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Sample records for unrelated protein antigens

  1. Chronic bystander infections and immunity to unrelated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Stelekati, Erietta; Wherry, E. John

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infections with persistent pathogens such as helminths, mycobacteria, Plasmodium and hepatitis viruses affect more than a third of the human population and are associated with increased susceptibility to other pathogens as well as reduced vaccine efficacy. Although these observations suggest an impact of chronic infections in modulating immunity to unrelated antigens, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Here, we summarize evidence of the most prevalent infections affecting immunity to unrelated pathogens and vaccines, and discuss potential mechanisms of how different bystander chronic infections might impact immune responses. We suggest that bystander chronic infections affect different stages of host responses and may impact transmission of other pathogens, recognition and innate immune responses, priming and differentiation of adaptive effector responses, as well as the development and maintenance of immunological memory. Further understanding of the immunological effects of co-infection should provide opportunities to enhance vaccine efficacy and control infectious diseases. PMID:23084915

  2. Antigenic Properties of N Protein of Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus causes two important rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. Twenty-four species that represent sero- and genotypes have been registered within the genus Hantavirus by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Among the viral proteins, nucleocapsid (N) protein possesses an immunodominant antigen. The antigenicitiy of N protein is conserved compared with that of envelope glycoproteins. Therefore, N protein has been used for serological diagnoses and seroepidemiological studies. An understanding of the antigenic properties of N protein is important for the interpretation of results from serological tests using N antigen. N protein consists of about 430 amino acids and possesses various epitopes. The N-terminal quarter of N protein bears linear and immunodominant epitopes. However, a serotype-specific and multimerization-dependent antigenic site was found in the C-terminal half of N protein. In this paper, the structure, function, and antigenicity of N protein are reviewed. PMID:25123683

  3. Protection of chickens to antigenically variant avian influenza virus challenge after immunization with two antigenically unrelated strains of the same subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antigenic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) within a subtype has been well established and is believed to be driven by the selection of immunologic escape mutants. In regions where vaccination against AIV has been implemented for prolonged periods (e.g. Vietnam and Egypt), vaccines which...

  4. Antigenic analysis of fimbrial proteins from Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L J; Rutter, J M

    1987-01-01

    Fimbrial proteins were extracted from 15 isolates of Moraxella bovis, and antisera to each of the preparations were raised in rabbits. The antigenic relationships of the fimbriae were investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and a slide agglutination test. With all three methods there was a similar pattern of antigenic cross-reactivity among the fimbriae. The 15 isolates, together with 23 additional isolates, could be grouped into seven fimbrial serogroups. Images PMID:2891723

  5. Isoform I (mdr3) is the major form of P-glycoprotein expressed in mouse brain capillaries. Evidence for cross-reactivity of antibody C219 with an unrelated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, L; Pouliot, J F; Murphy, G F; Béliveau, R

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in various non-cancerous tissues such as the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. We used several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies to establish which P-gp isoforms are expressed in isolated mouse brain capillaries. P-gp class I isoform was detected in capillaries with a Western immunoblotting procedure using a specific antiserum. No immunoreactivity was observed with either class II- or class III-specific antisera. Immunoreactivity was observed with mAb C219. However, this antibody detected two distinct immunoreactive proteins (155 and 190 kDa) in the isolated brain capillaries. These two proteins comigrated as a broad band when the samples were submitted to heat prior to gel electrophoresis. The glycoprotein nature of these two antigens was evaluated by their sensitivity to N-glycanase treatment. Following this treatment, the size of the proteins was reduced from 190 and 155 kDa to 180 and 120 kDa, respectively. Triton X-114 phase-partitioning studies showed that the 190 kDa immunoreactive protein was poorly solubilized by Triton X-114, while the 155 kDa protein was partitioned in the detergent-rich phase. In labelling experiments, only the 155 kDa protein was photolabelled with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. These results show that a 190 kDa protein detected by antibody C219 is an antigen unrelated to the three P-gp isoforms presently known. Cross-reactivity of C219 with an unrelated protein emphasizes the fact that more than one antibody should be used in the assessment of P-gp expression in cell lines and tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848274

  6. Protein antigens of Streptococcus mutans: purification and properties of a double antigen and its protease-resistant component.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M W; Bergmeier, L A; Zanders, E D; Lehner, T

    1980-01-01

    A surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans having two sets of antigenic determinants (antigens I and II) was purified by column chromatography from culture supernatants of S. mutans serotype c. The protease-resistant component, antigen II, was purified from pronase-digested antigen I/II. The antigens were analyzed chemically and immunologically, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. Antigen I/II consisted of more than 80% protein, and its peptide chain molecular weight was estimated to be 185,000. Antigen II consisted of approximately 60% protein, with a peptide chain molecular weight of 48,000. Antisera to antigens I/II and II were raised in rabbits and used to investigate the presence of the antigens in cells of other streptococci. This indicated that not only serotype c but also serotypes e and f possessed antigen I and II determinants, whereas serotypes a, d, and g possessed a determinant related to antigen I but not one related to antigen II. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6995311

  7. Immunological Properties of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Fusion Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Michael J.; Hastings, Gillian Z.; Brown, Alan L.; Grace, Ken G.; Rowlands, David J.; Brown, Fred; Clarke, Berwyn E.

    1990-04-01

    The immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an N-terminal fusion with hepatitis B core antigen. In this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis B core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide with an added helper T-cell epitope. The fusion proteins can be readily administered without adjuvant or with adjuvants acceptable for human and veterinary application and can elicit a response after nasal or oral dosing. The fusion proteins can also act as T-cell-independent antigens. These properties provide further support for their suitability as presentation systems for "foreign" epitopes in the development of vaccines.

  8. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  9. Linking Two Seemingly Unrelated Diseases, Cancer and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Through a Dictyostelium Secreted Protein 

    E-print Network

    Herlihy, Sarah E

    2014-06-05

    The work in this dissertation links two diseases through a protein secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells. The protein, AprA, inhibits cell proliferation and induces chemorepulsion (movement away) of Dictyostelium cells. This has implications...

  10. Demonstration of heterogeneity among the antigenic proteins of Mobiluncus species.

    PubMed Central

    Schwebke, J R; Hillier, S L; Fohn, M J; Lukehart, S A

    1990-01-01

    The protein and antigenic profiles of the American Type Culture Collection type strains of Mobiluncus species and those of 114 clinical isolates were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and immunoblotting with homologous polyvalent antisera. The majority of isolates (82%) possessed characteristic protein profiles and could be identified to the species level by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The major protein bands were also antigenic, and some antigenic cross-reactivity was noted between the two Mobiluncus species. All of the isolates were examined for reactivity with a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies previously prepared against the type strains. While 56 of 60 clinical isolates of Mobiluncus curtisii (93%) reacted with one or more of the monoclonal antibodies, only 23 of 54 clinical isolates which were identified as Mobiluncus mulieris by biochemical methods (48%) reacted with one or more of the monoclonal antibodies. One of the 4 M. curtisii isolates (25%) and 11 of the 31 M. mulieris isolates (35%) which did not react with the monoclonal antibodies also had atypical protein profiles. These results demonstrate a high degree of heterogeneity in the protein and antigenic profiles of Mobiluncus isolates and suggest that further taxonomic division may be appropriate. Images PMID:1691207

  11. High-throughput prediction of protein antigenicity using protein microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Magnan, Christophe N.; Zeller, Michael; Kayala, Matthew A.; Vigil, Adam; Randall, Arlo; Felgner, Philip L.; Baldi, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Discovery of novel protective antigens is fundamental to the development of vaccines for existing and emerging pathogens. Most computational methods for predicting protein antigenicity rely directly on homology with previously characterized protective antigens; however, homology-based methods will fail to discover truly novel protective antigens. Thus, there is a significant need for homology-free methods capable of screening entire proteomes for the antigens most likely to generate a protective humoral immune response. Results: Here we begin by curating two types of positive data: (i) antigens that elicit a strong antibody response in protected individuals but not in unprotected individuals, using human immunoglobulin reactivity data obtained from protein microarray analyses; and (ii) known protective antigens from the literature. The resulting datasets are used to train a sequence-based prediction model, ANTIGENpro, to predict the likelihood that a protein is a protective antigen. ANTIGENpro correctly classifies 82% of the known protective antigens when trained using only the protein microarray datasets. The accuracy on the combined dataset is estimated at 76% by cross-validation experiments. Finally, ANTIGENpro performs well when evaluated on an external pathogen proteome for which protein microarray data were obtained after the initial development of ANTIGENpro. Availability: ANTIGENpro is integrated in the SCRATCH suite of predictors available at http://scratch.proteomics.ics.uci.edu. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu PMID:20934990

  12. Proteomic analysis identification of antigenic proteins in Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae.

    PubMed

    Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Insawang, Tonkla; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-12-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is the causative agent of human gnathostomiasis. The advanced third stage larva (AL3) of this nematode can migrate into the subcutaneous tissues, including vital organs, often producing severe pathological effects. This study performed immuno-proteomic analysis of antigenic spots, derived from G. spinigerum advanced third stage larva (GSAL3) and recognized by human gnathostomiasis sera, using two-dimensional (2-DE) gel electrophoresis based-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS), and followed by the aid of a database search. The crude GSAL3 extract was fractionated using IPG strips (pH 3-11NL) and followed by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Each gel was stained with colloidal Coomassie blue or was electro-transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and probed with gnathostomiasis human sera by immunoblotting. Individual Coomassie-stained protein spots corresponding to the antigenic spots recognized by immunoblotting were excised and processed using LC/MS-MS. Of the 93 antigenic spots excised, 87 were identified by LC/MS-MS. Twenty-seven protein types were found, the most abundant being Ascaris suum37. Six spots showed good quality spectra, but could not be identified. This appears to be the first attempt to characterize antigenic proteins from GSAL3 using a proteomic approach. Immuno-proteomics shows promise to assist the search for candidate proteins for diagnosis and vaccine/drug design and may provide better understand of the host-parasite relationship in human gnathostomiasis. PMID:26318732

  13. Cell surface protein antigen from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238T.

    PubMed Central

    Kokeguchi, S; Kato, K; Kurihara, H; Murayama, Y

    1989-01-01

    A high-molecular-weight (approximately 150,000) protein was selectively isolated by acid extraction from the cell surface of Wolinella recta and purified by negative adsorption on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that this protein was found in W. recta but not in other Wolinella species, such as W. curva and W. succinogenes. Sera from patients with periodontitis reacted strongly with this protein antigen, whereas sera from healthy donors showed little or no reactivity, as determined by immunoblotting analysis. In serum, titers of immunoglobulin G antibodies to the protein antigen were significantly higher in patients with periodontitis than in periodontally healthy donors, as detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Images PMID:2753998

  14. Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins

    E-print Network

    Teytelman, Leonid

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the gold-standard technique for localizing nuclear proteins in the genome. We used ChIP, in combination with deep sequencing (Seq), to study the genome-wide distribution of the Silent ...

  15. Protein antigen expression in Escherichia coli for antibody production.

    PubMed

    Rancour, David M; Backues, Steven K; Bednarek, Sebastian Y

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a frequently used expression system for the generation of protein encoded by genes from diverse kingdoms and, thus, it is well suited for the production of protein antigens for antibody generation. It is a system of choice for many due to factors such as (1) the commercial availability of a vast array of reagents and materials needed for cloning, expression, and purification and (2) the potential high protein yields that can be acquired in a timely and cost-effective manner. This chapter will focus on (1) the general principles to keep in mind when choosing an antigen to express and (2) the use of a modified pGEX vector system (Rancour et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279:54264-54274, 2004) to use in its expression. Simplified protocols are provided for (1) assessing the expression of your protein, (2) testing whether your protein is or is not expressed as a soluble product, (3) performing bulk purifications of soluble or insoluble E. coli-expressed protein to acquire enough to be used for a complete immunization protocol, and (4) an optional procedure for epitope tag removal from your expressed protein of interest in order to avoid the unnecessary and sometimes unwanted production of antibodies against the fusion protein affinity chromatography tag. These four procedures have been used extensively and successfully in our lab as a basis for the production of recombinant protein and subsequent antibody production. PMID:20602203

  16. Antigenicity and antigenic relatedness of the outer membrane proteins of Shigella species.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Das, A B; Biswas, T

    1994-01-01

    SDS-PAGE analysis of the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei showed similar profiles after isolation from Shigella species grown at 30, 37 and 42 degrees C. In S. dysenteriae there was a 25 and a 17 kD polypeptide at 37 degrees C only, compared with the other two temperatures. In all four Shigella spp the major protein band was around 34-38 kD. Antibodies raised in mice against formalinized bacteria gave a strong OMP specific response in both IgM and IgG classes, with IgG1 being the dominant subclass in all the species. Western blotting showed the major OMP to be the predominant antigen which was present in all the three temperatures tested. Cross-reactivity studies of the antigenic OMP of Shigella revealed that the major protein around 38 kD was related in the four species. Biochemical analysis of the partially purified major OMP indicated it to be porin. PMID:7521507

  17. Quantitating protein synthesis, degradation, and endogenous antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Princiotta, Michael F; Finzi, Diana; Qian, Shu-Bing; Gibbs, James; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Buttgereit, Frank; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2003-03-01

    Using L929 cells, we quantitated the macroeconomics of protein synthesis and degradation and the microeconomics of producing MHC class I associated peptides from viral translation products. To maintain a content of 2.6 x 10(9) proteins, each cell's 6 x 10(6) ribosomes produce 4 x 10(6) proteins min(-1). Each of the cell's 8 x 10(5) proteasomes degrades 2.5 substrates min(-1), creating one MHC class I-peptide complex for each 500-3000 viral translation products degraded. The efficiency of complex formation is similar in dendritic cells and macrophages, which play a critical role in activating T cells in vivo. Proteasomes create antigenic peptides at different efficiencies from two distinct substrate pools: rapidly degraded newly synthesized proteins that clearly represent defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and a less rapidly degraded pool in which DRiPs may also predominate. PMID:12648452

  18. Isoprenylation mediates direct protein-protein interactions between hepatitis large delta antigen and hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, S B; Lai, M M

    1993-01-01

    Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) consists of two protein species of 195 and 214 amino acids, respectively, which are identical in sequence except that the large HDAg has additional 19 amino acids at its C terminus and is prenylated. Previous studies have shown that the large HDAg and the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) together can form empty hepatitis delta virus (HDV) particles. To understand the molecular mechanism of HDV virion morphogenesis, we investigated the possible direct protein-protein interaction between HDAg and HBsAg. We constructed recombinant baculoviruses expressing the major form of HBsAg and various mutant HDAgs and used these proteins for far-Western protein binding assays. We demonstrated that HBsAg interacted specifically with the large HDAg but not with the small HDAg. Using mutant HDAgs which have defective or aberrant prenylation, we showed that this interaction required isoprenylates on the cysteine residue of the C terminus of the large HDAg. Isoprenylation alone, without the remainder of the C-terminal amino acids of the large HDAg, was insufficient to mediate interaction with HBsAg. This study demonstrates a novel role of prenylates in HDV virion assembly. Images PMID:8230486

  19. Antigenic structure of Coxiella burnetii. A comparison of lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens as vaccines against Q fever.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C; Hoover, T A; Waag, D M; Banerjee-Bhatnagar, N; Bolt, C R; Scott, G H

    1990-01-01

    The antigenic structure of Coxiella burnetii is being investigated by identifying both external and internal cellular epitopes of the morphologic cell types. Both the phase I lipopolysaccharide (LPSI) and several surface proteins are candidates for the development of subunit multivalent vaccines. The protective efficacy of purified LPSI was demonstrated in A/J mice. The purified LPSI preparations contained residual peptides detected by amino acid analysis. Therefore, the protection afforded by LPSI may be, in part, due to the presence of peptides. The purification of proteins free of LPSI must be accomplished before the protective efficacy of proteins or peptides can be established. We have identified three proteins that are both antigenic and immunogenic, as indicated by either enzyme immunoassay, radioimmunoprecipitation, immunoblot assay, or lymphocyte transformation. A 62-kDa protein antigen encoded by the htpB gene of C. burnetii was analyzed for immunogenicity. The purified protein antigen was immunogenic, as it elicited specific antibodies and performed as recall antigen in lymphocyte stimulation assays. The antigen was not detected on the surface of phase I cells but was highly represented on the surface of phase II cells. Therefore, the protein may not be a good candidate for vaccine development. The diagnostic utility of the 62-kDa protein antigen lies in the fact that convalescent and chronic Q fever sera from human patients reacted with the antigen, whereas acute sera did not. Although the 62-kDa protein is a "common antigen," specific peptide-based diagnostic reagents may be useful in the detection of Q fever disease progression. A major surface protein (P1) of roughly 29.5 kDa was purified from the phase I Nine Mile (clone 7) strain. No LPSI was detected in the P1 preparation by three different LPSI monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies prepared against P1 were effective in localizing the protein on the cell surface, in the cell wall, and associated with the peptidoglycan of large cells of C. burnetii. Small, pressure-resistant cells did not contain P1. Mice immunized with two 25-micrograms injections of LPSI produced antibodies against LPSI and phase I whole cells. No antibody was detected against phase II whole cells. Immunization with P1 induced antibody against the LPSI fraction and phase I and phase II whole cells. P1 was more effective than LPSI in reducing the number of infectious C. burnetii in the spleens of challenged mice. The gene encoding another protein (P2) recognized by P1 monoclonal antibodies was cloned and sequenced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2378463

  20. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines requires testing of additional antigens, optimization of the vaccine formulation and a better understanding of the protective immune response. PMID:26079491

  1. Formaldehyde treatment of proteins can constrain presentation to T cells by limiting antigen processing.

    PubMed Central

    di Tommaso, A; de Magistris, M T; Bugnoli, M; Marsili, I; Rappuoli, R; Abrignani, S

    1994-01-01

    Proteins to be used as vaccines are frequently treated with formaldehyde, although little is known about the effects of this treatment on protein antigenicity. To investigate the effect of formaldehyde treatment on antigen recognition by T cells, we compared the in vitro T-cell response to proteins that have been formaldehyde treated with the response to untreated proteins. We found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals vaccinated with three formaldehyde-treated proteins (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin) of Bordetella pertussis showed little or no response to the formaldehyde-treated proteins but proliferated very well in response to the corresponding untreated protein. These findings were further confirmed with CD4+ T-cell clones specific for defined epitopes of the bacterial proteins. We found that some epitopes are presented poorly or not at all when formaldehyde-treated proteins are used, whereas other epitopes are equally presented to T-cell clones when either formaldehyde-treated or untreated antigens are used. However, T-cell recognition could be restored by either antigen degradation before formaldehyde treatment or heat denaturation after such treatment. Parallel digestion with trypsin of both formaldehyde-treated and untreated proteins showed that fragments generated from the two forms of the same antigen were different in size. These results demonstrate that formaldehyde treatment can constrain antigen presentation to T cells and that this may be due to an altered proteolytic processing of formaldehyde-treated proteins. Images PMID:7513307

  2. Discovery of novel Schistosoma japonicum antigens using a targeted protein microarray approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel vaccine candidates against Schistosoma japonicum are required, and antigens present in the vulnerable larval developmental stage are attractive targets. Post-genomic technologies are now available which can contribute to such antigen discovery. Methods A schistosome-specific protein microarray was probed using the local antibody response against migrating larvae. Antigens were assessed for their novelty and predicted larval expression and host-exposed features. One antigen was further characterised and its sequence and structure were analysed in silico. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse transcript expression throughout development, and immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employed to determine antigen recognition by antibody samples. Results Several known and novel antigens were discovered, two of which showed up-regulated transcription in schistosomula. One novel antigen, termed S. japonicum Ly-6-like protein 1 (Sj-L6L-1), was further characterised and shown to share structural and sequence features with the Ly-6 protein family. It was found to be present in the worm tegument and expressed in both the larval and adult worms, but was found to be antigenic only in the lungs that the larvae migrate to and traverse. Conclusions This study represents a novel approach to vaccine antigen discovery and may contribute to schistosome vaccine development against this important group of human and veterinary pathogens. PMID:24964958

  3. Passive immunity to yersiniae mediated by anti-recombinant V antigen and protein A-V antigen fusion peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Motin, V L; Nakajima, R; Smirnov, G B; Brubaker, R R

    1994-01-01

    LcrV (V antigen), a known unstable 37.3-kDa monomeric peptide encoded on the ca. 70-kb Lcr plasmid of Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica, has been implicated as a regulator of the low-calcium response, virulence factor, and protective antigen. In this study, lcrV of Y. pestis was cloned into protease-deficient Escherichia coli BL21. The resulting recombinant V antigen underwent marked degradation from the C-terminal end during purification, yielding major peptides of 36, 35, 34, and 32 to 29 kDa. Rabbit gamma globulin raised against this mixture of cleavage products provided significant protection against 10 minimum lethal doses of Y. pestis (P < 0.01) and Y. pseudotuberculosis (P < 0.02). To both stabilize V antigen and facilitate its purification, plasmid pPAV13 was constructed so as to encode a fusion of lcrV and the structural gene for protein A (i.e., all but the first 67 N-terminal amino acids of V antigen plus the signal sequence and immunoglobulin G-binding domains but not the cell wall-associated region of protein A). The resulting fusion peptide, termed PAV, could be purified to homogeneity in one step by immunoglobulin G affinity chromatography and was stable thereafter. Rabbit polyclonal gamma globulin directed against PAV provided excellent passive immunity against 10 minimum lethal doses of Y. pestis (P < 0.005) and Y. pseudotuberculosis (P < 0.005) but was ineffective against Y. enterocolitica. Protection failed after absorption with excess PAV, cloned whole V antigen, or a large (31.5-kDa) truncated derivative of the latter but was retained (P < 0.005) upon similar absorption with a smaller (19.3-kDa) truncated variant, indicating that at least one protective epitope resides internally between amino acids 168 and 275. Images PMID:7927675

  4. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-03-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of approx. =72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation.

