Science.gov

Sample records for unpaid family work

  1. Defining Disability for Women and the Problem of Unpaid Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisine, Susan T.; Fifield, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses political, theoretical, and methodological issues in defining and measuring paid and unpaid work disability. Presents results of study analyzing disability in paid work and unpaid family work among 206 women with rheumatoid arthritis, demonstrating feasibility of measuring disability in family work and showing that women experience…

  2. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. PMID:26421997

  3. The Underside of Schooling: Restructuring, Privatization, and Women's Unpaid Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy

    1998-01-01

    Discusses declining commitment to education as a public good, addressing contemporary changes in economic organization, the correlative reorganization and design of institutions, and the discourse of privatization. Privatization emphasizes the traditional family and the importance of women's unpaid work for children and schools, despite most…

  4. The Influence of Unpaid Work on the Transition out of Full-Time Paid Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Dawn C.; Kail, Ben Lennox

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Continued employment after retirement and engagement in unpaid work are both important ways of diminishing the negative economic effects of the retirement of baby boomer cohorts on society. Little research, however, examines the relationship between paid and unpaid work at the transition from full-time work. Using a resource perspective…

  5. The Influence of Unpaid Work on the Transition out of Full-Time Paid Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Dawn C.; Kail, Ben Lennox

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Continued employment after retirement and engagement in unpaid work are both important ways of diminishing the negative economic effects of the retirement of baby boomer cohorts on society. Little research, however, examines the relationship between paid and unpaid work at the transition from full-time work. Using a resource perspective

  6. What Is the Value of Unpaid Work? = Quelle est la valeur du travail non remunere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the Canadian journal "Transition" includes a feature story entitled "Unpaid Work--(How) Can You Measure It? Should You Even Try?" which explores issues surrounding unpaid work done in and around the home in Canada, largely by women. It reviews government and independent statistics on the subject, examines the question of including…

  7. Overlooked, overworked: women's unpaid and paid work in the health services' "cost crisis".

    PubMed

    Glazer, N Y

    1988-01-01

    Dewaging shifts work from the marketplace to the household. The shift seems a short-term strategy used by capitalists, governmental policy-makers, and managers to reduce the wage bill for service workers in such areas as schooling, retailing, health services, and banking. In health services, the expansion of women's unpaid nursing in the household and a new labor process among paid nursing workers are necessary for new corporate and federal cost-containment strategies. Registered and licensed nurses, nurse's assistants and aides see their jobs eliminated, expanded, or moved from one work site to another. Increased use of outpatient clinics, in-and-out hospital stays of less than one day, and shortened hospital stays mean sick people in their homes, not hospitals. The work of caring for the sick does not disappear, however, though people may go without. Much nursing work is shifted to patients and to their families, and even to friends and neighbors. Within the family, women's unwaged work is central, supporting the new labor process among paid nurses. Wives, mothers, daughters, friends, etc., do the work once done for pay in clinics and hospitals. PMID:3346113

  8. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household

  9. Shared Work, Valued Care: New Norms for Organizing Market Work and Unpaid Care Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Bailey, Thomas; Berg, Peter; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    Until the 1970s, social norms dictated that women provided care for their families and men were employed for pay. The rapid increase in paid work for women has resulted in an untenable model of work and care in which all employees are assumed to be unencumbered with family responsibilities and women who care for their families are dismissed as…

  10. Worker Control as the Missing Link: Relations between Paid/Unpaid Work and Work-Related Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, David W.

    2001-01-01

    In a Canadian survey of informal learning (n=1,562) and a follow-up (n=328), unpaid work, informal learning, and job-related learning were extensive. Despite considerable underemployment, respondents still pursued learning that prepared them for work. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  11. The nature and correlates of paid and unpaid work among service users of London Community Mental Health Teams.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Evans, B; Marwaha, S; Burns, T; Secker, J; Latimer, E; Blizard, R; Killaspy, H; Totman, J; Tanskanen, S; Johnson, S

    2013-06-01

    Aims. Little is known about how the rates and characteristics of mental health service users in unpaid work, training and study compare with those in paid employment. Methods. From staff report and patient records, 1353 mental health service users of seven Community Mental Health Teams in two London boroughs were categorized as in paid work, unpaid vocational activity or no vocational activity. Types of work were described using Standard Occupational Classifications. The characteristics of each group were reported and associations with vocational status were explored. Results. Of the sample, 5.5% were in paid work and 12.7% were in unpaid vocational activity, (including 5.3% in voluntary work and 8.1% in study or training). People in paid work were engaged in a broader range of occupations than those in voluntary work and most in paid work (58.5%) worked part-time. Younger age and high educational attainment characterized both groups. Having sustained previous employment was most strongly associated with being in paid work. Conclusions. Rates of vocational activity were very low. Results did not suggest a clear clinical distinction between those in paid and unpaid activity. The motivations for and functions of unpaid work need further research. PMID:23089160

  12. Women's paid/unpaid work and health: exploring the social context of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Angus, J

    1994-01-01

    Literature from various disciplines was reviewed to obtain a description of the working lives of Canadian women. This analysis drew on the work of Smith (1987, 1990) and other feminist and critical theorist authors who have argued that much of women's work remains invisible and undervalued. Patterns of normative thought or social ideology may obscure the extent and value of women's contributions. It is suggested here that an "ideology of separate spheres" operates in the designation of paid activity in the public sphere as work, whereas activities pursued in the private sphere of the home are overlooked. It is further argued that women's heavy involvement in unpaid activities that support and sustain others results in a state of lesser citizenship, and women's own prerequisites of health are often compromised. Women's work often takes place outside the formal economy, within a "shadow" or subsistence economy (Illich, 1981) which is essential for the continued health of others. PMID:7788588

  13. 5 CFR 630.403 - Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substitution of sick leave for unpaid... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember. The...

  14. 5 CFR 630.403 - Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substitution of sick leave for unpaid... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember. The...

  15. 5 CFR 630.403 - Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substitution of sick leave for unpaid... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember. The...

  16. Relatively Different? How Do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boye, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Absolute as well as relative hours of paid and unpaid work may influence well-being. This study investigates whether absolute hours spent on paid work and housework account for the lower well-being among women as compared to men in Europe, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework differ by gender…

  17. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  18. The academic effects of after-school paid and unpaid work among 14-year-old students in TIMSS countries

    PubMed Central

    Post, David; Pong, Suet-ling

    2014-01-01

    What it means to be a ‘student’ varies within and between countries. Apart from the wide variety of school types and school quality that is experienced by young people, there also is, accompanying increased rates of school participation, a growing population of students who work part-time. The theoretical and actual consequences of student work have long been in dispute. This article reformulates the dispute as an empirical question that can be addressed using cross-national testing data and student background information from the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). Drawing information from 20 countries with distinctive proportions of students who reported paid and unpaid work, this study first compares their academic achievement in each country. Next, regression analysis is used to control for students’ home resources, and estimates are made of the effects of work and the differences in these effects cross-nationally. Finally, hierarchical linear models are estimated in each country so as to control for school effects, and to take into account the fact that working students may be clustered in lower-achieving schools. The results show that work after school, whether paid or unpaid, never positively affects academic achievement. However, after controlling for home resources and school effects, work negatively affects achievement only in certain countries. The article concludes with a discussion of the ways to interpret international differences in the effect of students’ work. PMID:25614711

  19. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; Tan, Siok Swan; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart, Leona

    2016-05-01

    Productivity costs can strongly impact cost-effectiveness outcomes. This study investigated the impact in the context of expensive hospital drugs. This study aimed to: (1) investigate the effect of productivity costs on cost-effectiveness outcomes, (2) determine whether economic evaluations of expensive drugs commonly include productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work, and (3) explore potential reasons for excluding productivity costs from the economic evaluation. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify economic evaluations of 33 expensive drugs. We analysed whether evaluations included productivity costs and whether inclusion or exclusion was related to the study population's age, health and national health economic guidelines. The impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was assessed in studies that included productivity costs. Of 249 identified economic evaluations of expensive drugs, 22 (9 %) included productivity costs related to paid work. One study included unpaid productivity. Mostly, productivity cost exclusion could not be explained by the study population's age and health status, but national guidelines appeared influential. Productivity costs proved often highly influential. This study indicates that productivity costs in economic evaluations of expensive hospital drugs are commonly and inconsistently ignored in economic evaluations. This warrants caution in interpreting and comparing the results of these evaluations. PMID:25876834

  20. Valuing the work of unpaid community health workers and exploring the incentives to volunteering in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kasteng, Frida; Settumba, Stella; Källander, Karin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes are currently being scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa to improve access to healthcare. CHWs are often volunteers; from an economic perspective, this raises considerations whether reliance on an unpaid workforce is sustainable and how to appropriately cost and value the work of CHWs. Both these questions can be informed by an understanding of CHWs’ workload, their opportunity costs of time and the perceived benefits of being a CHW. However, to date few studies have fully explored the methodological challenges in valuing CHW time. We examined the costs and benefits of volunteering in a sample of 45 CHWs providing integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses in rural Uganda in February 2012 using different methods. We assessed the value of CHW time using the minimum public sector salary rate and a CHW-elicited replacement wage, as well as the opportunity cost of time based on CHW-estimated annual income and alternative work opportunities, respectively. Reported monthly CHW workload, a median of 19.3 h (range 2.5–57), was valued at USD 6.9 (range 0.9–20.4) per month from the perspective of the healthcare system (applicable replacement wage) and at a median of USD 4.1 (range 0.4–169) from the perspective of the CHWs (individual opportunity cost of time). In a discrete choice experiment on preferred work characteristics, remuneration and community appreciation dominated. We find that volunteering CHWs value the opportunity to make a social contribution, but the decision to volunteer is also influenced by anticipated future rewards. Care must be taken by those costing and designing CHW programmes to acknowledge the opportunity cost of CHWs at the margin and over the long term. Failure to properly consider these issues may lead to cost estimations below the amount necessary to scale up and sustain programmes. PMID:26001813

  1. Valuing the work of unpaid community health workers and exploring the incentives to volunteering in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Kasteng, Frida; Settumba, Stella; Källander, Karin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes are currently being scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa to improve access to healthcare. CHWs are often volunteers; from an economic perspective, this raises considerations whether reliance on an unpaid workforce is sustainable and how to appropriately cost and value the work of CHWs. Both these questions can be informed by an understanding of CHWs' workload, their opportunity costs of time and the perceived benefits of being a CHW. However, to date few studies have fully explored the methodological challenges in valuing CHW time. We examined the costs and benefits of volunteering in a sample of 45 CHWs providing integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses in rural Uganda in February 2012 using different methods. We assessed the value of CHW time using the minimum public sector salary rate and a CHW-elicited replacement wage, as well as the opportunity cost of time based on CHW-estimated annual income and alternative work opportunities, respectively. Reported monthly CHW workload, a median of 19.3 h (range 2.5-57), was valued at USD 6.9 (range 0.9-20.4) per month from the perspective of the healthcare system (applicable replacement wage) and at a median of USD 4.1 (range 0.4-169) from the perspective of the CHWs (individual opportunity cost of time). In a discrete choice experiment on preferred work characteristics, remuneration and community appreciation dominated. We find that volunteering CHWs value the opportunity to make a social contribution, but the decision to volunteer is also influenced by anticipated future rewards. Care must be taken by those costing and designing CHW programmes to acknowledge the opportunity cost of CHWs at the margin and over the long term. Failure to properly consider these issues may lead to cost estimations below the amount necessary to scale up and sustain programmes. PMID:26001813

  2. Unpaid caregiving and paid work over life-courses: Different pathways, diverging outcomes.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Fiona; Ercolani, Marco G

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the extent to which people's earlier circumstances and experiences shape subsequent life-courses. We do this using UK longitudinal data to provide a dynamic analysis of employment and caregiving histories for 4339 people over 15-20 years between 1991 and 2010. We analyse these histories as sequences using optimal matching and cluster analysis to identify five distinct employment-caregiving pathways. Regression analysis shows that prior to embarking on these pathways, people are already differentiated by life-stage, gender and attitudes towards family and gender roles. Difference-in-differences estimation shows that some initial differences in income, subjective health and wellbeing widen over time, while others narrow. In particular, those following the most caregiving-intensive pathways not only end up poorer but also experience a relative decline in subjective health and wellbeing. These results confirm that earlier circumstances exert a strong influence on later life-courses consistent with pre-determination, persistence and path dependence. PMID:27010581

  3. Meaning of housework and other unpaid responsibilities among older women.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the meaning and conditions of housework and other unpaid responsibilities for older women. Taped, in-person interviews were conducted with 53 ethnically and economically diverse women, 55-84 years old. The interview guide contained open-ended questions regarding the process of taking on housework and other unpaid responsibilities and the centrality to personal identity. Participants reported shifts in perceptions of housework as work, decreased importance of housework with age, the attitude of care recipients affecting the experience and meaning of unpaid responsibilities, and the impact of historical racist events on viewing unpaid responsibilities as opportunity. PMID:15149929

  4. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  5. ["Parents' salary" and "freedom of choice" between paid and unpaid work: empirical results of a controversial concept].

    PubMed

    Badelt, C

    1992-01-01

    The author summarizes results from a study on the impact of a parents' salary in Vorarlburg, a province in western Austria. "According to this concept parents are 'paid' by the government for taking care of their children during the first years after birth, while giving up paid work in the labour market. Critics oppose this concept because of its potentially negative implications for the labour force participation of women.... It is shown that the public transfer payment substantially improves the financial situation of the families involved but also affects the distribution of money and power between the spouses within the households. Moreover, it is pointed out that the payment of a parents' salary itself has 'asymmetrical' effects, which could be balanced if more efforts were made to improve the child care facilities for children under three." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12286942

  6. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson Community Junior Coll., KS.

    This curriculum is based on what students need to know, to be able to do, and to be like in order to be competent in the work of the family. Each of the 12 units follows a uniform format that includes the following: perennial problem (one faced over and over by successive generations of families); practical problem (the organizing scheme for how…

  7. Work Cultures and Work/Family Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sue Campbell

    2001-01-01

    For 179 workers with family responsibilities, flexibility of work was associated with job satisfaction and family well-being, flexible work schedules were not. Supportive supervision was associated only with increased employee citizenship and did not increase work-family balance of those at risk. Family-friendly culture did not appear to benefit…

  8. The Academic Effects of After-School Paid and Unpaid Work among 14-Year-Old Students in TIMSS Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David; Pong, Suet-ling

    2009-01-01

    What it means to be a "student" varies within and between countries. Apart from the wide variety of school types and school quality that is experienced by young people, there also is, accompanying increased rates of school participation, a growing population of students who work part-time. The theoretical and actual consequences of student work…

  9. Women and work: a ten year retrospective.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    A look back, after a decade, at the issues surrounding women and work. Work options, childcare and family concerns, the glass ceiling, sexual harassment, women entrepreneurs, race and poverty, unpaid work, and women with disabilities are discussed. PMID:15920308

  10. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  11. Work-Family Facilitation and Conflict, Working Fathers and Mothers, Work-Family Stressors and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Work-family research frequently focuses on the conflict experienced by working mothers. Using data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 1,314), this study also examined work-family facilitation and working fathers. Ecological systems, family stress, family resilience, and sex role theories were used to organize the data and…

  12. Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

    The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

  13. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  14. Balancing Work & Family. A Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Family and Consumer Sciences Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for four units: work/family life-style choices, balancing work/family roles, work influences on family life, and family influences on work life. Three teaching methods are used consistently throughout the curriculum: role playing, case studies, and interviews. Each unit is composed of 5 to 10 lessons. There…

  15. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees’ personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees’ work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  16. Work/Family Interactions: Trends and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, JoAnn D.; Nies, Joyce I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss five trends and how family life educators can address them. The trends are (1) women's labor force participation, (2) growth of the service sector, (3) recognition that work and family life affect each other, (4) space sharing by work and family life, and (5) aging of the work force. (CH)

  17. Family Contributions to Work Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Pittman, Joe F.

    1986-01-01

    Tests an empirical model that hypothesizes linkages between organizational support for family and job commitments of personnel. The results indicate that the job commitment of samples of military personnel is significantly related to organizational support for families and to the support provided by the immediate family. (Author/ABB)

  18. Work, Welfare, and Family Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Merrile; Hill, Heather; Mendenko, Linda

    As more families move from welfare to work, little is known about the implications of employment for family well-being. This survey and case study examined the effects of employment on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of parents, children, and families. Survey respondents received assistance through Iowa's Family Investment Program…

  19. The State of Families, 2: Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Service America, Milwaukee, WI.

    This report examines trends in the world of work and the economy that affect families. Part 1 presents a futurist's perspective on the changing world of work and how it affects families. Topics include finance capitalism in a global economy, values, work force, compensation and employee benefits, employment and unemployment, government,…

  20. Adolescents, Work, and Family: An Intergenerational Developmental Analysis. Understanding Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T., Ed.; Finch, Michael D., Ed.

    This book contains eight chapters focused on various facets of adolescent work experiences and their effects on the student, the family, and the student's relationship to school, based on research conducted during the Youth Development Study. "Work, Family, and Adolescent Development" (Jeylan T. Mortimer, Michael D. Finch) summarizes earlier…

  1. Caution: Families at Work = Attention: Families au Travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This publication, in English and French, reports on the work-family conflict in Canada, gauges progress over the past decade, and examines how views have changed. The following articles are featured: (1) "Caution: Families at Work" (Ish Theilheimer), an examination of current workplace innovations, viewpoints of employers and employees, and the…

  2. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  3. Supervisor referrals to work-family programs.

    PubMed

    Casper, Wendy J; Fox, Kevin E; Sitzmann, Traci M; Landy, Ann L

    2004-04-01

    Supervisors play an important role in determining whether employees use work-family programs. Yet little research has examined the factors that relate to supervisor perceptions of and behaviors surrounding work-family programs. This study builds on past research, the theory of reasoned action, and expectancy theory to explore factors that contribute to supervisors' decisions to refer subordinates to work-family programs. Usable surveys assessing perceptions of work-family programs were completed and returned by 1972 managers in a large government agency. Results revealed that program awareness and instrumentality perceptions both contributed uniquely to predicting the frequency of supervisors' referrals to work-family programs. Supportive attitudes also predicted referrals, but only through their shared relationship with instrumentality perceptions. PMID:15053713

  4. [Some psychological problems in family planning work].

    PubMed

    Chen, J

    1983-11-29

    Psychology has significance in family planning work, because it may promote the scientific nature of family planning work and thus increase its effectiveness. Since people have some common aspects in their psychological process, family planning workers should master some common rules of the people's psychological process in order to understand psychological trends and possible behavior. Through this method, family planning workers may find how to adjust to problems they may encounter in their daily work, such as the worries about a single child being too lonely, spoiled, and hard to handle for the parents, the traditional belief that more children represent good fortune, and more male children may provide security for one's old age. Traditionally, the Chinese people believed that only male children can carry on the family line and that more children will provide a larger labor force, which is beneficial to a family's financial situation. In family planning work, all such incorrect ways of thinking should be corrected and revised. Studies of children's psychology should also be developed so that children may develop a healthy mentality. All these are crucial to the success of family planning work and the promotion of population quality. PMID:12159333

  5. The Role of Identity and Work-Family Support in Work-Family Enrichment and Its Work-Related Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Julie Holliday; Randel, Amy E.; Stevens, Jaclyn

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing research on the positive connections between work and family, antecedents and consequences of work-family enrichment are understudied. Using a sample of employees from a major insurance company, we assessed the relationship of (i) individual (i.e., work and family identities), (ii) family (emotional and instrumental support), and…

  6. Work Roles as Stressors in Corporate Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the impact of employment insecurity, career mobility, job content and satisfaction, amount and scheduling of work time, geographic mobility, and the wife's role on corporate families. Analysis is limited to male executives and their families. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the North Central Sociological Association, May 1980. (Author)

  7. Who benefits from family support? Work schedule and family differences.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Kristen S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated the benefits of family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) for reducing stress, increasing satisfaction, and increasing worker commitment; however, less research has studied health outcomes or possible differences in the effects of FSOP based on worker characteristics. The present study examined relationships between FSOP and health outcomes, as well as how those relationships may depend on work schedule and family differences. Using a sample of 330 acute care nurses, the findings indicated that FSOP predicted several health and well-being outcomes obtained 9 months later. Further, the relationships between FSOP and the outcome variables depended on some work schedule and family differences. In terms of family differences, FSOP was most strongly related to life satisfaction for those who cared for dependent adults. The relationship between FSOP and health outcomes of depression, musculoskeletal pain, and physical health symptoms were generally significant for workers with dependent children, but not significant for workers with no children. Regarding schedule differences, the relationship between FSOP and life satisfaction was significant for those on nonstandard (evening/night) shifts but not significant for standard day shift workers; however, there were no differences in FSOP relationships by number of hours worked per week. The findings demonstrate that FSOP may benefit some employees more than others. Such differences need to be incorporated into both future work-family theory development and into efforts to document the effectiveness of family-supportive policies, programs, and practices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322440

  8. The Unpriced Services of the Unpaid Homemaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Helen Y.

    1977-01-01

    In support of the relevance of home economics as vocational education, the economic value of the housewife's work is reviewed and the wife's contributions (which are too intangible to price) to the family and society are discussed. (BM)

  9. "Opportunity" in Paid vs. Unpaid Public Relations Internships: A Semantic Network Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    Compares differences in benefit appeal in letters offering internships written by the business community to an internship director. Finds the promise of "opportunity" and "for credit" appears more often in unpaid internship offers; emphasis was placed on writing skills and work-related tasks in paid internship offers. Reveals the business

  10. Work-family enrichment among dual-earner couples: can work improve our family life?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Marianne G; O'Brien, Karen M

    2013-10-01

    The extent to which resources generated at work and positive affect were associated with enrichment in the family domain among 107 dual-earner couples was investigated. Grounded in work-family enrichment theory (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006), this study examined the indirect effect of workplace organizational support on family satisfaction through positive affect at work. Organizational support for work-family management was associated with positive affect at work for both women and men, and positive affect at work was related to family satisfaction for women. One interpersonal effect emerged: women's positive affect at work was associated with family satisfaction for men. Implications for theory, practice, research, and workplace policy are discussed. PMID:23957764

  11. Iowa Cultivates Curriculum on Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jerelyn

    1989-01-01

    Iowa State University's curriculum guide, Balancing Work and Family, includes units on demographic trends, multiple roles, parental influences on life-style, long-range planning, sources of role conflict, time and money management, demands of careers, determinants of job satisfaction, public policy, influences on career choice, work attitudes, and…

  12. [Effort-Reward Imbalance in Household and Family Work - Analysing the Psychometric Properties among Fathers of Underage Children].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Barre, Felix; Otto, Friederike

