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Su alcune varietà dello spazio proiettivo sopra un corpo non commutativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunto  In uno spazio proiettivo sopra un corpo qualunq?e si infroducono delle ipersuperficie generalizzanti le quadriche studiate\\u000a daB. Segre e se ne studiano la propriet. In particolare si considerano superficie e curve del secondo e terzo ordine. Si tra’ta anche\\u000a una questione relativa a piani grafici non desarguesiani.

Luigi Antonio Rosati



UNO's Afghanistan Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

McKernan, M. D.


¡Dos es mejor que uno!  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... 4 Page 5. Termómetros para refrigerador ¡Un elemento fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria! ... 5 0º F ! ¡Dos es mejor que uno! ... More results from


Semiempirical UNO-CAS and UNO-CI: method and applications in nanoelectronics.  


Unrestricted Natural Orbital-Complete Active Space Configuration Interaction, abbreviated as UNO-CAS, has been implemented for NDDO-based semiempirical molecular-orbital (MO) theory. A computationally more economic technique, UNO-CIS, in which we use a configuration interaction (CI) calculation with only single excitations (CIS) to calculate excited states, has also been implemented and tested. The class of techniques in which unrestricted natural orbitals (UNOs) are used as the reference for CI calculations is denoted UNO-CI. Semiempirical UNO-CI gives good results for the optical band gaps of organic semiconductors such as polyynes and polyacenes, which are promising materials for nanoelectronics. The results of these semiempirical UNO-CI techniques are generally in better agreement with experiment than those obtained with the corresponding conventional semiempirical CI methods and comparable to or better than those obtained with far more computationally expensive methods such as time-dependent density-functional theory. We also show that symmetry breaking in semiempirical UHF calculations is very useful for predicting the diradical character of organic compounds in the singlet spin state. PMID:21848343

Dral, Pavlo O; Clark, Timothy



Examining the potential exploitation of UNOS policies.  


The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) waiting list was designed as a just and equitable system through which the limited number of organs is allocated to the millions of Americans in need of a transplant. People have trusted the system because of the belief that everyone on the list has an equal opportunity to receive an organ and also that allocation is blind to matters of financial standing, celebrity or political power. Recent events have revealed that certain practices and policies have the potential to be exploited. The policies addressed in this paper enable those on the list with the proper resources to gain an advantage over other less fortunate members, creating a system that benefits not the individual most in medical need, but the one with the best resources. These policies are not only unethical but threaten the balance and success of the entire UNOS system. This paper proposes one possible solution, which seeks to balance the concepts of justice and utility. PMID:16109680

Zink, Sheldon; Wertlieb, Stacey; Catalano, John; Marwin, Victor



Analisi statistica preliminare della dinamica spazio-temporale dei PM10 in Piemonte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il materiale particolato (PM) rappresenta uno degli inquinanti dell'aria a maggiore criticità e per esso la normativa in vigore stabilisce valori limite per la protezione della salute umana, essendo risultata da studi epidemiologici una correlazione con malattie all'apparato respiratorio. In questo lavoro analizziamo le misurazioni giornaliere del particolato atmosferico con diametro aerodinamico inferiore a 10 µm (PM10) registrate negli anni

R. Ignaccoloe; O. Nicolis


Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe



Making Americans: UNO Charter Schools and Civic Education. Policy Brief 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This policy brief is the third in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. The UNO Charter School Network includes 13 schools serving some 6,500 students across Chicago. Located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods, the…

Feith, David



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.  


The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 ?g kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A



[Morphological characterization of experimental parodontitis during its treatment with a phyto-preparation uno de gato].  


Examination of new methods of treatment of parodontitis is stipulated by the significant increase in the number of patients with parodontitis. Experiments were conducted on white outbred male rats weighing 150-200 gr, which were divided into three groups. The first group was a reference one (n=20). The second group includes induced parodontitis (n=15) and the third group includes induced parodontitis with the treatment of uno de gato (n=19). We simulated parodontitis in the following way: on the lower nippers in the field of a neck we attached a ligature causing mechanical damage. We used a intramuscular injection of Nembutal as a means of narcotization (0.1 ml-10 g per mass). The present work is dedicated to morphological studies of the structures of damaged parodontium during its treatment with a phyto-preparation uno de gato. The undertaken treatment has demonstrated partial restoration of the mucous tunic of the gum. Newly formed capillaries were found in the connective tissue. The fibroblasts are mostly mature and collagen-producing. Thus, the study has demonstrated that there is a certain tendency of the tissue restoration and the treatment has produced the best therapeutic results. PMID:17660608

Miminoshvili, Sh M; Gvamichava, T A; Mdinaradze, N L



Increase in Mortality Rate of Liver Transplant Candidates Residing in Specific Geographic Areas: Analysis of UNOS Data  

PubMed Central

We sought to evaluate survival of liver transplant candidates living in geographic areas with limited access to specialized transplant centers (T×C). We analyzed survival outcome among candidates listed for liver transplant in United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) Region 4 from 2004 to 2010. Candidates were stratified into three groups according to the distance from the patient's residence to the closest hospital with a liver transplant program: Group 1 (Gr1) <30 miles (m), Group 2 (Gr2) 30–60 m, and Group 3 (Gr3) >60 m. Of the 5673 patients included in the study, 49% resided >30 m from a T×C. Eight percent of the cohort experienced death or dropped out of the list due to medical condition deterioration, with worse outcomes for Gr2 and Gr3 (8.5% and 9.9%, respectively, vs. 6.5% for Gr1 [p<0.001]). Among patients with a MELD score <20, mortality was higher in Gr2 and Gr3 compared to Gr1 (p<0.001). We conclude that for Region 4, the mortality risk in patients living >30 m from a T×C is higher. We suggest that the variable “distance from a T×C” should be used to improve the estimate of the mortality risk for patients on the waiting list.

Zorzi, D.; Rastellini, C.; Freeman, D.H.; Elias, G.; Duchini, A.; Cicalese, L



Recipient and Graft Survival Are Not Diminished by Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation: An Analysis of the UNOS Database  

PubMed Central

Recipients of solitary liver and kidney transplantations are living longer, increasing their risk of long-term complications such as recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. These complications may require retransplantation. Since the adoption of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), the number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants (SLK) has increased. However, there are no standardized criteria for organ allocation for SLK candidates. The aims of this study are to retrospectively compare recipient and graft survival for liver transplant alone (LTA) to SLK, kidney after liver transplantation (KALT) and liver after kidney transplantation (LAKT) and identify independent risk factors that affect recipient and graft survival. The United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (UNOS/OPTN) database was queried for adult LTA (66,026), SLK (2,327), KALT (1,738) and LAKT (242) from 1988 to 2007. After adjusting for potential confounding demographic and clinical variables, there was no difference in recipient mortality between LTA and SLK (p=0.024). However, there was a 15% decreased risk of graft loss in SLK compared to LTA [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.85, p<0.0001]. Recipient and graft survival in SLK was higher compared to both KALT (p<0.0001) and LAKT (p<0.0001). Recipient age ?65 years, male, black, and HCV/diabetes mellitus (DM) status as well as donor age ?60 years, serum creatinine ?2 mg/dL, cold ischemia time (CIT) >12 hours and warm ischemia time (WIT) >60 minutes were all identified as independent negative predictors of recipient mortality and graft loss. Although the recent increase in SLK performed each year effectively decreases the number of potential donor kidneys available to patients with ESRD awaiting kidney transplantation, SLK in patients with ESLD and ESRD is justified due to lower risk of graft loss in SLK compared to LTA as well as superior recipient and graft survival compared to serial liver-kidney transplantation.

Martin, Eric F.; Huang, Jonathan; Xiang, Qun; Klein, John P.; Bajaj, Jasmohan; Saeian, Kia



Kidney Allograft and Patient Survival in Type I Diabetic Recipients of Cadaveric Kidney Alone Versus Simultaneous Pancreas\\/Kidney Transplants: A Multivariate Analysis of the UNOS Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (SPK) is now a common treatment for insulin-dependent diabetic pa- tients with end-stage renal disease. Renal graft survival rates after SPK have been less well studied. This study compared the kidney survival results for 3642 SPK and 2374 cadaveric renal transplants (CRT) in type I diabetic patients at 112 US trans- plant centers reported to UNOS during




¡Dos es mejor que uno!  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Puerta a la Información de Seguridad Alimentaria del Gobierno: www. JMH Education Mark eting, Inc., New Y ork, NY More results from


La coppia genitoriale adottiva: uno studio pilota  

Microsoft Academic Search

International adoption is a phenomenon in constant growth, involving over one hundred countries. In Italy there are approximately two thousand adoptions of foreign minors per year. The needs demonstrated by the families adopting these children, sometimes bearing complex problems, have led to the offer of a combined medical and psychological intervention oriented towards a global and integrated approach to the

G. De Isabella; A. Podestà; M. Vallarino; A. Oreggia; G. Rizzato; C. Scalfaro


La grammatica dello spazio nel Petrarca latino : le epistole e i loro intertesti medievali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studi recenti hanno dimostrato in Petrarca un’autocoscienza lucidissima del significato ideologico della rappresentazione geografica e insieme del senso che questa assume nella biografia culturale del poeta. Con l’Itinerarium Petrarca cerca di superare l’orizzonte della crisi politica trecentesca stabilendo un orizzonte alternativo che coinvolge l’amico Mandelli e insieme, attraverso le cerchie dei primi lettori napoletani e ferraresi, la posterità. Ma questo

Francesco Stella



Agent UNO: Winner in the 2007 Spanish ART Testbed competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multi-agent systems where agents compete among them- selves, trust is an important aspect to have in mind. The ART Testbed Competition has been created with the aim of evaluating objectively difierent strategies that agents can use in this kind of environments. In this paper we present the winning strategy at the Spanish competition of 2007 with an analysis of

Javier Murillo



Axis2UNO: Web Services Enabled  

Microsoft Academic Search is a popular, free and open source office product. This product is used by millions of people and developed, maintained and extended by thousands of developers worldwide. Playing a dominant role in the Web, Web services technology is serving millions of people every day. Axis2 is one of the most popular, free and open source Web service engines. The

B. A. N. M. Bambarasinghe; H. M. S. Huruggamuwa; R. G. Ragel; S. Radhakrishnan



Uno, don, tres, cuatro: modern women docile bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, I argue that the historical evolution of physical education under the Francoist regime was affected by the transition from autarky to consumerism through the modernization process initiated in the late 1950s. In 1961 the government issued the Law of Physical Education to validate itself internationally by showing a modern prone regime. After the civil war physical education

Aurora G. Morcillo



¿Está enfermo uno de sus hijos? No adivine. Lea las ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Si nota nuevos síntomas o efectos secundarios no esperados, o si la medicina parece que no está haciendo efecto, comuníquese con su médico o ... More results from


E uno plurus: psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the age of pluralism.  


Until 1970 the dominant theoretical framework in American psychoanalysis was Freudian ego psychology. Since then a number of additional theories, such as object relations theory (including, but not restricted to, the Kleinian approach), self psychology, relational psychoanalysis, and attachment theory have evolved and compete with contemporary ego psychology in the current marketplace of psychoanalytic ideas. There is considerable controversy about whether it is advantageous to work from one theoretical model and apply it to all clinical situations, or whether to utilize all the available paradigms, making judgments about which model or combination of them is most useful in a particular clinical situation or at a particular clinical moment. The latter approach might be termed pluralistic. Though a pluralistic approach is not without its philosophic and practical difficulties, such a perspective is helpful in understanding the complexity of human behavior and in facilitating therapeutic growth. A pluralistic approach is familiar to contemporary psychotherapists, who must utilize multiple frameworks in constructing biopsychosocial formulations of their patients. A pluralistic perspective is advantageous in promoting a therapeutic alliance, since it lends itself to a collaborative therapeutic process with patients. A brief clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these ideas. PMID:18097837

Frosch, James Peter


¿Está enfermo uno de sus hijos? No adivine. Lea las ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... la dosis recomendada simplemente porque el niño/a parece ... solamente, no adivine — obtenga el dispositivo de ... la medicina a niños de menos de ... More results from


Calcul Symbolique Lié á la Croissance de la Résolvante  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sunto  Si definisce un’algebra, che puó essere utile considerare nello studio di un operatore su uno spazio di Banach (o di un elemento\\u000a di un’algebra di Banach) quando si conosca la funzione ? (s) = 1\\/¦|(a ? s)?1¦|, o si abbiano sufficienti informazioni sull’andamento di questa funzione. Questa algebra puó essere descritta sia come\\u000a completamento di un’algebra di frazioni razionali (paragrafo

Lucien Waelbroeck



L’effetto volta e la teoria elettronica della pila  

Microsoft Academic Search

8. Conclusione. — Accertata 1’ esistenza dell’ effetto Volta anche nel vuoto, e perció indipendentemente da ogni azione chimica,\\u000a la coppia bimetallica, ad esempio rame-zinco, costituisce un mezzo naturale e perpetuo atto a produrre in uno spazio anche\\u000a di grandi dimensioni un campo elettrostatico; cosí come un magnete permanente (peró con minore stabilitá) crea intorno a sé\\u000a un campo magnetico.

O. M. Corbino



GALLARDO CASTILLO, M.J., Materiales ECTS de Derecho Administrativo (Casos prácticos con soluciones. Adaptado al EEES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior supone un desafío para el profesorado y los estudiantes; en este contexto de cambio, la obra de la profesora Gallardo Castillo se convierte en un manual de referencia para esta doble faceta de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El desarrollo de los conceptos e instituciones básicas del Derecho Administrativo queda ampliamente reflejado en cada uno de



La integración del reino nazarí de Granada en el espacio comercial europeo (siglos XIII-XV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt about the presence of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada in the mercantile platform of Europe. Various indicators support that: different foreign mercantile communities worked in the area; the most important European races activated here sophisticated financial and mercantile technologies; the Nasrid ports were opened for the maritime international traffic; and lastly, Nasrid commodities could be found

Adela Fábregas García



UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, 'The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography,' compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result ...

J. S. Carrico M. M. Schaaf



Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

Bowen, Brent, Ed.


Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

Bowen, Brent, Ed.


I Bambini e la Struttura Ipertestuale: uno Studio d elle Modalità Interattive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lo studio si interessa alle interazioni, riuscite e non rius cite, di tipo collaborativo e competitivo, messe in atto tra coppie di bambini posti di fronte ad una situazione di apprendimento ipertestuale. Abbiamo posto in relazione le diverse modalità interattive che le coppie evidenziano nelle due fasi della situazione sperimentale - ipertesto e questionario - sia con il profilo di

A. Bertucci; S. Conte; A. Mameli; C. Meloni


Effetti temporali dei mezzi pubblicitari sulle vendite: evidenze da uno studio italiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal effects of advertising media on sales: evidence from an Italian study by Paolo Boccardelli,Matteo De Angelis. This paper focuses on the temporal effects of advertising expenditures on firm sales. Grounding on some econometric models that have been applied to the measure of advertising effectiveness, we provide evidence that the extent to which advertising investments display their effect over time

Paolo Boccardelli; Matteo De Angelis



Prodotti verdi: uno studio sperimentale sugli atteggiamenti e sulle scelte del consumatore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between attitude and consumer behavior toward green products, in order to understand thereasons of the reoccurring low attitude-behavior consistency in greenconsumption. The presented study is rooted in the framework of constructed preferences, and assumes that task and context variables can influence green decision making and also the relationship between green attitude and buying behavior. In

de Luca Patrizia; Pegan Giovanna



Ex uno plures ("out of one, many"): new paradigms for expanding the range of polyolefins through reversible group transfers.  


The "mature" status presently enjoyed by polyolefins prepared with homogeneous (soluble) single-site catalysts through the transition-metal-catalyzed coordination polymerization of ethene and 1-alkenes brings with it a common impression that it is now routinely possible to obtain, with a high degree of confidence, any desired stereochemical microstructure or copolymer composition through iterative optimization employing a set of mutationally related synthetic derivatives generated from an initial molecular design. The dominant reliance on this "one catalyst, one material" strategic approach to discovery is intrinsically self-limiting, however, owing to the limited pool of molecular structures that can be reasonably synthesized and drawn upon. Recently, non-chain-terminating, reversible group-transfer processes have been purposefully introduced to olefin coordination polymerization. These processes, which are highly competitive with propagation, can be controlled externally and now provide the basis for new "one catalyst, many materials" paradigms that have the potential to greatly expand the reach of polyolefin materials for the 21st century. PMID:19115334

Sita, Lawrence R



Optimizing staging for hepatocellular carcinoma before liver transplantation: A retrospective analysis of the UNOS/OPTN database.  


Assignment of liver allocation priority for hepatocellular carcinoma is predicated on accurate imaging staging. We analyzed radiographically defined stage (radiologic stage [RS]) at listing and most recent extension and pathologic stage (PS) data from 789 liver transplant recipients for whom no pretransplant ablative treatment was given. There were no predetermined imaging or pathological protocols in this retrospective analysis of wait list data. Seventy-two (9.1%), 690 (87.5%), and 27 (3.4%) were listed as stage 1, 2 and >2, respectively. Computed tomography (CT) scan alone (46.4%), magnetic resonance image scan alone (37.1%), ultrasound alone (1.3%), and multiple imaging studies (15.2%) were used with no difference in time to transplant for listing or most recent scan among the recipient groups. Overall accuracy (RS = PS) was 44.1% and was not different if original listing RS or most recent RS was used for comparison with PS. No one type of imaging technique had superior accuracy (P = 0.13); however, CT scan used alone or in combination compared to not being used at all, had higher odds of being accurate (odds ratio [OR] 1.38 [1.03-1.84], P = 0.031). In addition, imaging done less than 90 days before transplant had higher odds of being accurate (OR 1.49 [1.06-2.08], P = 0.019) as did RS = 2 or 3 (OR 5.56 [2.70-11.11], P < 0.0001). We observed considerable variation in RS accuracy among the United Network for Organ Sharing and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network regions that is unexplained. In conclusion, current imaging requirements for RS prior to liver transplantation are unacceptably inaccurate. Future policy should require more accurate modalities or combinations of techniques. PMID:16952174

Freeman, Richard B; Mithoefer, Abigail; Ruthazer, Robin; Nguyen, Khanh; Schore, Anthony; Harper, Ann; Edwards, Erick



Proceedings of the Annual Nebraska Aviation Education Association Conference (1st, Omaha, Nebraska, January 1994). The UNO Aviation Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of Pilot…

Crehan, James E., Ed.


Inclusivity, process and product in writing for European social work education Le implicazioni nella composizione di testi per il Servizio Sociale a livello europeo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004 the EU funded ‘European Social Work: Commonalities and Differences’ Thematic Network produced an edited volume on pan-European social work. This project is the first of its kind to include contributions from all regions of the EU, represented by original first-hand chapters from a total of 24 countries. This paper firstly considers the Thematic Network as a context for

Elizabeth Frost; Annamaria Campanini



Reconstitut~on, ~dentification, Purification, and ~~~uno~ogica~ Characterization of the 110-kDa Na+\\/Ca2' Antiporter from Beef Heart Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial Na+\\/Ca2+ antiporter plays a key role in the physiological regulation of intr~itochon- drial Ca2+, which in turn attunes mitochondrial en- zymes to the changing demands of the cell for ATP. We have now purified the Na+\\/Ca2+ antiporter from beef heart mitochondria by assaying detergent-solubilized chromatography fractions for reconstitutive activity. Na+ and Ca2+ transport were assayed using the flu-

Weihua Lis; Zia Shariat-Madar; Mary Powers; Xiaocheng Sun; Richard D. LaneQ; Keith D. Garlidn


Yo Ciudadano: Un Curriculo de Experiencias para Educacion Civica. Nivel: Uno (Citizen Me: An Experiential Curriculum for Citizenship Education. Level: One).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating concepts of basic citizenship education with community involvement, this experiential curriculum, written in Spanish, provides a means for developing decision making and critical thinking skills within the existing social studies curriculum in grade 1. Using short stories, field trips, and class discussions, the 11 lessons on…

Loftin, Richard



Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Torah, and in particular of the so-called Oral Torah, i.e. the Talmud, was traditionally a prerogative of men only, although notable exceptions of learned women are recorded in the course of Jewish history. In modern times the request by women to take full part in the world of Jewish studies has become an important issue, even though

David Gianfranco Di Segni



Estudio de los Esquemas Conceptuales y de los Perfiles de Unos Alumnos de Segundo de Bup en Relacion con el Concepto de Pendiente de Una Recta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a study to determine students' concept of slope carried out in three classes of the second form before introducing the notion of derivative. Discusses the meaning of conceptual framework and reviews literature on slope. Analyzes student responses to a questionnaire for mathematical content and expression and interprets the results. (MDH)|

Gimenez, Carmen Azcarate



Polipatologia, farmacoterapia e malnutrizione nell'anziano: uno studio in anziani ospedalizzati Polypathology, pharmacotherapy and malnutrition in the elderly: a study in hospitalized elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

* U.O. Medicina Generale e Lungodegenza Riabilitativa Presidio Ospedaliero di Valdobbiadene (TV) Objective: This work evalues malnutrition in the elderly population of hospitalized pa- tients. Methods: This perspective study have considered 159 elderly people (age 70 years and more) admitted in Valdobbiadene's Hospital from 1° june to 31 december 1998. For the evaluation of the statistic data the Epiinfo-Program has



The antenna system for the multi-frequency imaging microwave radiometer: M.I.M.R  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alenia Spazio is the prime contractor for the Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer, MIMR, which is an instrument proposed and under the responsibility of the European Space Agency. In the frame of its responsibility as prime contractor, Alenia Spazio has established the radiometer antenna electrical design and carried out the related breadboarding activity. The paper describes the MIMR electrical design of

S. Contu; F. M. Marinelli



E-Portafolios en Procesos Blended-Learning: Innovaciones de la Evaluación en los Créditos Europeos E-portfolio in blended-learning processes: Assessment innovations in the European Credits Transfer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Higher Education Area proposes important changes in the instructional models and teachers' and students' roles. The Higher Education main aim is to acquire professional competences. This implies changes into strategies and procedures to learning assessment at the university level. This work presents results derived of an innovation in assessment of the university learning with e- portfolio. A new

Raquel Barragán; Rafael García; Olga Buzón; Ángeles Rebollo; Luisa Vega



Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the results obtained in the ad aptation to the European Space for Higher Education of an Energy Resources course. This adaptation has been developed progressively in three consecutive academic years. In the first one, the teachers received suitable teaching training and they tried to increa se the student motivation, due to the very low ratio of

Javier Marugán; Rosalía Rodríguez


Trattamento integrato sequenziale del Disturbo Ossessivo-Compulsivo: uno studio di follow-up di 13 casi clinici Integrated sequential treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a follow-up study of 13 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO. Introduzione. Ancora oggi, il trattamento del Disturbo Ossessivo-Compulsivo (DOC) è spesso difficile. Alcu- ni pazienti sono contrari ad assumere farmaci, altri presentano effetti indesiderati, altri rispondono in modo insoddisfacente. Inoltre, le ricadute dopo la sospensione sono frequenti. La psicoterapia ha effetti più duraturi, ma alcuni pazienti non sono disponibili ad intraprenderla, altri rispondono in modo insoddisfacente. Inoltre, in caso



Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

Hoskins, Irene, Ed.


Infezione da HIV: comportameno sessuale, percezione del rischio e prevalenza in uno studio pilota sugli immigrati (HIV Infection: Sexual Behavior, Risk Perception and Prevalence in a Pilot Survey in Migrant People).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1999, a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the risk perception and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection among 197 migrants in Italy. The mean age was about 30 years old (SD = 7.7). Out of the interviewees, 39.2% considers safe a partner ...

Y. Kodra A. Santoro N. Schinaia O. B. Tchangmena L. Toma G. Rezza A. Morrone



Une nouvelle partition des dépenses publiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Con el advenimiento del euro, la coordinación de las políticas presupuestarias se ha convertido en un objetivo europeo fundamental. La evolución del gasto público cobra una relevancia particular y requiere un enfoque global. A este respecto, el sistema de contabilidad nacional es la referencia privilegiada, sobre todo en el ámbito del control europeo de la evolución de los gastos

Jérôme Bascher; Marie Niedergang



Integral model for the description of the debris cloud structure and impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present paper is to introduce a new integral model capable to describe the evolution of the debris clouds originated after normal-impacts of orbital debris over a Whipple shield. This work had been developed at Alenia Spazio in the context of a degree thesis. Several numerical SPH simulations of debris impacts on a Whipple shield configuration were

Enrico Corvonato; Roberto Destefanis; Moreno Faraud



Modeling the electromagnetic response of Titan's surface features observed by Cassini Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cassini spacecraft, launched in 1997, begun the exploration of the Saturnian system in July 2004. 44 flybies of the Saturn largest moon Titan are planned during the four years of the Cassini mission and 16 are Radar passes. A Radar, developed jointly by JPL, ASI and Alenia Spazio, is mounted on Cassini. The instrument operates at 13.8 GHz (Ku

B. Ventura; D. Casarano; C. Notarnicola; D. Di Rosa; F. Posa



Analysis and Control of Microvibrations on ARTEMIS Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a very high pointing accuracy and an extremely quiet on-board environment (micro-dynamic) has become an increasingly important issue in the most advanced space missions, such as the ARTEMIS telecommunication satellite. In the first part, this paper presents the activities carried out by Alenia Spazio (ALS) to analyze the effects of microvibrations on the satellite. In the second

Claudio Galeazzi; Francesco Morganti; Carlo Arduini; Paolo Gaudenzi



Overview on advances in radiometric receiver design and technology: application to the MIMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIMR (Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer) is an instrument under development for the European Space Agency (ESA) by the European Industry, with Alenia Spazio as Prime Contractor. It is a conical scanning passive microwave radiometer, which shall measure the Earth surface brightness temperature by processing the received electro- magnetic Earth surface radiation in linear polarization. Its output products will be of

R. Bordi; M. L'Abbate; P. Spera



Economia della citta' dispersa  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduzione In Italia il tema della città dispersa ha recentemente iniziato ad attrarre l'attenzione degli economisti1. Dopo essere diventato dai primi anni Novanta un importante campo di studi teorici e applicati in urbanistica, l'organizzazione spaziale della città - il modo in cui essa si dispone nello spazio - assume ora un rilievo teorico e applicato in economia. Il grado




Network europeo dei laboratori ufficiali di controllo dei farmaci. Il ruolo del Laboratorio di Chimica del Farmaco dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita (European Netowrk of Official Medicines Control Laboratories. The Role of the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The new regulations on the granting of marketing authorizations of medicines that are valid throughout the Community have considerably increased the free movement of medicinal products. This requires to set up a coordinated European approach to market sur...

M. C. Ramusino M. Bartolomei L. Romanini



Una audiencia pequeña, una responsabilidad mayor: análisis del modelo europeo de creación de medios de comunicación en idiomas autóctonos minoritarios para el caso colombiano Small Audience, Great Responsibility: Analysis of the European Model for Creating Communication Media in Aboriginal Minority Languages for the Colombian Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth study of the circumstances that led to develop communication media in aboriginal minority languages in Euro- pe to establish its replication possibilities for the Colombian case. Subsequently, they can become the starting point for re- searching about development and appli- cability of aboriginal minority languages media in Colombia.

Enrique Uribe Jongbloed



Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of Internet health information is essential because it has the potential to benefit or harm a large number of people and it is therefore essential to provide consumers with some tools to aid them in assessing the nature of the information they are accessing and how they should use it without jeopardizing their relationship with their doctor. Organizations around

Mayer Pujadas


Promozione di una Banca Biologica per il Progetto Europeo 'GenomEUtwin': Riflessioni Etiche e Tutela della 'Privacy' Nella Conservazione di Tessuti Umani per la Ricerca (Promotion of a Biobank for the European 'GenomEUtwin' Project: Ethical Considerations on Human Tissues Storage for Research and Privacy Issues).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the synthesis of an interdisciplinary work to cope with ethical and legal aspects of the European Project GenomEUtwin (5th EU Framework Programme), for the studies carried out by the Genetic Epidemiology Unit of the National Centre of Epide...



Frecuencia de Trichinella spiralis en sangre y músculo de equinos sacrifi cados en dos diferentes mataderos, uno de tipo industrial y otro de tipo rural en el Estado de México, México Frequency of Trichinella spiralis in blood and muscles of horses from two slaughter houses (industrial and rural) in the State of Mexico, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was the evaluation of the frequency of Trichinella spiralis in horse meat that is used for human and animal consumption. A total of 150 horses were sampled, from two private slaughterhouses, one industrial slaughterhouse with some level of technology and the other one rural with less technology. Seventy animals from the fi rst one and

Enedina Jiménez-Cardoso; María de Lourdes Caballero-García; Gabriel Uribe-Gutiérrez; Esmeralda Trejo-Hernández; Francisco Ramón Gay-Jiménez


Movimento gravitazionale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sunto  Il problema fondamentale della meccanica celeste è quello del moto di corpi per mutua gravitazione. Nello schema classico\\u000a lo si risolve aggiungendo all’equazione diLaplace, che regge il campo gravitazionale esternamente ai corpi, la legge fondamentale della dinamica. Nello schema originario della\\u000a teoria della relatività generale (1916) il campo gravitazionale è quello che dà la geometria dello spazio-tempo e alle equazioni

Bruno Finzi



M.I.M.R.: a conical scanning antenna system for a multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer design, measurements and future developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

M.I.M.R. is the acronym of a Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer i.e. an instrument whose scientific objectives are the monitoring of the Earth surface and its atmosphere. This monitoring is performed at 6 frequencies: 6.8, 10.65, 18.7, 23.6, 36.5 and 89 GHz. Alenia Spazio is responsible, as prime contractor, for the instrument and antenna system design with the related test activities.

S. Contu; F. M. Marinelli



Metastasi spinali estrinseche ed intrinseche  

Microsoft Academic Search

Una compressione neoplastica midollare epidurale (CME) è una complicanza legata ad una neoplasia che nel suo sviluppo ha invaso\\u000a lo spazio epidurale comprimendo il sacco durale e quindi il midollo. Il 90% circa delle compressioni epidurali origina da\\u000a una metastasi ossea a partenza dal corpo vertebrale [1]. L’incidenza delle CME nei malati tumorali è compresa tra il 4,4 e il

Antonio Silvani


Developments in satellite radar altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly overviews the status of the research in the development of new altimeter systems presently carried out in Alenia Spazio S.p.A. in the frame of internal research activities and ESA feasibility study contracts. In particular, the concepts of synthetic aperture and interferometric altimetry or global ice\\/land topography are reviewed in this paper. These system designs are extremely promising,

Carlo Zelli; Fabrizio Impagnatiello; G. Alberti




Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of Large Deployable Antenna (LDA) contract with ESA\\/ESTEC, ALENIA SPAZIO made a full Passive Inter-Modulation (PIM) product characterisation of the reflector mesh under development by S.P.A. EGS. The tests were made at three different frequency bands (Ku, C and L) and the results collected as function of several variables (PIM -order, power of carriers, mesh tension, micro-vibrations

V. Lubrano; R. Mizzoni; F. Silvestrucci; D. Raboso


Teoria della fotodissociazione e formazione dell’H 3 e dell’He 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  La fotodissociazione e la formazione dei due nuclei H3 ed He3 possono servire a dare buone informazioni sulle configurazioni di questi nuclei e sulla natura delle forze nucleari. In questo\\u000a lavoro abbiamo trattato il problema dal punto di vista teorico. Abbiamo sistematicamente preso in considerazione le proprietà\\u000a di simmetria nello spazio ordinario ed in quello di spin e spin isotopico.