  5. Plasma membrane vesicles decorated with glycolipid-anchored antigens and adjuvants via protein transfer as an antigen delivery platform for inhibition of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaina M; Vartabedian, Vincent F; Bozeman, Erica N; Caoyonan, Brianne E; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Pack, Christopher D; Dey, Paulami; D'Souza, Martin J; Yang, Lily; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    Antigen delivered within particulate materials leads to enhanced antigen-specific immunity compared to soluble administration of antigen. However, current delivery approaches for antigen encapsulated in synthetic particulate materials are limited by the complexity of particle production that affects stability and immunogenicity of the antigen. Herein, we describe a protein delivery system that utilizes plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) derived from biological materials such as cultured cells or isolated tissues and a simple protein transfer technology. We show that these particulate PMVs can be easily modified within 4 h by a protein transfer process to stably incorporate a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form of the breast cancer antigen HER-2 onto the PMV surface. Immunization of mice with GPI-HER-2-modified-PMVs induced strong HER-2-specific antibody responses and protection from tumor challenge in two different breast cancer models. Further incorporation of the immunostimulatory molecules IL-12 and B7-1 onto the PMVs by protein transfer enhanced tumor protection and induced beneficial Th1 and Th2-type HER-2-specific immune responses. Since protein antigens can be easily converted to GPI-anchored forms, these results demonstrate that isolated plasma membrane vesicles can be modified with desired antigens along with immunostimulatory molecules by protein transfer and used as a vaccine delivery vehicle to elicit potent antigen-specific immunity. PMID:26461116

  6. The Leptospiral Antigen Lp49 is a Two-Domain Protein with Putative Protein Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Giuseppe,P.; Oliveira Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Gomes Guimaraes, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Currently available vaccines have limited effectiveness and therapeutic interventions are complicated by the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of leptospirosis. The genome of Leptospira interrogans was recently sequenced and comparative genomic analysis contributed to the identification of surface antigens, potential candidates for development of new vaccines and serodiagnosis. Lp49 is a membrane-associated protein recognized by antibodies present in sera from early and convalescent phases of leptospirosis patients. Its crystal structure was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using selenomethionine-labelled crystals and refined at 2.0 Angstroms resolution. Lp49 is composed of two domains and belongs to the all-beta-proteins class. The N-terminal domain folds in an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, whereas the C-terminal domain presents a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Structural analysis of Lp49 indicates putative protein-protein binding sites, suggesting a role in Leptospira-host interaction. This is the first crystal structure of a leptospiral antigen described to date.

  7. Evaluation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 3 (MSP3) as a diagnostic test antigen.

    PubMed

    Alleman, A R; Barbet, A F

    1996-02-01

    An immunodominant surface protein, major surface protein 3 (MSP3), has been proposed as an antigen suitable for use in the diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis. We further characterized MSP3 to examine its potential as a test antigen for the serological diagnosis of carrier cattle. The specificity of this antigen in detecting infected cattle as well as the conservation of MSP3 between strains of Anaplasma marginale was evaluated by using immunoblots of A. marginale proteins separated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses. Immune sera from animals infected with Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia risticii, and Ehrlichia ewingii reacted with the MSP3 antigen of A. marginale. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of A. marginale proteins demonstrated size polymorphism of MSP3 between different geographic isolates. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed at least three different antigens migrating at the 86-kDa molecular size, and sera from animals infected with different strains of A. marginale reacted with different 86-kDa antigens. These results indicate that MSP3 may share cross-reactive epitopes with antigens found in A. ovis and some Ehrlichia spp. In addition, MSP3 is not conserved between different isolates of A. marginale, and at least in the isolate from Florida, what was previously identified as MSP3 is actually a group of three or more 86-kDa antigens with different isoelectric points. The cross-reactivity of MSP3 with some Ehrlichia spp., the variability of MSP3 between isolates, and the multiple 86-kDa antigens recognized by various sera suggest that MSP3 is not a suitable candidate for use as a recombinant test antigen. PMID:8788999

  8. Evaluation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 3 (MSP3) as a diagnostic test antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, A R; Barbet, A F

    1996-01-01

    An immunodominant surface protein, major surface protein 3 (MSP3), has been proposed as an antigen suitable for use in the diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis. We further characterized MSP3 to examine its potential as a test antigen for the serological diagnosis of carrier cattle. The specificity of this antigen in detecting infected cattle as well as the conservation of MSP3 between strains of Anaplasma marginale was evaluated by using immunoblots of A. marginale proteins separated by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses. Immune sera from animals infected with Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia risticii, and Ehrlichia ewingii reacted with the MSP3 antigen of A. marginale. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of A. marginale proteins demonstrated size polymorphism of MSP3 between different geographic isolates. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed at least three different antigens migrating at the 86-kDa molecular size, and sera from animals infected with different strains of A. marginale reacted with different 86-kDa antigens. These results indicate that MSP3 may share cross-reactive epitopes with antigens found in A. ovis and some Ehrlichia spp. In addition, MSP3 is not conserved between different isolates of A. marginale, and at least in the isolate from Florida, what was previously identified as MSP3 is actually a group of three or more 86-kDa antigens with different isoelectric points. The cross-reactivity of MSP3 with some Ehrlichia spp., the variability of MSP3 between isolates, and the multiple 86-kDa antigens recognized by various sera suggest that MSP3 is not a suitable candidate for use as a recombinant test antigen. PMID:8788999

  9. 20-kDa protein associated with the murine T-cell antigen receptor is phosphorylated in response to activation by antigen or concanavalin A

    SciTech Connect

    Samelson, L.E.; Harford, J.; Schwartz, R.H.; Klausner, R.D.

    1985-04-01

    Antigen or concanavalin A activation of a murine T-cell hybrid specific for pigeon cytochrome resulted in phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that was specifically coprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody binding the T-cell antigen receptor. There was no evidence for phosphorylation of the antigen receptor itself. The phosphorylation of the 20-kDa polypeptide was dependent on the concentration of antigen or lectin used to activate the T-cell hybrid and reached a maximum 40 min after the addition of antigen. The 20-kDa protein was also radioiodinated with a hydrophobic photoactivatable labeling reagent. The amount of iodinated 20-kDa protein immunoprecipitable with the anti-receptor antibody did not increase with T-cell activation, indicating that the phosphorylation occurred on a molecule that was constitutively associated with the antigen receptor. Concanavalin A also induced phosphorylation of a 20-kDa polypeptide in a second antigen-specific major histocompatibility complex-restricted T-cell hybrid. Again, the phosphorylated polypeptide was precipitated only by a monoclonal antibody specific for the antigen receptor on this hybrid. Thus, the antigen or concanavalin A-induced activation of T-cell hybrids results in the rapid phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that is associated with the T-cell receptor.

  10. The same normal cell protein is phosphorylated after transformation by avian sarcoma viruses with unrelated transforming genes.

    PubMed Central

    Erikson, E; Cook, R; Miller, G J; Erikson, R L

    1981-01-01

    The phosphorylation of a normal cellular protein of molecular weight 34,000 (34K) is enhanced in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts apparently as a direct consequence of the phosphotransferase activity of the Rous sarcoma virus-transforming protein pp60src. We have prepared anti-34K serum by using 34K purified from normal fibroblasts to confirm that the transformation-specific phosphorylation described previously occurs on a normal cellular protein and to further characterize the nature of the protein. In this communication, we also show that the phosphorylation of 34K is also increased in cells transformed by either Fujinami or PRCII sarcoma virus, two recently characterized avian sarcoma viruses whose transforming proteins, although distinct from pp60src, are also associated with phosphotransferase activity. Moreover, comparative fingerprinting of tryptic phosphopeptides shows that the major site of phosphorylation of 34K is the same in all three cases. Images PMID:6100959

  11. Post-embedding immunolabelling. Some effects of tissue preparation on the antigenicity of plant proteins.

    PubMed

    Craig, S; Goodchild, D J

    1982-10-01

    The sensitivity of detection of proteins by immunolabelling embedded and sectioned material depends upon retention of antigenicity during tissue processing. Losses in pea seed storage protein antigenicity have been assessed using a solid phase radioimmunoassay. Storage proteins adsorbed to wells of microtiter plates were treated with the various "tissue preparation" steps and reacted with 125I-antibodies to the storage proteins. The glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde fixation steps caused approximately 60% and 30% loss in antigenicity, respectively. With each subsequent preparative step, losses accumulate and following treatment with Spurr's epoxy resin reached approximately 85% and 90%, respectively. However, if Lowicryl K4M, a methacrylate-acrylate embedding medium was used, losses were retained at approximately 70% and 60%, respectively. These observations have been verified on sections of embedded material using two labelling procedures, with protein A-gold and ferritin as the markers. PMID:6184229

  12. An approach to postembedding staining of protein (immunoglobulin) antigen embedded in plastic: prerequisites and limitations.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, H; Batsford, S; Vogt, A

    1980-10-01

    A method is described for performing postembedding staining of protein (immunoglobulin) antigen embedded in styrene-methacrylate resin. Fixation of specimens in a combination of 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.2% picric acid and washing in buffer containing 7% sucrose, followed by abrupt dehydration with absolute acetone in the cold preserved the antigenicity, although in a masked form. The masked antigenicity could be reexposed by treatment with nonspecific protease. Staining with fluorescent-, peroxidase-, or ferritin-labeled antibodies on semi- and ultrathin sections resulted in specific localization of the antigen. We applied this technique to the localization of rabbit immunoglobulin in specimens of renal tissue obtained from rats with anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis; we also localized human IgG in a renal biopsy specimen. The prerequisites for recovery of antigenicity are such that preservation of tissue structure at the light microscopic level is good, but relatively poor at the electron microscopic level. PMID:6158534

  13. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures. PMID:26341468

  14. Systematic cloning of Treponema pallidum open reading frames for protein expression and antigen discovery.

    PubMed

    McKevitt, Matthew; Patel, Krupa; Smajs, David; Marsh, Michael; McLoughlin, Melanie; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-07-01

    A topoisomerase-based method was used to clone PCR products encoding 991 of the 1041 open reading frames identified in the genome sequence of the bacterium that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Cloning the open reading frames into the univector plasmid system permitted the rapid conversion of the original clone set to other functional vectors containing a variety of promoters or tag sequences. A computational prediction of signal sequences identified 248 T. pallidum proteins that are potentially secreted from the cell. These clones were systematically converted into vectors designed to express the encoded proteins as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins. To test the potential of the clone set for novel antigen discovery, 85 of these fusion proteins were expressed from Escherichia coli, partially purified, and tested for antigenicity by using sera from rabbits infected with T. pallidum. Twelve of the 85 proteins bound significant levels of antibody. Of these 12 proteins, seven had previously been identified as T. pallidum antigens, and the remaining five represent novel antigens. These results demonstrate the potential of the T. pallidum clone set for antigen discovery and, more generally, for advancing the biology of this enigmatic spirochete. PMID:12805273

  15. Candidate Antigens for Q Fever Serodiagnosis Revealed by Immunoscreening of a Coxiella burnetii Protein Microarray?

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Paul A.; Chen, Chen; Bouman, Timo; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Cockrell, Diane C.; Brown, Wendy C.; Barbian, Kent D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Samuel, James E.; Felgner, Philip L.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever is usually based on serological testing of patient serum. The diagnostic antigen of test kits is formalin-fixed phase I and phase II organisms of the Nine Mile reference strain. Deficiencies of this antigen include (i) potential for cross-reactivity with other pathogens; (ii) an inability to distinguish between C. burnetii strains; and (iii) a need to propagate and purify C. burnetii, a difficult and potentially hazardous process. Consequently, there is a need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests utilizing defined antigens, such as recombinant C. burnetii protein(s). Here we describe the use of a C. burnetii protein microarray to comprehensively identify immunodominant antigens recognized by antibody in the context of human C. burnetii infection or vaccination. Transcriptionally active PCR products corresponding to 1,988 C. burnetii open reading frames (ORFs) were generated. Full-length proteins were successfully synthesized from 75% of the ORFs by using an Escherichia coli-based in vitro transcription and translation system (IVTT). Nitrocellulose microarrays were spotted with crude IVTT lysates and probed with sera from acute Q fever patients and individuals vaccinated with Q-Vax. Immune sera strongly reacted with approximately 50 C. burnetii proteins, including previously identified immunogens, an ankyrin repeat-domain containing protein, and multiple hypothetical proteins. Recombinant protein corresponding to selected array-reactive antigens was generated, and the immunoreactivity was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This sensitive and high-throughput method for identifying immunoreactive C. burnetii proteins will aid in the development of Q fever serodiagnostic tests based on recombinant antigen. PMID:18845831

  16. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C. )

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the {Delta}{sup 9} desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  17. Overexpression and Enzymatic Assessment of Antigenic Fragments of Hyaluronidase Recombinant Protein From Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sadoogh Abbasian, Shabnam; Ghaznavi Rad, Ehsanollah; Akbari, Neda; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; pakzad, Iraj; Abtahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan polymers to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. This enzyme is a dimer of identical subunits. Hyaluronidase has different pharmaceutical and medical applications. Previously, we produced a recombinant hyaluronidase antigenic fragment of Streptococcus pyogenes. Objectives: This study aimed to improve the protein production and purity of hyaluronidase recombinant protein from S. pyogenes. In addition, the enzymatic activity of this protein was investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of hyaluronidase antigenic fragments was optimized using IPTG concentration, time of induction, temperature, culture, and absorbance of 0.6-0.8-1 at 600 nm. Afterwards, the expressed proteins were purified and the enzymatic activity was assessed by turbid metric method. Results: Data indicated that maximum protein is produced in OD = 0.8, 0.5 mM Isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), 37ºC, NB 1.5x, without glucose, incubated for overnight. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein was similar to the commercial form of hyaluronidase. Conclusions: The results showed that an antigenic fragment of the recombinant hyaluronidase protein from S. pyogenes has a considerable enzymatic activity. It can be suggested to use it for medical purposes. In addition, applications of bioinformatics software would facilitate the production of a smaller protein with same antigenic properties and enzymatic activity. PMID:25789122

  18. Analysis of spiroplasma proteins: contribution to the taxonomy of group IV spiroplasmas and the characterization of spiroplasma protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Mouches, C.; Candresse, T.; McGarrity, G. J.; Bové, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Spiroplasma strains of group IV were compared by two-dimensional protein analyses on polyacrylamide gels. Although considerable diversity was evident, the assemblages studied were less heterogeneous than the known strains of group I. Two electrophoretic techniques were used to identify spiroplasma proteins that had been used to immunize rabbits. These included monoclonal antibodies prepared against Spiroplasma citri. In the first technique, protein antigens were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, then identified with SDS-PAGE. In the second technique, spiroplasma proteins were first separated by SDS-PAGE, then antigens were identified by antibody binding to blot-transferred proteins. Finally, two-dimensional protein electrophoresis has been used as a source of immunogens to characterize monospecific antibodies against individual S. citri proteins. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:6206657

  19. Proteomic Screening of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Ha; slam, Mohammad Saiful; You, Myung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. For detection of antigens from Haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-DE) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. Reactivity bands and 2-DE immunoblotting were performed following 2-DE electrophoresis to identify protein spots. The proteome of the partially fed female had a larger number of lower molecular weight proteins than that of the unfed female tick. The total number of detected spots was 818 for unfed and 670 for partially fed female ticks. The 2-DE immunoblotting identified 10 antigenic spots from unfed females and 8 antigenic spots from partially fed females. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) of relevant spots identified calreticulin, putative secreted WC salivary protein, and a conserved hypothetical protein from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Swiss Prot protein sequence databases. These findings indicate that most of the whole body components of these ticks are non-immunogenic. The data reported here will provide guidance in the identification of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by H. longicornis. PMID:25748713

  20. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  1. Histocompatibility antigen test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antigen blood test looks at proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). These are found on the surface ... Wang, E. Human leukocyte antigen and human neutrophil antigen systems. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, eds. ...

  2. Western blot analysis of antibody response to pneumococcal protein antigens in a murine model of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Mouneimne, H; Juvin, M; Beretti, J L; Azoulay-Dupuis, E; Vallee, E; Geslin, P; Petitpretz, P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1997-01-01

    To detect new antigen candidates for serological tests, we studied the antibody response to pneumococcal protein antigens in mice infected intratracheally with various Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Sera were tested by Western blotting against whole-cell protein extracts. Mice developed a detectable immunoglobulin G-type response against a small number of polypeptides. The antibody response was strain dependent: sera from individuals infected with the same strain gave similar banding patterns on immunoblots. The banding patterns varied with the strain used for infection. However, a band at 36 to 38 kDa was recognized by all reactive sera. This band appeared to correspond to a polypeptide that was antigenically well conserved among the different S. pneumoniae serotypes. An antibody response to this antigen developed in mice irrespective of the capsular type, the virulence, and the susceptibility to penicillin G of the infecting strain. Thus, this 36- to 38-kDa protein antigen may be of value for the development of a serological test for humans. PMID:9384307

  3. Fusion Protein Vaccines Targeting Two Tumor Antigens Generate Synergistic Anti-Tumor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen-Fang; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Sun, Wei-Zen; Jen, Yu-Wei; Liao, Chao-Wei; Chen, Yun-Yuan; Chen, Chi-An

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been consistently implicated in causing several kinds of malignancies, and two HPV oncogenes, E6 and E7, represent two potential target antigens for cancer vaccines. We developed two fusion protein vaccines, PE(?III)/E6 and PE(?III)/E7 by targeting these two tumor antigens to test whether a combination of two fusion proteins can generate more potent anti-tumor effects than a single fusion protein. Materials and Methods In vivo antitumor effects including preventive, therapeutic, and antibody depletion experiments were performed. In vitro assays including intracellular cytokine staining and ELISA for Ab responses were also performed. Results PE(?III)/E6+PE(?III)/E7 generated both stronger E6 and E7-specific immunity. Only 60% of the tumor protective effect was observed in the PE(?III)/E6 group compared to 100% in the PE(?III)/E7 and PE(?III)/E6+PE(?III)/E7 groups. Mice vaccinated with the PE(?III)/E6+PE(?III)/E7 fusion proteins had a smaller subcutaneous tumor size than those vaccinated with PE(?III)/E6 or PE(?III)/E7 fusion proteins alone. Conclusion Fusion protein vaccines targeting both E6 and E7 tumor antigens generated more potent immunotherapeutic effects than E6 or E7 tumor antigens alone. This novel strategy of targeting two tumor antigens together can promote the development of cancer vaccines and immunotherapy in HPV-related malignancies. PMID:24058440

  4. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    . anthracis consists of two bipartite protein exotoxins, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin. LT is composed of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF), whereas edema toxin consists of PA and edema factor (EF). None of these three components, PA, LF, and EF, alone is toxic. Once combined, however, edema toxin

  5. Immunoassay using /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled protein A and antigen-coated tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, A.P.; Langone, J.J.