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the concept of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) developed by Siegrist had been applied to unpaid household and family work (ERI-HF). Evidence suggests that the imbalance between effort spent and reward received in family and domestic labor is associated with poor mental and physical health. However, so far, the adopted questionnaire ERI-HF was exclusively used among women in childcare responsibility. This paper reports on the application of the model to men in childcare responsibility using data from a clinical sample of fathers in rehabilitation clinics (N=415). Analogous to the original version, ERI-HF is divided into 2 components: (i) dysbalance of effort and reward, and (ii) overcommitment. For both components, confirmatory factor analyses revealed good to satisfactory properties. Overall, 13.4% of men in childcare responsibility showed a dysbalance between high effort and low reward of household and family work. High levels of effort were more frequently reported than high levels of low reward. With percentages ranging between 24.3 and 59.6%, a significant proportion of fathers reported difficulties to withdraw from household and family work obligations. Analyses of construct validity revealed significant associations between ERI and socio-demographic factors (number of children, employment status, single fatherhood, work-family-conflict) as well as subjective health. Taken together, our findings suggest that the instrument is applicable to men in childcare responsibility. PMID:26859108

  13. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  14. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  15. Double presence, paid work, and domestic-family work.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Neus; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Carrasquer, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Double presence, which is understood as the need to respond simultaneously to the demands of paid and domestic-family work, mostly affects women and may negatively affect their health. Our hypothesis is that double presence increases as a function of the demands of domestic-family work, but is also associated with management practices related to the availability of time for paid work, prolonged and atypical work schedules, and heightened demands. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of the salaried population in Spain. Information was gathered through a standardized questionnaire administered through home visits. Statistical analysis shows a relationship between double presence and the demands of increased work schedules, rotating schedules, irregular schedules, and exposure to psychosocial risks (high quantitative and emotional psychological demands). Double presence should be considered as a variable in the evaluation of psychosocial risks, and collective bargaining should consider negotiating clauses that can impact it positively. PMID:21342873

  16. Considering social work assessment of families

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s the way in which social workers respond to referrals of children to Children's Social Care departments has evolved. It has moved through a process that ‘screens families out’ of child protection assessment to a system aiming to ‘screen families in’ where necessary, and now uses a holistic assessment aiming to screen for both risk and need. The assessment framework developed to assess children in need and their families is the modern social work response to all referrals. Little research has been carried out to assess its suitability as a widespread social work response. This article considers the debates that have emerged in relation to its use and concludes that insufficient consideration has been given to evaluating assessment as an appropriate measure of need and risk. Wider provision of non-assessed universal services would reduce the need for assessment. PMID:25866453

  17. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little research has addressed whether such work experiences are associated with precocious family formation behaviors in adolescence, such as sexual intercourse, pregnancy, residential independence, and union formation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find that teenagers who spend long hours on the job during the school year are more likely to experience these family formation behaviors earlier than youth who work moderately or not at all. PMID:22736931

  18. Work in the Family and Employing Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Mosier, Kathleen L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses and reviews the literature on issues involved in attempts to balance roles in employing organizations and family organizations. The following types of programs are reviewed: (1) maternity and parental leave; (2) child and dependent care; (3) alternative work schedules and workstations; and (4) employee assistance and relocation programs.…

  19. Work Family Relations: Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…

  20. The Impact of Emotional Labor on Work-Family Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchus, Nancy J.; Eby, Lilian T.; Lance, Charles E.; Drollinger, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Theory and research on emotional labor at work is applied to the study of the work-family interface to explore how emotional experiences in both the work and the family domain relate to the experience of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, and ultimately attitudinal and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence is also examined as a…

  1. Negative Affectivity, Role Stress, and Work-Family Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeva, Albena Z.; Chiu, Randy K.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    Measures of job and family stress and negative affectivity were completed by 148 (of 400) Hong Kong civil service employees. Persons with high negative affectivity experience more work and family stress. Job stress was associated with extensive interference of work with family, and family stress with extensive interference of family with work.…

  2. Work, family and life-course fit

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from “work-family” to a multi-dimensional “life-course fit” construct (employees’ cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2) whether control over work time predicted and mediated life-course fit outcomes. Using cluster analysis of survey data on a sample of 917 white-collar employees from Best Buy headquarters, we identified four job ecologies (corresponding to the job demands-job control model) and five home ecologies (theorizing an analogous home demands-home control model). Job and home ecologies predicted fit dimensions in an additive, not interactive, fashion. Employees’ work-time control predicted every life-course fit dimension and partially mediated effects of job ecologies, organizational tenure, and job category. PMID:19430546

  3. Teachers' Occupation-Specific Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael; Westman, Mina

    2007-01-01

    To expand work-family conflict (WFC) research to specific occupations, this study investigated how work and family generic and occupation-specific stressors and support variables related to family interfering with work (F [right arrow] W) and work interfering with family (W [right arrow] F) among 230 Israeli high school teachers. Further expanding…

  4. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  5. Family Care Responsibilities and Employment: Exploring the Impact of Type of Family Care on Work-Family and Family-Work Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared work-family and family-work conflict for employed family caregivers with disability-related care responsibilities in contrast to employed family caregivers with typical care responsibilities. Using data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, a population-based survey of the U.S. workforce, formal and informal…

  6. Family Care Responsibilities and Employment: Exploring the Impact of Type of Family Care on Work-Family and Family-Work Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared work-family and family-work conflict for employed family caregivers with disability-related care responsibilities in contrast to employed family caregivers with typical care responsibilities. Using data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, a population-based survey of the U.S. workforce, formal and informal

  7. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943

  8. Skills for Working with All Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Heidi Osgood

    2001-01-01

    Uses stories of families in one early childhood program to illustrate educators' challenges to communicate with families whose backgrounds are different from theirs, including low income families. Identifies strategies for supporting and involving families, including using empathy and patience to forge relationships, linking families with needed…

  9. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  10. Clarifying work-family intervention processes: the roles of work-family conflict and family-supportive supervisor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work–family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention surveys were completed, 9 months apart, by 239 employees at 6 intervention (N = 117) and 6 control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the 6 intervention sites received the training consisting of 1 hr of self-paced computer-based training, 1 hr of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to facilitate on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, whereas negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work–family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943

  11. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention…

  12. Role Resources and Work-Family Enrichment: The Role of Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted

  13. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,

  14. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  15. Work-family conflict, work- and family-role salience, and women's well-being.

    PubMed

    Noor, Noraini M

    2004-08-01

    The author considered both the direct effect and the moderator effect of role salience in the stress-strain relationship. In contrast to previous studies that have examined the effects of salience on well-being within specific social roles, the present study focused on the work-family interface. From a sample of 147 employed English women with children, the present results of the regression analyses showed that both effects are possible, depending on the outcome measures used. The author observed a direct effect of role salience in the prediction of job satisfaction; work salience was positively related to job satisfaction, over and above the main-effect terms of work-interfering-with-family (WIF) conflict and family-interfering-with-work (FIW) conflict. In contrast, the author found a moderator effect of role salience and conflict for symptoms of psychological distress. However, contrary to predictions, the author found that work salience exacerbated the negative impact of WIF conflict, rather than FIW conflict, on well-being. The author discussed these results in relation to the literature on work-family conflict, role salience, and the issue of stress-strain specificity. PMID:15279329

  16. Work-Family Balance: Perspectives from Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Soma; Abhayawansa, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    The article examines different types of work-family pressures amongst people working within the Australian university sector. We were specifically interested in work-family experiences between domestic and migrant Australians. Among the major findings, domestic Australians experience greater levels of work-family imbalance across most of the

  17. Work-Family Balance: Perspectives from Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Soma; Abhayawansa, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    The article examines different types of work-family pressures amongst people working within the Australian university sector. We were specifically interested in work-family experiences between domestic and migrant Australians. Among the major findings, domestic Australians experience greater levels of work-family imbalance across most of the…

  18. Linking Team Resources to Work-Family Enrichment and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Emily M.; Perry, Sara Jansen; Carlson, Dawn S.; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Work-family scholars now recognize the potential positive effects of participation in one life domain (i.e., work or family) on performance in other life domains. We examined how employees might benefit from team resources, which are highly relevant to the modern workplace, in both work and nonwork domains via work-family enrichment. Using the

  19. Linking Team Resources to Work-Family Enrichment and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Emily M.; Perry, Sara Jansen; Carlson, Dawn S.; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Work-family scholars now recognize the potential positive effects of participation in one life domain (i.e., work or family) on performance in other life domains. We examined how employees might benefit from team resources, which are highly relevant to the modern workplace, in both work and nonwork domains via work-family enrichment. Using the…

  20. The Family Outreach Model: Tools for Engaging and Working with Families in Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Meyer, Andrea S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Boroto, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a family intervention model to family service providers that builds on previous research in areas of social support and family problem solving. The Family Outreach Model provides a set of strategies for engaging and working with families in five phases of family coping at different points in time in the

  1. The Family Outreach Model: Tools for Engaging and Working with Families in Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Meyer, Andrea S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Boroto, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a family intervention model to family service providers that builds on previous research in areas of social support and family problem solving. The Family Outreach Model provides a set of strategies for engaging and working with families in five phases of family coping at different points in time in the…

  2. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  3. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  4. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a

  5. Linking Mechanisms of Work-Family Conflict and Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Jesse S.; Hargis, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the abundance of work and family research, few studies have compared the linking mechanisms specified in theoretical models of work-family conflict and segmentation. Accordingly, the current study provides a greater degree of empirical clarity concerning the interplay of work and family by directly examining the indirect effects of…

  6. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  7. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  8. Women, family, and work in Indonesian transmigration.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J F; Leinbach, T R; Falconer, K F

    1993-04-01

    The gender contribution to employment may be a critical factor in determining household economic viability. The significance for the resettlement program of the poor and landless from Indonesia's Inner Islands to the Outer Islands is clear. The aim of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of the role of women in off-farm employment (OFE) in a sample of South Sumatra, Indonesia transmigrants during the summer of 1989 at 9 different sites with different agricultural environments, settlement histories, and access to markets. A summary is provided of the literature on women's work and peasant household economies in Indonesia. Spatial and structural characteristics of employment among transmigrant women are described as well as life course influences on men's and women's OFE. A descriptive and explanatory model is presented that characterizes women's work and includes the influences of changing family structure on time allocation. Women's work appears fundamentally different from men's; household domestic work has a degree of flexibility in timing and tasks can be accomplished simultaneously. The hypothesis is that women will try to maximize their levels of flexibility and simultaneity in their income generating efforts. Discussion focuses on several theories of peasant household economies: 1) the Chayanov peasant model which posits that labor allocation for farm production in order to satisfy consumption needs is dependent on household demographic structure and the consumer labor balance; and 2) the New Home Economics theory which emphasizes the single utility function of the household. The villages represent 3 irrigated rice-growing and double cropping areas with established infrastructures and access to markets; 3 area with tidal swamp rice production and few resources; and area with rainfed rice production and limited resources and an area with ample resources; and 2 areas with smallholder rubber production. There were 560 ethnically Javanese households included in the sample, with an average proportion of 10% in each settlement. OFE is either on scheme, which means within the transmigration scheme and involves short distances to work, or off scheme, which entails longer work trips. 61% of the sample were involved in on scheme and 42% were involved in off scheme OFE, of which 10% were heads of households and 4% were spouses. PMID:12286576

  9. Strengthening Families: Community Strategies That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    Supporting and strengthening families has always been part of the early childhood professional's unique role in the community. NAEYC's Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families initiative (www.naeyc.org/ece/supporting) is a set of activities designed to provide intentional leadership and education in the family-strengthening approach. The…

  10. Working with families in Tower Hamlets: an evaluation of the Family Welfare Association's Family Support Services.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes an evaluation carried out by South Bank University of the work of the Family Welfare Association's (FWA's) Family Support Services (FSSs) in Tower Hamlets, London. Tower Hamlets is a multi-racial area in east London that, according to the 1991 census, has high levels of poverty, overcrowding and unemployment. Increasing poverty and social exclusion, which further entrench inequalities in health, are reported by sources such as government, health and social services and research as requiring innovative local responses to meet pressing welfare needs. The evaluation reported here examined three projects: Family Support, Building Bridges and Quality Protects - these are referred to collectively as FSSs. The evaluation shows that FSSs are innovative services that demonstrate effective ways of working with vulnerable families affected by experiences of racism, bullying, mental health difficulties, domestic violence or child abuse. In common with other successful initiatives in the UK and abroad, FSSs are aimed to be non-stigmatising, non-intrusive and responsive to the ethnicity, views and specific needs of families. This paper focuses on the participatory work of FSSs with families to illustrate effective methods of quality support, detail outcomes, and draw lessons for policy and practice. PMID:12121270

  11. Unsociable Work? Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Relationships, and Children's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S.; Korda, Rosemary J.; Broom, Dorothy H.; D'Souza, Rennie M.

    2006-01-01

    Many children live in families where one or both parents work evenings, nights, or weekends. Do these work schedules affect family relationships or well-being? Using cross-sectional survey data from dual-earner Canadian families (N=4,306) with children aged 2-11 years (N=6,156), we compared families where parents worked standard weekday times with…

  12. A Comparative Test of Work-Family Conflict Models and Critical Examination of Work-Family Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Jesse S.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Kotrba, Lindsey M.; LeBreton, James M.; Baltes, Boris B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive meta-analysis of over 20 years of work-family conflict research. A series of path analyses were conducted to compare and contrast existing work-family conflict models, as well as a new model we developed which integrates and synthesizes current work-family theory and research. This new model accounted for 40% of the…

  13. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent

  14. Helping Families Search for Solutions: Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paylo, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author focuses on the ways that family counselors can use solution-based therapies (solution-oriented and solution-focused) to work with families with adolescents in individual and/or family therapy. The theoretical foundation for solution-based therapies suggests techniques that help families focus on solutions and not remain…

  15. Work and Family Life. Phase 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Laura; And Others

    This is the first of a series of working papers and reports on aspects of modern American families. It investigates the issues and problems facing families with preschool children, when both of the parents are employed. The composite portrait of family styles within a sample of 14 young families begins with a project history. The literature is…

  16. The magnitude, share and determinants of unpaid care costs for home-based palliative care service provision in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future. PMID:23758771

  17. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  18. Hardships in America: The Real Story of Working Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Heather; Brocht, Chauna; Gundersen, Bethney; Bernstein, Jared

    Although U.S. policymakers have adopted the view that work is the solution to poverty, work may not ensure a decent standard of living for many families. This report estimates the number of families who are not making ends meet. It examines the cost of living in various communities in every state and determines "basic family budgets" for six…

  19. Gender Differences in Restricting Work Efforts because of Family Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maume, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…

  20. Working with Inner-City Families

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William J.; Wetzel, William; Devanesen, Sudarshan

    1991-01-01

    Many of the health problems in inner-city families require an ecological approach that takes into account the many destabilizing factors urban families face daily, the individual's own development, and the psychosocial and environmental factors known to influence health. Serious health concerns of the inner city, especially social inequalities and isolation, unemployment, and lack of affordable housing, must still be addressed. Imagesp2586-a PMID:20469521

  1. Work-Family Conflict and the Perception of Departmental and Institutional Work-Family Policies in Collegiate Athletic Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godek, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Employees throughout the United States struggle to balance their work and family commitments, in part because the workforce makeup has changed significantly over the last half century. The evolving family structure also has contributed to this struggle. This research seeks to build on previous work-family literature by incorporating the six…

  2. 34 CFR 685.216 - Unpaid refund discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unpaid refund discharge. 685.216 Section 685.216 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM...

  3. 34 CFR 685.216 - Unpaid refund discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unpaid refund discharge. 685.216 Section 685.216 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions §...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  7. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  8. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  9. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  10. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on

  11. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331584

  12. Work and Family: Satisfaction, Stress, and Spousal Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Miller, Dianne L.; Campbell, N. Jo; Morrison, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Married veterinarians were surveyed about work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for their career. Female veterinarians reported greater effect of martial/family stress on career and less perceived support than did their male counterparts. Areas of greatest work dissatisfaction for both genders were…

  13. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work

  14. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  15. The ‘visibility’ of unpaid care in England

    PubMed Central

    King, Derek; Knapp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social work practice is increasingly concerned with support not just for service users but also for unpaid carers. A key aspect of practice is the assessment of carers’ needs. The Government has recently passed legislation that will widen eligibility for carers’ assessments and remove the requirement that carers must be providing a substantial amount of care on a regular basis. This article examines which carers are currently ‘visible’ or known to councils and which are not, and uses the results to examine the likely effects of the new legislation. In order to identify the characteristics of carers known to councils, the article uses large-scale surveys, comparing the 2009/10 Personal Social Services Survey of Adult Carers in England and the 2009/10 Survey of Carers in Households in England. Findings Carers who are known to councils provide extremely long hours of care. Among carers providing substantial care who are known to councils, the majority care for 100 or more hours a week. The focus of councils on carers providing long hours of care is associated with a number of other carer characteristics, such as poor health. Applications Councils' emphasis on the most intense carers is unlikely to be attributable solely to the current legislation. Therefore, dropping the substantial and regular clauses alone will not necessarily broaden access to carers' assessments and, in order to achieve this, considerable new resources may be needed. How far these resources are available will determine the extent to which practitioners can broaden access to carers' assessments.

  16. SHRM Work & Family Survey Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.

    In March 1992, a random sample of 5,600 human resource professionals was selected from the membership of the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) and surveyed regarding family issues in the workplace. Respondents were asked to provide information on the size and other characteristics of their organization and workplace practices, and were…

  17. Teen Living 7015. Work and Family Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education Services.

    This supplement to the Teen Living curriculum contains materials to help teachers integrate family skills and tech prep skills into consumer home economics programs. It is keyed to a 2-semester consumer home economics course, based on the North Carolina Program of Studies (revised 1992); it is designed to help students focus on the relationship…

  18. Family Work and Relationships: Lessons from Families of Men Whose Jobs Require Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Solomon, Catherine Richards; Humble, Aine M.; Manoogian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how family members experience their lives when family breadwinners must be absent from home because of their jobs. Informed by general systems theory and contextual perspectives, we described wives' family work that supports the breadwinner role and maintains the emotional connections among family members. From our findings…

  19. Celebrating 25 Years of Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the organization's 25 years of working with infants, toddlers, and families. The articles are as follows: (1) "Hope Is a

  20. Family, Work, and Infant Care in Limited Income Latino Migrant Farm-Working and Anglo Non-Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Barratt, Marguerite; Kossek, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the policy context of limited income families' lives have created new stresses at the intersection of work and family. This research used detailed interviews with limited income working mothers of infants 4 to 18 months old to learn about their work experiences, individual well-being, and perceptions of their infants' experiences in

  1. 82 Key Statistics on Work and Family Issues. The National Report on Work & Family. Special Report #9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report was prepared because of the growing national interest in the questions of work and family dynamics. It puts together 82 key statistics on work and family issues in four major areas: child care, parental leave, alternative work schedules, and elder care. In addition, a chapter of miscellaneous statistics covers areas such as the…

  2. Indirect cost in economic evaluation: the opportunity cost of unpaid inputs.

    PubMed

    Posnett, J; Jan, S

    1996-01-01

    Unpaid time represents a potentially significant input into the health production function. The paper sets out the basis for valuation of time inputs consistent with the notion of opportunity cost. Such analysis requires consideration of whether time displaced in the production of health involves lost work or lost leisure. Furthermore, because valuation of opportunity cost requires the consistent treatment of costs and benefits, the study also considers the valuation of outputs. The basis for valuing the shadow price of work time is examined by firstly assuming perfect competition. The analysis then considers the presence of monopoly and monopsony in product markets and income and sales taxes. The basis for valuing the shadow price of leisure ("leisure' being all uses of time except paid employment) is restricted to an examination of methods previously used to value unpaid housework. The two methods examined are the replacement cost and the opportunity cost method. As the methods are not equivalent, the circumstances where each is appropriate vary depending on whether the output lost in producing health is replaced. Although not set out as the primary focus of the paper, the issues surrounding the valuation of outputs generated by non-market and quasi-market activity are examined. In particular, where activities such as informal care result in indirect utility to the carers (and patients) themselves, it is likely the full market wage provides a lower bound estimate of the value of marginal benefit. Finally the paper provides a practical approach to examining opportunity cost of unpaid inputs consistent with the concepts set out in preceding sections. PMID:8653189

  3. Work and Health among Latina Mothers in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Methods 220 Latino women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 - July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Results Three-fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, based on the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Conclusions Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers. PMID:25742536

  4. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Mozafari, Mosayeb; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2016-01-29

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30-39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups. PMID:26423332

  5. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study

    PubMed Central

    AAZAMI, Sanaz; MOZAFARI, Mosayeb; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; AKMAL, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30–39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups. PMID:26423332

  6. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; Crouter, Ann C; O'Neill, John W

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs' jobs and retention. PMID:23888092

  7. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; O’Neill, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs’ jobs and retention. PMID:23888092

  8. Developing and Implementing Work-Family Policies for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Beth; Hollenshead, Carol; Smith, Gilia

    2004-01-01

    Today, American families juggle many competing priorities: home, work, school, medical care, after-school activities, and other responsibilities required to raise a family and maintain a household. At the same time, more employers are developing policies that acknowledge the need for a healthy balance between work and home. These policies allow…

  9. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews

  10. Piecing Together Family Social Work in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    As rapid economic and sociopolitical development brings about drastic changes in family structure and processes in China, many social concerns arise. Through a review of journal articles published over a period of 28 years (1979-2006) in social work and related disciplines in China, this article presents a glimpse of family social work using the

  11. Faculty Sense of Agency in Decisions about Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, many research universities have adopted policies and support mechanisms to help academic parents balance work and family. This study sought to understand what facilitates faculty agency in making decisions about work and family, including parental leave. We conducted 20 interviews with 5 men and 15 women at a research…

  12. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  13. Faculty Sense of Agency in Decisions about Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, many research universities have adopted policies and support mechanisms to help academic parents balance work and family. This study sought to understand what facilitates faculty agency in making decisions about work and family, including parental leave. We conducted 20 interviews with 5 men and 15 women at a research

  14. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  15. Are Difficulties Balancing Work and Family Associated with Subsequent Fertility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siwei; Hynes, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the causes and consequences of work-family conflict, and the frequent suggestion in fertility research that difficulty in balancing work and family is one of the factors leading to low fertility rates in several developed countries, little research uses longitudinal data to examine whether women who report…

  16. Anticipated Work-Family Conflict: A Construct Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westring, Alyssa Friede; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    To date, little is known about how work-family issues impact the career development process. In the current paper, we explore this issue by investigating a relatively unstudied construct: anticipated work-family conflict. We found that this construct can be represented by the same six-dimensional factor structure used to assess concurrent…

  17. Anticipated Work-Family Conflict: A Construct Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westring, Alyssa Friede; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    To date, little is known about how work-family issues impact the career development process. In the current paper, we explore this issue by investigating a relatively unstudied construct: anticipated work-family conflict. We found that this construct can be represented by the same six-dimensional factor structure used to assess concurrent

  18. Advancing Measurement of Work and Family Domain Boundary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Russell A.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Bulger, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research offers promising theoretical frameworks for thinking about the work-family interface in terms of the boundaries individuals develop around work and family. However, measures for important constructs proposed by these theories are needed. Using two independent samples, we report on the refinement of existing "boundary flexibility"…

  19. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little

  20. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  1. Boom, Bust & Beyond: The State of Working Arkansas. Arkansas Working Families Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Richard; Duran, Angela

    Using data from several government and private sources and interviews with working families, this report examines the Arkansas economy, how Arkansas working families have fared economically in recent years, and their current challenges. The report offers suggestions about how the state can provide the tools families need to continue to move up the

  2. Improving the Health of Working Families: Research Connections Between Work and Health. NPA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Irene H.; Frank, John W.

