedures for both Pt:Ir and W tips using a single apparatus. W tips prepared using constant and pulsed AC power were compared. Tips fashioned using PACE were sharper than those etched with continuous AC power alone. Pt:Ir tips were prepared with an initial coarse etching stage using continuous AC power followed by fine etching using PACE. The number and potential of the finishing AC pulses was varied and scanning electron microscope imaging was used to compare the results. Finally, tip quality using the optimized procedures was verified by UHV-STM imaging. With PACE, at least 70% of the W tips and 80% of the Pt:Ir tips were of sufficiently high quality to obtain atomically resolved images of HOPG or Ni(111)

  9. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua contínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  10. USEMS & GLASS: investigator-driven frontier research in earthquake physics. Ground-breaking research in Europe enhances outreach to the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, S.; di Toro, G.; Collettini, C.; Usems Team; Glass Team

    2011-12-01

    USEMS and GLASS are two projects financed by the European Research Council (ERC) as part of the ERC starting grants scheme within the FP7 framework. The rationale behind the funding scheme is to support some of the most promising scientific endeavours in Europe that are being led by young researchers, and to emphasize the excellence of individual ideas rather than specific research areas; in other words, to promote bottom-up frontier research. The general benefits of this rationale are evident in the two ongoing projects that deal with earthquake physics, as these projects are increasingly recognized in their scientific community. We can say that putting excellence at the heart of European Research strongly contributes to the construction of a European knowledge-based society. From a researcher point-of-view one of the most challenging aspects of these projects is to approach and convey the results of the projects to a general public, contributing to the construction of knowledge-based society. Luckily, media interest and the availability of a number of new communication tools facilitate the outreach of scientific achievements. The largest earthquakes during the last ten years (e.g. Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011) have received widespread attention in the media world (TV, W.W.W., Newspaper and so on) for months, and successful research projects such as those above also become media protagonists, gaining their space in the media bullring. The USEMS principal investigator and his team have participated in several dissemination events in the Mass Media, such as interviews wit Italian and French TV national broadcasts (RAI Due TG2, RAI Uno Unomattina, Rai Tre Geo & Geo, FRANCE 2); interviews in scientific journals: SCIENCE (Sept. 2010), newspapers and web (Corriere della Sera, Il Gazzettino, Il Messagero, La Stampa, Libero, Il Mattino, Yahoo, ANSA, AdnKronos and AGI); radio (RadioRai Uno, RadioRai Tre Scienza); documentary "Die Eroberung der Alpen" produced by Tangram Film (Munchen, Germany). The USEMS project started in June 2008, and the GLASS project in October 2010. For both projects we developed a number of web pages through the official web site of the host institution, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) in Rome. In these pages we describe the projects, publish pictures and short-movies of the experimental activities and keep the project results up to date. In addition the research teams collaborate within various INGV outreach schemes (school and student visits in the laboratory, writing short news reports for the INGV press office, and interviews with journalists) as well as using WWW channels (Facebook, Youtube) to make the project results available to the general public. Finally, it is notable that the ERC funding agency itself is fully involved in the outreach activities using its own communication channels and its highly skilled resources which promote through brochures, web pages, publications and documentaries the best projects. We are going to improve our effort in this direction up to the end of the projects.

  11. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la sintesis de otro nuevo tipo de nanoparticulas, obtenidas a partir de otro polimero de la misma familia, el [FeO8ZnO2(Htrz)3](BF4). Estas nanoparticulas se sintetizaron con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de la dilucion del metal en la muestra. Como resultado se obtuvieron nanoparticulas que tambien presentan una estrecha distribucion de tamanos pero en este caso la transicion de espin no es tan abrupta como en los casos anteriores. Aunque sigue presentando un ciclo de histeresis termica bastante ancho y a temperaturas proximas a la temperatura ambiente. En el capitulo 4 se describiran las estrategias que se han seguido para mejorar la estabilidad y afinidad sobre diferentes sustratos de las nanoparticulas sintetizadas en el capitulo 2. Tambien se hablara de los intentos realizados parar depositarlas en superficies y embeberlas en diferentes matrices organicas e inorganicas. En el capitulo 5 presentaremos la obtencion de un interruptor molecular realizado poniendo en contacto nanoparticulas individuales sintetizadas en el capitulo 2, con unos electrodos separados varios nanometros. Este dispositivo exhibe "switching" y efecto memoria a temperaturas proximas a la temperatura ambiente como consecuencia de la biestabilidad intrinseca de las nanoparticulas. Ademas demostraremos que el estado magnetico de estas nanoparticulas puede ser controlado electricamente, ya que la transicion de espin en este nanodispositivo molecular puede ser inducida simplemente aplicando un voltaje, lo que puede ser de gran interes para la electronica molecular.

  12. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  13. Functional status and survival after kidney transplantation1–12

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Bloom, Roy D.; Shults, Justine; Thomasson, Arwin; Mussell, Adam; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Caplan, Arthur; Feldman, Harold I.; Karlawish, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Older patients constitute a growing proportion of U.S. kidney transplant recipients and often have a high burden of comorbidities. A summary measure of health such as functional status might enable transplant professionals to better evaluate and counsel these patients about their prognosis after transplant. Methods We linked UNOS registry data about post-transplant survival with pre-transplant functional status data (physical function [PF] scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) among individuals undergoing kidney transplant from 6/1/2000 – 5/31/2006. We examined the relationship between survival and functional status with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age. Using logistic regression models for three-year survival, we also estimated the reduction in deaths in the hypothetical scenario that recipients with poor functional status in this cohort experienced modest improvements in function. Results The cohort comprised 10,875 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with a mean age of 50 years; 14% were ?65. Differences in three-year mortality between highest and lowest PF groups ranged from 3% among recipients <35 years to 14% among recipients ?65 years. In multivariable Cox regression, worse PF was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.66 for lowest versus highest PF quartiles; p<0.001). Interactions between PF and age were non-significant. We estimated that 11% fewer deaths would occur if KTRs with the lowest functional status experienced modest improvements in function. Conclusions Across a wide age range, functional status was an independent predictor of post-transplant survival. Functional status assessment may be a useful tool with which to counsel patients about post-transplant outcomes. PMID:24113514

  14. Contribuciones tecnicas para la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica de microondas. Estudio en diversas poblaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura Garcia, Jaume

    La contaminacion ambiental por campos electromagneticos ha resultado ser en estos ultimos anos uno de los problemas mas acuciantes del panorama tecnologico y de salud publica. En el primero de los casos porque las inversiones realizadas son enormes y en el segundo porque cada vez es mayor el numero de articulos, "technical reports" e informes medicos que afirman la existencia de una cierta causalidad, aunque sea debil, entre los campos electromagneticos y ciertos cuadros sintomatologicos. En nuestro caso, hemos dedicado bastantes esfuerzos a investigar el llamado "sindrome de radiofrecuencia / microondas", denominado asi en la literatura cientifica por presentarse en operarios de estaciones de radar y en trabajadores de potentes emisoras de radio y television. En esta memoria presentamos un resumen del trabajo realizado durante los ultimos anos en la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica ambiental asociado a las comunicaciones inalambricas. En ella se recogen los fundamentos fisicos y propiedades de las ondas electromagneticas, la tecnologia empleada en los sistemas de telefonia celular y los antecedentes relativos a la investigacion de la interaccion de las ondas electromagneticas con organismos vivos. Se desarrolla un procedimiento de medida que ha conducido a la elaboracion de los primeros "mapas de radiofrecuencia" similares, en el aspecto descriptivo, a los mapas de ruido desarrollados en el area de la contaminacion acustica. Por ultimo, se analiza la respuesta subjetiva de los residentes, personas que viven en el entorno de cobertura de las estaciones base de telefonia movil y que se ven sometidos a determinados niveles de radiacion electromagnetica, con el fin de situar este fenomeno al nivel que le corresponde en el ambito de la respuesta subjetiva ciudadana.

  15. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  16. An expansion of glider observation strategies to systematically transmit and analyze preferred waypoints of underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedstad, Lucy F.; Barron, Charlie N.; Bourg, Rachel N.; Brooking, Michael W.; Bryant, Danielle A.; Carr, Robert J.; Heaney, Kevin D.; Holmberg, Edward A.; Mask, Andrea C.; Mensi, Bryan L.