    1981-09-15

    Antigen-coated plastic tubes were used with /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled stapylococcal protein A in a general immunoassay method for antigens and haptens. Protein A reacts with immunoglobulin G(IgG) regardless of antibody specificity at sites distal to the antigen combining site and does not inhibit the immune reaction. It therefore serves as a general tracer and its use eliminates the need to purify and to label individual components for each assay. Macromolecular antigens were bound to polystyrene or polypropylene tubes by direct passive absorption. Haptens with free carboxyl groups were bound covalently to poly-L-lysine and these conjugates passively absorbed to the tube surface. Optimal assay conditions were established for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulins and the folate derivatives, methotrexate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, using /sup 125/I-labeled protein A or protein A labeled with alkaline phosphatase. The method has been used to estimate levels of IgG, IgA, Igm, and IgE in serum in volumes up to 1 ml.

  6. Existence of uncoupling protein-2 antigen in isolated mitochondria from various tissues

    E-print Network

    Garlid, Keith

    the presence of the UCP2/3 antigen in isolated mitochondria from rat heart, rat kidney, rat brain, rabbit¢ed, expressed UCP2 and UCP3 are functional uncoupling proteins in that they catalyze fatty acid-dependent proton, this role has also been proposed for UCP3, based on its selectivity for skeletal muscle in humans [3

  7. A fragment of anthrax lethal factor delivers proteins to the cytosol without requiring protective antigen

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Judy

    A fragment of anthrax lethal factor delivers proteins to the cytosol without requiring protective) Anthrax protective antigen (PA) is a 735-aa polypeptide that facili- tates the exit of anthrax lethal. Furthermore, these results enable us to propose a modified molecular mechanism of anthrax lethal toxin

  8. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Permyakova, Natalia V.; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Uvarova, Elena A.; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Nesterov, Andrey E.; Novikovskaya, Anna A.; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L.; Moshkin, Mikhail P.; Deineko, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human ?-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  9. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human ?-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  10. A Burkholderia pseudomallei protein microarray reveals serodiagnostic and cross-reactive antigens

    PubMed Central

    Felgner, Philip L.; Kayala, Matthew A.; Vigil, Adam; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M.; Hirst, Siddiqua; Chew, Janet S. W.; Wang, Dongling; Tan, Gladys; Duffield, Melanie; Yang, Ron; Neel, Julien; Chantratita, Narisara; Bancroft, Greg; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Davies, D. Huw; Baldi, Pierre; Peacock, Sharon; Titball, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the way in which the immune system responds to infection is central to the development of vaccines and many diagnostics. To provide insight into this area, we fabricated a protein microarray containing 1,205 Burkholderia pseudomallei proteins, probed it with 88 melioidosis patient sera, and identified 170 reactive antigens. This subset of antigens was printed on a smaller array and probed with a collection of 747 individual sera derived from 10 patient groups including melioidosis patients from Northeast Thailand and Singapore, patients with different infections, healthy individuals from the USA, and from endemic and nonendemic regions of Thailand. We identified 49 antigens that are significantly more reactive in melioidosis patients than healthy people and patients with other types of bacterial infections. We also identified 59 cross-reactive antigens that are equally reactive among all groups, including healthy controls from the USA. Using these results we were able to devise a test that can classify melioidosis positive and negative individuals with sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 83%, respectively, a significant improvement over currently available diagnostic assays. Half of the reactive antigens contained a predicted signal peptide sequence and were classified as outer membrane, surface structures or secreted molecules, and an additional 20% were associated with pathogenicity, adaptation or chaperones. These results show that microarrays allow a more comprehensive analysis of the immune response on an antigen-specific, patient-specific, and population-specific basis, can identify serodiagnostic antigens, and contribute to a more detailed understanding of immunogenicity to this pathogen. PMID:19666533

  11. Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus.

    PubMed Central

    Green, K Y; Kapikian, A Z; Valdesuso, J; Sosnovtsev, S; Treanor, J J; Lew, J F

    1997-01-01

    The Norwalk and Hawaii viruses are antigenically distinct members of the family Caliciviridae and are considered to be important etiologic agents of epidemic gastroenteritis, with most studies focusing on the role of Norwalk virus. To further investigate the importance of Hawaii virus, Hawaii virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by expression of its capsid protein in the baculovirus system and these VLPs were used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was efficient in the detection of a serologic response to Hawaii virus. The ready availability of Hawaii VLPs should enable larger-scale epidemiological studies to further elucidate the importance of this agent. PMID:9196224

  12. Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Green, K Y; Kapikian, A Z; Valdesuso, J; Sosnovtsev, S; Treanor, J J; Lew, J F

    1997-07-01

    The Norwalk and Hawaii viruses are antigenically distinct members of the family Caliciviridae and are considered to be important etiologic agents of epidemic gastroenteritis, with most studies focusing on the role of Norwalk virus. To further investigate the importance of Hawaii virus, Hawaii virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by expression of its capsid protein in the baculovirus system and these VLPs were used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was efficient in the detection of a serologic response to Hawaii virus. The ready availability of Hawaii VLPs should enable larger-scale epidemiological studies to further elucidate the importance of this agent. PMID:9196224

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  14. Specific Nongluten Proteins of Wheat Are Novel Target Antigens in Celiac Disease Humoral Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, ?-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  15. Mature Erythrocyte Surface Antigen Protein Identified in the Serum of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Muhi, Jamail; Abdu Sani, Asmahani Azira; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to identify circulating Plasmodium falciparum proteins in patient serum, which may be useful as diagnostic markers. Depletion of highly abundant proteins from each pooled serum sample obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients and healthy individuals was performed using the Proteoseek Antibody-Based Albumin/IgG Removal Kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL). In analysis 1, the depleted serum was analyzed directly by NanoLC-MS/MS. In analysis 2, the depleted serum was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by western blot analysis. Subsequently, the selected band was analyzed by NanoLC-MS/MS. The result of analysis 1 revealed the presence of two mature erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA) proteins and chloroquine resistance transporter protein (PfCRT). In addition, analysis 2 revealed an antigenic 75-kDa band when the membrane was probed with purified IgG from the pooled serum obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients. MS/MS analysis of this protein band revealed fragments of P. falciparum MESA proteins. Thus, in this study, two different analyses revealed the presence of Plasmodium MESA protein in pooled serum from malaria patients; thus, this protein should be further investigated to determine its usefulness as a diagnostic marker. PMID:26392156

  16. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. PMID:26148816

  17. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Edwards, Aled M.; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols. PMID:26437229

  18. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Greenblatt, Jack F; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Edwards, Aled M; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols. PMID:26437229

  19. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

  20. A type-specific antigen of Eikenella corrodens is the major outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Maliszewski, C R; Shuster, C W; Badger, S J

    1983-01-01

    Eikenella corrodens released antigenic material in the form of outer membrane fragments during growth. A culture filtrate antigen (AgA) from three strains reacted with antisera to whole bacteria with serotype specificity. A monoclonal antibody to the AgA of strain 1073 reacted with only 2 of 12 strains tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, and immunoelectrophoresis assay. The antigenic reactivity was resistant to boiling and to pronase and trypsin treatments. AgA was isolated from an outer membrane preparation after boiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate, radioiodinating the proteins, and precipitating AgA specifically with monoclonal antibody. A single protein band corresponding to the major outer membrane protein of E. corrodens was observed by autoradiography of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitate. AgA had a molecular weight of 42,000, and its amino acid content resembled those reported for major outer membrane proteins with similar molecular weights from two other gram-negative organisms. Images PMID:6352493

  1. A novel Treponema pallidum antigen, TP0136, is an outer membrane protein that binds human fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Mary Beth; McGill, Melanie A; Pettersson, Jonas; Rogers, Arthur; Matejková, Petra; Smajs, David; Weinstock, George M; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy

    2008-05-01

    The antigenicity, structural location, and function of the predicted lipoprotein TP0136 of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were investigated based on previous screening studies indicating that anti-TP0136 antibodies are present in the sera of syphilis patients and experimentally infected rabbits. Recombinant TP0136 (rTP0136) protein was purified and shown to be strongly antigenic during human and experimental rabbit infection. The TP0136 protein was exposed on the surface of the bacterial outer membrane and bound to the host extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and laminin. In addition, the TP0136 open reading frame was shown to be highly polymorphic among T. pallidum subspecies and strains at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Finally, the ability of rTP0136 protein to act as a protective antigen to subsequent challenge with infectious T. pallidum in the rabbit model of infection was assessed. Immunization with rTP0136 delayed ulceration but did not prevent infection or the formation of lesions. These results demonstrate that TP0136 is expressed on the outer membrane of the treponeme during infection and may be involved in attachment to host extracellular matrix components. PMID:18332212

  2. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. PMID:26297626

  3. A Pneumococcal Protein Array as a Platform to Discover Serodiagnostic Antigens Against Infection.

    PubMed

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

    2015-10-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most common and severe diseases associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children and adults. Etiological diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia in children is generally challenging because of limitations of diagnostic tests and interference with nasopharyngeal colonizing strains. Serological assays have recently gained interest to overcome some problems found with current diagnostic tests in pediatric pneumococcal pneumonia. To provide insight into this field, we have developed a protein array to screen the antibody response to many antigens simultaneously. Proteins were selected by experimental identification from a collection of 24 highly prevalent pediatric clinical isolates in Spain, using a proteomics approach consisting of "shaving" the cell surface with proteases and further LC/MS/MS analysis. Ninety-five proteins were recombinantly produced and printed on an array. We probed it with a collection of sera from children with pneumococcal pneumonia. From the set of the most seroprevalent antigens, we obtained a clear discriminant response for a group of three proteins (PblB, PulA, and PrtA) in children under 4 years old. We validated the results by ELISA and an immunostrip assay showed the translation to easy-to-use, affordable tests. Thus, the protein array here developed presents a tool for broad use in serodiagnostics. PMID:26183717

  4. Three types of proteins on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell involved in activating a T cell

    E-print Network

    Morante, Silvia

    Three types of proteins on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell involved in activating a T cell #12;Cytotoxic T cells recognize foreign peptides in association with class I MHC proteins Helper T cells recognize foreign peptides in association with class II MHC proteins In both cases the peptide

  5. Vaccinia Virus G8R Protein: A Structural Ortholog of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA)

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic DNA replication involves the synthesis of both a DNA leading and lagging strand, the latter requiring several additional proteins including flap endonuclease (FEN-1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in order to remove RNA primers used in the synthesis of Okazaki fragments. Poxviruses are complex viruses (dsDNA genomes) that infect eukaryotes, but surprisingly little is known about the process of DNA replication. Given our previous results that the vaccinia virus (VACV) G5R protein may be structurally similar to a FEN-1-like protein and a recent finding that poxviruses encode a primase function, we undertook a series of in silico analyses to identify whether VACV also encodes a PCNA-like protein. Results An InterProScan of all VACV proteins using the JIPS software package was used to identify any PCNA-like proteins. The VACV G8R protein was identified as the only vaccinia protein that contained a PCNA-like sliding clamp motif. The VACV G8R protein plays a role in poxvirus late transcription and is known to interact with several other poxvirus proteins including itself. The secondary and tertiary structure of the VACV G8R protein was predicted and compared to the secondary and tertiary structure of both human and yeast PCNA proteins, and a high degree of similarity between all three proteins was noted. Conclusions The structure of the VACV G8R protein is predicted to closely resemble the eukaryotic PCNA protein; it possesses several other features including a conserved ubiquitylation and SUMOylation site that suggest that, like its counterpart in T4 bacteriophage (gp45), it may function as a sliding clamp ushering transcription factors to RNA polymerase during late transcription. PMID:19421403

  6. Engineering the chloroplast genome for hyperexpression of human therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2004-01-01

    The chloroplast genome is ideal for engineering because it offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level gene expression, the feasibility of expressing multiple genes or pathways in a single transformation event, and transgene containment due to lack of pollen transmission. The chloroplast-based expression system is suitable for hyperexpression of foreign proteins, oral delivery of vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins, via both leaves and fruits. Through the refinement of expression vectors and use of chaperones, chloroplasts produce up to 47% of foreign protein in the total cellular protein in transgenic tissues. This chapter describes various techniques for creating chloroplast transgenic plants and their biochemical and molecular characterization. Suitable examples for application of chloroplast genetic engineering in human medicine are provided. PMID:15269437

  7. Isolation of a peptide binding protein and its role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.; Pierce, S.K.; Margoliash, E.

    1986-03-05

    A mouse T cell hybrid, TPc9.1, recognizes pigeon cytochrome c (Pc) as processed and presented by histocompatible antigen presenting cells (APC). When paraformaldehyde fixed APC are employed, only a peptide fragment of Pc, Pc 81-104, and not the native Pc, is capable of stimulating TPc9.1 cells. Pc 81-104 appears to associate tightly with the APC surface since paraformaldehyde fixed APC which have been incubated with Pc 81-104 remain stimulatory following extensive washing. When APC are surface labeled with /sup 125/I, solubilized and affinity purified on Pc 81-104-Sepharose 4B columns, two predominant polypeptides of approximately 72 and 74 kd are isolated. Little or no immunoglobulin, Class I or Class II proteins are obtained under these conditions. Antisera from rabbits immunized with the affinity purified material, but not preimmune sera, block the activation of TPc 9.1 cells by Pc as well as Pc 81-104 when presented by live APC. Furthermore, these antisera are even more effective in blocking the activation of TPc9.1 cells by either APC which had been pulsed with Pc and then paraformaldehyde fixed, or by Pc 81-104 when added to paraformaldehyde fixed APC, suggesting that these antisera were not affecting antigen processing. Thus, these peptide binding proteins may play a role in antigen presentation, and they are being further characterized.

  8. Divergent effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on immunity to orally administered protein and particulate antigens in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Thomas, M J; MacKenzie, S; Parrott, D M

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influences immune responses to dietary protein antigens in experimental animals. Simultaneous intravenous administration of LPS to normal mice fed ovalbumin (OVA) prevented the induction of tolerance for serum IgG antibody responses but did not alter the tolerance of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In addition, exogenous LPS did not enhance the ability of spleen accessory cells to present OVA to primed T cells. LPS-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice developed full tolerance of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after feeding a range of doses of OVA that was equal in degree and persistence to that seen in normal, congenic C3H/HeOla mice and also had normal antigen-presenting cell (APC) activity for OVA. In contrast, C3H/HeJ mice were primed by feeding SRBC instead of developing the systemic tolerance found in normal C3H mice. Our results indicate the complexity of mechanisms that may regulate systemic immunity to orally administered antigens of different forms. Nevertheless, LPS does not modulate DTH responses to fed OVA and does not enhance APC activity, and we conclude that bacterial LPS may be unable to influence hypersensitivity to dietary proteins in man. Images Figure 1 PMID:3488267

  9. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Karen E; Kidd, Stephen P; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis "infectome." These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the same study. PMID:26322022

  10. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J.; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M.; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis “infectome.” These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the same study. PMID:26322022

  11. Evidence that several high-frequency human blood group antigens reside on phosphatidylinositol-linked erythrocyte membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Telen, M J; Rosse, W F; Parker, C J; Moulds, M K; Moulds, J J

    1990-04-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder associated with absence of expression of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked membrane proteins from circulating hematopoietic cells of multiple lineages. Recent work demonstrated that decay accelerating factor, one such PI-linked protein, bears the Cromer-related blood group antigens. This study demonstrated that other high incidence antigens, including Cartwright (Yta/Ytb), Holley-Gregory (Hy/Gya), John Milton Hagen (JMH), and Dombrock (Doa/Dob), are absent from the complement-sensitive (PNH III) erythrocytes of patients with PNH. The relatively normal, complement-insensitive erythrocytes from the same patients express these antigens normally. Therefore, these antigens most likely reside on PI-linked proteins absent from PNH III, but not PNH I, erythrocytes. PMID:2317557

  12. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Sta58 major antigen gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: sequence homology and antigenic comparison of Sta58 to the 60-kilodalton family of stress proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stover, C K; Marana, D P; Dasch, G A; Oaks, E V

    1990-01-01

    The scrub typhus 58-kilodalton (kDa) antigen (Sta58) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi is a major protein antigen often recognized by humans infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae. A 2.9-kilobase HindIII fragment containing a complete sta58 gene was cloned in Escherichia coli and found to express the entire Sta58 antigen and a smaller protein with an apparent molecular mass of 11 kDa (Stp11). DNA sequence analysis of the 2.9-kilobase HindIII fragment revealed two adjacent open reading frames encoding proteins of 11 (Stp11) and 60 (Sta58) kDa. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences disclosed a high degree of homology between the R. tsutsugamushi proteins Stp11 and Sta58 and the E. coli proteins GroES and GroEL, respectively, and the family of primordial heat shock proteins designated Hsp10 Hsp60. Although the sequence homology between the Sta58 antigen and the Hsp60 protein family is striking, the Sta58 protein appeared to be antigenically distinct among a sample of other bacterial Hsp60 homologs, including the typhus group of rickettsiae. The antigenic uniqueness of the Sta58 antigen indicates that this protein may be a potentially protective antigen and a useful diagnostic reagent for scrub typhus fever. Images PMID:2108930

  13. Characterization of Treponema denticola Mutants Defective in the Major Antigenic Proteins, Msp and TmpC

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Yuki; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2014-01-01

    Treponema denticola, a gram-negative and anaerobic spirochete, is associated with advancing severity of chronic periodontitis. In this study, we confirmed that two major antigenic proteinswere Msp and TmpC, and examined their physiological and pathological roles using gene-deletion mutants. Msp formed a large complex that localized to the outer membrane, while TmpC existed as a monomer and largely localized to the inner membrane. However, TmpC was also detected in the outer membrane fraction, but its cell-surface exposure was not detected. Msp defects increased cell-surface hydrophobicity and secretion of TNF-? from macrophage-like cells, whereas TmpC defects decreased autoagglutination and chymotrypsin-like protease activities. Both mutants adhered to gingival epithelial cells similarly to the wild-type and showed slightly decreased motility. In addition, in Msp-defective mutants, the TDE1072 protein, which is a major membrane protein, was abolished; therefore, phenotypic changes in the mutant can be, at least in part, attributed to the loss of the TDE1072 protein. Thus, the major antigenic proteins, Msp and TmpC, have significant and diverse impacts on the characteristics of T. denticola, especially cell surface properties. PMID:25401769

  14. Heat shock protein HSP60 and the perspective for future using as vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Bajzert, Joanna; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are widely spread in nature, highly conserved proteins, found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. HSPs have been classified in 10 families, one of them is the HSP60 family. HSP60 function in the cytoplasm as ATP-dependent molecular chaperones by assisting the folding of newly synthesised polypeptides and the assembly of multiprotein complexes. There is a large amount of evidence which demonstrate that HSP60 is expressed on the cell surface. Especially in bacteria the expression on the surface occurs constitutively and increases remarkably during host infection. HSP60 also play an important role in biofilm formation. In the extracellular environment, HSP60 alone or with self or microbial proteins can acts not only as a link between immune cells, but also as a coordinator of the immune system activity. This protein could influence the immune system in a different way because they act as an antigen, a carrier of other functional molecules or as a ligand for receptor. They are able to stimulate both cells of the acquired (naïve, effector, regulatory T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte) and the innate (macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells) immune system. HSPs have been reported to be potent activators of the immune system and they are one of the immunodominant bacterial antigens they could be a good candidate for a subunit vaccine or as an adjuvant. PMID:26561841

  15. Dynamics of the Antigen-binding Grooves in CD1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Diana; Anselmi, Claudio; Bond, Peter J.; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2013-01-01

    CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of endogenous and foreign lipids on the cell surface for recognition by T cell receptors. To sample a diverse antigen pool, CD1 proteins are repeatedly internalized and recycled, assisted, in some cases, by lipid transfer proteins such as saposins. The specificity of each CD1 isoform is, therefore, conferred in part by its intracellular pathway but also by distinct structural features of the antigen-binding domain. Crystal structures of CD1-lipid complexes reveal hydrophobic grooves and pockets within these binding domains that appear to be specialized for different lipids. However, the mechanism of lipid loading and release remains to be characterized. Here we gain insights into this mechanism through a meta-analysis of the five human CD1 isoforms, in the lipid-bound and lipid-free states, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Strikingly, for isoforms CD1b through CD1e, our simulations show the near-complete collapse of the hydrophobic cavities in the absence of the antigen. This event results from the spontaneous closure of the binding domain entrance, flanked by two ?-helices. Accordingly, we show that the anatomy of the binding cavities is restored if these ?-helices are repositioned extrinsically, suggesting that helper proteins encountered during recycling facilitate lipid exchange allosterically. By contrast, we show that the binding cavity of CD1a is largely preserved in the unliganded state because of persistent electrostatic interactions that keep the portal ?-helices at a constant separation. The robustness of this binding groove is consistent with the observation that lipid exchange in CD1a is not dependent on cellular internalization. PMID:23677998