    This document contains two papers on connections between work and health and policy options for improving the health of working families. "Foreword" (James A. Auerbach) places the two papers in the context of recent research on the connections between work, family, and health. Chapter 1's overview addresses the changing nature of work, the new…

  3. From "Work-Family" to "Work-Life": Broadening Our Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Jessica; Boyd, Elizabeth M.; Sinha, Ruchi; Westring, Alyssa F.; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    Despite frequent reference to "work-life" issues in the organizational literature, little theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to nonwork areas beyond family. The purpose of the research described here is to move beyond work-family conflict to a broader conceptualization and measurement of work interference with life. A measure of work

  4. Social Support from Work and Family Domains as an Antecedent or Moderator of Work-Family Conflicts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we investigated how social support from supervisor, co-workers, life partner, and family members is associated with work-family conflicts in N=107 working mothers. We used data from a cross-sectional questionnaire and a standardized diary to examine two possible forms of interplay: (a) Social…

  5. Convergence between Measures of Work-to-Family and Family-to-Work Conflict: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica R.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2005-01-01

    The overlap between measures of work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) was meta-analytically investigated. Researchers have assumed WFC and FWC to be distinct, however, this assumption requires empirical verification. Across 25 independent samples (total N=9079) the sample size weighted mean observed correlation was .38 and the…

  6. School Students' Learning from Their Paid and Unpaid Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Green, Annette

    A project carried out in New South Wales and South Australia examined ways in which Year 10, 11, and 12 students experience workplaces. A questionnaire administered to students in 13 schools received 1,451 responses. Case studies in five schools included interviews and focus groups with students and teachers. Interviews and focus groups with…

  7. Order Amidst Change: Work and Family Trajectories in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Choe, Minja Kim; Kabamalan, Maria Midea M.; Tsuya, Noriko O.; Bumpass, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial family and work macro-level change has been occurring in Japan. Examples include a decline in the availability of jobs that afford lifetime protection against unemployment, an increase in jobs that do not carry benefits such as a pension, an increase in age at marriage and at first birth, and an increase in marital dissolution. Using life history data from the 2000 National Survey on Family and Economic Conditions, young Japanese appear to have responded to these macro-level changes in a fairly orderly manner. Marriage and childbearing have been postponed, but marriage still precedes childbearing. Education is completed prior to starting work. For men, once work commences they continue working. For women, the classic conflict between work and family roles is evident. For men and women in both the family and work spheres Japanese young adults have more orderly life course trajectories than American young adults. PMID:21547009

  8. Changing University Work, Freedom, Flexibility and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikunen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates what Finnish academics on short fixed-term contracts consider to be the effects of having children on work and careers. The study is framed by the context of the current state of the university sector, its neoliberal and entrepreneurial tendencies and its claims to meritocracy. Informants express relative happiness with…

  9. The effects of organizational and community embeddedness on work-to-family and family-to-work conflict.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2012-11-01

    The present study offers competing hypotheses regarding the relationships of changes in organizational and community embeddedness with changes in work-to-family and family-to-work conflict. Data were collected from 250 U.S. and 165 Chinese managers and professionals, all of whom were married, at 3 points in time over a 10-month period. Results suggest that increases in perceptions of organizational and community embeddedness are associated with increases in work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict over time. Further, we found that these effects were even stronger for employees with highly individualistic values. Thus, although much of the previous research has focused on the positive effects of employee embeddedness for individuals' work lives, the present study provides some evidence of the potentially negative effects of employee embeddedness for individuals' family lives. PMID:22730902

  10. Work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, and marital satisfaction: a dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether spouses' work-to-family (WF) enrichment experiences account for their own and their partner's marital satisfaction, beyond the effects of WF conflict. Data were collected from both partners of 215 dual-earner couples with children. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that WF enrichment experiences accounted for variance in individuals' marital satisfaction, over and above WF conflict. In line with our predictions, this positive link between individuals' WF enrichment and their marital satisfaction was mediated by more positive marital behavior, and more positive perceptions of the partner's behavior. Furthermore, evidence for crossover was found. Husbands who experienced more WF enrichment were found to show more marital positivity (according to their wives), which related to increased marital satisfaction in their wives. No evidence of such a crossover effect from wives to husbands was found. The current findings not only highlight the added value of studying positive spillover and crossover effects of work into the marriage, but also suggest that positive spillover and crossover effects on marital satisfaction might be stronger than negative spillover and crossover are. These results imply that organizational initiatives of increasing job enrichment may make employees' marital life happier and can contribute to a happy, healthy, and high-performing workforce. PMID:24730427

  11. A short and valid measure of work-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Crawford, Wayne S; Carlson, Dawn S; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    The stream of research concerning work-family enrichment has generated a significant body of research because it plays an important role in occupational health (Masuda, McNall, Allen, & Nicklin, 2012). work-family enrichment has been defined as "the extent to which experiences in one role improve the quality of life in the other role" (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006, p. 73). Within work-family enrichment, there are two directions: work to family and family to work. Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, and Grzywacz (2006) developed an 18-item scale to measure this construct. Although the scale has been shown to be both reliable and valid, it also requires work-family researchers to include a proportionally large number of items to capture this construct in a study. The goal of the current study was to isolate a subset of the items in this measure that produces results similar to the full version thereby providing a more streamlined scale for researchers. Using a five-sample study that follows the scale reduction procedures offered by Stanton, Sinar, Balzer, and Smith (2002), we provide evidence that scales containing only three items for each direction of enrichment produce results equivalent to the full scale with respect to reliability and discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity. Reducing the original scale by two thirds, without losing explanatory power, allows scholars to measure enrichment in the work and family domains more efficiently, which should help minimize survey time, lower refusal rates, and generate less missing data. PMID:24447219

  12. Identifying the Family, Job, and Workplace Characteristics of Employees Who Use Work-Family Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Employs a contextual effects perspective to identify family, job, and workplace characteristics associated with the use of work-family benefits of 527 employees in 83 businesses. Determined that particular family problems predict female employee use of paid leave and mental health benefits. Summarizes that workplace size, sector, and culture are…

  13. Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender

  14. Identifying the Family, Job, and Workplace Characteristics of Employees Who Use Work-Family Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Employs a contextual effects perspective to identify family, job, and workplace characteristics associated with the use of work-family benefits of 527 employees in 83 businesses. Determined that particular family problems predict female employee use of paid leave and mental health benefits. Summarizes that workplace size, sector, and culture are

  15. Spousal Support and Work--Family Balance in Launching a Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…

  16. Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…

  17. Is Family-to-Work Interference Related to Co-Workers' Work Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference (FWI) experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWI has an effect on the co-worker's outcomes through the crossover of positive and…

  18. From "Work-Family" to "Work-Life": Broadening Our Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Jessica; Boyd, Elizabeth M.; Sinha, Ruchi; Westring, Alyssa F.; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    Despite frequent reference to "work-life" issues in the organizational literature, little theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to nonwork areas beyond family. The purpose of the research described here is to move beyond work-family conflict to a broader conceptualization and measurement of work interference with life. A measure of work…

  19. Emotion work in family caregiving for persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Cherie; Acton, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Emotion work enhances emotional well-being and emotional support in relationships between two people. Emotion work is a part of family work but has not been described in the context of caring for a family member with dementia. Content analysis applied to 11 interviews of informal caregivers describing their interactions with a person with dementia resulted in four categories of emotion work: (1) managing feelings, (2) weighing options, (3) being parental, and (4) ensuring emotional well-being. Caregivers performed emotion work to meet the feeling rules of being a good caregiver, but often with emotional dissonance between the caregivers' true feelings. PMID:23301570

  20. [The family-friendly hospital: (how) does it work?].

    PubMed

    Heller, A R; Heller, S C

    2009-06-01

    The demographic development in Germany is heading towards a significant shortage in specialists within the next 10-15 years with an increased demand for health services at the same time. The three-stage model of family life planning (work, family phase, return) will also be gradually replaced by a model of simultaneous compatibility of family and work. This change in values, although initiated by the parents themselves, may turn out to be a crucial countermeasure in national economy against the demography-related loss of qualified personnel. For these three trends the economic need arises to minimize family-related absence of our well-trained, motivated and reliable doctors from the clinical departments through implementation of family-friendly human resources policies and supporting measures by the employers. In a representative survey 26% of respondents with children had in the past already changed their workplace to ensure a better match of work and family duties. In this regard the compatibility of family and professional responsibilities had a higher impact on the selection of the employer than a high income. Accordingly, a work-life competence oriented business plan will represent the crucial factor within the competition between universities, hospitals and professional disciplines to attract high potential bearers although a sustained change of the traditional hospital culture is mandatory. Anaesthesia-related fields of development regarding family-friendly corporate governance are working hours and organization of work, part-time jobs even for managers and fathers, and staff development. In the hospital daily routine, in particular, creative solutions meeting the local demands are deemed necessary that do not involve the use of high financial resources. Family-friendly personnel policy not only arises from altruistic enthusiasm but also pays off economically. This article discusses the necessity, opportunities and threads of family-oriented hospital management and fields of action for anaesthesia departments. PMID:19484192

  1. Work and Family Life: Middle School Content Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the middle school content competencies for the Work and Family Studies curriculum within Family and Consumer Sciences in Ohio, is intended to help middle school students develop self-responsibility and competence dealing with the practical problems of early adolescence. (Career awareness and career choice options are…

  2. Balancing Work and Family for Faculty: Why It's Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.

    2004-01-01

    The success of faculty members in balancing their academic careers with family responsibilities is a matter of more than individual happiness: it is also a matter of addressing structural inequities and attracting the most qualified candidates to the academic profession. To make it possible for faculty members to balance work and family,…

  3. Resilience across Contexts: Family, Work, Culture, and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.

    Noting that much is known from research and practice regarding what works to promote resilience of children and families in a variety of high-risk life situations, this book considers the impact of culture, economy, employment, poverty, family structure, and social policy on parenting, child development, education, and the life success of youth.

  4. Effective Social Work Practice with Korean Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Siyon

    1996-01-01

    Overviews social science research regarding Korean immigrant families and provides culturally relevant social work guidelines for addressing difficulties in marital adjustment or parent-child relationship in Korean families. Interventions include a short-term, task-centered crisis intervention model; a cognitive-behavioral approach for resolving

  5. Mandatory Work Registration for Welfare Parents: A Family Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spakes, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Examined the impact of the AFDC mandatory work registration policy on AFDC clients and their families. Data showed 19 percent reported positive and 28 percent reported negative individual effects; five percent reported positive and 24 percent reported negative family effects. (Author)

  6. Family Roles and Work Values: Processes of Selection and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick Johnson, Monica

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on whether marriage and parenthood influence work values after taking into account the influence of work values on family formation. In a recent panel of young adults (N=709), stronger extrinsic and weaker intrinsic work values during adolescence predicted marriage and parenthood 9 years out of high school. Controlling these…

  7. Employers and Child Care: Benefiting Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication is designed for employers and employees concerned with developing programs and policies for high quality and cost-efficient care for children of working parents. Topics covered include: (1) child care services for working parents; (2) government subsidies for child care costs; (3) conflicts between work and family

  8. Work Values and Job Satisfaction of Family Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwkamp-Memmer, Jennifer C.; Whiston, Susan C.; Hartung, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory and prior research suggest linkages between work values and job satisfaction. The present study examined such linkages in a group of workers in a professional occupation. Family physicians (134 women, 206 men, 88% Caucasian) responded to context-specific measures of work values and job satisfaction. ANOVA results indicated a work values

  9. Work Values and Job Satisfaction of Family Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwkamp-Memmer, Jennifer C.; Whiston, Susan C.; Hartung, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory and prior research suggest linkages between work values and job satisfaction. The present study examined such linkages in a group of workers in a professional occupation. Family physicians (134 women, 206 men, 88% Caucasian) responded to context-specific measures of work values and job satisfaction. ANOVA results indicated a work values…

  10. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences

  11. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences…

  12. Shared records: towards collaborative working with families.

    PubMed

    Glasper, Edward Alan; Holmes, Christine Wilkes; Brown, Karen L; Newton, Jan

    2006-02-01

    In response to government policy on integrated records, common assessment and information sharing, health and social care professionals who work with children and young people are reviewing how patient documentation is designed, implemented and evaluated. A survey of members of a multiprofessional team within a regional children's unit was carried out to inform the development of collaborative (shared) patient documentation. A focus group activity using the nominal group technique generated information to construct a questionnaire which was piloted and sent to 125 key informants identified using 'snowballing' technique (Blacktop 1996). Of the 62 respondents (a 50 per cent response rate) only four did not support a patient to be accessed by all who provide care. Sixty per cent strongly agreed or agreed that any new record design should provide space for contributions from the child/young person and the carer/parent. Despite this clear consensus, opposition by some gate keepers may still slow the introduction of shared records in children's services. PMID:16518952

  13. Perceived Family Functioning and Family Resources of Hong Kong Families: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Joyce L. C.; Wong, Timothy K. Y.; Lau, Luk King; Pun, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a telephone survey (n = 1,015 respondents) that aims to identify the perceived general family functioning and family resources of Hong Kong Chinese families and their linkage to each other in a rapidly transforming society. The perceived general family functioning of the respondents was average, and the five…

  14. Use of family-friendly work arrangements and work-family conflict: Crossover effects in dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Schooreel, Tess; Verbruggen, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a dyadic approach to examine how an employee's work-family conflict is affected when his or her partner makes use of family-friendly work arrangements. We focused on 2 types of family-friendly practices, that is, reduced work hours and schedule or workplace flexibility. Hypotheses were tested with multilevel structural equation modeling using information of 186 dual-earner couples. In line with our hypotheses, we found support for both a positive and a negative crossover effect, though the results showed differences between the 2 types of family-friendly work arrangements. First, a positive crossover effect was found for both reduced work hours and schedule or workplace flexibility; however, the specific mechanisms explaining this effect differed per type of arrangements. In particular, employees whose partner made use of reduced work hours were found to experience less home demands, which was in turn associated with lower family-to-work conflict, whereas employees whose partner made use of schedule or workplace flexibility experienced a similar positive crossover effect but through an increase in the social support they perceived. Second, a negative crossover effect was found only for reduced work hours and not for schedule or workplace flexibility. Specifically, employees whose partner made use of reduced work hours were found to work on average more hours a week, which was in turn related with more work-to-family conflict, whereas employees whose partner made use of schedule or workplace flexibility worked on average fewer hours a week and consequently experienced lower work-to-family conflict. Implications for literature and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322442

  15. Balancing Work and Family. A Working Curriculum To Assist Vocational Parent and Family Educators in Designing and Delivering Employer-Sponsored Work and Family Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Dooley; And Others

    This curriculum guide was developed to help vocational teachers and family educators to design and deliver employer-sponsored seminars for employees as well as community-based adult education programs. The curriculum is intended to help working parents improve their ability to meet their personal wants and needs as well as the demands of their…

  16. Work-Family Conflict, Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), and Sleep Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  17. Navigating Work and Family: Hands-On Advice for Working Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen

    This booklet provides suggestions to help parents balance their work and family lives. Suggestions relate to the following areas: (1) sharing work with children; (2) coping with guilt; (3) dealing with children calling parents at work; (4) leaving work stress at work; (5) avoiding overscheduling for children; (6) dealing with after-work…

  18. Work, Family and Life-Course Fit: Does Control over Work Time Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from "work-family" to a multi-dimensional "life-course fit" construct (employees' cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2)

  19. Work, Family and Life-Course Fit: Does Control over Work Time Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from "work-family" to a multi-dimensional "life-course fit" construct (employees' cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2)…

  20. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

  1. Beyond the Superwoman Syndrome: Work Satisfaction and Family Functioning among Working-Class, Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Ruth S.; DelCampo, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    A survey investigated the interaction of sex role attitudes, division of household and child care responsibilities, role strain, work satisfaction, and family functioning among 87 working-class Mexican American women in dual-earner families with children. Respondents did not subscribe to the "superwoman" myth but, rather, endorsed an expansion of

  2. Family medicine residents barriers to conducting scholarly work

    PubMed Central

    Bammeke, Femi; Liddy, Clare; Hogel, Matthew; Archibald, Douglas; Chaar, Ziad; MacLaren, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify family medicine residents barriers to conducting high-quality research for the mandatory family medicine resident scholarly project, as well as to determine possible strategies to encourage research activity among family medicine residents. Design Descriptive study using an online survey. Setting Department of Family Medicine at the University of Ottawa in Ontario. Participants A total of 54 first- and second-year residents. Main outcome measures Family medicine residents involvement in research activities, perceived quality of their mandatory scholarly project, intentions for publication and presentation, and attitudes toward potential barriers to and facilitators of conducting high-quality research. Results Of the 54 residents, 20 (37%) reported that their project was of high quality, 6 (11%) intended to publish their findings, and 2 (4%) intended to present their findings. Respondents indicated that the main barriers to conducting high-quality research were lack of time, interest, and scholarly skills. The proposed solutions to increase participation in scholarly work were to allow full research days to be used in half-day increments and to offer a journal club where residents could learn scholarly activities. Conclusion Family medicine residents found several factors to be considerable barriers to completing the required family medicine resident scholarly project. This indicates that there is a need to change the current approach to developing scholarly skills in family medicine. Greater allotment of and flexibility in protected research time and more sessions focused on developing scholarly skills might facilitate scholarly activity among family medicine residents. PMID:26623463

  3. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  4. Youths' Socialization to Work and School within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents' reported work experiences was aligned to youths' perception of their parents' success in the

  5. Youths' Socialization to Work and School within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents' reported work experiences was aligned to youths' perception of their parents' success in the…

  6. Ten adaptive strategies for family and work balance: advice from successful families.

    PubMed

    Haddock, S A; Zimmerman, T S; Ziemba, S J; Current, L R

    2001-10-01

    Despite negative media images and social dynamics insensitive to the lives of many dual-career couples, research shows that these families are largely healthy and thriving. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies of middle-class, dual-earner couples (N = 47) with children that are successfully managing family and work. Guided by grounded-theory methodology, analysis of interview data revealed that these successful couples structured their lives around 10 major strategies: Valuing family, striving for partnership, deriving meaning from work, maintaining work boundaries, focusing and producing at work, taking pride in dual earning, prioritizing family fun, living simply, making decisions proactively, and valuing time. Each adaptive strategy is defined and illustrated through the participants' own words. Clinical applications for therapists working with dual-earner couples are offered. PMID:11594013

  7. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  8. Safeguarding vulnerable families: work with refugees and asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Burchill, John

    2011-02-01

    This paper will highlight one of the key findings of a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. Despite changes in government legislation to improve children's services in order to prevent harm to children, this recent study demonstrated that health visitors were working with the complexities of needs among refugees and asylum seekers related to safeguarding both children and vulnerable women. The health visitors often worked with families and individuals with no support from other professional services, they worked with failed asylum seekers who were unable to access other forms of support and they worked with women and children who were caught in a cycle of domestic abuse due to their immigration status. They were also working with families who would disappear from the systems in place to safeguard children. PMID:21388040

  9. Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne

    2016-04-01

    Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10 % follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work-family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work-family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work-family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age. PMID:27001314

  10. The George W. Bush Economic Philosophy: How It Might Affect Working Families. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of presidential candidate George W. Bush's proposed tax cuts on families of various income levels. Discusses how replacing current five-rates with four lower rates would reduce high marginal tax rates for moderate-income working families, focusing on effects of reporting tax breaks in terms of actual dollars rather than…

  11. Module 4: Work-Family Policy in the United States. Work-Family Curriculum Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Shulkin, Sandee; Sweet, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Public policy affects the experiences of workers and their families, both directly and indirectly. For example, employment-focused statutes such as the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the Employment Retirement and Income Security Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act establish frameworks for…

  12. Parental Work Demands and Parent-Child, Family, and Couple Leisure in Dutch Families: What Gives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeters, Anne; Treas, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data on 898 Dutch couples with minor children to examine whether parental work demands are related differently to one-on-one parent-child, family, and couple leisure activities. The authors presume that the impact of working hours and work arrangements is smaller on activities that are prioritized highly and that are easier and…

  13. Examining the "Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface": Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…

  14. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. PMID:25664468

  15. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data…

  16. Youths’ socialization to work and school within the family

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Scholar, Postdoctoral; Porfeli, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents’ reported work experiences was aligned to youths’ perception of their parents’ success in the work domain. Also, a significant association was found between youth’s perception of their parents’ family success and youth’s emotional and experiential conceptualizations of work. Furthermore, youth who viewed work as a positive experience were more likely to be engaged in schoolwork, both emotionally and cognitively. Implications for vocational guidance are discussed. PMID:26101556

  17. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  18. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  19. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  20. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  1. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. Conflict between Work and Family among New Zealand Teachers with Dependent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Melanie; Rose, Dennis; Sanders, Matthew; Randle, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Changes in family and employment patterns have lead to an increasing need for families to balance work and family roles. Little research has examined work and family conflict among teachers. In the present study, 69 New Zealand teachers completed a survey examining occupational-related demands, family-related demands, work and family conflict, and…

  4. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)

  5. The Internet and Academics' Workload and Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse whether the Internet and other ICT technologies support a work-family balance amongst academics. The study is based on 20 in-depth interviews with academics in Iceland and analysed according to the Grounded Theory Approach. This study challenges the notion that the Internet, as part of ICT technology, makes it…

  6. Beyond Conflict: Functional Facets of the Work-Family Interplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Seiger, Christine P.; Schmid, Christian M.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with three positive facets of the work-family interplay, i.e., transfer of competencies, transfer of positive mood, and cross-domain compensation. The latter refers to the experience that engagement in one domain helps dealing with failures in the other domain. In two correlational studies (N[subscript 1] = 107 working…

  7. The Partnership for Working Families: Best Practices in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Policy Associates, Washinton, DC.