    2015-05-01

    The Glider Observation STrategies (GOST) system provides real-time assistance to ocean glider pilots by suggesting preferred ocean glider waypoints based on ocean forecasts and their uncertainties. Restrictions on waterspace, preferred operational areas, and other glider trajectories are also taken into account. Using existing operational regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) output, demonstrations of glider waypoint calculation are ongoing in Navy operational areas. After the ocean forecast models and GOST components run at the Navy DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (Navy DSRC), GOST-suggested glider paths are transferred to the Glider Operations Center (GOC). The glider pilots at the GOC import this information into their Unmanned Systems Interface (USI), developed at the University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) to evaluate the suggested glider paths, make adjustments, and update waypoints for the gliders. The waypoints being sent are visualized and analyzed using graphic capabilities to convey guidance uncertainty developed under a grant to the University of New Orleans (UNO) and added under the Environmental Measurements Path Planner (EMPath) system within GOST. USI forwards automatic messages from the gliders with recent glider location, speed, and depth to GOST for the next cycle. Over the course of these demonstrations, capabilities were added or modified including use of initial glider bearing, preferred path, refinement of glider turn frequency, correction of glider speed, and introduction of glider rendezvous locations. Automation has been added with help from the modeling group at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). GOST supports NAVOCEANO's ongoing efforts to direct and recover gliders, to safely navigate in changing ocean conditions, and to provide feedback to improve ocean model prediction.

  17. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America. PMID:24493951

  18. Comunicación de pareja y VIH en mujeres en desventaja social

    PubMed Central

    Rosina Cianelli, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Margarita Bernales, S.; Natalia Villegas, R.

    2009-01-01

    Introducción La epidemia de VIH y SIDA se ha diseminado rápidamente a nivel mundial tendiendo a la feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización. La comunicación de pareja en torno el VIH es descrita como uno de los factores protectores en la adquisición de esta enfermedad, favoreciendo la adopción de conductas sexuales seguras tales como la negociación de pareja y la utilización de preservativo, consideróndose como un pilar fundamental en la incorporación de medidas de autocuidado en la sexualidad femenina. Objetivo Determinar el nivel de comunicación de pareja en torno al VIH en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Cuatrocientas noventa y seis mujeres contestaron la entrevista inicial de la investigación “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women” (RO1 TW 006977 PI Cianelli). Se utilizó la escala “Health protective sexual communication scale (HPC)” (0–10 puntos). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 16.0. Resultados El promedio del nivel de comunicación de pareja fue de 3,26 ± 2,7 puntos con la pareja principal, de 2,52 ± 2,48 puntos con una segunda pareja y de 0 puntos con una tercera pareja. Los temas de menor comunicación entre las parejas fueron el uso de preservativo y la realización del test para VIH antes de tener relaciones sexuales. Conclusión Las mujeres de la muestra presentan bajos niveles de comunicación de pareja en relación a VIH con todas sus parejas sexuales. Son necesarias estrategias que potencien este tópico dentro de las intervenciones de prevención de VIH y SIDA de manera de fortalecer la adopción de conductas de autocuidado en torno al tema. PMID:19936328

  19. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones fueron transformados numericamente para poder obtener el coeficiente de correlacion de Spearman-Brown para el instrumento (0.661, p < 0.01). El analisis de las contestaciones de los estudiantes refleja percepciones diversas y, en algunos casos, contradictorias con respecto al contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico.

  20. Integrated miniature fluorescent probe to leverage the sensing potential of ZnO quantum dots for the detection of copper (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sing Muk; Wong, Derrick Sing Nguong; Phung, Jane Hui Chiun; Chin, Suk Fun; Chua, Hong Siang

    2013-11-15

    Quantum dots are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles that can be utilised for sensing applications. This paper evaluates the ability to leverage their analytical potential using an integrated fluorescent sensing probe that is portable, cost effective and simple to handle. ZnO quantum dots were prepared using the simple sol-gel hydrolysis method at ambient conditions and found to be significantly and specifically quenched by copper (II) ions. This ZnO quantum dots system has been incorporated into an in-house developed miniature fluorescent probe for the detection of copper (II) ions in aqueous medium. The probe was developed using a low power handheld black light as excitation source and three photo-detectors as sensor. The sensing chamber placed between the light source and detectors was made of 4-sided clear quartz windows. The chamber was housed within a dark compartment to avoid stray light interference. The probe was operated using a microcontroller (Arduino Uno Revision 3) that has been programmed with the analytical response and the working algorithm of the electronics. The probe was sourced with a 12 V rechargeable battery pack and the analytical readouts were given directly using a LCD display panel. Analytical optimisations of the ZnO quantum dots system and the probe have been performed and further described. The probe was found to have a linear response range up to 0.45 mM (R(2)=0.9930) towards copper (II) ion with a limit of detection of 7.68×10(-7) M. The probe has high repeatable and reliable performance. PMID:24148438

  1. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values. PMID:18030715

  2. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment. With this educational philosophy in mind, Massimo Banzi and his team have developed and popularized the open source Arduino microcontroller board. The Arduino board has helped countless people in their science, electronics, robotics, or engineering projects, allowing them to build things that we have not even dreamed of. Physics instructors have also realized the advantages of using Arduino boards for lab experiments. The schools are saving money because the homemade experimental equipment is much cheaper than the commercial alternatives. The students are thankful for an educational experience that is more interesting, more loaded with STEM content, and more fun. As further proof of this new trend in physics education, Vernier5 is now documenting the use of their probes with Arduino boards. This is why we have developed an Arduino-based physics investigation of the simple harmonic motion (SHM) of a mass on a spring. The experimental data are collected with the help of an ultrasonic distance sensor and an Arduino Uno board. The data are then graphed and analyzed using Origin 9. This rich cross-curricular STEM activity integrates electronics, computer programming, physics, and mathematics in a way that is both experimentally exciting and intellectually rewarding.

  3. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  4. Documenting 35 Years of Land Cover Change: Lago Cachet Dos Drainage, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Nimick, D.; McGrath, D.; Cole, C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million m3) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of lake-bed and valley-fill deposits, and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno. Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum thickness and extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 km2 in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits at its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  5. A cost-effective laser scanning method for mapping stream channel geometry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Norris; Nathanson, Marcus; Lundgren, Niclas; Rehnström, Robin; Lyon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In this pilot project, we combine an Arduino Uno and SICK LMS111 outdoor laser ranging camera to acquire high resolution topographic area scans for a stream channel. The microprocessor and imaging system was installed in a custom gondola and suspended from a wire cable system. To demonstrate the systems capabilities for capturing stream channel topography, a small stream (< 2m wide) in the Krycklan Catchment Study was temporarily diverted and scanned. Area scans along the stream channel resulted in a point spacing of 4mm and a point cloud density of 5600 points/m2 for the 5m by 2m area. A grain size distribution of the streambed material was extracted from the point cloud using a moving window, local maxima search algorithm. The median, 84th and 90th percentiles (common metrics to describe channel roughness) of this distribution were found to be within the range of measured values while the largest modelled element was approximately 35% smaller than its measured counterpart. The laser scanning system captured grain sizes between 30mm and 255mm (coarse gravel/pebbles and boulders based on the Wentworth (1922) scale). This demonstrates that our system was capable of resolving both large-scale geometry (e.g. bed slope and stream channel width) and small-scale channel roughness elements (e.g. coarse gravel/pebbles and boulders) for the study area. We further show that the point cloud resolution is suitable for estimating ecohydraulic parameters such as Manning's n and hydraulic radius. Although more work is needed to fine-tune our system's design, these preliminary results are encouraging, specifically for those with a limited operational budget.

  6. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  7. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 ?m, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  8. Documenting 35 years of land cover change: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Cole, Christopher J.; Wilson, Earl M.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Fahey, Mark J.; Leidich, Jonathan; O'Kuinghttons Villena, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million cubic meters) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of valley-fill deposits and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno.  Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 square kilometers (km2) in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits upstream of its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  9. Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang

    2001-02-01

    Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental de Terim (China). Sin embargo, en la última mitad de siglo, el rápido aumento de población y la sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos, pedológicos y biológicos han producido la sequía, salinización y desertificación en la zona, y, por consiguiente, han obstaculizado el desarrollo de una agricultura sostenible. En este estudio, se identificaron reservorios de agua subterránea con unos recursos equivalentes a 44,65×108 m3/a, hecho que ha permitido establecer varios proyectos en el área para mejorar el medio ambiente ecológico y agrícola. Se proponen tres estrategias para el desarrollo integrado y la gestión en la zona, tanto de los recursos superficiales como de los subterráneos.