  16. Antigen heterogeneity among isolates of Mycoplasma bovis is generated by high-frequency variation of diverse membrane surface proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rosengarten, R; Behrens, A; Stetefeld, A; Heller, M; Ahrens, M; Sachse, K; Yogev, D; Kirchhoff, H

    1994-01-01

    The protein and antigen profiles of 11 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis of whole organisms. The isolates examined included the type strain PG45 and 10 other filter-cloned strains or purified isolates both from animals without clinical signs and from clinical cases of bovine mastitis, arthritis, or pneumonia. While the overall protein patterns visualized by silver staining were very similar, marked differences in the antigen banding profiles were detected by rabbit antiserum prepared against whole organisms from one of the strains analyzed. This antigenic heterogeneity was shown to be independent of the geographical origin, the type of clinical disease, and the site of isolation and was also observed among serial isolates from a single animal. Antigen profiles were further monitored throughout sequentially subcloned populations of the PG45 strain. This clonal analysis revealed a high-frequency variation in the expression levels of several prominent antigens. All of these variable antigens were defined by detergent-phase fractionation with Triton X-114 as amphiphilic integral membrane proteins. A subset of different-sized membrane proteins was identified by a monoclonal antibody raised against a PG45 subclone expressing a 63- and a 46-kDa variant antigen within that set. The selective susceptibility of these proteins to trypsin treatment of intact organisms and their ability to bind the monoclonal antibody in colony immunoblots demonstrated that they were exposed on the cell surface. In addition, their preferential recognition by serum antibodies from individual cattle with naturally induced M. bovis mastitis or arthritis confirmed that they were major immunogens of this organism. These studies establish that the apparent antigenic heterogeneity among M. bovis isolates reported here does not represent stable phenotypic strain differences generated from accumulated mutational events but reflects distinct expression patterns of diverse, highly variable membrane surface proteins. Images PMID:7927789

  17. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  18. Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, X; Wang, M; Graham, D Y; Estes, M K

    1992-01-01

    Norwalk virus capsid protein was produced by expression of the second and third open reading frames of the Norwalk virus genome, using a cell-free translation system and baculovirus recombinants. Analysis of the expressed products showed that the second open reading frame encodes a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 58,000 (58K protein) and that this protein self-assembles to form empty viruslike particles similar to native capsids in size and appearance. The antigenicity of these particles was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of paired serum samples from volunteers who developed illness following Norwalk virus challenge. These particles also induced high levels of Norwalk virus-specific serum antibody in laboratory animals following parenteral inoculation. A minor 34K protein was also found in infected insect cells. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N terminus of the 34K protein indicated that the 34K protein was a cleavage product of the 58K protein. The availability of large amounts of recombinant Norwalk virus particles will allow the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable tests for the diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection as well as the implementation of structural studies. Images PMID:1328679

  19. Demonstration of an outer membrane protein that is antigenically specific for Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Islam, Abul Hasnat Mohammad Shafiqul; Singh, Kirnpal-Kaur Banga; Ismail, Asma

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that is resistant to many types of antibiotics, and hence, a fast, sensitive, specific, and economical test for its rapid diagnosis is needed. Development of such a test requires a specific antigen, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the prime candidates. The goal of this study was to find a specific OMP of A. baumannii and demonstrate the presence of specific IgM, IgA, and IgG against the candidate protein in human serum. OMPs of A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and 16 other clinical isolates of A. baumannii were extracted from an overnight culture grown at 37 °C. Protein profiles were obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analysis was performed to detect the presence of IgM, IgA, and IgG against the OMP in host serum. An antigenic 34.4-kDa OMP was uniquely recognized by IgM, IgA, and IgG from patients with A. baumannii infection, and it did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The band was also found in the other 16 A. baumannii isolates. This 34.4-kDa OMP is a prime candidate for development of a diagnostic test for the presence of A. baumannii. PMID:21146712

  20. Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

  1. Chlamydial disease pathogenesis. The 57-kD chlamydial hypersensitivity antigen is a stress response protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R P; Belland, R J; Lyng, K; Caldwell, H D

    1989-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection of humans is commonly a localized inflammation that can result in infertility, blindness, and perhaps arthritis. The pathogenic process(es) that cause these sequelae are thought to be immunological. A 57-kD protein that is common among Chlamydia elicits ocular inflammation when introduced onto the conjunctivae of guinea pigs or nonhuman primates previously sensitized by chlamydial infection. This protein is thought to mediate the immunopathology that follows chlamydial infection. To more thoroughly characterize this chlamydial component, we cloned its gene from a C. psittaci strain and identified a particular recombinant that produced the 57-kD polypeptide. The recombinant gene product was immunoreactive with a monospecific anti-57-kD serum, and elicited an ocular inflammation similar to that produced by the 57-kD antigen isolated from chlamydiae. Sequencing identified two ORFs that encode polypeptides of 11.2 and 58.1 kD and are co-transcribed. These two polypeptides show homology with Escherichia coli groE and Coxiella burnetii htp heat-shock proteins. Striking homology (greater than 50%) was found between the 57-kD protein and the HtpB, GroEL, 65-k Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Hsp60 proteins. Thus, the 57-kD chlamydial protein, previously implicated as mediating a deleterious immunologic response to chlamydial infections, is a stress-induced protein similar to those that occur universally in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PMID:2571668

  2. Chlamydial disease pathogenesis. The 57-kD chlamydial hypersensitivity antigen is a stress response protein

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection of humans is commonly a localized inflammation that can result in infertility, blindness, and perhaps arthritis. The pathogenic process(es) that cause these sequelae are thought to be immunological. A 57-kD protein that is common among Chlamydia elicits ocular inflammation when introduced onto the conjunctivae of guinea pigs or nonhuman primates previously sensitized by chlamydial infection. This protein is thought to mediate the immunopathology that follows chlamydial infection. To more thoroughly characterize this chlamydial component, we cloned its gene from a C. psittaci strain and identified a particular recombinant that produced the 57-kD polypeptide. The recombinant gene product was immunoreactive with a monospecific anti-57-kD serum, and elicited an ocular inflammation similar to that produced by the 57-kD antigen isolated from chlamydiae. Sequencing identified two ORFs that encode polypeptides of 11.2 and 58.1 kD and are co-transcribed. These two polypeptides show homology with Escherichia coli groE and Coxiella burnetii htp heat-shock proteins. Striking homology (greater than 50%) was found between the 57-kD protein and the HtpB, GroEL, 65-k Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Hsp60 proteins. Thus, the 57-kD chlamydial protein, previously implicated as mediating a deleterious immunologic response to chlamydial infections, is a stress-induced protein similar to those that occur universally in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PMID:2571668

  3. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Tumor Suppressor Protein, NF2, Induces Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of JC Virus T-Antigen in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Sarah; Branchetti, Emanuela; Sariyer, Ilker K.; Otte, Jessica; Weaver, Michael; Gordon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 protein (NF2) has been shown to act as tumor suppressor primarily through its functions as a cytoskeletal scaffold. However, NF2 can also be found in the nucleus, where its role is less clear. Previously, our group has identified JC virus (JCV) tumor antigen (T-antigen) as a nuclear binding partner for NF2 in tumors derived from JCV T-antigen transgenic mice. The association of NF2 with T-antigen in neuronal origin tumors suggests a potential role for NF2 in regulating the expression of the JCV T-antigen. Here, we report that NF2 suppresses T-antigen protein expression in U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells, which subsequently reduces T-antigen-mediated regulation of the JCV promoter. When T-antigen mRNA was quantified, it was determined that increasing expression of NF2 correlated with an accumulation of T-antigen mRNA; however, a decrease in T-antigen at the protein level was observed. NF2 was found to promote degradation of ubiquitin bound T-antigen protein via a proteasome dependent pathway concomitant with the accumulation of the JCV early mRNA encoding T-antigen. The interaction between T-antigen and NF2 maps to the FERM domain of NF2, which has been shown previously to be responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a ternary complex among NF2, T-antigen, and the tumor suppressor protein, p53 within a glioblastoma cell line. Further, these proteins were detected in various degrees in patient tumor tissue, suggesting that these associations may occur in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrate that NF2 negatively regulates JCV T-antigen expression by proteasome-mediated degradation, and suggest a novel role for NF2 as a suppressor of JCV T-antigen-induced cell cycle regulation. PMID:23308224

  4. Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae Kyu; Petersen, Mark A.; Murray, Sara G.; Baeten, Kim M.; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Chan, Justin P.; Vagena, Eirini; Bedard, Catherine; Machado, Michael R.; Coronado, Pamela E. Rios; Prod'homme, Thomas; Charo, Israel F.; Lassmann, Hans; Degen, Jay L.; Zamvil, Scott S.; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood–brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b+ antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of the fibrinogen receptor CD11b/CD18 protects from all immune and neuropathologic effects. Our results show that the final product of the coagulation cascade is a key determinant of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26353940

  5. Specific antigen exclusion and non-specific facilitation of antigen entry across the gut in rats allergic to food proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S A; Reinhardt, M C; Paganelli, R; Levinsky, R J

    1981-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of ovalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin was measured in Hooded Lister rats which had previously been made allergic to ovalbumin, and in unimmunized controls. The antigens were introduced both together and separately into closed intestinal loops. Absorption of free ovalbumin, but not beta-lactoglobulin, was reduced in rats with anti-ovalbumin antibody, demonstrating antigen-specific immune exclusion despite the presence of reaginic antibody. In contrast, the absorption of beta-lactoglobulin was enhanced by the presence of ovalbumin in rats with IgE anti-ovalbumin, but not in unimmunized controls. These results suggest that macromolecular absorption may be increased in an antigen non-specific way in food allergy. PMID:6171369

  6. Identification of mutations at the antigenic and glycosylation sites in hemagglutinin protein of H5N1 strain

    PubMed Central

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Khan, Asad U

    2009-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the principal antigen, present on the viral surface. It is the primary target for neutralizing antibodies. In this paper, we have carried out studies on human hemagglutinin protein from H5N1 strain with homologous hemagglutinin from non-human sources of H5N1 strains. In all strains, part of the antigenic site (128-141) predicted by computer program “Antigenic”, corresponds to immunodominant site Sa of H1 subtype. In AAF02304 strain, A156?S156 mutation lies at the antigenic subsite of site 2 that corresponds to site B in the H3 subtype. In some strains of non-human origins, there are mutations at the antigenic sites. Interestingly, in AAY56367 strain mutation L138?H138 lies at the receptor binding site, which also overlaps the antigenic site. Therefore, this amino acid substitution may influence both the specificity of receptor recognition and antibody binding. Seven potential glycosylation sites in human HA and in some strains of non-human sources have been predicted by computer program, Scan Prosite. In some strains of HA from non-human sources because of mutation, an additional glycosylation site appeared at the antigenic site. Therefore in these strains the oligosaccharides will mask the surface of HA as well as antigenic site. Hence these strains will not be recognized by host immune system. PMID:20011150

  7. Antigenic validation of recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Khulape, S A; Maity, H K; Pathak, D C; Mohan, C Madhan; Dey, S

    2015-09-01

    The outer membrane glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is important for virus infection and subsequent immune response by host, and offers target for development of recombinant antigen-based immunoassays and subunit vaccines. In this study, the expression of HN protein of NDV is attempted in yeast expression system. Yeast offers eukaryotic environment for protein processing and posttranslational modifications like glycosylation, in addition to higher growth rate and easy genetic manipulation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be better expression system for HN protein than Pichia pastoris as determined by codon usage analysis. The complete coding  sequence of HN gene was amplified with the histidine tag, cloned in pESC-URA under GAL10 promotor and transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant HN (rHN) protein was characterized by western blot, showing glycosylation heterogeneity as observed with other eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity column purification. The protein could be further used as subunit vaccine. PMID:26435147

  8. Nanoporous gold as a solid support for protein immobilization and development of an electrochemical immunoassay for prostate specific antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Binod; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) was utilized as a support for immobilizing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) conjugated to monoclonal antibodies against either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The antibody-ALP conjugates were coupled to self-assembled monolayers of lipoic acid and used in direct kinetic assays. Using the enzyme substrate p-aminophenylphosphate, the product p-aminophenol was detected by its oxidation near 0.1 V (vs. Ag|AgCl) using square wave voltammetry. The difference in peak current arising from oxidation of p-aminophenol before and after incubation with biomarker increased with biomarker concentration. The response to these two biomarkers was linear up to 10 ng mL-1 for CEA and up to 30 ng mL-1 for PSA. The effect of interference on the PSA assay was studied using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model albumin protein. The effect of interference from a serum matrix was examined for the PSA assay using newborn calf serum. A competitive version of the immunoassay using antigen immobilized onto the NPG surface was highly sensitive at lower antigen concentration. Estimates of the surface coverage of the antibody-ALP conjugates on the NPG surface are presented. PMID:23935216

  9. Transfer of protein antigens into milk after intravenous injection into lactating mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harmatz, P.R.; Hanson, D.G.; Walsh, M.K.; Kleinman, R.E.; Bloch, K.J.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-08-01

    We investigated the transfer of bovine serum /sup 125/I-albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA), bovine /sup 125/I-gamma-globulin (/sup 125/I-BGG), /sup 125/I-ovalbumin (/sup 125/I-OVA), and /sup 125/I-beta-lactoglobulin (/sup 125/I-BLG) from the blood into the milk of lactating mice. Equal amounts (by weight) of the radiolabeled proteins were injected intravenously into mice 1 wk postpartum. Total radioactivity, trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity, and specifically immunoprecipitable radioactivity were measured in serum, mammary gland homogenate, and milk. Clearance of immunoreactive OVA (iOVA) and iBLG from the circulation was more rapid than iBSA and iBGG. The radioactivity in mammary tissue associated with BSA and BGG was greater than 70% immunoprecipitable throughout the 4-h test interval; /sup 125/I-OVA and /sup 125/I-BLG were less than 12% precipitable 1 and 4 h after injection. In milk obtained at 4 h, there was an approximately 10-fold greater accumulation of iBSA or iBGG than of iOVA or iBLG. These experiments demonstrate that protein antigens differ in their ability to transfer from maternal circulation into milk. The transfer into milk appeared to be in proportion to persistence of the antigens in the maternal circulation.

  10. Epitopes recognized by human T lymphocytes in the ROP2 protein antigen of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, R; Becerril, M A; Dubeaux, C; Lippens, R; De Vos, M J; Hérion, P; Bollen, A

    1996-01-01

    The ROP2 protein of Toxoplasma gondii possesses immunological and biological properties which have led to its proposal as a vaccine candidate. To identify epitopes recognized by human T cells in the ROP2 antigen, we submitted the sequence of this protein to three reported T-cell epitope prediction algorithms. Three sequences that were predicted by all three methods were selected (sequences 197 to 216, 393 to 410, and 501 to 524), and the corresponding peptides were synthesized. The peptides were first tested in a proliferation assay with a DPw4-restricted, ROP2-specific human T-cell clone, and the peptide corresponding to residues 197 to 216 was shown to stimulate the T-cell clone. The three peptides were further tested in proliferation assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a panel of T. gondii-seropositive and -seronegative individuals. We found that cells from a high proportion of the seropositive donors (64%) recognized at least one of the three peptides. The most frequently recognized ones were peptides 197 to 216 (45%) and 501 to 524 (36%). None of the seronegative donors responded to any peptide. These results show that the ROP2 antigen of T. gondii contains T-cell epitopes recognized by a high percentage of the immune population and further strengthen its potential as a vaccine candidate. PMID:8751939

  11. Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LN1) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate Containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered TradeMark)Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark)a software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

  12. Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Elliott, T. F.; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LNI) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered Trademark) Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark) software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

  13. Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in soybean seed yields an immunogenic antigenic protein.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Gasic, Ksenija; Soria-Guerra, Ruth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious disease of swine and contributes to severe worldwide economic losses in swine production. Current vaccines against PRRS rely on the use of an attenuated-live virus; however, these are unreliable. Thus, alternative effective vaccines against PRRS are needed. Plant-based subunit vaccines offer viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional vaccines. In this study, efforts have been undertaken to develop a soybean-based vaccine against PRRSV. A construct carrying a synthesized PRRSV-ORF7 antigen, nucleocapsid N protein of PRRSV, has been introduced into soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. cvs. Jack and Kunitz, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants carrying the sORF7 transgene have been successfully generated. Molecular analyses of T(0) plants confirmed integration of the transgene and transcription of the PRRSV-ORF7. Presence of a 15-kDa protein in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines was confirmed by Western blot analysis using PRRSV-ORF7 antisera. The amount of the antigenic protein accumulating in seeds of these transgenic lines was up to 0.65% of the total soluble protein (TSP). A significant induction of a specific immune response, both humoral and mucosal, against PRRSV-ORF7 was observed following intragastric immunization of BALB/c female mice with transgenic soybean seeds. These findings provide a 'proof of concept', and serve as a critical step in the development of a subunit plant-based vaccine against PRRS. PMID:21971995

  14. Polarity protein Par3 controls B-cell receptor dynamics and antigen extraction at the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Reversat, Anne; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Lankar, Danielle; Malbec, Odile; Obino, Dorian; Maurin, Mathieu; Penmatcha, Naga Venkata Gayathri; Amoroso, Alejandro; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Mellman, Ira; Darchen, François; Desnos, Claire; Pierobon, Paolo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement with surface-tethered antigens leads to the formation of an immune synapse, which facilitates antigen uptake for presentation to T-lymphocytes. Antigen internalization and processing rely on the early dynein-dependent transport of BCR–antigen microclusters to the synapse center, as well as on the later polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). MTOC repositioning allows the release of proteases and the delivery of MHC class II molecules at the synapse. Whether and how these events are coordinated have not been addressed. Here we show that the ancestral polarity protein Par3 promotes BCR–antigen microcluster gathering, as well as MTOC polarization and lysosome exocytosis, at the synapse by facilitating local dynein recruitment. Par3 is also required for antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes. Par3 therefore emerges as a key molecule in the coupling of the early and late events needed for efficient extraction and processing of immobilized antigen by B-cells. PMID:25631815

  15. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Babesia bovis merozoite spherical body protein Bb-1.

    PubMed

    Hines, S A; Palmer, G H; Brown, W C; McElwain, T F; Suarez, C E; Vidotto, O; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1995-02-01

    A Babesia bovis merozoite protein, Bb-1, was localized by immunoelectron microscopy to an apical organelle known as the spherical body. This unique structure appears to be analogous to dense granules of other apicomplexan protozoa. Similar to previously described dense granule proteins of Plasmodium spp., Bb-1 is secreted during or just after invasion of host erythrocytes and becomes associated with the cytoplasmic face of the infected cell. The amino terminal sequence of Bb-1 contains a predicted signal peptide and is similar to the amino terminus of another spherical body protein (BvVA1/225) which is also translocated to the erythrocyte membrane. Importantly, these two spherical body proteins are the major components of a protective fraction of B. bovis antigen. There is marked conservation of Bb-1 amino acid sequences and B-lymphocyte epitopes among geographic strains. However, a divergent Bb-1 allele (Bv80) in Australia strains encodes six regions of amino acid polymorphism, including a region of tetrapeptide repeats in the C-terminal half of the polypeptide. Two of the polymorphic regions map to previously defined Th1 epitopes on Bb-1. PMID:7770080

  16. Characterization of antigenic domains and epitopes in the ORF3 protein of a Chinese isolate of avian hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Sun, Ya-ni; Hu, Shou-bin; Wang, Xin-jie; Xiao, Yi-hong; Hsu, Walter H; Xiao, Shu-qi; Wang, Cheng-bao; Mu, Yang; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min

    2013-12-27

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging virus associated with the big liver and spleen disease or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens and subclinical infections by the virus are also common. The complete genome of avian HEV contains three open-reading frames (ORFs) in which ORF2 protein is part of virus particles and thus contains primary epitopes. Antigenic epitopes of avian HEV ORF2 protein have been described but those associated with the ORF3 have not. To analyze the antigenic domains and epitopes in the ORF3 protein of a Chinese isolate of avian HEV (CaHEV), we generated a series of antigens comprised of the complete ORF3 and also five truncated overlapping ORF3 peptides. The antibodies used in this study were mouse antisera and monoclonal antibodies against ORF3, positive chicken sera from Specific Pathogen Free chickens experimentally infected with CaHEV and clinical chicken sera. Using these antigens and antibodies, we identified three antigenic domains at amino acids (aa) 1-28, 55-74 and 75-88 in which aa 75-88 was a dominant domain. The dominant domain contained at least two major epitopes since field chickens infected with avian HEV produced antibodies against the domain and epitopes. These results provide useful information for future development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of avian HEV infection. PMID:24021883

  17. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-01-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines. PMID:26631605

  18. Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Mejima, Mio; Kohda, Tomoko; Harada, Norihiro; Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Kataoka, Nobuhiro; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Tsukada, Hideo; Kozaki, Shunji; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccines because they induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. Here we developed an intranasal vaccine-delivery system with a nanometre-sized hydrogel (`nanogel') consisting of a cationic type of cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). A non-toxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type-A neurotoxin BoHc/A administered intranasally with cCHP nanogel (cCHP-BoHc/A) continuously adhered to the nasal epithelium and was effectively taken up by mucosal dendritic cells after its release from the cCHP nanogel. Vigorous botulinum-neurotoxin-A-neutralizing serum IgG and secretory IgA antibody responses were induced without co-administration of mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, intranasally administered cCHP-BoHc/A did not accumulate in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Moreover, intranasally immunized tetanus toxoid with cCHP nanogel induced strong tetanus-toxoid-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. These results indicate that cCHP nanogel can be used as a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination.

