Science.gov

Sample records for unpaid family work

  1. Defining Disability for Women and the Problem of Unpaid Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisine, Susan T.; Fifield, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses political, theoretical, and methodological issues in defining and measuring paid and unpaid work disability. Presents results of study analyzing disability in paid work and unpaid family work among 206 women with rheumatoid arthritis, demonstrating feasibility of measuring disability in family work and showing that women experience…

  2. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. PMID:26421997

  3. Paid Work and Unpaid Work: Diary Information Versus Questionnaire Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonke, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. Data from the Danish Time Use Survey 2001 thus indicate differences in the level of unpaid work, whereas only minor differences appear for paid work. That is: people reporting many hours of paid work tend to…

  4. The Influence of Unpaid Work on the Transition out of Full-Time Paid Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Dawn C.; Kail, Ben Lennox

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Continued employment after retirement and engagement in unpaid work are both important ways of diminishing the negative economic effects of the retirement of baby boomer cohorts on society. Little research, however, examines the relationship between paid and unpaid work at the transition from full-time work. Using a resource perspective…

  5. Output-Related Evaluations of Unpaid Household Work: A Challenge for Time Use Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt-Clermont, Luisella

    1983-01-01

    Reviews monetary evaluations of unpaid household work, taking as a starting point the output of household productive activity. Outlines possibilities for further developments and desirable characteristics of such evaluations. (JOW)

  6. Overlooked, overworked: women's unpaid and paid work in the health services' "cost crisis".

    PubMed

    Glazer, N Y

    1988-01-01

    Dewaging shifts work from the marketplace to the household. The shift seems a short-term strategy used by capitalists, governmental policy-makers, and managers to reduce the wage bill for service workers in such areas as schooling, retailing, health services, and banking. In health services, the expansion of women's unpaid nursing in the household and a new labor process among paid nursing workers are necessary for new corporate and federal cost-containment strategies. Registered and licensed nurses, nurse's assistants and aides see their jobs eliminated, expanded, or moved from one work site to another. Increased use of outpatient clinics, in-and-out hospital stays of less than one day, and shortened hospital stays mean sick people in their homes, not hospitals. The work of caring for the sick does not disappear, however, though people may go without. Much nursing work is shifted to patients and to their families, and even to friends and neighbors. Within the family, women's unwaged work is central, supporting the new labor process among paid nurses. Wives, mothers, daughters, friends, etc., do the work once done for pay in clinics and hospitals. PMID:3346113

  7. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  8. Models of Time Use in Paid and Unpaid Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujot, Roderic; Liu, Jianye

    2005-01-01

    Models of time use need to consider especially the reproductive and productive activities of women and men. For husband-wife families, the breadwinner, one-earner, or complementary-roles model has advantages in terms of efficiency or specialization and stability; however, it is a high-risk model for women and children. The alternate model has been…

  9. Worker Control as the Missing Link: Relations between Paid/Unpaid Work and Work-Related Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, David W.

    2001-01-01

    In a Canadian survey of informal learning (n=1,562) and a follow-up (n=328), unpaid work, informal learning, and job-related learning were extensive. Despite considerable underemployment, respondents still pursued learning that prepared them for work. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  10. Women's paid/unpaid work and health: exploring the social context of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Angus, J

    1994-01-01

    Literature from various disciplines was reviewed to obtain a description of the working lives of Canadian women. This analysis drew on the work of Smith (1987, 1990) and other feminist and critical theorist authors who have argued that much of women's work remains invisible and undervalued. Patterns of normative thought or social ideology may obscure the extent and value of women's contributions. It is suggested here that an "ideology of separate spheres" operates in the designation of paid activity in the public sphere as work, whereas activities pursued in the private sphere of the home are overlooked. It is further argued that women's heavy involvement in unpaid activities that support and sustain others results in a state of lesser citizenship, and women's own prerequisites of health are often compromised. Women's work often takes place outside the formal economy, within a "shadow" or subsistence economy (Illich, 1981) which is essential for the continued health of others. PMID:7788588

  11. Labor Market Work and Home Care's Unpaid Caregivers: A Systematic Review of Labor Force Participation Rates, Predictors of Labor Market Withdrawal, and Hours of Work

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for “intensive” caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers. PMID:18070333

  12. Un/Paid Labor: Medicaid Home and Community Based Services Waivers That Pay Family as Personal Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carli; Rizzolo, Mary C

    2016-08-01

    The United States long-term services and supports system is built on largely unpaid (informal) labor. There are a number of benefits to allowing family caregivers to serve as paid personal care providers including better health and satisfaction outcomes, expanded workforces, and cost effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine how Medicaid HCBS Section 1915(c) waivers for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities allocate personal care services to pay family caregivers. Our analysis revealed about two thirds of waivers in fiscal year (FY) 2014 allowed for family caregivers to potentially be paid for personal care services. This amounted to up to $2.71 billion of projected spending, which is slightly more than half of all personal care service expenditures in FY 2014. PMID:27494123

  13. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; Tan, Siok Swan; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart, Leona

    2016-05-01

    Productivity costs can strongly impact cost-effectiveness outcomes. This study investigated the impact in the context of expensive hospital drugs. This study aimed to: (1) investigate the effect of productivity costs on cost-effectiveness outcomes, (2) determine whether economic evaluations of expensive drugs commonly include productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work, and (3) explore potential reasons for excluding productivity costs from the economic evaluation. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify economic evaluations of 33 expensive drugs. We analysed whether evaluations included productivity costs and whether inclusion or exclusion was related to the study population's age, health and national health economic guidelines. The impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was assessed in studies that included productivity costs. Of 249 identified economic evaluations of expensive drugs, 22 (9 %) included productivity costs related to paid work. One study included unpaid productivity. Mostly, productivity cost exclusion could not be explained by the study population's age and health status, but national guidelines appeared influential. Productivity costs proved often highly influential. This study indicates that productivity costs in economic evaluations of expensive hospital drugs are commonly and inconsistently ignored in economic evaluations. This warrants caution in interpreting and comparing the results of these evaluations. PMID:25876834

  14. Valuing the work of unpaid community health workers and exploring the incentives to volunteering in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Kasteng, Frida; Settumba, Stella; Källander, Karin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes are currently being scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa to improve access to healthcare. CHWs are often volunteers; from an economic perspective, this raises considerations whether reliance on an unpaid workforce is sustainable and how to appropriately cost and value the work of CHWs. Both these questions can be informed by an understanding of CHWs' workload, their opportunity costs of time and the perceived benefits of being a CHW. However, to date few studies have fully explored the methodological challenges in valuing CHW time. We examined the costs and benefits of volunteering in a sample of 45 CHWs providing integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses in rural Uganda in February 2012 using different methods. We assessed the value of CHW time using the minimum public sector salary rate and a CHW-elicited replacement wage, as well as the opportunity cost of time based on CHW-estimated annual income and alternative work opportunities, respectively. Reported monthly CHW workload, a median of 19.3 h (range 2.5-57), was valued at USD 6.9 (range 0.9-20.4) per month from the perspective of the healthcare system (applicable replacement wage) and at a median of USD 4.1 (range 0.4-169) from the perspective of the CHWs (individual opportunity cost of time). In a discrete choice experiment on preferred work characteristics, remuneration and community appreciation dominated. We find that volunteering CHWs value the opportunity to make a social contribution, but the decision to volunteer is also influenced by anticipated future rewards. Care must be taken by those costing and designing CHW programmes to acknowledge the opportunity cost of CHWs at the margin and over the long term. Failure to properly consider these issues may lead to cost estimations below the amount necessary to scale up and sustain programmes. PMID:26001813

  15. Valuing the work of unpaid community health workers and exploring the incentives to volunteering in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kasteng, Frida; Settumba, Stella; Källander, Karin; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes are currently being scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa to improve access to healthcare. CHWs are often volunteers; from an economic perspective, this raises considerations whether reliance on an unpaid workforce is sustainable and how to appropriately cost and value the work of CHWs. Both these questions can be informed by an understanding of CHWs’ workload, their opportunity costs of time and the perceived benefits of being a CHW. However, to date few studies have fully explored the methodological challenges in valuing CHW time. We examined the costs and benefits of volunteering in a sample of 45 CHWs providing integrated community case management of common childhood illnesses in rural Uganda in February 2012 using different methods. We assessed the value of CHW time using the minimum public sector salary rate and a CHW-elicited replacement wage, as well as the opportunity cost of time based on CHW-estimated annual income and alternative work opportunities, respectively. Reported monthly CHW workload, a median of 19.3 h (range 2.5–57), was valued at USD 6.9 (range 0.9–20.4) per month from the perspective of the healthcare system (applicable replacement wage) and at a median of USD 4.1 (range 0.4–169) from the perspective of the CHWs (individual opportunity cost of time). In a discrete choice experiment on preferred work characteristics, remuneration and community appreciation dominated. We find that volunteering CHWs value the opportunity to make a social contribution, but the decision to volunteer is also influenced by anticipated future rewards. Care must be taken by those costing and designing CHW programmes to acknowledge the opportunity cost of CHWs at the margin and over the long term. Failure to properly consider these issues may lead to cost estimations below the amount necessary to scale up and sustain programmes. PMID:26001813

  16. Unpaid caregiving and paid work over life-courses: Different pathways, diverging outcomes.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Fiona; Ercolani, Marco G

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the extent to which people's earlier circumstances and experiences shape subsequent life-courses. We do this using UK longitudinal data to provide a dynamic analysis of employment and caregiving histories for 4339 people over 15-20 years between 1991 and 2010. We analyse these histories as sequences using optimal matching and cluster analysis to identify five distinct employment-caregiving pathways. Regression analysis shows that prior to embarking on these pathways, people are already differentiated by life-stage, gender and attitudes towards family and gender roles. Difference-in-differences estimation shows that some initial differences in income, subjective health and wellbeing widen over time, while others narrow. In particular, those following the most caregiving-intensive pathways not only end up poorer but also experience a relative decline in subjective health and wellbeing. These results confirm that earlier circumstances exert a strong influence on later life-courses consistent with pre-determination, persistence and path dependence. PMID:27010581

  17. The Enduring Debate over Unpaid Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneria, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the theoretical and practical issues related to the under-estimation of women's work in the labor force and national accounting statistics. Responds to the continuing criticism that women's efforts make no useful impact, unpaid work should not be treated the same as paid work, and efforts are misguided. (JOW)

  18. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson Community Junior Coll., KS.