  10. Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain-assessing and achieving groundwater resource sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduno, Hector; Evans, Richard; Olson, Doug; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Weizhen; Han, Zaisheng

    The Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain is one of the world's largest aquifer systems and supports an enormous exploitation of groundwater, which has reaped large socio-economic benefits in terms of grain production, farming employment and rural poverty alleviation, together with urban and industrial water-supply provision. Both population and economic activity have grown markedly in the past 25 years. Much of this has been heavily dependent upon groundwater resource development, which has encountered increasing difficulties in recent years primarily as a result of aquifer depletion and related phenomena. This paper focuses upon the hydrogeologic and socio-economic diagnosis of these groundwater resource issues, and identifies strategies to improve groundwater resource sustainability. L'aquifère Quaternaire de la Plaine du Nord de la Chine est l'un des plus grands systèmes aquifères du monde; il permet une exploitation énorme d'eau souterraine, qui a permis des très importants bénéfices socio-économiques en terme de production de céréales, d'emplois ruraux et de réduction de la pauvreté rurale, en même temps que l'approvisionnement en eau potable et pour l'industrie. La population comme l'activité économique ont remarquablement augmenté au cours de ces 25 dernières années. Elles ont été sous la forte dépendance du développement de la ressource en eau souterraine, qui a rencontré des difficultés croissantes ces dernières années, du fait du rabattement de l'aquifère et des phénomènes associés. Cet article est consacré aux diagnostiques hydrogéologique et socio-économique des retombées de cette ressource en eau souterraine; il identifie les stratégies pour améliorer la pérennité des ressources en eau souterraine. El acuífero cuaternario de la Llanura Septentrional de China es uno de los mayores sistemas acuíferos del mundo y soporta una enorme explotación de su agua subterránea, las cuales han originado grandes beneficios socioeconómicos en términos de producción de grano, empleo en agricultura y mitigación de la pobreza rural, además de proveer agua para abastecimiento urbano e industria. Tanto la población como la actividad económica han crecido mucho en los últimos 25 años con una gran dependencia de las aguas subterráneas, que ha encontrado dificultades recientes por la explotación intensiva del acuífero y fenómenos relacionados. Este artículo se centra en la diagnosis hidrogeológica y socioeconómica de los problemas relacionados con las aguas subterráneas e identifica estrategias para mejorar la sustentabilidad de este recurco.

  11. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos virgenes para evaluar la competicion por el apareamiento. Se midieron ocho rasgos morfometricos en machos exitosos y no exitosos: ancho de la cabeza, ancho de la cara, largo del ojo, largo del torax, largo del ala, ancho del ala, largo del femur y largo de la tibia. Se realizaron analisis morfometricos para determinar la relacion entre el fenotipo multivariado y el exito copulatorio. Para evaluar la seleccion sexual sobre el fenotipo del macho se utilizaron diferentes combinaciones de metodos estadisticos multivariados y analisis graficos. Los resultados demostraron que el ancho de ala y el largo de torax serian los blancos mas probables de seleccion sexual, y describen una asociacion no lineal entre el exito copulatorio y cada uno de estos dos rasgos. Dicha asociacion sugiere que la seleccion observada mantendria la diversidad para el tamano del cuerpo. (author)

  12. Ethics, transplantation, and the changing role of anatomists.

    PubMed

    Satyapal, K S

    2005-03-01

    Anatomists are regarded as custodians of cadaveric material donated to science. Almost every facet of medical science has experienced explosive advances. This has impacted directly on anatomists and their role. Increasingly, anatomists are raising concerns with regard to the treatment of human tissue (Jones,2002, Clin. Anat. 15:436-440). The Korperwelten (Bodyworlds) of Gunther von Hagens et al. (1987, Anat. Embryol. 175:411-421) has evoked considerable debate about the treatment of human cadavers. Thus far clinical anatomists have had little role to play in policy formulation, legislation, and ethical imperatives as applied to cadaveric donation for organ transplantation. Anatomists play an even more negligible role in the raging ethical controversy around live related/unrelated organ transplantation. Due to the critical international shortage of cadaveric donors, boundaries are being pushed to meet the needs of potential recipients (Ohler,2001, Prog. Transplant. 11:160-161). Constant reappraisal of these ethical and moral issues is therefore appropriate. Issues that relate to cultural and economic imperialism and pronouncements of international transplant societies may also require re-evaluation. The legislature governing the donation of human tissue in various countries is usually governed by a Human Tissue Act or its equivalent. In general, such acts are congruent with the Human Tissue Act (South Africa: Government Gazette 9, November 2001; No. 22824) that states "It is an offense to charge a fee in relation to the donation of human organs." In many countries, however, various lay press report that "the sale of body parts is now coming of age." Terms such as "rewarded gifting" and "donors" being transformed into "vendors" are opening a Pandora's Box (Nelson et al.,1993, "Financial incentives for organ donation: a report on the UNOS ethics committee payment subcommittee"). Cameron and Hoffenberg (1999, Kidney Int. 55:724-732) feel strongly that arguments in favour of the sale of organs are sufficiently cogent to warrant further discussion. Equally disturbing is the use of executed prisoners as organ donors. In the developing world there are additional socio-economic, indigenous and cultural, religious, and ethical issues to consider. In addition, strategies that are ethically sound and morally acceptable to expand the pool of living donors must keep pace with recent advances in medicine. A paradigm shift is required for anatomists to contribute to the international ethical debate, not only as custodians of the dead but also as protectors of the living. Their voices should be heard in transplantation and other forums, and contribute to the ethical debate as well as relevant evolving legislature. PMID:15696526

  13. Archive of Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Cruises 01SCC01 and 01SCC02, Timbalier Bay and Offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana, June-August, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2003-01-01

    In June, July, and August of 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans (UNO), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, conducted a shallow geophysical and sediment core survey of Timbalier Bay and the Gulf of Mexico offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital seismic reflection data, trackline navigation files, trackline navigation maps, observers' logbooks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. In addition, a filtered and gained digital Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) image of each seismic profile is provided. Please see Kulp and others (2002), Flocks and others (2003), and Kulp and others (in prep.) for further information about the sediment cores collected and the geophysical results. For convenience, a list of acronyms and abbreviations frequently used in this report is also included. This Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) document is readable on any computing platform that has standard DVD driver software installed. Documentation on this DVD was produced using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) utilized by the World Wide Web (WWW) and allows the user to access the information using a web browser (i.e. Netscape, Internet Explorer). To access the information contained on this disc, open the file 'index.htm' located at the top level of the disc using a web browser. This report also contains WWW links to USGS collaborators and other agencies. These links are only accessible if access to the Internet is available while viewing this DVD. The archived boomer seismic reflection data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry et al., 1975) and may be downloaded for processing with public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU), currently located at http://www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes/index.html. Examples of SU processing scripts are provided in the BOOM.tar file located in the SU subfolder of the SOFTWARE folder located at the top level of this disc. In-house (USGS) DOS and Microsoft Windows compatible software for viewing SEG-Y headers - DUMPSEGY.EXE (Zihlman, 1992) - is provided in the USGS subfolder of the SOFTWARE folder. Processed profile images, trackline navigation maps, logbooks, and formal metadata may be viewed with a web browser.

  14. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Uriae M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant Habitat (PH) is an experiment to be taken to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. It is critical that ground support computers have the ability to uplink commands to control PH, and that ISS computers have the ability to downlink PH telemetry data to ground support. This necessitates communication software that can send, receive, and process, PH specific commands and telemetry. The objective of the Plant Habitat Telemetry/ Command Interface is to provide this communication software, and to couple it with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI). Initial investigation of the project objective led to the decision that code be written in C++ because of its compatibility with existing source code infrastructures and robustness. Further investigation led to a determination that multiple Ethernet packet structures would need to be created to effectively transmit data. Setting a standard for packet structures would allow us to distinguish these packets that would range from command type packets to sub categories of telemetry packets. In order to handle this range of packet types, the conclusion was made to take an object-oriented programming approach which complemented our decision to use the C++ programming language. In addition, extensive utilization of port programming concepts was required to implement the core functionality of the communication software. Also, a concrete understanding of a packet processing software was required in order to put aU the components of ISS-to-Ground Support Equipment (GSE) communication together and complete the objective. A second project discussed in this paper is Exposing Microbes to the Stratosphere (EMIST). This project exposes microbes into the stratosphere to observe how they are impacted by atmospheric effects. This paper focuses on the electrical and software expectations of the project, specifically drafting the printed circuit board, and programming the on-board sensors. The Eagle Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) software was used to draft the E-MIST circuit. This required several component libraries to be created. Coding the sensors and obtaining sensor data involved using the Arduino Uno developmental board and coding language, and properly wiring peripheral sensors to the microcontroller (the central control unit of the experiment).

  15. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical type (meteorological, edaphic, water resources), of use of the ground (agriculturist, forest, mining, industrial, urban, tourist, cattle dealer), economic (income, costs, benefits, infrastructures), social (population), politician (implementation, legislation), educative (Educational programs, diffusion) and environmental, at the present moment and the future. The intention is to obtain tools for aiding to get a realistic position for these challenges, which are an important part of the future problems of humanity in next decades.