M. Verde



Teoria della fotodissociazione e formazione dell’ H 3 e dell’ He 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Riassunto  La fotodissociazione e la formazione dei due nuclei H3 ed He3 possono servire a dare buone informazioni sulle configurazioni di questi nuclei e sulla natura delle forze nucleari. In questo\\u000a lavoro abbiamo trattato il problema dal punto di vista teorico. Abbiamo sistematicamente preso in considerazione le proprietà\\u000a di simmetria nello spazio ordinario ed in quello di spin e spin isotopico.

M. Verde



Le statistiche intermedie e le proprietà dell’elio liquido  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunto  Dopo alcune premesse sull’importanza della teoria del gas ideale degenere, si espongono i criteri con cui si possono generalizzare\\u000a le statistiche quantistiche diA. Einstein e diE. Fermi; cioè, come si possa istituire la teoria delle cosidettestatistiche intermedie, quelle statistiche dunque, in cui il massimo numero d’occupazioned d’una cella nello spazio delle fasi non è più1 (statistica di\\u000a Fermi-Dirac), oppure ?statistica

Giovanni Gentile



Le Statistiche Intermedie e le Proprietà Dell’elio Liquido  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunto  \\u000a Dopo alcune premesse sull’importanza della teoria del gas ideale degenere, si espongono i criteri con cui si possono generalizzare\\u000a le statisliche quantistiche di\\u000a A. Einstein\\u000a e di\\u000a E. Fermi;cioè, come si possa istituire la teoria delle cosidette statistiche intermedie,quelle statistiche dunque, in cui il massimo numero d’occupazione dd’una celia nello spazio delle fasi non è più 1 (statistica diFermi-Dirac),oppure

Giovanni Gentile




Microsoft Academic Search

El interés por la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa en el sector turístico queda reflejado por varios hechos. El primero es de naturaleza académica y hace referencia a que en las normas, documentos y propuestas del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior se le otorga una importancia crítica a que el aprendizaje de competencias conlleven el respeto al medio ambiente y al patrimonio

José Alberto Martínez González



Imposicion y precios de consumo  

Microsoft Academic Search

La imposicion indirecta desempena un papel determinante en el proceso de formacion de precios. La armonizacion de la fiscalidad indirecta en Europa, en las dos ultimas decadas, ha debido compatibilizarse con los procesos de desinflacion y de consolidacionfiscal emprendidos en todos los paises europeos. En este trabajo se estiman los efectos sobre la evolucion del indice de Precios de Consumo

Jose Felix Izquierdo; Angel Melguizo; David Taguas



Análisis Input-Output de la eficacia de la Política Europea de Desarrollo Rural 2007-2013. Propuesta metodológica y resultados para Castilla-La Mancha\\/The Effectiveness of European Rural Development Policy 2007-2013. A Proposal for a Methodology on Input-Output Analysis and Empirical Evidence in the Case of Castilla – La Mancha  

Microsoft Academic Search

La implementación del nuevo Fondo Europeo Agrícola de Desarrollo Rural (FEADER) refleja la decidida apuesta de la Unión Europea por convertir la Política de Desarrollo Rural en el segundo pilar de la Política Agrícola Común (PAC). La eficacia del FEADER para conseguir los objetivos propuestos será clave a la hora de determinar el éxito de esta nueva estrategia; de ahí




Gasto Turistico Exterior de los Residentes en la UE y Paises De La OCDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este articulo presenta un analisis del gasto turisticos de los consumidores europeos y de la OCDE. En terminos globales USA es el pais que recibe un mayor gasto turistico de los otros paises de la OCDE, con casi un tercio del total, pero en terminos per capita el pais con mayor nivel es Austria. Se analizan las diferencias en la

Matilde Arranz



Les conditions de l'endettement des pays de l'Est  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Las condiciones del adeudo de los paises del Este - A fines del año 1977, los siete países del bloque socialista europeo, o sea : la URSS, Bulgaria, Hungria, Polonia, Rumania, Checoeslovaquia y RDA eran globalmente deudores con relación a la OCDE de 55 millones de dólares. Tal adeudo, que se manifesto a principios de los anos del setenta

Françoise Lemoine




Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto - In questo articolo si riporta la mappatura dei materiali utilizzati nella facciata della chiesa di San Frediano (Pisa, Italia), che è stata inserita, insieme ad altri monumen- ti ed opere d'arte di eccezionale importanza (Palazzo Vecchio a Firenze, Cattedrale di Toledo, opere di Masaccio e Masolino) come cantiere di ricerca diagnostica nell'ambito del Progetto Europeo «RIS+ Toscana: Trasferimento



Salud, trabajo y nutrición : Irlanda antes de la hambruna  

Microsoft Academic Search

En vísperas de la Gran Hambruna (1846-50), los ingresos irlandeses eran bajos según los patrones europeos. Sin embargo, un análisis de las dietas en Irlanda nos sugirieron que la pobreza se hallaba mitigada por una ingestión de calorías que sobrepasaba a las de Inglaterra y Francia en los inicios del siglo XIX. Las demandas calóricas extras debidas al trabajo agrícola

Cormac O? Gra?da



A Qualitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the Espacio Europeo de Educacion Superior (European Higher Education Area) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with a minimal musical knowledge. The data for this study arise from a…

Faubel, Jose Maria Esteve; Valero, Miguel Angel Molina; Stephens, Jonathan



Franco y la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Una neutralidad comprometida  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se analiza la posición de Franco durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que evoluciona, al hilo del desarrollo de la contienda, de la neutralidad a la no beligerancia para volver finalmente a la neutralidad, en relación con la entrada de refugiados extranjeros en España. El avance de las tropas nazis provocó una huida masiva de europeos que encontraron

Ángeles Egido León



United Network for Organ Sharing  


... information. Join our online community. Raise awareness about organ donation and transplantation, and interact and connect with others ... can support educational programs to increase awareness of organ donation and transplantation. Go > UNOS Update The UNOS Update ...


Can I Donate My Organs If I've Had Cancer?  


... your community. To learn more National organizations and Web sites* United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Toll- ... number: 1-888-894-6361 (1-888-TXINFO1) Web site: Information on organ donation ...



Microsoft Academic Search

#1 UNO DOMINATES SCSU: The UNO wrestling team rolled over SCSU on Friday, February 11 at Halenbeck Hall. The nationally top-ranked team won all but one match in the dual, resulting in a final score of 42-3 in favor of the Mavericks. UNO has six wrestlers ranked among the top 10 in the nation. SCSU's solo win came from sopho-

Tom Nelson



Application of software framework technology to an antenna pointing controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software frameworks are a reuse technology that makes architectural (as opposed to code) reuse possible. They have been successfully applied in the desktop and commercial arena but have so far been eschewed in the space sector. Alenia Spazio, as part of a drive to increase software reuse, have started a pilot project to develop the software for an Antenna Pointing Controller (APC) using framework technology. This work is done with P&P Software of Germany and takes as a starting point the AOCS Framework. The paper describes the experience acquired and the lesson learned applying the framework technology to the APC project. The first part gives an overview of object-oriented frameworks in general and of the AOCS Framework in particular. The second part describes the APC Framework, its close likeness to the AOCS Framework and the methodological and implementation issues that arose in the application of framework technology to an Antenna Pointing Controller.

Montalto, G.; Pasetti, A.; Salerno



Wide Eye Debris telescope allows to catalogue objects in any orbital zone .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CGS SpA Compagnia Generale per lo Spazio formerly Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA, INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica), DM (Dipartimento di Matematica Pisa) and ISTI-CNR (Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione), all members of an Italian Team studying Space Surveillance topics, have been awarded by ESA a Feasibility Study of an innovative optical system for debris surveillance obtained by applying a good combination of both innovative and state of the art solutions. This paper presents the architecture of the optical sensor used for space debris monitoring, catalogue build up and maintenance for collision avoidance, considering the upper LEO belt, the most demanding test case. The proposed sensor is the core element of an Optical Network which, for objects orbiting in the high LEO, can in principle increase performances with a relatively small impact on the overall system costs, compared to radar systems so far considered as baseline for LEO observations.

Cibin, L.; Chiarini, M.; Milani Comparetti, A.; Bernardi, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Pinna, G. M.; Zayer, I.; Besso, P. M.; Rossi, A.; Villa, F.


Lunar Astrobiology: A Review and Suggested Laboratory Equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October of 2005, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Alcatel Alenia Spazio released a ``call to academia for innovative concepts and technologies for lunar exploration.'' In recent years, interest in lunar exploration has increased in numerous space programs around the globe, and the purpose of our study, in response to the ESA call, was to draw on the expertise of researchers and university students to examine science questions and technologies that could support human astrobiology activity on the Moon. In this mini review, we discuss astrobiology science questions of importance for a human presence on the surface of the Moon and we provide a summary of key instrumentation requirements to support a lunar astrobiology laboratory.

Gronstal, Aaron; Cockell, Charles S.; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Bittner, Tobias; Clacey, Erik; Clark, Olathe; Ingold, Olivier; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Wathiong, Steven



Comunicado de la FDA sobre la seguridad de los ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... de alta hospitalaria para uno de varios trastornos psiquiátricos, incluyendo trastornos mentales inducidos por drogas, trastornos esquizofrénicos ... More results from


About the Operation: Heart Transplant  


... physician what to expect after surgery. Reference and Publication Information > United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) is committed to providing accurate and reliable information for transplant patients.The content on this page was originally created on August 1, 2003 by UNOS and last ...


Preventing Rejection  


... phases: induction, maintenance and anti-rejection. Reference and Publication Information > > United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) is committed to providing accurate and reliable information for transplant patients. The content on this page was originally created on August 1, 2003 by the UNOS and ...


Accelerated Schools Centers: How To Address Challenges to Institutionalization and Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) at the University of New Orleans (UNO) was established in spring 1990, funded by a 3-year grant from Chevron. Beginning with 1 pilot school in 1991, the UNO Accelerated Schools Center has expanded to 36 schools representing 19 school districts in Louisiana and 3 schools from the Memphis City Schools district.…

Meza, James, Jr.


Trajectory formation of arm movement by cascade neural network model based on minimum torque-change criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed that the trajectory followed by human subject arms tended to minimize the time integral of the square of the rate of change of torque (Uno et al. 1987). This minimum torque-change model predicted and reproduced human multi-joint movement data quite well (Uno et al. 1989). Here, we propose a neural network model for trajectory formation based on the

M. Kawato; Y. Maeda; Y. Uno; R. Suzuki



Columbus Verification Control Approach Versus Micro-gravity Requirement.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European project manned module Columbus, as part of the International Space Station has been conceived to allow scientific experiments on micro- gravity environment. In order to face against this challenging Design goal, Alenia Spazio developed a dedicated control approach, based on budget allocation of the mechanical power, covering the design, the Analysis and the Verification aspects from system level down to the equipment one. This Control method covers both the evaluations by analysis and/or by testing of the Columbus Structural and Vibro-acoustic transmission paths and the characterization of the disturbers (as Environment Control Life System fans, Thermal Control System pumps and valves, etc.) in terms of force at the equipment interfaces and Sound power Level emitted by the disturbers in the surrounding volume. A dedicated methodology on how to derive the induced disturber's interface forcing functions has been developed in the frame of this project.This paper reports the most significant outcomes during the whole verification and test process at equipment and system level for the derivation of the disturber forcing function. The originality of the method is based on the fact that in the frame of the Columbus Design/Verification cycle, testing has been done at equipment and at system level for the : a) derivation of the equipment Forcing Function when installed on a reference base-plate b) derivation of the disturbers Forcing function when installed o Columbus in the frame of the complete Micro-gravity System Test that allowed both the characterization of : - the structural and the vibro-acoustic system transmissibility by the use of artificial exciters (as shakers and sound source) - the micro-gravity Environment by the Columbus disturbers activation c) Definition of a combination method of forcing function in order to get similar results coming function in order to get similar results coming from both the equipment characterization standing- alone and from the equipment characterization when installed on Columbus. Samples of the comparison between the forcing functions derived from the equipment tests and from system test will confirm the robustness and the correctness of the combination method and control approach from system level down to equipment one.By this industrial experience developed on ESA-Columbus project, Alenia Spazio got the needed skill and sound database for the Design of the next generation of Space laboratories and Payloads for scientific research on Micro-gravity field.

Marucchi-Chierro, P.; Martini, M.



X-SAR: The X-band synthetic aperture radar on board the Space Shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) is the German/Italian contribution to the NASA/JPL Shuttle Radar Lab missions as part of the preparation for the Earth Observation System (EOS) program. The Shuttle Radar Lab is a combination of several radars: an L-band (1.2 GHz) and a C-band (5.3 GHz) multipolarization SAR known as SIR-C (Shuttle Imaging Radar); and an X-band (9.6 GHz) vertically polarized SAR which will be operated synchronously over the same target areas to deliver calibrated multifrequency and multipolarization SAR data at multiple incidence angles from space. A joint German/Italian project office at DARA (German Space Agency) is responsible for the management of the X-SAR project. The space hardware has been developed and manufactured under industrial contract by Dornier and Alenia Spazio. Besides supporting all the technical and scientific tasks, DLR, in cooperation with ASI (Agencia Spaziale Italiano) is responsible for mission operation, calibration, and high precision SAR processing. In addition, DLR developed an airborne X-band SAR to support the experimenters with campaigns to prepare for the missions. The main advantage of adding a shorter wavelength (3 cm) radar to the SIR-C radars is the X-band radar's weaker penetration into vegetation and soil and its high sensitivity to surface roughness and associated phenomena. The performance of each of the three radars is comparable with respect to radiometric and geometric resolution.

Werner, Marian U.



Adaptive Observations At Ncep: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RadioScience experiments proposed for the BepiClombo ESA CORNERSTONE are aiming at performing planetary measurements such as: the rotation state of Mer- cury, the global structure of its gravity field and the local gravitational anomalies, but also to test some aspects of the General Relativity, to an unprecedented level of accu- racy. A high sensitivity accelerometer will measure the inertial acceleration acting on the MPO; these data, together with tracking data are used to evaluate the purely gravi- tational trajectory of the MPO, by transforming it to a virtual drag-free satellite system. At the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) a high sensitive accelerom- eter named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer)* and considered for this mission has been studied. The main problems concerning the use of the accelerometer are related to the high dynamics necessary to follow the variation of the acceleration signals, with accuracy equal to 10^-9 g/sqr(Hz), and very high at the MPO orbital period and due to thermal noise introduced at the sidereal period of Mercury. The description of the accelerometer will be presented, with particular attention to the thermal problems and to the analysis regarding the choice of the mounting position on the MPO. *Project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

Toth, Z.; Szunyogh, I.; Bishop, C.; Majumdar, S.; Moskaitis, J.; Lord, S.


Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center was formed by scientists from the University of Southern Mississippi (USM), the University of New Orleans (UNO), and the Stennis Detachment of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and maintained that structure fo...

G. H. Rayborn



Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Durante el ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Cómo me puede afectar la listeriosis?” Los síntomas pueden tardar unos días o semanas en aparecer y pueden incluir: fiebre, escalofríos, dolores ... More results from



Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Si uno se enferma por alimentos contaminados, se puede enfer- mar del estómago, sufrir vómitos o diarrea. O, los sín- ... More results from


The HeartWare Ventricular Assist System® For the Treatment ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... has been shown to improve symptoms. ... UNOS) sets, reviews, and improves transplant policy so ... each containing hermetically sealed motor stators ... More results from


How I Manage the Adult Potential Organ Donor: Donation After Neurological Death (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for organ donation has become a growing concern over that last decade as the gap between organ donors and those awaiting\\u000a transplant widens. According to UNOS, as of 8\\/2009, there were 102,962 patients on the transplant waiting list and only 6,004\\u000a donors in 2009 ( Accessed 4\\/8\\/2009). In 2008, an estimated 17 patients died each day awaiting transplant

Jennifer A. Frontera; Thomas Kalb




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ackowledgement logos The organizers of the Young Researchers' Meeting in Rome would like to thank all the scientists who participated in the meetings. We thank the Universities of Roma "Tor Vergata" and "La Sapienza" for hosting the first two editions of the conference, and the Physics and Astronomy Doctoral Schools of "La Sapienza" for sponsoring the 2nd meeting. We are grateful to Prof. Roberto Capuzzo-Dolcetta (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Prof. Enzo Marinari (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Prof. Pasquale Mazzotta (Univ. "Tor Vergata"), Prof. Giancarlo Ruocco (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Sig.ra Fernanda Lupinacci (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Dott. Marco Veneziani (Lessico Intellettuale Europeo-CNR), Rossella Cossu (Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo-CNR) and Dott. Paolo Cabella (University of Rome "Tor Vergata") for logistical and technical support, and useful discussions. Conference photographs



Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room Walls PDM/CAD Tele-operations Product Control room External World

Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.



MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.



National Workshop on Astrobiology: the life science involvement of AAS-I Laben.  


The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry. PMID:17171428

Adami, Giorgio



Apuntes sobre el Sistema Interamericano  

Microsoft Academic Search

El primer artículo nos plantea uno de los más importantes aportes de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, es la construcción de toda una teoría respecto de las normas que integran el derecho imperativo internacional. El segundo contempla a la igualdad que ha sido una preocupación de todas las ciencias sociales y humanas, incluyendo la ciencia jurídica que, reflejando la

Autores varios


El Impacto de los Cambios Climáticos sobre la Salud en Bolivia: Estimación de Costos y Beneficios hasta el 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolivia es en uno de los países con mayor vulnerabilidad a enfermedades en Latinoamérica. De los 327 municipios que se tenían el 2003, gran parte de ellos presentaron altos grados de vulnerabilidad en lo que se refiere a las Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (EDA’s) e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA’s) en el occidente del país y alta vulnerabilidad en Malaria y Dengue

Oscar Molina



La descentralización en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. La asignación de responsabilidades entre las autoridades del gobierno central y el local, así como la relación fiscal entre estas dos instancias, constituye uno de los temas más complejos e importantes de las finanzas públicas. En la última década se ha presentado una tendencia mundial hacia la mayor descentralización, esto es, la delegación de un mayor número de prerrogativas

Alberto Alesina; Alberto Carrasquilla; Juan José Echavarría Soto



Pedro García Faria, ingeniero de Caminos (y arquitecto)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedro García Faria fue uno de los Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos más destacados al servicio de la administración del Estado en España desde finales del siglo XIX hasta principios del XX. El interés que desde los inicios de su carrera profesional mostró por el problema del saneamiento de zonas afectadas por epidemias, le condujeron al reconocimiento profesional de

Miguel Ángel Miranda González




Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto Negli ultimi anni, il settore dell'ortoflorovivaismo, sia di serra che di piena aria, si è orientato verso lo sviluppo di tecnologie di coltivazione in grado di combinare l'efficienza produttiva con la sostenibilità ambientale. Tra queste, un ruolo importante è senza dubbio svolto dalle coltivazioni fuori suolo (o idroponica), e tra di esse soprattutto la coltivazione in contenitore. Uno dei

Alberto Pardossi; Luca Incrocci; Paolo Marzialetti; Carlo Bibbiani



Lesioni traumatiche dei nervi periferici: elettrostimolazione muscolare e recupero funzionale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descrizione del progetto In ambito riabilitativo la stimolazione elettrica del muscolo dener- vato è una procedura comunemente utilizzata ma, nonostante i pri- mi studi risalgano a oltre 100 anni fa, la sua efficacia è tuttora moti- vo di discussione. Reid è stato uno dei primi ricercatori che nel 1841 ha evidenziato \\



Músico, Exilio y Memoria — La Lucha Por Los Restos De Manuel De Falla  

Microsoft Academic Search

En vísperas de la guerra civil, España era uno de los centros intelectuales más efervescentes de Europa. A partir de 1898, tras perder los últimos restos del Imperio en el Nuevo Mundo (Cuba y Puerto Rico), y particularmente en los años de la Segunda República (1931–1936), se llevaron a cabo apasionantes debates sobre cuestiones de identidad nacional y el sendero

Raanan Rein



Testing static analysis tools using exploitable buffer overflows from open source code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five modern static analysis tools (ARCHER, BOON, PolySpace C Verifier, Splint, and UNO) were evaluated using source code examples containing 14 exploitable buer overflow vul- nerabilities found in various versions of Sendmail, BIND, and WU-FTPD. Each code example included a \\

Misha Zitser; Richard Lippmann; Tim Leek



Agrotóxicos: Condiciones de utilización en la horticultura de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El empleo de agrotóxicos para el control de plagas constituye uno de los problemas socio-ambientales más importantes en la horticultura llevada a cabo en la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las áreas hortícolas estudiadas muestran que el modo de utilización de los plaguicidas determina la necesidad de incrementar sucesivamente las dosis de aplicación y hacerlas más frecuentes hasta cambiar por productos

Osvaldo Javier Souza Casadinho; Silvia Liliana Bocero



A través de los ojos de Carl Marx: reseña de los escritos de Marx sobre América Latina en Alberto Fillipi  

Microsoft Academic Search

La historia de las instituciones latinoamericanas es compleja, densa y ambivalente. Italiano de nacimiento, pero venezolano por opción; el profesor Alberto Fillipi es considerado como uno de los principales estudiosos de las instituciones latinoamericanas en el mundo. En su obra, Las Instituciones e Ideologías en la Independencia Hispanoamericana, Fillipi recoge un conjunto de ensayos los cuales fueron escritos en diferentes

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

Los últimos acontecimientos dentro y fuera de los Estados Unidos en materia económica llevan a re-pensar el rol que juegan tanto la propiedad inmobiliaria como la propiedad en general dentro de nuestras conceptualizaciones y sistema económico. En ese contexto, se inscribe el trabajo del sociólogo francés Pierre Bourdieu titulado Las Estructuras Sociales de la Economía. Originalmente, el autor comienza uno

Maximiliano E. Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

El lactante, su madre y el psicoanalista consideramos es uno de los libros más interesantes sobre los cuales se ha basado las observaciones de S. Lebovici con respecto al intercambio simbólico entre madre y lactante en la edad temprana. El libro puede ser analizado utilizando el sistema por capítulos.

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

Indudablemente Darcy Ribeiro se ha transformado en uno de los antropólogos latinoamericanos más influyentes de las últimas décadas. Centrado en el estudio de las causas económicas y políticas del desarrollo. En este contexto, la presente reseña examina su trabajo: Las Américas y la Civilización, obra publicada originalmente en 1972 por el Centro Editor de América Latina. El capítulo introductorio comienza

Maximiliano E. Korstanje



Herramientas de simulación de código abierto para l a mejora del aprendizaje en Ingeniería Eléctrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo describe una iniciativa para el uso d e herramientas de simulación como un procedimiento para mejorar el aprendizaje en los es tudios de ingeniería, concretamente en la asignatura de máquinas eléctricas. Estos métodos pe rmiten que los estudiantes mejoren la comprensión de los fenómenos físicos subyacentes y sus habilidades para resolver problemas con unos

A. Domínguez; M. Yusta



Microsoft Academic Search

El folklore campesino es uno de los mayores defensores de las historias míticas porque del campo salieron las primeras experiencias, fue de los arroyos cercanos a las fincas donde se comenzó a hablar de güijes. Así era la vida en Las Tunas hasta algunas décadas después del triunfo revolucionario cubano. Las Tunas es una ciudad rica en mitos y leyendas,

Yudit Merino Téllez; Perla Quintana Pérez; Irina Benítez Solís; Jorge Bodaño García



A framework for inter-ORB request level bridge construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses a problem of building a bridge between different CORBA compliantsystems. It presents a framework of the bridge based on the UNO approach whose architectureis easily extendable to more sophisticated in parallelizing level and functionalityunits. A problem of mapping objects defined in CORBA model is described and a fewsuggestions to deal with it are presented. As a case

M. Steinder; A. Uszok; K. Zielinski




Microsoft Academic Search

Grecia es uno de los miembros de la comunidad económica europea que actualmente enfrenta una de las situaciones más cruciales que podría impactar no solamente a esta Unión sino también algunos de los países de América Latina, de todos los pertenecientes de la CEE, es el que se encuentra en peor situación económica y el más susceptible de caer en

Pedro Jesús López Montoya



A large displacement formulation for anisotropic beam analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario E' conveniente scomporre lo spostamento di un punto di una trave in una rototraslazione della sezione cui appartiene e in uno spostamento che deforma la sezione (in-gobbamento). Si deduce la corretta approssimazione al second'ordine della deformazione per grandi spostamenti e quindi grandi rotazioni. Vengono presentate sia la formulazione lineare che quella non lineare, basate sul metodo degli spostamenti: dalla

Marco Borri; Teodoro Merlini



Proyecto de un psicoanálisis crítico: algunos pensamientos introductorios  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'autor, uno de los fundadores del nuevo Seminario de Psicoanalisis en Zurich (PSZ), cuenta su experiencia personal que lo conducí a comprender la necesitad de cambios importantes en la metapsicologia Freudiana. Ademas piensa que un gran esfuerzo sera necesario para traducir los diferentes dialectos del Psicoanálisis (como Freud, Klein, Lacan etc.) para lograr un idioma comun fundado en la experiencia

Emilio Modena


El mobbing como modelo de relaciones laborales en la Banca japonesa en España  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo analiza cómo ciertos modelos empresariales de culturas tradicionales y fuertemente jerarquizadas como la japonesa, junto a factores de globalización, competitividad, fusiones o crisis económica, son el caldo de cultivo para que el acoso psicológico se institucionalice y forme parte de la cultura de empresa y de las relaciones laborales. El análisis se ha realizado en uno de los

Martínez García


en hospedadores murinos experimentalmente inmunosuprimidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium spp. es un protozoario parásito pertenecien- te al Phylum Apicomplexa, el cual ha sido estudiado amplia- mente a nivel humano y veterinario por ser el causante de la criptosporidiosis. En este trabajo estudiamos la diseminación tisular del parásito utilizando dos grupos de hospedadores murinos: uno constituido por ratones infectados y tratados con ciclofosfamida (CPA) por su efecto inmunosupresor y

Elizabeth Bruzual; Pilar Hurtado; Lucila Arcay



Evaluating An Alternative To Finance Higher Education: Human Capital Contracts In Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Se presenta un ejercicio para la valuación de Contratos de Capital Humano (CCH), siguiendo a Palacios (2004), en el cual se utilizan datos del Observatorio Laboral para la Educación y su Encuesta de Seguimiento a Graduados–2007. El análisis se hace a través de un modelo Minceriano y uno de Splines para encontrar los pronósticos determinísticos del ingreso. Se encuentra

Felipe Lozano R



Doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as building blocks for nanoelectronics: a theoretical study.  


Density functional theory (DFT) and semiempirical UHF natural orbital configuration interaction (UNO-CI) calculations are used to investigate the effect of heteroatom substitution at the central position of a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The effects of the substitution on structure, strain, electronic and spectral properties, and aromaticity of the compounds are discussed. PMID:23088568

Dral, Pavlo O; Kivala, Milan; Clark, Timothy



L'autoregolazione degli atteggiamenti relativi alla vacanza e al viaggio: un'indagine esplorativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uno dei più rilevanti problemi nella ricerca psicos ociale è la comprensione del rapporto tra atteggiamenti e comportamenti e, in pa rticolare, la predittività degli atteggiamenti rispetto a specifici comportamenti. I modelli teorici sviluppati per la spiegazione della struttura degli atteggiamenti e d ella loro relazione con i comportamenti hanno attribuito alle intenzioni una posizione cruciale, ma sia la Teoria

Enrichetta Giannetti; Lorenzo Bellettini



Assessment of Stress Factors in Foreign Operations Involving French U.N. Peacekeepers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the Gulf war, the French Army has been exposed to harsh stress conditions on its missions abroad with the U.N.O. It has been observed during the late missions of the French Army in ex-Yugoslavia and Rwanda, that the confrontation with the reality of...