    This curriculum is based on what students need to know, to be able to do, and to be like in order to be competent in the work of the family. Each of the 12 units follows a uniform format that includes the following: perennial problem (one faced over and over by successive generations of families); practical problem (the organizing scheme for how…

  19. Work Cultures and Work/Family Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sue Campbell

    2001-01-01

    For 179 workers with family responsibilities, flexibility of work was associated with job satisfaction and family well-being, flexible work schedules were not. Supportive supervision was associated only with increased employee citizenship and did not increase work-family balance of those at risk. Family-friendly culture did not appear to benefit…

  20. The Academic Effects of After-School Paid and Unpaid Work among 14-Year-Old Students in TIMSS Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David; Pong, Suet-ling

    2009-01-01

    What it means to be a "student" varies within and between countries. Apart from the wide variety of school types and school quality that is experienced by young people, there also is, accompanying increased rates of school participation, a growing population of students who work part-time. The theoretical and actual consequences of student work…

  1. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program in Action"; (3)…

  2. Women and work: a ten year retrospective.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    A look back, after a decade, at the issues surrounding women and work. Work options, childcare and family concerns, the glass ceiling, sexual harassment, women entrepreneurs, race and poverty, unpaid work, and women with disabilities are discussed. PMID:15920308

  3. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  4. Balancing family and work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    More than 45% of women scientists at top universities in the United States have indicated that their careers have kept them from having as many children as they want, according to an 8 August study, “Scientists want more children,” which appears in the journal PLoS ONE. The study, by sociologists Elaine Howard Ecklund of Rice University and Anne Lincoln of Southern Methodist University, indicates that 24.5% of male scientists surveyed indicated the same concerns. The study also found that among junior scientists, 29% of women indicated concern that a science career would prevent them from having a family; 7% of men indicated the same concern.

  5. Enhancing Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhon, Tommie

    1984-01-01

    To be successful at home and at work, one must use support systems and assertive behavior; know oneself; use appropriate communication techniques, behavior, and appearance; and have a flexible and healthy attitude about changing oneself. (JOW)

  6. Work, Aging, and Risks to Family Life: The Case of Australia.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Simon; Carr, Ashley; Haapala, Irja

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between work and family is considered with an emphasis on policy solutions. Australian policy is a case example in the context of international trends. A mismatch between policy initiatives and familial and personal priorities constitutes a new social risk associated with demographic and sociocultural development. Contemporary trends, both nationally and internationally, evidence solutions to the “problem of demographic aging” by adopting a form of economic instrumentalism. This restricts legitimate age identities to those associated with work and work-related activity. When applied to family life, such a focus runs the risk of reducing policy interest in intergenerational engagement to unpaid care roles, while personal development and age-related life priorities are ignored. The need for cultural adaptation to population aging is becoming accepted in policy debate and is considered here as an effective response to the personal, social, and economic risks of population aging and associated impacts on family life. PMID:26144871

  7. Work-Family Facilitation and Conflict, Working Fathers and Mothers, Work-Family Stressors and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Work-family research frequently focuses on the conflict experienced by working mothers. Using data from the National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 1,314), this study also examined work-family facilitation and working fathers. Ecological systems, family stress, family resilience, and sex role theories were used to organize the data and…

  8. Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

    The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

  9. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  10. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  11. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  12. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  13. 12 CFR 210.13 - Unpaid items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unpaid items. 210.13 Section 210.13 Banks and... OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.13 Unpaid items. (a) Right of recovery. If...

  14. Work, Family, and Mental Health: Testing Different Models of Work-Family Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2003-01-01

    Using family resilience theory, this study examined the effects of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on mental health among working adults to gain a better understanding of work-family fit. Results suggest that family to work facilitation is a family protective factor that offsets and buffers the deleterious effects of work-family…

  15. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  16. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees’ personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees’ work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  17. Work, Welfare, and Family Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Merrile; Hill, Heather; Mendenko, Linda

    As more families move from welfare to work, little is known about the implications of employment for family well-being. This survey and case study examined the effects of employment on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of parents, children, and families. Survey respondents received assistance through Iowa's Family Investment Program…

  18. Work-Family Conflict and Working Conditions in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallie, Duncan; Russell, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the influence of working conditions on work-family conflict (WFC) among married/cohabiting employees across seven European countries. Using data from the European Social Survey, the paper first investigates the role of working conditions relative to household level characteristics in mediating work-family conflict at the…

  19. The State of Families, 2: Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Service America, Milwaukee, WI.

    This report examines trends in the world of work and the economy that affect families. Part 1 presents a futurist's perspective on the changing world of work and how it affects families. Topics include finance capitalism in a global economy, values, work force, compensation and employee benefits, employment and unemployment, government,…

  20. Caution: Families at Work = Attention: Families au Travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This publication, in English and French, reports on the work-family conflict in Canada, gauges progress over the past decade, and examines how views have changed. The following articles are featured: (1) "Caution: Families at Work" (Ish Theilheimer), an examination of current workplace innovations, viewpoints of employers and employees, and the…

  1. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  2. Working Mothers and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of maternal employment on marital relations, child development, and the mothers themselves. Concludes that employment is not the major issue in either marital relations or child development, but family circumstances, attitudes and expectations of both parents, and the distribution of available time have important…

  3. Overcoming Barriers in Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heru, Alison M.; Drury, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committee for psychiatry outline the expected competencies for residents. These competencies include working with families. This article describes barriers that residents face when working with families, and offers ways to overcome these barriers. Method:…

  4. Work/Family Conflicts: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Maureen

    In the past 20 years, the percentage of married women in the Canadian labor force has risen dramatically. Despite women's increased participation in the labor force, child care and housework are still largely done by women. While the difficulty of combining work and family responsibilities can result in work/family conflicts, a variety of…

  5. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments. 682.402 Section 682.402 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN...

  6. 34 CFR 682.402 - Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death, disability, closed school, false certification, unpaid refunds, and bankruptcy payments. 682.402 Section 682.402 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN...

  7. The Role of Identity and Work-Family Support in Work-Family Enrichment and Its Work-Related Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Julie Holliday; Randel, Amy E.; Stevens, Jaclyn

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing research on the positive connections between work and family, antecedents and consequences of work-family enrichment are understudied. Using a sample of employees from a major insurance company, we assessed the relationship of (i) individual (i.e., work and family identities), (ii) family (emotional and instrumental support), and…

  8. Development of the Work-Family Interface Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curbow, Barbara; McDonnell, Karen; Spratt, Kai; Griffin, Joan; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Developed and tested a 20-item measure of work-family interface with child care providers. Confirmed five factors: general overload, conflict of family to work, spillover of family to work, spillover of work to family, and conflict of work to family. Regression lines for low, medium, and high levels of work-family interface indicated that high…

  9. A Seminar on Working with Families

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves; Frisch, Sara R.

    1983-01-01

    Teaching family practice residents how to work with families is an important part of their training. An eight week seminar given to family practice residents during their rotation in a pediatric hospital is presented. The learning objectives and the teaching strategies are described. Informal assessment indicates the experience was a stimulus for attitudinal change and some degree of skill development among the residents despite its relatively short duration. PMID:21286591

  10. Who benefits from family support? Work schedule and family differences.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Kristen S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated the benefits of family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) for reducing stress, increasing satisfaction, and increasing worker commitment; however, less research has studied health outcomes or possible differences in the effects of FSOP based on worker characteristics. The present study examined relationships between FSOP and health outcomes, as well as how those relationships may depend on work schedule and family differences. Using a sample of 330 acute care nurses, the findings indicated that FSOP predicted several health and well-being outcomes obtained 9 months later. Further, the relationships between FSOP and the outcome variables depended on some work schedule and family differences. In terms of family differences, FSOP was most strongly related to life satisfaction for those who cared for dependent adults. The relationship between FSOP and health outcomes of depression, musculoskeletal pain, and physical health symptoms were generally significant for workers with dependent children, but not significant for workers with no children. Regarding schedule differences, the relationship between FSOP and life satisfaction was significant for those on nonstandard (evening/night) shifts but not significant for standard day shift workers; however, there were no differences in FSOP relationships by number of hours worked per week. The findings demonstrate that FSOP may benefit some employees more than others. Such differences need to be incorporated into both future work-family theory development and into efforts to document the effectiveness of family-supportive policies, programs, and practices. PMID:26322440

  11. Iowa Cultivates Curriculum on Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jerelyn

    1989-01-01

    Iowa State University's curriculum guide, Balancing Work and Family, includes units on demographic trends, multiple roles, parental influences on life-style, long-range planning, sources of role conflict, time and money management, demands of careers, determinants of job satisfaction, public policy, influences on career choice, work attitudes, and…

  12. Integrating Work and Family: Women's Health Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killien, Marcia

    An exploratory study examined the relationship between individual, family, and work variables and working mothers' health. The study also investigated the relationship between health management strategies and health. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather data from 85 women who were married, employed 20 hours a week or more, and had…

  13. "Opportunity" in Paid vs. Unpaid Public Relations Internships: A Semantic Network Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    Compares differences in benefit appeal in letters offering internships written by the business community to an internship director. Finds the promise of "opportunity" and "for credit" appears more often in unpaid internship offers; emphasis was placed on writing skills and work-related tasks in paid internship offers. Reveals the business…

  14. [Effort-Reward Imbalance in Household and Family Work--Analysing the Psychometric Properties among Fathers of Underage Children].

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Barre, Felix; Otto, Friederike

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the concept of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) developed by Siegrist had been applied to unpaid household and family work (ERI-HF). Evidence suggests that the imbalance between effort spent and reward received in family and domestic labor is associated with poor mental and physical health. However, so far, the adopted questionnaire ERI-HF was exclusively used among women in childcare responsibility. This paper reports on the application of the model to men in childcare responsibility using data from a clinical sample of fathers in rehabilitation clinics (N=415). Analogous to the original version, ERI-HF is divided into 2 components: (i) dysbalance of effort and reward, and (ii) overcommitment. For both components, confirmatory factor analyses revealed good to satisfactory properties. Overall, 13.4% of men in childcare responsibility showed a dysbalance between high effort and low reward of household and family work. High levels of effort were more frequently reported than high levels of low reward. With percentages ranging between 24.3 and 59.6%, a significant proportion of fathers reported difficulties to withdraw from household and family work obligations. Analyses of construct validity revealed significant associations between ERI and socio-demographic factors (number of children, employment status, single fatherhood, work-family-conflict) as well as subjective health. Taken together, our findings suggest that the instrument is applicable to men in childcare responsibility. PMID:26859108

  15. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  16. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  17. Considering social work assessment of families

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s the way in which social workers respond to referrals of children to Children's Social Care departments has evolved. It has moved through a process that ‘screens families out’ of child protection assessment to a system aiming to ‘screen families in’ where necessary, and now uses a holistic assessment aiming to screen for both risk and need. The assessment framework developed to assess children in need and their families is the modern social work response to all referrals. Little research has been carried out to assess its suitability as a widespread social work response. This article considers the debates that have emerged in relation to its use and concludes that insufficient consideration has been given to evaluating assessment as an appropriate measure of need and risk. Wider provision of non-assessed universal services would reduce the need for assessment. PMID:25866453

  18. Working Fathers: New Strategies for Balancing Work and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James A.; Pittinsky, Todd L.