  16. Louisiana Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) Program Summary Report: Data and Analyses 2006 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kulp, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) program was implemented under the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology (LCA S&T) office as a component of the System Wide Assessment and Monitoring (SWAMP) program. The BICM project was developed by the State of Louisiana (Coastal Protection Restoration Authority [CPRA], formerly Department of Natural Resources [DNR]) to complement other Louisiana coastal monitoring programs such as the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System-Wetlands (CRMS-Wetlands) and was a collaborative research effort by CPRA, University of New Orleans (UNO), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goal of the BICM program was to provide long-term data on the barrier islands of Louisiana that could be used to plan, design, evaluate, and maintain current and future barrier-island restoration projects. The BICM program used both historical and newly acquired (2006 to 2010) data to assess and monitor changes in the aerial and subaqueous extent of islands, habitat types, sediment texture and geotechnical properties, environmental processes, and vegetation composition. BICM datasets included aerial still and video photography (multiple time series) for shoreline positions, habitat mapping, and land loss; light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys for topographic elevations; single-beam and swath bathymetry; and sediment grab samples. Products produced using BICM data and analyses included (but were not limited to) storm-impact assessments, rate of shoreline and bathymetric change, shoreline-erosion and accretion maps, high-resolution elevation maps, coastal-shoreline and barrier-island habitat-classification maps, and coastal surficial-sediment characterization maps. Discussions in this report summarize the extensive data-collection efforts and present brief interpretive analyses for four coastal Louisiana geographic regions. In addition, several coastal-wide and topical themes were selected that integrate the data and analyses within a broader coastal context: (1) barrier-shoreline evolution driven by rapid relative sea-level rise (RSLR), (2) hurricane impacts to the Chandeleur Islands and likelihood of island recovery, (3) impact of tropical storms on barrier shorelines, (4) Barataria Bay tidal-inlet management, and (5) habitat changes related to RSLR. The final theme addresses potential future goals of the BICM program, including rotational annual to semi-decadal monitoring, proposed new-data collection, how to incorporate technological advances with previous data-collection and monitoring protocols, and standardizing methods and quality-control assessments for continued coastal monitoring and restoration.

  17. New Initiatives for a Successful Diversity Program at the University of New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Hall, F.

    2002-12-01

    The Geoscience Program at the University of New Orleans has been actively working to increase diversity in the Geosciences since 1974 when Dr. Louis Fernandez (now at Cal State San Bernardino) initiated a summer field trip for local minority high school juniors and seniors. That early effort was funded with a grant from the National Science Foundation. After the NSF support ended, the department and local Petroleum companies maintained the program continuously to the present. The summer field trip has been a major source of minority geoscientists nationally and our minority enrollment has grown rapidly during the past approximately 5 years primarily as a result of significant additional scholarship support from industry. Based on our preliminary success, we decided to make a major effort to expand our program beyond the basic field trip and scholarships. In particular, with a grant from the National Science Foundation Geoscience Diversity program beginning this past year, we have 1) initiated a new summer field program for high school freshmen and sophomores that focus on our local environment, 2) created a summer field trip for K-12 science teachers, 3) developed a new program of independent research for our undergraduate students and 4) brought in our first two visiting professors. The new summer program involved 10 students in a 2-1/2 week series of classes, field trips and camping activities. In addition to studying the environment, students produced a movie about their experiences and a website. We anticipate a larger group of students in next year's program and that several of this past summer's participants will apply to go on our field trip for Juniors and Seniors when they are eligible. The first summer field trip for teachers focused on the area around the Teton Mountains and Yellowstone National park in Wyoming and Idaho. We devoted considerable time to learning basic geologic principles and collecting rock and fossil samples, outside of the national parks, for their classrooms. The teachers prepared material on our field trip stops and we videotaped their presentations at the outcrops for future use in the classroom. Seven undergraduate students conducted independent research as part of our new program. One participated in a REU project in Rhode Island and the other six conducted a variety of independent projects at UNO. Two of these projects have produced abstracts for national meetings and others are anticipated. Finally, we have supported two visiting faculty to provide role models and classes relevant to our minority students. It is too early to assess the full success of most of these new initiatives but the independent research has clearly given our students an improved attitude about themselves and what they want to do with their future.

  18. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion por quienes promueven estas practicas. A partir de los resultados, la investigadora concluye que la problematica sobre la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia esta influenciada por unos procesos de ensenanza enfocados en una vision distorsionada de la ciencia, producto de la no integracion de los aspectos filosoficos, historicos y sociales de la misma.

  19. Alfabetización en Astronomía de docentes de Educación Primaria y de Educación Secundaria en La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    2014-10-01

    La educación de este siglo tiene como uno de sus retos alcanzar la alfabetización cientfica de todos los ciudadanos para que comprendan y tomen decisiones sobre el mundo natural y sus cambios originados por la actividad humana utilizando el conocimiento científico. En esta misión los docentes de los niveles obligatorios de enseñanza juegan un papel clave por su rol de agentes multiplicadores del conocimiento. Se requiere, entonces de una adecuada alfabetización en ciencias de los docentes o, como mínimo, que dominen los temas científicos a enseñar. En el campo de la Astronomía, numerosas investigaciones han señalado que maestros de primaria y estudiantes de profesorados poseen una escasa formación en estos temas (Camino 1995 y 1999, Gangui 2010), que frecuentemente presentan a los alumnos concepciones alternativas o no científicas de los fenómenos astronómicos cotidianos (Kriner 2004, Vega Navarro 2007, Gangui et al 2010); a lo que se suma la presentación confusa o errónea de algunos temas astronómicos en los textos escolares (Kriner 2004). Desde 2011, la Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP, ofrece un curso de capacitación destinado a fortalecer y actualizar los contenidos académicos y didácticos de los docentes del distrito La Plata utilizando diversas estrategias didácticas. Los contenidos comprenden los temas astronómicos de los diseños curriculares vigentes. La evaluación diagnóstica de los conocimientos previos de los docentes cursantes sobre los contenidos de mayor presencia en los diseños curriculares mostró resultados similares a las investigaciones arriba mencionadas. Referente a los movimientos de la Tierra, en promedio, el 54% poseía conceptos erróneos y el 16% no los sabía; con referencia a la Luna el 56% poseía conceptos erróneos y un 4% no los sabía. Los resultados del curso mostraron que el 95% de los docentes revirtió sus conceptos previos erróneos, que adquirió criterios para la búsqueda de fuentes de información confiables y que el grado de conocimientos disciplinares y didácticos alcanzados por los docentes garantiza el efecto multiplicador de esta propuesta. Esta capacitación fue acreditada con puntaje por el organismo educativo provincial en 2011, 2012 y 2013.

  20. Exchange between a river and groundwater, assessed with hydrochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, E.; Scholtis, A.

    2010-11-01

    We describe the chemical composition of groundwater from an alluvial granular aquifer in a valley fill flood plain (River Thur Valley). The aim of this work is to investigate the chemical processes, which are necessary to manage groundwater quality during river restorations. The river flows along this valley and is mostly downwelling on its way, indirectly through an unsaturated zone in the upstream part, and directly through the water-saturated bed in the downstream part. River Thur has been channelized with barriers for more than a century. Since 1992, the authorities started to restore sections of River Thur with river-bed enlargements. Several wells near the river draw groundwater, which is partly to mainly recharged by bank filtration. Many alpine and perialpine rivers have a total mineralization in the order of 200-400 mg L-1 and the chemical composition of the main constituents is of a Ca-Mg-HCO3u>-(NO3) type. The groundwater composition changes with increasing distance from the downwelling river and with increasing depth in the aquifer. The groundwater body consists of a mixture of groundwater from the seepage of precipitation and from river-bank filtration. The main difference between river water and groundwater results from the microbial activity in river-bed and bank materials. This activity leads to a consumption of O2 and to a higher partial pressure in CO2 in the groundwater. A spatial distribution of different groundwater types was established with geochemical mapping of concentration data, and with fluid logging. Criteria for the distinction of different groundwater compositions are the distance of a well from the river and the subsurface residence time of the groundwater to reach this well. Some of the groundwater has a very short residence time in the subsurface of days to weeks, and some of months to years. Groundwater in the River Thur valley aquifer is not pristine. The land use in the flood plain and the seasonal and climatic conditions (e.g., hot dry summer 2003) result in alterations of the natural geochemical groundwater composition. Time-series measurements of nitrate (from agricultural impact in the catchment) and chloride showed temporal changes in groundwater composition. Bed enlargements in river corridors can lead to a reduction of groundwater residence times and to an increase of riverbank filtration in nearby wells, which increases their contamination risk.