C. Cian C. Raphel




Microsoft Academic Search

L'intervento di Filippo II di Macedonia in Tessaglia contro gli Alevadi di Larissa è presentato come spedizione antitirannica dalla propaganda macedone riflessa in Isocrate, Speusippo, Diodoro, e in uno scolio a Demostene, mentre è connotato come l'azione violenta del re macedone contro gli ex alleati dalla propaganda antimacedone alimentata ad Atene e in Grecia soprattutto da Demostene. Le due contrastanti

Giuseppe Squillace




Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario In questo lavoro viene illustrato uno strumento di modellazione e simulazione multicorpo di roller coaster che si inserisce in una più ampia procedura di progettazione sviluppata per conto di una delle maggiori aziende del settore. Il codice e la metodologia sviluppati investono l'ideazione, il disegno, la simulazione e la verifica funzionale e dinamica di questa particolare tipologia di giostre

C. Braccesi; F. Cianetti; G. Lori



Microsoft Academic Search

La tutela degli ecosistemi forestali ha assunto nel corso degli anni sempre maggiore rilievo grazie alla progressiva presa di coscienza della loro importanza economica, paesaggistica ed ambientale. Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera Lymantriidae) è uno dei principali insetti defogliatori delle formazioni boschive a quercia nel bacino del Mediterraneo per l'ampiezza delle infestazioni e la frequenza dagli attacchi. Il monitoraggio degli ambienti


Strumenti formali e tecnologie per il banking on-line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il ruolo dei canali virtuali nella distribuzione dei servizi finanziari rappresenta uno degli aspetti pi rilevanti nella ristrutturazione della rete distributiva bancaria e finanziaria tradizionale. La banca virtuale modifica i processi e le modalita' di produzione mediante la tecnologia, ricercando efficienza ed efficacia con le forme di remote\\/home banking. Alla banca virtuale e' associabile una gamma articolata di soluzioni organizzative,

Crescenzio Gallo; Leonardo Trombacco



Il Nuovo Sistema Informativo Sanitario (Nsis): modello concettuale di base Dicembre 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il Servizio Sanitario Nazionale si colloca in uno scenario politico e sociale in profonda evoluzione, per effetto del progressivo decentramento di poteri e competenze dallo Stato alle Regioni e della necessità di garantire un maggiore equilibrio tra le risorse da destinare all'acuzie e alla cronicità. In questo contesto è emersa la necessità di costruire una base dati nazionale, condivisa con

Daniela Canali; Marta Fantola CNR-Istituto; Tecnologie Biomediche



Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable development, launched in 1987, knew an evolution that might be summarized like this: it was accepted and transformed in strategic objectives at the level of many national economies; it was extended at the level of economic branches, in various fields (human resources etc); it inspired actions at international (UNO), continental (EU) and regional level, that were

Emilian M. DOBRESCU; Gheorghe MANEA; Roxana STEFANESCU; Victor Velter




Microsoft Academic Search

I materiali in stato solido per l'immagazzinamento di idrogeno sono i più promettenti per applicazioni auto- motive. Il miglioramento di questi materiali richiede una modellizzazione computazionale dei processi fisici e delle reazioni chimiche che avvengono durante la deidrogenazione. In questo articolo descriviamo i risultati ottenuti nello studio di questi processi sugli alanati di sodio, uno dei materiali più interessanti. •

Simone Meloni



Microsoft Academic Search

La técnica fotoacústica es un método muy sensible para la detección de trazas gaseosas en el estudio de la contaminación ambiental y otras aplicaciones. Uno de los principales problemas que presenta es el proceso de adsorción-desorción, presente en el caso de moléculas polares como el agua, el amoníaco o el dióxido de nitrógeno, que produce importantes variaciones en las muestras

A. L. Peuriot; G. D. Santiago; V. B. Slezak; M. G. González


Regulación ambiental sobre la contaminación vehicular en Colombia: ¿hacia donde vamos?  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gran aumento de los niveles de contaminación del aire constituye en la actualidad uno de los problemas más importantes que afronta la sociedad en general, dado su impacto negativo sobre el medio ambiente y la calidad de vida. A nivel internacional se están implementando variadas medidas de política ambiental —instrumentos económicos— en el sector transporte con el fin de

David Tobón Orozco; Andrés Felipe Sánchez Gandur; Maria Victoria Cárdenas Londoño



Una primera aproximación a la valuación hedónica de la contaminación en Buenos Aires  

Microsoft Academic Search

La cuantificación de los beneficios de cualquier política dirigida a reducir la contaminación puede hacerse de distintas maneras. Una de ellas es a través de métodos indirectos, uno de los cuales es el de la valuación hedónica. La idea básica es que en el precio de los inmuebles se encuentra implícito el precio de sus características. Una de dichas características

Mariana Conte Grand



Blanqueo de capitales y lavado de dinero: su concepto, historia y aspectos operativos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoy en día el lavado o reciclaje de dinero es percibido por la comunidad internacional como uno de los principales problemas, frente al cual la actividad criminal ocupa la atención de todas las autoridades relacionadas con el tema. Los países son conscientes de la difícil situación de establecer un criterio uniforme precisamente porque las realidades de cada nación son diversas

Bruno Tondini



Microsoft Academic Search

La crisis económica y financiera internacional ha tenido diversos efectos sobre América Latina. Podemos suponer dos grandes escenarios: uno sombrío, poco alentador y carente de un futuro optimista y por otro, la traza de ciertas posibilidades o alternativas de vida, éstas últimas, a mi juicio, sólo partirán de las y los interesados, o sea, aquellas personas afectadas directa o indirectamente

Ángel Christian Luna Alfaro



Dinámica de planetas extrasolares resonantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos últimos, ocho poseen planetas en órbitas próximas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2\\/1

C. Beauge



La gestion des risques par les établissements de crédit : essais de modélisation macro-économique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Gesción de riesgos por parte de los establecimientos crediticios, . por Jean Cordier, Pascal Jacquinot y Dominique Plihon.. . El entorno de los bancos se ha visto profundamente modifîcado desde hace unos diez años, debido al proceso de liberalización y de modernización del sistema financière rrancés. Además, la acentuación de las fluctuaciones económicas y financieras ha incrementado los riesgos

Dominique Plihon; Pascal Jacquinot; Jean Cordier



Les retraites individuelles à long terme : une projection par microsimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Las pensiones individuales a largo plazo : una proyecciôn por microsimulaciôn . El porvenir de las pensiones suele considerarse en términos globales : proyecciôn de las grandes masas, de los nivelés de prestaciones o de los tipos de cotizaciones medios. Aello se Mega valiéndose de unos modelos relativamente agregados. Pero la evoluciôn de las pensiones présenta también problemas individuales

Didier Blanchet; Jean-Marie Chanut



Los programas informáticos P2P y las nuevas perspectivas de la industria musical en Norteamérica y Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet puede calificarse como un verdadero catalizador social que avanza tendencias y comportamientos y que presenta constantes desafíos a los marcos jurídico-políticos y socioculturales de los países del mundo. En relación con la transmisión de datos por la red, uno de los problemas que ha ocasionado más controversia es el de los programas de intercambio de archivos en la red

Guillem Baladia Puche; Eduardo Riol Carvajal




Microsoft Academic Search

Uno de los aspectos más sobresalientes de la nueva novela histórica es el papel protagónico que adquiere la voz narrativa en este tipo de textos. En este artículo se examina la estructuración que el narrador de esta novela de Gloria Guardia lleva a cabo. Para ello se analizan los siguientes aspectos: el manejo de distintos conceptos de temporalidad histórica, la

Elena Grau-Lleveria



Los cambios comportamentales y del uso del espacio asociados a la muerte del macho dominante de una manada de lobos ibéricos (canis lupus signatus) en el Parque Zoológico de Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

La dinámica social es uno de los campos más estudiados de la familia Canidae en condiciones de cautividad. En este estudio se pretende determinar cómo la muerte del macho dominante de una manada de lobos alojados en el Parque Zoológico de Barcelona afecta al patrón de actividad diario y al uso del espacio del resto de coespecíficos. Los individuos objeto

Ana Isabel Soriano Giménez; Susana Serrat Navarro; Conrad Ensenyat; Carles Riba; Carmen Maté García



Studio micologico del Debaryomyces neoformans (Sanfelice) Red., Cif. et Giord. e significato della specie nella patologia animale  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'A. che in note precedenti e con la collaborazione di Ciferri e Redaelli ha già portato un contributo personale alla posizione sistematica, alla nomenclatura ed alla sinonimia di Debaryomyces neoformans Red. Cif. et Gior., attraverso uno studio culturale, micromorfologico biochimico e biologico di 28 ceppi di origine diversa e con binomi di Cryptococcus hominis, C. neoformans, Torula histolytica, C. hondurianus,

Alfonso Giordano



Qui sont les étudiants des trois universités lilloises ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] ¿ Quienes son los estudiantes de las très universidades de Lila ? - Depende fundalmente del nivel social ingresar en la Universidad? Tal como lo demostraron otros estudios efectuados a nivel nacional, parece ser que la condición social de los estudiantes desempena un papel fundamental para ingresar en la Universidad. En efecto, para unos cuantos estudiantes el concurrir a

Hubert Cukrowicz; Christian Baudelot



An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Demonstrating Prey Preference in Snakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent promotion of inquiry-based learning techniques (Uno, 1990) is well suited to the use of animals in the classroom. Working with living organisms directly engages students and stimulates them to actively participate in the learning process. Students develop a greater appreciation for living things, the natural world, and their impact on…

Place, Aaron J.; Abramson, Charles I.



University Facilitation of School Restructuring: Critical Milestones for Organization Transformation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critical milestones in the university facilitation of meaningful school reform in schools serving at-risk students--schoolwide assessment, cadre-based planning, and pilot testing of new strategies--are examined in this paper. A training and facilitation mechanism developed by the University of New Orleans' (UNO) Louisiana Accelerated Schools…

Davidson, Betty M.; Allen-Haynes, Leetta



NSDL National Science Digital Library

En esta actividad, los participantes explorarán las fuerzas de gravedad y la resistencia al aire usando paracaídas. Usarán una variedad de materiales y técnicas para hacer los paracaídas y probarán si al dejar caer unos clips se puede reducir la velocidad de ellos.

Science, Lawrence H.



La declaración de Guerra en el Ordenamiento Jurídico Español  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mi intención es que este trabajo sirva para deslegitimar el discurso de la guerra, aunque sea únicamente en el campo jurídico. Porque creo que la lucha contra la guerra también se juega dentro de este ámbito. Las guerras «se preparan a conciencia» (Arcadi Oliveres: 2000, 11); y uno de los sectores en el que se preparan es en el campo

Eduardo Melero Alonso


Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and infonnation transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation ma...

M. M. Schaaf B. D. Bowen M. M. Fink J. S. Nickerson



Taming Mars with a tent and a tunnel: creation of a biosphere-city  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Technical fix’ summarizes the story of all extinct and extant ecosystem-societies. Nowadays composed of ~193 UNO members, our global civilization's true wealth is humanity's scientific–technological capacity to direct any global Nature's forces. More and more, people and their designated robots visit other potential worlds. This is done, in part, to discover and define controllable planetary forces additional to Earth's. Mars'

Richard B. Cathcart




Microsoft Academic Search

Especialmente en el caso de las cajas de ahorro, el capital social ha sido recurrentemente utilizado para explicar la aportación que ciertas entidades bancarias realizan al desarrollo económico y social de sus territorios de actuación. Las cooperativas de crédito, como organizaciones singulares en nuestro sistema financiero, poseen unos intangibles de características particulares. Así, la reputación corporativa, las relaciones sociales, con



Internationalisation et endettement des grands groupes français à la fin des années 1990 ; suivi d'un commentaire de Michel Boutillier  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Internacionalización y deuda de los grandes grupos franceses a finales de los noventa . . Las nuevas adquisiciones de sociedades extranjeras por unos cuantos grandes grupos franceses al final del último decenio han aumentado la internacionalización de estos y al mismo tiempo su nivel de endeudamiento. Si bien por su peso en la economía francesa, el endeudamiento de esos

Michel Boutiller; Claude Picart



Análisis de la Relevancia de los Activos Intangibles en las Empresas Españolas: Un Estudio Empírico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen.- Sin duda, uno de los temas que se presenta más polémico en la empresa actual y que afecta a distintas áreas de la organización es el de los activos intangibles. Se ha pasado de una empresa considerada como un conjunto de recursos materiales a una empresa como conjunto de conocimientos en la que ya no solamente los activos intangibles

Isabel Gallego Álvarez; Luis Rodríguez Domínguez


De las capacidades dinámicas como enfoque de la estrategia a la integración de competencias para la construcción de un entorno colaborativo Univ - Emp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo intenta mostrar la importancia de avanzar de un enfoque de capacidades dinámicas a uno de competencias, para construir una estrategia de entornos colaborativos que permita aprovechar los esfuerzos y las oportunidades de la relación universidad- empresa. Para tal fin, el documento está organizado en tres partes: la primera, es una revisión amplia de las perspectivas desde las cuales

Patricia Roncancio R



An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Demonstrating Prey Preference in Snakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recent promotion of inquiry-based learning techniques (Uno, 1990) is well suited to the use of animals in the classroom. Working with living organisms directly engages students and stimulates them to actively participate in the learning process. Students develop a greater appreciation for living things, the natural world, and their impact on…

Place, Aaron J.; Abramson, Charles I.



Studio sulla ricolonizzazione di un tratto di fiume Piave soggetto ad asciutte stagionali  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO La sperimentazione è stata svolta sul tratto medio del fiume Piave, in località Grave di Papadopoli, provincia di Treviso. In questo tratto il Piave scorre su uno spesso materasso ghiaioso e si divide in due rami, di Cimadolmo sulla sinistra e di Maserada sulla destra idrografica, periodicamente interessati da lunghi periodi di asciutta totale. Il presente lavoro si propone

Marco Zanetti; Diana Piccolo; Paolo Turin; Manuel Bellio; Roberto Venzo


Competencias social y habilidades sociales en la Educación Especial  

Microsoft Academic Search

La enseñanza y el aprendizaje de habilidades sociales específicas es uno de los principales propósitos que se plantea la Educación Especial, con objeto de que los alumnos adquieran la suficiente competencia social que les permita una plena integración en la comunidad. Muchos han sido los procedimientos utilizados para su instrucción; la mayoría de estos métodos han ejercido influencias beneficiosas en




Entrenamiento en habilidades sociales: un método de enseñanza- aprendizaje para desarrollar las habilidades de comunicación interpersonal en el área de enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constituye el presente estudio una experiencia sobre la validez del entrenamiento en habilidades so - ciales en el área de la atención a pacientes en el campo de la enfermería. El estudio se ha realizado con un procedimiento experimental en el que se han utilizado dos grupos de alumnos de enfermería, uno de ellos figuraba como grupo control. Ambos grupos

Manuel Marín Sánchez; José M; León Rubio


Memoria de trabajo, atención y composicionalidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es una práctica habitual en Psicología desarrollar microteorías para explicar datos muy concretos obtenidos en un conjunto limitado de tareas. Cuando todo el peso de la elaboración teórica recae en unos datos empíricos específicos sin tener en cuenta otras restricciones teóricas más generales, los grados de libertad para elaborar un modelo son en general muchos y esto hace que la

Pedro J. Ramos; Josep M. Sopena Sisquella; Elizabeth Gilboy i Rubio



Modelos estocásticos de aprendizaje en ensayos de respuesta dicotómica y un número finito de estados absorbentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se construye un modelo probabilístico para representar un proceso de aprendizaje en el contexto de los modelos de estado en la denominada teoría matemática del aprendizaje. El modelo in- cluye tanto el proceso de adquisición como el de olvido, así como el supuesto de que el proceso pue - de terminar en uno cualquiera de r estados.

Carmen Santisteban Requena



Collective Bargaining Agreement between University of Nebraska at Omaha Chapter American Association of University Professors and the Board of Regents of University of Nebraska for the Period July 1, 1989 through June 30, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the agreement between the University of Nebraska at Omaha Chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) and the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) for the academic years 1989-1991. Five articles detail the following topics: (1)definition of terms; (2) recognition and description of the…

American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.


La evaluación como proceso de legitimidad: la opinión de los alumnos. Reporte de una experiencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presentan diversas consideraciones sobre la importancia de legitimar la operación social y la gestión institucional en las organizaciones educativas, considerando que uno de los elementos estriba en el derecho a opinar de los alumnos sobre el desempeño docente de sus profesores. En el trabajo se reporta el análisis de 26 010 cuestionarios contestados por los alumnos




Estudio para la prevención del cáncer necesita voluntarias: El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR) se realiza en Norteamérica

El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en inglés), uno de los estudios más importantes realizados para la prevención del cáncer del seno, está ahora reclutando voluntarias en más de 400 centros en los Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico y Canadá.


La forja de un republicano: Diego Martínez Barrio (1883-1962)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo realiza un recorrido por los rasgos fundamentales del republicanismo español tomando como eje la biografía política de uno de los más destacados protagonistas de la política española de la II República y de la historia del exilio republicano. Inició su andadura política como militante anarquista, fue líder de los jóvenes republicanos de Sevilla, mantuvo una estrecha relación con

Leandro Álvarez Rey



X-SAR as high-performance interferometric SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April and October 1994 the X-SAR radar has been flown twice onboard the Space Shuttle, as part of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1 and SRL-2). This radar payload is the first synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system of its kind in space, with three frequencies, multi- polarization, variable incidence angle and variable modes of operation. SIR-C/X-SAR, the new generation of imaging microwave remote sensing sensors from space, demonstrated successfully repeat pass interferometry in all three frequencies with a one day repeat as well as a six month repeat orbit. The major problems with the repeat orbit interferometry are the temporal target decorrelation, unsuitable baseline and different squint angles for the two passes to be processed. Therefore, for the third mission of the Space Radar Lab which shall be called SRTM (shuttle radar topographic mapper), single pass interferometry with a second receive antenna is proposed to generate a topographic map of all land surfaces between +60 degrees and -56 degrees latitude. X-SAR's 12 meter long and 40 cm wide main transmit and receive antenna is mounted directly to a tiltable part of the SIR-C antenna truss structure in the Shuttle cargo bay. The second receive antenna is 6 meters long and is mounted together with the second C-band antenna to a 31 meter long deployable boom structure perpendicular to the velocity direction to build the baseline. X-SAR is not capable of operating in a scan SAR model like SIR-C to allow continuous coverage, but will operate in a high resolution mode with a swath width of 30 - 35 km. The engineering design of the interferometric configuration for X-SAR, the requirement specifications, and the predicted performance as well as the mission operation aspects are described in this paper. SIR-C/X- SAR is a cooperative project. The SIR-C instrument was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The X-band radar (X-SAR) was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio Companies for the German Space Agency (DARA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), with the Deutsche Forshcungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), as the major partner in science, operations, and data processing.

Werner, Marian; Schandl, Josef



A project for a solar sail propelled spaceship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of using the solar radiation pressure for propelling a space vehicle dates back to the 1920s and was suggested by the Russian space pioneer Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and the Russian engineer Fridrickh Arturovich Tsander. NASA began technology studies in the mid-1960s in which various design and technology requirements were examined for solar sailing vehicles without reference to specific missions. In 1977 a Jet Propulsion laboratory team undertook a 1-year study under a NASA contract to assess the practical possibilities of carrying out a rendezvous mission to Halley's Comet using a solar sail. Despite the confidence of the technical team and the completion of a valid preliminary design, NASA thought the technology of solar sailing was not sufficiently 'mature' to be implemented in time for a 1981 launch to the comet and the project was abandoned. Efforts to design and develop the solar sailing concept have been continued since then by private organizations i.e. the Union pour la Promotion de la Propulsion Photonique (U3P) in France, and the World Space Foundation in the United States. The latter has already fabricated a prototype square sail of about 700 sq m, and is seeking NASA support for flying a test vehicle. U3P is also seeking sponsorship for its design and development of solar sailing spacecraft and has proposed a race to the Moon between solar sails. In December 1988 the Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee Commission, a Presidential commission created by the Congress of the United States, approved the establishment of a Columbus 500 Space Sail Cup competition to commemorate his voyage to the Americas. The intent of the Space Sail Cup was to bring about the launch of at least three solar sail vehicles representing the Americas, Europe and Asia, selected among all the presented projects, that would have travelled from a High Earth Orbit (HEO) toward the Moon and then toward Mars. The space company then called Aeritalia Gruppo Sistemi Spaziali (today Alenia Spazio) produced the contest-winning solar sail design among the European countries.

Bevilacqua, Franco; Cesare, Stefano



ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There will be ten participants: four ESA astronauts (Pedro Duque, Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli and Thomas Reiter), four Japanese astronauts from NASDA (Takao Doi, Koichi Wakata, Satoshi Furukawa and Aikihido Hoshide) and two NASA astronauts (Nicole Passonno Stott and Stephanie D. Wilson). The main objective of this training session is to prepare the astronauts for the tasks they will have to perform when the Japanese experiment module (JEM) and ESA's Columbus laboratory are docked with the core of the International Space Station over the years ahead. After completing their training and certification, the astronauts will be assigned to long-duration missions to the ISS. The advanced training at the EAC will focus on the Columbus systems and the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). It will consist of 24 classroom lectures on the Columbus and ATV systems and 4 on payloads, and 2 sessions in the Columbus Trainer. Instructors are being provided by Astrium for the Columbus systems and Alenia Spazio for the ATV, with ESA/EAC staff as mentors for the Columbus payloads. The astronauts are scheduled to visit Astrium in Bremen on 30 August to get acquainted with the flight unit of the Columbus laboratory module currently undergoing integration. This group of astronauts started their advanced training in April 2001 at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, where they attended a first course on the US segment of the International Space Station. This was followed by training on the JEM system at NASDA's Tsukuba Space Center, Japan, in December 2001 - January 2002 and additional training at the JSC in May 2002. At the beginning of next year the group will be returning to Tsukuba for training on Japanese payloads. Hands-on sessions on Columbus Payload Training Models are scheduled for the second half of 2003, again at ESA's European Astronaut Centre. On Thursday 5 September, between 16:30 and 18:30 hrs, the astronauts and other ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives interested in meeting them are requested to complete the attached reply form and to fax it by Tuesday 3 September to Maren Stock at ESA/EAC.



Plate tectonics and petroleum potential of the Laptev Sea region  

SciTech Connect

About 1,600 km of multichannel seismic data with simultaneous gravity and magnetic measurements were collected in the Laptev Sea during 1989. Additionally, a 100 km onshore seismic reflection profile transected the northern termination of the Verrkoyansky Mountains. Data interpretation showed the following. The tectonic patterns of the Laptev Sea region was formed as a result of two major tectonic phases. The first phase was associated with collisions between the Paleozoic passive margin of Siberia and a number of allochthonous terrains which were previously parts of the North American Paleo-Pacific plate. These tectonic events accompanied the opening of the Canadian basin and ended in the second half of the Early Cretaceous. The second phase was a result of the opening of the Makarov and the Europeo-Asiatic basins, which caused the rifting processes within the Laptev Sea Shelf. Seismic onshore data show that the orogenic sequence consists of allochthonous plates which were thrust onto the thick sedimentary cover the Siberia platform. An underthrusting sedimentary sequence is situated at depths from 3 to 5 km, which present a good possibility to reach by the drill. The geological analogy with Appalachian Mountains United States, permits one to propose a high petroleum potential for this area. A system of offshore Laptev Sea grabens consisting of a series of alternating tilted and thrusted blocks, along with intrablock pre-drift sediments, are promising as potential hydrocarbon traps. This is akin to structural setting within North Sea oil and gas province.

Savostin, L.; Drachev, S.; Baturin, D. (LARGE International, Moscow (USSR))



Pitagora e la psicoanalisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Un giovane uomo stava seduto sulla spiaggia, tracciando con un bastone dei triangoli sulla sabbia... Non vedeva i gabbiani\\u000a che volavano in ampi cerchi sopra la sua testa né le galere e le triremi che si muovevano dolcemente sul mare lungo l’orizzonte;\\u000a indossava una strana tunica ampia e il suo viso era fisso in uno sguardo muto e angustiato sulle

Arthur Koestler


Informed consent documentation for total artificial heart technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of human donor hearts continues to fall short of clinical need. Educational efforts to increase organ donation\\u000a have not been able to significantly narrow the shortfall of human hearts, and bridging devices such as left ventricular assist\\u000a systems actually cause the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) waiting list to swell. In an effort to address these matters,

Katrina A. Bramstedt




Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario Nel presente lavoro viene illustrata una procedura di accettazione di ruote ferroviarie trattate, nelle quali la ridotta emissione acustica è ottenuta mediante l'applicazione di uno smorzamento a strato vincolato mediante l'interposizione di un polimero viscoelastico fra il centro ruota ed un pannello di lamiera opportunamente sagomato. La procedura proposta è basata esclusivamente sull'analisi delle ampiezze di vibrazione in condizioni

A. Bracciali; S. Cervello; A. Rossi


Produzione multipla di mesoni negli sciami penetranti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  Si descrivono le esperienze riguardanti la produzione multipla dei mesoni nelle collisioni coi nuclei di alta energia eseguite\\u000a nel Laboratorio della «Testa Grigia» a 3 500 m. Il dispositivo sperimentale adottato (fig. 1) permette di registrare contemporaneamente\\u000a coincidenze del quarto, quinto e sesto ordine in due distinte apparecchiature perfettamente simmetriche, disponendo su una\\u000a di dette apparecchiature uno strato di paraffina

G. Bertolino; M. Cini; P. Colombino; G. Wataghin



On a new difference scheme-ATVD2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new difference scheme is proposed which is constructed by applying the modified flux method proposed by Harten for the second order accuracy total variation diminishing (TVD2) second-order accuracy uniformly non oscillatory (UNO2) scheme. The numerical experiment of the ONERA-M6 wing test case shows the solutions of the proposed scheme without artificial compression. The parameters almost coincide with those of

Satoru Ogawa; Tomiko Ishiguro; Yasuhiro Wada; Yoko Takakura



La formazione dell'interprete di comunità. Analisi linguistica comparata di interpretazioni di comunità \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO In uno scenario di globalizzazione, l'interprete di comunità diventa una figura sempre più necessaria. Altrettanto necessaria sembra l'individuazione delle capacità coinvolte nel community interpreting, nonché l'elaborazione di metodologie didattiche che promuovano lo sviluppo di tali capacità nello studente. Questo progetto si propone di rispondere, seppur in minima parte, a questa esigenza. Lo fa con l'ambizione di coprire due lingue

Natacha Niemants



Liver transplantation outcomes for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a multicenter study.  


The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a frequent and incurable complication of cirrhosis, continues to rise. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proposed as a treatment for unresectable, intrahepatic HCC limited in extent to the Milan criteria adopted by the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) in 1998. More recently, somewhat less restrictive University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)10, criteria were proposed. To examine the long-term outcomes of OLT for HCC patients and to assess the UNOS policy of assigning weighted allocation points to patients with HCC, we retrospectively analyzed 144 patients (113 after 1998) with HCC who underwent OLT over an 11-year period at 3 institutions from UNOS Region 1. We compared their outcomes with 525 patients (272 after 1998) who underwent OLT for nonmalignant liver disease. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.3% and 46.7%, respectively, for patients with HCC and 81.5% and 70.6%, respectively, for patients without HCC (P = .020). However, there was no difference in survival between HCC and non-HCC patients after implementation of disease-specific allocation for HCC in 1998. A higher proportion of the HCC cohort was older and male and had chronic HCV infection and alcoholic liver disease. In univariate analysis, having alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of 10 ng/mL or less and meeting clinical and pathologic UCSF criteria were each significant predictors of improved survival (P = .005, P = .02, and P = .03, respectively). AFP greater than 10 ng/mL and exceeding pathologic UCSF criteria were also significant predictors of recurrence (P = .003 and P = .02, respectively). In conclusion, taken together, our data suggest that OLT is an acceptable option for patients with early HCC and that UCSF criteria predict outcome better than Milan or UNOS criteria. Regardless of which criteria are adopted to define eligibility, strict adherence to the criteria is important to achieve acceptable outcomes. PMID:15497158

Leung, Jessica Y; Zhu, Andrew X; Gordon, Fredric D; Pratt, Daniel S; Mithoefer, Abigail; Garrigan, Kathryn; Terella, Adam; Hertl, Martin; Cosimi, A Benedict; Chung, Raymond T




Microsoft Academic Search

En este estudio se analizó la influencia de auxinas y citocininas en el contenido de nutrimentos y crecimiento vegetal de vitroplantas de caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp.) de la variedad ITV 92-1424. Se evaluaron dos factores: ácido indol-3-acético (AIA), como fuente de auxina, y N6-furfurilade nina (kinetina o KIN), como fuente de citocinina, con cinco niveles cada uno (0, 0.5,

Odón Castañeda-Castro; Fernando C. Gómez-Merino; Libia I. Trejo-Téllez; Miriam C. Pastelín-Solano; Yolanda Martínez-Ocampo; Marina Guevara-Valencia




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Atum Pampa se ubica en las Sierras Gran- des de Córdoba, a 1000 m s.m. Los proce- sos pedogenéticos dominantes en el área son: melanización, calcificación-descal- cificación, eluviación-iluviación y alcalinización. Los horizontes superficia- les contienen dos tipos de humus: uno es un mull con dominio de Ca++ intercam- biable y el otro es un mull con CO 3Ca libre.




Componentes espectrales directa y difusa, UVA y UVB y de acciones biológicas de la radiación solar incidente sobre Buenos Aires. Mediciones y modelización Direct and diffuse spectral components, UVA and UVB and biological actions of the solar radiation incident on Buenos Aires. Measurements and modelization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presentan mediciones de irradiancia espectral solar en el rango ultravioleta, efectuadas en el CEILAP, Gran Buenos Aires, utilizando el espectrorradiómetro portátil Ocean Optics HR4000, recientemente incorporado. La relación global\\/difusa crece y la relación difusa\\/directa decrece con la longitud de onda, pasando por el valor uno (igualdad de ambas componentes) a longitudes de onda cada vez mayores. Este comportamiento se

M. M. Raponi; G. Salum; F. Gonzalez; E. Quel; R. D. Piacentini


Standardized comparisons in population research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  La estandarización es usada en el análisis demográfico para hacer corn paraciones de la incidencia o prevalencia de varios\\u000a fenómenos, tomados en cuenta con las diferencias en uno o más factores componentes. Este artículo se propone explorar la amplitud\\u000a de las alternativias disponibles para las composiciones controladas y, especialmente, las relaciones de la estandarización\\u000a con las teorías de la construcción

Evelyn M. Kitagawa



Tentativo per una teoria semiclassica dei processi multipli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  La teoria diHeitler, che prevede la creazione di mesoni nell'urto protone-protone, conduce per le sezioni d'urto relative a tale processo a valori\\u000a eccessivamente elevati. Questo è sostanzialmente dovuto al fatto che nella sua teoria la probabilità di emissione di un mesone,\\u000a quando il parametro d'urto è molto piccolo, risulta maggiore di uno. Interpretando invece, secondo un suggerimento diBethe, questa probabilità

E. Clementel; N. Dallaporta



Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.  


In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society. PMID:10607853

Lugagnani, V


High-dose chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma patients: a reappraisal of prognostic factors.  


High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) has a consolidated role in the treatment of patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We report clinical results of 97 HL patients who underwent HDCT for refractory (62 patients) or relapsed (35 patients) diseases in Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, from 1995 to 2009. Treatment included high-dose carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan in 84 patients and high-dose idarubicin and melphalan in 13 patients with subsequent peripheral hemopoietic stem cells transplant. Outcomes were evaluated in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In order to identify prognostic factors for outcome, a multivariate analysis for age, sex, disease status (refractory/relapsed), disease stage, B symptoms, presence of extranodal involvement, bulky disease, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, number of previous chemotherapy lines, remission status before transplant, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography ((18) FDG-PET) status before and after transplant was done. A clinical response was achieved in 91% of patients, with complete remissions in 76/97 patients. With a median follow-up of 45?months (range 1-164?months), 5-year PFS and OS were 64% and 71%, respectively. Remission status after induction therapy, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography status before and after transplant were the most important prognostic factors for PFS and OS in univariate or multivariate analyses. HDCT is able to induce a high remission rate and a prolonged PFS in more than 50% of the patients with refractory and relapsed HL. PMID:22473680

Cocorocchio, E; Peccatori, F; Vanazzi, A; Piperno, G; Calabrese, L; Botteri, E; Travaini, L; Preda, L; Martinelli, G



Europlanet Integrated and Distributed Information Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decades the various disciplines in planetary sciences have developed to a very high international standard. But the collaboration between the different fields should be improved. To overcome the current fragmentation of the EU Planetary Science community and thereby to increase the scientific return of the related investment, the EU commission is funding via its Framework Program 7 the development of the "Europlanet Research Infrastructure -Europlanet RI". The Europlanet RI will consolidate the integration of the European Planetary Science community which started with Europlanet's FP6 project and will integrate major parts of the related distributed European infrastructure to be shared, fed and expanded by all planetary scientists. This infrastructure encompasses as diverse components as space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory experiments and numerical modeling teams. Europlanet RI aims at bringing scientists from Europe and beyond together who are working in these fields, support the exchange of experts and ideas and make as many resources and data as possible available to the research community. A central part of Europlanet RI is the "Integrated and Distributed Information Service" or Europlanet-IDIS. The task of IDIS as central part of Europlanet is to provide an easy-to-use Web-based platform to locate teams and laboratories with special knowledge needed to support the own research activities, give access to the wealth of already available data, initiate new research activities needed to interpret accumulated data or to solve open questions, and to exploit synergies between space-based missions and capabilities of ground based observatories. It also offers to a wide range of teams and laboratories the possibility to share their data, advertise their capabilities and increase the scientific return by cooperation. IDIS is organized as an EU FP7 Support Activity, consisting of different access nodes which are connected by integrated search facilities, compatible structures and a common management. Each of these nodes concentrates on a special field of planetary sciences, has its own team of related international experts and is responsible for the access to information and data centres related to its area of competence. Integrated keyword-based search-possibilities direct inquiries to those node(s), most likely to return the wanted information. These nodes are hosted by the following organizations: - The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) in Helsinki, Finland, hosts the Technical Node for a wide range of support activities and provides the network management. - The Institute of Planetary Research (IPR) of DLR in Berlin, Germany, hosts the Planetary Surfaces and Interiors Node, concentrating on internal structure, formation and evolution of the planets, their moons, asteroids and comets. - The Institut für Weltraumforschung, IWF (Space Research Institute) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW) in Graz hosts the Planetary Plasma Node in close cooperation with the French space plasma data center CDPP in Toulouse. - The Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace in Paris hosts the Planetary Atmospheres Node. - The Paris Observatory hosts the Virtual Observatory Paris Data Center providing among others access to a wide range of atomic and molecular spectral databases. - The Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) in Rome hosts the Small Bodies and Dust Node, in cooperation with the ESA/ESTECs Virtual Meteor Observatory in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, concentrating on research and observations related to solar system asteroids, comets, meteors and interplanetary dust. During the next four years a set of tools for describing, accessing and combining information and data from different sources will be developed, offering finally a Virtual Observatory like access to many data essential for planetary research from European and None-European sources. Web access via any of the mentioned nodes, e.g. the Technical Node at

Schmidt, W.; Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.