    With the steady rise in the number of women joining the workforce, fathers are taking on more responsibility for the nurturing of their children, partly by necessity but often by choice, while still retaining their "breadwinner" pressures. This book is intended to help men reconcile the demands of work and family. It is based on a decade of…

  19. Child's Play: A Work-Family Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    Many parents find that the daily stress of coping with the demanding realities of their work lives leaves them with little personal and family time; playing with their children may therefore fall to the bottom of the "to-do list." One of the tasks of early childhood professionals thus becomes helping parents understand the nature and value of play…

  20. Barely Getting By: Wisconsin's Working Poor Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    Noting that 182,000 of Wisconsin's children are living below the poverty line, this report documents factors affecting the working poor of Wisconsin, combining labor market and wage data with profiles of families and their children from communities throughout the state. The report documents the surge in poverty-wage jobs in Wisconsin over the past…

  1. 42 CFR 408.110 - Collection of unpaid premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of unpaid premiums. 408.110 Section 408.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Collection of Unpaid Premiums; Refund of Excess Premiums After the Death of the...

  2. The Impact of Emotional Labor on Work-Family Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanchus, Nancy J.; Eby, Lilian T.; Lance, Charles E.; Drollinger, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Theory and research on emotional labor at work is applied to the study of the work-family interface to explore how emotional experiences in both the work and the family domain relate to the experience of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, and ultimately attitudinal and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence is also examined as a…

  3. Work, family and life-course fit

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from “work-family” to a multi-dimensional “life-course fit” construct (employees’ cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2) whether control over work time predicted and mediated life-course fit outcomes. Using cluster analysis of survey data on a sample of 917 white-collar employees from Best Buy headquarters, we identified four job ecologies (corresponding to the job demands-job control model) and five home ecologies (theorizing an analogous home demands-home control model). Job and home ecologies predicted fit dimensions in an additive, not interactive, fashion. Employees’ work-time control predicted every life-course fit dimension and partially mediated effects of job ecologies, organizational tenure, and job category. PMID:19430546

  4. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  5. Work and Family. Employers' Views. Monograph No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Ilene

    The increasing number of families in which both partners work has focused attention on the relationship between work and family environments, and the consequences when employers and employees attempt to balance work and family responsibilities. This qualitative study explored whether the connections between family and work life were identified as…

  6. Teachers' Occupation-Specific Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael; Westman, Mina

    2007-01-01

    To expand work-family conflict (WFC) research to specific occupations, this study investigated how work and family generic and occupation-specific stressors and support variables related to family interfering with work (F [right arrow] W) and work interfering with family (W [right arrow] F) among 230 Israeli high school teachers. Further expanding…

  7. Family Care Responsibilities and Employment: Exploring the Impact of Type of Family Care on Work-Family and Family-Work Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared work-family and family-work conflict for employed family caregivers with disability-related care responsibilities in contrast to employed family caregivers with typical care responsibilities. Using data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, a population-based survey of the U.S. workforce, formal and informal…

  8. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943

  9. Single Mothers, Social Capital, and Work--Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattari, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine work-family conflict among low-income, unmarried mothers. Analyzing the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national sample of nonmarital births, I examine how social capital affects work-family conflict and how both social capital and work-family conflict affect employment. Results show that…

  10. Is work-family balance more than conflict and enrichment?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2009-10-01

    This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work-family balance, defined as the 'accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains' (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work-family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work-family conflict, and work-family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work-family balance with six key work and family outcomes. Results suggest that balance explains variance beyond that explained by traditional measures of conflict and enrichment for five of six outcomes tested: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, family satisfaction, family performance, and family functioning. We conclude with a discussion of the applications of our work. PMID:20148121

  11. Family Support & Health Care: Working Together for Healthy Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines partnerships between family support programs and health care providers, forged to ensure that the comprehensive needs of families are met. The report begins with two articles, "Family Support and the Emerging Health System" and "Social and Economic Issues Affecting Health--A…

  12. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  13. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention…

  14. Role Resources and Work-Family Enrichment: The Role of Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted…

  15. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  16. Work-family conflict, work- and family-role salience, and women's well-being.

    PubMed

    Noor, Noraini M

    2004-08-01

    The author considered both the direct effect and the moderator effect of role salience in the stress-strain relationship. In contrast to previous studies that have examined the effects of salience on well-being within specific social roles, the present study focused on the work-family interface. From a sample of 147 employed English women with children, the present results of the regression analyses showed that both effects are possible, depending on the outcome measures used. The author observed a direct effect of role salience in the prediction of job satisfaction; work salience was positively related to job satisfaction, over and above the main-effect terms of work-interfering-with-family (WIF) conflict and family-interfering-with-work (FIW) conflict. In contrast, the author found a moderator effect of role salience and conflict for symptoms of psychological distress. However, contrary to predictions, the author found that work salience exacerbated the negative impact of WIF conflict, rather than FIW conflict, on well-being. The author discussed these results in relation to the literature on work-family conflict, role salience, and the issue of stress-strain specificity. PMID:15279329

  17. Work-Family Balance: Perspectives from Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Soma; Abhayawansa, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    The article examines different types of work-family pressures amongst people working within the Australian university sector. We were specifically interested in work-family experiences between domestic and migrant Australians. Among the major findings, domestic Australians experience greater levels of work-family imbalance across most of the…

  18. Linking Team Resources to Work-Family Enrichment and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Emily M.; Perry, Sara Jansen; Carlson, Dawn S.; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Work-family scholars now recognize the potential positive effects of participation in one life domain (i.e., work or family) on performance in other life domains. We examined how employees might benefit from team resources, which are highly relevant to the modern workplace, in both work and nonwork domains via work-family enrichment. Using the…

  19. Planning Ahead: College Seniors' Concerns about Work-Family Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait; Gareis, Karen C.; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Steele, Jennifer

    Recent research suggests that working men experience as much work-family conflict as women do. More men are doing housework and childcare, and feel that family is as important as their work. An attempt was made to determine how college seniors view their potential for managing work-family conflict. College students (N=324) attending a private…

  20. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  1. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  2. The Work-Family Dilemma: How HR Managers Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nollen, Stanley D.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three issues faced by human resources managers: (1) the current relationship between work and the family, (2) the business problems created when work and family overlap, and (3) actions that businesses can take to improve the situation. (JOW)

  3. Balancing Work and Family. Secondary Learning Guide 5. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on balancing work and family is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems; establish…

  4. Is Small Beautiful? Work-Family Tension, Work Condition, and Organizational Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDermid, Shelley M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among work-family tension and work conditions. Hypothesized that links between work-family tension and work conditions would be stronger in small than in large workplaces. Results indicated that some perceptions of work conditions differed between small and large workplaces, and that connections between work-family tension…

  5. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  6. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  7. Linking Mechanisms of Work-Family Conflict and Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Jesse S.; Hargis, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the abundance of work and family research, few studies have compared the linking mechanisms specified in theoretical models of work-family conflict and segmentation. Accordingly, the current study provides a greater degree of empirical clarity concerning the interplay of work and family by directly examining the indirect effects of…

  8. Women, family, and work in Indonesian transmigration.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J F; Leinbach, T R; Falconer, K F

    1993-04-01

    The gender contribution to employment may be a critical factor in determining household economic viability. The significance for the resettlement program of the poor and landless from Indonesia's Inner Islands to the Outer Islands is clear. The aim of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of the role of women in off-farm employment (OFE) in a sample of South Sumatra, Indonesia transmigrants during the summer of 1989 at 9 different sites with different agricultural environments, settlement histories, and access to markets. A summary is provided of the literature on women's work and peasant household economies in Indonesia. Spatial and structural characteristics of employment among transmigrant women are described as well as life course influences on men's and women's OFE. A descriptive and explanatory model is presented that characterizes women's work and includes the influences of changing family structure on time allocation. Women's work appears fundamentally different from men's; household domestic work has a degree of flexibility in timing and tasks can be accomplished simultaneously. The hypothesis is that women will try to maximize their levels of flexibility and simultaneity in their income generating efforts. Discussion focuses on several theories of peasant household economies: 1) the Chayanov peasant model which posits that labor allocation for farm production in order to satisfy consumption needs is dependent on household demographic structure and the consumer labor balance; and 2) the New Home Economics theory which emphasizes the single utility function of the household. The villages represent 3 irrigated rice-growing and double cropping areas with established infrastructures and access to markets; 3 area with tidal swamp rice production and few resources; and area with rainfed rice production and limited resources and an area with ample resources; and 2 areas with smallholder rubber production. There were 560 ethnically Javanese households

  9. Strengthening Families: Community Strategies That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    Supporting and strengthening families has always been part of the early childhood professional's unique role in the community. NAEYC's Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families initiative (www.naeyc.org/ece/supporting) is a set of activities designed to provide intentional leadership and education in the family-strengthening approach. The…

  10. Measuring the Positive Side of the Work-Family Interface: Development and Validation of a Work-Family Enrichment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Kacmar, K. Michele; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Grzywacz, Joseph G.

    2006-01-01

    Based on current conceptualizations of enrichment, or the positive side of the work-family interface, a multi-dimensional measure of work-family enrichment is developed and validated using five samples. The final 18 item measure consists of three dimensions from the work to family direction (development, affect, and capital) and three dimensions…

  11. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  12. Work and Family Life. Phase 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Laura; And Others

    This is the first of a series of working papers and reports on aspects of modern American families. It investigates the issues and problems facing families with preschool children, when both of the parents are employed. The composite portrait of family styles within a sample of 14 young families begins with a project history. The literature is…

  13. Helping Families Search for Solutions: Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paylo, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author focuses on the ways that family counselors can use solution-based therapies (solution-oriented and solution-focused) to work with families with adolescents in individual and/or family therapy. The theoretical foundation for solution-based therapies suggests techniques that help families focus on solutions and not remain…

  14. Gender Differences in Restricting Work Efforts because of Family Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maume, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…

  15. Work and Family: 1992. Status Report and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen

    Many parents are currently struggling to balance job and family responsibilities. Such attempts bring about changes in work and individual attitudes. This report presents the status of work and family in 1992, as well as the nature and direction of workplace changes to accommodate families. The report indicates that large United States companies…

  16. Hardships in America: The Real Story of Working Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Heather; Brocht, Chauna; Gundersen, Bethney; Bernstein, Jared

    Although U.S. policymakers have adopted the view that work is the solution to poverty, work may not ensure a decent standard of living for many families. This report estimates the number of families who are not making ends meet. It examines the cost of living in various communities in every state and determines "basic family budgets" for six…

  17. The relationships among part-time work, work-family interference, and well-being.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijk, Karen; Bekker, Marrie H J; Rutte, Christel G; Croon, Marcel A

    2004-10-01

    The authors investigated the effect of part-time work on work-family interference and well-being among 160 part-time and 29 full-time employed mothers (with a partner) working at 2 insurance companies in the Netherlands. The authors controlled for working part time as a strategy for reducing work-family imbalance and found that part-time work was associated with a lower level of work-to-family interference. Also, high levels of work-family interference were associated with diminished well-being. Work-to-family interference played a mediating role in the relationship between part-time work and well-being. Results indicate that part-time jobs can enhance the work-family balance not only for those explicitly choosing part-time employment as a means to reduce work-family imbalance but also for other employees. PMID:15506846

  18. [Eating disorders--how to work with the family?].