  1. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    PubMed Central

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las propiedades difíciles de los sistemas de votación sobresalen en las tomas de decisiones rutinarias cuando hay criterios múltiples y alternativas de manejo. Ya que ambos métodos tienen fallas, no apoyamos a uno sobre el otro. En lugar de esto le pedimos urgentemente a los organizadores ser transparentes con respecto a las propiedades de los sistemas de votación y ofrecer a los participantes la oportunidad de aprobar el sistema de votación como parte de las reglas básicas para la operación de un grupo. PMID:24423154

  2. First principle calculations of effective exchange integrals: Comparison between SR (BS) and MR computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Kizashi; Nishihara, Satomichi; Saito, Toru; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Kawakami, Takashi; Yamada, Satoru; Isobe, Hiroshi; Okumura, Mitsutaka

    2015-01-22

    First principle calculations of effective exchange integrals (J) in the Heisenberg model for diradical species were performed by both symmetry-adapted (SA) multi-reference (MR) and broken-symmetry (BS) single reference (SR) methods. Mukherjee-type (Mk) state specific (SS) MR coupled-cluster (CC) calculations by the use of natural orbital (NO) references of ROHF, UHF, UDFT and CASSCF solutions were carried out to elucidate J values for di- and poly-radical species. Spin-unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) based coupled-cluster (CC) computations were also performed to these species. Comparison between UHF-NO(UNO)-MkMRCC and BS UHF-CC computational results indicated that spin-contamination of UHF-CC solutions still remains at the SD level. In order to eliminate the spin contamination, approximate spin-projection (AP) scheme was applied for UCC, and the AP procedure indeed corrected the error to yield good agreement with MkMRCC in energy. The CC double with spin-unrestricted Brueckner's orbital (UBD) was furthermore employed for these species, showing that spin-contamination involved in UHF solutions is largely suppressed, and therefore AP scheme for UBCCD removed easily the rest of spin-contamination. We also performed spin-unrestricted pure- and hybrid-density functional theory (UDFT) calculations of diradical and polyradical species. Three different computational schemes for total spin angular momentums were examined for the AP correction of the hybrid (H) UDFT. HUDFT calculations followed by AP, HUDFT(AP), yielded the S-T gaps that were qualitatively in good agreement with those of MkMRCCSD, UHF-CC(AP) and UB-CC(AP). Thus a systematic comparison among MkMRCCSD, UCC(AP) UBD(AP) and UDFT(AP) was performed concerning with the first principle calculations of J values in di- and poly-radical species. It was found that BS (AP) methods reproduce MkMRCCSD results, indicating their applicability to large exchange coupled systems.

  3. A Year-round Observation of Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles at the Cape Ochiishi, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, K.; Mukai, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    New particle formation by nucleation of gas-phase compounds emitted from marine biogenic sources is very important for climate change. To clarify the mechanism of the formation, size distributions of submicron aerosols have been measured at the Cape Ochiishi, facing the North Western Pacific Ocean where primary productivity is high. A test observation was done from 22nd May to 18th June 2008 and a year-round observation has been performed from 16th October 2009 to 7th September 2010. The size distribution from 10 nm to 487 nm in diameter was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI 3034). Sample air was dried to lower than 40%. Transport of sulfate, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) was estimated with Chemical weather FORecasting System (CFORS), developed by Prof. Uno, Kyushu University, Japan. Existence of inversion layer was estimated with temperature profile measured at surface, 10m, 30m, and 50m in altitude. The burst of the particles smaller than 20nm in diameter continuing longer than 3 hrs was observed ten times until 3rd November 2009. Two were observed in early summer and the other was in autumn. Banana shape was faintly observed five times. Transport of sulfate, OC, and BC was observed 3, 8, 9 times, respectively. Source of air mass was estimated with these elements, weather map, and wind direction. Five air masses were estimated to continental. Clearly nucleation related to marine sources was not observed. The size distribution of burst evens of maritime and continental air mass showed the shift of mode to larger diameter. Strong inversion of temperature was observed once. The value of size distribution did not show high. Minimum value of size distribution was observed in the strong rain on 27th October. Acknowledgments This study was partly supported by the Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (18067005). The observation was performed at the monitoring station of the National Institute for Environmental Studies.

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael, D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

  6. Geographic variation and evolutionary relationships among broad-clawed shrews of the Cryptotis goldmani–group (Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae)

    E-print Network

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    The Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews consists of species that occupy high elevation (>1000 m) habitats in Mexico and northern Central America. Previously, this group was viewed as consisting of only two species (Cryptotis goldmani...Resumen--Las musarañas de orejas pequeñas del grupo de especies Cryptotis goldmani ocurren en hábitats de altas elevaciones (> 1000 msnm) en México y el norte de Centroamérica. Anteriormente, se consideraba que este grupo se constaba de solamente dos especies (Cryptotis goldmani y Cryptotis goodwinii) que se caracterizaban por la agrandación excesiva de las patas y las uñas delanteras. Filogenéticamente C. goldmani y C. goodwini se encontraban en el grupo de especies Cryptotis mexicana sensu Choate (1970), un grupo que además incluía solomente C. mexicana con cuatro subespecies. Nuestra revisión de estas musarañas indica que las subespecies de C. mexicana son taxones bien diferenciados que reconocemos como especies distintas (Cryptotis mexicana, Cryptotis nelsoni, Cryptotis obscura, y Cryptotis peregrina). El grupo de especies C. goldmani consta de por lo menos cuatro especies distintas: Cryptotis alticola, en Colima, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Puebla y el Distrito Federal de México; C. goldmani, en la Sierra Madre del Sur en Guerrero y Oaxaca; C. goodwini, en Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador, y Honduras; y Cryptotis griseoventris, en las montañas del norte de Chiapas y Guatemala. Un ejemplar único de C. goodwini muestra la presencia de tal en Honduras, fuera de la distribución anteriormente conocida para el grupo de especies C. mexicana. Este espécimen nuevo tiene características que sugieren que la población hondureña es filogenéticamente distinta a los demás C. goodwini; por lo tanto, se lo describe aquí como una nueva subespecie de C. goodwini. Nuestro análisis morfológico muestra que la agrandación de las patas y las uñas delanteras es una tendencia presente en todo el grupo C. mexicana, y que alcanza su desarrollo máximo en las especies del grupo C. goldmani. Tal tendencia se relaciona con modificaciones funcionales del esqueleto del miembro delantero. Nuestro análisis filogenético, basado en 29 carácteres, indica que el grupo C. mexicana es un cIado bien definido y justifica la posición del grupo C. goldmani dentro del grupo anterior. La topología de cada uno de los arboles filogenéticos más cortos demuestra que las especies anteriormente tratadas como subespecies de C. mexicana son parafiléticas con respecto al grupo de especies C. goldmani....

  7. Comparison of tropospheric NO2 observations by GOME and ground stations over Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Itoh, H.; Shibasaki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Uno, I.; Ohara, T.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are anthropogenically emitted as a form of NO in the high-temperature burning processes of fossil fuels mainly in energy generations and vehicles. Because NOx is a precursor of ozone, which is composed of a so-called photochemical smog, and is a health-hazard matter, the monitoring of NO2 is important to control air quality. The satellite observation is one of the most suitable methods for the monitoring of air pollution because satellite observations can obtain a global distribution of the pollutants. However, the observation of tropospheric gases by satellites still includes technically challenging problems, and the field is developing. To test whether satellite observations could successfully detect the behavior of tropospheric NO2, we compared satellite and ground-based observations of tropospheric NO2 over the Tokyo region. The satellite data were tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) derived from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer measurements (hereafter GOME-NO2) [Richter et al., 2005], and the ground-based data were surface NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) observed by the network of air-quality monitoring stations in Tokyo. The analysis was performed for the data from January 1996 to June 2003. We found a strong correlation between GOME-NO2 and the surface VMR. They showed a similar seasonal variation with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The result suggested that GOME was observing the behavior of NO2 near the surface in the Tokyo region. A more rigorous comparison was conducted by scaling the surface NO2 VMR to the tropospheric VCD with vertical NO2 VMR profiles. The NO2 profiles were calculated by using the chemical transport model CMAQ/REAS [Uno et al., 2007; Ohara et al., 2007]. This second comparison indicated that the GOME observations represent the behavior of NO2 more closely at the relatively unpolluted ground stations than at the highly polluted ground stations of the air-quality monitoring. This tendency could be attributed to the horizontal heterogeneity within a GOME footprint (320kmX40km). Comparison with a previous study in northern Italy [Ordonez et al., 2006] showed that the GOME-NO2 measurements tended to be smaller over Tokyo than over northern Italy. There would be two reasons for such a difference. First, areas of ocean intruding into the GOME pixels could lower the observed GOME-NO2 because Tokyo is located in a coastal land region with a gulf. Second, the pollution in Tokyo is so spatially concentrated that the rural regions contaminating GOME pixels could also reduce the observed NO2 concentration from its true spatially resolved value.

  8. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em particular, é foco deste ensaio: a astronomia. Em que sentido e em que medida valeria a pena abordá-la em aulas, seja de ciências, seja de astronomia especificamente, ou em disciplinas afins? Discutimos neste texto alguns aspectos das vantagens de se tratar essa área do conhecimento nas escolas, levando em conta as dimensões epistemológica e axiológica da astronomia, à luz da visão da ciência como um diálogo inteligente com o mundo, de Bachelard, além da proposta de problematização do conhecimento, de Paulo Freire. Proporemos que de fato a astronomia não precisa ser vista como apenas um novo conjunto de conteúdos a serem ensinados, mas figura como conjunto de temas motivadores para discussões histórico-filosóficas, além de permitir a abordagem de conceitos típicos de outras disciplinas.