Water and methane maps overlap on Mars: a new clue?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PFS observed that, at 10-15 kilometres above the surface, water vapour is well mixed and uniform in the atmosphere. However, it found that, close to the surface, water vapour is more concentrated in three broad equatorial regions: Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum and Arcadia-Memnonia. Here, the concentration is two to three times higher than in other regions observed. These areas of water vapour concentration also correspond to the areas where NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft has observed a water ice layer a few tens of centimetres below the surface, as Dr Vittorio Formisano, PFS principal investigator, reports. New in-depth analysis of PFS data also confirms that methane is not uniform in the atmosphere, but concentrated in some areas. The PFS team observed that the areas of highest concentration of methane overlap with the areas where water vapour and underground water ice are also concentrated. This spatial correlation between water vapour and methane seems to point to a common underground source. Initial speculation has taken the underground ice layer into account. This could be explained by the ‘ice table’ concept, in which geothermal heat from below the surface makes water and other material move towards the surface. It would then freeze before getting there, due to the very low surface temperature (many tens of degrees Celsius below zero). Further investigations are needed to fully understand the correlation between the ice table and the presence and distribution of water vapour and methane in the atmosphere. In other words, can the geothermal processes which ‘feed’ the ice table also bring water vapour and other gases, like methane, to the surface? Can there be liquid water below the ice table? Can forms of bacterial life exist in the water below the ice table, producing methane and other gases and releasing them to the surface and then to the atmosphere? The PFS instrument has also detected traces of other gases in the Martian atmosphere. A report on these is currently under peer review. Further studies will address whether these gases can be linked to water and methane and help answer the unresolved questions. In-situ observations by future lander missions to Mars may provide a more exhaustive solution to the puzzle. Note to editors The result is reported today, 20 September, by Dr Vittorio Formisano at the International Mars Conference (19-23 September), organised by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in Ischia, Italy. The objective of the PFS instrument is the study, with unprecedented spectral resolution, of temperature fields in the atmosphere, dust, variation and cycle of water and carbon monoxide, vertical distribution of water, soil-atmosphere interactions and minor gaseous species. From this, hints of extant life can be extracted (in terms of the presence of ‘biomarker’ gases and chemical study of atmospheric environmental conditions). The PFS is an Italian Space Agency instrument, developed by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), in the framework of ESA Mars Express mission.



National Workshop on Astrobiology: The Life Science Involvement of AAS I Laben  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for traces of past and present life is a complex and multidisciplinary research activity involving several scientific heritages and a specific industrial ability for planetary exploration. Laben was established in 1958 to design and manufacture electronic instruments for research in nuclear physics. In the mid 2004 the company was merged with Alenia Spazio. It is now part of Alcatel Alenia Space, a French Italian joint venture. Alcatel Alenia Space Italia SpA is a Finmeccanica Company. Currently the plant of Vimodrone provides a wide heritage in life science oriented to space application. The experience in Space Life Science is consolidated in the following research areas: (1) Physiology: Mouse models related to studies on human physiology Human neuroscience research and dosimetry (2) Animal Adaptation and Behaviour: mice behaviour related to stabling stress (3) Developmental Biology: aquatic microorganisms cultivation (4) Cell culture & Biotechnology: Protein crystal growth General purpose Multiwell Next Biotechnology studies and development: Bio reactor, mainly oriented to tissue engineering Microsensor for tissue control (organ replacement) Multiwell for adherent cell culture or for automated biosensor based on cell culture Experiment Container for organic systems Experiment Container for small animals Instrumentation based on fluorescent Biosensors Sensors for Life science experiments for Biopan capsule and Space Vehicle Ray Shielding Materials Random Positioning Machine specialisation (Support ground equipment) The biological features of this heritage is at disposal for the exobiology multi science. The involvement of industries, from the beginning of the exobiology projects, allows a cost effective technologies closed loop development between Research Centres, Principal Investigators and industry.

Adami, Giorgio



Mars Express scientists find a different Mars underneath the surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations by MARSIS, the first subsurface sounding radar used to explore a planet, strongly suggest that ancient impact craters lie buried beneath the smooth, low plains of Mars' northern hemisphere. The technique uses echoes of radio waves that have penetrated below the surface. MARSIS found evidence that these buried impact craters - ranging from about 130 to 470 kilometres in diameter - are present under much of the northern lowlands. The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature. With MARSIS "it's almost like having X-ray vision," said Thomas R. Watters of the National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, and lead author of the results. "Besides finding previously unknown impact basins, we've also confirmed that some subtle, roughly circular, topographic depressions in the lowlands are related to impact features." Studies of how Mars evolved help in understanding early Earth. Some signs of the forces at work a few thousand million years ago are harder to detect on Earth because many of them have been obliterated by tectonic activity and erosion. The new findings bring planetary scientists closer to understanding one of the most enduring mysteries about the geological evolution and history of Mars. In contrast to Earth, Mars shows a striking difference between its northern and southern hemispheres. Almost the entire southern hemisphere has rough, heavily cratered highlands, while most of the northern hemisphere is smoother and lower in elevation. Since the impacts that cause craters can happen anywhere on a planet, the areas with fewer craters are generally interpreted as younger surfaces where geological processes have erased the impact scars. The surface of Mars' northern plains is young and smooth, covered by vast amounts of volcanic lava and sediment. However, the new MARSIS data indicate that the underlying crust is extremely old. “The number of buried impact craters larger than 200 kilometres in diameter that we have found with MARSIS,” said Jeffrey Plaut, MARSIS co-Principal Investigator, from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California, “tells us that the underlying crust in the northern lowlands must be very ancient, dating to the Early Noachian epoch (lasting from the planet's birth to about 4 thousand million years ago).” The Early Noachian was an era in which impact cratering was very intense across the Solar System. The results suggest that the crust of the northern lowlands is as old as the oldest exposed southern highlands, also dated to the Noachian epoch, and that the dichotomy between northern and southern hemispheres probably formed very early in the history of Mars. “These results are truly interesting and unprecedented,” added Giovanni Picardi. “MARSIS can contribute to understanding of the geology of Mars through analysis of the surface and subsurface morphology. In addition, from detailed analysis of the instrument’s data, we can obtain valuable information about the composition of the materials.” Note to editors The findings appear in the 14 December 2006 issue of the journal Nature, in the letter headed: “MARSIS radar sounder evidence of buried basins in the northern lowlands of Mars”, by T.R. Watters (National Air and Space Museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, Washington, USA), C.J. Leuschen (Center for Remote Sensing of Ice-sheets, Univ. of Kansas, USA), J.J. Plaut, A. Safaenili and A.B. Ivanov (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA, USA), G. Picardi (Infocom Dept., Univ. of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy), S.M. Clifford (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Texas, USA), W.M. Farrell (NASA/GSFC, Maryland, USA), R.J. Phillips (Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington Univ., Missouri, USA), and E.R. Stofan (Proxemy Research, Maryland, USA). The MARSIS instrument was developed in the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It was developed by Alenia Spazio under ASI management and the scientific supervision of the University of Rome



Status and Perspectives of Electric Propulsion in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric Propulsion (EP) is recognized as one of today's enabling technologies for scientific and commercial missions. In consideration of EP's major strategic impact on the near and long term scenarios, an EP development programme has been established within the Italian Space Agency (ASI), aimed at the development of a variety of propulsion capabilities covering different fields of application. This paper presents an overview of Electric Propulsion (EP) activities underway in Italy and outlines the planned development lines, both in research institutions and in industry. Italian EP activities are essentially concentrated in Pisa, at Centrospazio and Alta, and in Florence, at LABEN - Proel Tecnologie Division (LABEN/Proel). Centrospazio/Alta and LABEN/Proel have established a collaboration program for joint advanced developments in the EP field. Established in 1989, Centrospazio is a private research center closely related to the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Pisa University. Along the years, Centrospazio lines of development have included arcjets, magneto- plasma-dynamic thrusters, FEEP and Hall thrusters, as well as computational plasma dynamics and low-thrust mission studies. Alta, a small enterprise, was founded in 1999 to exploit in an industrial setting the results of research previously carried out at Centrospazio. Alta's activities include the development of micronewton and millinewton FEEP thrusters, and testing of high power Hall and ion thrusters in specialised facilities. A full micronewton FEEP propulsion system is being developed for the Microscope spacecraft, a scientific mission by CNES aimed at verification of the Equivalence Principle. FEEP will also fly on ASI's HypSEO, a technological demonstrator for Earth Observation, and is being considered for ESA's GOCE (geodesy) and SMART-2 (formation flying), as well as for the intended scientific spacecraft GG by ASI. The ASI-funded STEPS facility will be placed on an external site on the International Space Station to work as a long-duration testbed for EP systems. ASI co-funds the development of a very large testing facility (5.7 m internal diameter) for high power EP testing up to 50 kW. Proel Tecnologie is a Hi-Tech Organization established in 1986, operating in the field of electron (EGA for the TSS- 1and TSS-1R missions), ion and plasma sources for space applications. The Company, become a Division of LABEN S.p.A. (FINMECCANICA Company co-ordinated by Alenia Spazio) since 1995, has identified in the EP the main strategic development line. LABEN/Proel activities include the development of an Ion Thruster in the millinewton range (RMT, ASI technology contract), cathodes/neutralizers for EP in the 0,2-5 kW power range, in- flight diagnostics of EP sub-systems (ARTEMIS, STENTOR, SMART-1), xenon feedlines and flow control units, plasma contactors for the electrostatic charge control on spacecrafts (PLEGPAY experiment on the ISS) and support technologies/facilities for the manufacturing of Hall Thrusters and propellant tanks (the latter by using an advanced process for composite materials polymerization through electron beam irradiation). ASI considers EP development as a National priority and various technology activities are under evaluation. In this context, the Agency is playing a continued role in the process of exploitation of Italian experience and capability and in harmonisation with European efforts in the field.

Svelto, F.; Marcuccio, S.; Matticari, G.



New Era of Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the variables affecting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) outcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a large patient cohort over a 17-year period. Summary Background Data Historically, OLT for chronic HBV infection has been associated with aggressive reinfection and poor survival results. More recently, OLT outcome has been improved with the routine use of antiviral therapy with either hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) or lamivudine; however, HBV recurrence remains common. The authors studied the factors affecting HBV recurrence and outcome of transplantation, including the effects of combination viral prophylaxis with HBIg and lamivudine. Methods A retrospective review of 166 OLT recipients for chronic HBV over a 17-year period at a single center was performed. Median follow-up was 29 months. HBV recurrence was defined by HBsAg seropositivity after OLT. HBIg monotherapy was used in 28 (17%) patients, lamivudine monotherapy in 20 (12%), and HBIg and lamivudine combination in 89 (54%); 29 (17%) did not receive any HBV prophylaxis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was present in 43 patients (26%) and urgent United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status was assigned to 27 patients (16%). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors that affected OLT outcome. Results Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival rates were 85.8%, 73.6%, and 71.8%, respectively. As expected, HBV recurrence-free survival rates were significantly lower than overall survival rates (76.4%, 58.7%, and 48.3%). When compared with a nontreated cohort, OLT recipients receiving combination viral prophylaxis with HBIg and lamivudine showed markedly reduced HBV recurrence rates and significantly improved 1- and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates. By univariate estimates, patient survival was reduced in the presence of HCC, in the Asian population, and urgent candidates by UNOS classification. Graft loss rates were significantly increased in urgent OLT candidates, Asians, patients with pretransplant positive DNA, and in the presence of HCC. Factors that were significant by univariate analysis or thought to be clinically relevant were subjected to multivariate analysis. By multivariate estimates, urgent UNOS or presence of HCC adversely affected patient and graft survival rates, whereas combination prophylactic therapy strongly predicted improved patient and graft survival rates as well as recurrence-free survival rates. Conclusions Orthotopic liver transplantation for HBV under combination viral prophylaxis results in survival rates equivalent to other indications. Pretransplant viral replication, UNOS status, and the presence of HCC are all sensitive markers for posttransplantation outcome. Viral prophylactic therapy has effectively reduced HBV recurrence and prolonged survival outcomes. The combination of HBIg and lamivudine is the prophylactic regimen of choice.

Anselmo, Dean M.; Ghobrial, Rafik M.; Jung, Lee Chan; Weaver, Michael; Cao, Carlos; Saab, Sammy; Kunder, Greg; Chen, Pauline W.; Farmer, Douglas G.; Yersiz, Hasan; Baquerizo, Angeles; Geevarghese, Sunil; Han, Steven H.; Goldstein, Leonard; Holt, Curtis D.; Gornbein, Jeffrey A.; Busuttil, Ronald W.



El consumo de tabaco y la exposición al humo de tabaco en el ambiente durante el embarazo pueden poner en peligro la salud de mujeres y niños en países en desarrollo

Las conclusiones de un estudio del NIH indican que las tasas de consumo de tabaco durante el embarazo, así como la exposición de mujeres embarazadas y de sus niños al humo de tabaco en el ambiente constituyen amenazas significativas para la salud en varios países de ingresos medios y bajos. En unos pocos de los países en donde se tomaron las muestras, incluso algunos de América Latina, los índices de exposición al humo de tabaco probablemente ya son lo suficientemente altos como para justificar una preocupación considerable.


Bathymetric Survey of the Nearshore from Belle Pass to Caminada Pass, Louisiana: Methods and Data Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans (UNO) and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR), conducted a high-resolution, single-beam bathymetric survey along the southern Louisiana coastal zone from Belle Pass to Caminada Pass. The survey consisted of 483 line-kilometers of data acquired in July and August of 2005. This report outlines the methodology and provides the data from the survey. Analysis of the data and comparison to a similar bathymetric survey completed in 1989 show significant loss of seafloor and shoreline retreat, which is consistent with previously published estimates of shoreline change in the study area.

DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Hansen, Mark; Kulp, Mark; Reynolds, B. J.



Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.



PubMed Central

The title compound, [U(NO3)2O2(C6H12N2O)2], exhibits a hexa­gonal–bipyramidal geometry around the UVI ion, which is situated on an inversion centre and coordinated by two oxide ligands in the axial positions, and four O atoms from two bidentate NO3 ? and two O atoms from two 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diazinan-2-one (DMPU) ligands in the equatorial plane. These ligands are located in trans positions. The –(CH2)3– moiety in the DMPU ligand is disordered over two positions in a 0.786?(11):0.214?(11) ratio.

Suzuki, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Ikeda, Yasuhisa



Can Real-time Optimization of Joint Mobility Generate Globally Optimal Arm Motion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans achieve reaching movements even when environment changes unexpectedly, by coordinating redundant joints of an arm in real-time. To realize such adaptability, we have proposed a new reaching model, in which instantaneous joint motion is determined based on local optimality of joint mobility. To study efficiency of our model, here, we compare our model to the minimum torque change model (Uno et al.,1989). Simulated results indicate that resulted trajectories by the two models are qualitatively almost similar, suggesting that a strategy to use a mobile joint dominantly is effective in generating a globally optimal motion.

Yoshihara, Yuki; Makino, Yoshinari; Tomita, Nozomi; Yano, Masafumi


Estimating the Potential Pool of HIV-infected Deceased Organ Donors in the United States  

PubMed Central

HIV is no longer a contraindication to transplantation. For HIV-infected patients, HIV-infected deceased donors (HIVDD) could attenuate the organ shortage and waitlist mortality. However, this practice would violate United States federal law. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential impact of legalizing transplantation of HIV-infected organs by quantifying the potential pool of HIVDD. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, HIV-infected deaths compatible with donation were enumerated. Using HIV Research Network (HIVRN) data, CD4 count, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, AIDS-defining illnesses, and causes of death were examined in potential HIVDD. Using UNOS data, evaluated donors who later demonstrated unanticipated HIV infections were studied. From NIS, a yearly average of 534 (range: 481–652) potential HIVDD were identified, with 63 (range: 39–90) kidney-only, 221 (range: 182–255) liver-only, and 250 (range: 182–342) multi-organ donors. From HIVRN, a yearly average of 494 (range: 441–533) potential HIVDD were identified. Additionally, a yearly average of 20 (range: 11–34) donors with unanticipated HIV-infection were identified from UNOS. Deceased HIV-infected patients represent a potential of approximately 500–600 donors per year for HIV-infected transplant candidates. In the current era of HIV management, a legal ban on the use of these organs seems unwarranted and likely harmful.

Boyarsky, Brian J.; Hall, Erin C.; Singer, Andrew L.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Segev, Dorry L.



Subsidence in Coastal Louisiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding Subsidence: Implications for Coastal Restoration and Protection Planning; New Orleans, Louisiana, 13 January 2009; The high rates of subsidence in coastal Louisiana are a well-documented component of regional land loss, ecosystem function deterioration, and coastal engineering failures. For agencies tasked with managing the effects of subsidence, the wide variability of these rates and their sharp spatial gradients pose significant challenges. Further, there is a lack of scientific consensus on what processes are most responsible for the observed subsidence, which creates uncertainty surrounding spatial patterns of subsidence, as well as a lack of consensus on what areas are most susceptible to it—not trivial questions for the resource management community. To address these issues, the University of New Orleans (UNO) and the Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology Program held a symposium in January. The objective of the symposium was twofold: (1) to educate coastal managers on the assumptions of the contemporary methods of monitoring subsidence and (2) to solicit input from the management community on their primary subsidence concerns regarding coastal management projects such as levee construction and mechanical marsh creation, emphasizing spatial and temporal scale issues. Symposium outcomes were incorporated into a guidance manuscript prepared by UNO to help communicate the current scientific understanding of subsidence in coastal Louisiana to the nontechnical management community.

Yuill, Brendan; Reed, Denise J.



Discos de acreción circumplanares: Modelo de Co-acreción  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los discos de acreción circumplanetarios precursores de los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, se pueden formar por cuatro mecanismos (Pollack y otros, 1991, In Uranus, Bergtralh, Miner y Mattews, Eds., p. 469, Univ. de Arizona Press, Tucson). En este trabajo estudiamos uno de tales mecanismos: el Modelo de Co-acreción. En dicho modelo, el disco circumplanetario se forma a partir de las colisiones mutuas entre planetesimales dentro de la esfera de Hill del planeta durante el proceso de formación planetaria. Realizamos un modelo semi-analítico para calcular la masa del disco y compararla con la masa requerida para formar los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes. Hemos obtenido una cota superior para la masa del disco que resulta inferior a la masa de los satélites más grandes de los planetas gigantes. En principio, estos resultados permitirían descartar el modelo de co-acreción como uno de los procesos que podrían dar lugar a la formación de los satélites regulares. Estos resultados permiten obtener restricciones en el escenario de formación planetaria y en los mecanismos de formación de sistemas de satélites.

Parisi, M. G.; de Elía, G.


Preventable errors in organ transplantation: an emerging patient safety issue?  


Several widely publicized errors in transplantation including a death due to ABO incompatibility, two HIV transmissions and two hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmissions have raised concerns about medical errors in organ transplantation. The root cause analysis of each of these events revealed preventable failures in the systems and processes of care as the underlying causes. In each event, no standardized system or redundant process was in place to mitigate the failures that led to the error. Additional system and process vulnerabilities such as poor clinician communication, erroneous data transcription and transmission were also identified. Organ transplantation, because it is highly complex, often stresses the systems and processes of care and, therefore, offers a unique opportunity to proactively identify vulnerabilities and potential failures. Initial steps have been taken to understand such issues through the OPTN/UNOS Operations and Safety Committee, the OPTN/UNOS Disease Transmission Advisory Committee (DTAC) and the current A2ALL ancillary Safety Study. However, to effectively improve patient safety in organ transplantation, the development of a process for reporting of preventable errors that affords protection and the support of empiric research is critical. Further, the transplant community needs to embrace the implementation of evidence-based system and process improvements that will mitigate existing safety vulnerabilities. PMID:22703471

Ison, M G; Holl, J L; Ladner, D



Single-Molecule Biochemical Analysis Using Channel Current Cheminformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single nanometer-scale protein channel, residing in a bilayer, is used as a single-molecule measurement device. Single molecule kinetic information can be directly obtained with this approach via observation of single-molecule channel current blockades. A nanopore-based detector can also measure molecular characteristics indirectly, by changes in the blockades resulting from a changing bound-molecule complex. In essence, the heart of chemistry - the nature of the chemical bond - is now accessible via a new, computationally intensive, single-molecule observation method. In this work: (i) analysis of blockade signals is done using a variety of bioinformatics and machine learning tools; (ii) antibody blockade signals are examined and preliminary data on the characterization of antibody-antigen binding is briefly explored; and (iii) aptamer-based drug-discovery screening prospects are explored. The initial feature identification and extraction of blockade signals involves HMMs for level identification, HMM-EM for level projection, and time-domain FSAs for processing of the level-projected waveform. HMMs are then used for feature extraction and an SVM decision tree for multiclass discrimination. A new family of SVM variants is used, based on regularized-divergence kernels, and restriction is also made to feature vectors that can be interpreted as probability vectors. A web interface to the Channel Current Cheminformatics tools (unoCCC) and the Support Vector Machine classifier (unoSVM) will also be described.

Winters-Hilt, Stephen



An analysis of intestinal transplant in the United States.  


We performed a retrospective analysis of intestinal transplant patients from United States transplant centers using The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network of Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) registry. A total of 2164 intestinal transplants were performed in the United States between 1990 and the end of 2011 and were reported to UNOS. Gender, ethnicity, age at transplant, and original disease had little impact on intestinal allograft survival. We found that a shift in the type of transplant operation [intestine alone, intestine plus liver (I+L), or intestine plus liver and pancreas (I+L+P)] away from I+L, starting in 2005, led to better outcomes. Transplants including the stomach had significantly worse graft survival, and often were performed with the I+L+P method. Even though the outcomes of co-transplant of stomach methods, especially the I+L+P method were shown not to be favorable, in reality, the number of patients receiving the operation is still increasing. Despite the overall improvement in graft survival for intestinal transplants over the last 2 decades, within the 2 decades there is a different story. Graft survival after 2005 compared to seven years before 2005 has not improved. Going forward, there is still significant room for improvement in intestinal transplantation. Based on the improvements over the past 2 decades, there is hope that in the next 2 decades, intestinal transplant will reach the success of renal, cardiac, and liver transplantation. PMID:23721011

Sasaki, Toshiyuki



Comportamiento Sexual y Autoeficacia para la Negociaci?n de Sexo M?s Seguro en Personas Heterosexuales  

PubMed Central

La autoeficacia se le ha identificado como uno de los factores que puede facilitar o dificultar llevar a cabo sexo más seguro. Estudios revelan que las personas que están el relaciones estables usan métodos de protección menos frecuente que quienes tienen parejas casuales. Realizamos un estudio con 447 personas heterosexuales activas sexualmente. Les administramos un cuestionario dirigido a medir el comportamiento sexual, el uso del condón masculino y la práctica de la masturbación mutua, y la autoeficacia para llevar a cabo estas conductas. Los resultados reflejan que los hombres están más activos sexualmente y que el uso del condón y la práctica de la masturbación mutua como alternativa de sexo más seguro es muy baja. En los casos donde se usa el condón esta práctica es realizada en su mayoría por las personas que se encuentran en una relación de pareja casual. No obstante, los/las participantes tienen altos niveles de autoeficacia hacia ambas prácticas. Aunque la autoeficacia es uno de los factores que incide en decidir llevar a cabo sexo más seguro, ésta no es suficiente para que esta meta se logre.

Perez-Jimenez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-Garcia, Irma



An in vitro study simulating effects of daily diet and patient elastic band change compliance on orthodontic latex elastics.  


This project investigated the effects of food exposure and patient compliance with elastic-band change on the degradation of forces in 3/16-inch, medium-wall, latex elastic bands during a simulated day of clinical wear. Six levels of daily diet/patient compliance were chosen as representative of orthodontic patients and a quasicontrol group. The groups differed with respect to how much exposure to artificial saliva and foodstuffs they experienced. After exposure in mild tension to daily diets and based on compliance with instructions about changing orthodontic elastics, the elastics were tested in tensile mode by stretching to 25 mm, where the load was recorded in newtons. The bands of three manufacturers, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics (RMO), 3M Unitek (UNO), and American Orthodontics (AMO), were examined, with 10 bands per group, per manufacturer, forming a cohort. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference tests were used to identify statistical significance (P > .05). With respect to bands from a single manufacturer, no differences were found between daily diet/patient compliance levels. However, differences (P < .0001) were found between manufacturers' bands. RMO > UNO > AMO in all environments. Over a 24-hour period, latex elastics maintain their applied load in the simulated oral environments. PMID:15132450

Beattie, Sean; Monaghan, Peter



Why not the University of New Orleans? Social disorganization and sexual violence among internally displaced women of Hurricane Katrina.  


Researchers have reported that natural disasters lead to an increase in sexual violence against women and this is echoed by the current situation in Haiti. This is a social pattern throughout the world during periods of war, as well as natural disasters such as tsunamis, famine, and hurricanes. This article examines the prevalence of sexual violence experienced by women students at the University of New Orleans (UNO) before and after Hurricane Katrina using the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey. Two hundred and thirty seven women participated in the pre-Katrina study and 215 women participated in the post-Katrina study. We hypothesized that, due to the trauma of this disaster, there would be a higher prevalence of sexual aggression against women after Katrina than there was before Katrina. Our analyses yielded no significant differences in any of the measures of sexual violence toward women (nine CORE survey items) pre to post Katrina, so our hypothesis was not supported. We suggest that social organization and cultural attenuation--often indicators of sexual assault in FEMA Greenfield communities--were mitigated by social cohesion found on the UNO campus post-Katrina. PMID:21298398

Fagen, Jennifer L; Sorensen, William; Anderson, Peter B



Creating Interdisciplinary STEM Environments at the University of Nebraska at Omaha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective, integrated and interdisciplinary STEM environments depend upon strong faculty collaboration. During the past decade, the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) has put an emphasis on STEM faculty working together across departments, colleges, and the university system, as well as with local school systems. Supported by a University-wide Content and Pedagogy Committee and a new Office of STEM Education, faculty members have aggressively undertaken and evaluated various interdisciplinary STEM activities. This presentation will briefly describe three of these projects, including evaluation-related data and UNO support mechanisms. First, an interdisciplinary student research project has been developed involving our introductory geology and chemistry courses. The project includes collecting drinking water samples from around Omaha by geology students, the chemical analysis of drinking water by chemistry students, followed by water quality analysis of the chemical data by the geology students. Students learn about the scientific method, potential problems with project design, and limitations of interpretation of real data, while also applying knowledge learned in the class to this real world problem. This project reaches ~600 undergraduate students each year and requires close cooperation between faculty of the Chemistry and Geology programs. Evaluation data indicates that this project has had a positive impact on student attitude towards science in general and towards geology and chemistry in particular. The second project highlighted will be the Silicon Prairie Initiative for Robotics in Information Technology (SPIRIT). The SPIRIT project is a NSF funded collaboration between the UNO College of Education, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln College of Engineering, and local school systems. It strives to integrate the use of educational robotics and sensors in the teaching of STEM topics, particularly at the middle school and high school levels. The project has designed a flexible online curriculum that includes over 200 lessons with technical tutorials, assessments, and various resources. More than 250 teachers have been trained in extended workshops. Criterion-referenced test data of the students involved with these teachers have been encouraging. Further pilot test data also showed increases in positive STEM attitudes. The third project highlighted will be an interdisciplinary online Earth system science course for in-service teachers associated with the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), which includes 42 universities across the U.S.. ESSEA instructional modules have been designed and shared by the participating institutions. UNO has been offering ESSEA coursework with participating faculty from Teacher Education (College of Education) and Geology (College of Arts & Sciences), writing ESSEA modules, and examining student feedback since 2004: involving more than 250 teachers, crossing a wide range of STEM-related teaching certifications. Project effectiveness has been examined by use of surveys, focus groups, and course products. By collaborating with colleagues across disciplines, colleges, and institutions, it is possible to have a positive impact on STEM education, through course offerings at UNO and through teacher professional development.

Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N. F.



A High Incidence of Native Portal Vein Thrombosis in Veterans Undergoing Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The incidence of native portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in liver transplant recipients has been reported to range from 2.1 to 13.8%. We have identified an inordinately high incidence of PVT in a consecutive series of U.S. veterans receiving liver transplants. Between October 1989 and February 1994, 88 consecutive U.S. veterans received 99 orthotopic liver transplants under primary Tacrolimus (Prograf, formerly FK506) based immunosuppression. A number of clinical features were examined in an effort to identify risk factors for PVT and outcome was compared to patients without PVT. Native PVT was present in 23/88 (26%) patients. All of these patients were male U.S. veterans with a mean age of 47 years. When compared to the 65 patients without PVT, we found no significant difference with respect to underlying liver disease, age, Childs-Pugh score (mean = 12), UNOS status as defined prior to April 1995 (95% UNOS 3 or 4), previous abdominal surgery, or liver volume. Median blood loss for patients with PVT (21 units of packed red blood cells) was greater than for those without PVT (14 units, P = 0.04). Portal thrombectomy was performed in 11 patients, 11 patients required mesoportal jump grafts, and 1 patient had an interposition graft. Standard veno-venous bypass was used in 10 patients with single bypass utilized for the remainder. Actuarial patient survival for all patients at 1, 2, and 4 years was 88, 85, and 79%, respectively. There was no significant difference in patients with or without PVT. Patients with PVT had poorer graft survival than patients without PVT (86% vs 65%, 1 year; 81% vs 65%, 2 years; 81% vs 61%, 4 years; P = 0.03); however, this was not related to technical problems with the portal venous inflow. PVT occurred in 26% of U.S. veterans undergoing liver transplantation. These patients had significantly higher operative blood loss and poorer graft survival. The high incidence of postnecrotic cirrhosis in a predominantly male group of patients with advanced disease, as is evident by the high mean Childs-Pugh score and UNOS status, perhaps accounts for our observations.

Gayowski, Timothy J.; Marino, Ignazio R.; Doyle, Howard R.; Echeverri, Luis; Mieles, Luis; Todo, Satoru; Wagener, Marilyn; Singh, Nina; Yu, Victor L.; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.