    PubMed

    Thune-Larsen, Kari-Brith; Vrabel, Karianne

    2004-09-01

    Working with families with a child or an adult with an eating disorder is to work with the resources and limitations in the families, how they could cope with this challenge. Family interventions in eating disorders are counselling, working with the family and family-oriented therapy. Studies show documented effects, especially for patients below 18 with anorexia nervosa who have had this disorder for less than three years. Indications for going from working with the family to family therapy are conflicts between parents or between the child and parents, delayed or disturbed psychological development of the child, or when siblings or other family members are believed to have an effect on the healing. Family therapy is to work with the family as a system. The professional responsibilities, the practical tasks and the goals are about interaction in the family, about relations and communication patterns. Interventions in the family are mainly rooted in systemic family therapy. Motivational methods are important, as are cognitive methods and psychoeducational methods, information and learning how to cope with eating disorders. PMID:15356693

  19. Work-Family Conflict and the Perception of Departmental and Institutional Work-Family Policies in Collegiate Athletic Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godek, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Employees throughout the United States struggle to balance their work and family commitments, in part because the workforce makeup has changed significantly over the last half century. The evolving family structure also has contributed to this struggle. This research seeks to build on previous work-family literature by incorporating the six…

  20. Working with Inner-City Families

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William J.; Wetzel, William; Devanesen, Sudarshan

    1991-01-01

    Many of the health problems in inner-city families require an ecological approach that takes into account the many destabilizing factors urban families face daily, the individual's own development, and the psychosocial and environmental factors known to influence health. Serious health concerns of the inner city, especially social inequalities and isolation, unemployment, and lack of affordable housing, must still be addressed. Imagesp2586-a PMID:20469521

  1. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  2. Family boundary characteristics, work-family conflict and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Fan, Jinyan

    2015-10-01

    Although work-family border and boundary theory suggest individuals' boundary characteristics influence their work-family relationship, it is largely unknown how boundary flexibility and permeability mutually influence work-family conflict and subsequent employee outcomes. Moreover, the existing work-family conflict research has been mainly conducted in the United States and other Western countries. To address these gaps in the work-family literature, the present study examines a moderated mediation model regarding how family boundary characteristics may influence individuals' work-family conflict and life satisfaction with a sample of 278 Chinese full-time employees. Results showed that employees' family flexibility negatively related to their perceived work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW), and both these two relationships were augmented by individuals' family permeability. In addition, WIF mediated the relationship between family flexibility and life satisfaction; the indirect effect of family flexibility on life satisfaction via WIF was stronger for individuals with higher family permeability. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331584

  3. Work and Family: Satisfaction, Stress, and Spousal Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Miller, Dianne L.; Campbell, N. Jo; Morrison, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Married veterinarians were surveyed about work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for their career. Female veterinarians reported greater effect of martial/family stress on career and less perceived support than did their male counterparts. Areas of greatest work dissatisfaction for both genders were…

  4. Striking a Balance: Families, Work, and Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Paul; And Others

    This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this increase.…

  5. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  6. Work and Family Life Must Be Integrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Johanna S.

    1983-01-01

    Socially responsible business organizations recognize the relationship between the organization, its employees, and their families. A review of the impact of each personnel policy on the personal lives of employees and subsequent adaptation strategies in recruiting methods, promotion, transfer, travel, and scheduling can result in a successful…

  7. Teen Living 7015. Work and Family Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education Services.

    This supplement to the Teen Living curriculum contains materials to help teachers integrate family skills and tech prep skills into consumer home economics programs. It is keyed to a 2-semester consumer home economics course, based on the North Carolina Program of Studies (revised 1992); it is designed to help students focus on the relationship…

  8. Urban family reconstitution—a worked example

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Romola

    2016-01-01

    Family reconstitutions have been undertaken only rarely in urban settings due to the high mobility of historical urban populations, in both life and death. Recently Gill Newton has outlined a methodology for the reconstitution of urban populations and we applied a modified version of this method to the large Westminster parish of St. Martin in the Fields between 1752 and 1812, a period that posed particular difficulties for family reconstitution because of the rapid lengthening of the interval between birth and baptism.1 The extraordinary richness of the records for St. Martin in the Fields made it possible to investigate burial and baptismal practices in great detail, and the extent and impact of residential mobility. We found that short-range, inter-parochial movement was so frequent that it was necessary to confine the reconstitution sample to windows in which families registered events at a single street address. Using birth interval analysis and the frequencies of twin births it was possible to demonstrate that the registration of birth events was fairly complete, but that many infant and child burials were missed. These missing burials probably resulted from the unreported export of corpses for burial in other parishes, a phenomenon for which we had considerable evidence. The limitations of family reconstitution in this highly mobile and heterogeneous urban population is discussed and we demonstrate some checks and corrections that can be used to improve the quality of such reconstitutions. PMID:27489393

  9. How Flexitime Eases Work/Family Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A little flexibility from an employer can keep an overextended female employee from having to choose between job and family. It allows more women to climb the corporate ladder while helping companies expand their talent pool and meet Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations. (Author)

  10. Family Work and Relationships: Lessons from Families of Men Whose Jobs Require Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Solomon, Catherine Richards; Humble, Aine M.; Manoogian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how family members experience their lives when family breadwinners must be absent from home because of their jobs. Informed by general systems theory and contextual perspectives, we described wives' family work that supports the breadwinner role and maintains the emotional connections among family members. From our findings…

  11. Celebrating 25 Years of Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the organization's 25 years of working with infants, toddlers, and families. The articles are as follows: (1) "Hope Is a…

  12. Family, Work, and Infant Care in Limited Income Latino Migrant Farm-Working and Anglo Non-Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Barratt, Marguerite; Kossek, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the policy context of limited income families' lives have created new stresses at the intersection of work and family. This research used detailed interviews with limited income working mothers of infants 4 to 18 months old to learn about their work experiences, individual well-being, and perceptions of their infants' experiences in…

  13. 82 Key Statistics on Work and Family Issues. The National Report on Work & Family. Special Report #9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report was prepared because of the growing national interest in the questions of work and family dynamics. It puts together 82 key statistics on work and family issues in four major areas: child care, parental leave, alternative work schedules, and elder care. In addition, a chapter of miscellaneous statistics covers areas such as the…

  14. 34 CFR 685.216 - Unpaid refund discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unpaid refund discharge. 685.216 Section 685.216 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions §...

  15. 34 CFR 685.216 - Unpaid refund discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unpaid refund discharge. 685.216 Section 685.216 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM...

  16. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  17. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  18. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  19. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2053-7 - Deduction for unpaid mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for unpaid mortgages. 20.2053-7 Section 20.2053-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate §...

  1. 42 CFR 408.110 - Collection of unpaid premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... $20,000 when certain conditions are met. (See 4 CFR, parts 101-105 for general rules implementing the... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Collection of Unpaid Premiums; Refund of...: (1) By billing enrollees who pay the premiums directly to CMS or to a designated agent in...

  2. 42 CFR 408.110 - Collection of unpaid premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... $20,000 when certain conditions are met. (See 4 CFR, parts 101-105 for general rules implementing the... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Collection of Unpaid Premiums; Refund of...: (1) By billing enrollees who pay the premiums directly to CMS or to a designated agent in...

  3. 42 CFR 408.110 - Collection of unpaid premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... $20,000 when certain conditions are met. (See 4 CFR, parts 101-105 for general rules implementing the... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Collection of Unpaid Premiums; Refund of...: (1) By billing enrollees who pay the premiums directly to CMS or to a designated agent in...

  4. 42 CFR 408.110 - Collection of unpaid premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... $20,000 when certain conditions are met. (See 4 CFR, parts 101-105 for general rules implementing the... MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Collection of Unpaid Premiums; Refund of...: (1) By billing enrollees who pay the premiums directly to CMS or to a designated agent in...

  5. Overworked Individuals or Overworked Families? Explaining Trends in Work, Leisure, and Family Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A.; Gerson, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Data from the 1970 and 1997 Current Population Survey demonstrate that, more than changes in working hours, the shift from male-breadwinner to dual-earner and single-parent households has increased concern for family-work balance. Research should focus on combined work schedules of family members rather than changes in individual work patterns.…

  6. Family Day Care West: A Working Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Oaks Coll., Pasadena, CA.

    An attempt is made to condense data on family day care, i.e., a form of supplemental child care that takes place in the home of a nonrelative. An overview is presented of the kinds of studies that have been done and how they fit into the larger picture of what remains to be done before we can claim to have a body of knowledge to guide us in this…

  7. Work and Health among Latina Mothers in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Methods 220 Latino women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 - July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Results Three-fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, based on the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Conclusions Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers. PMID:25742536

  8. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study

    PubMed Central

    AAZAMI, Sanaz; MOZAFARI, Mosayeb; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; AKMAL, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30–39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups. PMID:26423332

  9. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; Crouter, Ann C; O'Neill, John W

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs' jobs and retention. PMID:23888092

  10. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; O’Neill, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs’ jobs and retention. PMID:23888092

  11. Anticipated Work-Family Conflict: A Construct Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westring, Alyssa Friede; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    To date, little is known about how work-family issues impact the career development process. In the current paper, we explore this issue by investigating a relatively unstudied construct: anticipated work-family conflict. We found that this construct can be represented by the same six-dimensional factor structure used to assess concurrent…

  12. Faculty Sense of Agency in Decisions about Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, many research universities have adopted policies and support mechanisms to help academic parents balance work and family. This study sought to understand what facilitates faculty agency in making decisions about work and family, including parental leave. We conducted 20 interviews with 5 men and 15 women at a research…

  13. Advancing Measurement of Work and Family Domain Boundary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Russell A.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Bulger, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research offers promising theoretical frameworks for thinking about the work-family interface in terms of the boundaries individuals develop around work and family. However, measures for important constructs proposed by these theories are needed. Using two independent samples, we report on the refinement of existing "boundary flexibility"…

  14. Developing and Implementing Work-Family Policies for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Beth; Hollenshead, Carol; Smith, Gilia

    2004-01-01

    Today, American families juggle many competing priorities: home, work, school, medical care, after-school activities, and other responsibilities required to raise a family and maintain a household. At the same time, more employers are developing policies that acknowledge the need for a healthy balance between work and home. These policies allow…

  15. Are Difficulties Balancing Work and Family Associated with Subsequent Fertility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siwei; Hynes, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in the causes and consequences of work-family conflict, and the frequent suggestion in fertility research that difficulty in balancing work and family is one of the factors leading to low fertility rates in several developed countries, little research uses longitudinal data to examine whether women who report…

  16. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  17. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  18. Farm Children's Work in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Harriett K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined farm children's work contribution to the household and farming operation, as reported by their mothers (N=263). Results showed that children began working at a very early age, and continued through adolescence. All adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 years helped with farm chores; fewer helped with household chores. (Author)

  19. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  20. Boom, Bust & Beyond: The State of Working Arkansas. Arkansas Working Families Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Richard; Duran, Angela

    Using data from several government and private sources and interviews with working families, this report examines the Arkansas economy, how Arkansas working families have fared economically in recent years, and their current challenges. The report offers suggestions about how the state can provide the tools families need to continue to move up the…

  1. Improving the Health of Working Families: Research Connections Between Work and Health. NPA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Irene H.; Frank, John W.