  19. Antigenic and genetic characterization of a putative hybrid transferrin-binding protein B from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, T; Pérez, M; Alvarez, A

    1999-12-01

    The transferrin-binding protein Bs (TbpBs) from the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis have been divided into two families according to genetic and antigenic features. TbpB from meningococcal strain B385 showed a molecular mass similar to that exhibited by TbpBs belonging to the high molecular mass family of TbpBs. TbpB was recognized by immunoassay using a specific serum directed against the TbpB of the reference strain for this family (strain M982). It was also recognized by a serum elicited against the TbpB of the reference strain for the low molecular mass family (strain B16B6). The tbpB gene from strain B385 was cloned and sequenced. The highest degree of sequence homology was found to be with the TbpBs belonging to the high molecular mass family, although a region of 14 amino acids that is only present in the TbpB from strain B16B6 was also found. This report illustrates a TbpB that shows hybrid antigenic and genetic behaviour. PMID:10696485

  20. Cell-Free Expression and In Situ Immobilization of Parasite Proteins from Clonorchis sinensis for Rapid Identification of Antigenic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Shin, Hyun-Il; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards genetic sequencing of human parasites has provided the groundwork for a post-genomic approach to develop novel antigens for the diagnosis and treatment of parasite infections. To fully utilize the genomic data, however, high-throughput methodologies are required for functional analysis of the proteins encoded in the genomic sequences. In this study, we investigated cell-free expression and in situ immobilization of parasite proteins as a novel platform for the discovery of antigenic proteins. PCR-amplified parasite DNA was immobilized on microbeads that were also functionalized to capture synthesized proteins. When the microbeads were incubated in a reaction mixture for cell-free synthesis, proteins expressed from the microbead-immobilized DNA were instantly immobilized on the same microbeads, providing a physical linkage between the genetic information and encoded proteins. This approach of in situ expression and isolation enables streamlined recovery and analysis of cell-free synthesized proteins and also allows facile identification of the genes coding antigenic proteins through direct PCR of the microbead-bound DNA. PMID:26599101

  1. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  2. Oral immunization with recombinant Streptococcus lactis carrying the Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, M; Okahashi, N; Takahashi, I; Kanamoto, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Aibara, K; Koga, T

    1990-01-01

    A recombinant Streptococcus lactis strain which carries the structural gene for a surface protein antigen (PAc) of 190,000 daltons from Streptococcus mutans serotype c was constructed for development of an oral vaccine against dental caries. The gene from S. mutans MT8148 joined to shuttle vector pSA3 was successfully transformed into S. lactis IL1403. A small amount of PAc was detected in the cell homogenate and cytoplasmic fraction of the recombinant S. lactis, but not in the culture supernatant of the recombinant, by Western immunoblotting and dot immunoblotting. The level of PAc-specific mRNA in the recombinant strain was lower than that in S. mutans MT8148. However, significant salivary immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G responses to PAc were induced in mice immunized orally with the recombinant S. lactis. Images PMID:2117575

  3. A High Throughput Protein Microarray Approach to Classify HIV Monoclonal Antibodies and Variant Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Dotsey, Emmanuel Y.; Gorlani, Andrea; Ingale, Sampat; Achenbach, Chad J.; Forthal, Donald N.; Felgner, Philip L.; Gach, Johannes S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput discovery of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been applied to greatly advance our understanding of the specificity, and functional activity of antibodies against HIV. Thousands of antibodies have been generated and screened in functional neutralization assays, and antibodies associated with cross-strain neutralization and passive protection in primates, have been identified. To facilitate this type of discovery, a high throughput-screening tool is needed to accurately classify mAbs, and their antigen targets. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated a prototype microarray chip comprised of the HIV-1 recombinant proteins gp140, gp120, gp41, and several membrane proximal external region peptides. The protein microarray analysis of 11 HIV-1 envelope-specific mAbs revealed diverse binding affinities and specificities across clades. Half maximal effective concentrations, generated by our chip analysis, correlated significantly (P<0.0001) with concentrations from ELISA binding measurements. Polyclonal immune responses in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected subjects exhibited different binding patterns, and reactivity against printed proteins. Examining the totality of the specificity of the humoral response in this way reveals the exquisite diversity, and specificity of the humoral response to HIV. PMID:25938510

  4. The novel lupus antigen related protein acheron enhances the development of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Rong; Scully, Steve J; Yan, Wei; Bentley, Brooke; Mueller, James; Brown, Christine; Bigelow, Carol; Schwartz, Lawrence M

    2012-02-01

    Acheron (Achn) is a new member of the Lupus antigen family of RNA binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that Achn controls developmental decisions in neurons and muscle. In the human mammary gland, Achn expression is restricted to ductal myoepithelial cells. Microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry have shown that Achn expression is elevated in some basal-like ductal carcinomas. To study the possible role of Achn in breast cancer, we engineered human MDA-MB-231 cells to stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type Achn (AchnWT), as well as Achn lacking either its nuclear localization signal (AchnNLS) or its nuclear export signal (AchnNES). In in vitro assays, AchnWT and AchnNES, but not AchnNLS, enhanced cell proliferation, lamellipodia formation, and invasive activity and drove expression of the elevated expression of the metastasis-associated proteins MMP-9 and VEGF. To determine if Achn could alter the behavior of human breast cancer cells in vivo, Achn-engineered MDA-MB-231 cells were injected into athymic SCID/Beige mice. AchnWT and AchnNES-expressing tumors displayed enhanced angiogenesis and an approximately 5-fold increase in tumor size relative to either control cells or those expressing AchnNLS. These data suggest that Achn enhances human breast tumor growth and vascularization and that this activity is dependent on nuclear localization. PMID:21387291

  5. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ? Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ? PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ? PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ? PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  6. The plasma cell associated antigen detectable by antibody VS38 is the p63 rough endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed Central

    Banham, A H; Turley, H; Pulford, K; Gatter, K; Mason, D Y

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To characterise the 64 kDa intracellular antigen present on normal and neoplastic plasma cells detected by monoclonal antibody VS38 and by another antibody, MC186, of similar reactivity. METHODS: The VS38 monoclonal antibody was used to screen a bacterially expressed peripheral blood cDNA library, and the immunocytochemical staining of the two antibodies was compared with those raised specifically to the protein identified as the VS38 antigen. RESULTS: A partial cDNA encoding the VS38 antigen was cloned and shown to be identical to the human p63 gene. p63 is a non-glycated, reversibly palmitoylated type II transmembrane protein which is found in rough endoplasmic reticulum. Antibody MC186 also recognised this protein and both VS38 and MC186 together with two antibodies raised to p63 gave identical immunostaining patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The VS38 antigen was identified as the rough endoplasmic reticulum protein p63. While it is not exclusively expressed on plasma cells, the presence of p63 distinguishes plasma cells from other lymphoid cells because of their high secretory activity. Images PMID:9378814

  7. Identification of antigenic proteins associated with trichloroethylene-induced autoimmune disease by serological proteome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianjun; Xing Xiumei; Huang Haiyan; Jiang Yingzhi; He Haowei; Xu Xinyun; Yuan Jianhui; Zhou Li; Yang Linqing; Zhuang Zhixiong

    2009-11-01

    Although many studies indicated that trichloroethylene (TCE) could induce autoimmune diseases and some protein adducts were detected, the proteins were not identified and mechanisms remain unknown. To screen and identify autoantigens which might be involved in TCE-induced autoimmune diseases, three groups of sera were collected from healthy donors (I), patients suffering from TCE-induced exfoliative dermatitis (ED) (II), and the healed ones (III). Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) was performed with total proteins of TCE-treated L-02 liver cells as antigen sources and immunoglobins of the above sera as probes. Highly immunogenic spots (2-fold or above increase compared with group I) in group II and III were submitted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. Western blot analysis was followed using commercial antibodies and individual serum. Six proteins were identified. Among them, Enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase peroxisoma 1 and lactate dehydrogenase B only showed stronger immunogenicity for group II sera, while Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, ribosomal protein P0 and proteasome activator subunit1 isoform1 also showed stronger immunogenicity for group III sera. Noteworthy, NM23 reacted only with group II sera. Western blot analysis of NM23 expression indicated that all of the individual serum of group II showed immune activity, which confirmed the validity of SERPA result. These findings revealed that there exist autoantibodies in group II and III sera. Besides, autoantibodies of the two stages of disease course were different. These autoantigens might serve as biomarkers to elucidate mechanisms underlying TCE toxicity and are helpful for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of TCE-induced autoimmune diseases.

  8. Antigen presentation of lysozyme: T-cell recognition of peptide and intact protein after priming with synthetic overlapping peptides comprising the entire protein chain.

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, G S; Yoshida, T; Atassi, M Z

    1985-01-01

    Recently, using synthetic overlapping peptides which encompass the entire protein chain of hen egg lysozyme, the full submolecular profile of continuous regions on the protein recognized by T cells (T sites) was localized. In the present report, we have examined in two mouse strains the proliferative response to peptides and to native protein of lymph node cells from mice primed with synthetic overlapping peptides, either individually or as a mixture. It was found that the pattern of T-cell recognition observed after priming with peptides differs from that obtained when the native protein is used as the immunogen. Some, but not all, of the T-site containing peptides were effective in priming for an anti-lysozyme T-cell response. Several peptides which were highly immunogenic as free synthetic peptides were not associated with any of the known protein T sites. Further, some peptides were effective in priming for T cells that respond in vitro to the priming peptide, but not to the whole protein. If antigen processing proceeds via fragmentation, then only those regions containing T sites would be expected to be effective in priming for a T-cell response to the intact protein. Since this was not found to be the case, it is unlikely that fragmentation of lysozyme is a prerequisite for antigen presentation. Rather, we suggest that the critical aspects in the presentation of a protein antigen predominantly involve recognition of an intact protein, the interaction of which with the cell membrane triggers cellular activating events. PMID:3876269

  9. Surfactant Protein D Augments Bacterial Association but Attenuates Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Presentation of Bacterial Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Soren; Lo, Bernice; Evans, Kathy; Neophytou, Pavlos; Holmskov, Uffe; Wright, Jo Rae

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a secreted pattern recognition molecule associated with lung surfactant and mediates the clearance of pathogens in multiple ways. SP-D is an established part of the innate immune system, but it also modulates the adaptive immune response by interacting with both antigen-presenting cells and T cells. In a previous study, antigen presentation by bone marrow–derived dendritic cells was enhanced by SP-D. As dendritic cell function varies depending on the tissue of origin, we extended these studies to antigen-presenting cells isolated from mouse lung. Flow cytometric studies showed that SP-D binds calcium dependently and specifically to lung CD11c-positive cells. Opsonization of fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli by SP-D enhanced uptake by lung dendritic cells. SP-D facilitated the association of E. coli and antigen-presenting cells by increasing the frequency of CD11+ cells associated with E. coli by up to 10-fold. In contrast to the effect on bone marrow–derived dendritic cells, SP-D decreased the antigen presentation of ovalbumin, expressed in E. coli, to ovalbumin-specific major histocompatibility complex class II–specific T-cell hybridomas by 30–50%. The reduction of antigen presentation did not depend on whether the dendritic cells were isolated from the lungs of nonstimulated mice or mice that had been exposed to LPS aerosols. Our results show that SP-D increases the opsonization of pathogens, but decreases the antigen presentation by lung dendritic cells, and thereby, potentially dampens the activation of T cells and an adaptive immune response against bacterial antigens—during both steady-state conditions and inflammation. PMID:16902193

  10. Heat Shock Protein-90 Inhibitors Enhance Antigen Expression on Melanomas and Increase T Cell Recognition of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Timothy J.; Dunn, Ian S.; Rose, Lenora B.; Newton, Estelle E.; Pandolfi, Franco; Kurnick, James T.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to enhance antigen-specific T cell recognition of cancer cells, we have examined numerous modulators of antigen-expression. In this report we demonstrate that twelve different Hsp90 inhibitors (iHsp90) share the ability to increase the expression of differentiation antigens and MHC Class I antigens. These iHsp90 are active in several molecular and cellular assays on a series of tumor cell lines, including eleven human melanomas, a murine B16 melanoma, and two human glioma-derived cell lines. Intra-cytoplasmic antibody staining showed that all of the tested iHsp90 increased expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and TRP-2, as well as MHC Class I. The gliomas showed enhanced gp100 and MHC staining. Quantitative analysis of mRNA levels showed a parallel increase in message transcription, and a reporter assay shows induction of promoter activity for Melan-A/MART-1 gene. In addition, iHsp90 increased recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for Melan-A/MART-1. In contrast to direct Hsp90 client proteins, the increased levels of full-length differentiation antigens that result from iHsp90 treatment are most likely the result of transcriptional activation of their encoding genes. In combination, these results suggest that iHsp90 improve recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for a melanoma-associated antigen as a result of increasing the expressed intracellular antigen pool available for processing and presentation by MHC Class I, along with increased levels of MHC Class I itself. As these Hsp90 inhibitors do not interfere with T cell function, they could have potential for use in immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:25503774

  11. Lamprey VLRB response to influenza virus supports universal rules of immunogenicity and antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Altman, Meghan O; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Herrin, Brantley R

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) are a crown jewel of jawed vertebrate evolution. Through recombination and mutation of small numbers of genes, Igs can specifically recognize a vast variety of natural and man-made organic molecules. Jawless vertebrates evolved a parallel system of humoral immunity, which recognizes antigens not with Ig, but with a structurally unrelated receptor called the variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB). We exploited the convergent evolution of Ig and VLRB antibodies (Abs) to investigate if intrinsic chemical features of foreign proteins determine their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Surprisingly, we find lamprey VLRB and mouse Ig responses to influenza A virus are extremely similar. Each focuses ~80% of the response on hemagglutinin (HA), mainly through recognition of the major antigenic sites in the HA globular head domain. Our findings predict basic conservation of Ab responses to protein antigens, strongly supporting the use of animal models for understanding human Ab responses to viruses and protein immunogens. PMID:26252514

  12. Autoantibodies to myelin basic protein catalyze site-specific degradation of their antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Durova, Oxana M.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Belogurov, Alexey A.; Kurkova, Inna N.; Petrenko, Alexander G.; Telegin, Georgy B.; Suchkov, Sergey V.; Kiselev, Sergey L.; Lagarkova, Maria A.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Avalle, Bérangère; Tornatore, Pete; Karavanov, Alexander; Morse, Herbert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G.

    2006-01-01

    Autoantibody-mediated tissue destruction is among the main features of organ-specific autoimmunity. This report describes “an antibody enzyme” (abzyme) contribution to the site-specific degradation of a neural antigen. We detected proteolytic activity toward myelin basic protein (MBP) in the fraction of antibodies purified from the sera of humans with multiple sclerosis (MS) and mice with induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Chromatography and zymography data demonstrated that the proteolytic activity of this preparation was exclusively associated with the antibodies. No activity was found in the IgG fraction of healthy donors. The human and murine abzymes efficiently cleaved MBP but not other protein substrates tested. The sites of MBP cleavage determined by mass spectrometry were localized within immunodominant regions of MBP. The abzymes could also cleave recombinant substrates containing encephalytogenic MBP85-101 peptide. An established MS therapeutic Copaxone appeared to be a specific abzyme inhibitor. Thus, the discovered epitope-specific antibody-mediated degradation of MBP suggests a mechanistic explanation of the slow development of neurodegeneration associated with MS. PMID:16387849

  13. Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major surface protein 5–glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA. Three hundred and eight sera with significant MBP antibody binding (=30%I) in Anaplasma negative herds was 1...

  14. Characterization of nuclear targeting signal of hepatitis delta antigen: nuclear transport as a protein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Y P; Yeh, C T; Ou, J H; Lai, M M

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only protein encoded by hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDAg has been demonstrated in the nuclei of HDV-infected hepatocytes, and its nuclear transport may be important for the replication of HDV RNA. In this report, we investigated the mechanism of nuclear transport of HDAg. By expressing fusion proteins consisting of the different portions of HDAg and alpha-globin, we have identified a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the N-terminal one-third of HDAg. It consists of two stretches of basic amino acid domains separated by a short run of nonbasic amino acids. Both of the basic domains are necessary for the efficient nuclear transport of HDAg. The nonbasic spacer amino acids could be removed without affecting the nuclear targeting of HDAg significantly. Thus, the HDAg NLS belongs to a newly identified class of NLS which consists of two discontiguous stretches of basic amino acids. This NLS is separated from a stretch of steroid receptor NLS-like sequence, which is also present but not functioning as an NLS, in HDAg. Furthermore, we have shown that subfragments of HDAg which do not contain the NLS can be passively transported into the nucleus by a trans-acting full-length HDAg, provided that these subfragments contain the region with a leucine zipper sequence. Thus, our results indicate that HDAg forms aggregates in the cytoplasm and that the HDAg oligomerization is probably mediated by the leucine zipper sequence. Therefore, HDAg is likely transported into the nucleus as a protein complex. Images PMID:1731113

  15. Molecular cloning of a Mycoplasma meleagridis-specific antigenic domain endowed with a serodiagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Mardassi, B Ben Abdelmoumen; Béjaoui Khiari, A; Oussaief, L; Landoulsi, A; Brik, C; Mlik, B; Amouna, F

    2007-01-17

    A recombinant phage library harbouring Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) genomic DNA fragments was generated in the bacteriophage lambda gt11 expression vector. The library was screened for expression of MM specific antigens with a polyclonal antiserum that had been preadsorbed with antigens of the most common unrelated avian mycoplasma species. A 49-amino acid antigenic domain unique to MM was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and its serodiagnostic potential was demonstrated. An antiserum raised against this MM-specific antigenic domain recognized a cluster of seven membrane-associated MM proteins with molecular masses ranging from 34 to 75 kDa. Overall, this study resulted in the identification of a potent serodiagnostic tool and revealed the complex antigenic nature of MM. PMID:16973309

  16. Algae as Protein Factories: Expression of a Human Antibody and the Respective Antigen in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Franziska; Lau, Julia; Klingl, Andreas; Maier, Uwe G.

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are thought to offer great potential as expression system for various industrial, therapeutic and diagnostic recombinant proteins as they combine high growth rates with all benefits of eukaryotic expression systems. Moreover, microalgae exhibit a phototrophic lifestyle like land plants, hence protein expression is fuelled by photosynthesis, which is CO2-neutral and involves only low production costs. So far, however, research on algal bioreactors for recombinant protein expression is very rare calling for further investigations in this highly promising field. In this study, we present data on the expression of a monoclonal human IgG antibody against the Hepatitis B surface protein and the respective antigen in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Antibodies are fully-assembled and functional and accumulate to 8.7% of total soluble protein, which complies with 21 mg antibody per gram algal dry weight. The Hepatitis B surface protein is functional as well and is recognized by algae-produced and commercial antibodies. PMID:22164289

  17. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknuellt protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Hirose, Fumiko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Matsukage, Akio )

    1991-10-01

    A 631-bp fragment containing the 5{prime}-flanking region of the Drosophila melanogaster proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of a CAT vector. A transient expression assay of CAT activity in Drosophila Kc cells transfected with this plasmid and a set of 5{prime}-deletion derivatives revealed that the promoter function resided within a 192-bp region. Cotransfection with a zerknuellt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression. However, cotransfection with expression plasmids for a nonfunctional zen mutation, even skipped, or bicoid showed no significant effect on CAT expression. RNase protection analysis revealed that the repression by zen was at the transcription step. The target sequence of zen was mapped within the 34-bp region of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked zen protein-binding sites. Transgenic flies carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region fused with lacZ were established. These results indicate that zen indirectly represses PCNA gene expression, probably by regulating the expression of some transcription factor(s) that binds to the PCNA gene promoter.