    This report describes 39 successful initiatives that illustrate what 27 cities have been able to accomplish for working families across four goal areas: improving job access and quality employment for residents of underemployed neighborhoods (e.g., connecting quality labor-seeking employers in metropolitan markets with placement and training…

  8. Daily Management of Work and Family Goals in Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Klumb, Petra L.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses one-week time-sampling information from 104 employed parents with pre-school children to examine the association between daily workloads, control strategies, and goal progress. In addition, it examines relationships between work- and family-goal progress and important stress indices such as positive/negative affect and cortisol…

  9. [Training Practitioners to Work with Infants, Toddlers and Their Families].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the training of practitioners to work with infants, toddlers, and their families with emphasis on the activities of the TASK (Training Approaches for Skills and Knowledge) Project of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. The TASK project addresses the concerns of four "stakeholder" groups:

  10. Stress among Farm Women: Work and Family as Interacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Alan D.; Perkins, H. Wesley

    1984-01-01

    Examined a sample of dairy farm wives (N=126) regarding stress symptoms, husband support, farm and home task loads, and perceived role conflict between farm and home responsibilities. Results indicated that the content of home and work roles may not be as important as interpersonal dynamics in rural farm families. (LLL)

  11. Children, Working Mothers, and Their Families. Matrix No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman; And Others

    This paper reviews research studies dealing with the effects on families of changes in the labor force patterns of working mothers during the period from 1970 to l980. Research information is presented in a column format: the first column provides the study findings, the second points out the sources of the findings, and the third suggests…

  12. Best Practices in Working with Linguistically Diverse Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Blanca E.

    2009-01-01

    Many schools face the challenge of forging partnerships with families from linguistically diverse backgrounds. Effective communication, funds of knowledge, culturally relevant teaching, and extending and accepting assistance are best practices that have been used successfully by school personnel when working with students who are identified as…

  13. More Hard Times for New York's Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David Jason; Colton, Tara; Hilliard, Tom; Schimke, Karen

    2006-01-01

    There is broad consensus about what kind of economy and society New Yorkers would like to see over the decades to come: plentiful and remunerative jobs, reinvigorated communities from New York City to Oswego, and a safety net strong enough to facilitate upward mobility but infused with the values of work and family. Unfortunately, indications are…

  14. Reducing Teachers' Work-Family Conflict: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2005-01-01

    Work-family conflict is a vocational psychology variable whose antecedents and outcomes have been extensively investigated. In contrast, less effort has been invested in creating practical programs to prevent and reduce it. This article provides the rationale and describes the framework for a comprehensive organizational program designed to ease

  15. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  16. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  17. Beyond work and family: a measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gwenith G; Bulger, Carrie A; Smith, Carlla S

    2009-10-01

    Though early research on the work/nonwork interface was broader in scope, most recent research has focused on the interface between work and family. There is a need for an inclusive, validated measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement that is appropriate for all workers regardless of their marital or family life status. The authors report here on 3 studies in which they develop a theoretically grounded and empirically validated multidimensional, bidirectional measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement. All scale items refer to work/nonwork, whereas previous measures have mixed work/family and work/nonwork items or emphasize family roles in the nonwork domain. Quantitative analysis of the scale items yielded 17 items to measure work interference with personal life, personal life interference with work, work enhancement of personal life, and personal life enhancement of work. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling results provide evidence for convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity for the scale from 2 large samples of workers (N = 540, N = 384) across multiple job types and organizations. PMID:19839663

  18. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family. PMID:26322486

  19. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  20. Work demands, family demands, and BMI in dual-earners families: A 16-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Amit; Chung, Wonjoon

    2015-09-01

    Many scholars assert that work and family demands are negatively related to individuals' long-term physical health, but few studies have explicitly examined this relationship. Among these exceptions, most have employed a cross-sectional design that is limited in its ability to establish causality. We use body mass index (BMI) that generally increases during one's lifetime as an indicator of physical health, and seek to explore the amount of control individuals may have on this seemingly inevitable progression. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we propose that an increase in demands-both in the work realm (e.g., the number of work hours) and in the family realm (e.g., the number of spouse work hours)-is likely to speed up the increase of BMI. Using a nationally representative sample of 4,264 individuals who were part of a dual-earner family between 1994 and 2010, we find that a within-person increase in weekly work hours, an increase in spouse weekly work hours, and an increase in the number of children are all related to a small within-person increase of the BMI growth trajectory. Within-person increase in work responsibility demands is related to a small within-person decrease in the BMI growth trajectory. We discuss implications of the relationships between work and family demands and long-term physical health. PMID:25602120

  1. Physical symptoms and the interplay of work and family roles.

    PubMed

    Barnett, R C; Davidson, H; Marshall, N L

    1991-01-01

    The paradigm underlying research on the relationship between work and physical-health symptoms in men has focused on workplace stressors and has ignored men's family roles. Research on women, work, and health suggests several necessary additions to this paradigm, including (a) a focus on job rewards and job concerns and (b) attention to the impact of family roles on the relationship between job rewards and concerns and physical health. We included these variables in a study of a disproportionate random sample of 403 employed 25- to 55-year-old women. Major findings are that (a) work rewards (e.g., helping others at work) are related to reports of low levels of physical symptoms; (b) work concerns (e.g., overload) are associated with reports of high levels of physical symptoms; (c) particular work rewards, which may be different for women than for men, mitigate the negative health effects of work concerns; (d) among employed mothers, satisfaction with salary is negatively related to physical-health symptoms; and (e) women in positive marriages or partnerships were more likely to reap physical-health benefits from the rewards of helping others at work and from supervisor support. PMID:2055215

  2. A Longitudinal Investigation of Work-Family Strains and Gains, Work Commitment, and Subsequent Employment Status among Partnered Working Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; McNall, Laurel A.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the work-family interface on mothers' commitment to work and the implications of that work commitment for subsequent employment. The study included a sample of employed partnered mothers who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child…

  3. The Relationship between Core Self-Evaluations and Work and Family Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyar, Scott L.; Mosley, Donald C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on work and family outcomes and explores the influence of core self-evaluations (CSE) among these relationships. CSE is comprised of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and general self-efficacy. CSE was found to be negatively related to work interfering…

  4. Work and Family: New Partnerships. Work and Family Conference Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 30-December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Deborah, Ed.

    This conference involving business, labor, policymakers and dependent care service providers covered issues related to the conflict between family and work responsibilities. The conference addressed the conflict's scope, substance, and major issues. Also covered are: information-gathering efforts which concerned institutions' national and…

  5. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many families, identifying policy and programmatic strategies to reduce parents' work-life stress may have positive implications for the family food environment and for the eating patterns and related health outcomes of children and parents. PMID:22591825

  6. The Real-World Problem of Care Coordination: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study with Patients Living with Advanced Progressive Illness and Their Unpaid Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Daveson, Barbara A.; Harding, Richard; Shipman, Cathy; Mason, Bruce L.; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Higginson, Irene J.; Ellis-Smith, Clare; Henson, Lesley; Munday, Dan; Nanton, Veronica; Dale, Jeremy R.; Boyd, Kirsty; Worth, Allison; Barclay, Stephen; Donaldson, Anne; Murray, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop a model of care coordination for patients living with advanced progressive illness and their unpaid caregivers, and to understand their perspective regarding care coordination. Design A prospective longitudinal, multi-perspective qualitative study involving a case-study approach. Methods Serial in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed verbatim and then analyzed through open and axial coding in order to construct categories for three cases (sites). This was followed by continued thematic analysis to identify underlying conceptual coherence across all cases in order to produce one coherent care coordination model. Participants Fifty-six purposively sampled patients and 27 case-linked unpaid caregivers. Settings Three cases from contrasting primary, secondary and tertiary settings within Britain. Results Coordination is a deliberate cross-cutting action that involves high-quality, caring and well-informed staff, patients and unpaid caregivers who must work in partnership together across health and social care settings. For coordination to occur, it must be adequately resourced with efficient systems and services that communicate. Patients and unpaid caregivers contribute substantially to the coordination of their care, which is sometimes volunteered at a personal cost to them. Coordination is facilitated through flexible and patient-centered care, characterized by accurate and timely information communicated in a way that considers patients’ and caregivers’ needs, preferences, circumstances and abilities. Conclusions Within the midst of advanced progressive illness, coordination is a shared and complex intervention involving relational, structural and information components. Our study is one of the first to extensively examine patients’ and caregivers’ views about coordination, thus aiding conceptual fidelity. These findings can be used to help avoid oversimplifying a real-world problem, such as care coordination. Avoiding oversimplification can help with the development, evaluation and implementation of real-world coordination interventions for patients and their unpaid caregivers in the future. PMID:24788451

  7. When Family-Supportive Supervision Matters: Relations between Multiple Sources of Support and Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Ziegert, Jonathan C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms by which family-supportive supervision is related to employee work-family balance. Based on a sample of 170 business professionals, we found that the positive relation between family-supportive supervision and balance was fully mediated by work interference with family (WIF) and partially mediated by family…

  8. Work and Family Variables, Entrepreneurial Career Success, and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasuraman, Saroj; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 111 entrepreneurs revealed that work characteristics/pressures influence work more than family commitment; parental demands and partner support influence family more than work commitment. Women devote more time to family and men to work. Autonomy enables entrepreneurs to minimize the intrusion of family on work. (SK)

  9. Work-Life Compendium, 2001: 150 Canadian Statistics on Work, Family & Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen L.; Lero, Donna S.; Rooney, Jennifer A.

    The issue of integrating work and family responsibilities has been the subject of federal, provincial, and territorial policy planning and several task forces in Canada. This report plus executive summary, designed to inform the dialogue and stimulate continued discussion, brings together a wide variety of work-life facts and figures related to…

  10. Work and Family: Flexible Working Arrangements = Le Travail et la Famille: Conditions de Travail Flexibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Women's Directorate, Toronto.

    Working in partnership with the Ontario Women's Directorate, Camco Inc. has taken a planned approach in determining appropriate workplace initiatives to help its employees address the issue of balancing paid work and family responsibilities. Camco surveyed employees to identify their needs and determine what kinds of programs would best respond to…

  11. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  12. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a

  13. Working appreciatively to improve services for children and families.

    PubMed

    Onyett, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Service improvement approaches are described that specifically focus on appreciating the positive that individuals bring to contexts related to children and family services. This includes application of Solution-Focused approaches, Appreciative Inquiry and other approaches that promote a positive emotional climate and focus on what works. Their conceptual foundations are explored and particularly their value in supporting working well with complex adaptive systems. Specific applications described include leadership and management practice, work in school settings, engaging clinicians in healthcare improvement, establishing clinical networks, work with homeless youth, child protection and approaches to drawing out best practice and community development. The theme that unites is a focus on developing effective relationships at all levels and a pragmatic focus on what works so that we can find opportunities to do more of it. PMID:19759068

  14. When Work Just Isn't Enough: Measuring Hardships Faced by Families after Moving from Welfare to Work. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Heather; Gundersen, Bethney

    This paper examined the extent to which families faced hardships in moving from welfare to work, highlighting: families who received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) during the last month of the Survey of Income and Program Participation or the National Survey of American Families; families who received other public assistance in the…

  15. Strategies for Promoting a Work-Family Agenda. Report Number 973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.; Johnson, Arlene A.

    This document, which is intended to help individual managers and task forces committed to development of a work-family agenda, is based on recommendations of the Work and Family Research Council, which is composed of 35 advocates of work-family policies within U.S. firms. Basic strategies for promoting (marketing) work-family programs within…

  16. Leadership Style of School Head-Teachers and Their Colleague's Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship of people-oriented and task-oriented leadership styles with the work-family and family-work conflicts and the intensity of mutual relationship between work-family and family-work conflicts. Data for the research were collected through a survey of public sector elementary and secondary school teachers…

  17. The Relative Contribution of Formal and Informal Organizational Work-Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behson, Scott J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work-family research has proposed that informal means of organizational work-family support (e.g., managerial support) are more useful than formal means of organizational work-family support (e.g., work-family benefit availability) in explaining variance in employee affective, intentional, and behavioral outcomes. However, the relative…

  18. Gender-Specific Perceptions of Four Dimensions of the Work/Family Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innstrand, Siw Tone; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Falkum, Erik; Espnes, Geir Arild; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. The first intention was to examine the factorial validity of a work/family interaction in terms of the direction of influence (work-to-family vs. family-to-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Second, gender differences along these four dimensions of work/family interaction were explored. Data…

  19. Social Class and the Experience of Work-Family Conflict during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammons, Samantha K.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of juggling work and family responsibilities are well known, but there has been little attention to the distinctive work and family experiences of young adults. This chapter explores how class affects young adults' exposure to work-family conflicts and the strategies they use to manage their work and family responsibilities. Using…

  20. Ten Adaptive Strategies for Family and Work Balance: Advice from Successful Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, Shelley A.; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Ziemba, Scott J.; Current, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated adaptive strategies of middle class, dual earner couples (N=47) with children that are successfully managing family and work. Guided by grounded-theory methodology, analysis of interview data revealed these successful couples structured their lives around 10 major strategies. Each strategy is defined and illustrated through the…

  1. What the Person Brings to the Table: Personality, Coping, and Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreassi, Jeanine K.

    2011-01-01

    Employees (N = 291) of various industries and companies were surveyed to study how individual factors (coping and personality) affect work-family conflict: strain-based work-to-family conflict (S-WFC), time-based work-to-family conflict (T-WFC), strain-based family-to-work conflict (S-FWC), and time-based family-to-work conflict (T-FWC). As…

  2. Honoring Work in Wisconsin: State Policies To Promote Self-Sufficiency for Working Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    Many of Wisconsin's working families face economic distress, living from paycheck to paycheck and being forced to choose between paying their rent or buying food for their children. Parents under stress often cannot support their children with time, energy or resources. In order to affirm the importance of children in the state, and to help build…

  3. Committing to Your Work, Spouse, and Children: Implications for Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Arla L.; Chamberlain, Trina C.

    2006-01-01

    When trying to balance work and family responsibilities, many workers experience conflict between these two roles. Although role commitment has been viewed both as contributing to and alleviating conflict, this relationship has not been fully tested. Using a sample of female nurses and police officers, we examined the direct and indirect…

  4. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference

  5. Preliminary Validation of the Work-Family Integration-Blurring Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Stephan; Hilton, Jeanne M.; Larwood, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Several studies of telecommuting and working at home have alluded to the blurring line between work and family that can result from such highly integrated work-family arrangements. However, little is known about working parents' perceptions of the integration and blurring of their work and family roles. In this study, the authors created and

  6. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…

  7. An interprofessional exploration of nursing and social work roles when working jointly with families.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Elaine; Hauck, Yvonne; Radford, Georgina; Bindahneem, Sakina

    2016-03-01

    Ngala, an early parenting not-for-profit organisation in Western Australia, has provided services to families with young children since 1890. Child health nurses and mothercraft nurses were the primary workforce until the 1980s when a social worker was employed and a new era of interprofessional collaboration began. Evidence to date has focused on nursing workforce, interprofessional education, and interprofessional teams. Little is known about the roles of nursing and social work when working jointly with families. A new service commenced in 2012 for families with children with developmental delays. Social workers and child health nurses were employed for this service model. Our study aim was to explore the perceptions of how nurses and social workers work together with a family providing psychosocial support across a new service. The study was conducted alongside implementation of this new service. An exploratory case study approach was adopted to generate an in-depth understanding of the roles of nurses and social workers. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews and one focus group across the first year of implementing the new service were undertaken. Analysis of these data revealed four major themes. Findings presented in this article will inform further reflection and consideration into the future interprofessional workforce priorities and requirements for Early Parenting Services. PMID:27026191

  8. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

  9. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid

  10. Is There a Downside to Schedule Control for the Work-Family Interface?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Young, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 2007 U.S. survey of workers, this article examines the implications of schedule control for work-family role blurring and work-family conflict. Four main findings indicate that (a) schedule control is associated with more frequent working at home and work-family multitasking activities; (b) the positive association between

  11. Family Mastery Enhances Work Engagement in Chinese Nurses: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling; Chen, Wei-qing; Wang, Hai-jiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) theory of work-family enrichment and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of work engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008), this study focused on the family-to-work enrichment process by investigating the effect of family mastery on work engagement in a Chinese context. A sample of 279 Chinese female nurses…

  12. Is There a Downside to Schedule Control for the Work-Family Interface?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Young, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 2007 U.S. survey of workers, this article examines the implications of schedule control for work-family role blurring and work-family conflict. Four main findings indicate that (a) schedule control is associated with more frequent working at home and work-family multitasking activities; (b) the positive association between…

  13. Career involvement and family involvement as moderators of relationships between work-family conflict and withdrawal from a profession.

    PubMed

    Greenhaus, J H; Parasuraman, S; Collins, K M

    2001-04-01

    This study extended prior analyses by J. H. Greenhaus, K. M. Collins, R. Singh, and S. Parasuraman (1997) by examining relationships between 2 directions of work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict) and withdrawal from public accounting. The sample consisted of 199 members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (135 men and 64 women) who were married or in a long-term relationship and who had 1 or more children. It was found that work-to-family conflict (but not family-to-work conflict) was positively related to withdrawal intentions. In addition, relationships of work-to-family conflict with withdrawal intentions and withdrawal behavior were stronger for individuals who were relatively uninvolved in their careers than for those who were highly involved in their careers. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed. PMID:11326728

  14. A stigma identification framework for family nurses working with parents who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered and their families.

    PubMed

    Weber, Scott

    2010-11-01

    Parent relationships and family life provide important psychological and health benefits for growing children and adults. Social stigma experienced by parents who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered, and by their children, creates significant stress on families. Families headed by parents who are sexual orientation or gender identity minorities may require special guidance for navigating an unusually complicated terrain related to parenting and family life. The focus of this article is social stigma, its causes, and health impacts on these families. Approaches that family nurses can take to evaluate stigma when working with this population of families are identified and discussed. This article reviews practice and research literature to examine the impacts of stigma on the social security, lived experience, and health status of these families. The article then applies the Link and Phelan (2001) stigmatization model to work with LGBT parents to help family nurses improve practice effectiveness. PMID:21051755

  15. Creating Better Family Child Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Based on the premise that good child care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for children and families, this booklet details workplace standards for family child care providers. The booklet is designed to be used for educating family child care providers, evaluating individual family child care programs, setting goals and measuring…

  16. Working for mom and dad: are teens more likely to get injured working in family-owned businesses?

    PubMed

    Zierold, Kristina M; Appana, Savi; Anderson, Henry A

    2012-02-01

    Recent controversy regarding the issue of children working in family-owned businesses has come to the forefront, pitting safety and health versus parent's right to teach their children the family trade. While studies have characterized injury among working teens, no studies have assessed work and injury among teens employed in family-owned businesses. This study is the first to examine teenagers working in family-owned businesses and to compare the experiences of teens working in family-businesses to the experiences of other working teens. A questionnaire was distributed to 8,085 teens in high schools throughout the five public health regions of Wisconsin. A total of 6, 810 teens responded (84%). Overall 2,858 high school teens aged 14-17 reported working (42%); of which 963 (34%) worked in a family-business. Teens working in family-businesses were more likely to report that their injury was severe, affecting their activities for more than three days, compared with other working teens (33% vs. 21%, P = 0.05). The percentage of teens working in family-businesses that reported broken bones or crushed body parts was 17% compared to only 5% of other-working teens. Additionally, teens employed in family-businesses were more likely to file for workers' compensation (28% vs. 12%, P = 0.005). Teens working in family-owned businesses may be at a greater risk for more severe injury based on the jobs and tasks they are doing. Teens working in family-owned businesses were more likely to report engaging in dangerous tasks, including some that are illegal under the Hazardous Occupation Orders. More research is needed to assess the dynamics that exist for teens working in family-owned businesses. PMID:21717209

  17. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data collected from 608 employees of a white-collar organization before and after a workplace initiative was implemented, we investigate whether the initiative affects work-family conflict and fit, whether schedule control mediates these effects, and whether work demands, including long hours, moderate the initiative’s effects on work-family outcomes. Analyses clearly demonstrate that the workplace initiative positively affects the work-family interface, primarily by increasing employees’ schedule control. This study points to the importance of schedule control for our understanding of job quality and for management policies and practices. PMID:21580799

  18. Partnerships at Work: Lessons Learned from Programs and Practices of Families, Professionals and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kathleen Kirk, Ed.; Taylor, Mary Skidmore, Ed.; Arango, Polly, Ed.

    Designed to celebrate family/interprofessional collaborative partnerships, this publication describes high-quality examples of how families and professionals at the family, community, state, and national levels have worked together to create programs and practices that are family-friendly and responsive to what families have said they want and…

  19. Positive and Negative Effects of Family Involvement on Work-Related Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared conflict theory and enrichment theory, and…

  20. Positive and Negative Effects of Family Involvement on Work-Related Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared conflict theory and enrichment theory, and

  1. Work-Family Conflict, Resources, and Role Set Density: Assessing Their Effects on Distress among Working Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat; Liberman, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationships between the experience of work-family conflict and levels of distress in the family and at work among a sample of 227 Israeli working mothers. We also examined how role set density (RSD, the number of roles they perform) and personal and environmental resources are related to the women's experience of distress.…

  2. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

  3. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As

  4. Health and Turnover of Working Mothers after Childbirth via the Work-Family Interface: An Analysis across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ferguson, Merideth; Hunter, Emily M.; Clinch, C. Randall; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined organizational levers that impact work-family experiences, participant health, and subsequent turnover. Using a sample of 179 women returning to full-time work 4 months after childbirth, we examined the associations of 3 job resources (job security, skill discretion, and schedule control) with work-to-family enrichment and the…

  5. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  6. Latina Workers in North Carolina: Work Organization, Domestic Responsibilities, Health, and Family Life.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors. PMID:26590923

  7. Do the benefits of family-to-work transitions come at too great a cost?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn S; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth

    2015-04-01

    This research examines the impact of role boundary management on the work-family interface, as well as on organizational (job embeddedness) and family (relationship tension) outcomes. First, we integrate conservation of resources theory with crossover theory, to build a theoretical model of work-family boundary management. Second, we extend prior work by exploring positive and negative paths through which boundary management affects work and family outcomes. Third, we incorporate spouse perceptions to create a dynamic, systems-perspective explanation of the work-family interface. Using a matched sample of 639 job incumbents and their spouses, we found that family-to-work boundary transitions was related to the job incumbents' work-to-family conflict, work-to-family enrichment, and job embeddedness as well as the boundary management strain transmitted to the spouse. We also found that the boundary management strain transmitted to the spouse mediated the relationship between family-to-work boundary transitions and both work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enrichment. Finally, we found significant indirect effects between family-to-work boundary transitions and job embeddedness and relationship tension through both the boundary management strain transmitted to the spouse and the incumbent's work-family conflict, but not through work-family enrichment. Thus, family-to-work boundary transitions offer some benefits to the organization by contributing to job embeddedness, but they also come at a cost in that they are associated with work-family conflict and relationship tension. We discuss the study's implications for theory, research, and practice while suggesting new research directions. PMID:25365628

  8. "Flexible Work Arrangements: Managing the Work-Family Boundary" by B. Gottlieb, E. K. Kelloway, and E. Barham. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Kerry

    1999-01-01

    Finds that Gottlieb et al.'s work provides an excellent overview of flexible work arrangements in a variety of work organizations for managers, human-resources professionals, and employees. Considers the work an excellent primer presenting useful information about alternative work arrangements, factors involved in work/family clashes,…

  9. Family Day Care Mothers Work Together to Improve Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, June Solnit

    1975-01-01

    Describes the history of Women Attentive to Children's Happiness (WATCH), a self-help organization of family day care mothers which has developed an effective method of producing developmental programs for children and families. (ED)

  10. Teaching Work and Family to Undergraduate Students: Catalyzing Pedagogical, Curricular, and Programmatic Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Stephen; Mumm, Joshua; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Casey, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, two workshops on teaching work-family courses were held at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association. This article examines the current challenges and strategies of teaching work-family, as identified by workshop participants, and the resources that are available through the Sloan Work and Family Research…

  11. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment among Brazilian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Wendy Jean; Harris, Christopher; Taylor-Bianco, Amy; Wayne, Julie Holliday

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines a variety of relationships pertaining to work-family conflict among a sample of Brazilian professionals, in order to shed light on work-family issues in this cultural context. Drawing from the cultural values of Brazil and social identity theory, we examine the relationships of two directions of work-family conflict

  12. Antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in Chinese employed parents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan

    2009-04-01

    The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper. PMID:19331479

  13. Work-Family Boundary Strategies: Stability and Alignment between Preferred and Enacted Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammons, Samantha K.