    This document contains two papers on connections between work and health and policy options for improving the health of working families. "Foreword" (James A. Auerbach) places the two papers in the context of recent research on the connections between work, family, and health. Chapter 1's overview addresses the changing nature of work, the new…

  2. Work and Family Functioning: An Annotated Bibliography Selected from Family Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists works published in Australia on issues regarding work obligations and family responsibilities. All works cited are included in Australia's FAMILY database. The following topics are covered: (1) adolescents and attitudes to employment (14 citations); (2) the aged and employment (20 citations); (3) career…

  3. Convergence between Measures of Work-to-Family and Family-to-Work Conflict: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica R.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2005-01-01

    The overlap between measures of work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) was meta-analytically investigated. Researchers have assumed WFC and FWC to be distinct, however, this assumption requires empirical verification. Across 25 independent samples (total N=9079) the sample size weighted mean observed correlation was .38 and the…

  4. Social Support from Work and Family Domains as an Antecedent or Moderator of Work-Family Conflicts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we investigated how social support from supervisor, co-workers, life partner, and family members is associated with work-family conflicts in N=107 working mothers. We used data from a cross-sectional questionnaire and a standardized diary to examine two possible forms of interplay: (a) Social…

  5. Indirect cost in economic evaluation: the opportunity cost of unpaid inputs.

    PubMed

    Posnett, J; Jan, S

    1996-01-01

    Unpaid time represents a potentially significant input into the health production function. The paper sets out the basis for valuation of time inputs consistent with the notion of opportunity cost. Such analysis requires consideration of whether time displaced in the production of health involves lost work or lost leisure. Furthermore, because valuation of opportunity cost requires the consistent treatment of costs and benefits, the study also considers the valuation of outputs. The basis for valuing the shadow price of work time is examined by firstly assuming perfect competition. The analysis then considers the presence of monopoly and monopsony in product markets and income and sales taxes. The basis for valuing the shadow price of leisure ("leisure' being all uses of time except paid employment) is restricted to an examination of methods previously used to value unpaid housework. The two methods examined are the replacement cost and the opportunity cost method. As the methods are not equivalent, the circumstances where each is appropriate vary depending on whether the output lost in producing health is replaced. Although not set out as the primary focus of the paper, the issues surrounding the valuation of outputs generated by non-market and quasi-market activity are examined. In particular, where activities such as informal care result in indirect utility to the carers (and patients) themselves, it is likely the full market wage provides a lower bound estimate of the value of marginal benefit. Finally the paper provides a practical approach to examining opportunity cost of unpaid inputs consistent with the concepts set out in preceding sections. PMID:8653189

  6. Order Amidst Change: Work and Family Trajectories in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Choe, Minja Kim; Kabamalan, Maria Midea M.; Tsuya, Noriko O.; Bumpass, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial family and work macro-level change has been occurring in Japan. Examples include a decline in the availability of jobs that afford lifetime protection against unemployment, an increase in jobs that do not carry benefits such as a pension, an increase in age at marriage and at first birth, and an increase in marital dissolution. Using life history data from the 2000 National Survey on Family and Economic Conditions, young Japanese appear to have responded to these macro-level changes in a fairly orderly manner. Marriage and childbearing have been postponed, but marriage still precedes childbearing. Education is completed prior to starting work. For men, once work commences they continue working. For women, the classic conflict between work and family roles is evident. For men and women in both the family and work spheres Japanese young adults have more orderly life course trajectories than American young adults. PMID:21547009

  7. Work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, and marital satisfaction: a dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether spouses' work-to-family (WF) enrichment experiences account for their own and their partner's marital satisfaction, beyond the effects of WF conflict. Data were collected from both partners of 215 dual-earner couples with children. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that WF enrichment experiences accounted for variance in individuals' marital satisfaction, over and above WF conflict. In line with our predictions, this positive link between individuals' WF enrichment and their marital satisfaction was mediated by more positive marital behavior, and more positive perceptions of the partner's behavior. Furthermore, evidence for crossover was found. Husbands who experienced more WF enrichment were found to show more marital positivity (according to their wives), which related to increased marital satisfaction in their wives. No evidence of such a crossover effect from wives to husbands was found. The current findings not only highlight the added value of studying positive spillover and crossover effects of work into the marriage, but also suggest that positive spillover and crossover effects on marital satisfaction might be stronger than negative spillover and crossover are. These results imply that organizational initiatives of increasing job enrichment may make employees' marital life happier and can contribute to a happy, healthy, and high-performing workforce. PMID:24730427

  8. Changing University Work, Freedom, Flexibility and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikunen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates what Finnish academics on short fixed-term contracts consider to be the effects of having children on work and careers. The study is framed by the context of the current state of the university sector, its neoliberal and entrepreneurial tendencies and its claims to meritocracy. Informants express relative happiness with…

  9. Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits, and problem-focused coping: implications for work-family conflict and employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Laurent M; Allen, Tammy D

    2006-04-01

    Employees (n = 230) from multiple organizations and industries were involved in a study assessing how work-family conflict avoidance methods stemming from the family domain (emotional sustenance and instrumental assistance from the family), the work domain (family-supportive supervision, use of telework and flextime), and the individual (use of problem-focused coping) independently relate to different dimensions of work-family conflict and to employees' affective and physical well-being. Results suggest that support from one's family and one's supervisor and the use of problem-focused coping seem most promising in terms of avoiding work-family conflict and/or decreased well-being. Benefits associated with the use of flextime, however, are relatively less evident, and using telework may potentially increase the extent to which family time demands interfere with work responsibilities. PMID:16649850

  10. A short and valid measure of work-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Crawford, Wayne S; Carlson, Dawn S; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    The stream of research concerning work-family enrichment has generated a significant body of research because it plays an important role in occupational health (Masuda, McNall, Allen, & Nicklin, 2012). work-family enrichment has been defined as "the extent to which experiences in one role improve the quality of life in the other role" (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006, p. 73). Within work-family enrichment, there are two directions: work to family and family to work. Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, and Grzywacz (2006) developed an 18-item scale to measure this construct. Although the scale has been shown to be both reliable and valid, it also requires work-family researchers to include a proportionally large number of items to capture this construct in a study. The goal of the current study was to isolate a subset of the items in this measure that produces results similar to the full version thereby providing a more streamlined scale for researchers. Using a five-sample study that follows the scale reduction procedures offered by Stanton, Sinar, Balzer, and Smith (2002), we provide evidence that scales containing only three items for each direction of enrichment produce results equivalent to the full scale with respect to reliability and discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity. Reducing the original scale by two thirds, without losing explanatory power, allows scholars to measure enrichment in the work and family domains more efficiently, which should help minimize survey time, lower refusal rates, and generate less missing data. PMID:24447219

  11. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Bernie; Thomas, Megan

    2011-01-01

    For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop). Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders). All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals, and other

  12. The Job Costs of Family Demands: Gender Differences in Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Jennifer Reid; Reynolds, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article uses the 1992 National Study of the Changing Workforce to examine family and workplace factors contributing to gender differences in negative family-to-work spillover. We focus on spillover as manifested when family demands negatively affect job performance. Among married workers, women were twice as likely as men to report that…

  13. Spousal Support and Work--Family Balance in Launching a Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…

  14. Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…

  15. From "Work-Family" to "Work-Life": Broadening Our Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Jessica; Boyd, Elizabeth M.; Sinha, Ruchi; Westring, Alyssa F.; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    Despite frequent reference to "work-life" issues in the organizational literature, little theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to nonwork areas beyond family. The purpose of the research described here is to move beyond work-family conflict to a broader conceptualization and measurement of work interference with life. A measure of work…

  16. Is Family-to-Work Interference Related to Co-Workers' Work Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference (FWI) experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWI has an effect on the co-worker's outcomes through the crossover of positive and…

  17. [The family-friendly hospital: (how) does it work?].