  18. Antigenic Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein in Parasite Isolates of Western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Escalante, Ananías A.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly ? Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4+, and T-CD8+ cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions. PMID:21292878

  19. Sugar–Protein Connectivity Impacts on the Immunogenicity of Site-Selective Salmonella O-Antigen Glycoconjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Giuseppe; Hu, Qi-Ying; Usera, Aimee; Robinson, Zack; Allan, Martin; Singh, Alok; Imase, Hidetomo; Cobb, Jennifer; Zhai, Huili; Quinn, Douglas; Lei, Ming; Saul, Allan; Adamo, Roberto; MacLennan, Calman A; Micoli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A series of glycoconjugates with defined connectivity were synthesized to investigate the impact of coupling Salmonella typhimurium O-antigen to different amino acids of CRM197 protein carrier. In particular, two novel methods for site-selective glycan conjugation were developed to obtain conjugates with single attachment site on the protein, based on chemical modification of a disulfide bond and pH-controlled transglutaminase-catalyzed modification of lysine, respectively. Importantly, conjugation at the C186-201 bond resulted in significantly higher anti O-antigen bactericidal antibody titers than coupling to K37/39, and in comparable titers to conjugates bearing a larger number of saccharides. This study demonstrates that the conjugation site plays a role in determining the immunogenicity in mice and one single attachment point may be sufficient to induce high levels of bactericidal antibodies. PMID:26350581

  20. Sugar-Protein Connectivity Impacts on the Immunogenicity of Site-Selective Salmonella O-Antigen Glycoconjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Giuseppe; Hu, Qi-Ying; Usera, Aimee; Robinson, Zack; Allan, Martin; Singh, Alok; Imase, Hidetomo; Cobb, Jennifer; Zhai, Huili; Quinn, Douglas; Lei, Ming; Saul, Allan; Adamo, Roberto; MacLennan, Calman A; Micoli, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    A series of glycoconjugates with defined connectivity were synthesized to investigate the impact of coupling Salmonella typhimurium O-antigen to different amino acids of CRM197 protein carrier. In particular, two novel methods for site-selective glycan conjugation were developed to obtain conjugates with single attachment site on the protein, based on chemical modification of a disulfide bond and pH-controlled transglutaminase-catalyzed modification of lysine, respectively. Importantly, conjugation at the C186-201 bond resulted in significantly higher anti O-antigen bactericidal antibody titers than coupling to K37/39, and in comparable titers to conjugates bearing a larger number of saccharides. This study demonstrates that the conjugation site plays a role in determining the immunogenicity in mice and one single attachment point may be sufficient to induce high levels of bactericidal antibodies. PMID:26350581

  1. Functional insights from a comparative study on the dynamics of Antigen85 proteins and MPT51 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shobana; Annaraj, David; Selvan, Anitha; Biswas, Pallavi Guha; Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Anishetty, Sharmila

    2015-12-01

    Antigen85 (Ag85) proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are mycolyl transferases that aid in cell wall biosynthesis. MPT51 (Ag85D) is closely related to Ag85 proteins. We have performed a comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of Ag85 proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) and MPT51. We observe that helix ?5, ?7-?9 loop, and N-terminal region of helix ?9 of Ag85 proteins are mobile, suggestive of lid like movement over the active site. Further, in Ag85B, we observe the proposed scooting mode of the hydrophobic gating residue Phe232. Our simulations also show a similar scooting mode for Phe232 of Ag85A and Trp158 of Ag85C. We also found aromatic residue clusters at the ends of the hydrophobic channel of Ag85 proteins, which may have functional significance. Although MPT51 lacks the tunnel, it has the aromatic clusters. The aromatic cluster region has the ability to bind trehalose. From an immunoinformatics study, a promiscuous linear epitope was identified in MPT51 which could be useful in subunit vaccine studies. Recent studies have shown that a mycobacterial protein HupB, interacts with Ag85 proteins and has a regulatory role in cell wall biogenesis, with implications in growth rate and latency. We performed molecular docking studies of HupB protein with Ag85 proteins and predicted potential sites of interaction in Ag85 proteins. The insights gained through the current study can potentially pave way for newer therapeutic interventions. Graphical Abstract Dynamics of antigen85 proteins and MPT51 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:26564147

  2. Marrow transplantation from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, J; Anasetti, C

    1995-11-01

    The use of an HLA-compatible unrelated donor is an option for patients who require an allogeneic transplant but lack a family member match. Grafts from unrelated volunteer donors have provided long-term disease-free survival for a variable proportion of patients, depending on degree of HLA matching with the donor, patient's disease, disease stage, and age. The number of volunteers in marrow donor registries worldwide has increased to more than 2.5 million. The number of unrelated donor transplants facilitated by the US National Marrow Donor Program alone will exceed 900 this year. Progress in HLA-typing technology results in a more precise definition of donor and recipient matching and new assays have been developed with initial success to measure alloreactive T-cell precursors for selection of donors with less antihost reactivity. Prevention and treatment of graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, opportunistic infections, and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease remain a challenge. PMID:9372034

  3. A computational method for identification of vaccine targets from protein regions of conserved human leukocyte antigen binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational methods for T cell-based vaccine target discovery focus on selection of highly conserved peptides identified across pathogen variants, followed by prediction of their binding of human leukocyte antigen molecules. However, experimental studies have shown that T cells often target diverse regions in highly variable viral pathogens and this diversity may need to be addressed through redefinition of suitable peptide targets. Methods We have developed a method for antigen assessment and target selection for polyvalent vaccines, with which we identified immune epitopes from variable regions, where all variants bind HLA. These regions, although variable, can thus be considered stable in terms of HLA binding and represent valuable vaccine targets. Results We applied this method to predict CD8+ T-cell targets in influenza A H7N9 hemagglutinin and significantly increased the number of potential vaccine targets compared to the number of targets discovered using the traditional approach where low-frequency peptides are excluded. Conclusions We developed a webserver with an intuitive visualization scheme for summarizing the T cell-based antigenic potential of any given protein or proteome using human leukocyte antigen binding predictions and made a web-accessible software implementation freely available at http://met-hilab.cbs.dtu.dk/blockcons/. PMID:26679766

  4. Molecular characterization and antigenic properties of a novel Babesia gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (BgGARP).

    PubMed

    Mousa, Ahmed Abdelmoniem; Cao, Shinuo; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; El Kirdasy, Ahmed; Salama, Akram; Attia, Mabrouk; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Zhou, Mo; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Masatani, Tatsunori; El Aziz, Sami Ahmed Abd; Moussa, Waheed Mohammed; Chahan, Bayin; Fukumoto, Shinya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; El Ballal, Salah Sayed; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-10-01

    Identification and molecular characterization of Babesia gibsoni proteins with potential antigenic properties are crucial for the development and validation of the serodiagnostic method. In this study, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel B. gibsoni 76-kDa protein by immunoscreening of the parasite cDNA library. Computer analysis revealed that the protein presents a glutamic acid-rich region in the C-terminal. Therefore, the protein was designated as B. gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (BgGARP). A BLASTp analysis of a translated BgGARP polypeptide demonstrated that the peptide shared a significant homology with a 200-kDa protein of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. A truncated BgGARP cDNA (BgGARPt) encoding a predicted 13-kDa peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and mouse antisera against the recombinant protein were used to characterize a corresponding native protein. The antiserum against recombinant BgGARPt (rBgGARPt) recognized a 140-kDa protein in the lysate of infected erythrocytes, which was detectable in the cytoplasm of the parasites by confocal microscopic observation. In addition, the specificity and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with rBgGARPt were evaluated using B. gibsoni-infected dog sera and specific pathogen-free (SPF) dog sera. Moreover, 107 serum samples from dogs clinically diagnosed with babesiosis were examined using ELISA with rBgGARPt. The results showed that 86 (80.4%) samples were positive by rBgGARPt-ELISA, which was comparable to IFAT and PCR as reference test. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BgGARP is a suitable serodiagnostic antigen for detecting antibodies against B. gibsoni in dogs. PMID:23968686

  5. Variation of expression defects in cell surface 190-kDa protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Nomura, Ryota; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus mutans, which consists of four serotypes, c, e, f, and k, possesses a 190-kDa cell surface protein antigen (PA) for initial tooth adhesion. We used Western blot analysis to determine PA expression in 750 S. mutans isolates from 150 subjects and found a significantly higher prevalence of the isolates with PA expression defects in serotypes f and k compared to serotypes c and e. Moreover, the defect patterns could be classified into three types; no PA expression on whole bacterial cells and in their supernatant samples (Type N1), PA expression mainly seen in supernatant samples (Type N2), and only low expression of PA in the samples of whole bacterial cells (Type W). The underlying reasons for the defects were mutations in the gene encoding PA as well as in the transcriptional processing of this gene for Type N1, defects in the sortase gene for Type N2, and low mRNA expression of PA for Type W. Since cellular hydrophobicity and phagocytosis susceptibility of the PA-defective isolates were significantly lower than those of the normal expression isolates, the potential implication of such defective isolates in systemic diseases involving bacteremia other than dental caries was suggested. Additionally, multilocus sequence typing was utilized to characterize S. mutans clones that represented a proportion of isolates with PA defects of 65-100%. Therefore, we described the molecular basis for variation defects in PA expression of S. mutans. Furthermore, we also emphasized the strong association between PA expression defects and serotypes f and k as well as the clonal relationships among these isolates. PMID:25792295

  6. Human Biliverdin Reductase Suppresses Goodpasture Antigen-binding Protein (GPBP) Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miralem, Tihomir; Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Revert, Fernando; Saus, Juan; Maines, Mahin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) and the expression of Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP), a nonconventional Ser/Thr kinase for the type IV collagen of basement membrane, are regulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?). The pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulates kinase activity of hBVR and activates NF-?B, a transcriptional regulator of GPBP mRNA. Increased GPBP activity is associated with several autoimmune conditions, including Goodpasture syndrome. Here we show that in HEK293A cells hBVR binds to GPBP and down-regulates its TNF-?-stimulated kinase activity; this was not due to a decrease in GPBP expression. Findings with small interfering RNA to hBVR and to the p65 regulatory subunit of NF-?B show the hBVR role in the initial stimulation of GPBP expression by TNF-?-activated NF-?B; hBVR was not a factor in mediating GPBP mRNA stability. The interacting domain was mapped to the 281CX10C motif in the C-terminal 24 residues of hBVR. A 7-residue peptide, KKRILHC281, corresponding to the core of the consensus D(?)-Box motif in the interacting domain, was as effective as the intact 296-residue hBVR polypeptide in inhibiting GPBP kinase activity. GPBP neither regulated hBVR expression nor TNF-? dependent NF-?B expression. Collectively, our data reveal that hBVR is a regulator of the TNF-?-GPBP-collagen type IV signaling cascade and uncover a novel biological interaction that may be of relevance in autoimmune pathogenesis. PMID:20177069

  7. Properties of group B streptococci with protein surface antigens X and R.

    PubMed Central

    Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1990-01-01

    A total of 128 bovine and 134 human group B streptococci were serotyped by conventional methods. Among the bovine cultures, 60 (47%) had type antigen X, and among the human cultures, 53 (39%) had type antigen R. The occurrence of type antigens X and R was significantly related to the growth pattern of the bacteria in fluid media. Type X- and R-positive cultures and most of the nontypeable cultures predominantly formed long chains and grew as granular sediment with clear supernatant. In addition, group B streptococci with surface antigen X or R showed compact colony formation in soft agar and reacted positively in the salt aggregation test. These properties, possibly caused by the surface charges of the X- and R-positive cultures, might be related to bacterial pathogenicity. Images PMID:2280021

  8. Biochemical activities of T-antigen proteins encoded by simian virus 40 A gene deletion mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R; Peden, K; Pipas, J M; Nathans, D; Tjian, R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed T antigens produced by a set of simian virus 40 (SV40) A gene deletion mutants for ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Virus stocks of nonviable SV40 A gene deletion mutants were established in SV40-transformed monkey COS cells. Mutant T antigens were produced in mutant virus-infected CV1 cells. The structures of the mutant T antigens were characterized by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies directed against distinct regions of the T-antigen molecule. T antigens in crude extracts prepared from cells infected with 10 different mutants were immobilized on polyacrylamide beads with monoclonal antibodies, quantified by Coomassie blue staining, and then assayed directly for T antigen-specific ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Our results indicate that the T antigen coding sequences required for origin binding map between 0.54 and 0.35 map units on the SV40 genome. In contrast, sequences closer to the C terminus of T antigen (between 0.24 and 0.20 map units) are required for ATPase activity. The presence of the ATPase activity correlated closely with the ability of the mutant viruses to replicate and to transform nonpermissive cells. The origin binding activity was retained, however, by three mutants that lacked these two functions, indicating that this activity is not sufficient to support either cellular transformation or viral replication. Neither the ATPase activity nor the origin binding activity correlated with the ability of the mutant DNA to activate silent rRNA genes or host cell DNA synthesis. Images PMID:6300658

  9. Immunization with FSH? fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen Chen, Fulin

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal ? and ? estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSH? fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSH? antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  10. Varicellovirus UL 49.5 proteins differentially affect the function of the transporter associated with antigen processing, TAP.

    PubMed

    Koppers-Lalic, Danijela; Verweij, Marieke C; Lipi?ska, Andrea D; Wang, Ying; Quinten, Edwin; Reits, Eric A; Koch, Joachim; Loch, Sandra; Marcondes Rezende, Marisa; Daus, Franz; Bie?kowska-Szewczyk, Krystyna; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; Tampé, Robert; Neefjes, Jacques J; Chowdhury, Shafiqul I; Ressing, Maaike E; Rijsewijk, Frans A M; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2008-05-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes play an important role in the protection against viral infections, which they detect through the recognition of virus-derived peptides, presented in the context of MHC class I molecules at the surface of the infected cell. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays an essential role in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation, as TAP imports peptides into the ER, where peptide loading of MHC class I molecules takes place. In this study, the UL 49.5 proteins of the varicelloviruses bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) are characterized as members of a novel class of viral immune evasion proteins. These UL 49.5 proteins interfere with MHC class I antigen presentation by blocking the supply of antigenic peptides through inhibition of TAP. BHV-1, PRV, and EHV-1 recombinant viruses lacking UL 49.5 no longer interfere with peptide transport. Combined with the observation that the individually expressed UL 49.5 proteins block TAP as well, these data indicate that UL 49.5 is the viral factor that is both necessary and sufficient to abolish TAP function during productive infection by these viruses. The mechanisms through which the UL 49.5 proteins of BHV-1, PRV, EHV-1, and EHV-4 block TAP exhibit surprising diversity. BHV-1 UL 49.5 targets TAP for proteasomal degradation, whereas EHV-1 and EHV-4 UL 49.5 interfere with the binding of ATP to TAP. In contrast, TAP stability and ATP recruitment are not affected by PRV UL 49.5, although it has the capacity to arrest the peptide transporter in a translocation-incompetent state, a property shared with the BHV-1 and EHV-1 UL 49.5. Taken together, these results classify the UL 49.5 gene products of BHV-1, PRV, EHV-1, and EHV-4 as members of a novel family of viral immune evasion proteins, inhibiting TAP through a variety of mechanisms. PMID:18516302

  11. Well-known surface and extracellular antigens of pathogenic microorganisms among the immunodominant proteins of the infectious microalgae Prototheca zopfii

    PubMed Central

    Irrgang, Alexandra; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Weise, Christoph; Azab, Walid; Roesler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P.) are associated with rare but severe infections (protothecosis) and represent a potential zoonotic risk. Genotype (GT) 2 of P. zopfii has been established as pathogenic agent for humans, dogs, and cattle, whereas GT1 is considered to be non-pathogenic. Since pathogenesis is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to determine immunogenic proteins and potential virulence factors of P. zopfii GT2. Therefore, 2D western blot analyses with sera and isolates of two dogs naturally infected with P. zopfii GT2 have been performed. Cross-reactivity was determined by including the type strains of P. zopfii GT2, P. zopfii GT1, and P. blaschkeae, a close relative of P. zopfii, which is known to cause subclinical forms of bovine mastitis. The sera showed a high strain-, genotype-, and species-cross-reactivity. A total of 198 immunogenic proteins have been analyzed via MALDI—TOF MS. The majority of the 86 identified proteins are intracellularly located (e.g., malate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase) but some antigens and potential virulence factors, known from other pathogens, have been found (e.g., phosphomannomutase, triosephosphate isomerase). One genotype-specific antigen could be identified as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a well-known antigen of eukaryotic pathogens with immunological importance when located extracellularly. Both sera were reactive to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase of all investigated strains. This house-keeping enzyme is found to be located on the surface of several pathogens as virulence factor. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed its presence on the surface of P. blaschkeae. PMID:26484314

  12. Well-known surface and extracellular antigens of pathogenic microorganisms among the immunodominant proteins of the infectious microalgae Prototheca zopfii.

    PubMed

    Irrgang, Alexandra; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Weise, Christoph; Azab, Walid; Roesler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P.) are associated with rare but severe infections (protothecosis) and represent a potential zoonotic risk. Genotype (GT) 2 of P. zopfii has been established as pathogenic agent for humans, dogs, and cattle, whereas GT1 is considered to be non-pathogenic. Since pathogenesis is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to determine immunogenic proteins and potential virulence factors of P. zopfii GT2. Therefore, 2D western blot analyses with sera and isolates of two dogs naturally infected with P. zopfii GT2 have been performed. Cross-reactivity was determined by including the type strains of P. zopfii GT2, P. zopfii GT1, and P. blaschkeae, a close relative of P. zopfii, which is known to cause subclinical forms of bovine mastitis. The sera showed a high strain-, genotype-, and species-cross-reactivity. A total of 198 immunogenic proteins have been analyzed via MALDI-TOF MS. The majority of the 86 identified proteins are intracellularly located (e.g., malate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase) but some antigens and potential virulence factors, known from other pathogens, have been found (e.g., phosphomannomutase, triosephosphate isomerase). One genotype-specific antigen could be identified as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a well-known antigen of eukaryotic pathogens with immunological importance when located extracellularly. Both sera were reactive to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase of all investigated strains. This house-keeping enzyme is found to be located on the surface of several pathogens as virulence factor. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed its presence on the surface of P. blaschkeae. PMID:26484314

  13. The J Domain of Papovaviral Large Tumor Antigen Is Required for Synergistic Interaction with the POU-Domain Protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP

    PubMed Central

    Sock, Elisabeth; Enderich, Janna; Wegner, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Large T antigens from polyomaviruses are multifunctional proteins with roles in transcriptional regulation, viral DNA replication, and cellular transformation. They have been shown to enhance the activity of various cellular transcription factors. In the case of the POU protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP, this enhancement involves a direct physical interaction between the POU domain of the transcription factor and the amino-terminal region of large T antigen. Here we have analyzed the structural requirements for synergistic interaction between the two proteins in greater detail. Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and the related POU protein Brn-1 were both capable of direct physical interaction with large T antigen. Nevertheless, only Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP functioned synergistically with large T antigen. This differential behavior was due to differences in the amino-terminal regions of the proteins, as evident from chimeras between Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and Brn-1. Synergy was specifically observed for constructs containing the amino-terminal region of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. Large T antigen, on the other hand, functioned synergistically with Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP only when the integrity of its J-domain-containing amino terminus was maintained. Mutations that disrupted the J domain concomitantly abolished the ability to enhance the function of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. The J domain of T antigen was also responsible for the physical interaction with Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and could be replaced in this property by other J domains. Intriguingly, a heterologous J domain from a human DnaJ protein partially substituted for the amino terminus of T antigen even with regard to the synergistic enhancement of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP function. Given the general role of J domains, we propose chaperone activity as the underlying mechanism for synergy between Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and large T antigens. PMID:10082511

  14. Human and guinea pig immune responses to Legionella pneumophila protein antigens OmpS and Hsp60.

    PubMed Central

    Weeratna, R; Stamler, D A; Edelstein, P H; Ripley, M; Marrie, T; Hoskin, D; Hoffman, P S

    1994-01-01

    We studied the immune responses of guinea pigs and humans to two Legionella pneumophila antigens. Guinea pigs surviving a lethal intraperitoneal challenge dose of virulent L. pneumophila exhibited strong cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified OmpS (28-kDa major outer membrane protein) and Hsp60 (heat shock protein or common antigen), while weak DTH reactions were noted for extracellular protease (major secretory protein [MSP] [ProA]) and no reaction was observed with an ovalbumin (OA) control. Lymphocyte proliferation responses (LPRs) were measured for peripheral blood and spleen lymphocytes from guinea pigs surviving sublethal and lethal challenge doses of L. pneumophila. Lymphocytes from uninfected animals showed no proliferation to Hsp60 or OmpS, while lymphocytes from sublethally and lethally challenged animals exhibited strong proliferative responses to Hsp60 and OmpS. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified OmpS exhibited low antibody titers and strong DTH and LPRs to OmpS, whereas lymphocytes from animals vaccinated with Hsp60 exhibited weak DTH responses and high antibody titers to Hsp60. All guinea pigs immunized with OmpS survived experimental challenge with L. pneumophila (two of two in a pilot study and seven of seven in trial 2) versus zero of seven OA-immunized controls (P = 0.006 by Fisher's exact test). In three vaccine trials in which animals were vaccinated with Hsp60, only 1 guinea pig of 15 survived lethal challenge. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from humans with legionellosis showed stronger LPRs to OmpS than PBLs from humans with no history of legionellosis (P = 0.0002 by Mann-Whitney test). PBLs of humans surviving legionellosis exhibited a lower but highly significant proliferative response to Hsp60 (P < 0.0001 compared with controls by Mann-Whitney test). These studies indicate that OmpS and Hsp60 are important antigens associated with the development of protective cellular immunity. However, as determined in vaccine trial studies in the guinea pig model for legionellosis, the species-specific antigen OmpS proved much more effective than the genus-common Hsp60 antigen. PMID:7913699

  15. Proteomics reveals differences in protein abundance and highly similar antigenic profiles between Besnoitia besnoiti and Besnoitia tarandi.