  9. Interpretation of tracer tests performed in fractured rock of the Lange Bramke basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloszewski, Piotr; Herrmann, Andreas; Zuber, Andrzej

    Two multitracer tests performed in one of the major cross-fault zones of the Lange Bramke basin (Harz Mountains, Germany) confirm the dominant role of the fault zone in groundwater flow and solute transport. Tracers having different coefficients of molecular diffusion (deuterium, bromide, uranine, and eosine) yielded breakthrough curves that can only be explained by a model that couples the advective-dispersive transport in the fractures with the molecular diffusion exchange in the matrix. For the scale of the tests (maximum distance of 225m), an approximation was used in which the influence of adjacent fractures is neglected. That model yielded nearly the same rock and transport parameters for each tracer, which means that the single-fracture approximation is acceptable and that matrix diffusion plays an important role. The hydraulic conductivity of the fault zone obtained from the tracer tests is about 1.5×10-2m/s, whereas the regional hydraulic conductivity of the fractured rock mass is about 3×10-7m/s, as estimated from the tritium age and the matrix porosity of about 2%. These values show that the hydraulic conductivity along the fault is several orders of magnitude larger than that of the remaining fractured part of the aquifer, which confirms the dominant role of the fault zones as collectors of water and conductors of fast flow. Résumé Deux multitraçages ont été réalisés dans l'une des zones principales de failles du bassin de Lange Bramke (massif du Harz, Allemagne); les résultats confirment le rôle prédominant de la zone de failles pour l'écoulement souterrain et le transport de soluté. Les traceurs, possédant des coefficients de diffusion différents (deutérium, bromure, uranine et éosine), ont fourni des courbes de restitution qui ne peuvent être expliquées que par un modèle qui associe un transport advectif-dispersif dans les fractures à un échange par diffusion moléculaire dans la matrice. A l'échelle des expériences (distance maximale de 225m), l'influence des fractures adjacentes a été négligée. Ce modèle a fourni pour chaque traceur pratiquement les mêmes paramètres pour la roche et le transport, ce qui signifie que l'approximation de la fracture unique est acceptable et que la diffusion dans la matrice joue un rôle important. La conductivité hydraulique de la zone de faille fournie par les traçages est d'environ 1,5×10-2m/s, alors que la conductivité hydraulique régionale de la roche fracturée dans son ensemble est de l'ordre de 3×10-7m/s, selon l'estimation tirée des âges tritium et de la porosité de la matrice d'environ 2%. Ces valeurs montrent que la conductivité hydraulique le long de la faille est supérieure de plusieurs ordres de grandeur à celle de la partie fracturée restante de l'aquifère, ce qui confirme le rôle prédominant joué par les zones de failles comme drains de l'eau et comme axes d'écoulement rapide. Resumen Dos ensayos con múltiples trazadores realizados en una de las zonas más fracturadas de la cuenca de Lange Bramke (Montes Harz, Alemania) confirman el papel dominante de la zona de fractura en el flujo de agua subterránea y el transporte de solutos. Trazadores con distintos coeficientes de difusión molecular (deuterio, bromuro, uranina y eosina) dieron curvas de llegada que sólo pueden ser explicadas mediante un modelo que acople el transporte advectivo-dispersivo en las fracturas con la difusión en la matriz. Para la escala de los ensayos (distancia máxima de 225m), se usó como aproximación que la influencia de las fracturas adyacentes podía despreciarse. Este modelo dio lugar para cada trazador a valores muy similares de los parámetros de transporte, lo que supone que la aproximación de fractura única es aceptable y que la difusión en la matriz es un mecanismo importante. La conductividad hidráulica de la zona fracturada obtenida de los ensayos es de unos 1.5×10-2m/s, mientras que la conductividad hidráulica regional para la matriz rocosa es de unos 3×10-7m/s, valor estimado de la edad del tritio y la porosidad

  10. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to fight against desertification and erosion in the Chaco area in Salta Province of Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    That area in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentina has a size not smaller than Belgium and low growing population, and is a specific example of combined natural, ecologic, agricultural and human evolution, where a main restriction is the necessity to avoid desertification, that is the soil quality loss studied now in several forums, the U.N.O. having said "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". It is one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved on it. Ones are in relation with natural phenomena like water and wind erosion. Others with human activities linked to soil use and water management, and finally with inappropriate activities. The parallel 24° S is central and sun is intense, annual rain is between 1000mm to 600mm being lower at East, and climate is agreable for humans specially at dry season from May to November. The soils came mostly as large deposits from rivers, from Andes Mountains, the large study area is rather flat with low mountains at SW, otherwise altitude is from 500m at NW to 200 at SE. The Bermejo is the greater river and at cross from NW to SE and has elevated land and consequently has migrated 50-100 km to NE letting a smaller channel in previous course. The city of Salta is out at West, organized since about 1588, and a main road runs N-S at the higher West of the area communicating it with Salta and towards distant Rio de la Plata for commerce, and with Bolivia at Nord. The use of land changes from West, which is now intensely cultivated and uses somewhere water from rivers, to East were the Wichi Indians live primitively and freely in a very large natural area using goats and "chanchos" (pigs) of European origin that grow in big numbers undomesticated, having somehow degraded original natural vegetation that contains now specific shrubs and small trees in areas more or less inundated by Bermejo in rainy season that is roughly from November to May. The Indians have at disposal schools and the limits of the organized area are moving to east with care for them and to prevent desertification. The authors from UPM and UCS consider diverse alternative possibilities of future use of soil, taking into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. They have elaborated for this presentation a multicriteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan in order to solve this problem in each area. Eight criteria and six alternatives have been introduced in the model. Six subzones have been established following previous studies.

  11. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-03-15

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO{sub 2} emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO{sub 2} emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO{sub 2} emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO{sub 2} emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO{sub 2} emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [Spanish] En el presente estudio se investigaron los patrones de intercambio gaseoso (emision de CO{sub 2}) en pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) incubadas a diferentes temperaturas. El estudio fue realizado con la finalidad de explorar la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso en la determinacion de la edad fisiologica de pupas durante su produccion masiva en proyectos de mosca esteril. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} fue medido en un sistema cerrado de 'flujo a traves del sistema' conectado a un detector infrarrojo de gases. La actividad metabolica de la pupa (emision de CO{sub 2}) fue contrastado al color del ojo de la pupa en desarrollo, que constituye la actual tecnica de determinacion de la edad fisiologica. El color de ojos en pupa fue determinado digitalmente, usando tres variables (Tendencia, Saturacion e Intensidad). Los colores fueron separados utilizando el analisis discriminatorio. Los patrones de emision de CO{sub 2} durante el desarrollo de la pupa sugieren una tendencia de U: una alta actividad metabolica durante la fase inicial de pupacion y transformacion y durante la fase final del adulto. La temperatura de incubacion afecto el tiempo de desarrollo pero no el patron basico de actividad metabolica. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} uno y dos dias antes de la emergencia del adulto fue muy similar para pupas mantenidas en las diversas temperaturas. El color digital del ojo de la pupa se correlaciono significativamente con los patrones de emision de CO{sub 2} detectados a partir de la fase media de la transformacion de larva a adulto. Los resultados soportan la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso como un sistema auxiliar para la determinacion de la edad fisiologica en cria masiva de moscas de la fruta. (author)

  12. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [Spanish] Los articulos presentados en este numero se enfocan en el desarrollo y la validacion de procedimientos para mejorar la calidad total de moscas de las frutas esteriles para su uso en programas de manejo integrado de plagas en donde la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) es uno de los componentes clave. El grupo fue coordinado y parcialmente financiado por la Division Conjunta de Tecnicas Nucleares para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO/OIEA, Viena, Austria, por un periodo de cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)

  13. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (?). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by ?, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux croisés, les distributions des sources par ensemble de fractures ont été comparées aux situations géologiques et aux écarts liés aux différences dans les structures des roches et, probablement, aux différences dans leurs histoires de déformations. Les relations entre la fréquence des sources et la structure des roches ont été étudiées ensuite par détermination spectrale, modèle présenté dans cette étude. Les données d'entrée sont les fréquences des sources et les longueurs des fractures dans chaque domaine géologique, en plus des angles entre directions de fractures et orientation du champ de contraintes actuel (?). La sortie du modèle donne les densités dites intrinsèques, un paramètre indexant l'existence d'une source à des facteurs tels que le type de fracture et le régime et l'âge associés de la déformation. Les densités les plus fortes (12,2 sources par km de linéament) ont été associées à des fractures jeunes produites par des déformations lentes, et les plus faibles (0,1) aux fractures anciennes ductiles et de tension. La détermination spectrale associe également chaque classe d'orientation à un paramètre structural dominant: quand la présence d'une source est contrôlée par ?, la classe est parallèle à l'orientation actuelle du champ de contrainte; lorsque le contrôle est attribué à la longueur des fractures, la présence de sources suit le plan des failles normales à grande échelle traversant la région. Resumen. Se ha llevado a cabo un inventario de manantiales emergentes de fracturas (manantiales de fracturas) en la cuenca del Río Pinhão y en el Macizo de Morais. El área estudiada ocupa unos 650 km2 y se halla al Norte de Portugal. Se ha identificado más de 1.500 manantiales, los cuales han sido asociados con dominios geológicos y conjuntos de fracturas. Mediante el Análisis de la Tabulación Cruzada, se ha comparado la distribución de los manantiales por conjuntos de fracturas entre ambientes geológicos, así como las desviaciones relacionadas con diferencias en la estructura de la roca y,