    PubMed

    Heller, A R; Heller, S C

    2009-06-01

    The demographic development in Germany is heading towards a significant shortage in specialists within the next 10-15 years with an increased demand for health services at the same time. The three-stage model of family life planning (work, family phase, return) will also be gradually replaced by a model of simultaneous compatibility of family and work. This change in values, although initiated by the parents themselves, may turn out to be a crucial countermeasure in national economy against the demography-related loss of qualified personnel. For these three trends the economic need arises to minimize family-related absence of our well-trained, motivated and reliable doctors from the clinical departments through implementation of family-friendly human resources policies and supporting measures by the employers. In a representative survey 26% of respondents with children had in the past already changed their workplace to ensure a better match of work and family duties. In this regard the compatibility of family and professional responsibilities had a higher impact on the selection of the employer than a high income. Accordingly, a work-life competence oriented business plan will represent the crucial factor within the competition between universities, hospitals and professional disciplines to attract high potential bearers although a sustained change of the traditional hospital culture is mandatory. Anaesthesia-related fields of development regarding family-friendly corporate governance are working hours and organization of work, part-time jobs even for managers and fathers, and staff development. In the hospital daily routine, in particular, creative solutions meeting the local demands are deemed necessary that do not involve the use of high financial resources. Family-friendly personnel policy not only arises from altruistic enthusiasm but also pays off economically. This article discusses the necessity, opportunities and threads of family-oriented hospital

  18. School Students' Learning from Their Paid and Unpaid Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Green, Annette

    A project carried out in New South Wales and South Australia examined ways in which Year 10, 11, and 12 students experience workplaces. A questionnaire administered to students in 13 schools received 1,451 responses. Case studies in five schools included interviews and focus groups with students and teachers. Interviews and focus groups with…

  19. Helping Families Work: Alternatives to the Child Care Disregard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Working for Change, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This report examines alternatives to state-sponsored child care disregards, which allow working low-income families to offset child care expenses against earned income, thereby receiving higher Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) payments than they might otherwise obtain. It explains the need for continuous, stable child care for…

  20. Balancing Work and Family for Faculty: Why It's Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.

    2004-01-01

    The success of faculty members in balancing their academic careers with family responsibilities is a matter of more than individual happiness: it is also a matter of addressing structural inequities and attracting the most qualified candidates to the academic profession. To make it possible for faculty members to balance work and family,…

  1. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  2. Balancing Work and Family Life. ERIC Digest No. 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Career and vocational educators must prepare people with the attitudes and skills needed for successful integration of work and family life. Ideally, life and career planning should be taught as a unit beginning in the middle school. A life/career planning course should incorporate such topics as interdependence of individual, family, and career…

  3. Resilience across Contexts: Family, Work, Culture, and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.

    Noting that much is known from research and practice regarding what works to promote resilience of children and families in a variety of high-risk life situations, this book considers the impact of culture, economy, employment, poverty, family structure, and social policy on parenting, child development, education, and the life success of youth.…

  4. Family Treatment in Social Work. Univeristy Centennial Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The nine papers in this collection are directed toward aspects of family treatment in social work practice. Ranging in focus across the life span from infants to older adults and including material about minority group families in America, all of the papers discuss current practices and programs. The first paper discusses primary prevention…

  5. Simulated Family Therapy Interviews in Clinical Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a learning method that employed theatre students as family clients in an advanced social work practice course. Students were provided with an opportunity to integrate and apply their learning of theory, clinical skills, and professional conduct in full-length family therapy sessions that occurred in the classroom and were…

  6. Work and Family Life: Middle School Content Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the middle school content competencies for the Work and Family Studies curriculum within Family and Consumer Sciences in Ohio, is intended to help middle school students develop self-responsibility and competence dealing with the practical problems of early adolescence. (Career awareness and career choice options are…

  7. Mandatory Work Registration for Welfare Parents: A Family Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spakes, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Examined the impact of the AFDC mandatory work registration policy on AFDC clients and their families. Data showed 19 percent reported positive and 28 percent reported negative individual effects; five percent reported positive and 24 percent reported negative family effects. (Author)

  8. Family Roles and Work Values: Processes of Selection and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick Johnson, Monica

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on whether marriage and parenthood influence work values after taking into account the influence of work values on family formation. In a recent panel of young adults (N=709), stronger extrinsic and weaker intrinsic work values during adolescence predicted marriage and parenthood 9 years out of high school. Controlling these…

  9. Work Values and Job Satisfaction of Family Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwkamp-Memmer, Jennifer C.; Whiston, Susan C.; Hartung, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory and prior research suggest linkages between work values and job satisfaction. The present study examined such linkages in a group of workers in a professional occupation. Family physicians (134 women, 206 men, 88% Caucasian) responded to context-specific measures of work values and job satisfaction. ANOVA results indicated a work values…

  10. Social Work Practice with Native American Families: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintemute, Ginger, Ed.; Messer, Bonnie, Ed.

    A handbook on social work practice with Native American families, developed for use by students in undergraduate social work programs and by social service practitioners who work with Native American people, is divided into four sections. The first section contains four articles, written by Joseph A. Dudley (Methodist minister and Yankton Sioux)…

  11. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences…

  12. Use of family-friendly work arrangements and work-family conflict: Crossover effects in dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Schooreel, Tess; Verbruggen, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a dyadic approach to examine how an employee's work-family conflict is affected when his or her partner makes use of family-friendly work arrangements. We focused on 2 types of family-friendly practices, that is, reduced work hours and schedule or workplace flexibility. Hypotheses were tested with multilevel structural equation modeling using information of 186 dual-earner couples. In line with our hypotheses, we found support for both a positive and a negative crossover effect, though the results showed differences between the 2 types of family-friendly work arrangements. First, a positive crossover effect was found for both reduced work hours and schedule or workplace flexibility; however, the specific mechanisms explaining this effect differed per type of arrangements. In particular, employees whose partner made use of reduced work hours were found to experience less home demands, which was in turn associated with lower family-to-work conflict, whereas employees whose partner made use of schedule or workplace flexibility experienced a similar positive crossover effect but through an increase in the social support they perceived. Second, a negative crossover effect was found only for reduced work hours and not for schedule or workplace flexibility. Specifically, employees whose partner made use of reduced work hours were found to work on average more hours a week, which was in turn related with more work-to-family conflict, whereas employees whose partner made use of schedule or workplace flexibility worked on average fewer hours a week and consequently experienced lower work-to-family conflict. Implications for literature and practice are discussed. PMID:26322442

  13. Perceived Family Functioning and Family Resources of Hong Kong Families: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Joyce L. C.; Wong, Timothy K. Y.; Lau, Luk King; Pun, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a telephone survey (n = 1,015 respondents) that aims to identify the perceived general family functioning and family resources of Hong Kong Chinese families and their linkage to each other in a rapidly transforming society. The perceived general family functioning of the respondents was average, and the five…

  14. Risk of addiction to work and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B E; Post, P

    1997-08-01

    A total of 107 self-identified workaholics from across the United States and Canada responded to a set of inventories assessing their scores on the Work Addiction Risk Test and the correlations with current family functioning. Individuals in the High-risk group, compared to those in the Low- and Medium-groups, were significantly more likely to perceive their current families as having less effective problem-solving ability, worse communication, less clearly established family roles, fewer affective responses, less affective involvement, and lower general family functioning. PMID:9293197

  15. Work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crain, Tori L; Hammer, Leslie B; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-04-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a 1 week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  16. Work-Family Conflict, Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), and Sleep Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  17. 'It is hard for mums to put themselves first': how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer manage the sociological boundaries between paid work, family and caring for the self.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an

  18. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Tom; Roberts, Brandon; Reamer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The United States of America is often called the "land of opportunity," a place where hard work and sacrifice lead to economic success. Across generations, countless families have been able to live out that promise. However, more than one out of four American working families now earn wages so low that they have difficulty surviving financially.…

  19. Work, Family and Life-Course Fit: Does Control over Work Time Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Huang, Qinlei

    2008-01-01

    This study moves from "work-family" to a multi-dimensional "life-course fit" construct (employees' cognitive assessments of resources, resource deficits, and resource demands), using a combined work-family, demands-control and ecology of the life course framing. It examined (1) impacts of job and home ecological systems on fit dimensions, and (2)…

  20. [Survey and analysis of family planning work at Xindian Brigade].

    PubMed

    Feng, L

    1985-03-29

    Through personal interviews, it was found that the success of family planning at Xindan Brigade can be attributed in part to the Brigade party's contribution to family planning education, with the party members acting as family planning models. Moreover, economic objectives are used to secure the results desired. Devoted members are recruited to promote family planning, while economic rewards and restrictions reinforce planning goals. Family planning work in the village of Sung Chuang was reasserted in late 1983 with party leaders acting as family planning models. The results were significant and in 1984, 18 out of 24 brigades fulfilled projected goals by 100% with the average for the entire Sung Chung village being 98.5%. A single-child family rate was obtained in 12 brigades with the average rate in the village for single-child families being 95.9% overall. It is thought that the role of agricultural production must be correctly analyzed and family planning modified to adjust to the "new" type of farming village. Furthermore, a long-lasting contradiction must be forseen between the viewpoints of these 2 sectors of society (i.e., agricultural and political). The policy of the party will be to implement the program and to correctly handle any objections or problems that may arise. Finally, collective management methods must be adopted by the authorities in order to effectively control population growth, especially that seen in the farming village. PMID:12341114

  1. Putting Math Into Family Life: What's Possible for Working Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Marlene; Mokros, Jan; Parkes, Alana

    A set of parent-child math activities designed to help busy, working parents do math with their children as part of everyday situations such as cleaning up and making dinner included basic steps, variations, and information on working with children were developed for families with elementary grades children aged approximately 5 to 11 and…

  2. Youths' Socialization to Work and School within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents' reported work experiences was aligned to youths' perception of their parents' success in the…

  3. Work & Family: A Changing Dynamic. A BNA Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Economic, social, and demographic changes in the last 30 years have resulted in a massive restructuring of the American work force. Consequently, increasing numbers of employees can be expected to experience difficulties balancing family-and-work concerns. There is no consensus in the United States today regarding the responsibility for helping…

  4. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  5. After the Baby: Work-Family Conflict and Working Mothers' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Tracy, Allison J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines work and family characteristics and depressive symptomatology among over 700 working mothers of infants. Working mothers in poorer quality jobs, as well as working mothers who were single or whose infant's health was poorer than that of other infants, reported greater depressive symptomatology. The effect of job quality on…

  6. Safeguarding vulnerable families: work with refugees and asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Burchill, John

    2011-02-01

    This paper will highlight one of the key findings of a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. Despite changes in government legislation to improve children's services in order to prevent harm to children, this recent study demonstrated that health visitors were working with the complexities of needs among refugees and asylum seekers related to safeguarding both children and vulnerable women. The health visitors often worked with families and individuals with no support from other professional services, they worked with failed asylum seekers who were unable to access other forms of support and they worked with women and children who were caught in a cycle of domestic abuse due to their immigration status. They were also working with families who would disappear from the systems in place to safeguard children. PMID:21388040

  7. The George W. Bush Economic Philosophy: How It Might Affect Working Families. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of presidential candidate George W. Bush's proposed tax cuts on families of various income levels. Discusses how replacing current five-rates with four lower rates would reduce high marginal tax rates for moderate-income working families, focusing on effects of reporting tax breaks in terms of actual dollars rather than…

  8. Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne

    2016-04-01

    Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10% follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work-family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work-family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work-family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age. PMID:27001314

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model revealed that a less flexible work environment and greater work pressure predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and further, that these associations were mediated by perceptions of negative work-family spillover. Additionally, results from a two-group mediation model suggested that work pressure predicted greater perceptions of spillover only for mothers employed full-time. Findings suggest the need for policies that reduce levels of work stress and help mothers manage their work and family responsibilities. PMID:20161088

  10. Parental Work Demands and Parent-Child, Family, and Couple Leisure in Dutch Families: What Gives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeters, Anne; Treas, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data on 898 Dutch couples with minor children to examine whether parental work demands are related differently to one-on-one parent-child, family, and couple leisure activities. The authors presume that the impact of working hours and work arrangements is smaller on activities that are prioritized highly and that are easier and…