    PubMed

    García-Lunar, P; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M; Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Alvarez-García, G

    2014-10-15

    Besnoitia besnoiti and Besnoitia tarandi are two cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites of the genus Besnoitia. B. besnoiti uses cattle as an intermediate host, in which it causes a disease that progresses in two sequential phases: the acute anasarca stage and the chronic scleroderma stage. Reindeer and caribou act as intermediate hosts for B. tarandi, which causes clinical signs similar to those caused by B. besnoiti. Previous studies demonstrated high molecular similarity, as determined by 18S and ITS-1 RNA sequences, between these Besnoitia spp., and strong serological cross-reactivity between these species has recently been demonstrated. Thus, a difference gel electrophoresis approach and mass spectrometry analysis were used to describe the proteomes and explore differences in protein abundance between B. besnoiti and B. tarandi in tachyzoite extracts. Immunoproteomes were also compared using 2-DE immunoblotting with polyclonal sera from experimentally infected rabbits. From approximately 1400 spots detected in DIGE-gels, 28 and 29 spots were differentially abundant in B. besnoiti and B. tarandi tachyzoites, respectively (± 1.5-fold, p<0.05). Four and 13 spots were exclusively detected in B. besnoiti and B. tarandi, respectively. Of the 32 differentially abundant spots analyzed by MALDI-TOF/MS, 6 up-regulated B. besnoiti proteins (LDH; HSP90; purine nucleoside phosphorylase and 3 hypothetical proteins) and 6 up-regulated B. tarandi proteins (G3PDH; LDH; PDI; mRNA decapping protein and 2 hypothetical proteins) were identified. Interestingly, no specific antigen spots were recognized by sera on any of the Besnoitia species studied and a similar antigen profile has been observed for B. tarandi and B. besnoiti sera when cross reactions were studied. This fact corroborates the difficulty in discerning Besnoitia infections using current serological assays. The present study underscores the importance of sequencing the B. besnoiti genome for species diversity studies of the genus Besnoitia. PMID:25260331

  16. Partial Purification of Integral Membrane Antigenic Proteins from Trypanosoma evansi That Display Immunological Cross-Reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Norma P.; Camargo, Rocío E.; Uzcanga, Graciela L.; Bubis, José

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax, which are the major causative agents of animal trypanosomosis in Venezuela, have shown a very high immunological cross-reactivity. Since the production of T. vivax antigens is a limiting factor as this parasite is difficult to propagate in experimental animal models, our goal has been to identify and isolate antigens from T. evansi that cross-react with T. vivax. Here, we used the Venezuelan T. evansi TEVA1 isolate to prepare the total parasite lysate and its corresponding cytosolic and membranous fractions. In order to extract the T. evansi integral membrane proteins, the particulate portion was further extracted first with Triton X-100, and then with sodium dodecyl sulfate. After discarding the cytosolic and Triton X-100 solubilized proteins, we employed sedimentation by centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients to partially purify the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized proteins from the Triton X-100 resistant particulate fraction of T. evansi. We obtained enriched pools containing polypeptide bands with apparent molecular masses of 27?kDa, 31?kDa, and 53?kDa, which were recognized by anti-T. vivax antibodies from experimentally and naturally infected bovines. PMID:24757558

  17. Localization of the major antigenic determinant of EDP208 pili at the N-terminus of the pilus protein.

    PubMed Central

    Worobec, E A; Taneja, A K; Hodges, R S; Paranchych, W

    1983-01-01

    Trypsin digestion of pilin monomers from EDP208 conjugative pili causes cleavage of Lys12 to yield an N-terminal dodecapeptide, ET1 (Mr approximately equal to 1,500), and the remaining C-terminal fragment, ER (Mr approximately equal to 10,000). Using the amino acid sequence for ET1 provided by Frost et al. (J. Bacteriol. 153:950-954), we synthesized the N-terminal dodecapeptide chemically, conjugated it to bovine serum albumin, and subjected it to immunological studies. Antisera prepared against intact EDP208 pili as well as against the synthetic ET1-BSA conjugate were used in experiments involving an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. Both experimental approaches showed strong reactivity between the synthetic dodecapeptide and antiserum raised against whole pili. It was also found that antiserum raised against the synthetic peptide was reactive against intact pilus protein, indicating that the N-terminal dodecapeptide is an important antigenic determinant of the EDP208 pilus protein. Additional studies showed that the C-terminal fragment, ER, may contain one or two additional antigenic sites. Images PMID:6185467

  18. CD4+ T-cell responses among adults and young children in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae vaccine candidate protein antigens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharad K; Roumanes, David; Almudevar, Anthony; Mosmann, Tim R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-06-26

    We characterized cytokine profiles of CD4(+) T-helper (h) cells in adults and young children to ascertain if responses occur to next-generation candidate vaccine antigens PspA, PcpA, PhtD, PhtE, Ply, LytB of Streptococcus pneumonia (Spn) and protein D and OMP26 of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Adults had vaccine antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells responsive to all antigens evaluated whereas young children had significant numbers of vaccine antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells producing IL-2, (p=0.004). Vaccine antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell populations in adults were largely of effector (TEM) and/or central memory (TCM) phenotypes as defined by CD45RA(-)CCR7(+) or CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) respectively; however among young children antigen-specific IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells demonstrated CD45RA(+) expression (non-memory cells). We conclude that adults have circulating memory CD4(+) T cells (CD45RA(-)) that can be stimulated by all the tested Spn and NTHi protein vaccine candidate antigens, whereas young children have a more limited response. PMID:23632305

  19. [Western-blot with VLSE protein and "in vivo" antigens in Lyme borreliosis diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Zajkowska, Joanna; Kondrusik, Maciej; Pancewicz, S?awomir; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Swierzbi?ska, Renata; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa; Czeczuga, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Iwona

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the efficiency of Western blot (EcoLine) test detecting simoultanous presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in diagnosis of early and late stage of Lyme borreliosis. The comparison of results achieved by performing test Western-blot, ELISA (based on recombinant antigens of three genospecies of Borrelia) and EIA (based on antigens of one B. burgdorferi genospecies). The tests Western blot: EcoLine (Virotech) with antygens "in vivo", ELISA Borrelia IgM, IgG recombinant (Biomedica), EIA: B. b. ss. IgG, EIA B. garinii IgG, EIA B. afzelii IgG (TestLine) were used. Results showed efficacy of detecting IgM, IgG antibodies against VlsE simultanously and IgG antibodies against "in vivo" antigens in diagnosis of early stages of Lyme disease when atypical picture skin lessions arise diagnostic doubts and in discerning early and late stage of disease. The EIA tests based on one B. burgdoreferi genospecies seem less effective in comparison to ELISA tests based on 3 genospecies antigens. PMID:16909799

  20. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  1. Detergent pretreatment of solid phase globular proteins in ELISA`s. Enhanced antigenicity and subsequent sensitivity. Final report, September 1989-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, G.C.; Bouhmadouche, M.; Williamson, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    Methods for pretreatment and rejuvenation of preimmobilized globular proteins used in immunodiagnostics were investigated using reagents routinely used in ELISA`s. Rabbit and goat gamma globulins, functioning as antigens, and antibodies on non-covalent, and covalent solid surfaces, were monitored for detergent mediated desorption, denaturation, non-specific binding and altered antigenicity. The results from fourteen commercially supplied polyvinyl- and polystyrene-derivatized microtiter plates coated with antibody or antigenic lgG were compared with commercial microtiter diagnostic plates with preimmobilized lgG. Wash solutions had no effect on immobilized gamma globulins when the solid phase protein functioned as an antibody on covalent or noncovalent surfaces. In addition to tween 20 removing up to 50% of noncovalently bound protein additional binding sites are apparently exposed on solid phase antigens, evident by an increase in signal, which cannot be explained by nonspecific binding. However, no increase in signal was evident when antigen was preimmobilized covalently. The role of between 20 and other reagent components in ELISA-based assays are explored. The screening of noncovalent preimmobilized antigen coated surfaces prior to use for deteraent mediated enhancement is suggested.

  2. Does Binding of Complement Factor H to the Meningococcal Vaccine Antigen, Factor H Binding Protein, Decrease Protective Serum Antibody Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Sanjay; Beernink, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a principal antigen in a multicomponent meningococcal vaccine recently licensed in Europe for prevention of serogroup B diseases. The protein recruits the complement downregulator, factor H (fH), to the bacterial surface, which enables the organism to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Binding is specific for human fH. In preclinical studies, mice and rabbits immunized with fHbp vaccines developed serum bactericidal antibody responses, which in humans predict protection against developing meningococcal disease. These studies, however, were in animals whose fH did not bind to the vaccine antigen. Here we review the immunogenicity of fHbp vaccines in human fH transgenic mice. The data suggest that animals with high serum human fH concentrations have impaired protective antibody responses. Further, mutant fHbp vaccines with single amino acid substitutions that decrease fH binding are superior immunogens, possibly by unmasking epitopes in the fH binding site that are important for eliciting serum bactericidal antibody responses. Humans immunized with fHbp vaccines develop serum bactericidal antibody, but achieving broad coverage in infants required incorporation of additional antigens, including outer membrane vesicles, which increased rates of fever and local reactions at the injection site. The experimental results in transgenic mice predict that fHbp immunogenicity can be improved in humans by using mutant fHbp vaccines with decreased fH binding. These results have important public health implications for developing improved fHbp vaccines for control of serogroup B meningococcal disease and for development of vaccines against other microbes that bind host molecules. PMID:23740919

  3. The human immunodeficiency virus antigen Nef forms protein bodies in leaves of transgenic tobacco when fused to zeolin

    PubMed Central

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; Bellucci, Michele; Mainieri, Davide; Rossi, Marika; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Arcioni, Sergio; Vitale, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Protein bodies (PB) are stable polymers naturally formed by certain seed storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The human immunodeficiency virus negative factor (Nef) protein, a potential antigen for the development of an anti-viral vaccine, is highly unstable when introduced into the plant secretory pathway, probably because of folding defects in the ER environment. The aim of this study was to promote the formation of Nef-containing PB in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by fusing the Nef sequence to the N-terminal domains of the maize storage protein ?-zein or to the chimeric protein zeolin (which efficiently forms PB and is composed of the vacuolar storage protein phaseolin fused to the N-terminal domains of ?-zein). Protein blots and pulse–chase indicate that fusions between Nef and the same ?-zein domains present in zeolin are degraded by ER quality control. Consistently, a mutated zeolin, in which wild-type phaseolin was substituted with a defective version known to be degraded by ER quality control, is unstable in plant cells. Fusion of Nef to the entire zeolin sequence instead allows the formation of PB detectable by electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation, leading to zeolin–Nef accumulation higher than 1% of total soluble protein, consistently reproduced in independent transgenic plants. It is concluded that zeolin, but not its ?-zein portion, has a positive dominant effect over ER quality control degradation. These results provide insights into the requirements for PB formation and avoidance of quality-control degradation, and indicate a strategy for enhancing foreign protein accumulation in plants. PMID:18540021

  4. The Major Antigenic Membrane Protein of “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” Selectively Interacts with ATP Synthase and Actin of Leafhopper Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Galetto, Luciana; Bosco, Domenico; Balestrini, Raffaella; Genre, Andrea; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Marzachì, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, uncultivable phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria, represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. Phytoplasma membrane proteins are in direct contact with hosts and are presumably involved in determining vector specificity. Such a role has been proposed for phytoplasma transmembrane proteins encoded by circular extrachromosomal elements, at least one of which is a plasmid. Little is known about the interactions between major phytoplasma antigenic membrane protein (Amp) and insect vector proteins. The aims of our work were to identify vector proteins interacting with Amp and to investigate their role in transmission specificity. In controlled transmission experiments, four Hemipteran species were identified as vectors of “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris”, the chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasmas (CYP) strain, and three others as non-vectors. Interactions between a labelled (recombinant) CYP Amp and insect proteins were analysed by far Western blots and affinity chromatography. Amp interacted specifically with a few proteins from vector species only. Among Amp-binding vector proteins, actin and both the ? and ? subunits of ATP synthase were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blots. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blots of plasma membrane and mitochondrial fractions confirmed the localisation of ATP synthase, generally known as a mitochondrial protein, in plasma membranes of midgut and salivary gland cells in the vector Euscelidius variegatus. The vector-specific interaction between phytoplasma Amp and insect ATP synthase is demonstrated for the first time, and this work also supports the hypothesis that host actin is involved in the internalization and intracellular motility of phytoplasmas within their vectors. Phytoplasma Amp is hypothesized to play a crucial role in insect transmission specificity. PMID:21799902

  5. In Vivo Selection for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opacity Protein Expression in the Absence of Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Amy N.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2006-01-01

    The neisserial opacity (Opa) proteins are phase-variable, antigenically distinct outer membrane proteins that mediate adherence to and invasion of human cells. We previously reported that Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opa protein expression appeared to be selected for or induced during experimental murine genital tract infection. Here we further defined the kinetics of recovery of Opa variants from the lower genital tracts of female mice and investigated the basis for this initial observation. We found that the recovery of different Opa phenotypes from mice appears cyclical. Three phases of infection were defined. Following intravaginal inoculation with primarily Opa? gonococci, the majority of isolates recovered were Opa+ (early phase). A subsequent decline in the percentage of Opa+ isolates occurred in a majority of mice (middle phase) and was followed by a reemergence of Opa+ variants in mice that were infected for longer than 8 days (late phase). We showed the early phase was due to selection for preexisting Opa+ variants in the inoculum by constructing a chloramphenicol-resistant (Cmr) strain and following Cmr Opa+ populations mixed with a higher percentage of Opa? variants of the wild-type (Cms) strain. Reciprocal experiments (Opa? Cmr gonococci spiked with Opa+ Cms bacteria) were consistent with selection of Opa+ variants. Based on the absence in mice of human carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules, the major class of Opa protein adherence receptors, we conclude the observed selection for Opa+ variants early in infection is not likely due to a specific adherence advantage and may be due to Opa-mediated evasion of innate defenses. PMID:16622235

  6. Identification and characterization of a Trypanosoma congolense 46 kDa protein as a candidate serodiagnostic antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Suganuma, Keisuke; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Yamasaki, Shino; Igarashi, Ikuo; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-06-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is a major livestock pathogen in Africa, causing large economic losses with serious effects on animal health. Reliable serodiagnostic tests are therefore urgently needed to control T. congolense infection. In this study, we have identified one T. congolense protein as a new candidate serodiagnostic antigen. The 46.4 kDa protein (TcP46, Gene ID: TcIL3000.0.25950) is expressed 5.36 times higher in metacyclic forms than epimastigote forms. The complete nucleotide sequences of TcP46 contained an open reading frame of 1,218 bp. Southern blot analysis indicated that at least two copies of the TcP46 gene were tandemly-arranged in the T. congolense genome. The recombinant TcP46 (rTcP46) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the native TcP46 protein is expressed in the cytoplasm during all life-cycle stages of the parasite. Moreover, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on rTcP46 detected the specific antibodies as early as 8 days post-infection from mice experimentally infected with T. congolense. No cross-reactivity was observed in the rTcP46-based ELISA against serum samples from cattle experimentally infected with Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale. These results suggest that rTcP46 could be used as a serodiagnostic antigen for T. congolense infection. PMID:24492330

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer An Influenza Virus M2 Protein Specific Chimeric Antigen

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Modulates Influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1 Infection In Vivo Citation for published version: Talbot, SJ, Blair, NF Chimeric Antigen Receptor Modulates Influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1 Infection In Vivo' The open virology journal/WSN/33 H1N1 Infection In Vivo Simon J. Talbot*,1 , Natalie F. Blair1 , Niolette McGill1 , Yvonne

  8. Integrin-associated protein: a 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophil phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H. D., J. L. Goodwin, P. M. Allen, D. C. Anderson, and E. J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecule that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but not on erythrocytes, this protein is associated with an integrin that can be recognized by an anti-beta 3 antibody. In addition, both the anti-beta 3 and several mAbs recognizing the 50-kD protein inhibit Arg-Gly-Asp stimulation of phagocytosis. These data demonstrate an association between integrins and the 50-kD protein on several cell types. For this reason, we call it Integrin-associated Protein (IAP). We hypothesize that IAP may play a role in signal transduction for enhanced phagocytosis by Arg-Gly-Asp ligands. PMID:2277087

  9. Particle-based transcutaneous administration of HIV-1 p24 protein to human skin explants and targeting of epidermal antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Amselgruber, Sarah; Hadam, Sabrina; Munier, Sevérine; Pavot, Vincent; Verrier, Bernard; Hackbarth, Steffen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2014-02-28

    Transcutaneous immunization is a promising vaccination strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigate the combination of cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) and particle-based antigen delivery to target the HIV-1 p24 protein to skin antigen presenting cells (APC). The CSSS treatment pre-activates skin APC and opens hair follicles, where protein-loaded particles accumulate and allow for sustained delivery of the loaded antigen to perifollicular APC. We found that poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) particles targeted the adsorbed HIV-1 p24 protein to the hair follicles. Small amounts of PS and PLA particles were found to translocate to the epidermis and be internalized by skin cells, whereas most of the particles aggregated in the hair follicle canal, where they released the loaded antigen. The p24 protein diffused to the epidermis and dermis and was detected in skin cells, especially in Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. Furthermore, the combination of CSSS and particle-based delivery resulted in activation and maturation of Langerhans cells (HLA-DR, CD80 and CD83). We conclude that particle-based antigen delivery across partially disrupted skin barrier is a feasible and effective approach to needle-free transcutaneous vaccination. PMID:24384300

  10. Expression and refolding of truncated recombinant major outer membrane protein antigen (r56) of Orientia tsutsugamushi and its use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Ching, W M; Wang, H; Eamsila, C; Kelly, D J; Dasch, G A

    1998-07-01

    The variable 56-kDa major outer membrane protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi is the immunodominant antigen in human scrub typhus infections. The gene encoding this protein from Karp strain was cloned into the expression vector pET11a. The recombinant protein (r56) was expressed as a truncated nonfusion protein (amino acids 80 to 456 of the open reading frame) which formed an inclusion body when expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Refolded r56 was purified and compared to purified whole-cell lysate of the Karp strain of O. tsutsugamushi by immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for reactivity with rabbit sera prepared against eight antigenic prototypes of O. tsutsugamushi as well as several other species of Rickettsiales and nonrickettsial antigens. Refolded r56 exhibited broad reactivity with the rabbit antisera against the Orientia prototypes, and the ELISA reactions with the r56 and Karp whole-cell lysate antigens correlated well (r = 0.81, n = 22, sensitivity compared to that of standard ELISA of 91%). Refolded r56 did not react with most antisera against other rickettsial species or control antigens (specificity = 92%, n = 13) using a positive cutoff value determined with eight uninfected rabbit sera. Refolded r56 was evaluated further by ELISA, using 128 sera obtained from patients with suspected scrub typhus from Korat, Thailand, and 74 serum specimens from healthy Thai soldiers. By using the indirect immunoperoxidase assay as the reference assay, the recombinant antigen exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 93% or greater for detection of both IgG and IgM in the ELISA at 1:400 serum dilution. These results strongly suggest that purified r56 is a suitable candidate for replacing the density gradient-purified, rickettsia-derived, whole-cell antigen currently used in the commercial dipstick assay available in the United States. PMID:9665960

  11. Loss of T Cell Antigen Recognition Arising from Changes in Peptide and Major Histocompatibility Complex Protein Flexibility: Implications for Vaccine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Insaidoo, Francis K.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Hossain, Moushumi; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Baxter, Tiffany K.; Baker, Brian M.