    2013-01-01

    Are individuals bounding work and family the way they would like? Much of the work-family boundary literature focuses on whether employees are segmenting or integrating work with family, but does not explore the boundaries workers would like to have, nor does it examine the fit between desired and enacted boundaries, or assess boundary stability.…

  14. Examining the Constructs of Work-to-Family Enrichment and Positive Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Aline D.; McNall, Laurel A.; Allen, Tammy D.; Nicklin, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports three studies examining construct validity evidence for two recently developed measures of the positive side of the work-family interface: work-to-family positive spillover (WFPS; Hanson, Hammer, & Colton, 2006) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE; Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, & Grzywacz, 2006). Using confirmatory factor analysis, the…

  15. Work-Family Boundary Strategies: Stability and Alignment between Preferred and Enacted Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammons, Samantha K.

    2013-01-01

    Are individuals bounding work and family the way they would like? Much of the work-family boundary literature focuses on whether employees are segmenting or integrating work with family, but does not explore the boundaries workers would like to have, nor does it examine the fit between desired and enacted boundaries, or assess boundary stability.

  16. Work and Family Plans among At-Risk Israeli Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods were used to investigate attributions of importance to work and family roles and anticipated work--family conflict and facilitation among 353 at-risk Israeli male and female adolescents. Qualitative interviews conducted with 26 of the at-risk youth explored future work and family perceptions. Findings indicated that both sexes

  17. Work and Family Research in the First Decade of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.; Milkie, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship on work and family topics expanded in scope and coverage during the 2000-2010 decade, spurred by an increased diversity of workplaces and of families, by methodological innovations, and by the growth of communities of scholars focused on the work-family nexus. We discuss these developments as the backdrop for emergent work-family…

  18. Work and Family Plans among At-Risk Israeli Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods were used to investigate attributions of importance to work and family roles and anticipated work--family conflict and facilitation among 353 at-risk Israeli male and female adolescents. Qualitative interviews conducted with 26 of the at-risk youth explored future work and family perceptions. Findings indicated that both sexes…

  19. Construction and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Work-Family Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Williams, Larry J.; Kacmar, K. Michele

    2000-01-01

    Time-, strain-, and behavior-based dimensions of work interference with family and family interference with work were measured using 1,211 subjects. An 18-item scale with 6 subscales was validated. It depicts how separate work-family conflict dimensions relate to attitudes and behaviors. (SK)

  20. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment among Brazilian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Wendy Jean; Harris, Christopher; Taylor-Bianco, Amy; Wayne, Julie Holliday

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines a variety of relationships pertaining to work-family conflict among a sample of Brazilian professionals, in order to shed light on work-family issues in this cultural context. Drawing from the cultural values of Brazil and social identity theory, we examine the relationships of two directions of work-family conflict…

  1. Families of Working Wives Spending More on Services and Nondurables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Eva; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Data from the 1984-86 Consumer Expenditure Survey were used to examine effects of a wife's labor force participation on family income and expenditures. Findings indicate that families with employed wives spend significantly more on food away from home, child care, women's apparel, and gasoline than do families in which the wife stays at home. (CH)

  2. Teachers Working with Families: Natural Enemies or Necessary Allies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The complex and crucial connection between families and schools is embodied in relationship between individual teachers and their students' families. Research findings demonstrate that high levels of family engagement lead to greater success for students. Such findings drive policy mandates that hold individual teachers accountable for…

  3. Work-family conflict, cardiometabolic risk, and sleep duration in nursing employees.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Lisa F; Liu, Sze Yan; Hammer, Leslie; Moen, Phyllis; Klein, Laura Cousino; Kelly, Erin; Fay, Martha; Davis, Kelly; Durham, Mary; Karuntzos, Georgia; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2015-10-01

    We investigated associations of work-family conflict and work and family conditions with objectively measured cardiometabolic risk and sleep. Multilevel analyses assessed cross-sectional associations between employee and job characteristics and health in analyses of 1,524 employees in 30 extended-care facilities in a single company. We examined work and family conditions in relation to: (a) validated, cardiometabolic risk score based on measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, and self-reported tobacco consumption and (b) wrist actigraphy-based sleep duration. In fully adjusted multilevel models, work-to-family conflict but not family-to-work conflict was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Having a lower level occupation (nursing assistant vs. nurse) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, whereas being married and having younger children at home was protective. A significant Age × Work-to-Family Conflict interaction revealed that higher work-to-family conflict was more strongly associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in younger employees. High family-to-work conflict was significantly associated with shorter sleep duration. Working long hours and having children at home were both independently associated with shorter sleep duration. High work-to-family conflict was associated with longer sleep duration. These results indicate that different dimensions of work-family conflict may pose threats to cardiometabolic health and sleep duration for employees. This study contributes to the research on work-family conflict, suggesting that work-to-family and family-to-work conflict are associated with specific health outcomes. Translating theory and findings to preventive interventions entails recognition of the dimensionality of work and family dynamics and the need to target specific work and family conditions. PMID:25961758

  4. Working with families in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, Daniel; Latham Bach, Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Effective communication with families can improve clinical process and outcomes in long-term care. Such communication may be challenging to long-term care clinicians, who may feel they lack requisite skills or are uncomfortable with potentially charged and negative emotions that may result. These barriers can be overcome by using models of family behavior and of physician involvement in family counseling to foster understanding and organize family meetings. We present such models in this article. The first of these, the Pearlin Stress Process Model offers a framework for understanding family adaptation to long-term care. Within the Pearlin model, family function is a critical intervening variable. Structural Family Systems Theory is therefore examined next to guide to recognition of family characteristics that impact communication. We focus on translation of these theories to long-term care practice through clinical case vignettes. Applying the Levels of Physician Involvement in family oriented care to long-term care, we then suggest an organizing, stepwise process for the family meeting itself. We conclude with strategies for conflict management and a discussion of the importance of the interdisciplinary team in family care. PMID:17498612

  5. Work and Family Stress and Well-Being: An Examination of Person-Environment Fit in the Work and Family Domains.

    PubMed

    Edwards; Rothbard

    1999-02-01

    Research indicates that work and family are significant sources of stress. However, this research has underemphasized the cognitive appraisal process by which work and family generate stress. This study used person-environment fit theory to examine how the comparison of work and family experiences to the person's values relates to stress and well-being. Using data from 1758 employees, we assessed fit regarding autonomy, relationships, security, and segmentation for both work and family, and examined the relationship of fit with work and family satisfaction, anxiety, depression, irritation, and somatic symptoms. In general, well-being improved as experiences increased toward values and improved to a lesser extent as experiences exceeded values. Well-being was also higher when experiences and values were both high than when both were low. These relationships were generally strongest for within-domain fit and well-being (i.e., work fit and work satisfaction, family fit and family satisfaction), and several relationships were moderated by work and family centrality. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10069942

  6. Thematic content analysis of work-family interactions: Retired cosmonauts’ reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phyllis J.; Asmaro, Deyar; Suedfeld, Peter; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence and qualitative research attest to the importance of work-family interactions pre-, during and post-missions. This study uses thematic content analysis to quantify characteristics of work-family interactions and how these changed by stage of cosmonauts' career, identifying the effect of space career variables (e.g., time in space and station) on such interactions during and post-career. Using a thematic scoring scheme developed for this study, we coded work-family interactions identified from interviews with 20 retired male cosmonauts. The majority of work-family interactions were ones in which work overlapped into family life and work hindered or interfered with the family situation. The most common resolution was that family adjusted to work, and the mood or tone about this outcome was almost equally divided among negative, positive and neutral. Changes in work-family interactions and their resolution over the cosmonaut's life showed that the significant interactions were most evident during the cosmonaut career. Although the cosmonaut career has high work demands, it did adjust for family when the need arose. The Russian Space Agency (RKS) eased the impact of the periodic absences, especially through regular communication sessions. Positive work-family interactions, i.e., work or family helping the opposite role, were more likely for those who had been on ISS, not Mir, and for those whose last flight was after 2000. Our data reflect retired cosmonauts' recollections of work-family interactions during their career. Examples of work overlapping into family life and work viewed as interfering with family life were possibly more salient or better remembered than work or family helping the other role.

  7. Relationship between Family-Work and Work-Family Conflict with Organizational Commitment and Desertion Intention among Nurses and Paramedical Staff at Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hatam, Nahid; Jalali, Marzie Tajik; Askarian, Mehrdad; Kharazmi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Background: High turnover intention rate is one of the most common problems in healthcare organizations throughout the world. There are several factors that can potentially affect the individuals’ turnover intention; they include factors such as work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and organizational commitment. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between family-work and work-family conflicts and organizational commitment and turnover intention among nurses and paramedical staff at hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) and present a model using SEM. Methods: This is a questionnaire based cross-sectional study among 400 nurses and paramedical staff of hospitals affiliated to SUMS using a random-proportional (quota) sampling method. Data collection was performed using four standard questionnaires. SPSS software was used for data analysis and SmartPLS software for modeling variables. Results: Mean scores of work-family conflict and desertion intention were 2.6 and 2.77, respectively. There was a significant relationship between gender and family-work conflict (P=0.02). Family-work conflict was significantly higher in married participants (P=0.001). Based on the findings of this study, there was a significant positive relationship between work-family and family-work conflict (P=0.001). Also, work-family conflict had a significant inverse relationship with organizational commitment (P=0.001). An inverse relationship was seen between organizational commitment and turnover intentions (P=0.001). Conclusion: Thus, regarding the prominent and preventative role of organizational commitment in employees’ desertion intentions, in order to prevent negative effects of staff desertion in health sector, attempts to make policies to increase people’s organizational commitment must be considered by health system managers more than ever. PMID:27218108

  8. Immigrant women in Australia: resources, family and work.

    PubMed

    Evans, M D

    1984-01-01

    Using the 1% public use sample of individual records from the 1981 census and adopting direct standardization for age and sex regression techniques, this paper describes differences among native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking countries, Northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Third World, in areas of labor participation, unemployment, occupational status, entrepreneurship, and income. While Eastern European women are the most likely to be in the labor force, are the most likely to be unemployed and are the highest paid, Mediterranean women are the least likely to be in the labor force, have fairly low unemployment rates and occupy the lowest status positions and receive the lowest wages. Native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking and Third World countries and Northwestern Europe are intermediate between these 2 extremes on most dimensions. Some of the differences are not large. In particular, labor force participation only ranges from 49% to 59% and self employment from 9% to 14%. The most apparent differences in work patterns of the various groups of immigrants stem from differences in their own resources and constranits, or from different modes of adaptation to the Australian society, rather than from differential treatment in the labor market. Although family roles affect aspects of work differently, in general, marriage reduces labor force participation by more than 10% among all groups, except for East Europeans and the Mediterraneans, among whom it has no effect. While East European women hold on to their jobs as a potential source of livelihood in the event of divorce which is common among this group, the Mediterraneans view jobs as a means of achieving a measure of economic security. The effect of length of stay in Australia on labor market participation is somewhat larger for women from non-English speaking countries, whose adaptation process includes a slow improvement in language skills. In general, the Australian labor market appears to treat all immigrants equally without regard to their country of origin. PMID:12340229

  9. The Well-Being of Children in Working Poor Families: Report of a Meeting. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila, Ed.

    The number of children in working poor families is expected to increase as a result of welfare reform. This report summarizes the discussion of scholars, policy experts, and leaders of the Foundation for Child Development regarding research and policy on children in families headed by adults working in low-wage jobs. Key findings regarding…

  10. Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.530 - Will GSA instruct my agency's disbursing offices to offset unpaid TSP billings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will GSA instruct my agency's disbursing offices to offset unpaid TSP billings? 102-118.530 Section 102-118.530 Public... to offset unpaid TSP billings? Yes, GSA will instruct one or more of your agency's disbursing...

  12. Impact of employee benefits on families with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Sangeeth; Choueiri, Roula; Neumeyer, Ann; Ajari, Ogheneochuko; Shui, Amy; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the employee benefits parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have, how benefits are used, work change, and job satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey study of 435 families with children with autism spectrum disorders residing in the United States. We received 161 surveys for a response rate of 37%. Families reported using the following benefits: 39% paid family leave, 19% unpaid family leave, 91% flexible work arrangements, and 86% telecommuting. Of respondents, 43% reported stopping work, cutting down on hours worked, or changing jobs because of their child's condition. Having paid family leave was a positive predictor for job satisfaction. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have an interest and need for alternative work arrangements. PMID:26341992

  13. Working with Different Cultural Patterns & Beliefs: Teachers & Families Learning Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process….People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit…

  14. Levels of Interventions for MFTs Working with Family Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distelberg, Brian; Castanos, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Family businesses (FBs) are a significant population in the world and therefore part of most practicing marriage and family therapists (MFTs) clientele; however, little is mentioned about FBs in the training of MFTs. This article offers some guidance to practicing MFTs who service this population, as well as MFTs who wish to expand their practice

  15. Levels of Interventions for MFTs Working with Family Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distelberg, Brian; Castanos, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Family businesses (FBs) are a significant population in the world and therefore part of most practicing marriage and family therapists (MFTs) clientele; however, little is mentioned about FBs in the training of MFTs. This article offers some guidance to practicing MFTs who service this population, as well as MFTs who wish to expand their practice…

  16. Working with Families of Young Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This user-friendly book presents research-based best practices for serving families of children with special needs from birth to age 6. Expert contributors demonstrate how early intervention and early childhood special education can effectively address a wide range of family concerns, which in turn optimizes children's development and learning.

  17. Family, Religion, and Work among Arab American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazal Read, Jen'nan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…

  18. Indigenous Sole Parent Families: Welfare Dependency and Work Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Anne; Smith, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Identifies key characteristics of indigenous sole-parent families relative to other such Australian families and analyzes the factors associated with their ongoing levels of economic disadvantage. Raises issues about the efficacy of job-skill-development programs. (Author/JOW)

  19. Working with Families of Young Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This user-friendly book presents research-based best practices for serving families of children with special needs from birth to age 6. Expert contributors demonstrate how early intervention and early childhood special education can effectively address a wide range of family concerns, which in turn optimizes children's development and learning.…

  20. Working with Families Experiencing Homelessness: Understanding Trauma and Its Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…

  1. The Family Physician and the Ophthalmologist: Defining Areas of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hørven, Ivar; Elle, Egil

    1975-01-01

    In our April issue, Dr. Bentsen described the educational objectives for training family physicians which are being established by the Norwegian College of General Practitioners. One activity of that College has been to define clinical management and boundaries of family medicine in relation to the various specialties. This article describes those boundaries in relation to ophthalmology. PMID:20469202

  2. Working with Different Cultural Patterns & Beliefs: Teachers & Families Learning Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne; Anderson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Rogoff (2003) argues that "Human development is a cultural process.People develop as participants in cultural communities" (p. 3). Children develop within families, and different cultures reflect differences in how they structure activity for this development. For example, middle class North American families generally would not permit

  3. A Qualitative Examination of the Work-Family Interface: Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Russell A.; Booth, Suzanne M.; Taylor, Claire F.; Martin, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Within the work-family literature little is known about the work-family challenges and opportunities faced by families that have one or more children with autism spectrum disorder. However, it has been consistently demonstrated that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder are at a higher risk of experiencing a host of negative outcomes.…

  4. Relationship-Centered Practices in Early Childhood: Working with Families, Infants, and Young Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensher, Gail L.; Clark, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Strong working relationships with diverse families and children are the foundation of successful early intervention. Discover fresh, practical ways to build these relationships in this essential guidebook, every professional's blueprint for working with children and families within the specific context of their culture, family structure, and risk…

  5. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  6. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the

  7. Family and Work Influences on the Transition to College among Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sy, Susan R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of family obligations and part-time work on Latina adolescents' stress and academic achievement during the transition to college. One hundred seventeen Latina college students from immigrant families completed surveys assessing the mother-daughter relationship, family obligations, work-school conflict, school and…

  8. Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: the mediating role of work-to-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between the availability of 2 popular types of flexible work arrangements (i.e., flextime and compressed workweek) and work-to-family enrichment and, in turn, the relation between work-to-family enrichment and (a) job satisfaction and (b) turnover intentions. In a sample of 220 employed working adults, hierarchical regression analyses showed that work-to-family enrichment mediated the relation between flexible work arrangements and both job satisfaction and turnover intentions, even after controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, number of children, and hours worked. Thus, the availability of flexible work arrangements such as flextime and compressed workweek seems to help employees experience greater enrichment from work to home, which, in turn, is associated with higher job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions. The authors discuss the implications for research and practice. PMID:20092070

  9. Shrugging it off: Does psychological detachment from work mediate the relationship between workplace aggression and work-family conflict?

    PubMed

    Demsky, Caitlin A; Ellis, Allison M; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice. PMID:24635738

  10. The family empowerment program: an interdisciplinary approach to working with multi-stressed urban families.

    PubMed

    Cleek, Elizabeth N; Wofsy, Matt; Boyd-Franklin, Nancy; Mundy, Brian; Howell Lcsw, Tamika J

    2012-06-01

    The family empowerment program (FEP) is a multi-systemic family therapy program that partners multi-stressed families with an interdisciplinary resource team while remaining attached to a "traditional" mental health clinic. The rationale for this model is that far too often, families presenting at community mental health centers struggle with multiple psychosocial forces, for example problems with housing, domestic violence, child care, entitlements, racism, substance abuse, and foster care, as well as chronic medical and psychiatric illnesses, that exacerbate symptoms and impact traditional service delivery and access to effective treatment. Thus, families often experience fragmented care and are involved with multiple systems with contradictory and competing agendas. As a result, services frequently fail to harness the family's inherent strengths. The FEP partners the family with a unified team that includes representatives from Entitlements Services, Family Support and Parent Advocacy, and Clinical Staff from the agency's Outpatient Mental Health Clinic practicing from a strength-based family therapy perspective. The goal of the FEP is to support the family in achieving their goals. This is accomplished through co-construction of a service plan that addresses the family's needs in an efficient and coherent manner-emphasizing family strengths and competencies and supporting family self-sufficiency. PMID:22690861

  11. Work-family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, John W; Harrison, Michelle M; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work-family climate (operationalized in terms of three work-family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work-family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and between hotels. Findings underscored the importance of managerial support for employee work-family balance, the relevance of senior managers' own work-family circumstances in relation to employees' work outcomes, and the existence of possible contagion effects of leaders in relation to work-family climate. PMID:19412351

  12. Working with Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to several of the major issues in treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, as well as clinical and ethical considerations facing marriage and family therapists today. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

  13. Working with Families Living with Autism: Potential Contributions of Marriage and Family Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Jason; Amatea, Ellen S.; Echevarria-Doan, Silvia; Tannen, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces marriage and family therapists (MFT) to some of the common issues faced by families that have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, autism is defined and common myths surrounding it are discussed. Next, relational challenges are presented that families report experiencing during early childhood through the…

  14. Working with Families Living with Autism: Potential Contributions of Marriage and Family Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Jason; Amatea, Ellen S.; Echevarria-Doan, Silvia; Tannen, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces marriage and family therapists (MFT) to some of the common issues faced by families that have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, autism is defined and common myths surrounding it are discussed. Next, relational challenges are presented that families report experiencing during early childhood through the

  15. Developing Culturally Competent Marriage and Family Therapists: Guidelines for Working with Hispanic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Perry, Benjamin J.; Bedell, Tina M.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a content analysis of the available treatment literature to generate guidelines for use in training and evaluating culturally competent therapists. Guidelines include: use family therapy; act as advocate for the family; assess immigration experience; assess acculturation; respect father; interview family subsystems separately; do not force

  16. The family and work connect: A case for relationship-focused family life education

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Jane; Parthasarathy, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the premises for the need to develop a relationship-focused family life education program for young adult employees. The article explores the changing trends in the Indian family unit and their impact on the workforce. The author also presents the findings from interviews with family-intervention experts and their recommendations for the contents of such a program. PMID:20808662

  17. Family Literacy Funding Reductions and Work-First Welfare Policies: Adaptations and Consequences in Family Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Gungor, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of two concurrent policy changes for family literacy programs in Pennsylvania: (1) the transition from federal (Even Start) to state funding and (2) the elimination of adult education as a work activity for welfare recipients over 22 years of age. Using qualitative data from 10 family literacy programs, the…

  18. 29 CFR 1400.735-12 - Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid). 1400.735-12 Section 1400.735-12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DISCIPLINE Employees:...

  19. 29 CFR 1400.735-12 - Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid). 1400.735-12 Section 1400.735-12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DISCIPLINE Employees:...

  20. 29 CFR 1400.735-12 - Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid). 1400.735-12 Section 1400.735-12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DISCIPLINE Employees:...

  1. 29 CFR 1400.735-12 - Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outside employment, business activities, or interests (paid or unpaid). 1400.735-12 Section 1400.735-12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DISCIPLINE Employees: Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities...

  2. 76 FR 65545 - Notice of Revision of Standard Form 1152: Unpaid Compensation of Deceased Civilian Employee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... designate the beneficiary or beneficiaries to receive any unpaid compensation due and payable after the employee's death. The form relates solely to money due as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5581, 5582, and 5583, and has no effect on any benefits which may become payable under the Retirement or Group Life Insurance...

  3. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE INTERPRETATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 545.2 Interpretation of...

  4. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE INTERPRETATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 545.2 Interpretation of...

  5. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE INTERPRETATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 545.2 Interpretation of...

  6. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE INTERPRETATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 545.2 Interpretation of...

  7. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification... Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.402 Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid..., attendance at a school that closes, false certification by a school of a borrower's eligibility for a...

  8. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification... Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.402 Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid..., attendance at a school that closes, false certification by a school of a borrower's eligibility for a...

  9. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  10. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  11. Intervention effects on safety compliance and citizenship behaviors: Evidence from the work, family, and health study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348479

  12. Comparing Families and Staff in Nursing Homes and Assisted Living: Implications for Social Work Practice

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Cohen, Lauren W.; Reed, David; Gwyther, Lisa P.; Washington, Tiffany; Cagle, John C.; Beeber, Anna S.; Sloane, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing homes and residential care/assisted living settings provide care to 2.4 million individuals. Few studies compare the experience of and relationships between family and staff in these settings, despite ongoing family involvement and evidence that relationships are problematic. Data from 488 families and 397 staff in 24 settings examined family involvement and family and staff burden, depressive symptoms, and perceptions; and staff absenteeism and turnover. There were few differences across setting types. While conflict rarely occurred, there was room for improvement in family-staff relations; this area, and preparing family for their caregiving roles, are appropriate targets for social work intervention. PMID:23869592

  13. [Work and Family: Seeking a New Balance. Papers Presented at the National Conference on Work and Family (Washington, DC, March 30-31,1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Stanley C.; Brock, William E.; Donahue, Thomas R.