  11. Psychology at the Intersection of Work and Family: Recommendations for Employers, Working Families, and Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2005-01-01

    Demographic data show that major changes have been occurring in the everyday lives of families over the last generation, with the majority of mothers of young children in the workforce and an increasing number of men and women assuming caregiving responsibilities for older relatives. Thus, the 2 primary identities of most adults, defined by their…

  12. Balancing Work and Family. Learning Guide 5. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide is designed to connect personal, family, and job responsibilities for adults and out-of-school youth in economically depressed areas of the state (including transitional ex-offenders and corrections populations) so that these individuals learn to manage and balance these aspects of their lives in order to prepare for or…

  13. Module 4: Work-Family Policy in the United States. Work-Family Curriculum Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Shulkin, Sandee; Sweet, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Public policy affects the experiences of workers and their families, both directly and indirectly. For example, employment-focused statutes such as the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the Employment Retirement and Income Security Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act establish frameworks for…

  14. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data…

  15. Female Physicians and the Work-Family Conflict.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2016-05-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of female physicians in all fields and specializations of medicine, but this increase has not resulted in a redistribution of domestic tasks and responsibilities. Reviewing the literature of the last two decades (April 1994 to April 2014) on how female physicians cope with the challenge of balancing their family and professional lives for the duration of their professional careers revealed that they suffer from the work-family conflict more than other professionals and that it has a more negative effect on women than on men. Women physicians consider work-family balance significantly when making career choices. These considerations affect their career success, their productivity as faculty members, their marital life, and parenthood. Having a supportive spouse at home and a facilitating mentor at work are important for a positive work-family balance among female physicians. Special career-supporting measures, such as flexible work schedules and expanded support for childcare over the course of work and when taking part in academic activities, are critical for female physicians. PMID:27430080

  16. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. PMID:25664468

  17. Youths’ socialization to work and school within the family

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Scholar, Postdoctoral; Porfeli, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents’ reported work experiences was aligned to youths’ perception of their parents’ success in the work domain. Also, a significant association was found between youth’s perception of their parents’ family success and youth’s emotional and experiential conceptualizations of work. Furthermore, youth who viewed work as a positive experience were more likely to be engaged in schoolwork, both emotionally and cognitively. Implications for vocational guidance are discussed. PMID:26101556

  18. Traumatic death at work: consequences for surviving families.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynda R; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael; Rawlings-Way, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Research and policy on occupational health and safety have understandably focused on workers as the direct victims of workplace hazards. However, serious illness, injury, or death at work also has cascading psychological, social, and economic effects on victims' families and close friends. These effects have been neglected by researchers and policymakers. The number of persons immediately affected by workplace death is significant, even in rich countries with relatively low rates of workplace fatality. Every year, more than 5,000 family members and close friends of Australian workers become survivors of traumatic work-related death (TWD). This study investigated the health, social, and financial consequences of TWD on surviving families. In-depth exploratory interviews were conducted with seven family members who had experienced TWD from one to 20 years before the interviews, with an average of three years. All reported serious health, social, and financial consequences, including prolonged grief and unresolved loss, physical health problems, family disruption and behavioral effects on children, immediate financial difficulties, and disturbance of longer-term commitments such as retirement planning. Recommendations for policy development and improved practice are proposed to minimize the trauma and suffering experienced by families, mitigate consequences, and improve outcomes following a TWD. PMID:23367798

  19. Conflict between Work and Family among New Zealand Teachers with Dependent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Melanie; Rose, Dennis; Sanders, Matthew; Randle, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Changes in family and employment patterns have lead to an increasing need for families to balance work and family roles. Little research has examined work and family conflict among teachers. In the present study, 69 New Zealand teachers completed a survey examining occupational-related demands, family-related demands, work and family conflict, and…

  20. Family Group Conferences and Cultural Competence in Social Work

    PubMed Central

    Barn, Ravinder; Das, Chaitali

    2016-01-01

    Family Group Conferences (FGCs) as a method of preventive work came into being over two decades ago. The FGC approach arose from a minority cultural perspective and the rising numbers of Maori children in state care in New Zealand. Two decades after the Family Rights Group first championed FGC in the UK, it is a great concern that we know little or nothing about how such an approach is being utilised with culturally diverse families in the UK. This paper draws upon an empirical study carried out in London to ascertain the views and experiences of social and community work FGC coordinators and managers, located in statutory and non-government organisations, who employed the FGC approach with culturally diverse families. Findings from this study are discussed in the context of extant research literature into the nature and extent of involvement of black and minority ethnic (BME) families with child welfare services across the globe. Moreover, given the inherent emphasis on the foundational ‘cultural framework’ of the FGC approach, the paper makes an important contribution to the literature on cultural competence within social work through the practice of FGC. PMID:27559207

  1. The Relationship of Family and Work Roles to Depression: Dual-Working Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanefield, Linda

    In a study to explore the relationship of family and work roles to depression in dual career couples, 69 couples, in which both spouses worked full-time outside of the home and had at least one child under 18 years of age, completed the self-report Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and a questionnaire assessing work and…

  2. Work-family and family-work conflict: does intrinsic-extrinsic satisfaction mediate the prediction of general job satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Martínez-De-Lecea, José-María Salinas; Carrasco-González, Ana-María

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the mediating role of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction in the relationship between the 2 dimensions of work-family conflict-family interfering with work (FIW) and work interfering with family (WIF)-and general job satisfaction. Step-by-step hierarchical regression analyses were carried out on a sample of 151 men and women from a Spanish public organization. The results confirmed the mediating role of intrinsic job satisfaction in the case of FIW. This highlights the importance of taking into account the level of satisfaction with the intrinsic facets of one's job as a measure for understanding why FIW has a negative impact on general job satisfaction. PMID:21902011

  3. The role of the government in work-family conflict.

    PubMed

    Boushey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The foundations of the major federal policies that govern today's workplace were put in place during the 1930s, when most families had a stay-at-home caregiver who could tend to the needs of children, the aged, and the sick. Seven decades later, many of the nation's workplace policies are in need of major updates to reflect the realities of the modern workforce. American workers, for example, typically have little or no control over their work hours and schedules; few have a right to job-protected access to paid leave to care for a family member. Heather Boushey examines three types of work-family policies that affect work-family conflict and that are in serious need of repair--those that govern hours worked and workplace equity, those that affect the ability of workers to take time off from work because their families need care, and those that govern the outsourcing of family care when necessary. In each case Boushey surveys new programs currently on the policy agenda, assesses their effectiveness, and considers the extent to which they can be used as models for a broader federal program. Boushey looks, for example, at a variety of pilot and experimental programs that have been implemented both by private employers and by federal, state, and local governments to provide workers with flexible working hours. Careful evaluations of these programs show that several can increase scheduling flexibility without adversely affecting employers. Although few Americans have access to paid family and medical leave to attend to family needs, most believe that businesses should be required to provide paid leave to all workers. Boushey notes that several states are moving in that direction. Again, careful evaluations show that these experimental programs are successful for both employers and employees. National programs to address child and elder care do not yet exist. The most comprehensive solution on the horizon is the universal prekindergarten programs offered by a few states

  4. Beyond work and family: a measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gwenith G; Bulger, Carrie A; Smith, Carlla S

    2009-10-01

    Though early research on the work/nonwork interface was broader in scope, most recent research has focused on the interface between work and family. There is a need for an inclusive, validated measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement that is appropriate for all workers regardless of their marital or family life status. The authors report here on 3 studies in which they develop a theoretically grounded and empirically validated multidimensional, bidirectional measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement. All scale items refer to work/nonwork, whereas previous measures have mixed work/family and work/nonwork items or emphasize family roles in the nonwork domain. Quantitative analysis of the scale items yielded 17 items to measure work interference with personal life, personal life interference with work, work enhancement of personal life, and personal life enhancement of work. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling results provide evidence for convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity for the scale from 2 large samples of workers (N = 540, N = 384) across multiple job types and organizations. PMID:19839663

  5. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  6. Daily Management of Work and Family Goals in Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Klumb, Petra L.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses one-week time-sampling information from 104 employed parents with pre-school children to examine the association between daily workloads, control strategies, and goal progress. In addition, it examines relationships between work- and family-goal progress and important stress indices such as positive/negative affect and cortisol…

  7. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  8. Beyond Conflict: Functional Facets of the Work-Family Interplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Seiger, Christine P.; Schmid, Christian M.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with three positive facets of the work-family interplay, i.e., transfer of competencies, transfer of positive mood, and cross-domain compensation. The latter refers to the experience that engagement in one domain helps dealing with failures in the other domain. In two correlational studies (N[subscript 1] = 107 working…

  9. The Internet and Academics' Workload and Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse whether the Internet and other ICT technologies support a work-family balance amongst academics. The study is based on 20 in-depth interviews with academics in Iceland and analysed according to the Grounded Theory Approach. This study challenges the notion that the Internet, as part of ICT technology, makes it…

  10. Stress among Farm Women: Work and Family as Interacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Alan D.; Perkins, H. Wesley

    1984-01-01

    Examined a sample of dairy farm wives (N=126) regarding stress symptoms, husband support, farm and home task loads, and perceived role conflict between farm and home responsibilities. Results indicated that the content of home and work roles may not be as important as interpersonal dynamics in rural farm families. (LLL)

  11. Best Practices in Working with Linguistically Diverse Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Blanca E.

    2009-01-01

    Many schools face the challenge of forging partnerships with families from linguistically diverse backgrounds. Effective communication, funds of knowledge, culturally relevant teaching, and extending and accepting assistance are best practices that have been used successfully by school personnel when working with students who are identified as…

  12. More Hard Times for New York's Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, David Jason; Colton, Tara; Hilliard, Tom; Schimke, Karen

    2006-01-01

    There is broad consensus about what kind of economy and society New Yorkers would like to see over the decades to come: plentiful and remunerative jobs, reinvigorated communities from New York City to Oswego, and a safety net strong enough to facilitate upward mobility but infused with the values of work and family. Unfortunately, indications are…

  13. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  14. Children, Working Mothers, and Their Families. Matrix No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman; And Others

    This paper reviews research studies dealing with the effects on families of changes in the labor force patterns of working mothers during the period from 1970 to l980. Research information is presented in a column format: the first column provides the study findings, the second points out the sources of the findings, and the third suggests…

  15. University Centennial Edition: Family Treatment in Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Included in this booklet are nine papers reflecting the social work profession's engagement in the effort to deal with a variety of problems experienced by families and cultural minorities. Covered by individual papers are the following topics: (1) prevention of the troubled marital relationships that are sometimes brought on by the birth of the…

  16. Collaboration: Working Together To Support Families. Program Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Sapin, Connie

    This paper discusses collaboration as a process that can be used to support adult learners and families. The article distinguishes between collaboration, coordination, and cooperation; suggests ways to find collaborators; lists factors that promote or hinder collaboration; and provides guidelines for working with collaborators. A section on how to…

  17. Work/Family Benefits: Variables Related to Employees' Fairness Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lauren; Allen, Tammy D.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 283 workers showed that younger people, minorities, those who used flexible work arrangements, and those whose jobs required greater interdependence had more favorable perceptions of family-related benefits. Gender and children's ages influenced perceptions of the fairness of benefits. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  18. Opening Doors: Students' Perspectives on Juggling Work, Family, and College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matus-Grossman, Lisa; Gooden, Susan

    Information gathered in focus groups of current, former, and potential students at six community colleges was used to explore institutional and personal access and retention issues faced by students seeking a workable balance of their college, work, and family responsibilities. The six community colleges were as follows: Cabrillo College (Aptos,…

  19. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family. PMID:26322486

  20. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  1. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  4. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  5. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  6. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  7. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  8. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  9. 7 CFR 1962.7 - Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. 1962.7 Section 1962.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Security § 1962.7 Securing unpaid balances on unsecured loans. The County Supervisor will take a lien on...