Europe opens a window onto a violent Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of ESA's cooperation with Russia, a Russian Proton launcher was chosen to place the Integral (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) observatory in orbit. The launcher lifted off from Baikonur in Kazakhstan today at 10:41 local time (06:41 CEST). After re-ignition of its upper stage, it placed Integral in its 72-hour elliptical orbit, ranging from only 10000 km up to 153000 km from the Earth, i.e. nearly half the distance to the Moon. Controlled by ESA’s ESOC mission operations centre in Darmstadt in Germany, the satellite will now undergo a two-months test period intended first to verify that the instruments onboard are working correctly and then that the data they collect is of good quality. Integral was developed by Italy's Alenia Spazio supported by over 30 firms in Europe. The satellite (mass 4 000 kg, height 5 metres) has two main instruments: the SPI spectrometer and IBIS imager Developed by a Franco-German-led team, the spectrometer will conduct a spectral analysis of isolated sources and of regions of gamma-ray activity with unprecedented energy resolution (40 times better than previous satellites), using germanium detectors cooled to 85 K. Since mirrors and lenses are of no use in detecting gamma rays, the SPI uses the “coded-mask imaging” technique to form its images from very faint radiation. These images are then decoded by computer. The imager, designed by an Italian-led team, is the perfect partner for SPI. It has a weaker energy resolution, but an angular resolution 12 times sharper thanks to a coded mask optimised for the purpose and two new-generation detector layers. To supplement the observations by SPI and IBIS, Integral also carries a Danish X-ray imager (JEM-X), with twin detectors each fitted with coded masks, and a Spanish CCD imager (OMC) operating in the visible spectrum waveband. By combining the data collected by these four instruments, it will be possible, for the first time, to make simultaneous observations of high-energy phenomena at seven orders of magnitude, from visible light to gamma rays. All the raw data collected by Integral will be sent directly to the ground via the ESA station at Redu in Belgium, or the station operated by NASA - another partner in the programme - at Goldstone in the USA. The raw data will be centralised at ESOC in order to be processed and redistributed to the scientific community via the Integral Scientific Data Centre (ISDC) at Versoix in Switzerland. Operating in an orbit that enables it to spend most of its time outside the Van Allen radiation belts, which can hamper observation of cosmic gamma rays, Integral will primarily study the densest sky objects, such as neutron stars and black holes, which are all sources of very high energy radiation. While IBIS will supply very detailed images of these sources, SPI will conduct the first in-depth analysis of this gamma radiation. Integral’s observations should enable astrophysicists to confirm the presence of giant black holes at the centre of galaxies, starting with the Milky Way. Other areas of interest for the European gamma-ray observatory will include events of rare violence such as nova and supernova explosions. These will be explored with precision thanks to the gamma radiation given off by the radioactive isotopes emitted. Integral will also be a unique means for observing gamma bursts, these still largely unexplained explosions at the outer reaches of the Universe, which for the first time can be studied in parallel along a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Integral is the second medium-size mission carried out under the Horizon 2000 programme, following the Huygens probe, whose destination is Saturn and its moon Titan; the third will be the Planck observatory, which will study the background noise of the Universe, as from 2007. The Integral mission should last at least two years.



Research and implement of remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system based on GPS/GPRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerning the problem of road traffic safety, remote monitoring and early-warning of vehicle states was the key to prevent road traffic accidents and improve the transportation effectiveness. Through the embedded development technology, a remote vehicle monitoring and early-warning system was developed based on UNO2170 industrial computer of Advantech with WinCE operating system using Embedded Visual C++ (EVC), which combined with multisensor data acquisition technology, global positioning system (GPS) and general packet radio service (GPRS). It achieved the remote monitoring and early-warning of commercial vehicle. This system was installed in a CA1046L2 light truck. Through many road tests, test results showed that the system reacted rapidly for abnormal vehicle states and had stable performance.

Li, Shiwu; Tian, Jingjing; Yang, Zhifa; Qiao, Feiyan



H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.


The 1986-87 atomic mass predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to perform a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions has recently been concluded and will be published shortly in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. The project evolved from an ongoing comparison between available mass predictions and reports of newly measured masses of isotopes throughout the mass surface. These comparisons have highlighted a variety of features in current mass models which are responsible for predictions that diverge from masses determined experimentally. The need for a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions was therefore apparent and the project was organized and began at the last mass conference (AMCO-VII). Project participants included: Pape and Anthony; Dussel, Caurier and Zuker; Möller and Nix; Möller, Myers, Swiatecki and Treiner; Comay, Kelson, and Zidon; Satpathy and Nayak; Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada; Spanier and Johansson; Jänecke and Masson; and Wapstra, Audi and Hoekstra. An overview of the new atomic mass predictions may be obtained by written request.

Haustein, P. E.




PubMed Central

La infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) ha sido descrita en muchas áreas del mundo, como en los países del Caribe, Japón, África, Oceanía y en Sudamérica. En la presente revisión definimos la endemicidad del HTLV-1 en el país, planteando cuatro criterios epidemiológicos. Luego discutimos el tema central de la revisión: la transmisión vertical del HTLV-1, que en nuestro país sería uno de los principales mecanismos de transmisión. Dentro del desarrollo de este aspecto en particular, presentamos una estimación de la tasa de transmisión vertical y los factores de riesgo asociados con la transmisión vertical sobre la base de una revisión exhaustiva de estudios nacionales y extranjeros. Con esta revisión pretendemos dar una primera aproximación al estudio de la trasmisión vertical de HTLV-1, un aspecto poco estudiado en nuestro medio.

Villaverde, Jorge Alarcon; Romani, Franco Romani; Torres, Silvia Montano; Zunt, Joseph R.



On a new difference scheme-ATVD2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new difference scheme is proposed which is constructed by applying the modified flux method proposed by Harten for the second order accuracy total variation diminishing (TVD2) second-order accuracy uniformly non oscillatory (UNO2) scheme. The numerical experiment of the ONERA-M6 wing test case shows the solutions of the proposed scheme without artificial compression. The parameters almost coincide with those of the Harten-Yee TVD scheme and the Chakravarthy-Osher TVD scheme with a maximum value of the artificial compression parameter. This fact shows that the proposed scheme is more accurate than other TVD schemes in multi-dimensional problems. It is also shown that the dependence of solutions on the artificial compression parameter is little in comparison to previous TVD schemes.

Ogawa, Satoru; Ishiguro, Tomiko; Wada, Yasuhiro; Takakura, Yoko




PubMed Central

E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico.




Nuclear mass formula with the shell energies obtained by a new method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear shapes and masses are estimated by a new method. The main feature of this method lies in estimating shell energies of deformed nuclei from spherical shell energies by mixing them with appropriate weights. The spherical shell energies are calculated from single-particle potentials, and, till now, two mass formulas have been constructed from two different sets of potential parameters. The standard deviation of the calculated masses from all the experimental masses of the 1995 Mass Evaluation is about 760 keV. Contrary to the mass formula by Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada in the 1987-1988 Atomic Mass Predictions, the present formulas can give nuclear shapes and predict on super-heavy elements.

Koura, H.; Uno, M.; Tachibana, T.; Yamada, M.



Skin prick test--more reliable than estimation of specific IgE in allergy diagnosis.  


The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of specific IgE levels in the diagnosis of allergic disorders when compared with the skin prick test. The modified skin prick test has been used in "allergy" diagnosis for several decades in clinics around the world. In recent years however, its position as the numero uno investigation has been challenged by estimation of specific IgE levels to individual allergens. In this study the sensitivity/reliability of "specific IgE" test using the "immunoblot" strip method was compared with the skin prick test. One hundred patients suffering from various allergic disorders underwent skin prick tests and specific IgE for 3 different mites. The results of this study show that the skin prick test is more sensitive/reliable as compared to estimation of specific IgE levels. PMID:17380826

Shaikh, Wiqar A; Shaikh, Shifa Wiqar





The title compound, [U(NO(3))(2)O(2)(C(6)H(12)N(2)O)(2)], exhibits a hexa-gonal-bipyramidal geometry around the U(VI) ion, which is situated on an inversion centre and coordinated by two oxide ligands in the axial positions, and four O atoms from two bidentate NO(3) (-) and two O atoms from two 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diazinan-2-one (DMPU) ligands in the equatorial plane. These ligands are located in trans positions. The -(CH(2))(3)- moiety in the DMPU ligand is disordered over two positions in a 0.786?(11):0.214?(11) ratio. PMID:21522544

Suzuki, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Ikeda, Yasuhisa



Nuclear mass formula with the shell energies obtained by a new method  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear shapes and masses are estimated by a new method. The main feature of this method lies in estimating shell energies of deformed nuclei from spherical shell energies by mixing them with appropriate weights. The spherical shell energies are calculated from single-particle potentials, and, till now, two mass formulas have been constructed from two different sets of potential parameters. The standard deviation of the calculated masses from all the experimental masses of the 1995 Mass Evaluation is about 760 keV. Contrary to the mass formula by Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada in the 1987-1988 Atomic Mass Predictions, the present formulas can give nuclear shapes and predict on super-heavy elements.

Koura, H.; Tachibana, T.; Yamada, M. [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Uno, M. [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013 (Japan)



Nuclear half-lives for {alpha}-radioactivity of elements with 100 {<=} Z {<=} 130  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical estimates for the half-lives of about 1700 isotopes of heavy elements with 100 {<=} Z {<=} 130 are tabulated using theoretical Q-values. The quantum mechanical tunneling probabilities are calculated within a WKB framework using microscopic nuclear potentials. The microscopic nucleus-nucleus potentials are obtained by folding the densities of interacting nuclei with a density-dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The {alpha}-decay half-lives calculated in this formalism using the experimental Q-values were found to be in good agreement over a wide range of experimental data spanning about 20 orders of magnitude. The theoretical Q-values used for the present calculations are extracted from three different mass estimates viz. Myers-Swiatecki, Muntian-Hofmann-Patyk-Sobiczewski, and Koura-Tachibana-Uno-Yamada.

Chowdhury, P. Roy [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)], E-mail:; Samanta, C. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Physics Department, Gottwald Science Center, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)], E-mail:; Basu, D.N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)], E-mail:



Dinámica de planetas extrasolares resonantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos últimos, ocho poseen planetas en órbitas próximas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2/1 de Gliese 876, hasta la resonancia secular de Ups And. En esta presentación analizamos varios aspectos de la dinámica resonante de los planetas extrasolares, incluyendo la existencia de soluciones de equilibrio, construcción de modelos analógicos y métodos para la determinación de masas individuales. También discutimos por qué las resonancias son tan frecuentes en estos sistemas, comparado con nuestro propio Sistema Solar. Por último, intentamos relacionar estos modelos con la hipótesis de migración planetaria, buscando límites en su extensión y en los posibles mecanismos que le dieron origen.

Beauge, C.


1986-87 atomic mass predictions  

SciTech Connect

A project to perform a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions has recently been concluded and will be published shortly in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. The project evolved from an ongoing comparison between available mass predictions and reports of newly measured masses of isotopes throughout the mass surface. These comparisons have highlighted a variety of features in current mass models which are responsible for predictions that diverge from masses determined experimentally. The need for a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions was therefore apparent and the project was organized and began at the last mass conference (AMCO-VII). Project participants included: Pape and Anthony; Dussel, Caurier and Zuker; Moeller and Nix; Moeller, Myers, Swiatecki and Treiner; Comay, Kelson, and Zidon; Satpathy and Nayak; Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada; Spanier and Johansson; Jaenecke and Masson; and Wapstra, Audi and Hoekstra. An overview of the new atomic mass predictions may be obtained by written request.

Haustein, P.E.



Clinically significant thrombosis in pediatric heart transplant recipients during their waiting period.  


Thrombosis is a serious complication of heart failure for which available data on pediatric patients are scarce. This report describes the frequency and risk factors of clinically significant thrombosis (CST) for children awaiting transplantation. A retrospective study analyzed a cohort of heart recipients with CST, defined by the presence of intracardiac thrombus by imaging, explant pathology, or symptomatic clinical event. Among the 123 patients in the study, 56 % were male and 44 % had congenital heart disease. The median age at transplantation was 6.6 years (range 0-30 years). The prevalence of CST was 12.2 % (15/123), and its incidence was 32.7 events per 100 patient-years. The thromboembolic event frequencies were 2.4 % and 6.5 events per 100 patient-years. The median interval from listing to CST was eight days (range 0-113 days). The median wait-list duration was 31 days (range 8-169 days) in the CST group versus 51 days (range 0-1,743 days) in the non-CST group. Inpatient status was statistically associated with CST (14 of 15 subjects were inpatients, p = 0.03). Inotropic support (p = 0.068) and United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status 1 (p = 0.061) approached significance. Clinically significant thrombosis was common in this end-stage heart failure population. Until randomized clinical trial data are available, it may be reasonable to consider anticoagulation for children admitted with decompensated heart failure and listed as UNOS status 1. PMID:22878808

Law, Yuk M; Sharma, Sumeet; Feingold, Brian; Fuller, Bret; Devine, William A; Webber, Steven A



Micro, meso, macro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. System features, dynamics, and resilience - some introductory remarks / Hans Liljenström & Uno Svedin -- pt. I. The "vertical" system structure and meso-level characteristics. 2. Mesoscopic levels in science - some comments / Hermann Haken. 3. The necessity for mesoscopic organization to connect neural function to brain function / Walter J. Freeman. 4. Dynamic state transitions in the nervous system: from ion channels to neurons to networks / Peter Århem ... [et al.]. 5. A revolution in the Middle Kingdom / Robert E. Ulanowicz. 6. The meso-scale level of self-maintained reflective systems / Abir U. Igamberdiev -- pt. II. Inner and outer dynamics. 7. Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal measurement concept / Igor Rojdestvenski & Michael G. Cottam. 8. Studying dynamic and stochastic systems using Poisson simulation / Leif Gustafsson. 9. Resource dynamics, social interactions, and the tragedy of the commons / Alia Mashanova & Richard Law. 10. Stability of social interaction / Sjur D. Flåm -- pt. III. Resilience and shocks. 11. Systems, shocks and time bombs / Nick Winder. 12. Biodiversity decreases the risk of collapse in model food webs / Charlotte Borrvall, Maria Christianou & Bo Ebenman. 13. A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems / Sander E. van der Leeuw & Christina Aschan-Leygonie. 14. Resilience in utility technologies / Roger Seaton. 15. Economic growth under shocks: path dependencies and stabilization / Yuri M. Ermoliev, Tatiana Y. Ermolieva & Vladimir I. Norkin. 16. Risk and crises management in complex systems / Koen Bertels, Jean-Marie Jacques & Magnus Boman. 17. Bridges, connections and interfaces - reflections over the meso theme / Uno Svedin & Hans Liljenström.

Liljenström, Hans; Svedin, Uno


Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan.  


Transgenic herbicide-resistant varieties of Brassica napus, or oilseed rape, from which canola oil is obtained, are imported into Japan, where this plant is not commercially cultivated to a large extent. This study aimed to examine the distribution of herbicide-resistant B. napus and transgene flow to escaped populations of its closely related species, B. rapa and B. juncea. Samples were collected from 12 areas near major ports through which oilseed rape imports into Japan passed--Kashima, Chiba, Yokohama, Shimizu, Nagoya, Yokkaichi, Sakai-Senboku, Kobe, Uno, Mizushima, Kita-Kyushu, and Hakata--and the presence of glyphosate- and/or glufosinate-resistant B. napus was confirmed in all areas except Yokohama, Sakai-Senboku, Uno, and Kita-Kyushu. The Yokkaichi area was the focus because several herbicide-resistant B. napus plants were detected not only on the roadside where oilseed rape spilled during transportation but also on the riverbanks, where escaped populations of B. rapa and B. juncea grew. Samples of B. napus that were tolerant to both herbicides were detected in four continuous years (2005-2008) in this area, suggesting the possibility of intraspecific transgene flow within the escaped B. napus populations. Moreover, in 2008, seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-tolerant B. napus (2n = 38) and B. rapa (2n = 20) were detected; some seedlings derived from the seeds collected at a Yokkaichi site showed glyphosate resistance and had 2n = 29 chromosomes. This observation strongly suggests the occurrence of hybridization between herbicide-resistant B. napus and escaped B. rapa and the probability of introgression of a herbicide-resistance gene into related escaped species. PMID:22179196

Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Kaneko, Yukio; Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru



Expedited liver allocation in the United States: A critical analysis.  


The fate of donor livers allocated via an out-of-sequence expedited placement (EP) pathway has not been previously examined. We determined the originating and receiving United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) regions of all donor livers procured between January 1, 2010 and October 31, 2012 and placed out of sequence with UNOS bypass code 863 (EP attempt) or 898 (miscellaneous). We reviewed the early function of these liver grafts and assessed the effect of EP allocation on wait-listed patients at our center. Registrants at our center were eligible to receive 1298 liver offers during the interval studied: 218 (16.8%) of these liver offers bypassed our center and were allocated to other centers and used in patients lower on the match-run list. During the study interval, 560 livers were allocated in the United States by EP. Regions 1, 5, 7, 9, and 10 used the greatest number of EP-placed grafts. Region 1 (New England) used the greatest proportion of all EP livers (33% of all imported EP livers in the United States, P?

Kinkhabwala, Milan; Lindower, Joel; Reinus, John F; Principe, Anita L; Gaglio, Paul J



Lower Aptian Sequence at Madoz (SE Spain) in Relation to Cretaceous Anoxic Event-1a (OAE- 1a)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aptian stage at Madoz in the Sierra de Aralar, NE Spain, shows contrasting lithological succession of intercalated clastic-rich intervals and rudist-rich limestone beds varying between Medium Olive Gray (5Y 5/1) and Olive Gray (5Y 4/1). They are subdivided into different sub-units (Duvernois et al., 1972; Cherchi & Schroeder, 1998) with unit 1, as well as subunits 2a and 2b of "Madoz Limestone" are placed within the Lower Aptian Palorbitolina lenticularis Zone. Their stratigraphic level corresponds at least to the Deshayesites deshayesi ammonite zone, based on the presence of the nominate taxon in clastic Unit 1. Sub-unit 2b includes a distinct 180-cm thick black (Medium to Dark Gray, -N4 to N3) shale layer toward the close of the upper Lower Aptian. Detailed microfacies analysis was carried out on the Lower Aptian interval in order to characterize the different lithofacies and their possible relationship to Cretaceous OAE-1a. Subunit 2a is 20m thick and its microfacies consists of sparse and packed biomicrites, moderate to poorly sorted fine calcirudites and calcarenites composed of 40 - 50% remains of corals, predominantly non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, bryozoans, benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicative of well oxygenated conditions. Matrix and bioclasts are highly affected by neomorphism and growing of micritic envelopes is frequent. Superjacent subunit 2b is also 20m thick, but is lithologically very variable and consists of interbeds of indurated biomicrite with 30 - 50 % fossil fragments dominated by orbitolinids, and echinoids, non-rudist bivalves, benthic foraminifers, and algae as secondary components. These beds also contain 15 - 25 % mostly silt-size quartz grains, and clays. Other indurated biomicrite beds within subunit 2b contain 1 - 20 % fragments of non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, other benthic foraminifers, and algae, but orbitolinids are scarce. Terrigenous components make up 10 - 25 % of the matrix. Subunit 2b also includes soft levels of fossiliferous marls (bioclasts < 10%), calcareous shales and pyritic black shales (bioclasts < 5%) that contain non-rudist bivalves, algae, echinoids and scarce benthic foraminifers. Microfacies of the prominent black shale bed, which occurs about between 14.5 and 16.3 m within subunit 2b, show a matrix composed essentially of clays (> 50%), framboidal pyrite (1-2.5%), and organic matter (5-7 %). Benthic foraminifers and bioturbation are totally absent within this interval, but there are occasional algal fragments, and very rare ostracods. In contrast to the adjacent levels, the absence of benthic foraminifers lack of bioturbation, and increased OM suggest that the black shale level clearly implies development of anoxic to dysoxic conditions within that interval. Based on the presence of D. desahyesi in subunit 1 its relationship to OAE- 1a remains ambiguous, and its occurrence may be related to a possible regional event due to the complexity of the paleogeography of that region during its tectonic development in the Early Cretaceous. Duvernois, Ch., Floquet, M., Humbel, B. 1972. La Sierra d'Aralar (Pyrénées basques Espagnoles): stratigraphie, structure. Thèse de Doctorat de Troisième cycle, Université de Dijon, 240 pp. Cherchi, A., Schroeder, R. 1998. Aptian and Albian large foraminifera at Madoz. 24° Coloquio Europeo de Micropaleontología. Libro Guía. Lamolda, M.A. Ed. 71-73p.

Gaona-Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Lamolda, M. A.



Dispositional optimism among American and Jordanian college students: are Westerners really more upbeat than Easterners?  


The present study aimed at assessing some previous research conclusions, based primarily on comparisons of North Americans and East Asians, that Westerners tend to be optimistic while Easterners tend to be pessimistic. Two samples of European American and Jordanian college students were administered a questionnaire consisting of items measuring dispositional optimism along with items pertaining to risk and self-protective behaviors (e.g., seatbelt use, vehicular speeding, smoking) and social and demographic factors (e.g., sex, socioeconomic status, religiosity). The findings uncovered dispositional optimism to be stronger for American compared to Jordanian participants. Separate analyses of optimism versus pessimism revealed that Jordanian participants were more pessimistic, but not less optimistic than their American counterparts. No significant correlations were found between dispositional optimism and sex, socioeconomic status, or religiosity. The levels of optimism displayed by Jordanians in this study are inconsistent with previous claims of an optimistic West and a pessimistic East, and suggest that self-enhancing processes may not be confined to Western or highly individualistic groups. The findings did not uncover an association between dispositional optimism and risk or self-protective behaviors. Multiple regression analyses showed cultural background and sex to be the best predictors of these behaviors. The implications of these findings are discussed. La présente étude avait pour but d'évaluer quelques conclusions de recherches passées, fondées principalement sur des comparaisons de nord-américains et d'asiatiques de l'est, indiquant que les occidentaux tendent à être optimistes alors que les orientaux tendent à être pessimistes. Deux échantillons d'étudiants américains-européens et jordaniens du collège ont rempli un questionnaire ayant des items mesurant l'optimisme dispositionnel avec d'autres items qui portent sur les comportements de risque et d'auto-protection (e.g., la ceinture de sécurité, la vitesse au volant, l'usage de tabac), sur les facteurs sociaux et démographiques (e.g., le sexe, le statut socio-économique, la religiosité). Les résultats ont indiqué que l'optimisme dispositionnel était plus fort chez les américains en comparaison aux participants jordaniens. Des analyses séparées de l'optimisme versus le pessimisme ont montré que les participants jordaniens n'étaient pas pessimistes mais pas moins optimistes que leurs homologues américains. Il n'y avait pas de corrélations significatives entre l'optimisme dispotionnel et le sexe, le statut socio-économique et la religiosité. Les niveaux d'optimisme dispotionnel affichés par les jordaniens dans cette étude sont inconsistents avec les affirmations passées d'un occident optimiste et d'un orient pessimiste et suggèrent que les processus d'auto-amélioration pourraient ne pas être restreints aux occidentaux ou aux groupes hautement individualistes. Les résultats n'ont pas dévoilé une association entre l'optimise dispotionnel et les comportements de risque ou les comportements d'auto-protection. Des analyses de régression multiples ont indiqué que le contexte culturel et le sexe sont les meilleurs prédicteurs de ces comportements. Les implications de ces résultats sont discutées. El presente estudio se basó en la evaluación de algunas conclusiones de investigaciones anteriores, basadas principalmente en comparaciones de habitantes de norteamericanos con habitantes del Asia del este, en las que se proponía que mientras los occidentales tienden a ser optimistas, los orientales tienden a ser pesimistas. En dos muestras de estudiantes de la escuela superior europeo-americanos y jordanos se administró un cuestionario que consiste en preguntas que miden el optimismo disposicional junto con preguntas que evalúan conductas de riesgo y de autoprotección (p.e., uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad de manejo, fumar) así como factores sociales y demográficos (p.e., sexualidad, estatus socioeconómico, reli

Khallad, Yacoub



PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de ? s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.


Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el que presenta mas deficiencias en el desarrollo de las competencias. El investigador recomienda disenar e implantar un curriculo basado en competencias y proveer formacion en didactica y procesos de aprendizaje a los profesores.

Rivera Pacheco, Andres


Inverse modeling of NOx emissions over South Korea using CAPSS emission data and the satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northeast Asia including Korea, China, and Japan is characterized by high emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Among the air pollutants, the emission of NOx is drastically increasing. NOx is transformed to nitric acid and nitrate by physical and chemical transformations during transportation in the air. According to Kim et al. (2011, submitted), the nitrate concentrations at Gosan, Korea increased continuously. Between 1992 and 2008, the NO3- concentration in TSP increased by 317 %, that in PM10 increased by 178 % and that in PM2.5 increased by 307 %. To explain these concentration variations, the emission inventories are essential. However, most of emission inventories are developed by the bottom-up approach, which is based on combinations of activity statistics and emission factors. In bottom-up emission inventories, there are uncertainties associated with the statistics, emission factors, temporal allocation profiles, and grid allocation factors (Kurokawa et al., 2009). To solve the problems of the bottom-up approach, inverse modeling is a powerful method. Kurokawa et al. (2011) developed a simple inversion model for the optimization of NOx emissions based on a regional CTM (CMAQ) and the satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities. In this study, this system was applied to optimize NOx emissions over South Korea between 2001 and 2007. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite observations of NO2 Vertical Column Densities and the CAPSS emission inventory data estimated by National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea (NIER, 2009) was used. References Kim, N.K, Kim, Y.P. and Kang C.H. (2011) Long-term trend of Aerosol Composition and Direct Radiative Forcing due to Aerosols over Gosan: TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 data between 1992 and 2008, submitted. Kurokawa, J. Yumimoto, K., Uno, I. and Ohara, T. (2009) Adjoint inverse modeling of NOx emissions over eastern China using satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities, Atmospheric Environment, 43, 1878-1887. Kurokawa, J., Uno, I., and Ohara, T. (2011) Recent trends for air pollutants emissions in Asia: Update of Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS), Second International Workshop on Emission Inventory in Asia, Tsukuba, Japan, March. National Institute of Environmental Research (2009) National air pollutants emission 2007. Incheon, Korea.

Kim, N.; Kim, Y.; Morino, Y.; Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.



Liver support by extracorporeal blood purification: a clinical observation.  


Liver failure associated with excretory insufficiency and jaundice results in an endogenous accumulation of toxins involved in the impairment of cardiovascular, kidney, and cerebral function. Moreover, these toxins have been shown to damage the liver itself by inducing hepatocellular apoptosis and necrosis, thus creating a vicious cycle of the disease. We report a retrospective cohort study of 26 patients with acute or chronic liver failure with intrahepatic cholestasis (bilirubin level > 20 mg/dL) who underwent a new extracorporeal blood purification treatment. A synthetic hydrophilic/hydrophobic domain-presenting semipermeable membrane (pore size < albumin size, 100-nm thick) was used for extracorporeal blood detoxification using dialysis equipment. The opposite side was rinsed with ligandin-like proteins as molecular adsorbents that were regenerated online using a chromatography-like recycling system (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS]). Bile acid and bilirubin levels, representing the previously described toxins, were reduced by 16% to 53% and 10% to 90% of the initial concentration by a single treatment of 6 to 8 hours, respectively. Toxicity testing of patient plasma onto primary rat hepatocytes by live/dead fluorescence microscopy showed cell-damaging effects of jaundiced plasma that were not observed after treatment. Patients with a worsening of Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) index before the treatments showed a significant improvement of this index during a period of 2 to 14 single treatments with an average of 14 days. After withdrawal of MARS treatment, this improvement was sustained in all long-term survivors. Ten patients represented a clinical status equivalent to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status 2b (group A1), and all survived. Sixteen patients represented a clinical status equivalent to UNOS status 2a, and 7 of these patients survived (group A2), whereas 9 patients (group B) died. We conclude that in acute excretory failure caused by a chronic liver disease, this treatment provides a therapy option to remove toxins involved in multiorgan dysfunction secondary to liver failure. PMID:10980060

Stange, J; Mitzner, S R; Klammt, S; Freytag, J; Peszynski, P; Loock, J; Hickstein, H; Korten, G; Schmidt, R; Hentschel, J; Schulz, M; Löhr, M; Liebe, S; Schareck, W; Hopt, U T



Richard H. Bolt introduced me to acoustics, and I am still engaged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I arrived at the MIT Acoustics Laboratory in 1948, and quickly learned from Dick Bolt that U.S. submarines needed coatings to reduce vulnerability via active sonar detection. All who remember Dick will be familiar with his next step: He brought me to Robert Blizzard and A. Wilson Nolle, both then at the Lab, from whom I learned in detail how to measure and then how to understand the dynamic moduli of rubber-like materials. My path, of course, widened to include medical acoustics (under the leadership of Theodore Hueter) and scattering (Phillip Morse and Uno Ingard). Fast-forward to the present. Rubber-like materials are not only in use as submarine coatings to avoid detection by active sonars, but also to reduce noise radiated by submarines. Further, such materials cover submarine acoustic arrays to reduce flow-noise interference with signals received by such arrays. The problem that most engages me today is the stochastic nature of sound propagation in the ocean, a problem that has the practical consequence of degraded sonar performance. In the spirit of Dick, I will present snippets of my current work, with the hope of painting the big picture that he always did so well.

Dyer, Ira



Reversible dioxygen binding and arene hydroxylation reactions: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies involving ligand electronic and structural variations  

PubMed Central

Copper-dioxygen interactions are of intrinsic importance in a wide range of biological and industrial processes. Here, we present detailed kinetic/thermodynamic studies on the O2-binding and arene hydroxylation reactions of a series of xylyl-bridged binuclear copper(I) complexes, where the effects of ligand electronic and structural elements on these reactions are investigated. Ligand 4-pyridyl substituents influence the reversible formation of side-on bound ?-?2:?2-peroxodicopper(II) complexes, with stronger donors leading to more rapid formation and greater thermodynamic stability of product complexes [CuII2(RXYL)(O22?)]2+. An interaction of the latter with the xylyl ?-system is indicated. Subsequent peroxo electrophilic attack on the arene leads to C–H activation and oxygenation with hydroxylated products [CuII2(RXYLO2?)(?OH)]2+ being formed. A related unsymmetrical binucleating ligand was also employed. Its corresponding O2-adduct [CuII2(UN)(O22?)]2+ is more stable, but primarily because the subsequent decay by hydroxylation is in a relative sense slower. The study emphasizes how ligand electronic effects can and do influence and tune copper(I)–dioxygen complex formation and subsequent reactivity.

Karlin, Kenneth D.; Zhang, Christiana Xin; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Galliker, Benedikt; Kaderli, Susan; Zuberbuhler, Andreas D.



Inductive risk and justice in kidney allocation.  


How should UNOS deal with the presence of scientific controversies on the risk factors for organ rejection when designing its allocation policies? The answer I defend in this paper is that the more undesirable the consequences of making a mistake in accepting a scientific hypothesis, the higher the degree of confirmation required for its acceptance. I argue that the application of this principle should lead to the rejection of the hypothesis that 'less than perfect' Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) matches are an important determinant of kidney graft survival. The scientific community has been divided all along on the significance of partial antigen matches. Yet reliance on partial matches has emerged as one of the primary factors leading blacks to spend a much longer time than whites on the waiting list for kidneys, thereby potentially impacting the justice of the kidney allocation policy. My case study illustrates one of the legitimate roles non-epistemic values can play in science and calls into question the ideal of a value-free science. PMID:19659854

Scarantino, Andrea



Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.


Los cambios en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los fenómenos geomagnéticos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uno de los aspectos importantes relativos a la geodinámica del interior terrestre es la correlación entre los eventos de cambio en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los determinados en los elementos del campo geomagnético por ejemplo, la Declinación Magnética, o los coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de representación global de dicho campo. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las características espectrales de los cambios observados en la longitud del día (ldd), y su relación con la estructura espectral de las coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de campo denominados Campo Internacional Geomagnético de Referencia (CIGR). El intervalo estudiado comprende los últimos 100 años. Los resultados muestran una correlación en las bandas de 60 y 30 años, con posibles períodos mucho mayores que no son posibles determinar a partir de los modelos de CIRG. Se efectúa una simulación a partir de los resultados obtenidos por la aplicación del método de máxima entropía con longitudes del filtro predictor de error comprendida entre el 10% y el 95% de la longitud de la serie analizada. Se observan procesos sicrónicos y asincrónicos que, en muy largos intervalos de tiempos, podrían suponerse como caóticos.