    Three conference papers explore issues related to work and the American family. The first, by Stanley C. Gault, Chairman of th Board of the National Association of Manufacturers, discusses recent changes in business practices that accommodate changes in the structure of the modern American family. The second, by Secretary of Labor, William E.…

  14. Working with families living with autism: potential contributions of marriage and family therapists.

    PubMed

    Neely, Jason; Amatea, Ellen S; Echevarria-Doan, Silvia; Tannen, Tina

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces marriage and family therapists (MFT) to some of the common issues faced by families that have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, autism is defined and common myths surrounding it are discussed. Next, relational challenges are presented that families report experiencing during early childhood through the elementary school years, adolescence and the transition into adulthood, and the later years of the family life cycle. Real-life stories are included to illustrate the potential contributions that MFTs can make to families that have a child with ASD. PMID:22765335

  15. The Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS): development and initial validation of a self-report measure of work-family conflict for use with parents.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Divna; Filus, Ania; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; Fletcher, Renee

    2015-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS) designed to measure work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) for use with parents of young children. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was utilised to develop and refine 20 items, which were subjected to a rigorous validation process using two separate samples of parents of 2-12 year old children (n = 305 and n = 264). As a result of statistical analyses several items were dropped resulting in a brief 10-item scale comprising two subscales assessing theoretically distinct but related constructs: FWC (five items) and WFC (five items). Analyses revealed both subscales have good internal consistency, construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive validity. The results indicate the WAFCS is a promising brief measure for the assessment of work-family conflict in parents. Benefits of the measure as well as potential uses are discussed. PMID:24919779

  16. Beyond Family-Friendly: The Construct and Measurement of Singles-Friendly Work Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Wendy J.; Weltman, David; Kwesiga, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Although research has examined work-family issues and organizational support for employees' family responsibilities, few studies have explored the work-life issues of single employees without children. The current study examines single employees' perceptions of how their organizations support their work-life balance in comparison to employees with…

  17. Work, Family Roles and Support Systems. CEW Series No. 3: New Research on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Susan, Ed.

    The volume presents five research papers and sixteen reports of research in progress which examine the relationship of women to work, family roles, and support systems. The papers examine internal factors influencing women's goals, racial differences in why women work, how work and family roles are integrated, class differences as determinants of…

  18. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  19. Questions and Answers about Child Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Child Care, and answers the following questions about child care: (1) How many children are in child care?; (2) How many hours per week do…

  20. Questions and Answers about AFTERSCHOOL CARE: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Afterschool Care, and answers the following questions about afterschool programs: (1) How does afterschool care help children?; (2) How…

  1. Work-Family Relations among Mothers of Children with Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2008-01-01

    The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…

  2. Work-Family Balance and Energy: A Day-Level Study on Recovery Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Demerouti, Evangelia; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo; Mayo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines whether daily recovery inhibiting and enhancing conditions predict day-levels of work-family conflict (WFC), work-family facilitation (WFF), exhaustion and vigor. Forty-nine individuals from various professional backgrounds in Spain provided questionnaire and daily survey measures over a period of five working days.…

  3. The Arts and Family Social Work: A Call for Advancing Practice, Research, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This brief report serves as a call for creative and artistic works relative to family social work. Recognizing the "art" of family social work, Mazza's (2003) multidimensional poetry therapy practice model is used as a framework for addressing all arts-based approaches to practice and research.

  4. Levels of interventions for MFTs working with family businesses.

    PubMed

    Distelberg, Brian; Castanos, Carolina

    2012-06-01

    Family businesses (FBs) are a significant population in the world and therefore part of most practicing marriage and family therapists (MFTs) clientele; however, little is mentioned about FBs in the training of MFTs. This article offers some guidance to practicing MFTs who service this population, as well as MFTs who wish to expand their practice into a focused consultation practices with FB systems. This article uses Doherty's Levels of Family Involvement Model as a road map for MFTs to organize the vast amount of literature on FB systems as well as the many ways in which MFTs might serve FBs. We also offer suggestions for the necessary skills, experiences, and levels of engagement required at each level of intervention provided by MFTs. PMID:22765326

  5. Thinking big, supporting families and enabling coping: the value of social work in patient and family centered health care.

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Betancourt, Itanni; Muskat, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Patient and family-centered care has become a focus in health services. Social work has a rich history of providing responsive patient care. This study identified the contribution and value of social work to PFCC from the key stakeholder perspectives of health social workers (n = 65). Utilizing interpretive description, four themes emerged: (1) Thinking big and holistically, (2) Intervening with families, (3) Enabling patient and family coping, and (4) Maximizing hospital and community resources. Barriers included a lack of power, professional isolation and role creep. Implications for research and practice are provided. PMID:25985286

  6. Relationships between time management, control, work-family conflict, and strain.

    PubMed

    Adams, G A; Jex, S M

    1999-01-01

    This article incorporates recent research regarding time management into a model of work-family conflict. The authors hypothesized that 3 types of time management behavior would have both direct and indirect (through perceived control of time) relationships, with work interfering with family and family interfering with work. It was also hypothesized that both of these types of work-family conflict would be related to the strain outcomes of job dissatisfaction and health complaints. This model was tested with a sample of 522 workers. In general, the hypothesized relationships were supported. PMID:10100115

  7. No Pain, No Gain? A Resource-Based Model of Work-to-Family Enrichment and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family scholars tend to work in two largely disconnected research streams, focusing on either work-family enrichment--the positive side of the work-family interface--or work-family conflict--the negative side of this interface. The purpose of this study is to suggest a reconciliation of the two research streams by proposing and testing a…

  8. Work-family conflict and enrichment from the perspective of psychosocial resources: comparing Finnish healthcare workers by working schedules.

    PubMed

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2015-05-01

    We examined work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE) by comparing Finnish nurses, working dayshifts (non-shiftworkers, n = 874) and non-dayshifts. The non-dayshift employees worked either two different dayshifts (2-shiftworkers, n = 490) or three different shifts including nightshifts (3-shiftworkers, n = 270). Specifically, we investigated whether different resources, i.e. job control, managers' work-family support, co-workers' work-family support, control at home, personal coping strategies, and schedule satisfaction, predicted differently WFC and WFE in these three groups. Results showed that lower managers' work-family support predicted higher WFC only among 3-shiftworkers, whereas lower co-workers' support associated with increased WFC only in non-shiftworkers. In addition, shiftworkers reported higher WFC than non-shiftworkers. However, the level of WFE did not vary by schedule types. Moreover, the predictors of WFE varied only very little across schedule types. Shiftwork organizations should pay more attention to family-friendly management in order to reduce WFC among shiftworkers. PMID:25683534

  9. Alternative Work Schedules: Changing Times for a Changing Workforce. The National Report on Work & Family. Special Report #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Though the traditional 9:00-to-5:00 work week remains the predominant scheduling choice of most employers, companies in all industries increasingly are using alternative scheduling methods that allow employees to balance their work and family responsibilities. Alternative work schedules for permanent employees frequently are advocated as a…

  10. All in a Day's Work: Job Experiences, Self-Esteem, and Fathering in Working-Class Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm-Thomas, Karen; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    1994-01-01

    Examined how working-class fathers' job experiences affected their self-esteem and parenting styles. Conducted home interviews with 59 working-class fathers in dual-earner families and their target child, who was aged 8 to 12 years. Found that more positive fathers' work experiences, higher their self-esteem, which predicted more accepting…

  11. Caught in the Triangle: The Influence of Home, Work and Elder Location on Work-Family Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alun E.; Hallman, Bonnie C.

    1996-01-01

    Data from a sample of 595 Canadians who care for elderly relatives suggest that the spatial arrangement of home, workplace, and the relative have an impact on stress. Travel time to work and to the elder impinge on work and family responsibilities. Most respondents sought to modify the home-elder axis rather than the home-work axis. (SK)

  12. Beyond Work-Family Programs: Confronting and Resolving the Underlying Causes of Work-Personal Life Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofodimos, Joan R.

    Work-Family Programs (WFPs) are among the most popular and publicized workplace innovations of the 1990s. These programs are intended to alleviate employees' work-personal conflicts by addressing issues such as child care assistance, parental leave, elder care, flexible working arrangements, wellness and fitness, and stress management. The problem

  13. Beyond Work-Family Programs: Confronting and Resolving the Underlying Causes of Work-Personal Life Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofodimos, Joan R.

    Work-Family Programs (WFPs) are among the most popular and publicized workplace innovations of the 1990s. These programs are intended to alleviate employees' work-personal conflicts by addressing issues such as child care assistance, parental leave, elder care, flexible working arrangements, wellness and fitness, and stress management. The problem…

  14. Constructing Family-friendly Work: Three Real Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aaron P.; Wilde, Sharon V.

    2000-01-01

    Case studies of three couples who modified their careers to accommodate family life illustrate the barriers and necessary trade-offs as well as significant increases in career and life happiness that can result. Counseling suggestions include revision of the concept of career and assessment of the costs and benefits. (SK)

  15. Designing computerized decision support that works for clinicians and families.

    PubMed

    Fiks, Alexander G

    2011-03-01

    Evidence-based decision-making is central to the practice of pediatrics. Clinical trials and other biomedical research provide a foundation for this process, and practice guidelines, drawing from their results, inform the optimal management of an increasing number of childhood health problems. However, many clinicians fail to adhere to guidelines. Clinical decision support delivered using health information technology, often in the form of electronic health records, provides a tool to deliver evidence-based information to the point of care and has the potential to overcome barriers to evidence-based practice. An increasing literature now informs how these systems should be designed and implemented to most effectively improve outcomes in pediatrics. Through the examples of computerized physician order entry, as well as the impact of alerts at the point of care on immunization rates, the delivery of evidence-based asthma care, and the follow-up of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the following review addresses strategies for success in using these tools. The following review argues that, as decision support evolves, the clinician should no longer be the sole target of information and alerts. Through the Internet and other technologies, families are increasingly seeking health information and gathering input to guide health decisions. By enlisting clinical decision support systems to deliver evidence-based information to both clinicians and families, help families express their preferences and goals, and connect families to the medical home, clinical decision support may ultimately be most effective in improving outcomes. PMID:21315295

  16. [Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…

  17. Opportunities for School Psychologists Working with Children of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Michelle D.; Glenn, Marshall Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Today's military families are a diverse, resilient group of brave Americans, and the country owes them a tremendous debt of gratitude. To date, over 2 million service members have been deployed in support of the Global War on Terrorism, many for multiple tours. For the first time in the country's history, there are more military dependents…

  18. Fragile Families and Welfare Reform: An Introduction. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S.; Tienda, Marta; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    This paper summarizes a collection of papers in a special issue that examines what resources and capabilities parents likely to be affected by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families have; whether these parents are likely to be good parents; the nature of parents' relationships and whether they will be able to cooperate in raising their children;…

  19. Trilingual Families in Mainly Monolingual Societies: Working towards a Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Andreas; Cline, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Trilingualism has often been studied within the framework established for bilingualism. Although there is overlap, the dynamics around trilingualism pose greater variations than is the case with bilingualism. The aim of this study is to analyse the language practices of different groups of trilingual families. Particular attention is paid to the…

  20. Working with Black Families Having Mentally Retarded Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Cheryl A.; Marion, Robert

    The paper examines culture as an influential variable in the shaping of the value system within the sturcture of black families specifically those with mentally retarded members. Typical negative views of the black culture included such characteristics as matriarchal, unstable, and pathological. More recent views have focused on strengths,

  1. Gendered Work. Sexuality, Family and the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Lisa

    A study examined the interrelationships between sexuality, family, and the labor market in Great Britain. First, a range of analyses of women's role in the labor market, including analyses from feminist and sociological perspectives, were reviewed to determine how sexual as opposed to gender relations operate in the labor market. Next, the role of…

  2. The Role of the Government in Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The foundations of the major federal policies that govern today's workplace were put in place during the 1930s, when most families had a stay-at-home caregiver who could tend to the needs of children, the aged, and the sick. Seven decades later, many of the nation's workplace policies are in need of major updates to reflect the realities of the…

  3. A Process for Working with Families across Counseling Specialties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David M.

    This chapter discusses the development of an approach to counseling that allows counselors to incorporate family counseling into their individual counseling practices. The six-stage counseling process that is presented draws upon a broad-based behavior therapy/social learning theory approach. The stages of this process are identified as: establish…

  4. Nurturing Careers in Psychology: Combining Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    The academic workplace, with its requirements for achieving tenure within the first 6 years of employment, is designed in ways that discriminate against young faculty with family care responsibilities, most notably mothers. Mason and Goulden ("Academe," http://www.aaup.org/publications/Academe/2002/02nd/02ndmas.htm, 2002, "Academe,"…

  5. Designing Computerized Decision Support That Works for Clinicians and Families

    PubMed Central

    Fiks, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based decision-making is central to the practice of pediatrics. Clinical trials and other biomedical research provide a foundation for this process, and practice guidelines, drawing from their results, inform the optimal management of an increasing number of childhood health problems. However, many clinicians fail to adhere to guidelines. Clinical decision support delivered using health information technology, often in the form of electronic health records, provides a tool to deliver evidence-based information to the point of care and has the potential to overcome barriers to evidence-based practice. An increasing literature now informs how these systems should be designed and implemented to most effectively improve outcomes in pediatrics. Through the examples of computerized physician order entry, as well as the impact of alerts at the point of care on immunization rates, the delivery of evidence-based asthma care, and the follow-up of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the following review addresses strategies for success in using these tools. The following review argues that, as decision support evolves, the clinician should no longer be the sole target of information and alerts. Through the Internet and other technologies, families are increasingly seeking health information and gathering input to guide health decisions. By enlisting clinical decision support systems to deliver evidence-based information to both clinicians and families, help families express their preferences and goals, and connect families to the medical home, clinical decision support may ultimately be most effective in improving outcomes. PMID:21315295

  6. Latinas without Work: Family, Occupational, and Economic Stress Following Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Gloria J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined stressors in family, occupational, and economic domains among 114 Latinas following job loss. Stressors from the occupational stress domain were the greatest source for these women. Women who valued the job they lost and who were older reported the highest level of occupational stress. (Author/BH)

  7. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  8. Episodic work-family conflict, cardiovascular indicators, and social support: an experience sampling approach.

    PubMed

    Shockley, Kristen M; Allen, Tammy D

    2013-07-01

    Work-family conflict, a prevalent stressor in today's workforce, has been linked to several detrimental consequences for the individual, including physical health. The present study extends this area of research by examining episodic work-family conflict in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) using an experience sampling methodology. The results suggested that the occurrence of an episode of work interference with family conflict is linked to a subsequent increase in heart rate but not blood pressure; however, the relationship between episodes of family interference with work conflict and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure is moderated by perceptions of family-supportive supervision. No evidence was found for the moderating role of work-supportive family. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23834444

  9. Moving from Programs to Culture Change: The Next Stage for the Corporate Work-Family Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.; Johnson, Arlene A.

    This paper examines the emergence of a corporate work-family agenda into historical and organizational context. The paper discusses the forces that have influenced both the prevalence and nature of a corporate response to family concerns over time, and trends noticeable in the efforts of some companies to create family-friendly policies and…

  10. Strategies and Practices for Working with Immigrant Families in Early Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesely, Colleen K.; Ginsberg, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how early childhood education programs engage immigrant families in their children's learning, how programs learn about these families and incorporate their cultures into the classrooms, and what programs are doing in terms of their staff's professional development related to working with immigrant children and families. The…

  11. We Are Not Babysitters: Family Child Care Providers Redefine Work and Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen, Mary C.

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 20 family child care providers of diverse race, ethnicity, immigrant status, and social class, this book explores the social, political, and economic forces and processes that draw women into the work of family child care. The articles dispel not only myths about why women choose to be family child care

  12. We Are Not Babysitters: Family Child Care Providers Redefine Work and Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen, Mary C.

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 20 family child care providers of diverse race, ethnicity, immigrant status, and social class, this book explores the social, political, and economic forces and processes that draw women into the work of family child care. The articles dispel not only myths about why women choose to be family child care…

  13. Between Hope and Hard Times: New York's Working Families in Economic Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David J.; Colton, Tara; Kleiman, Neil S.; Schimke, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Today, many jobs that once could support a family barely suffice to keep that family out of poverty. The implied bargain America offers its citizens is supposed to be that anyone who works hard and plays by the rules can support his or her family and move onward and upward. But for millions of New Yorkers, that bargain is out of reach; the uphill…

  14. Shiftwork, work-family conflict among Italian nurses, and prevention efficacy.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Donatella; Sandri, Marco; Sartori, Samantha; Conway, Paul Maurice; Campanini, Paolo; Costa, Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Shiftwork may be a demanding situation because it raises problems for reconciling work and nonwork activities; as such, this conflict may be mitigated by designing and implementing effective preventative actions at the workplace. There is a paucity of research directly examining the impact of work schedules and preventative measures at work on work-family conflict. Hence, the authors posed the following questions in their study: What is the impact of different work schedules on work-family conflict? Is a preventative culture associated with less work-family conflict? Is work-family conflict associated with specific health and well-being indicators and if so, how does work-family conflict affect well-being as compared with other potential determinants? A subset of 750 nurses ( approximately 10% of total workforce) were randomly selected from a larger sample. Nurses completed the Italian version of the NEXT questionnaire plus newly developed items to create an index on occupational safety and health prevention at work. Data were explored using two data mining techniques, Random Forests and Bayesian Networks, and modeled using hierarchical linear regression models. In all, 664 (88.5% of sample) nurses answered the questionnaire. The authors found that different work schedules had a differential impact on work-family conflict. In addition, effective risk communication between workers and people in charge of safety and health, and participation in preventative activities, quantitative workload, performing tasks not belonging to the nursing profession, and the number of weekends/month spent at work were all strongly associated with work-family conflict. The variable "time schedules" also acted as an effect modifier in the relationship between effective communication and participation in preventative activities and work-family conflict. In addition, quantitative demands played a role as a mediator (30% of total effect) in the relationship between effective communication and participation in preventative activities and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was significantly associated with burnout, sleep, and presenteeism; its association with burnout was higher than other precursors. Shift schedules that involved night work implied different workload demands, less effective communication, and participation in preventative activities than the other work schedules considered. The presence of a preventative culture directly reduced work-family conflict and indirectly via reduction of work demands. The authors conclude that the development of a preventative culture among irregular and night shiftworkers can be effective in reducing work-family conflict, while positively increasing well-being and job performance. PMID:20636219

  15. Training Family Therapists to Work with Children and Families: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sori, Catherine Ford; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined child inclusion issues and training marriage and family therapists (MFTs) to treat children. This modified Delphi study utilized a panel of experts, and gathered data through questionnaires and qualitative interviews. Panelists believe children should participate in family therapy sessions for both child and adult problems,

  16. Training Family Therapists to Work with Children and Families: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sori, Catherine Ford; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined child inclusion issues and training marriage and family therapists (MFTs) to treat children. This modified Delphi study utilized a panel of experts, and gathered data through questionnaires and qualitative interviews. Panelists believe children should participate in family therapy sessions for both child and adult problems,…

  17. The role of personal and key resources in the family-to-work enrichment process.

    PubMed

    Tement, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Based on the work-home resources model, the aim of the present research was to test a process model of family-to-work enrichment by examining whether self-efficacy (i.e., personal resource) mediates the relationship between support from one's family and work engagement. Further, it was assumed that positive affectivity (i.e., key resource) moderates the relation between family support and self-efficacy. Using an occupationally heterogeneous sample of Slovenian employees (n = 738), we found support for a mediating effect of self-efficacy as well as for the moderating role of positive affectivity. In general, our results broaden the understanding of work-family enrichment processes and provide support for the work-home resources model. In addition, they point to the relevant role of personal and key resources in work-family interactions. PMID:25040786

  18. Work-Related Learning Guide for Family Literacy and Adult Education Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

    This guide assists family literacy and adult education organizations considering ways in which work and learning can be integrated in their educational programs. Part I addresses influences motivating the family literacy and adult education fields to incorporate work-related learning into their efforts. Part II provides a framework for designing…

  19. Traditional and Nontraditional Gender Roles and Work-Family Interface for Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine traditional and nontraditional gender roles and work-family interface for men and women. Recent empirical literature is reviewed and implications for career counselors are discussed. We discuss changing gender roles in career, marriage, and parenting and provide strategies for helping clients to cope with work-family

  20. Work-Family Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover: Multilevel Contagion Effects of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work-family climate (operationalized in terms of three work-family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using

  1. Challenges, Not Barriers: The Work and Family Issues of Women Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reecks-Rodgers, Debra Ann

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that qualified female administrators have not applied for superintendency positions because of possible work/family conflicts, but little research has been done on the work/family issues encountered by women in the superintendency or on the strategies they use to resolve these issues. In response, this study is an…

  2. An Exploratory Study into Work/Family Balance within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Soma; Kluvers, Ron; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Vranic, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    The higher education landscape is undergoing major transformation, with a significant impact on the work and family practices of academics and professional staff. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the extent to which (1) time-related, (2) strain-related and (3) demographical variables impact on the work/family balance of academic…

  3. Social Class, Families and the Politics of Educational Advantage: The Work of Dennis Marsden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of Dennis Marsden's work. Looking at his oeuvre overall it is the family and intimate social relations and social class that are at the centre of his interests and analytical focus. Part of the power and effectiveness of his work was an ability to see families and their everyday lives in relation to social policy and

  4. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  5. Balancing Work and Family Responsibilities as an Extension 4-H Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Joseph Richard, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A career with Extension can be very rewarding, but also very demanding, as employees have to balance job stress and time demands with family goals and demands. The very nature of Extension work brings some tension between the job and family, and employees need to be equipped to make decisions about personal and work time. If the Extension System…

  6. A Two-Study Examination of Work-Family Conflict, Production Deviance and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Hunter, Emily M.; Whitten, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Building on the spillover and crossover literatures of work-family conflict and the theoretical framework of Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989) we examine the effects of conflict on production deviance. Using a two-study constructive replication and extension design, we examine how partner work-to-family conflict contributes to job…

  7. Work and Family Policies: The New Strategic Plan. Research Report Number 949.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James L., Ed.; And Others

    These 38 presentations are the highlights of the Conference Board's Work and Family Conference. An "Introduction" (Dana Friedman) is followed by "The Future Is Not What It Was, and Why Companies Care" (William Lee, Reuben Mark), which consists of introductory remarks and responses to an interview. "The Diversity of Work-Family Issues" (David…

  8. Social Class, Families and the Politics of Educational Advantage: The Work of Dennis Marsden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of Dennis Marsden's work. Looking at his oeuvre overall it is the family and intimate social relations and social class that are at the centre of his interests and analytical focus. Part of the power and effectiveness of his work was an ability to see families and their everyday lives in relation to social policy and…

  9. An Exploratory Study into Work/Family Balance within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Soma; Kluvers, Ron; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Vranic, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    The higher education landscape is undergoing major transformation, with a significant impact on the work and family practices of academics and professional staff. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the extent to which (1) time-related, (2) strain-related and (3) demographical variables impact on the work/family balance of academic

  10. Work and Family Responsibilities: Achieving a Balance. A Program Paper of the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The relationship between work and family is an issue of growing concern in the United States. The increasing participation of women in the labor force has created new demands for services, especially for low-income families, to offset women's dual responsibilities at work and home. This paper describes a Ford Foundation program to study the place…

  11. Work-Family Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover: Multilevel Contagion Effects of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John W.; Harrison, Michelle M.; Cleveland, Jeannette; Almeida, David; Stawski, Robert; Crouter, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work-family climate (operationalized in terms of three work-family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using…

  12. Balancing Work and Family Responsibilities as an Extension 4-H Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Joseph Richard, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A career with Extension can be very rewarding, but also very demanding, as employees have to balance job stress and time demands with family goals and demands. The very nature of Extension work brings some tension between the job and family, and employees need to be equipped to make decisions about personal and work time. If the Extension System