  14. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    The aim is to analyse the negative influence of high panel temperatures on electrical production when they are placed on steel roofs of industrial buildings and greenhouse roofs. Different configurations have been tested in order to allow cooling of photovoltaic panels to decrease panel temperature and improve electrical performance. To research this problem two experimental facilities have been built. The first facility includes two panels fixed on a structure. A panel is integrated on a parallel steel plate which does not allow sufficient cooling. Between both surfaces, there is an open air channel in which an air flow is created by the chimney effect thus cooling the panel by natural convection or inducing air, using a fan, by forced convection. The other panel has not any plate underneath it and is used as a referent. The electrical behaviour of the integrated panel has been studied for different air gaps and induced velocities, being also compared with the reference panel. An experimental model was developed to establish correlations which allow determine the panel temperature depending on the influential variables on the cooling ability. This research also analyses the data of a working solar plant, with the same panel model, obtaining the correlations between electrical variables and panel temperature. A comparison with the electrical behaviour in the experimental facility and the solar plant is also presented. The second experimental facility is a replica of a photovoltaic greenhouse. It consists of four photovoltaic panels placed on the plastic roof, providing an open and divergent channel between both surfaces thus creating an air flow by natural convection. This research studies the effect of high temperatures within the greenhouse which is transferred by the roof and thus affects the electrical production. In addition, two air gaps were used and the effect of adding insulating material to the plastic roof was studied. The electrical variables of the panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la influencia de las altas temperaturas en el interior del invernadero sobre la produccion electric

  15. Geology and hydrogeology of the Dammam Formation in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awadi, E.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Senafy, M. N.

    The Dammam Formation of Middle Eocene age is one of the major aquifers containing useable brackish water in Kuwait. Apart from the paleokarst zone at the top, the Dammam Formation in Kuwait consists of 150-200m of dolomitized limestone that is subdivided into three members, on the basis of lithology and biofacies. The upper member consists of friable chalky dolomicrite and dolomite. The middle member is mainly laminated biomicrite and biodolomicrite. The lower member is nummulitic limestone with interlayered shale toward the base. Geophysical markers conform to these subdivisions. Core analyses indicate that the upper member is the most porous and permeable of the three units, as confirmed by the distribution of lost-circulation zones. The quality of water in the aquifer deteriorates toward the north and east. A potentiometric-head difference exists between the Dammam Formation and the unconformably overlying Kuwait Group; this difference is maintained by the presence of an intervening aquitard. Résumé La formation de Damman, d'âge Éocène moyen, est l'un des principaux aquifères du Koweit, contenant de l'eau saumâtre utilisable. A part dans sa partie supérieure où existe un paléokarst, la formation de Damman au Koweit est constituée par 150 à 200m de calcaires dolomitisés, divisés en trois unités sur la base de leur lithologie et de biofaciès. L'unité supérieure est formée d'une dolomicrite crayeuse et friable et d'une dolomie. L'unité médiane est pour l'essentiel une biomicrite laminée et une biodolomicrite. L'unité inférieure est un calcaire nummulitique avec des intercalations argileuses vers la base. Les marqueurs géophysiques sont conformes à ces subdivisions. Les analyses de carottes montrent que l'unité supérieure est la plus poreuse et la plus perméable des trois. La répartition des zones d'écoulement souterrain confirment ces données. La qualité de l'eau dans l'aquifère se dégrade en direction du nord et de l'est. Une différence de niveau piézométrique est observée entre la formation de Damman et le groupe de Koweit qui la recouvre en discordance; cette différence est due à la présence d'un niveau imperméable qui la maintient captive. Resumen La Formación Damman, del Eoceno Medio, es uno de los mayores acuíferos de agua salobre aprovechable en Kuwait. Además de una zona de paleokarst en la parte superior, la Formación Damman en Kuwait consiste en 150-200m de caliza dolomitizada, que se subdivide en tres zonas en función de la litología y la biofacies. La parte superior está formada por dolomicrita yesífera friable y dolomita. La parte central es básicamente biomicrita laminada y biodolomicrita. La inferior es caliza nummulítica, con intercalaciones de pizarra en la base. Los marcadores geofísicos reflejan claramente estas subdivisiones. Los análisis de testigos revelan que la parte superior es la más porosa y permeable de las tres unidades. Esto queda confirmado con la distribución de zonas de circulación perdidas. La calidad del agua en el acuífero se deteriora hacia el norte y el este. Sobre la Formación Damman, y de manera no conforme, suprayace otra formación, que se conoce como Grupo Kuwaití. Existe una diferencia de niveles piezométricos entre ambas formaciones, la cual se mantiene por la presencia de una capa semiconfinante.

  16. Obituary: William L. Kraushaar, 1920-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Professor William L. Kraushaar, a former MIT physics professor and a pioneer in the field of high-energy astronomy, died 21 March 2008 of complications from Parkinson's disease. He was 87. Kraushaar received his bachelor's degree from Lafayette College in 1942. During World War II he worked at the National Bureau of Standards on projects that included development of the proximity fuse for artillery shells. After the war he earned his doctorate at Cornell University. In 1949 Kraushaar was appointed research associate at MIT, where he made the first measurements of the mean life of the pi meson at the MIT electron synchrotron. Over the next fifteen years he rose through the faculty ranks, becoming a full professor before leaving MIT for the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1965. In 1957 Kraushaar began a decade-long effort to map the sky in the "light" of cosmic gamma rays. Their detection promised to open new ways to investigate high-energy processes in the universe. Initial balloon-borne experiments failed due to background gamma rays generated in the residual atmosphere above the highest attainable altitudes. In 1958, Kraushaar seized a new opportunity for experiments above the atmosphere. Working with Professor George Clark, he directed the development in the MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science of a gamma-ray detector for a satellite experiment that was launched in April 1961 as Explorer 11. It registered 31 events with the electronic signatures of cosmic gamma rays with energies greater than 50 MeV. Kraushaar then initiated a second and more refined experiment to be carried on OSO 3. In this project Kraushaar and Clark were joined by Gordon Garmire, a former student of Kraushaar. The OSO 3 experiment, launched in March of 1967, registered 621 cosmic gamma-ray events. It yielded the first all-sky map of high-energy cosmic gamma rays showing a concentration of gamma rays from directions in the Milky Way where gamma-ray producing interactions of charged cosmic rays with interstellar matter are most abundant. It also demonstrated the existence of extra-galactic gamma-ray sources that have since been identified as giant black holes at the centers of distant galaxies. The OSO 3 experiment opened the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, which has become one of the most active areas of space research. Upon his move to Wisconsin, Kraushaar established a research group in the new area of X-ray astronomy. Using instruments flown on "sounding" rockets, he and his colleagues produced the first all-sky map of low-energy X rays that revealed the spatial distribution of million-degree interstellar gas. They extended these results in several satellite experiments. Kraushaar was appointed the Max Mason Professor of Physics in 1980. Kraushaar was a fellow of the American Physical Society, and a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received Fulbright and Guggenheim fellowships and the Senior Scientist Award of the Humboldt Foundation. He served on numerous advisory committees of the National Academy of Sciences and NASA. Kraushaar co-authored with Professor Uno Ingard a college text, Introduction to Mechanics, Matter, and Waves. After his retirement, Kraushaar moved to Maine where he resided in Scarborough with summers at his cabin in Denmark, Maine. He is survived by his wife, the former Elizabeth Rodgers, and by three children from his first marriage. This obituary is based on an article that appeared in the 2 April 2008 edition of MIT Tech Talk.