Gianibelli, J. C.


Donor-transmitted malignancies in organ transplantation: assessment of clinical risk.  


The continuing organ shortage requires evaluation of all potential donors, including those with malignant disease. In the United States, no organized approach to assessment of risk of donor tumor transmission exists, and organs from such donors are often discarded. The ad hoc Disease Transmission Advisory Committee (DTAC) of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) formed an ad hoc Malignancy Subcommittee to advise on this subject. The Subcommittee reviewed the largely anecdotal literature and held discussions to generate a framework to approach risk evaluation in this circumstance. Six levels of risk developed by consensus. Suggested approach to donor utilization is given for each category, recognizing the primacy of individual clinical judgment and often emergent clinical circumstances. Categories are populated with specific tumors based on available data, including active or historical cancer. Benign tumors are considered in relation to risk of malignant transformation. Specific attention is paid to potential use of kidneys harboring small solitary renal cell carcinomas, and to patients with central nervous system tumors. This resource document is tailored to clinical practice in the United States and should aid clinical decision making in the difficult circumstance of an organ donor with potential or proven neoplasia. PMID:21645251

Nalesnik, M A; Woodle, E S; Dimaio, J M; Vasudev, B; Teperman, L W; Covington, S; Taranto, S; Gockerman, J P; Shapiro, R; Sharma, V; Swinnen, L J; Yoshida, A; Ison, M G



Pediatric cardiac transplantation using hearts previously refused for quality: a single center experience.  


Pediatric donor hearts are regularly refused for donor quality with limited evidence as to which donor parameters are predictive of poor outcomes. We compare outcomes of recipients receiving hearts previously refused by other institutions for quality with the outcomes of recipients of primarily offered hearts. Data for recipients aged ?18 and their donors were obtained. Specific UNOS refusal codes were used to place recipients into refusal and nonrefusal groups; demographics, morbidity and mortality were compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to determine differences in graft survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to determine independent risk factors for postoperative mortality. From July 1, 2000 to April 30, 2011, 182 recipients were transplanted and included for analysis. One hundred thirty received a primarily offered heart; 52 received a refused heart. No difference in postoperative complications or graft survival between the two groups (p = 0.190) was found. Prior refusal was not an independent risk factor for recipient mortality. Analysis of this large pediatric cohort examining outcomes with quality-refused hearts shows that in-hospital morbidity and long-term mortality for recipients of quality-refused hearts are no different than recipients of primarily offered hearts, suggesting that donor hearts previously refused for quality are not necessarily unsuitable for transplant and often show excellent outcomes. PMID:23648205

Easterwood, R; Singh, R K; McFeely, E D; Zuckerman, W A; Addonizio, L J; Gilmore, L; Beddows, K; Chen, J M; Richmond, M E



Ischemic preconditioning (IP) of the liver as a safe and protective technique against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI).  


The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of IP in LT, particularly in marginal grafts. From 2007 to 2008, 75 LT donors were randomized to receive IP (IP+) or not (IP-). Considering the graft quality, we divided the main groups in two subgroups (marg+/marg-). IP was performed by 10-min inflow occlusion (Pringle maneuver utilizing a toruniquet). Donor variables considered were gender, age, AST/ALT, ischemia time and steatosis. Recipient variables were gender, age, indication to LT and MELD/CHILD/UNOS score. AST/ALT levels, INR, bilirubin, lactic acid, bile output on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7 were evaluated. Histological analysis was performed evaluating necrosis/steatosis, hepatocyte swelling, PMN infiltration and councilman bodies. Thirty patients received IP+ liver. No differences were seen between groups considering recipient and donor variables. Liver function and AST/ALT levels showed no significant differences between the main two groups. Marginal IP+ showed lower AST levels on day1 compared with untreated marginal livers (936.35 vs. 1268.23; p = 0.026). IP+ livers showed a significant reduction of moderate-severe hepatocyte swelling (33.3% vs. 65.9%; p = 0.043). IP+ patients had a significant reduction of positive early microbiological investigations (36.7% vs. 57.1%; p = 0.042). In our experience IP was safe also in marginal donors, showing a protective role against IRI. PMID:19519822

Franchello, A; Gilbo, N; David, E; Ricchiuti, A; Romagnoli, R; Cerutti, E; Salizzoni, M



Marginal grafts: finding the correct treatment for fatty livers.  


The influence of steatosis on the outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was evaluated in 860 liver transplantations carried out in 784 patients from October 1990 to August 2001. Donor variables considered were: age, hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, total and warm ischemia times, macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis. Recipient variables considered were: age, UNOS status, Child-Pugh score and indication for OLT. Patient and graft survival were the main outcome indicators. Macrovesicular steatosis affecting 15% or more of the hepatocytes was the only variable independently associated with shorter patient and graft survival ( P=0.0012 and 0.0028). A significantly worse prognosis was to be expected if >15% macrovesicular steatosis was associated with a total ischemia time >10 h ( P=0.048), or donor age >65 years ( P=0.016) or with HCV-positive recipients ( P=0.0014). From our study we can conclude that macrovesicular steatosis involving 15% or more of the hepatocytes identifies marginal livers. The risk of graft non-function or patient loss after OLT rises if macrovesicular steatosis >15% is associated with long ischemia time, high donor age, or HCV positivity in recipients. PMID:12669196

Salizzoni, Mauro; Franchello, Alessandro; Zamboni, Fausto; Ricchiuti, Alessandro; Cocchis, Donatella; Fop, Fabrizio; Brunati, Andrea; Cerutti, Elisabetta



Bases para la elaboracion de unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de ciencias (Fisica y Quimica 3 deg ESO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este Trabajo Fin de Master tiene como objeto, el estudio previo de la educacion de la ciencia en la actualidad y mas destacable, del diseno de las unidades didacticas segun las metodologias mas frecuentes aplicadas por los diferentes sistemas educativos en el area de las Ciencias teniendo en cuenta la importancia y el efecto de la psicologia del alumnado y todo ello como no puede ser de otro modo bajo el corse de la Legislacion aplicable, Estatal, Autonomica y europea. Con estos antecedentes, se extrae cuales son las preguntas que deben contestarse en la elaboracion de una unidad didactica de calidad en el contexto, generacional (edad y sexo), del Proyecto Educativo de Centro, y de la Programacion del Departamento, discutiendo y justificando cada uno de los apartados en que estructuradamente dividiremos dicha Unidad, con un formato manejable, util, y dinamico en el tiempo que sea un verdadero instrumento educativo de aula. Teniendo en cuenta estas premisas, se procede a hacer una recopilacion de una misma unidad didactica publicada por diferentes editoriales, elegidas no al azar, sino en funcion de su penetracion editorial en nuestros centros de ESO, siendo las elegidas (SM y Oxford). Las diferentes unidades seleccionadas son analizadas de forma critica, atendiendo a los criterios generales de calidad bajo parametros cientificos y normativos, concluyendo con la aportacion final que es la redaccion de unas pautas cientifico-pedagogicas, para redactar unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de la Ciencias, en concreto en la Asignatura de Fisica y Quimica de 3º de ESO.

Maccioni, Elena Lucia


The Lagerlunda collision and the introduction of color vision testing.  


In histories of vision testing, the origins of occupational screening for color blindness are often traced to a fatal railroad accident that occurred in Sweden on the night of 14-15 November 1875. The scene of the accident was the estate of Baron Lagerfelt in Östergötland, but the critical events were played out at Linköping (the normal passing place for the northbound and southbound expresses) and at Bankeberg (a small station to which the passing place was reassigned at a few minutes' notice). First to arrive at Bankeberg, the northbound express slowed almost to a halt, but then inexplicably accelerated forwards towards the Lagerlunda estate, despite a sequence of signals from the stationmaster, Uno Björkelund, and a lineman, Oskar Johansson. Soon after the accident, the ophthalmologist Frithiof Holmgren suggested that the engineer of the northbound express, Andersson, or his oiler, Larsson, had been color blind. Neither survived to be tested. Using the records of the subsequent trial and other archival materials, we have re-examined the role of color blindness in the Lagerlunda incident and conclude that the accident cannot be attributed to color blindness alone. Yet the accident undoubtedly had a central role in the introduction of color vision testing by European and North American railroads. To persuade the railroad management to introduce universal screening of employees for color blindness, Holmgren used a dramatic coup de theatre and some unashamed subterfuge. PMID:22301271

Mollon, J D; Cavonius, L R



Long-term pancreas allograft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation by era.  


Data collected by UNOS from all approved US transplant programs were analyzed. The analysis was based on data for 22,075 diabetic patients who received a pancreas transplant between January 1995 and December 2011. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation was the major therapeutic option for diabetes patients. SPK had better survival than pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or pancreas-after-kidney (PAK) transplantation. The 5-year pancreas graft survival rate for SPK, PAK, and PTA was 71.3%, 56.6%, and 53.0%, respectively. When long-term SPK pancreas graft survival was examined by transplant era, there was no survival improvement after 1995. The effect of year of transplant was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. The 5-year pancreas graft survival rate in the eras 1995-1998, 1999-2002 and 2003-2006 were 69.2%, 69.8%, and 72.4%, respectively. For those whose graft survived over one year, the 5-year graft survival rate in those eras was 83.5%, 83.4%, and 85.2%, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for overall graft loss by year of transplant for the grafts that survived more than one year in the eras 1999-2002 and 2003-2006 was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.24) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.82-1.11), respectively. The survival rate of long-term pancreas grafts remained almost unchanged over time. PMID:23721007

Waki, Kayo; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kadowaki, Takashi



Improved scoring system to assess adult donors for cadaver renal transplantation.  


We previously proposed a quantitative approach to assess donor organs for cadaver renal transplantation. To improve on our original scoring system, we studied 34 324 patients who received cadaver renal transplants from adult donors between 1994 and 1999 and were reported to the UNOS Scientific Renal Transplant Registry. A scoring system was developed from five donor variables (age, 0-25 points; history of hypertension, 0-4; creatinine clearance before procurement, 0-4; cause of death, 0-3; HLA mismatch, 0-3) that showed a significant correlation with renal function and long-term graft survival. Cadaver kidneys were stratified by cumulative donor score: grade A, 0-9 points; grade B, 10-19; grade C, 20-29; and grade D, 30-39. The influence of donor score on renal function and graft survival was most severe above 20 points, designated 'marginal' kidneys. In summary, a donor scoring system developed from a large population database was useful in predicting outcome after cadaver renal transplantation. The improved system provides a quantitative approach to evaluation of marginal kidneys and may improve allocation of these organs in cadaver renal transplantation. PMID:12780563

Nyberg, Scott L; Matas, Arthur J; Kremers, Walter K; Thostenson, Jeffrey D; Larson, Timothy S; Prieto, Mikel; Ishitani, Michael B; Sterioff, Sylvester; Stegall, Mark D



Predicting survival among patients listed for liver transplantation: an assessment of serial MELD measurements.  


We examined whether consideration of repeated model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) measurements for patients listed for liver transplantation improves predictive value beyond current MELD alone. Clinical data were extracted for all adult primary liver transplantation candidates from our institution who were listed with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) between 1990 and 1999. Serum creatinine, bilirubin, and international normalized ratio (INR) were obtained from an institutional laboratory database. Cox models were constructed using current MELD, change in MELD (Delta), and number of MELD scores to predict survival on the waiting list. Eight hundred and sixty-one patients met inclusion criteria, 639 underwent transplantation, and 80 died while waiting. A one-unit increment in current MELD imparted significant hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.19 in all models. Delta MELD was predictive of mortality univariately, but less predictive when current MELD was included, and not predictive when considered with both current and number of MELD scores. Overall, current MELD is the single most important determinant of mortality risk on the waiting list. Delta MELD is predictive of death only within 4 d of the event; however, part of this correlates with the dying process itself, thus limiting Delta MELD's utility in survival prediction models. PMID:15476479

Bambha, Kiran; Kim, W Ray; Kremers, Walter K; Therneau, Terry M; Kamath, Patrick S; Wiesner, Russell; Rosen, Charles B; Thostenson, Jeff; Benson, Joanne T; Dickson, E Rolland



Compositional characteristics of materials recovered from whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.  


Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) at acidic and basic pH was applied to whole carp, yielding proteins, lipids, and insolubles. The objective was to characterize composition of recovered materials. Crude protein was concentrated to 89-90% in proteins recovered at acidic pH and to 94-95% at basic pH. Basic pH yielded proteins with more (P < 0.05) essential amino acids (EAAs). EAA content in recovered proteins met FAO/WHO/UNO requirements. ISP did not affect fatty acid (FA) composition. Lipids recovered at acidic pH contained 88-89% of total fat and at basic pH, 94-97%. Total fat in recovered proteins was low, with EPA and DHA at the highest (P < 0.05) percentage for pH 11.5. ISP, particularly basic pH, effectively removed impurities such as bones and scales from whole carp. This is indicated by 3.8-5.8% of ash in recovered proteins compared to 11.2% for whole carp and 5.4% for boneless/skinless carp fillets. Basic pH yielded less (P < 0.05) Ca, P, and Mg in recovered proteins. These minerals were more (P < 0.05) concentrated in insolubles recovered with basic pH. This study indicates that materials recovered from whole carp using ISP have high nutritional value and may be useful in the development of human food and animal feeds. PMID:19368395

Taskaya, Latif; Chen, Yi-Chen; Beamer, Sarah; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek



Organizational structure and processes in pediatric heart transplantation: a survey of practices.  


Despite emerging literature on pediatric heart transplantation, there continues to be variation in current practices. The degree of variability among heart transplant programs has not been previously characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate organizational structure and practices of pediatric heart transplant programs. The UNOS database was queried to identify institutions according to volume. Coordinators from 50 institutions were invited to participate with a 70% response rate. Centers were grouped by volume into four categories. Some institutional practices were dominated by clear volume trends. Ninety-five percent of larger centers routinely transplant patients with known antibody sensitization and report a broader range and acuity of recipients. Ninety-four percent report problems with non-adherence. Sixty-nine percent of centers routinely require prospective crossmatches. There was dramatic variation in the use of steroids across all centers. Sixty-five percent of centers transition adolescents to an adult program. Prophylaxis protocols were also highly inconsistent. This survey provided a comprehensive insight into current practices at pediatric heart transplant programs. The results delineated remarkably variable strategies for routine aspects of care. Analysis of divergence along with uniformity across protocols is a valuable exercise and may serve as a stepping-stone toward ongoing cooperation and clarity for evidence-based practice protocols. PMID:22244347

Stendahl, Gail; Bobay, Kathleen; Berger, Stuart; Zangwill, Steven



Evaluating incremental values from new predictors with net reclassification improvement in survival analysis.  


Developing individualized prediction rules for disease risk and prognosis has played a key role in modern medicine. When new genomic or biological markers become available to assist in risk prediction, it is essential to assess the improvement in clinical usefulness of the new markers over existing routine variables. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) has been proposed to assess improvement in risk reclassification in the context of comparing two risk models and the concept has been quickly adopted in medical journals (Pencina et al., Stat Med 27:157-172, 2008). We propose both nonparametric and semiparametric procedures for calculating NRI as a function of a future prediction time [Formula: see text] with a censored failure time outcome. The proposed methods accommodate covariate-dependent censoring, therefore providing more robust and sometimes more efficient procedures compared with the existing nonparametric-based estimators (Pencina et al., Stat Med 30:11-21, 2011; Uno et al., Comparing risk scoring systems beyond the roc paradigm in survival analysis, 2009). Simulation results indicate that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We illustrate these procedures by evaluating a new risk model for predicting the onset of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23254468

Zheng, Yingye; Parast, Layla; Cai, Tianxi; Brown, Marshall



Review and comparison of ROC curve estimators for a time-dependent outcome with marker-dependent censoring.  


To quantify the ability of a marker to predict the onset of a clinical outcome in the future, time-dependent estimators of sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curve have been proposed accounting for censoring of the outcome. In this paper, we review these estimators, recall their assumptions about the censoring mechanism and highlight their relationships and properties. A simulation study shows that marker-dependent censoring can lead to important biases for the ROC estimators not adapted to this case. A slight modification of the inverse probability of censoring weighting estimators proposed by Uno et al. (2007) and Hung and Chiang (2010a) performs as well as the nearest neighbor estimator of Heagerty et al. (2000) in the simulation study and has interesting practical properties. Finally, the estimators were used to evaluate abilities of a marker combining age and a cognitive test to predict dementia in the elderly. Data were obtained from the French PAQUID cohort. The censoring appears clearly marker-dependent leading to appreciable differences between ROC curves estimated with the different methods. PMID:23794418

Blanche, Paul; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène



Academic environment and dynamics in response to extreme events: Theory and Practice (Katrina Lessons)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of a catastrophic event requires the department as a unit and the university as an organization to devise a comprehensive emergency response plan to minimize the impact and shorten the recovery stage. Does the academic organizational structure and environment possess key features for the possibility of successful response to extreme events? The post Hurricane Katrina experience of Louisiana universities offers data to address this theoretical question. It also emphasizes that the mitigation plan should include two aspects: preparing/protecting a university for/during a catastrophic event and assisting other academic institutions experiencing an extreme event. Short-term and longer-term statistics and other data pertain to the interaction of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (as an assistance unit) with the universities in New Orleans (units in distress), including the dynamics of student population, faculty influx, course adjustments, and response and recovery actions are presented. An attempt is made to categorize the losses and to assess the recovery quality and time. Faculty and institutional administration interviews are summarized to assist in developing future proactive response plans. UL Lafayette and UNO research capabilities and intellectual resources for developing complex models simulating the multi-variable effects of catastrophic events and providing adaptability in the decision-making process are investigated.

Sidorovskaia, Natalia



Concordance measures in shared frailty models: application to clustered data in cancer prognosis.  


Frailty models are gaining interest in prognostic studies, especially because of the spread of multicenter studies. However, little research has been performed to extend prognostic tools to frailty models, including discrimination measures. As previously performed for the Harrell's c-index, we extended two different discrimination measures (the model-based concordance probability estimation of Gönen and Heller and the nonparametric Uno's c-index) to take into account cluster membership. We calculate measures at three levels: between-group, where only patients with different frailties are compared, within-group, where only patients sharing the same frailty are compared, and overall. We performed simulations to study the impact of group size and the number of groups on these measures. Results showed that the two measures can be extended to frailty models while remaining independent from censoring distribution, provided that the group size is sufficient. We apply the extended measures to two real datasets, a meta-analysis and a large multicenter trial. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23729305

Mauguen, Audrey; Collette, Sandra; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Rondeau, Virginie



A study to determine whether targeted education significantly improves the perception of human torture in medical students in India.  


This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge of torture in MBBS students. A fair comparison was done by selecting two groups of medical students; one, to whom torture was not taught ie, pretaught group (PrTG, n = 125), and second, to whom torture was taught in classroom ie, post-taught group (PoTG, n = 110) in more than one sessions. The topic on torture was taught under many headings maximising the effort to cover as much as possible; namely, definition, geographical distribution, types of torture (physical, psychological and sexual), post-torture sequelae, sociopolitical environment prevailing in the country, doctors' involvement in torture, rehabilitation of torture victims and the UNO's role in containment of torture. In all a questionnaire was designed having MCQ types on these aspects. It was found that significant level of difference in perception and knowledge about torture existed amongst the groups, and this was further accentuated in medical and non-medical intratopics. 'P' value of each question was computed separately. It was found that the study was statistically significant and reestablished the need of fortifying the gossameric firmament of education specific to torture. PMID:21404743

Husain, Munawwar; Ghaffar, Usama B; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Rivzi, Shameem Jahan



Experience with an organ procurement organization-based non-directed living kidney donation programme.  


The organ procurement organization (OPO)-based non-directed living kidney donation programme was developed to decrease wait times for kidney transplants, and to meet the community's desire for altruistic living donation. Community awareness was encouraged through information about non-directed living kidney donation on the state donor registry Web site, and through the media. The OPO received all inquiries and responded with phone calls, e-mails, printed information, medical/social history questionnaires, interviews, and referrals to the transplant centres. Kidneys were allocated according to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) wait list for the evaluating transplant centre. Between March 2002 and 23 September 2005, there were 608 inquiries to the OPO about non-directed living kidney donation. In 41 months, 20 transplants occurred with kidneys from non-directed donors. The donor registry and OPO-sponsored publicity led to 578 of the 608 inquiries and 15 of the 20 transplants. OPO screening saved transplant centre resources by ruling out 523 inquiries, referring 76 to transplant centres for complete evaluations. Optional donor/recipient meetings appeared to be beneficial to those participating. OPO-based non-directed living donor programmes can be effective and efficient. Standardization of evaluation, allocation, and follow-up will allow for better data collection and more widespread implementation. PMID:16842517

Mark, Paula J; Baker, Kristie; Aguayo, Cecile; Sorensen, John B


Outcomes of fetal listed patients awaiting heart transplantation.  


HTx in neonates is mainstay therapy for those with severe cardiomyopathies and congenital heart disease. Fetal listing for HTx has been proposed as a way to increase the potential window for a donor with outcomes predicted to be similar to the neonatal population. Data from the PHTS, a prospective multicenter study, were used to examine the outcomes of fetuses listed between 1993 and 2009. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-five children were listed for HTx during this period. Fetuses comprised 1% and neonates 19.8% of listed patients. In those patients listed as fetus and transplanted, the median wait time from listing to HTx was 55 days (range 4-255), with a median of 25 days (range 0-233) after birth. By six months post-listing, a higher proportion of fetal listed patients had undergone HTx with a lower waitlist mortality when compared with neonate. There was no significant difference in survival following HTx between the two group (p = 0.4). While the results of this study may be less applicable to current practice due to changes in referrals for fetal listing, they do indicate that fetal listing can be a reasonable option. These results are of particular interest at the present time given the ongoing public discourse on the proposed elimination of fetal listing within UNOS. PMID:23919733

Conway, Jennifer; Chrisant, Maryanne R K; West, Lori J; Ameduri, Rebecca K; Alejos, Juan C; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Das, Bibhuti; Gilbert, Deborah; Tresler, Margaret; Naftel, David C; Miyamoto, Shelley D



Bordetella avium Causes Induction of Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Turkey Tracheal Explant Cultures  

PubMed Central

Bordetellosis is an upper respiratory disease of turkeys caused by Bordetella avium in which the bacteria attach specifically to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells. Little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this disease, which has a negative impact in the commercial turkey industry. In this study, we produced a novel explant organ culture system that was able to successfully reproduce pathogenesis of B. avium in vitro, using tracheal tissue derived from 26 day-old turkey embryos. Treatment of the explants with whole cells of B. avium virulent strain 197n and culture supernatant, but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), specifically induced apoptosis in ciliated cells, as shown by annexin V and TUNEL staining. LPS and TCT are known virulence factors of B. pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Treatment with whole cells of B. avium and LPS specifically induced NO response in ciliated cells, shown by uNOS staining and diaphorase activity. The explant system is being used as a model to elucidate specific molecules responsible for the symptoms of bordetellosis.

Miyamoto, David M.; Ruff, Kristin; Beach, Nathan M.; Dorsey-Oresto, Angella; Masters, Isaac; Temple, Louise M.



Written Informed Consent for Living Kidney Donors: Practices and Compliance With CMS and OPTN Requirements.  


We sought to assess how written informed consent practices for candidate living kidney donors have changed over the last 5 years and to assess compliance with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) regulations that took effect in 2007. We requested evaluation consent forms from US centers that performed >5 living kidney transplants during the prior year (n?=?184). We received 148 consent forms; each was reviewed for information provided and inclusion of CMS- and OPTN-required elements. We found that nearly all transplant centers now obtain written consent for living kidney donor evaluation. However, most centers' evaluation consent forms do not include all CMS and OPTN requirements. Multiple items balancing donor and recipient interests and confidentiality were omitted. In addition, information about payment for routine follow-up care, complications related to surgery and other health problems following surgery were highly variable and frequently ambiguous. As centers revise their consent forms to address the 2013 OPTN policies, our findings may help them identify areas of potential deficiency. We propose that UNOS develop a uniform donor evaluation consent form to improve the clarity, consistency and efficiency of living donor consent. PMID:24020884

Thiessen, C; Kim, Y A; Formica, R; Bia, M; Kulkarni, S



Heine-Stieltjes correspondence and a new angular momentum projection for many-particle systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new angular momentum projection for systems of particles with arbitrary spins is formulated based on the Heine-Stieltjes correspondence, which can be regarded as the solutions of the mean-field-plus -pairing model in the strong-pairing interaction G?? limit. Properties of the Stieltjes zeros of the extended Heine-Stieltjes polynomials, whose roots determine the projected states, and the related Van Vleck zeros are discussed. An electrostatic interpretation of these zeros is presented. As examples, applications to n nonidentical particles of spin 1/2 and to identical bosons or fermions are made to elucidate the procedure and properties of the Stieltjes zeros and the related Van Vleck zeros. It is shown that the new angular momentum projection for n identical bosons or fermions can be simplified with the branching multiplicity formula of U(N)?O(3) and the special choices of the parameters used in the projection. Especially, it is shown that the solutions for identical bosons can always be expressed in terms of zeros of Jacobi polynomials. However, unlike nonidentical particle systems, the n-coupled states of identical particles are nonorthogonal with respect to the multiplicity label after the projection.

Pan, Feng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Draayer, Jerry P.



Predictors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in pediatric heart transplant recipients.  


CAV remains a leading cause of late graft loss and mortality among survivors of pediatric heart transplantation. We sought to define the incidence of CAV and identify its predictors in pediatric heart transplant recipients. The OPTN/UNOS database was analyzed for pediatric recipients who underwent heart transplant between 1987 and 2011. The primary end-point is time from heart transplantation to development of CAV (CAV-free survival). To identify predictors of CAV-free survival, demographic and transplant data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier survival method and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 5211 pediatric heart transplant recipients with at least one-yr follow-up, the incidence of CAV at five, 10, and 15 yr was 13%, 25%, and 54%, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that risk of CAV was associated with the following variables: Recipient age 1-4 yr (HR 1.25), 5-9 yr (1.45), 10-18 yr (1.83), donor age >18 yr (1.34), re-transplantation (2.14), recipient black race (1.55), and donor cigarette use (1.54). Older recipient and donor age, recipient black race, donor cigarette use, and re-transplantation were highly associated with shorter CAV-free survival. PMID:23714284

Kobayashi, Daisuke; Du, Wei; L'ecuyer, Thomas J



Units for quantities of dimension one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

Dybkaer, René



USEMS & GLASS: investigator-driven frontier research in earthquake physics. Ground-breaking research in Europe enhances outreach to the general public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

USEMS and GLASS are two projects financed by the European Research Council (ERC) as part of the ERC starting grants scheme within the FP7 framework. The rationale behind the funding scheme is to support some of the most promising scientific endeavours in Europe that are being led by young researchers, and to emphasize the excellence of individual ideas rather than specific research areas; in other words, to promote bottom-up frontier research. The general benefits of this rationale are evident in the two ongoing projects that deal with earthquake physics, as these projects are increasingly recognized in their scientific community. We can say that putting excellence at the heart of European Research strongly contributes to the construction of a European knowledge-based society. From a researcher point-of-view one of the most challenging aspects of these projects is to approach and convey the results of the projects to a general public, contributing to the construction of knowledge-based society. Luckily, media interest and the availability of a number of new communication tools facilitate the outreach of scientific achievements. The largest earthquakes during the last ten years (e.g. Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011) have received widespread attention in the media world (TV, W.W.W., Newspaper and so on) for months, and successful research projects such as those above also become media protagonists, gaining their space in the media bullring. The USEMS principal investigator and his team have participated in several dissemination events in the Mass Media, such as interviews wit Italian and French TV national broadcasts (RAI Due TG2, RAI Uno Unomattina, Rai Tre Geo & Geo, FRANCE 2); interviews in scientific journals: SCIENCE (Sept. 2010), newspapers and web (Corriere della Sera, Il Gazzettino, Il Messagero, La Stampa, Libero, Il Mattino, Yahoo, ANSA, AdnKronos and AGI); radio (RadioRai Uno, RadioRai Tre Scienza); documentary "Die Eroberung der Alpen" produced by Tangram Film (Munchen, Germany). The USEMS project started in June 2008, and the GLASS project in October 2010. For both projects we developed a number of web pages through the official web site of the host institution, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) in Rome. In these pages we describe the projects, publish pictures and short-movies of the experimental activities and keep the project results up to date. In addition the research teams collaborate within various INGV outreach schemes (school and student visits in the laboratory, writing short news reports for the INGV press office, and interviews with journalists) as well as using WWW channels (Facebook, Youtube) to make the project results available to the general public. Finally, it is notable that the ERC funding agency itself is fully involved in the outreach activities using its own communication channels and its highly skilled resources which promote through brochures, web pages, publications and documentaries the best projects. We are going to improve our effort in this direction up to the end of the projects.

Mariano, S.; di Toro, G.; Collettini, C.; Usems Team; Glass Team



Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 ?m, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel


Violencia en el noviazgo y salud mental en estudiantes universitarios mexicanos.  


Antecedentes: En las últimas dos décadas, ha aumentado el interés por la promoción de la salud en el sector educativo superior, a través del programa "Universidades Saludables" promovido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Es importante reconocer las necesidades relacionadas con la salud de los integrantes de la comunidad universitaria, así como reflexionar sobre las acciones dirigidas a cubrirlas. Uno de los problemas prioritarios respecto a la salud mental de los jóvenes universitarios es la violencia en el noviazgo. Considerando lo anterior, los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: evaluar la violencia en el noviazgo, la sintomatología depresiva y la autoestima en estudiantes universitarios; estudiar la relación entre la violencia, la depresión y la autoestima; y promover la implementación de programas preventivos entre la comunidad universitaria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo con las respuestas de 729 estudiantes universitarios, aplicando el "Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory," el Inventario de Depresión de Beck y el Inventario de Coopersmith para evaluar la autoestima. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una elevada prevalencia de violencia en los jóvenes universitarios, particularmente verbal-emocional (75%). Las agresiones fueron de carácter bidireccional, tanto hombres como mujeres cometieron y sufrieron la violencia. La conducta violenta se asoció con la baja autoestima en las mujeres y con síntomas depresivos en ambos sexos. Conclusiones: Desde el enfoque del programa "Universidades Saludables," es importante que las instituciones de educación superior sean promotoras de la salud mediante la creación y difusión del conocimiento, la formación de recursos humanos y la promoción de la organización comunitaria. Los resultados del estudio indican la necesidad de desarrollar programas educativos orientados a la prevención de la violencia, al manejo de emociones y a la resolución de conflictos. PMID:23986388

Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen Camacho, María E; Sokolova, Anna V; Delgadillo Gutiérrez, Hector J



Climatic effect on water quality evaluation.  