  13. Identification of a Dispositional Tendency to Experience Work-Family Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunae; Tay, Louis; Allen, Tammy D.; Stark, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Are individuals predisposed to experience work-family spillover? Despite theoretical relevance and practical implications related to this issue, research on this topic is scarce. With this in mind, we investigated if there is a dispositional tendency to experience work-family spillover using a nationally representative longitudinal sample. We…

  14. Youth from Low-Income Working Families. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Marla; Kuehn, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 6 in 10 low-income families have at least one adult who works full time throughout the year. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to describe the adolescent risk behaviors and the transition to adulthood for low-income youth from "high-work" families compared to low-income youth from…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Test of the Work-Family Interface in 48 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey Hill, E.; Yang, Chongming; Hawkins, Alan J.; Ferris, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This study tests a cross-cultural model of the work-family interface. Using multigroup structural equation modeling with IBM survey responses from 48 countries (N= 25,380), results show that the same work-family interface model that fits the data globally also fits the data in a four-group model composed of culturally related groups of countries,…

  16. A Comprehensive Approach to Refractory Mind-Body Disorders: Working at the Family-Community Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizur, Joel

    Dysfunctional relations between the family and other social systems usually play a part in maintaining refractory problems and chronic patienthood. Therapeutic interventions need to work at this interface, in order to create a collaborative team that will provide sufficient support to the family at risk. This way of working can be easily applied…

  17. Informal Caregiving at Working Age: Effects of Job Characteristics and Family Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henz, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between employment and providing informal care for sick, disabled, or elderly people in Great Britain. Hazard rate models for taking up caring and leaving work when caring are estimated using retrospective family, employment, and caring data from the British Family and Working Lives Survey 1994-1995 for…

  18. Social rights and employment rights related to family care: family care regimes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Frericks, Patricia; Jensen, Per H; Pfau-Effinger, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    In early welfare states, social rights predominantly derived from formal employment relations. Within the past two decades, however, some European countries have opened these social institutions to care work also. Cash-for-care and social entitlements for periods of at-home family caregiving have changed the characteristics of informal care work that family members traditionally provide to older relatives. Formerly based on unpaid kinship relations, it has changed towards new paid and more formalized forms of care work by family members. But it can be assumed that long-term care work by family members is constructed differently across welfare states. The paper is guided by the following research question: How do welfare-state policies differ in the degree to which their policies towards family care for senior citizens create social risks for the caring family members? We use the conceptual framework of "family care regimes" as our analytical framework for the comparative research. To do this, we compare care policies towards older care-needy people in the welfare states of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The findings show that a common feature in all three countries is that the situation of family carers is to some degree being formalized: in all three countries a frail senior citizen can chose a family member as the care provider, and the welfare states support the family care providers. Still, the legal situation as well as the quality and level of social rights for family caregivers differ considerably among the three countries. It is shown that the institutional framework for senior care by family members in Germany and the Netherlands represents a family care regime that supports semi-formal family care, and that in Denmark it can be classified as a family care regime that supports formal family care. We show that these different types of family care regimes differ considerably in the social risks they pose to family carers. PMID:24655674

  19. Head Start: Helping Families Move from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Belva; Blank, Helen; Poersch, Nicole Oxendine

    This report describes some of the ways in which Head Start agencies are helping to set parents on the path to self-sufficiency. The report is intended to illustrate the variety of initiatives that are underway and to highlight the important work all Head Start agencies are doing to support parents as they move from welfare to work. The

  20. Adolescent Work and Alcohol Use Revisited: Variations by Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocheleau, Gregory C.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research finds adolescent work hours to be associated with increased alcohol use. Most studies, however, fail to account for possible selection effects that lead youth to both work and substance use. Using data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 12,620), a fixed effects regression method…

  1. Thirty-Five Years of Studying Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    The author and Karen Gyllstrom began working on the study that resulted in the highly cited article entitled, "Working Men and Women: Inter-and Intra-role Conflict" (Herman & Gyllstrom, "Psychology of Women Quarterly" 1977) probably more for personal than professional reasons. The study was based on Gyllstrom's master's thesis. The focus of…

  2. Do procedural skills workshops during family practice residency work?

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Mark S.; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine if participation in a procedural skills workshop during family practice residency affects future use of these skills in postgraduate clinical practice. DESIGN Survey involving self-assessment of procedural skills experience and competence. SETTING British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS Former University of British Columbia family practice residents who trained in Vancouver, BC, including residents who participated in a procedural skills workshop in 2001 or 2003 and residents graduating in 2000 and 2002 who did not participate in the procedural skills workshop. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-assessed experience and competence in the 6 office-based procedural skills that were taught during the procedural skills workshops in 2001 and 2003. RESULTS Participation in a procedural skills workshop had no positive effect on future use of these skills in clinical practice. Participation in the workshop was associated with less reported experience (P = .091) in injection of lateral epicondylitis. As with previous Canadian studies, more women than men reported experience and competence in gynecologic procedures. More women than men reported experience (P = .001) and competence (P = .004) in intrauterine device insertion and experience (P = .091) in endometrial aspiration biopsy. More men than women reported competence (P = .052) in injection of trochanteric bursae. A third year of emergency training was correlated with an increase in reported experience (P = .021) in shoulder injection. CONCLUSION Participation in a procedural skills workshop during family practice residency did not produce a significant increase in the performance of these skills on the part of participants once they were in clinical practice. The benefit of a skills workshop might be lost when there is no opportunity to practise and perfect these skills. Sex bias in the case of some procedures might represent a needs-based acquisition of skills on the part of practising physicians. Short procedural skills workshops might be better suited to graduated physicians with more clinical experience. PMID:20705868

  3. Work and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Early Retirement in Married Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Hoonakker, Peter; Raymo, James M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an integrative model of early retirement using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The model extends prior work by incorporating work-family conflict to capture the interaction between the work and family domains and by assuming proximal and distal predictors of early retirement. More precisely, the model suggests that family and job demands and resources predict family-to-work and work-to-family conflict, respectively. All of these factors are presumed to have only indirect effects on retirement timing via the intervening effect of quality of life measures, that is, marital satisfaction, job satisfaction and health. The authors assume that these three factors constitute predictors of early retirement in addition to socioeconomic status and the availability of a pension plan and health insurance. The model was tested with structural equation modeling techniques, and the results were supportive. Therefore, the proposed model offers a general framework for the integration of previous research findings. PMID:21430790

  4. Work and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Early Retirement in Married Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Hoonakker, Peter; Raymo, James M

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an integrative model of early retirement using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The model extends prior work by incorporating work-family conflict to capture the interaction between the work and family domains and by assuming proximal and distal predictors of early retirement. More precisely, the model suggests that family and job demands and resources predict family-to-work and work-to-family conflict, respectively. All of these factors are presumed to have only indirect effects on retirement timing via the intervening effect of quality of life measures, that is, marital satisfaction, job satisfaction and health. The authors assume that these three factors constitute predictors of early retirement in addition to socioeconomic status and the availability of a pension plan and health insurance. The model was tested with structural equation modeling techniques, and the results were supportive. Therefore, the proposed model offers a general framework for the integration of previous research findings. PMID:21430790

  5. The Work-Family Interface as a Mediator between Job Demands and Employee Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jade S; Heneghan, Camille J; Bailey, Sarah F; Barber, Larissa K

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, we draw from the job demands-resource model and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between job demands, the work-family interface and worker behaviours. Data collected from an online survey of workers revealed that hindrance demands indirectly increase interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family and family interference with work. Challenge demands indirectly predict interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family. Finally, hindrance demands indirectly decreased individual-directed organizational citizenship behaviours through work-to-family enrichment. Taken together, these results stress the relevance of job demand management and resource drain/acquisition to counterproductive and extra-role behaviours. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24917073

  6. Managing Work and Family. Nonstandard Work Arrangements among Managers and Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalter-Roth, Roberta M.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Rasell, Edith; Cassirer, Naomi; Reskin, Barbara F.; Hudson, Ken; Webster, David; Appelbaum, Eileen; Dooley, Betty L.

    With more mothers in the work force and greater stresses created by competing demands of work and home, nonstandard work arrangements (NSWAs), which include temporary help agency work, on-call work, day labor, contract work, independent contracting, self-employment, and part-time work, have been suggested as a remedy for this conflict. For the…

  7. Work-Family Conflict: An Exploration of the Differential Effects of a Dependent Childs Age on Working Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Colette; McCarthy, Alma

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of life cycle stage, specifically parenting stage, on work-family conflict among working parents to determine whether discernible differences are evident among those individuals at the early stage of their parenting cycle compared with those with older children.…

  8. When Flexibility Helps: Another Look at the Availability of Flexible Work Arrangements and Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kristen M.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the positive press given to flexible work arrangements (FWA), empirical research investigating the link between the availability of these policies and work-family conflict is largely equivocal. The purpose of the present study was to begin to reconcile these mixed results through more precise measurement and the examination of moderators.…

  9. Work-Family Conflict: An Exploration of the Differential Effects of a Dependent Childs Age on Working Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Colette; McCarthy, Alma

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of life cycle stage, specifically parenting stage, on work-family conflict among working parents to determine whether discernible differences are evident among those individuals at the early stage of their parenting cycle compared with those with older children.

  10. Strengths and secondary trauma in family violence work.

    PubMed

    Bell, Holly

    2003-10-01

    The strengths perspective has been a unique contribution by the field of social work to the understanding of the helper-client relationship. This article explores the utility of the strengths perspective as a conceptual framework for research in a qualitative study of secondary trauma with counselors of battered women. An emphasis on strengths allowed the researcher to identify strategies and resources that prevented symptoms of secondary trauma in the majority of counselors. These strengths include a sense of competence about their coping, maintaining an objective motivation for their work, resolving their own personal traumas, drawing on early positive role models of coping, and having buffering personal beliefs. Implications for social work practice, education, and research are discussed. PMID:14620108

  11. Training family therapists to work with children and families: a modified Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Sori, Catherine Ford; Sprenkle, Douglas H

    2004-10-01

    This study examined child inclusion issues and training marriage and family therapists (MFTs) to treat children. This modified Delphi study utilized a panel of experts, and gathered data through questionnaires and qualitative interviews. Panelists believe children should participate in family therapy sessions for both child and adult problems, except when parents are discussing sex or sensitive issues. Child-focused courses should emphasize developmental issues, engaging techniques, theoretical issues, play therapy theory, MFT treatment for child disorders, and specific child/family problems. Panelists suggest numerous child-focused references, but reached consensus for only one. Key therapist attributes and skills were identified. Deductive and inductive training methods and the role of supervision were highlighted. Although therapist playfulness and creativity were emphasized, few play techniques were included in the final profile. PMID:15532255

  12. Too engaged? A conservation of resources view of the relationship between work engagement and work interference with family.

    PubMed

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Harvey, Jaron; Bolino, Mark C

    2009-11-01

    In a number of studies, researchers interested in positive organizational behavior have sought to better understand the favorable aspects of work engagement-a pervasive state of emotional attachment and motivation toward work. In this study, however, we investigate a potentially negative outcome of engagement. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that engagement will be associated with higher work interference with family due to the resources engaged employees may expend when they engage in extrarole work behavior such as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). We further propose that conscientiousness, as a personal resource, serves to buffer the relationship between OCB and work interference with family. Examining multisource data, collected at multiple points in time, from 3 diverse samples (total N = 844), we find that state engagement is associated with higher levels of work interference with family and that this relationship is mediated by the performance of OCBs. The findings also indicate that engaged employees who are highly conscientious experience lower levels of work interference with family than engaged employees who are less conscientious. The implications of our study and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:19916655

  13. Men's work and family lives in India: the daily organization of time and emotion.

    PubMed

    Larson, R; Verma, S; Dworkin, J

    2001-06-01

    This article examines daily patterns of work and family life for a sample of middle-class men in northern India. One hundred fathers of 8th graders provided information on their hour-to-hour time use and subjective states, by means of the experience sampling method. They reported little time spent on family work but substantial amounts of time with their children and thinking about their families. At their jobs, they reported high levels of attention but more negative emotion. By contrast, the home sphere elicited lower attention, more favorable affect, and more feeling of choice. Unlike for American samples, little relationship was found between experience at work and home, including little influence of men's work emotions on the family in the evening. These findings reflect how strong traditional family roles in India shape men's daily lives. PMID:11458629

  14. Serving Vulnerable Families: The Important Work of Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Yasmina

    2012-01-01

    The Obama Administration's most recent regulation on designation renewal of Early/Head Start grantees opens opportunities for early childhood programs in some communities to compete with existing grantees for the federal funding. Understanding some of the behind-the-scenes work that goes into Head Start may be helpful to centers deciding whether…

  15. Predictors of Negative Spillover from Family to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Jennie E. Long

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has inconsistently documented the gendered nature of negative spillover between the domains of home and work. Little is known about predictors of negative spillover for employed mothers and fathers. Using the 1997 wave of the National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study's purpose was twofold: to determine if a difference…

  16. New Parents at Work: Jobs, Families, and the Psychological Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrill, Carol; Kidd, Jennifer M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impact of policies, practices, and attitudes of employers toward new parents by interviews with seven women and six men who had recently returned to work after becoming first-time parents. Findings pointed to considerable differences in the attitudes of employers to the men and women. Discusses implications for organizational careers…

  17. Children and Families' Involvement in Social Work Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark; Hardy, Mark; Wilkinson, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This review summarises the research literature on children's and parents' involvement in social work decision making, which is regarded, in policy terms, as increasingly important. In practice, however, it tends to be messy, difficult and compromised. Different individuals or groups may have different understandings of participation and related…

  18. Families That Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornick, Janet C.; Meyers, Marcia K.

    2003-01-01

    Parents around the world grapple with the common challenge of balancing work and child care. Despite common problems, the industrialized nations have developed dramatically different social and labor market policies--policies that vary widely in the level of support they provide for parents and the extent to which they encourage an equal division…

  19. Women, Work, and Family: Dimensions of Change in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Frank L.; And Others

    The research presented in this volume considers a number of factors associated with women's participation in the labor market. These include the educational and training experiences of women now reaching adulthood, the rationales associated with work attachment during the early years of marriage, and the implications of marital breakdown and of…

  20. "Good Work Awards:" Effects on Children's Families. Technical Report #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Sherlyn; Mays, Violet

    This brief report describes parental reaction to a reinforcement strategy used with children in the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Staff members report that "Good Work Awards" (GWAs) are viewed favorably by mothers of students. GWAs are dittoed notes sent home with children when they have met a minimum criterion for daily classroom…

  1. Immigrant Women in Australia: Resources, Family, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, M. D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a broad overview of Australia's diverse immigrant population, with focus placed on the work experiences of females. Analyzes census data to describe the following characteristics more specifically: education, English proficiency, labor force involvement, occupational niche, unemployment, entrepreneurship, and income. Reports that, with a

  2. Knowledge Work, Working Time, and Use of Time among Finnish Dual-Earner Families: Does Knowledge Work Require the Marginalization of Private Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Tammelin, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The industrial working-time regime is dissolving--not dramatically, but rather as a trend. A new trend is that those in dynamic sectors and in a good labor market position work long hours: Demanding knowledge work appears to require the marginalization of private life. This study investigates the family situation of knowledge workers, the

  3. Knowledge Work, Working Time, and Use of Time among Finnish Dual-Earner Families: Does Knowledge Work Require the Marginalization of Private Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Tammelin, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The industrial working-time regime is dissolving--not dramatically, but rather as a trend. A new trend is that those in dynamic sectors and in a good labor market position work long hours: Demanding knowledge work appears to require the marginalization of private life. This study investigates the family situation of knowledge workers, the…

  4. Work-Family Supportiveness Organizational Perceptions: Important for the Well-Being of Male Blue-Collar Hourly Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandey, Alicia A.; Cordeiro, Bryanne L.; Michael, Judd H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study questions whether organizational perceptions of family supportiveness predict work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction for an atypical sample of male hourly workers in a manufacturing organization, and whether those relationships depend on work (number of work hours) and family (number of family roles) demands. A…

  5. Predictors of Family Strength: The Integrated Spiritual-Religious/Resilient Perspective for Understanding the Healthy/Strong Family

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Majid; Fatehizade, Maryam; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Vahid; Baghban, Iran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of spiritual well-being and family protective factors on the family strength in a propositional structural model. Methods: The research population consisted of all the married people of the Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 with preschool-aged children and in the first decade of marriage with at least eight grades of educational level. Three hundred and ninety five voluntary and unpaid participants were selected randomly through multi-stage sampling from seven regions of the city. The instruments used were the Spiritual Well-being Scale, Inventory of Family Protective Factors, and Family Strength Scale. Descriptive statistics and a structural equation modeling analytic approach were used. Results: The analytic model predicted 82% of the variance of the family strength. The total effect of the spiritual well-being on the family strength was higher compared to the family protective factors. Furthermore, spiritual well-being predicted 43% of the distribution of the family protective factors and had indirect effect on the family strength through the family protective factors (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the interrelationships among spiritual well-being and family protective factors, and their simultaneous effects on family strength. Family counselors may employ an integrated spiritual-religious/resilient perspective to inform their strength-based work with individuals and their families. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644511

  6. Development and initial validation of a measure of work, family, and school conflict.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kristine J

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the development and initial validation of a theoretically based measure of conflict between work, family, and college student roles. The measure was developed through the assessment of construct definitions and an assessment of measurement items by subject matter experts. Then, the measurement items were assessed with data from 500 college students who were engaged in work and family responsibilities. The results indicate that conflict between work, family, and school are effectively measured by 12 factors assessing the direction of conflict (e.g., work-to-school conflict, and school-to-work conflict) as well as the form of conflict (i.e., time, strain, and behavior based conflict). Sets of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the 12 factors of the new measure are distinct from the 6 factors of the Carlson, Kacmar, and Williams (2000) work-family conflict measure. Criterion validity of the measure was established through a series of regression analyses testing hypothesized relationships between antecedent and outcome variables with role conflict. Results indicate that role demand was a robust predictor of role conflict. To extend the literature, core self-evaluations and emotional stability were established as predictors of role conflict. Further, work, family, and school role satisfaction were significantly impacted with the presence of role conflict between work, family, and school. PMID:24447220

  7. Social Class, Work and the Family: Some Implications of the Father's Occupation for Familial Relationships and Sons' Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of both vertical and nonvertical dimensions of fathers' work on family relations and vocational socialization are explored through a multivariate analysis of data from several hundred male participants in the 1962-1967 Michigan Student Study. Closeness to father emerged as an important, structurally-related intervening variable.…

  8. Social Class, Work, and the Family: Some Implications of the Father's Occupation for Familial Relationships and Sons' Career Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    The effects of both vertical and nonvertical dimensions of fathers' work on family relations and vocational socialization are explored through a multivariate analysis of data collected from several hundred male student participants enrolled in a Michigan College from 1962-1967. Social class and occupationally-related differences in family…

  9. Infant Care Arrangements and Maternal Well Being among Low-Income Non-Migrant Families and Migrant Farm Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, D.; Kossek, E. E.; Barratt, M.

    2004-01-01

    As parents rely on an increasingly complex patchwork of care giving arrangements, one aspect of children's early care experiences that may be associated with both children's and parent's well being is the complexity of the child care arrangements. Participants in a low-income sample and in a migrant farm working family sample participated in

  10. Women in orthodontics and work-family balance: challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sarah; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam; Keenan, Louanne

    2012-01-01

    The number of women entering the orthodontic profession over the past few decades has increased dramatically. A review of the literature revealed the lack of research on achieving a work-family balance among female dentists and dental specialists. Work-family balance has been researched more extensively in the field of medicine; however, despite some critical differences, parallels between these 2 professions exist. This study identified issues that Canadian female orthodontists face and strategies they use to achieve a work-family balance. A phenomenological qualitative study was used to analyze the results of semi-structured telephone interviews of a purposive sample of 13 Canadian female orthodontists. The results strongly support the role-conflict theory about the competing pressures of maternal and professional roles. Female orthodontists described their challenges and strategies to minimize role conflict in their attempt to achieve a work-family balance. The women defined balance as having success and satisfaction in both their family life and professional life. They identified specific challenges of achieving a work-family balance that are unique to orthodontic practice and strategies for adapting to their maternal and professional roles. Achieving a work-family balance is of paramount importance to female orthodontists, and the results of this study may be applied to other specialties in dentistry. PMID:22770247

  11. Coping with work and family: how do dual-earners interact?

    PubMed

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Juggling the demands of both work and family has become increasingly difficult, especially for dual-earner households; nevertheless, families have developed strategies to deal with work-family challenges. This paper uses couple level analyses (APIM models) with 100 dual-earner couples to provide insight about partners' mutual influence on the use of work-family coping strategies. The results show that women's use of coping strategies is more associated with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment than men's coping. In addition, using partner coping, having a positive attitude towards multiple roles, using planning and management skills and avoiding having to cut back on professional responsibilities is associated with better outcomes (more enrichment and less conflict). Surprisingly, the use of childcare facilities is associated with women's conflict and partner effects were only found concerning the use of management and planning skills. These skills, however, have distinct effects for men and women's outcomes: their use by men reduces their own conflict but increases their wives', while their use by women decreases their own conflict and increases their own and their partner's enrichment. These results point to the fact that gender roles continue to be a hallmark of work-family issues. Our design and results point out the need for new interventions that take couple interdependences into account. PMID:25600426

  12. Spending Time: The Impact of Hours Worked on Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Cheryl L.; Premeaux, Sonya F.

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have long assumed that as workers spend more time at work fewer hours are available for their non-work lives leading to negative effects in both domains, and most studies examining the impact of work hours on work and life domains have supported this viewpoint. However, the majority of these studies have used one-dimensional measures of…

  13. Experiences of family therapists working with families in a transitional homeless community.

    PubMed

    Harris-McKoy, DeAnna E; Woods, Sarah B; Brantley, Cicely W; Farineau, Heather M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and observations of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) conducting an empirically supported parenting program at a transitional homeless community. A diary method was used in recording five MFTs' observations and reactions to implementing the psychoeducational groups. Fifty-one recordings were collected from three different parenting groups over the course of 20 weeks. Constant comparative method was used to identify themes related to MFTs' experiences of conducting the parenting program. These themes included the needs of at-risk families, confidentiality, and role ambivalence and boundary ambiguity. We provide recommendations for best practices and an example of therapists' decision-making process using Kitchener's (1984) model. PMID:24372187

  14. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13336

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive skills can lead to a better understanding of children's long run outcomes. This paper uses a large dataset on the male

  15. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13336

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive skills can lead to a better understanding of children's long run outcomes. This paper uses a large dataset on the male…

  16. Employers' Roundtable on Work and Family Issues: A Directory of Metro-Denver Employers' Involvement in Work and Family Programs and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Office of the Governor, Denver.