  10. Overload and work-family conflict among Australian dual-career families: moderating effects of support.

    PubMed

    Elloy, David F; Mackie, Beth

    2002-12-01

    Individuals in dual-career situations have become increasingly common all over the world. For couples dealing with multiple demands, this lifestyle often generates stresses and strains at home and at work, which can have negative consequences for organizations. Most empirical research into this lifestyle has been conducted in the United States and Britain, and very little in Australia. This particular study, based on data from an Australian sample of 65 dual-career couples, analyzed the relation between overload and work-family conflict and the moderating effects of support (supervisor, coworkers, and friends). Results confirm that overload was significantly related to work-family conflict but no moderating effects were found for support. Limitations of the study and an organizational role in managing the work-family interface dual-career couples are discussed. PMID:12530741

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Work-Family Strains and Gains, Work Commitment, and Subsequent Employment Status among Partnered Working Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; McNall, Laurel A.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the work-family interface on mothers' commitment to work and the implications of that work commitment for subsequent employment. The study included a sample of employed partnered mothers who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child…

  12. The Relationship between Core Self-Evaluations and Work and Family Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyar, Scott L.; Mosley, Donald C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on work and family outcomes and explores the influence of core self-evaluations (CSE) among these relationships. CSE is comprised of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and general self-efficacy. CSE was found to be negatively related to work interfering…

  13. Family Policy in Hungary: How to Improve the Reconciliation between Work and Family? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Hungarian family policy focuses on providing generous options to take time off work to look after children. This system not only contributes to Hungary's low employment rate but encourages long separation from the labour market, has largely failed to significantly influence fertility rates and is relatively expensive to run. This paper looks at…

  14. Work and Family: New Partnerships. Work and Family Conference Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 30-December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Deborah, Ed.

    This conference involving business, labor, policymakers and dependent care service providers covered issues related to the conflict between family and work responsibilities. The conference addressed the conflict's scope, substance, and major issues. Also covered are: information-gathering efforts which concerned institutions' national and…

  15. [Work and family in the sociodemographic study of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Garcia, B; De Oliveira, O

    1991-06-01

    This work reviews sociodemographic studies of the interrelationship between work and family in Mexico from 1950 to the present. 3 main themes are distinguished and examined in separate sections. The 1st are labor market studies focusing on aggregates of individuals, a trend most prominent through the mid 1970s but still somewhat in evidence. The 2nd type of studies stress the household or domestic unit as the relevant unit of analysis and often conceptualize economic participation as part of the family life strategy or survival strategy. This perspective reached its maximum development in the late 1970s and early 1980s but also still appears. The last type of study stresses the increasing heterogeneity of labor markets related to the increase in nonsalaried employment and increasing female employment. The domestic unit is present as a determinant of family-based economic activity and female employment, but differences and conflicts between generations within the household are stressed. This perspective began to gain importance in the mid-1980s. The objective of the differentiation into 3 periods and types of study is to analyze changes in theoretical elements considered, principal thematic contents, methodological tools utilized, and results. The work is based on a selective review of literature considered representative. On the theoretical level, relations between work and family are now perceived as more complex and incorporate more elements of social reality than they did in the earlier studies. Most studies of this type have concerned female employment. The belief that male employment depends less on the family context requires reassessment, especially in view of the differential employment opportunities of men and women. Quantitative sociodemographic research in Mexico has been greatly aided by the growing availability of detailed survey data. This, together with advances in statistics and computation, has allowed a greater use of multivariate analysis to

  16. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  17. When Family-Supportive Supervision Matters: Relations between Multiple Sources of Support and Work-Family Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Ziegert, Jonathan C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms by which family-supportive supervision is related to employee work-family balance. Based on a sample of 170 business professionals, we found that the positive relation between family-supportive supervision and balance was fully mediated by work interference with family (WIF) and partially mediated by family…

  18. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  19. Work-Life Compendium, 2001: 150 Canadian Statistics on Work, Family & Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen L.; Lero, Donna S.; Rooney, Jennifer A.

    The issue of integrating work and family responsibilities has been the subject of federal, provincial, and territorial policy planning and several task forces in Canada. This report plus executive summary, designed to inform the dialogue and stimulate continued discussion, brings together a wide variety of work-life facts and figures related to…

  20. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  1. Working appreciatively to improve services for children and families.

    PubMed

    Onyett, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Service improvement approaches are described that specifically focus on appreciating the positive that individuals bring to contexts related to children and family services. This includes application of Solution-Focused approaches, Appreciative Inquiry and other approaches that promote a positive emotional climate and focus on what works. Their conceptual foundations are explored and particularly their value in supporting working well with complex adaptive systems. Specific applications described include leadership and management practice, work in school settings, engaging clinicians in healthcare improvement, establishing clinical networks, work with homeless youth, child protection and approaches to drawing out best practice and community development. The theme that unites is a focus on developing effective relationships at all levels and a pragmatic focus on what works so that we can find opportunities to do more of it. PMID:19759068

  2. When Work Just Isn't Enough: Measuring Hardships Faced by Families after Moving from Welfare to Work. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Heather; Gundersen, Bethney

    This paper examined the extent to which families faced hardships in moving from welfare to work, highlighting: families who received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) during the last month of the Survey of Income and Program Participation or the National Survey of American Families; families who received other public assistance in the…

  3. The Real-World Problem of Care Coordination: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study with Patients Living with Advanced Progressive Illness and Their Unpaid Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Daveson, Barbara A.; Harding, Richard; Shipman, Cathy; Mason, Bruce L.; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Higginson, Irene J.; Ellis-Smith, Clare; Henson, Lesley; Munday, Dan; Nanton, Veronica; Dale, Jeremy R.; Boyd, Kirsty; Worth, Allison; Barclay, Stephen; Donaldson, Anne; Murray, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop a model of care coordination for patients living with advanced progressive illness and their unpaid caregivers, and to understand their perspective regarding care coordination. Design A prospective longitudinal, multi-perspective qualitative study involving a case-study approach. Methods Serial in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed verbatim and then analyzed through open and axial coding in order to construct categories for three cases (sites). This was followed by continued thematic analysis to identify underlying conceptual coherence across all cases in order to produce one coherent care coordination model. Participants Fifty-six purposively sampled patients and 27 case-linked unpaid caregivers. Settings Three cases from contrasting primary, secondary and tertiary settings within Britain. Results Coordination is a deliberate cross-cutting action that involves high-quality, caring and well-informed staff, patients and unpaid caregivers who must work in partnership together across health and social care settings. For coordination to occur, it must be adequately resourced with efficient systems and services that communicate. Patients and unpaid caregivers contribute substantially to the coordination of their care, which is sometimes volunteered at a personal cost to them. Coordination is facilitated through flexible and patient-centered care, characterized by accurate and timely information communicated in a way that considers patients’ and caregivers’ needs, preferences, circumstances and abilities. Conclusions Within the midst of advanced progressive illness, coordination is a shared and complex intervention involving relational, structural and information components. Our study is one of the first to extensively examine patients’ and caregivers’ views about coordination, thus aiding conceptual fidelity. These findings can be used to help avoid oversimplifying a real-world problem, such as care coordination. Avoiding

  4. Organizational work-family resources as predictors of job performance and attitudes: the process of work-family conflict and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Britt, Thomas W; Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test a model where organizational resources (aimed at managing work and family responsibilities) predict job attitudes and supervisor ratings of performance through the mechanisms of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Employees (n = 174) at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed at two time periods regarding perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP), bidirectional work-family conflict, bidirectional work-family enrichment, and job attitudes. Supervisors were also asked to provide performance ratings at Time 2. Results revealed FSSB at Time 1 predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave, as well as supervisor ratings of performance, at Time 2. In addition, both work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were found to mediate relationships between FSSB and various organizational outcomes, while work-family conflict was not a significant mediator. Results support further testing of supervisor behaviors specific to family support, as well models that include bidirectional work-family enrichment as the mechanism by which work-family resources predict employee and organizational outcomes. PMID:22149204

  5. Strategies for Promoting a Work-Family Agenda. Report Number 973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.; Johnson, Arlene A.

    This document, which is intended to help individual managers and task forces committed to development of a work-family agenda, is based on recommendations of the Work and Family Research Council, which is composed of 35 advocates of work-family policies within U.S. firms. Basic strategies for promoting (marketing) work-family programs within…

  6. The Relative Contribution of Formal and Informal Organizational Work-Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behson, Scott J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work-family research has proposed that informal means of organizational work-family support (e.g., managerial support) are more useful than formal means of organizational work-family support (e.g., work-family benefit availability) in explaining variance in employee affective, intentional, and behavioral outcomes. However, the relative…

  7. Leadership Style of School Head-Teachers and Their Colleague's Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship of people-oriented and task-oriented leadership styles with the work-family and family-work conflicts and the intensity of mutual relationship between work-family and family-work conflicts. Data for the research were collected through a survey of public sector elementary and secondary school teachers…

  8. Gender-Specific Perceptions of Four Dimensions of the Work/Family Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innstrand, Siw Tone; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Falkum, Erik; Espnes, Geir Arild; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. The first intention was to examine the factorial validity of a work/family interaction in terms of the direction of influence (work-to-family vs. family-to-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Second, gender differences along these four dimensions of work/family interaction were explored. Data…

  9. Conflict or Support: Work and Family in Middle and Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jane; Waters, Elinor B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes several career and family issues that may arise for adults and suggests possible counseling interventions. Several assumptions are made about the work/family connection: renegotiation of work/family balance continues throughout work life; a variety of demographic variables affect work/family roles; and some issues relate more to roles…

  10. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641483