An advisory discouraging swimming and other primary contact recreation in Lake Pontchartrain was issued in 1985 by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (LDHH). The advisory is still in effect today for the south shore area of the lake and names fecal coliform bacteria as the causative pollutant. The suspected source of the contamination in this area is urban stormwater runoff that is collected and pumped to the lake and may be contaminated by sanitary sewer cross-flows. A water quality shoreline study was initiated in the south shore area of the lake in New Orleans by the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at the University of New Orleans (UNO). The objective was to determine if the reduced bacteria levels are a result of decreased pollution or if this is a temporary phenomenon caused by a short-term climatic effect. Five monitoring stations were selected for study on the basis of proximity to drainage canals that discharge the stormwater runoff and current or previous use for primary contact recreation. Fecal coliform concentrations was found to be "wet" weather-dependent at all stations except one. There appears to be an active continuous bacteria source near this site since fecal coliform levels there cannot be directly linked to urban runoff. For the remaining areas a general rule of thumb for recreational use of these south shore water is that the user should assume that the water is unsuitable for primary contact recreation, especially in the near vicinity of urban drainage canals, for at least two to three days following a storm event. Precipitation analysis showed a reduction in mean total annual rainfall during the study period amounting to nearly one-third of the typical mean total annual rainfall for the area. Therefore, lower fecal coliform concentrations observed may be due to uncharacteristic drought conditions rather than decreased pollution. PMID:11759905

Barbé, D E; Carnelos, S; McCorquodale, J A




PubMed Central

Background Liver transplantation is the best treatment option for endstage liver disease. The Human T-Cell Lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV) has been associated with leukemia/lymphoma and progressive neurological disease. There has, however, been an increased utilization of HTLV (+) grafts with little data available to support or discourage their use. Methods We performed uni- and multivariate analyses related to graft and patient survival for recipients of HTLV (+) donors and compared them to recipients of HTLV (?) donors utilizing the UNOS database. Complete analysis of recipient and donor clinical and demographic factors was performed. Results There were 81 adult recipients of HTLV (+) donors and 29,747 HTLV (?) donor recipients. HTLV (+) donors were more likely to be older, female, and black, with a higher average donor risk index and creatinine, and were more likely to be shared nationally. Recipients of HTLV (+) organs were at slightly elevated risk of graft failure (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.91–2.11) and death (HR=1.20, CI 0.71–2.02) relative to HTLV(?) donor recipients (p=0.12 and 0.5, respectively). The risk decreased after multivariate analysis - graft survival (HR=1.20, CI 0.79–1.83) and patient survival (HR=1.06, CI 0.63–1.79). Conclusion Our analysis reveals no statistically significant difference in graft or patient survival between recipients of HTLV (+) and (?) donors. Serious limitations of these data are that serologic testing for HTLV has a high false positive rate and that there was a short follow up period. Until these issues are addressed, extreme caution should be exercised when utilizing these organs.

Marvin, Michael R; Brock, Guy N; Kwarteng, Kwadwo; Nagubandi, Ravi; Ravindra, Kadiyala V; Eng, Mary; Buell, Joseph F



Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.


Solid organ allograft survival improvement in the United States: the long-term does not mirror the dramatic short-term success.  


Organ survival in the short-term period post-transplant has improved dramatically over the past few decades. Whether this has translated to a long-term survival benefit remains unclear. This study quantifies the progression of nonrenal solid organ transplant outcomes from 1989 to 2009 in liver, lung, heart, intestine and pancreas transplants. Long-term graft survival was analyzed using data on adult solid organ transplant recipients from the UNOS/SRTR database and is reported as organ half-life and yearly attrition rates. Liver, lung, heart, intestine and pancreas half-lives have improved from 5.8 to 8.5, 1.7 to 5.2, 8.8 to 11, 2.1 to 3.6 and 10.5 to 16.7 years, respectively. Long-term attrition rates have not shown the same consistent improvement, with the yearly attrition rate 5-10 years post-transplant for liver, lung, heart and pancreas changing from 4.7 to 4.3, 10.9 to 10.1, 6.4 to 5.1 and 3.3 to 4.2, respectively. Attrition rates for intestine and pancreas transplantation alone display more variability due to smaller sample size but exhibit similar trends of improved first-year attrition and relatively stagnant long-term attrition rates. With first-year survival and attrition rates almost at a pinnacle, further progress in long-term survival will come from targeting endpoints beyond first-year rejection and survival rates. PMID:21564524

Lodhi, S A; Lamb, K E; Meier-Kriesche, H U



Comunicaci?n de pareja y VIH en mujeres en desventaja social  

PubMed Central

Introducción La epidemia de VIH y SIDA se ha diseminado rápidamente a nivel mundial tendiendo a la feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización. La comunicación de pareja en torno el VIH es descrita como uno de los factores protectores en la adquisición de esta enfermedad, favoreciendo la adopción de conductas sexuales seguras tales como la negociación de pareja y la utilización de preservativo, consideróndose como un pilar fundamental en la incorporación de medidas de autocuidado en la sexualidad femenina. Objetivo Determinar el nivel de comunicación de pareja en torno al VIH en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Cuatrocientas noventa y seis mujeres contestaron la entrevista inicial de la investigación “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women” (RO1 TW 006977 PI Cianelli). Se utilizó la escala “Health protective sexual communication scale (HPC)” (0–10 puntos). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 16.0. Resultados El promedio del nivel de comunicación de pareja fue de 3,26 ± 2,7 puntos con la pareja principal, de 2,52 ± 2,48 puntos con una segunda pareja y de 0 puntos con una tercera pareja. Los temas de menor comunicación entre las parejas fueron el uso de preservativo y la realización del test para VIH antes de tener relaciones sexuales. Conclusión Las mujeres de la muestra presentan bajos niveles de comunicación de pareja en relación a VIH con todas sus parejas sexuales. Son necesarias estrategias que potencien este tópico dentro de las intervenciones de prevención de VIH y SIDA de manera de fortalecer la adopción de conductas de autocuidado en torno al tema.

Rosina Cianelli, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Margarita Bernales, S.; Natalia Villegas, R.



Cost analysis of liver transplantation in Turkey.  


The study sought to determine the costs of liver transplantation in Turkey. All costs except physician charges were retrospectively investigated in the period from hospitalization to discharge. Liver transplantation was performed in 326 patients between 1999 and 2009. After exclusion of patients whose records could not be accessed (n=5), who underwent second transplantations in the same hospitalization (n=3) or who died before discharge (n=39), 279 patients were eligible for the study. The mean cost of liver transplantation was 30.823 dollars. The mean cost in 2008 was significantly higher than for all other years; thereafter it decreased. Costs were shown to be higher among patients with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores>15. Although there was no significant cost difference among United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) groups, the mean costs of subjects of the B group were significantly lower than those of the Child C subjects C (P=.01). When we evaluated the relationship between etiological groups and costs the highest expenses were noted among hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with 75% HBV-positivity together. There was no significant difference between age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) of recipients. The costs did not significantly change with the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) or portal vein thrombosis before transplantation or antibiotic use after transplantation. Although there was no difference between donor age and costs, living donor transplantation showed significantly higher costs than cadaveric donor cases (P=.01). In conclusion, liver transplantation is an effective treatment in end-stage liver diseases with high cost, albeit in Turkey it is relatively lower than other countries. PMID:22172847

Akarsu, M; Matur, M; Karademir, S; Unek, T; Astarcioglu, I



[Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].  


HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values. PMID:18030715

Onishchenko, G G



The effect of race and income on living kidney donation in the United States.  


Studies of racial disparities in access to living donor kidney transplantation focus mainly on patient factors, whereas donor factors remain largely unexamined. Here, data from the US Census Bureau were combined with data on all African-American and white living kidney donors in the United States who were registered in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) between 1998 and 2010 (N=57,896) to examine the associations between living kidney donation (LKD) and donor median household income and race. The relative incidence of LKD was determined in zip code quintiles ranked by median household income after adjustment for age, sex, ESRD rate, and geography. The incidence of LKD was greater in higher-income quintiles in both African-American and white populations. Notably, the total incidence of LKD was higher in the African-American population than in the white population (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.17 to 1.24]), but ratios varied by income. The incidence of LKD was lower in the African-American population than in the white population in the lowest income quintile (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.90), but higher in the African-American population in the three highest income quintiles, with IRRs of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.41) in Q3, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.62) in Q4, and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.73 to 2.02) in Q5. Thus, these data suggest that racial disparities in access to living donor transplantation are likely due to socioeconomic factors rather than cultural differences in the acceptance of LKD. PMID:23990679

Gill, Jagbir; Dong, James; Rose, Caren; Johnston, Olwyn; Landsberg, David; Gill, John



Assessing liver dysfunction in cirrhosis: role of the model for end-stage liver disease and its derived systems.  


The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) has replaced the role of the Child-Turcotte-Pugh system as a more commonly used system in evaluating the severity of liver dysfunction in patients with chronic liver disease, owing to its superior ability to predict survival. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the USA has used the MELD system for prioritizing donor grafts in advanced cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation since 2002. Serum sodium level is another important prognostic predictor in cirrhosis. Consequently, by incorporating serum sodium into the original MELD, the MELD-Na, MELDNa, the MELD-to-sodium ratio (MESO) index, and the ReFit MELDNa were proposed in an attempt to improve the predictive ability of the original MELD. Nevertheless, there are some limitations of the MELD-based systems that need to be refined. The MELD-based systems merely use laboratory data as parameters for the equation, therefore, any lack in unification and standardization of laboratory methods will result in inconsistent data that affect the prioritization of liver transplantation. Furthermore, the MELD system includes creatinine as a parameter, and serum creatinine level may represent different degrees of renal dysfunction in men and women. Therefore, these limitations may compromise the fair process of organ allocation for female cirrhotic patients. Currently, the application of the MELD system has been extended to tumor staging of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have replaced the Child-Turcotte-Pugh system with the MELD as a parameter, indicating that the use of different criteria of liver dysfunction in cancer staging may enhance prognostic accuracy. Although the outcome data of the modified staging systems need to be confirmed, the concept of using the MELD as a reference system for evaluating the severity of liver dysfunction has globally become an important issue. PMID:23746532

Lee, Yun-Hsuan; Hsu, Chia-Yang; Huo, Teh-Ia



Integrated miniature fluorescent probe to leverage the sensing potential of ZnO quantum dots for the detection of copper (II) ions.  


Quantum dots are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles that can be utilised for sensing applications. This paper evaluates the ability to leverage their analytical potential using an integrated fluorescent sensing probe that is portable, cost effective and simple to handle. ZnO quantum dots were prepared using the simple sol-gel hydrolysis method at ambient conditions and found to be significantly and specifically quenched by copper (II) ions. This ZnO quantum dots system has been incorporated into an in-house developed miniature fluorescent probe for the detection of copper (II) ions in aqueous medium. The probe was developed using a low power handheld black light as excitation source and three photo-detectors as sensor. The sensing chamber placed between the light source and detectors was made of 4-sided clear quartz windows. The chamber was housed within a dark compartment to avoid stray light interference. The probe was operated using a microcontroller (Arduino Uno Revision 3) that has been programmed with the analytical response and the working algorithm of the electronics. The probe was sourced with a 12V rechargeable battery pack and the analytical readouts were given directly using a LCD display panel. Analytical optimisations of the ZnO quantum dots system and the probe have been performed and further described. The probe was found to have a linear response range up to 0.45mM (R(2)=0.9930) towards copper (II) ion with a limit of detection of 7.68×10(-7)M. The probe has high repeatable and reliable performance. PMID:24148438

Ng, Sing Muk; Wong, Derrick Sing Nguong; Phung, Jane Hui Chiun; Chua, Hong Siang



Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.




A Year-round Observation of Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles at the Cape Ochiishi, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New particle formation by nucleation of gas-phase compounds emitted from marine biogenic sources is very important for climate change. To clarify the mechanism of the formation, size distributions of submicron aerosols have been measured at the Cape Ochiishi, facing the North Western Pacific Ocean where primary productivity is high. A test observation was done from 22nd May to 18th June 2008 and a year-round observation has been performed from 16th October 2009 to 7th September 2010. The size distribution from 10 nm to 487 nm in diameter was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI 3034). Sample air was dried to lower than 40%. Transport of sulfate, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) was estimated with Chemical weather FORecasting System (CFORS), developed by Prof. Uno, Kyushu University, Japan. Existence of inversion layer was estimated with temperature profile measured at surface, 10m, 30m, and 50m in altitude. The burst of the particles smaller than 20nm in diameter continuing longer than 3 hrs was observed ten times until 3rd November 2009. Two were observed in early summer and the other was in autumn. Banana shape was faintly observed five times. Transport of sulfate, OC, and BC was observed 3, 8, 9 times, respectively. Source of air mass was estimated with these elements, weather map, and wind direction. Five air masses were estimated to continental. Clearly nucleation related to marine sources was not observed. The size distribution of burst evens of maritime and continental air mass showed the shift of mode to larger diameter. Strong inversion of temperature was observed once. The value of size distribution did not show high. Minimum value of size distribution was observed in the strong rain on 27th October. Acknowledgments This study was partly supported by the Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (18067005). The observation was performed at the monitoring station of the National Institute for Environmental Studies.

Miura, K.; Mukai, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Uematsu, M.



Kinetic Alfven Waves and the Depletion of the Thermal Population in Extragalactic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RESUMEN. Chorros Extragalacticos (CE) y Fuentes Radio Extendidas (FRE) son locales de ricos y complejos procesos de plasma magnetizado. Recien tes observaciones indican que esas fuentes son estructuradas en filamen tos. Nos concentramos aqui en el analisis de dos problemas: 1) el prob[e ma de injecci6n,queespropuesto porlas teorias de aceleraci6n de p ? las en plasmas de CE e FRE, que necesitan partfculas que ya tengan ener gfas moderadamente relativisticas para que los procesos de Fermi sean efectivos; y 2) la reciente evidencia observacional de la ausencia de partfculas termicas en CE. El presente modelo pone en evidencia que ambos problemas estan 1ntimamente relacionados uno con el otro. Jafelice y Opher (1987a) (Astrophys. Space Sci. 137, 303) muestram que es espera da una abundante generaci6n de olas Alf cineticas (OAC) en CE y FRE. En el presente trabajo estudiamos Ia cadena de procesos: a) OAC aceleran electrons termicos al largo del campo magnetico de fondo producien- do electrones supratermicos fugitivos; b) que generan olas Langmuir; y c) las cuales por su vez aceleran una fraccion de los electrones fugi- tivos hasta energias moderadamente relativfsticas. Mostramos que supo - niendo que no haya otra fuente de poblaci6n termica a no ser la , la secuencia de procesos arriba puede encargarse delconsumo de los elec- trones termicos en una escala de tiempo %< que el tiempo de vida de la fuente. ABSTRACT: Extragalactic Jets (EJ) and Extended Radio Sources (ERS) are sites of rich and complex magnetized plasma processes.Recent observa - tions indicate that these sources are filamentary structured. We concentrate here on the analysis of two problems:i) the injection problem, faced by theories of particle acceleration in EJ and ERS plasmas, which need particles with already moderately relativistic energies for the Fer mi processes `to be effective; and 2) the recent observational evidence of the abscence of thermal particles within EJ. The present model makes evident that both problems are intimately related to one another. Jafe- lice and Opher (1987a)(Astrophys. Space Sci. 137, 303)showed that an abundant generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAw) within EJ and ERS is expected. In the present work we study the chain of processes: a) KAW accelerate thermal electrons along the background magnetic field producing suprathermal runaway electrons; b) which generate Langmuir waves and c) which in turn further accelerate a fraction of the runaway electrons to moderately relativistic energies. We show that assuming that there is no other source of a thermal population but the original one, the above sequence of processes can account for the consumption of thermal electrons in a time scale the source lifetime. Key o : GALAXIES-JETS - HYDROMAGNETICS

Jafelice, L. C.; Opher, R.



High solids loading of aluminum nitride powder in epoxy resin: Dispersion and thermal conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most semiconductor devices are now packaged in an epoxy polymer composite, which includes a silica powder filler for reducing the thermal expansion coefficient. However, increased heat output from near-future semiconductors will require higher thermal conductivity fillers such as aluminum nitride powder, instead of silica. This thesis research is intended to apply improved dispersant chemistry, in order to achieve a high volume percentage of AlN powder in epoxy, increasing the thermal conductivity of the composite without causing excessive viscosity before the epoxy monomer is crosslinked. In initial experiments, the dispersibility of aluminum oxide in epoxy monomer resin was better than that of AlN, because of the weaker basicity of oxide surfaces compared with nitride. To improve the dispersibility of AlN, its surface was modified by pretreatment with silane coupling agents. Silane molecules with different head groups were investigated. In those experiments, methylsilane gave lower viscosities than chloro- or methoxysilane, while pretreatments using organic acids increased the viscosity of the AlN dispersion. The viscosity changes and FTIR peak intensity trends suggested that the silane molecules could be adsorbed on AlN surfaces in the form of a monolayer during optimization experiments, and the best silane monolayer coverage on the AlN powder surfaces was achieved with 2 wt% amounts in a 3 hour treatment. A particular phosphate ester was a good second layer dispersant for the AlN-plus-epoxy system. When that dispersant was added onto the silane-treated filler surfaces, the degree of viscosity reduction was dependent on the types of silane coupling agent functional groups. In the optimized results, silane pretreatment followed by dispersant addition was better than either alone. High solids loading, up to 57 vol.%, was achieved with a wide particle size distribution of powder, and the viscosity of that dispersion was 60,000 to 90,000 cps, which easily flowed by gravity alone at room temperature. The highest thermal conductivity of the composites measured by the hot disc method was 3.39 W/mK, which had been increased up to 15 times higher than for pure epoxy. The Agari and Uno model was a good fit to the experimental data. Electronic I-V curves obtained after encapsulation of testing devices indicated that the highly AlN-filled epoxy slip appeared to be feasible for use in the encapsulation of IC chips.

Lee, Eunsung


Search for long lived heaviest nuclei beyond the valley of stability  

SciTech Connect

The existence of long lived superheavy nuclei (SHN) is controlled mainly by spontaneous fission and {alpha}-decay processes. According to microscopic nuclear theory, spherical shell effects at Z=114, 120, 126 and N=184 provide the extra stability to such SHN to have long enough lifetime to be observed. To investigate whether the so-called 'stability island' could really exist around the above Z, N values, the {alpha}-decay half-lives along with the spontaneous fission and {beta}-decay half-lives of such nuclei are studied. The {alpha}-decay half-lives of SHN with Z=102-120 are calculated in a quantum tunneling model with DDM3Y effective nuclear interaction using Q{sub {alpha}} values from three different mass formulas prescribed by Koura-Uno-Tachibana-Yamada (KUTY), Myers-Swiatecki (MS), and Muntian-Hofmann-Patyk-Sobiczewski (MMM). Calculation of spontaneous fission (SF) half-lives for the same SHN are carried out using a phenomenological formula and compared with SF half-lives predicted by Smolanczuk et al. A possible source of discrepancy between the calculated {alpha}-decay half-lives of some nuclei and the experimental data of GSI, JINR-FLNR, RIKEN, is discussed. In the region of Z=106-108 with N{approx}160-164, the {beta}-stable SHN {sub 106}{sup 268}Sg{sub 162} is predicted to have highest {alpha}-decay half-life (T{sub {alpha}}{approx}3.2 h) using Q{sub {alpha}} value from MMM. Interestingly, it is much greater than the recently measured T{sub {alpha}} ({approx}22 s) of deformed doubly magic {sub 108}{sup 270}Hs{sub 162} nucleus. A few fission-survived long-lived SHN which are either {beta}-stable or having large {beta}-decay half-lives are predicted to exist near {sup 294}110{sub 184}, {sup 293}110{sub 183}, {sup 296}112{sub 184}, and {sup 298}114{sub 184}. These nuclei might decay predominantly through {alpha}-particle emission.

Chowdhury, P. Roy [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Samanta, C. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States); Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States); Basu, D. N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)



Ref Tek Ultra-low Power Seismic Recorder With Low-cost High Speed Internet Telemetry U An Advanced Real-time Seismological Data Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd Generation Seismic Recorder, Model 130-01, has been designed to be easier to use - more compact, lighter in weight, lower power, and requires less maintenance than other recorders. Not only is the hardware optimized for field deployments, soft- ware tools as well have been specially developed to support both field and base station operation. The 130's case is a clamshell design, inherently waterproof, with easy access to all user features on the top of the unit. The 130 has 6 input/output connectors, an LCD display, and a removable lid on top of the case. There are two Channel input connectors on a 6-channel unit (only one on a 3-channel unit), a Terminal connector for setup and control, a Net connector combining Ethernet and Serial PPP for network access, a 12 VDC Power connector, and a GPS receiver connector. The LCD display allows the user to monitor the status of various sub systems within the 130 without having a terminal device attached. For storing large amounts of data the IBM MicrodriveTM is offered. User setup, control and status monitoring is done either with a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) (Palm OS compatible) using our Palm Field Controller (PFC) software or from a PC/workstation using our REF TEK Network Controller (RNC) GUI interface. StarBand VSAT is the premier two-way, always-on, high-speed satellite Internet ser- vice. StarBand means high-speed Internet without the constraints and congestion of land-based cable or telephone networks. StarBand uses a single satellite dish antenna for receiving and for sending dataUno telephone connection is needed. The hardware ° cost is much less than standard VSAT equipment with double or single hop transmis- sion. REF TEK protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end error-correcting data transmission and command/control. StarBandSs low cost VSAT provides two-way, always-on, high speed satellite Internet data availability. REF TEK and StarBand create the most ad- vanced real-time seismological data acquisition system. 1 Results of data transmission and availability is discussed. 2

Passmore, P.; Zimakov, L.; Rozhkov, M.


Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical type (meteorological, edaphic, water resources), of use of the ground (agriculturist, forest, mining, industrial, urban, tourist, cattle dealer), economic (income, costs, benefits, infrastructures), social (population), politician (implementation, legislation), educative (Educational programs, diffusion) and environmental, at the present moment and the future. The intention is to obtain tools for aiding to get a realistic position for these challenges, which are an important part of the future problems of humanity in next decades.

Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.



Influence of dissimilatory metal reduction on fate of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to destroy organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions by oxidizing them to carbon dioxide. Some Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can also reductively dechlorinate chlorinated contaminants. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can reduce a variety of contaminant metals and convert them from soluble forms to forms that are likely to be immobilized in the subsurface. Studies in petroleum-contaminated aquifers have demonstrated that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be effective agents in removing aromatic hydrocarbons from groundwater under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to remove uranium from contaminated groundwaters. The activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be stimulated in several ways to enhance organic contaminant oxidation and metal reduction. Molecular analyses in both field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that microorganisms of the genus Geobacter become dominant members of the microbial community when Fe(III)-reducing conditions develop as the result of organic contamination, or when Fe(III) reduction is artificially stimulated. These results suggest that further understanding of the ecophysiology of Geobacter species would aid in better prediction of the natural attenuation of organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions and in the design of strategies for the bioremediation of subsurface metal contamination. Des micro-organismes simulant la réduction du fer ont la capacité de détruire des polluants organiques dans des conditions anérobies en les oxydant en dioxyde de carbone. Certains micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent aussi dé-chlorer par réduction des polluants chlorés. Des micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent réduire tout un ensemble de métaux polluants et les faire passer de formes solubles à des formes qui sont susceptibles d'être immobilisées dans le milieu souterrain. Des études d'aquifères pollués par du pétrole ont montré que des micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent être des agents efficaces pour éliminer les hydrocarbures aromatiques des eaux souterraines dans des conditions anérobies. Des études en laboratoire ont montré que des micro-organismes réducteurs de fer avaient la capacité d'éliminer l'uranium d'eaux souterraines polluées. L'activité de micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peut être stimulée de différentes manières pour augmenter l'oxydation de polluants organiques et la réduction de métaux. Des analyses moléculaires concernant des études de terrain et de laboratoire ont montré que des micro-organismes du genre Geobacter deviennent les membres dominants de la communauté microbienne quand les conditions de réduction en Fe(III) sont réalisées à la suite d'une pollution organique, ou lorsque la réduction en Fe(III) est stimulée artificiellement. Ces résultats laissent penser que des connaissances supplémentaires sur l'écophysiologie des espèces Geobacter devraient aider à une meilleure prédiction de la diminution naturelle des teneurs en polluants organiques dans des conditions anérobies, ainsi qu'à la définition de stratégies de dépollution biologique de pollutions souterraines par les métaux. Algunos microorganismos Fe(III)-reductores son capaces de destruir selectivamente determinados contaminantes orgánicos en condiciones anaerobias, oxidándolos a dióxido de carbono. Otros de estos microorganismos Fe(III)-reductores pueden reducir, bien compuestos clorados, bien una gran variedad de metales, que dejan de ser solubles y se inmovilizan en el subsuelo. Estudios realizados en acuéferos contaminados por petróleo muestran que los microorganismos Fe(III)-reductores pueden ser unos agentes muy eficientes para eliminar los hidrocarburos aromáticos de las aguas subterráneas en condiciones anaerobias, mientras que estudios de laboratorio muestran el potencial de estos microorganismos para eliminar uranio. La actividad de los microorganismos Fe(III)-reductor

Lovley, Derek R.; Anderson, Robert T.


College students return to New Orleans for new start  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Displaced Students Return to Louisiana for 2nd Try U. Students Start School in Style contacting students for enrolment words to describe New Orleans Spring and Students Thoughts Turn to Tuition [Real Player] clarion call of higher education is bringing students back to the Crescent City, despite the desperation felt by many of the cityÂs longtime residents. This week, thousands of displaced students returned to a number of local institutions, including Dillard University, Xavier University, and the University of New Orleans. Many college students in New Orleans and environs sought academic as well as literal refuge at a host of welcoming institutions across the country for the fall term, and some vowed never to return. Conditions have varied greatly at area institutions, with some students returning to find makeshift classrooms and the ranks of faculty members decimated by cutbacks. Over 800 students at Dillard University found themselves the guests of the New Orleans Hilton Riverside, and became the recipients of fine food service and free cable television. The financial situation for many area institutions of higher education remains precarious, and a number of them are trying to entice students who enrolled elsewhere for the fall term to return. At the University of New Orleans, a number of professors and administrators are emailing students with the hope that they will reach 12,000 enrolled students for the spring semester. Regardless of how things turn out, a number of institutions have already announced that they will need to consolidate existing academic programs and engage in vigorous fundraising initiatives. The first link leads to a story that appeared in this TuesdayÂs New Orleans Times-Picayune that discusses the experiences of students returning to colleges and universities in New Orleans. The second link will take visitors to a nice article from the Washington Post that talks about the complex feelings and emotions that many of these students are working through as they return. The third link leads to a news story from the Houston Chronicle that profiles the new living (and learning) quarters of a number of Dillard University students. The fourth link leads to a news piece that talks about the attempts by various members of the University of New Orleans community to get students to return to the main campus. The fifth link leads to a first-hand narrative offered by Dawn Birk, a SUNY-New Paltz psychology student, who recently spent time working with the Red Cross on disaster relief efforts in New Orleans. The sixth and final link will take users to a splendid audio feature from NPR that talks about how and where college students might look to find the necessary funds to continue their studies.



The role of the Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in the management and protection of Spain's groundwater resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spain is a relatively large European country (ca. 500,000km2) with extensive semiarid areas in which there exists a large number of good aquifers. In some areas, these aquifers are intensively developed and are the most important sources of fresh water. Nevertheless, groundwater development and protection has rarely been duly considered by the Spanish Water Administration, despite the pressure to remedy this situation by various groups of experts, some of them members of the Water Administration. The Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) has been very active during the last decade in promoting activities to spread groundwater science, technology, and management in Spain and outside, mostly in Latin America, and in trying to orient water policy toward issues of groundwater. These activities include mainly the organization of technical and scientific meetings on current topics such as groundwater in the new Water Act, overexploitation, groundwater in water-resources planning, groundwater pollution, natural-recharge estimation and others. The impact of these activities on the recent water policy of Spain seems significant, and the experience gained may be applicable to other countries. Résumé L'Espagne est un pays européen assez étendu (500,000km2 environ), où existent des zones semi-arides possédant de nombreux aquifères intéressants. Dans certaines régions, ces aquifères sont intensivement exploités et constituent les sources essentielles d'eau douce. Cependant, l'exploitation et la protection des eaux souterraines ont rarement été prises en compte de façon correcte par l'Administration Espagnole de l'Eau, malgré les pressions exercées pour remédier à la situation par différents groupes d'experts, dont certains sont membres de l'Administration de l'Eau. Le Comité Espagnol de l'Association Internationale des Hydrogéologues (AIH) a été particulièrement actif au cours de ces dix dernières années pour promouvoir des activités de diffusion des sciences, de la technologie et de la gestion de l'eau en Espagne et à l'étranger, surtout en Amérique latine, et pour tenter d'orienter la politique de l'eau à l'égard des eaux souterraines. Ces activités incluent principalement l'organisation de réunions techniques et scientifiques sur des sujets classiques tels que l'eau souterraine dans la nouvelle Loi sur l'Eau, la surexploitation, l'eau souterraine dans la gestion des ressources en eau, la pollution de l'eau souterraine, l'estimation des écoulements naturels, entre autres. Les retombées de ces activités sur la récente politique de l'eau en Espagne paraissent significatives et l'expérience acquise peut être appliquée à d'autres pays. Resumen España es un país relativamente grande (unos 500,000km2) con áreas extensas en las que existe un elevado número de buenos acuíferos. En algunas zonas estos acuíferos son intensamente aprovechados y constituyen el recurso más importante de agua dulce. Sin embargo, el aprovechamiento y la protección de las aguas subterráneas pocas veces han sido debidamente considerados por la Administración hidráulica española, a pesar de la presión ejercida por distintos grupos y por algunos miembros responsables de la propia Administración hidráulica para corregir esta situación. Durante el último decenio el Comité Español de la Asociación Internacional de Hidrogeólogos (AIH) ha sido muy activo en promover reuniones para difundir la ciencia, la tecnología y la adecuada gestión del agua subterránea en España y en el extranjero, especialmente en Ibero-América. También ha intentado que los temas referentes al agua subterránea tuviesen la oportuna consideración en la política hidrológica general. Estas actividades han consistido principalmente en la organización de reuniones científicas y técnicas sobre temas actuales tales como el agua subterránea en la planificación hidrológica, contaminación del agua subterránea, estimación de la recarga natural y otros. El impacto de estas actividades en la rec

Custodio, Emilio; Llamas, M.-Ramón; Villarroya, Fermín


Efectos de la irradiación iónica en hielos de moléculas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En Astrofísica podemos encontrar numerosos contextos en los cuales se observan moléculas en estado sólido que, en condiciones estándar de presión y temperatura, se encontrarían como gases o líquidos. Dichas moléculas se denominan hielos y han sido observadas en nubes densas del medio interestelar, en envolturas circumestelares, en satélites del Sistema Solar, en cometas, etc. Los hielos pueden ser alterados en su composición química debido a diversos factores como por ejemplo variaciones de temperatura o aportes energéticos por parte de la irradiación, ya sea tanto de fotones ultravioleta como de iones. Dependiendo del escenario astrofísico que analicemos, unos factores cobran más importancia que otros. Los experimentos de laboratorio muestran el efecto que produce sobre la composición de los hielos la irradiación iónica, en particular sobre los que contenían alguna molécula con átomos de carbono. Dicha composición se analiza con espectroscopía IR en el rango de 2 a ˜ 25? m. La aplicabilidad de los resultados de los experimentos es distinta dependiendo de la composición química inicial de los hielos, del tipo de ion utilizado y de la dosis total de irradiación. Existen efectos generales de la irradiación sobre la materia en los experimentos de relevancia astrofísica como son: - la formación de nuevas moléculas, que pueden incluir o no el ion incidente; - la progresiva pérdida de hidrógeno (carbonización) cuando irradiamos muestras que originalmente contienen una determinada relación carbono/hidrógeno; - la variación de la temperatura de sublimación que presentan algunos hielos. Esto puede suceder tanto en hielos que estaban presentes antes de la irradiación como en hielos formados por ésta. Se presentará el papel del ion en la formación de nuevas moléculas a partir de las que originalmente se encontraban en el hielo. Al penetrar en él, el ion provoca distintos procesos como rotura de enlaces y excitaciones electrónicas. En la mayor parte de los casos las especies producidas por la rotura del enlace, se recombinan volviendo a formar la molécula original. Sin embargo un pequeño porcentaje es capaz de formar nuevas moléculas. Si el ion queda implantado en el hielo y es reactivo (H+, C+,ldots) podría formar parte de una molécula nueva que incorpora un átomo que inicialmente no se encontraba presente en el hielo. También se presentará un contraejemplo para demostrar que no es posible asegurar que siempre que implantemos un ion reactivo, éste formará parte de nuevas moléculas en la mezcla. También se presentará la formación de nuevas moléculas a partir de la irradiación de hielos de metano, que llevan a la formación de otros compuestos como acetileno, eteno, etano,... en los cuales la relación C/H ha variado. Además de estos compuestos se forma también un residuo carbonoso (refractario) que es estable a temperatura ambiente y cuya composición química no es bien conocida. Por último, el aumento de la temperatura de sublimación es también una consecuencia de la irradiación, aunque la magnitud del aumento depende de la mezcla original y de la irradiación sufrida. Existen moléculas que llegan a variar su temperatura de sublimación en decenas de grados. Para el caso de moléculas carbonadas se forman especies por irradiación que son estables a temperatura ambiente. Con todo ello se muestra que los experimentos de laboratorio pueden ayudarnos a comprender la formación, destrucción y variación de las propiedades físicas de los hielos de interés astrofísico con la irradiación.