    In 1989, a group of employer representatives in the Denver metropolitan area formed an employers' roundtable to address work and family issues. A survey developed by the roundtable was sent to employers in the Denver area in 1992. This directory compiles the results of the survey. Section 1 of the directory summarizes employers' efforts to provide…

  17. The State of Working Arkansas: How Families are Faring in the Booming Economy. A Special Report from the Arkansas Working Families Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Rich; Duran, Angela

    Using a wide array of government data, this report examines the impact of the 1990s economy and other developments on the living standards of Arkansas's working families and their children. Information is provided on: (1) unemployment rates by geographic region, educational level, and race; (2) employment and average weekly earnings by industry…

  18. Considering the Role of Personality in the Work-Family Experience: Relationships of the Big Five to Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Julie Holliday; Musisca, Nicholas; Fleeson, William

    2004-01-01

    Using a national, random sample (N=2130), we investigated the relationship between each of the Big Five personality traits and conflict and facilitation between work and family roles. Extraversion was related to greater facilitation between roles but was not related to conflict, whereas neuroticism was related to greater conflict but only weakly…

  19. [To develop the family planning work deeply through following the working method of "taking three as the keys"].

    PubMed

    1982-11-29

    In recent years family planning work in China's Rongcheng County has been accomplished through "sudden attacks" on the problem, and although these concentrated work efforts have been successful, nevertheless there have been deleterious effects, e.g., a drain on the leadership such that work is affected, overburdened hospital workloads that lead to surgical mistakes, and pressure on the people's spirits. In order to ameliorate the situation, longterm planning was proposed in 1981 "to take three as the keys," i.e., to take propaganda education as the key in its relationship to economic measures, to take birth control as the key in its relationship to abortion, and to take longterm work as the key in its relationship to shortterm work. In 1981 Roncheng County increased its propaganda education efforts by making family planning the subject of numerous meetings, radio broadcasts, recordings, posters, and drama. It also emphasized positive education (i.e., teaching the good qualities of life conduct) and commended good people and good deeds. Family planning work also strengthened political education, making people aware of the policy of 1 child per family. Due to a sudden rise in unplanned 2nd pregnancies in Roncheng County, the number of abortions was high, so scientific knowledge of contraceptive use was widely disseminated to all fertile women. In order to make family planning function on a continous basis, one must grasp surely and carefully the primary work of organizations at all levels and be systematic in follow-ups. The results of "taking three as the keys" include: for the first 6 months of 1982 the single child rate was 95.63%; contraceptive use was more effective, causing the abortion rate to drop 10.3% from a comparable period in 1981; and 99.52% of 1-child-couples applied for Single Child Certificates. PMID:12159366

  20. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they

  1. Marriage and Family Therapists Working with Couples Who Have Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisch, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Current research about families and couples who have children with autism is discussed using the Double ABCX model as a guide. A case study is presented along with recommendations for therapists who work with couples who have children with autism. Marriage and family therapists are encouraged to use the Double ABCX model as both an assessment tool

  2. Multicultural Considerations: Working with Families of Developmentally Disabled and High Risk Children. The Hispanic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rocio DeMateo

    The paper first points out how important it is for professionals who work with families and infants with developmental problems to be aware of ethnic and cultural differences, and then goes on to discuss some values typically held by Hispanic Americans. Professionals should understand the family's immigration history and status in order to know…

  3. Cultural and Ethnic Awareness Manual for Professionals Working with Mexican-American Migrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Jose R.

    Intended as a tool for personnel in the helping professions who work with Chicano migrant families and have little or nor prior knowledge of their culture or history, the manual presents a historical and cultural perspective of the Mexican American migrant families. The six units cover Mexican American history, cultural awareness, Mexican American…

  4. The Impact of Caregiving on Employment: A Mediational Model of Work-Family Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac, Monique A. M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 396 women and 316 men with caregiving responsibilities showed that eldercare significantly interfered with women's jobs, but not with men's. Family responsibilities were related to women's job dissatisfaction and absenteeism. Work's interference with family was associated with job costs for both genders and with job…

  5. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…

  6. The Impact of Public Housing Policy on Family Social Work Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…

  7. The Family-Relatedness of Work Decisions: A Framework and Agenda for Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to global trends such as the increased labor force participation of women, the growing presence of dual-earner couples and single parents in the labor force, and changing values regarding the importance of life balance, individuals' work decisions are being increasingly influenced by family considerations. However, the "family-relatedness" of

  8. Deterioration of Child Welfare Families under Conditions of Welfare Reform. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kathleen; Guo, Shenyang; Shafran, Robert D.; Pearlmutter, Susan

    At the time the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P. L. 104-193) was being debated, some child welfare advocates raised the concern that its effect on families at high risk of involvement in the child welfare system or on families already involved in the child welfare system would be negative. As the debate…

  9. College and University Reference Guide to Work-Family Programs. Report on a Collaborative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.; And Others

    This report summarizes findings of a study that assessed current levels of support for family friendly programs at colleges and universities in the United States. Analysis of the survey data text and tables is presented in four sections that define purpose and methodology, historical context, provide profiles of various work-family initiatives,…

  10. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a

  11. Poetry Therapy: A Framework and Synthesis of Techniques for Family Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Nicholas

    1996-01-01

    The conjunction of poetry therapy and family social work is briefly discussed with respect to philosophical, theoretical, and professional issues. Noting the scope of poetry therapy, fourteen techniques applied to family therapy are examined. The limitations of poetry therapy and new directions for practice and research are noted. (KW)

  12. The Family-Relatedness of Work Decisions: A Framework and Agenda for Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to global trends such as the increased labor force participation of women, the growing presence of dual-earner couples and single parents in the labor force, and changing values regarding the importance of life balance, individuals' work decisions are being increasingly influenced by family considerations. However, the "family-relatedness" of…

  13. The Use of Non-Verbal and Body Movement Techniques in Working with Families with Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an experiential-educational approach to families with infants integrating dance and movement therapy with family therapy theories and techniques. Nonverbal techniques are the only possible methods of working directly with infants present with their parents in these workshops. The focus is on negotiations and exchanges of feelings in…

  14. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  15. Marriage and Family Therapists Working with Couples Who Have Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisch, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Current research about families and couples who have children with autism is discussed using the Double ABCX model as a guide. A case study is presented along with recommendations for therapists who work with couples who have children with autism. Marriage and family therapists are encouraged to use the Double ABCX model as both an assessment tool…

  16. Observations of a Working Class Family: Implications for Self-Regulated Learning Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Guardians have been implicated in the development of children's academic self-regulation. In this case study, which involved naturalistic observations and interviews, the everyday practices of a working class family were considered in the context of self-regulated learning development. The family's practices, beliefs, dispositions and home…

  17. Rewarding the Work of Individuals: A Counterintuitive Approach to Reducing Poverty and Strengthening Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon L.

    2007-01-01

    Gordon Berlin discusses the nation's long struggle to reduce poverty in families with children, and proposes a counterintuitive solution--rewarding the work of individuals. He notes that policymakers' difficulty in reducing family poverty since 1973 is attributable to two intertwined problems--falling wages among low-skilled workers and the…

  18. The Interaction of Family, Community, and Work in the Socialization of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    A study examined the influences that family, community, and work exert on the youth-to-adulthood transition as well as the dynamics of their interaction. Similarities and differences among the youth-to-adulthood transition as it occurs in the United States, Japan, and West Germany were identified. It was concluded that the links among family,…

  19. Distance Education in Social Work: An Evaluation of an Undergraduate Course on Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine Ann; Baynton, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Social work is a discipline that emphasizes personal contact and has traditionally been taught face-to-face. This paper examines whether online learning is appropriate for educating social workers about family violence. It describes a newly-developed online course in family violence and evaluates its effectiveness. Two surveys of the class and an…

  20. Balancing Work and Family: A Panel Analysis of the Impact of Part-Time Work on the Experience of Time Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurijssen, Ilse; Glorieux, Ignace

    2013-01-01

    In this article we consider the consequences of work-family reconciliation, in terms of the extent to which the adjustment of the labour market career to family demands (by women) contributes to a better work-life balance. Using the Flemish SONAR-data, we analyse how changes in work and family conditions between the age of 26 and 29 are related to…

  1. Balancing Work and Family: A Panel Analysis of the Impact of Part-Time Work on the Experience of Time Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurijssen, Ilse; Glorieux, Ignace

    2013-01-01

    In this article we consider the consequences of work-family reconciliation, in terms of the extent to which the adjustment of the labour market career to family demands (by women) contributes to a better work-life balance. Using the Flemish SONAR-data, we analyse how changes in work and family conditions between the age of 26 and 29 are related to

  2. Working with Adolescents: A Guide for Practitioners. Social Work Practice with Children and Families Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laser, Julie Anne; Nicotera, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This state-of-the-art practitioner resource and course text provides a comprehensive view of adolescent development and spells out effective ways to help teens who are having difficulties. The book illuminates protective and risk factors in the many contexts of adolescents' lives, from individual attributes to family, school, neighborhood, and…

  3. Working with Adolescents: A Guide for Practitioners. Social Work Practice with Children and Families Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laser, Julie Anne; Nicotera, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This state-of-the-art practitioner resource and course text provides a comprehensive view of adolescent development and spells out effective ways to help teens who are having difficulties. The book illuminates protective and risk factors in the many contexts of adolescents' lives, from individual attributes to family, school, neighborhood, and

  4. Managing Home and Work Responsibilities. Learning Guide 9. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide is designed to connect personal, family, and job responsibilities for adults and out-of-school youth in economically depressed areas of the state (including transitional ex-offenders and corrections populations) so that these individuals learn to manage and balance these aspects of their lives in order to prepare for or…

  5. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents…

  6. Family Interference with Work and Workplace Cognitive Failure: The Mitigating Role of Recovery Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapierre, Laurent M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Murphy, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to test whether family interference with work (FIW) is positively related to increased workplace cognitive failure (WCF), which is defined as errors made at work that indicate lapses in memory (e.g., failing to recall work procedures), attention (e.g., not fully listening to instruction), and motor function (e.g.,…

  7. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working... Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies For many years, middle-class Americans have been working harder, yet not enjoying their fair...

  8. Women Leaders in High-Poverty Community Schools: Work-Related Stress and Family Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of women administrators in high-poverty community schools, investigating four women's perspectives on work demands and the impact on their families. Their work demands are related to the characteristics of impoverished communities, whereas their work resources are based on intrinsic rewards and…

  9. Poverty Trends for Families Headed by Working Single Mothers, 1993-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kathryn H.; Dupree, Allen

    This analysis examines poverty in families headed by working single mothers, addressing whether and to what degree their economic situations have improved. It investigates the effect of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which moved single mothers from welfare to work. Poverty data from the annual Census…

  10. Shortages in Professions Working with Young Children with Disabilities and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebbeler, Kathleen

    This paper synthesizes information about shortages among the professions working with young children with disabilities, birth through age 5, and their families. The paper begins with a look at national data on personnel working in early intervention and preschool special education. Distinctions between the work force in early intervention (Part H…

  11. Tethered to work: A family systems approach linking mobile device use to turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Boswell, Wendy; Whitten, Dwayne; Butts, Marcus M; Kacmar, K Michele Micki

    2016-04-01

    We examined the use of a mobile device for work during family time (mWork) to determine the role that it plays in employee turnover intentions. Using a sample of 344 job incumbents and their spouses, we propose a family systems model of turnover and examine 2 paths through which we expect mWork to relate to turnover intentions: the job incumbent and the spouse. From the job incumbent, we found that the job incumbent's mWork associated with greater work-to-family conflict and burnout, and lower organizational commitment. From the spouse, we found that incumbent mWork and greater work-to-family conflict associated with increased resentment by the spouse and lower spousal commitment to the job incumbent's organization. Both of these paths played a role in predicting job incumbent turnover intentions. We discuss implications and opportunities for future research on mWork for integrating work and family into employee turnover intentions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653530

  12. Work-family boundary strategies: Stability and alignment between preferred and enacted boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ammons, Samantha K.

    2015-01-01

    Are individuals bounding work and family the way they would like? Much of the work-family boundary literature focuses on whether employees are segmenting or integrating work with family, but does not explore the boundaries workers would like to have, nor does it examine the fit between desired and enacted boundaries, or assess boundary stability. In this study, 23 respondents employed at a large Fortune 500 company were interviewed about their work-family boundaries before and after their teams underwent a cultural change initiative that sought to loosen workplace norms and allow employees more autonomy to decide when and where they performed their job tasks. Four distinct boundary strategies emerged from the data, with men and parents of young children having better alignment between preferred and enacted boundaries than women and those without these caregiving duties. Implications for boundary theory and research are discussed. PMID:25620801

  13. Work-family Conflict and Alcohol Use: Examination of a Moderated Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension-reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23480251

  14. Understanding the Impact of New Technology on Life and Work. Learning Guide 12. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide on understanding the impact of new technology on life and work is part of a series of learning guides developed for competency-based adult consumer and homemaking education programs in community colleges, adult education centers, community centers, and the workplace. Focus is on the connections among personal, family, and job…

  15. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings. PMID:21728437

  16. The Exchange Relationship between Work-Family Enrichment and Affective Commitment: the Moderating Role of Gender.

    PubMed

    Marques, António Manuel; Chambel, Maria José; Pinto, Inês

    2015-01-01

    Workers' perception that their job experience enriches their family life has been considered a mechanism that explains their positive attitudes toward the organization where they work. However, because women and men live their work and family differently, gender may condition this relationship between the work-family enrichment and workers' attitudes. With a sample of 1885 workers from one Portuguese bank, with 802 women, the current study investigated the relationship between work-family enrichment and organizational affective commitment as well as the role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. The hypotheses were tested by using regression analysis. The results indicated that the perception held by workers that their work enriches their family is positively correlated with their affective commitment toward the organization. Furthermore, the data revealed that this relationship is stronger for women than for men. Study results have implications for management, particularly for human resource management, enhancing their knowledge about the relationship of work-family enrichment and workers' affective commitment toward organization. PMID:26037591

  17. Opportunity for interaction? A naturalistic observation study of dual-earner families after work and school.

    PubMed

    Campos, Belinda; Graesch, Anthony P; Repetti, Rena; Bradbury, Thomas; Ochs, Elinor

    2009-12-01

    Everyday patterns of interaction can strengthen or undermine bonds between family members. This naturalistic observation study focused on an understudied facet of family life: opportunities for interaction among dual-earner family members after work and family members' responses to these opportunities. Thirty dual-earner couples and their children were observed and video-recorded in their homes throughout two weekday afternoons and evenings. Two interaction opportunities were analyzed: (1) the behavior of family members toward a parent returning home from work and (2) the physical proximity of family members throughout the evening. Three main findings emerged. Women, who tended to return home before men, were greeted with positive behavior and reports of the day's information from family members. Men, in contrast, returned home later in the day and received positive behavior or no acknowledgment from family members distracted by other activities. Throughout the evening, mothers spent more time with children whereas fathers spent more time alone. Couples were seldom together without their children. The implications of observed interaction patterns and the contribution of naturalistic observation methods to the study of family relationships are discussed. PMID:20001138

  18. Consequences of boundary-spanning demands and resources for work-to-family conflict and perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2005-10-01

    Using work-family border theory, this article examines relationships between boundary-spanning demands and resources and work-to-family conflict and perceived stress. The analysis uses data from 2,109 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce. The demands that were positively related to work-to-family conflict and perceived stress were commuting time, bringing work home, job contacts at home, and work-family multitasking. Work-family multitasking partially explained the effects of bringing work home and job contacts at home on conflict and stress. For resources, time off for family responsibilities and a supportive work-family culture showed negative associations with conflict and stress. Work-to-family conflict partially mediated relationships between several demands and resources and perceived stress. PMID:16248695

  19. Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions, Multiple Dimensions of Work-Family Conflict, and Employee Satisfaction: A Test of Model across Five Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapierre, Laurent M.; Spector, Paul E.; Allen, Tammy D.; Poelmans, Steven; Cooper, Cary L.; O'Driscoll, Michael P.; Sanchez, Juan I.; Brough, Paula; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Using samples of managers drawn from five Western countries, we tested a theoretical model linking employees' perceptions of their work environment's family-supportiveness to six different dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC), and to their job satisfaction, family satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Our results are consistent with a causal…

  20. Value attainment: an explanation for the negative effects of work-family conflict on job and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Perrewé, P L; Hochwarter, W A; Kiewitz, C

    1999-10-01

    Perceptions of work interfering with family life and family issues interfering with work are examined as 2 distinct constructs representing work-family conflict. Experienced work-family conflict is argued to reduce one's value attainment which, in turn, lowers both job and life satisfaction. This study examines value attainment as a mediating variable in the work-family conflict and satisfaction relationship. Responses from 270 hotel managers indicate that value attainment either partially or fully mediates the relationship between work interference with family and family interference with work and both job and life satisfaction. Value attainment is argued to be a meaningful explanatory variable for the negative relationship between work-family conflict and job-life satisfaction. PMID:10526836

  1. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  2. Group Work with Adolescents: Principles and Practice. Second Edition. Social Work Practice with Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekoff, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This popular text provides essential knowledge and skills for conducting creative, strengths-based group work with adolescents. A rich introduction to the field, enlivened by numerous illustrations from actual sessions, the book provides principles and guidelines for practice in a wide range of settings. The book covers all phases of group work,…

  3. The impact of the Massachusetts health care reform on unpaid medical bills.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Alejandro

    2013-08-01

    The Massachusetts health care reform was expected to reduce the financial burden of medical care, but literature exploring this effect is limited. In this study, we use hospital financial information and a panel data difference-in-difference model to assess the impact of the Massachusetts health care reform on unpaid medical bills. We find that the reform reduced the financial burden for patients, reflected by a 26percent decrease in hospital bad debt. The effect was more pronounced among safety-net hospitals, indicating a larger benefit for the most vulnerable population. PMID:25117084

  4. Work-family conflict and well-being in university employees.

    PubMed

    Winefield, Helen R; Boyd, Carolyn; Winefield, Anthony H

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first reported studies to have reviewed the role of work-family conflict in university employees, both academic and nonacademic. The goal of this research was to examine the role of work-family conflict as a mediator of relationships between features of the work environment and worker well-being and organizational outcomes. A sample of 3,326 Australian university workers responded to an online survey. Work-family conflict added substantially to the explained variance in physical symptoms and psychological strain after taking account of job demands and control, and to a lesser extent to the variance in job performance. However, it had no extra impact on organizational commitment, which was most strongly predicted by job autonomy. Despite differing in workloads and work-family conflict, academic ("faculty") and nonacademic staff demonstrated similar predictors of worker and organizational outcomes. Results suggest two pathways through which management policies may be effective in improving worker well-being and productivity: improving job autonomy has mainly direct effects, while reducing job demands is mediated by consequent reductions in work-family conflict. PMID:25175890

  5. 45 CFR 286.95 - What, if any, are the special rules concerning counting work for two-parent families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... counting work for two-parent families? 286.95 Section 286.95 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public....95 What, if any, are the special rules concerning counting work for two-parent families? Parents in a two-parent family may share the number of hours required to be considered as engaged in work....

  6. Fathers' and Mothers' Work and Family Issues as Related to Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior of Children Attending Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Margaret S.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between work and family variables and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior are examined in 132 dual-earner couples of preschool-age children. Mothers' and fathers' parenting stress and mothers' work-family conflict predict children's internalizing behavior; mothers' work-family conflict, mothers' and fathers' parenting

  7. Work and family conflict in academic science: patterns and predictors among women and men in research universities.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary Frank; Fonseca, Carolyn; Bao, Jinghui

    2011-10-01

    This article addresses work-family conflict as reported among women and men academic scientists in data systematically collected across fields of study in nine US research universities. Arguing that academic science is a particularly revealing case for studying work-family conflict, the article addresses: (1) the bi-directional conflict of work with family, and family with work, reported among the scientists; (2) the ways that higher, compared with lower, conflict, is predicted by key features of family, academic rank, and departments/institutions; and (3) patterns and predictors of work-family conflict that vary, as well as converge, by gender. Results point to notable differences, and commonalties, by gender, in factors affecting interference in both directions of work-family conflict reported by scientists. These findings have implications for understandings of how marriage and children, senior compared with junior academic rank, and departmental climates shape work-family conflict among women and men in US academic science. PMID:22164721

  8. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard

  9. Las obreras: Chicana Politics of Work and Family. Aztlan Anthology Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Vicki L., Ed.

    In this anthology, Chicana voices of the past and present illuminate the experiences of Mexican American women as they strive to integrate wage work, family life, and community engagement. Sections cover confrontations with the state through community action, court litigation, and union organizing; negotiating work, marriage, and children; stories…

  10. Traditional and Nontraditional Gender Roles and Work-Family Interface for Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine traditional and nontraditional gender roles and work-family interface for men and women. Recent empirical literature is reviewed and implications for career counselors are discussed. We discuss changing gender roles in career, marriage, and parenting and provide strategies for helping clients to cope with work-family…

  11. Shift Work, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Socioemotional Well-Being: A Within-Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    Many U.S. employees with children work nonstandard hours, yet we know little about the linkages among maternal shift schedules, mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, and children's socioemotional outcomes. In a sample of 55 dual-earner families with children age 8 to 14 years and mothers working day versus evening shifts, the authors found…

  12. Work and Career Experiences of Men from Families without College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodside, Marianne; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Davison, John; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of research exists exploring the career and work development of adult men and the influence of family-of-origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the researchers used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of men whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family…

  13. Implications of Shift Work for Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Dual-Earner Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the implications of shift work for parent-adolescent relationship quality--intimacy, conflict, parental knowledge, and involvement--in a sample of 376 dual-earner families. The findings suggested that mothers' relationships with their adolescents were not negatively impacted by their working nonstandard schedules but…

  14. Family, Work, and School Influences on the Decision to Enter the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined correlates of enlistment of young men in military. Focused on all volunteer force, paying attention to effects of work, school, and family roles on enlistment. Work and school enrollment significantly reduced likelihood of enlisting in military for whites but not for African Americans. Marriage and parenthood did not affect likelihood of…

  15. Shift Work, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Socioemotional Well-Being: A Within-Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    Many U.S. employees with children work nonstandard hours, yet we know little about the linkages among maternal shift schedules, mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, and children's socioemotional outcomes. In a sample of 55 dual-earner families with children age 8 to 14 years and mothers working day versus evening shifts, the authors found

  16. Relationships between Parental Attachment, Work and Family Roles, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment and satisfaction with work and family roles, as well as the relationship of these variables to life satisfaction. Results from a multiple regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with work and marriage, but not parenting satisfaction or parental…

  17. School Social Work and Early Childhood Student's Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Paige E.; Hegde, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the attitudes of school professionals in training at an American university toward homosexuality and their comfort, action-related disposition, and preparation to work with gay and lesbian (GL) families and their children. Fifty-nine students specializing in birth through kindergarten education and school social work

  18. Building Cultural Competence for Work with Diverse Families: Strategies from the Privileged Side.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Marty

    2001-01-01

    A model of social work education for undergraduates from primarily privileged backgrounds links postmodern perspectives of cultural competence, diversity, social constructionism, and a generalist strengths-based orientation for work with families. Four steps for helping students recognize the role of culture in generating a worldview and develop a

  19. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  20. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Perceived Family Well-Being, and Daily Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly D.; Goodman, W. Benjamin; Pirretti, Amy E.; Almeida, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Data from two studies assessed the effects of nonstandard work schedules on perceived family well-being and daily stressors. Study 1, using a sample of employed, married adults aged 25-74 (n = 1,166) from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States, showed that night work was associated with perceptions of greater marital instability,