  17. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement affectées dans les pays en développement. Un cadre d'ensemble pour lutter contre la dégradation naturelle des ressources est associé à des études de cas au Chili, au Mexique, au Bangladesh et ailleurs afin d'établir un ensemble de recommandations stratégiques pour les dimensions globale, nationale et locale de la «crise» de l'arsenic. Les principales recommandations sont les suivantes: le besoin d'une flexibilité pour élaborer une stratégie de diminution de l'arsenic, l'amélioration et l'utilisation à grande échelle de techniques peu coûteuses et associant les populations pour tester la qualité de l'eau souterraine, le besoin de maintenir un usage logique des leçons clés acquises de par le monde pour l'alimentation en eau et la santé publique, celui d'intégrer l'arsenic simplement comme un autre facteur pour assurer une alimentation durable en eau, et pour suivre des pistes distinctes mais communicables entre les développements liés à l'arsenic et les alimentations durables en eau mises en valeurs à long terme. La contaminación de las aguas subterráneas con arsénico procedente de fuentes geoquímicas naturales es actualmente uno de los retos principales de la planificación a gran escala de las aguas subterráneas para uso de boca y otros fines. Las recientes mejoras en los límites de detección del instrumental analítico permiten correlacionar impactos en la salud tales como el cáncer con concentraciones elevadas de arsénico en las aguas subterráneas. Sin embargo, a fecha de hoy no existen soluciones tecnológicas de gran escala para millones de personas-población principalmente rural-que están potencialmente afectadas en los países en vías de desarrollo. Se combina un enfoque general para combatir la degradación de los recursos naturales con estudios concretos de Chile, México, Bangladesh y cualquier otro lugar que permita obtener un conjunto de recomendaciones estratégicas para las dimensiones global, nacional y local de la ``crisis'' del arsénico. Las recomendaciones principales incluyen la necesidad de flexibilizar l

  18. Scheme for development of monitoring networks for springs in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Steffen; Einsiedl, Florian; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    The present groundwater monitoring network in Bavaria consists mostly of wells and only a small number of natural groundwater springs, all of which are analyzed for mainly the common physical and chemical constituents in groundwater. In order to develop a long-term groundwater management plan for all the groundwater resources of Bavaria, the Bavarian State Office for Water Management intends to establish a separate spring-monitoring network throughout the 11 groundwater provinces of the state. As a first step, significant physicochemical parameters that show considerable annual fluctuation (after monitoring 1-3 years) were determined at 21 springs or spring systems to create a basic data set to guide future monitoring. A selection procedure was developed around four parameters: (1) geological units, which includes the principal aquifers; (2) rate of spring discharge; (3) land utilization within a catchment; and (4) approximate size of the subterranean catchment. However, in the initial phase of the study, only the first three parameters were investigated. These parameters established a matrix for evaluating each groundwater region of Bavaria to aid in the selection of additional springs for the proposed monitoring network. Résumé. Le réseau actuel de surveillance des eaux souterraines en Bavière consiste surtout en des puits avec seulement un petit nombre de sources, tous analysés pour l'essentiel pour les composants courants physiques et chimiques des eaux souterraines. Afin de développer un plan de gestion à long terme des eaux souterraines de la Bavière, l'Office bavarois pour la gestion de l'eau cherche à mettre en place un réseau séparé de surveillance des sources dans les onze provinces hydrogéologiques du lander. Dans un premier temps, les paramètres physico-chimiques significatifs qui présentent des variations annuelles considérables, après 1 à 3 ans de surveillance, ont été déterminés à 21 sources ou groupes de sources pour constituer un jeu de données de base pour guider la future surveillance. Une procédure de sélection a été développée autour de quatre paramètres: (1) les unités géologiques, comprenant les principaux aquifères, (2) le débit des sources, (3) l'occupation du sol dans le bassin, et (4) la dimension approximative du bassin d'alimentation souterrain. Toutefois, dans la phase initiale de l'étude, seuls les trois premiers paramètres ont été étudiés. Ces paramètres constituent une matrice d'évaluation de chaque région hydrogéologique de Bavière pour aider à la sélection de sources supplémentaires destinées au réseau de surveillance proposé. Resumen. La red de muestreo actual de aguas subterráneas en Bavaria (Alemania) está formada sobre todo por pozos, mientras que apenas hay unos pocos manantiales naturales. Los análisis incluyen, principalmente, los parámetros físico-químicos habituales. Con el objeto de desarrollar un plan de gestión de las aguas subterráneas en Bavaria a largo plazo, el Consejo del Estado para la Gestión del Agua pretende establecer una red de muestreo de manantiales diferenciada en las once regiones en que se divide el estado desde el punto de vista de las aguas subterráneas. Como primer paso, se determinaron los parámetros físico-químicos significativos que mostraban una fluctuación anual considerable (tras un muestreo de 1 a 3 años), con la finalidad de crear una base de datos elemental que canalizara los muestreos futuros. Se desarrolló un procedimiento de selección con base en cuatro parámetros: (1) unidades geológicas y acuíferos principales; (2) caudal del manantial; (3) uso del suelo dentro de la cuenca; y (4) tamaño aproximado de la zona de captación subterránea. Sin embargo, sólo se investigaron los tres primeros parámetros durante la fase inicial del estudio. Con ellos, se estableció una matriz para evaluar cada zona acuífera dentro de Bavaria y ayudar en la inclusión de otros manantiales en la red de muestro propuesta.

  19. Nutrition between sustainability and quality.

    PubMed

    Fara, G M

    2015-01-01

    This lecture describes the complex interrelations existing between human nutrition, quality of aliments, their safety and the sustainability of the feeding habits adopted by the different cultures in the World. At present, a significant part of the developing World is still affected by insufficient availability of nutricious and safe food, and these difficulties are due more to political events as wars and less to natural events as famine. It is equally true that in the developed World, where abundance reigns and international trade grants a large variety of foods everywere, the existing health problems arise from the excess of nutrition, worsened by sedentarity, because the fatigue due to manual work has disappeared and people maintain their feeding habits; but such problems depend also on the diet composition, which in some countries is too rich in meat and animal fats. As a consequence, chronic degenerative pathologies and a progressive dependance of people in their third age are becoming more and more common. But this situation could be overturned by corrective interventions driven by good epidemiological knowledge, as teach us the great international institutions as UNO and WHO. The goal is not to expand without limits the production of food, but to better distribute it socially and geographically, to minimize losses and wastes and also to change those diets based on foods which consume too many natural resources and, therefore, do not respect sustainability. Sustainability can be measured under different aspects: ecology (use of water, energy and soil), economy and health protection. Accurate analyses and evaluations have brought to the conclusion that the least sustainable diets are those, quite popular in the Anglosaxon countries and northern and eastern Europe, rich in meat and animal fats, while those based on cereals, legumes and fish - like the Japanese and the Mediterranean diets - respect much more the environment, consume less resources and improve health and longevity (or, better, longevity in good health). The Mediterranean diet has been identified, classified and scientifically documented as the one that can guarantee longevity in good health by the US physiologist Ancel Keys, who lived many years in the Italian area of Cilento, the Italian creadle of such a diet, and died at the age of 100. The Mediterranean diet has been recognized in 2010 as an intangible cultural patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO, and is practiced also in many areas of Spain, Portugal, Greece, Morocco and Cyprus. Good diets per se are not sufficient to improve health if they are not accompanied by a daily physical exercise, which is necessary to replace the physical fatigue, represented in the past by the manuality of almost all jobs, with new practices as swimming, bicycling or at least walking enough time every day Another aspect to be developed is the capacity of the Mediterranean Diet to safeguard the cultural aspects, like conviviality and sharing of food, which are good mechanisms for socialization and improving the life of families and communities. PMID:26661910

  20. A novel sensor platform for the rapid hydraulic characterisation of freshwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Breckon, Toby; Gill, Andrew; Everard, Nick; Wright, Ros; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2014-05-01

    The spatially explicit quantification of hydraulic features provides valuable information for the physical habitat assessment of freshwater ecosystems. Collection of data on water velocities and depths using in-situ current meters or acoustic sensors on tethered boats is time-consuming and requires good site accessibility. Moreover, on smaller rivers precise spatial data referencing can be challenging, as river bank vegetation can block sky view to navigation satellites over a considerable proportion of the water surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a new small sized remote control sensor platform and a novel approach to spatial data referencing based on computer vision to enable the rapid hydraulic characterisation of habitats in small rivers. It highlights the manifold opportunities that recent achievements in the disciplines of computer science and electronics can create for the environmental sciences. The platform carries an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to rapidly collect large amounts of data on water velocities and river depths, from which the spatial and temporal water velocity distributions can be derived. The 1.30m long and 0.60m wide platform hull has been designed to enable single person deployment. Platform pitch and roll magnitudes and periods are quantified at a frequency of 512Hz through a low-cost inertial measurement unit on board, allowing the quantification of the errors that these platform motions can cause in the ADCP data. Jet propulsion and a tail thruster ensure high manoeuvrability, minimum draught operation and greater safety than propellers. An on-board Raspberry Pi computer enables time-synchronised logging of data from a GPS unit, the ADCP and further sensors that may be added to the platform. Real-time serial communication between the Raspberry Pi and the embedded propulsion system control (an Arduino Uno microcontroller) builds the basis for future platform autonomy. This can enable the autonomous implementation of pre-defined data collection strategies. Through field experiments, a set of technologies to position the platform in the river environment has been evaluated. Simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) based on frames from a stereo camera has been identified as a promising alternative to satellite-based platform positioning. In terrestrial environments, SLAM has recently achieved high position accuracies, comparable with those of differential GPS. Software that implements SLAM for the river environment is currently developed. This constitutes the first application of visual SLAM on water and, to the authors' knowledge, its first application in the context of environmental research. Furthermore, platform tracking with a motorised Total Station has been found to be a highly accurate (cm-level) positioning technique despite fast platform movements, as long as line of sight to the tracked object is given. In the near future, the platform will be used to characterise the hydraulic conditions downstream of fish passes in order to rapidly assess the attractivity of these facilities to migrating fish species. Several of the applied technologies (e.g. Raspberry Pi, Arduino) are cheap and easily accessible. They provide a multitude of opportunities to facilitate data collection and prototype development in the environmental sciences.