Satorre, M. A.


Inverse problem in hydrogeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le cas dans d'autres cas de figure. Par ailleurs, il peut être vu comme une des étapes dans le processus de détermination du comportement de l'aquifère. Il est montré que les méthodes d'évaluation des paramètres actuels ne diffèrent pas si ce n'est dans les détails des calculs informatiques. Il est montré qu'il existe une large panoplie de techniques d'inversion : codes de calcul utilisables par tout-un-chacun, accommodation de la variabilité via la géostatistique, incorporation d'informations géologiques et de différents types de données (température, occurrence, concentration en isotopes, âge, etc.), détermination de l'incertitude. Vu ces développements, la calibration automatique facilite énormément la modélisation. Par ailleurs, il est souhaitable que son utilisation devienne une pratique standardisée. Se sintetiza el estado del problema inverso en aguas subterráneas. El énfasis se ubica en la caracterización de acuíferos, donde los modeladores tienen que enfrentar la incertidumbre del modelo conceptual (principalmente variabilidad temporal y espacial), dependencia de escala, muchos tipos de parámetros desconocidos (transmisividad, recarga, condiciones limitantes, etc), no linealidad, y frecuentemente baja sensibilidad de variables de estado (típicamente presiones y concentraciones) a las propiedades del acuífero. Debido a estas dificultades, no puede separarse la calibración de los procesos de modelado, como frecuentemente se hace en otros campos. En su lugar, debe de visualizarse como un paso en el proceso de enten dimiento del comportamiento del acuífero. En realidad, se muestra que los métodos reales de estimación de parámetros no difieren uno del otro en lo esencial, aunque sí pueden diferir en los detalles computacionales. Se discute que existe amplio espacio para la mejora del problema inverso en aguas subterráneas: desarrollo de códigos amigables alusuario, acomodamiento de variabilidad a través de geoestadística, incorporación de información geológica y diferentes tipos de datos (temperatura, presencia y co

Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.



Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique  

SciTech Connect

The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [Spanish] Los articulos presentados en este numero se enfocan en el desarrollo y la validacion de procedimientos para mejorar la calidad total de moscas de las frutas esteriles para su uso en programas de manejo integrado de plagas en donde la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) es uno de los componentes clave. El grupo fue coordinado y parcialmente financiado por la Division Conjunta de Tecnicas Nucleares para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO/OIEA, Viena, Austria, por un periodo de cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)

Caceres, C.; Robinson, A. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); McInnis, D. [USDA-ARS USPBARC, 2727 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96720 (United States); Shelly, T. [USDA/APHIS/CPHST, 41-650 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States); Jang, E. [USDA-ARS USPBARC, P.O. Box 4459, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hendrichs, J. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5. P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)



Effects of positive and negative delusional ideation on memory.  


We investigated the relationship between levels of delusional ideation (whether positive or negative delusions) and the activation and distortion of memory by using pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing personality traits where those adjectives had similar meanings. We presented one of each pair of adjectives in the learning phase. Immediately after the learning phase in Experiment 1, we asked whether each adjective had been presented. Participants with high (positive or negative) delusional ideation were more likely to indicate that they had learned adjectives that they had not actually learned. This finding suggested that non-learned positive (or negative) adjectives that were associated with learned negative (or positive) adjectives were more likely to be activated in participants prone to positive (or negative) delusional ideation. However, in Experiment 2, two forced-choice tests were conducted immediately after the learning phase. In this context, participants, regardless of their proneness to delusional ideation, could almost always correctly distinguish what had and had not been presented, suggesting that the activation of learned items was still stronger than that for non-learned items in the immediate test. As time passed, the proportion of false alarms for positive or negative adjectives was higher in the two forced-choice tests among those with high proneness to (positive or negative) delusional ideation, suggesting that participants with delusional ideation were increasingly likely to depend on internal conditions for retrieval over time. Nous avons examiné la relation entre les niveaux d'idéation illusoire (qu'elle soit positive ou négative) et l'activation et la distorsion de la mémoire, en utilisant des paires d'adjectifs positifs et négatifs à significations similaires décrivant des traits de personnalité. Nous avons présenté un membre de chaque paire d'adjectifs lors d'une phase d'apprentissage. Dans une première expérience, immédiatement après la phase d'apprentissage, nous avons demandé si chaque adjectif avait été présenté. Les participants ayant un niveau d'idéation illusoire (positive ou négative) élevé étaient plus susceptibles d'indiquer qu'ils avaient appris les adjectifs qu'ils n'avaient pas appris. Ce résultat suggérait que les adjectifs positifs (ou négatifs) non appris qui étaient associés à des adjectifs négatifs (ou positifs) appris étaient plus susceptibles d'être activés chez les participants portés à l'idéation illusoire positive (ou négative). Dans une deuxième expérience, deux tests à choix forcés ont été menés immédiatement après la phase d'apprentissage. Dans ce contexte, les participants, indépendamment de leur tendance à l'idéation illusoire, pouvaient presque toujours distinguer correctement ce qui avait été présenté de ce qui n'avait pas été présenté, suggérant que l'activation des items appris était encore plus forte que celle des items non appris dans le test immédiat. Avec le temps, la proportion de fausses alarmes pour les adjectifs positifs ou négatifs était plus élevée dans les deux tests à choix forcés chez les participants portés à l'idéation illusoire (positive ou négative), ce qui suggère que les participants avec idéation illusoire étaient de plus en plus susceptibles de dépendre de leurs conditions internes lors du rappel à mesure que le temps passait. En este estudio se investigó la relación entre los niveles de ideación delusional (tanto delusiones positivas como negativas) y la activación y distorsión de la memoria a través del uso de pares de adjetivos positivos y negativos que describen rasgos de personalidad. Estos pares de adjetivos tenían significados similares. En la fase de aprendizaje se presentó un miembro de cada par de adjetivos. Inmediatamente después de la fase de aprendizaje se realizó el primer experimento, en el cual se preguntó al participanten si es que se le habían presentado cada uno de los adjetivos. Los participantes con elevada ideación de

Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko



Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to fight against desertification and erosion in the Chaco area in Salta Province of Argentine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That area in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentina has a size not smaller than Belgium and low growing population, and is a specific example of combined natural, ecologic, agricultural and human evolution, where a main restriction is the necessity to avoid desertification, that is the soil quality loss studied now in several forums, the U.N.O. having said "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". It is one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved on it. Ones are in relation with natural phenomena like water and wind erosion. Others with human activities linked to soil use and water management, and finally with inappropriate activities. The parallel 24° S is central and sun is intense, annual rain is between 1000mm to 600mm being lower at East, and climate is agreable for humans specially at dry season from May to November. The soils came mostly as large deposits from rivers, from Andes Mountains, the large study area is rather flat with low mountains at SW, otherwise altitude is from 500m at NW to 200 at SE. The Bermejo is the greater river and at cross from NW to SE and has elevated land and consequently has migrated 50-100 km to NE letting a smaller channel in previous course. The city of Salta is out at West, organized since about 1588, and a main road runs N-S at the higher West of the area communicating it with Salta and towards distant Rio de la Plata for commerce, and with Bolivia at Nord. The use of land changes from West, which is now intensely cultivated and uses somewhere water from rivers, to East were the Wichi Indians live primitively and freely in a very large natural area using goats and "chanchos" (pigs) of European origin that grow in big numbers undomesticated, having somehow degraded original natural vegetation that contains now specific shrubs and small trees in areas more or less inundated by Bermejo in rainy season that is roughly from November to May. The Indians have at disposal schools and the limits of the organized area are moving to east with care for them and to prevent desertification. The authors from UPM and UCS consider diverse alternative possibilities of future use of soil, taking into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. They have elaborated for this presentation a multicriteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan in order to solve this problem in each area. Eight criteria and six alternatives have been introduced in the model. Six subzones have been established following previous studies.

Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Tarquis, A. M.



The clinician's role in the diagnosis of breast disease  

PubMed Central

Until 20 or 30 years ago, the diagnosis and treatment of breast disease was managed exclusively by the surgeon. This situation has changed to some extent as a result of recent technological advances, and clinicians’ contributions to the diagnostic work-up and/or treatment of these cases can begin at any time. If they are the first physician to see the patient after the examination and formulation of a diagnostic hypothesis, they will almost always have to order a panel of imaging/instrumental examinations that is appropriate for the type of lesion suspected, the patient’s age, and other factors; if they intervene at the end of the diagnostic work-up, it will be their job to arrive at a conclusion based on all of the data collected. The clinical examination includes various steps – history taking and inspection and palpation of the breasts – each of which is essential and requires the use of appropriate methods and techniques. The diagnostic capacity of the examination will depend largely on the consistency of the breasts, but it is influenced even more strongly by the doctor–patient relationship. Physicians must know their patient well, listen to and understand what she is saying, explain their own findings and verify that the explanations have been understood, and they must be convincing. Clinicians must also be able to assess the results of imaging studies (rather than relying solely on the radiologist’s report), and this requires interaction with other specialists. The days are over when a clinician or radiologist or sonographer worked alone, certain that his/her examination method was sufficient in itself: today, teamwork is essential. But this also means that each member of the team must be extremely competent in his/her own sector and be aware of the other team members’ limitations and expectations. The clinical examination remains central to the process since it is the basis for selecting appropriate treatment. Sommario Da quando si conosce la patologia mammaria la diagnosi e la terapia di tale patologia sono state a totale appannaggio del chirurgo, situazione che è proseguita fino a qualche decennio fa. Il recente progresso tecnologico ha modificato, in parte, questa situazione e il clinico può entrare nel percorso diagnostico o terapeutico in qualsiasi momento. Se è il primo coinvolto, dopo l’esame e dopo un’ipotesi diagnostica, dovrà, quasi sempre, orientarsi verso indagini strumentali in relazione al sospetto, all’età della paziente ecc., se è l’ultimo anello deve arrivare a una conclusione mettendo insieme tutte le informazioni. L’esame clinico è composto di varie fasi: anamnesi, ispezione, palpazione, ognuna essenziale. Ogni singola fase va affrontata con metodo e tecnica appropriata. La capacità diagnostica dell’esame clinico è influenzata dalla costituzione della mammella, ma ancor di più è condizionata da uno stretto rapporto tra paziente e medico che deve conoscere molto la paziente che gli sta davanti e che non solo deve “visitare”, ma capire, spiegare, accertarsi che si abbia capito, convincere. È inoltre indispensabile che il clinico sia in grado di esaminare le indagini strumentali e non limitarsi a leggere i referti, quindi interagire con gli altri specialisti. L’epoca del clinico o del radiologo o dell’ecografista che lavora da solo credendo che il proprio esame sia sufficiente o sganciato da altri contesti è finita da tempo, tutti hanno bisogno di tutti. È però vero che ciascuno deve essere estremamente competente nel suo settore e deve conoscere i limiti e le aspettative di chi collabora in altre specialità, come rimane valida la regola che la clinica resta comunque il momento centrale, non fosse altro perché poi deve affrontare la terapia.

Poma, S.; Longo, A.



Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chloroethenes, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are among the most common contaminants detected in groundwater systems. As recently as 1980, the consensus was that chloroethene compounds were not significantly biodegradable in groundwater. Consequently, efforts to remediate chloroethene-contaminated groundwater were limited to largely unsuccessful pump-and-treat attempts. Subsequent investigation revealed that under reducing conditions, aquifer microorganisms can reductively dechlorinate PCE and TCE to the less chlorinated daughter products dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Although recent laboratory studies conducted with halorespiring microorganisms suggest that complete reduction to ethene is possible, in the majority of groundwater systems reductive dechlorination apparently stops at DCE or VC. However, recent investigations conducted with aquifer and stream-bed sediments have demonstrated that microbial oxidation of these reduced daughter products can be significant under anaerobic redox conditions. The combination of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE under anaerobic conditions followed by anaerobic microbial oxidation of DCE and VC provides a possible microbial pathway for complete degradation of chloroethene contaminants in groundwater systems. Résumé Les chloroéthanes, tétrachloroéthane (PCE) et trichloroéthane (TCE) sont parmi les polluants les plus communs trouvés dans les aquifères. Depuis les années 1980, on considère que les chloroéthanes ne sont pas significativement biodégradables dans les aquifères. Par conséquent, les efforts pour dépolluer les nappes contaminées par des chloroéthanes se sont limités à des tentatives de pompage-traitement globalement sans succès. Des travaux ultérieurs ont montré que dans des conditions réductrices, des micro-organismes présents dans les aquifères peuvent, par réduction, dégrader les PCE et TCE en composés moins chlorés, comme le dichloréthane (DCE) et le chlorure de vinyl (VC). Bien que des études de laboratoire réalisées avec des micro-organismes adaptés aux composés halogénés montrent que la réduction complète en éthane est possible, dans la plupart des nappes la réaction de déchloration par réduction s'arrête apparemment au DCE et au VC. Cependant, des recherches récentes menées sur des sédiments d'un aquifère et d'alluvions ont démontré que l'oxydation microbienne de ces descendants réduits peut se produire de manière significative dans des conditions de redox anérobies. La déchloration par réduction de PCE et de TCE dans des conditions anérobies suivie par une oxydation microbienne anérobie des DCE et VC fournit une piste microbienne possible pour obtenir une dégradation complète des chloroéthanes polluants dans les aquifères. Resumen Los cloroetanos (tetracloroetano PCE y tricloroetano TCE) son contaminantes muy habituales en los acuíferos. Hasta 1980 se consideraba que los cloroetanos no eran biodegradables y, por tanto, los métodos de rehabilitación en acuíferos contaminados con cloroetanos se limitaban al pump-and-treat, generalmente con poco éxito. Posteriormente se vio que, en condiciones reductoras, algunos microorganismos pueden reducir PCE y TCE a unos subproductos menos clorados, como el dicloroetano (DCE) y el cloruro de vinilo (VC). Aunque estudios de laboratorio recientes sugieren que la reducción completa a etano es posible, en la mayoría de los sistemas acuíferos la decloración suele detenerse en los DCE o VC. Sin embargo, investigaciones más recientes en acuíferos y sedimentos fluviales demuestran que la oxidación microbiana de estos subproductos puede ser importante bajo condiciones redox anaerobias. La combinación de la reducción de PCE y TCE en condiciones anaerobias seguida de la oxidación microbiana anaerobia de DCE y VC proporciona un método potencial para la degradación total de los cloroetanos en los sistemas acuíferos.

Bradley, Paul M.


Low-velocity shocks models (Lesaffre+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outputs from the grids of shock runs used in the paper. * The first level of the directory tree decides the value for the magnetic field (b=(B/Bo)/sqrt(nH), with Bo=1?Gauss=10-10T): b0.1/ for b=0.1 b1/ for b=1 * The second level decides the value for the density and the type of shock: b0.1/J2g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=102cm-3 b0.1/J3g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=103cm-3 b0.1/J4g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=104cm-3 b1/J2g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=102cm-3 b1/J3g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=103cm-3 b1/J4g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=104cm-3 b1/C2g0/ has C-type shocks for nH=102cm-3 b1/C3g0/ has C-type shocks for nH=103cm-3 b1/C4g0/ has C-type shocks for nH=104cm-3 * The third level contains : - static/ the run to get the pre-shock thermal and chemical equilibrium - steady/ the 'PDR' run from these pre-shock conditions. - u.o3/ each output from the run at u=N km/s. - the chemical network used - the pre-shock chemical composition. - inputmhdrun.u.template : the template with all physical parameters used to sample the grid of velocities * The fourth level contains for each run the following ascii files: - cooling.out : local total emission from a number of species. - energetics.out : various energy fluxes - err_cool.out : a few error messages whichi have occurred during the run. - excit.out : H2 excitation diagram throughout the shock - fe_lines.out: zero (we discarded Fe emission) - fe_pops.out: zero as well - H2_lev.out: integrated column densities of each H2 level - H2_line.out: integrated emission of 200 H2 lines - info_mhd.out: an ascii file which describes the parameters used in the run. - intensity.out: integrated intensities of several atomic lines. - jlb.out: a specific output file for J.L.B. - mhd_coldens.out: column densities of all species along the shock - mhd_phys.out: various physical quantities of interest along the shock - mhd_speci.out: the chemical profile (abundances) - populations.out: local populations of some atomic levels - species.out: post-shock temperature and composition Each ascii file has a self-explanatory first line which contains the names of each quantities in the column below. (3 data files).

Lesaffre, P.; Pineau Des Forets, G.; Godard, B.; Guillard, P.; Boulanger, F.; Falgarone, E.



ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the mission planning meetings held daily at the flight operations center at Iwakuni, Japan. These model products were presented along with meteorological forecasts and satellite products, and used to help determine the flight plans, the positioning of the ship, and to alert surface stations of upcoming events (such as dust storms). These models were shown to provide another level of detail in mission planning. For example many of the mission objectives required designing flight paths that sampled across gradients of optical depth or flew above, below and through vertical layers of aerosol. Another key objective was related to sampling dust storms, and forecasts of dust outbreaks and plume locations proved to be very useful in meeting this objective. In this paper we will present an overview of the models and how they were used in the field. We will summarize the general overview and model general performance. We will present a few case studies from the experiment including some interesting events that the models predicted as well as some that the models missed.

UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.



Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement affectées dans les pays en développement. Un cadre d'ensemble pour lutter contre la dégradation naturelle des ressources est associé à des études de cas au Chili, au Mexique, au Bangladesh et ailleurs afin d'établir un ensemble de recommandations stratégiques pour les dimensions globale, nationale et locale de la «crise» de l'arsenic. Les principales recommandations sont les suivantes: le besoin d'une flexibilité pour élaborer une stratégie de diminution de l'arsenic, l'amélioration et l'utilisation à grande échelle de techniques peu coûteuses et associant les populations pour tester la qualité de l'eau souterraine, le besoin de maintenir un usage logique des leçons clés acquises de par le monde pour l'alimentation en eau et la santé publique, celui d'intégrer l'arsenic simplement comme un autre facteur pour assurer une alimentation durable en eau, et pour suivre des pistes distinctes mais communicables entre les développements liés à l'arsenic et les alimentations durables en eau mises en valeurs à long terme. La contaminación de las aguas subterráneas con arsénico procedente de fuentes geoquímicas naturales es actualmente uno de los retos principales de la planificación a gran escala de las aguas subterráneas para uso de boca y otros fines. Las recientes mejoras en los límites de detección del instrumental analítico permiten correlacionar impactos en la salud tales como el cáncer con concentraciones elevadas de arsénico en las aguas subterráneas. Sin embargo, a fecha de hoy no existen soluciones tecnológicas de gran escala para millones de personas-población principalmente rural-que están potencialmente afectadas en los países en vías de desarrollo. Se combina un enfoque general para combatir la degradación de los recursos naturales con estudios concretos de Chile, México, Bangladesh y cualquier otro lugar que permita obtener un conjunto de recomendaciones estratégicas para las dimensiones global, nacional y local de la ``crisis'' del arsénico. Las recomendaciones principales incluyen la necesidad de flexibilizar l

Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim


Groundwater flow and solute transport at the Mourquong saline-water disposal basin, Murray Basin, southeastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline groundwater and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in some 200 natural and artificial saline-water disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their impact on underlying aquifers and the River Murray, one of Australia's major water supplies, is of serious concern. In one such scheme, saline groundwater is pumped into Lake Mourquong, a natural groundwater discharge complex. The disposal basin is hydrodynamically restricted by low-permeability lacustrine clays, but there are vulnerable areas in the southeast where the clay is apparently missing. The extent of vertical and lateral leakage of basin brines and the processes controlling their migration are examined using (1) analyses of chloride and stable isotopes of water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) to infer mixing between regional groundwater and lake water, and (2) the variable-density groundwater flow and solute-transport code SUTRA. Hydrochemical results indicate that evaporated disposal water has moved at least 100 m in an easterly direction and that there is negligible movement of brines in a southerly direction towards the River Murray. The model is used to consider various management scenarios. Salt-load movement to the River Murray was highest in a "worst-case" scenario with irrigation employed between the basin and the River Murray. Present-day operating conditions lead to little, if any, direct movement of brine from the basin into the river. Résumé. Les eaux souterraines salées et les effluents de drainage de l'irrigation sont stockés dans environ 200 bassins naturels ou artificiels destinés à retenir les eaux salines dans tout le bassin de Murray-Darling, en Australie. Leur impact sur les aquifères sous-jacents et sur la rivière Murray, l'une des principales ressources en eau d'Australie, constitue un problème grave. Dans une telle situation, les eaux souterraines salines sont pompées dans le lac Mourquong, complexe dans lequel les nappes se déchargent naturellement. Le bassin de stockage est isolé hydrodynamiquement par des argiles lacustres de faible perméabilité, mais il existe des zones vulnérables au sud-est, là où les argiles sont apparemment absentes. L'importance des fuites verticales et latérales des saumures du bassin et les processus contrôlant leur migration ont été étudiés au moyen (1) d'analyses de chlorures et des isotopes stables de l'eau (2H/1H et 18O/16O) pour définir le mélange entre les eaux souterraines régionales et l'eau du lac, et (2) du code SUTRA d'écoulement souterrain et de transport de soluté d'eaux de densités variables. Les résultats hydrochimiques indiquent que l'eau de stockage évaporée s'est introduite d'au moins 100 m vers l'est et qu'il existe un écoulement négligeable de saumures vers le sud, en direction de la rivière Murray. Le modèle permet de considérer différents scénarios de gestion. L'écoulement des eaux salées vers la rivière Murray était le scénario le pire du fait de l'irrigation qui est appliquée entre le bassin de stockage et la rivière Murray. Les conditions actuelles de fonctionnement produisent un écoulement direct faible, sinon nul, des saumures du bassin vers la rivière. Resumen. Las aguas subterráneas salinas y los retornos de riego se almacenan habitualmente en unas 200 balsas naturales y artificiales de deshechos, situadas a lo largo de la Cuenca de los ríos Murray-Darling (Australia). Su impacto en los acuíferos y en el propio río Murray, que actúa como una de las fuentes principales de abastecimiento de agua en Australia, es un asunto preocupante. En uno de estos lugares, las aguas subterráneas salinizadas son bombeadas al lago Mourquong, que es un complejo natural de descarga del acuífero. La balsa de eliminación está revestida con arcillas lacustres de baja permeabilidad, pero hay áreas vulnerables hacia el sudeste, donde parece no haber arcilla. Se examina el alcance de la precolación vertical y lateral de las salmueras contenidas en la balsa y de los procesos que controlan su migración por me

Simmons, Craig; Narayan, Kumar; Woods, Juliette; Herczeg, Andrew



Mixing against culture vs mixing against nature: ontologization of prohibited interethnic relationships.  


In this paper, we develop the theory of ontologization: Social representations that prevent members of minority and majority groups who are living in contact with each other to mingle. The process of ontologization consists of separating some humans from their own species, and anchoring them in another environment, that of an animal, for example. We propose that underlying the famous slogan "equal but separate" is the social representation of interracial mixing as a "counter-nature" phenomenon. It is predicted that a sexual relationship between people of different "races" leads to a greater degree of ontologization, and, as such, this miscegenation will be explained in terms of biologistic thinking, like an instinctive nature or atavistic animal impulse. An experiment (N = 360) features the case of a woman who, though already in a stable relationship, is unfaithful to her partner. In a 2×3 factor design, the ethnic-national identity of this woman (in-group: Spanish/Italian vs out-group: Senegalese) and the ethnic-national identity of her lovers (in-group: Spanish/Italian vs out-group: Rumanian vs out-group: Senegalese) were manipulated. In general, results fit the hypothesis of ontologization in interracial conditions better, rather than the customary in-group favouritism and/or out-group discrimination bias. We then go on to discuss the way in which a biologistic way of thinking enables a differentiation at the human level, in terms of culture groups and nature groups, in "races," so that an interracial sexual relationship is seen as evidence of a wild and irrepressible impulse, which stigmatizes the people involved in these relationships. This research was supported by the Italian/Spanish Integrated Action Program HI2004_0241 and the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología BSO2003-00476/PSCE. Dans cet article, nous développons la théorie de l'ontologisation: des représentations sociales qui empêchent les membres des groupes minoritaire et majoritaire qui vivent en contact les uns avec les autres d'intergir ensemble. Le processus d'ontologisation consiste à séparer quelques humains de leur propre espèce et de les ancrer dans un autre environnement, celui des animaux, à titre d'exemple. Nous proposons que ce qui est sous-jacent au fameux slogan «égaux mais distincts» est la représentation sociale de mélange inter-racial comme un phénomène «contre-nature». Il est prédit qu'une relation sexuelle entre des gens de différentes «races» amènerait à un plus grand degré d'ontologisation et en tant que tel, ce mélange sera expliqué en termes de pensée biologistique, à l'instar d'une nature instinctuelle ou une impulsion animale atavistique. Une expérimentation (N = 360) présente le cas d'une femme qui, même si elle est déjà dans une relation stable, elle est infidèle à son partenaire. Dans un devis 2×3, l'identité ethno-nationale de cette femme (endogroupe-espagnol/italien vs. exogroupe-sénégalais) et l'identité ethno-nationale de ses amants (endogroupe-espagnol/italien vs. exogroupe-roumain vs. exogroupe-sénégalais) ont été manipulées. En général, les résultats soutiennent l'hypothèse de l'ontologisation mieux dans les condition inter-raciales plutôt que le favoritisme de l'endogroupe coutumier et/ou le biais de la discrimination de l'exogroupe. Ensuite, nous poursuivons en discutant la manière dont la façon de penser biologistique permet une différentiation au niveau humain, en termes de groupes culturels et de groupes naturels, dans des «races», de manière à ce qu'une relation sexuelle inter-raciale est vue comme une preuve d'une impulsion sauvage et irrépressible qui peut stigmatiser les gens impliqués dans ces relations. En el presente artículo se discute la teoría de la ontologización: representaciones sociales que prevenien la fusión entre los miembros de grupos minoritarios o mayoritarios que viven en contacto unos con otros. El proceso de ontologización consiste en la separación de algunos seres humanos de su

Roncarati, Alessandra; Pérez, Juan A; Ravenna, Marcella; Navarro-Pertusa, Esperanza



Application of the groundwater-balance equation to indicate interbasin and vertical flow in two semi-arid drainage basins, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of horizontal inflow and outflow in the groundwater-budget equation and the significance for interbasin flow are presented. Two field cases in Mexico, one in the Baja California peninsula and another in central Mexico, highlight the influence of interbasin flow. A significant proportion (approximately 70%) of the ed (thermal) groundwater probably originates outside the drainage basin. A conclusion is that a groundwater-balance study is an unsatisfactory method for determining some parameters, such as storativity (S). Specifically, the groundwater-balance approach provides unreliable results when vertical inflow is ignored or cannot be adequately defined. Vertical flow is indicated by the presence of groundwater temperatures as much as 23 °C higher than ambient temperature. Regional faults could be the pathways for upward flow. When vertical inflow is ignored, uncertainty in the estimation of the storativity through regional groundwater-balance calculation results. On the basis of the groundwater-balance equation, a value of S=0.19 appears to represent the confined condition of the developed part of the aquifer; this result is several orders of magnitude higher than would be reasonable according to the geological conditions. Findings are useful in evaluating whether a groundwater resource is being "overexploited". Conclusions are instructive in the application of transient-flow computer models, in which vertical flow of less dense water from beneath is not included. Résumé. L'article présente une analyse des entrées et des sorties horizontales dans l'équation du bilan d'une nappe et leur signification dans les écoulements entre bassins. Deux exemples provenant du Mexique, l'un dans la péninsule de Basse Californie, l'autre dans le centre du Mexique, mettent en lumière l'influence de l'écoulement entre bassins, où une proportion significative (environ 70%) de l'eau souterraine extraite, thermale, a probablement son origine hors du bassin. Une conclusion est qu'une étude par bilan de la nappe est une méthode qui n'est pas satisfaisante pour déterminer certains paramètres comme le coefficient d'emmagasinement. En particulier, l'approche par le bilan de la nappe donne des résultats qui ne sont pas fiables lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale ou que l'on ne peut pas la définir correctement. L'existence d'une drainance verticale est prouvée par des températures de l'eau souterraine pouvant être supérieures de 23 °C à la température ambiante. Des failles régionales peuvent permettre ces écoulements vers le haut. Lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale, on introduit une incertitude sur l'estimation de l'emmagasinement à partir des calculs du bilan régional de la nappe. Sur la base de l'équation du bilan de la nappe, une valeur de S=0,19 semble représenter les conditions captives de la partie développée de l'aquifère ce résultat est plus élevé, de plusieurs ordres de grandeur, que celui que l'on peut raisonnablement attendre des conditions géologiques. Ces résultats sont utiles pour évaluer si une ressource en eau souterraine est "surexploitée". Ces conclusions sont intéressantes lorsque l'on applique des modèles d'écoulement transitoire dans lesquels on ne prend pas en compte la drainance verticale d'une eau plus légère remontant. Resumen. En este trabajo, se investigan las entradas y salidas de flujo horizontal en la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea, así como el papel que desempeñan en el flujo entre cuencas. Se analizan dos ejemplos de México, uno en la Península de Baja California y otro en la parte central del país. En ambos, destaca la influencia del flujo entre cuencas, ya que se estima que una parte importante (aproximadamente el 70%) del agua termal extraída procede de una cuenca superficial externa. Se concluye que el método basado en cálculos de balance de agua subterránea no es satisfactorio para determinar algunos parámetros, como, por ejemplo, el coeficiente de almacenamiento (S). En particular, la ecuación de ba

Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.