    2012-05-08

    Modification of the primary anchor positions of antigenic peptides to improve binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is a commonly used strategy for engineering peptide-based vaccine candidates. However, such peptide modifications do not always improve antigenicity, complicating efforts to design effective vaccines for cancer and infectious disease. Here we investigated the MART-1{sub 27-35} tumor antigen, for which anchor modification (replacement of the position two alanine with leucine) dramatically reduces or ablates antigenicity with a wide range of T cell clones despite significantly improving peptide binding to MHC. We found that anchor modification in the MART-1{sub 27-35} antigen enhances the flexibility of both the peptide and the HLA-A*0201 molecule. Although the resulting entropic effects contribute to the improved binding of the peptide to MHC, they also negatively impact T cell receptor binding to the peptide {center_dot} MHC complex. These results help explain how the 'anchor-fixing' strategy fails to improve antigenicity in this case, and more generally, may be relevant for understanding the high specificity characteristic of the T cell repertoire. In addition to impacting vaccine design, modulation of peptide and MHC flexibility through changes to antigenic peptides may present an evolutionary strategy for the escape of pathogens from immune destruction.

  12. CREATING A MULTIVALENT SUBUNIT VACCINE USING TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM TIP PROTEINS AS ANTIGENS

    E-print Network

    Markham, Aaron Paul

    2009-07-06

    and animal studies focused on creating a single multivalent sub-unit vaccine for five gram-negative pathogenic systems. In addition, a putative tip protein from Chlamydiae is compared to the other tip proteins using biophysical methods....

  13. APPLICATION OF A NOVEL RADIOIMMUNOASSAY TO IDENTIFY BACULOVIRUS STRUCTURAL PROTEINS THAT SHARE INTERSPECIES ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral proteins were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose, and incubated with viral antisera, and the antibodies were detected with 125 I-labeled Staphylococcus aureus protein A. Antisera were prepared to purified and intact virions from five bacul...

  14. Oxidation by Neutrophils-Derived HOCl Increases Immunogenicity of Proteins by Converting Them into Ligands of Several Endocytic Receptors Involved in Antigen Uptake by Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Biedro?, Rafa?; Konopi?ski, Maciej K.; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Józefowski, Szczepan

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of adaptive immune responses to protein antigens has to be preceded by their uptake by antigen presenting cells and intracellular proteolytic processing. Paradoxically, endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake do not bind the majority of proteins, which may be the main reason why purified proteins stimulate at most weak immune responses. A shared feature of different types of adjuvants, capable of boosting immunogenicity of protein vaccines, is their ability to induce acute inflammation, characterized by early influx of activated neutrophils. Neutrophils are also rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection. These cells are the source of potent oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), causing oxidation of proteins present in inflammatory foci. We demonstrate that oxidation of proteins by endogenous, neutrophils-derived HOCl increases their immunogenicity. Upon oxidation, different, randomly chosen simple proteins (yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, human and bovine serum albumin) and glycoproteins (human apo-transferrin, ovalbumin) gain the ability to bind with high affinity to several endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells, which seems to be the major mechanism of their increased immunogenicity. The mannose receptor (CD206), scavenger receptors A (CD204) and CD36 were responsible for the uptake and presentation of HOCl-modified proteins by murine dendritic cells and macrophages. Other scavenger receptors, SREC-I and LOX-1, as well as RAGE were also able to bind HOCl-modified proteins, but they did not contribute significantly to these ligands uptake by dendritic cells because they were either not expressed or exhibited preference for more heavily oxidised proteins. Our results indicate that oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl may be a physiological mechanism of conferring immunogenicity on proteins which in their native forms do not bind to endocytic receptors. This mechanism might enable the immune system to detect infections caused by pathogens not recognized by pattern recognition receptors. PMID:25849867

  15. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Tang, Christoph M; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J; Masignani, Vega

    2013-02-26

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen-antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ?1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  16. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen

    PubMed Central

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.; Tang, Christoph M.; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J.; Masignani, Vega

    2013-01-01

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen–antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ?1,000 Å2 on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen–antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  17. Temporally defined neocortical translation and polysome assembly are determined by the RNA-binding protein Hu antigen R

    PubMed Central

    Kraushar, Matthew L.; Thompson, Kevin; Wijeratne, H. R. Sagara; Viljetic, Barbara; Sakers, Kristina; Marson, Justin W.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitris L.; Buyske, Steven; Hart, Ronald P.; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2014-01-01

    Precise spatiotemporal control of mRNA translation machinery is essential to the development of highly complex systems like the neocortex. However, spatiotemporal regulation of translation machinery in the developing neocortex remains poorly understood. Here, we show that an RNA-binding protein, Hu antigen R (HuR), regulates both neocorticogenesis and specificity of neocortical translation machinery in a developmental stage-dependent manner in mice. Neocortical absence of HuR alters the phosphorylation states of initiation and elongation factors in the core translation machinery. In addition, HuR regulates the temporally specific positioning of functionally related mRNAs into the active translation sites, the polysomes. HuR also determines the specificity of neocortical polysomes by defining their combinatorial composition of ribosomal proteins and initiation and elongation factors. For some HuR-dependent proteins, the association with polysomes likewise depends on the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4, which associates with HuR in prenatal developing neocortices. Finally, we found that deletion of HuR before embryonic day 10 disrupts both neocortical lamination and formation of the main neocortical commissure, the corpus callosum. Our study identifies a crucial role for HuR in neocortical development as a translational gatekeeper for functionally related mRNA subgroups and polysomal protein specificity. PMID:25157170

  18. Hydrolysis with Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease reduces antigenic response to bovine whey protein concentrate and ?s-casein.

    PubMed

    Babij, Konrad; Bajzert, Joanna; D?browska, Anna; Szo?tysik, Marek; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Lubec, Gert; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Willak-Janc, Ewa; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the effect of hydrolysis with non-commercial Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease on a reduction of the IgE and IgG binding capacity of whey protein concentrate and ?s-casein was investigated. The intensity of the protein degradation was analyzed by the degree of hydrolysis, the free amino groups content and RP-HPLC. The ability to bind the antibodies by native proteins and their hydrolysates was determined using a competitive ELISA test. Deep hydrolysis contributed to a significant reduction of immunoreactive epitopes present in WPC. In the case of IgE and IgG present in the serum pool of children with CMA, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h WPC hydrolysate, where the inhibition of the reaction with native WPC was ?23 and ?60 %, respectively. The analysis of the IgG reactivity in the antiserum of the immunized goat showed that the lowest antibody binding capacity was exhibited also by 24 h WPC hydrolysate at a concentration of 1000 ?g/ml where the inhibition of the reaction with nWPC was ?47 %. One-hour hydrolysis of ?-casein was sufficient to significant reduction of the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) of hydrolysis probably lead to the appearance of new epitopes reactive with polyclonal. PMID:26036686

  19. Structural Analysis of the Synthetic Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) Antigen DEKnull Relevant for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edwin; Salinas, Nichole D.; Ntumngia, Francis B.; Adams, John H.; Tolia, Niraj H.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) is a protein necessary for P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes. The polymorphic nature of DBP induces strain-specific immune responses that pose unique challenges for vaccine development. DEKnull is a synthetic DBP based antigen that has been engineered through mutation to enhance induction of blocking inhibitory antibodies. We determined the x-ray crystal structure of DEKnull to identify if any conformational changes had occurred upon mutation. Computational and experimental analyses assessed immunogenicity differences between DBP and DEKnull epitopes. Functional binding assays with monoclonal antibodies were used to interrogate the available epitopes in DEKnull. We demonstrate that DEKnull is structurally similar to the parental Sal1 DBP. The DEKnull mutations do not cause peptide backbone shifts within the polymorphic loop, or at either the DBP dimerization interface or DARC receptor binding pockets, two important structurally conserved protective epitope motifs. All B-cell epitopes, except for the mutated DEK motif, are conserved between DEKnull and DBP. The DEKnull protein retains binding to conformationally dependent inhibitory antibodies. DEKnull is an iterative improvement of DBP as a vaccine candidate. DEKnull has reduced immunogenicity to polymorphic regions responsible for strain-specific immunity while retaining conserved protein folds necessary for induction of strain-transcending blocking inhibitory antibodies. PMID:25793371

  20. B-cell responses to pregnancy-restricted and -unrestricted Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 antigens in Ghanaian women naturally exposed to malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F; Barfod, Lea; Hviid, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired after natural exposure is largely antibody mediated. IgG-specific P. falciparum EMP1 (PfEMP1) proteins on the infected erythrocyte surface are particularly important. The transient antibody responses and the slowly acquired protective immunity probably reflect the clonal antigenic variation and allelic polymorphism of PfEMP1. However, it is likely that other immune-evasive mechanisms are also involved, such as interference with formation and maintenance of immunological memory. We measured PfEMP1-specific antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and memory B-cell frequencies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in a cohort of P. falciparum-exposed nonpregnant Ghanaian women. The antigens used were a VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 (IT4VAR04) with expression restricted to parasites infecting the placenta, as well as two commonly recognized PfEMP1 proteins (HB3VAR06 and IT4VAR60) implicated in rosetting and not pregnancy restricted. This enabled, for the first time, a direct comparison in the same individuals of immune responses specific for a clinically important parasite antigen expressed only during well-defined periods (pregnancy) to responses specific for comparable antigens expressed independent of pregnancy. Our data indicate that PfEMP1-specific B-cell memory is adequately acquired even when antigen exposure is infrequent (e.g., VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1). Furthermore, immunological memory specific for VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 can be maintained for many years without antigen reexposure and after circulating antigen-specific IgG has disappeared. The study provides evidence that natural exposure to P. falciparum leads to formation of durable B-cell immunity to clinically important PfEMP1 antigens. This has encouraging implications for current efforts to develop PfEMP1-based vaccines. PMID:24566620

  1. B-Cell Responses to Pregnancy-Restricted and -Unrestricted Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Antigens in Ghanaian Women Naturally Exposed to Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F.; Barfod, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired after natural exposure is largely antibody mediated. IgG-specific P. falciparum EMP1 (PfEMP1) proteins on the infected erythrocyte surface are particularly important. The transient antibody responses and the slowly acquired protective immunity probably reflect the clonal antigenic variation and allelic polymorphism of PfEMP1. However, it is likely that other immune-evasive mechanisms are also involved, such as interference with formation and maintenance of immunological memory. We measured PfEMP1-specific antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and memory B-cell frequencies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in a cohort of P. falciparum-exposed nonpregnant Ghanaian women. The antigens used were a VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 (IT4VAR04) with expression restricted to parasites infecting the placenta, as well as two commonly recognized PfEMP1 proteins (HB3VAR06 and IT4VAR60) implicated in rosetting and not pregnancy restricted. This enabled, for the first time, a direct comparison in the same individuals of immune responses specific for a clinically important parasite antigen expressed only during well-defined periods (pregnancy) to responses specific for comparable antigens expressed independent of pregnancy. Our data indicate that PfEMP1-specific B-cell memory is adequately acquired even when antigen exposure is infrequent (e.g., VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1). Furthermore, immunological memory specific for VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 can be maintained for many years without antigen reexposure and after circulating antigen-specific IgG has disappeared. The study provides evidence that natural exposure to P. falciparum leads to formation of durable B-cell immunity to clinically important PfEMP1 antigens. This has encouraging implications for current efforts to develop PfEMP1-based vaccines. PMID:24566620

  2. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai . E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

    2006-08-15

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

  3. Transactivation of both early and late simian virus 40 promoters by large tumor antigen does not require nuclear localization of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, A G

    1989-01-01

    The early gene product of simian virus 40, large tumor antigen (T antigen), is required for the onset of viral replication. This protein has also been reported to transactivate viral late gene expression, independently of replication. In this study I have used a vector that permits simultaneously a precise quantitation of simian virus 40 early and late promoter activity with a single nuclease S1 mapping probe. The results show that T antigen can activate the early promoter as well as the late promoter and that only on replicating templates does a shift occur in the ratio of late-to-early transcription. This simultaneous transactivation of early and late promoters occurs in human (HeLa) and monkey (CV-1) cells but does not occur in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. It is seen with either wild-type T antigen or with a T antigen protein that carries a mutation in the nuclear localization signal. The mutant protein cannot bring about an early-to-late shift, consistent with its inability to support viral replication. Images PMID:2538831

  4. Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 is a chronic lymphocytic leukemia membrane-associated antigen critical to niche homing

    PubMed Central

    Dubovsky, Jason A.; Chappell, Danielle L.; Harrington, Bonnie K.; Agrawal, Kitty; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Bolon, Brad; Johnson, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane antigens are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as they facilitate microenvironment homing, proliferation, and survival. Targeting the CLL membrane and associated signaling patterns is a current focus of therapeutic development. Many tumor membrane targets are simultaneously targeted by humoral immunity, thus forming recognizable immunoglobulin responses. We sought to use this immune response to identify novel membrane-associated targets for CLL. Using a novel strategy, we interrogated CLL membrane-specific autologous immunoglobulin G reactivity. Our analysis unveiled lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1), a lymphocyte-specific target that is highly expressed in CLL. LCP1 plays a critical role in B-cell biology by crosslinking F-actin filaments, thereby solidifying cytoskeletal structures and providing a scaffold for critical signaling pathways. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LCP1 blocked migration toward CXCL12 in transwell assays and to bone marrow in an in vivo xenotransplant model, confirming a role for LCP1 in leukemia migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib or the PI3K inhibitor idelalisib block B-cell receptor induced activation of LCP1. Our data demonstrate a novel strategy to identify cancer membrane target antigens using humoral anti-tumor immunity. In addition, we identify LCP1 as a membrane-associated target in CLL with confirmed pathogenic significance. This clinical trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov; study ID number: OSU-0025 OSU-0156. PMID:24009233

  5. A new lipid transfer protein homolog identified as an IgE-binding antigen from Japanese cedar pollen.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ragaa Nour; Kawamoto, Seiji; Nishimura, Minori; Pak, Syunka; Aki, Tsunehiro; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Salcedo, Gabriel; Asturias, Juan A; Hayashi, Takaharu; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen is a major cause of seasonal rhinitis and conjunctivitis in Japan, and an understanding of its full allergen repertoire is prerequisite for the development of future molecular diagnostics and immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we report the identification of a new C. japonica pollen IgE-binding antigen (CJP-8) homologous to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), a class of plant cross-reactive allergens found in foods, latex, and pollen grains. The cjp-8 cDNA encodes a 165-amino acid polypeptide possessing the conserved eight cysteines characteristic of plant LTP family members. Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant CJP-8 (r-CJP-8) reacted with IgE antibody from Japanese cedar pollinosis patients at a 37.5% frequency (6/16). PMID:20208354

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of a Streptococcus mutans major surface protein antigen, P1 (I/II), in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S F; Progulske-Fox, A; Bleiweis, A S

    1988-01-01

    Antigen P1, also called I/II, is one of the most abundant cell wall proteins of the mutans streptococci. It has been suggested that P1 may be involved in cell adherence to tooth surfaces and in sucrose-induced cell aggregation. As a first step toward fully understanding its biological functions, the P1 gene, which has been designated spaP1, from Streptococcus mutans NG5 (serotype c) has been cloned into Escherichia coli JM109 by a shotgun procedure with pUC18 as the vector. The recombinant strain expressing P1 carries a 5.2-kilobase DNA insert whose restriction map has been determined. This map is completely different from that of spaA of Streptococcus sobrinus (serotype g), even though P1 and SpaA are antigenically related. Southern hybridization revealed that DNA sequences closely homologous to spaP1 were present in serotypes c, e, and f, and similar sequences also existed in strains of serotypes a and d. The expression of the cloned spaP1 was found to be independent of the lac inducer and the orientation of the DNA insert, suggesting that it carries its own promoter. Western blotting (immunoblotting) revealed at least 20 bands reacting with a mixture of three anti-P1 monoclonal antibodies. The highest-molecular-weight reactive band was comparable in size to the parent P1 (185 kilodaltons [kDa]); however, the major reactive bands were smaller (approximately 160 kDa). Expression of cloned P1 in E. coli LC137 (htpR lonR9) resulted in the increased prominence of the 185-kDa protein reactive band. Ouchterlony immunodiffusion showed partial identity between the parent and cloned P1. In E. coli, P1 was detected primarily in the periplasm and extracellular fluid. Images PMID:3135272

  7. Retention of structure, antigenicity, and biological function of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) released from polyanhydride nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Haughney, Shannon L; Petersen, Latrisha K; Schoofs, Amy D; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; King, Janice D; Briles, David E; Wannemuehler, Michael J; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2013-09-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a choline-binding protein which is a virulence factor found on the surface of all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Vaccination with PspA has been shown to be protective against a lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae, making it a promising immunogen for use in vaccines. Herein the design of a PspA-based subunit vaccine using polyanhydride nanoparticles as a delivery platform is described. Nanoparticles based on sebacic acid (SA), 1,6-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH) and 1,8-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane (CPTEG), specifically 50:50 CPTEG:CPH and 20:80 CPH:SA, were used to encapsulate and release PspA. The protein released from the nanoparticle formulations retained its primary and secondary structure as well as its antigenicity. The released PspA was also biologically functional based on its ability to bind to apolactoferrin and prevent its bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. When the PspA nanoparticle formulations were administered subcutaneously to mice they elicited a high titer and high avidity anti-PspA antibody response. Together these studies provide a framework for the rational design of a vaccine against S. pneumoniae based on polyanhydride nanoparticles. PMID:23774257

  8. The Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Protein BZLF1 as a Candidate Target Antigen for Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Hartlage, Alex S; Liu, Tom; Patton, John T; Garman, Sabrina L; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kurt, Habibe; Lozanski, Gerard; Lustberg, Mark E; Caligiuri, Michael A; Baiocchi, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic, ?-herpesvirus associated with a broad spectrum of disease. Although most immune-competent individuals can effectivley develop efficient adaptive immune responses to EBV, immunocompromised individuals are at serious risk for developing life-threatening diseases, such as Hodgkin lymphoma and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Given the significant morbidity associated with EBV infection in high-risk populations, there is a need to develop vaccine strategies that restore or enhance EBV-specific immune responses. Here, we identify the EBV immediate-early protein BZLF1 as a potential target antigen for vaccine development. Primary tumors from patients with PTLD and a chimeric human-murine model of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) express BZLF1 protein. Pulsing human dendritic cells (DC) with recombinant BZLF1 followed by incubation with autologous mononuclear cells led to expansion of BZLF1-specific CD8(+) T cells in vitro and primed BZLF1-specific T-cell responses in vivo. In addition, vaccination of hu-PBL-SCID mice with BZLF1-transduced DCs induced specific cellular immunity and significantly prolonged survival from fatal EBV-LPD. These findings identify BZLF1 as a candidate target protein in the immunosurveillance of EBV and provide a rationale for considering BZLF1 in vaccine strategies to enhance primary and recall immune responses and potentially prevent EBV-associated diseases. PMID:25735952

  9. The translocon protein Sec61 mediates antigen transport from endosomes in the cytosol for cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Zehner, Matthias; Marschall, Andrea L; Bos, Erik; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Kreer, Christoph; Fehrenschild, Dagmar; Limmer, Andreas; Ossendorp, Ferry; Lang, Thorsten; Koster, Abraham J; Dübel, Stefan; Burgdorf, Sven

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms regulating antigen translocation into the cytosol for cross-presentation are under controversial debate, mainly because direct data is lacking. Here, we have provided direct evidence that the activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon protein Sec61 is essential for endosome-to-cytosol translocation. We generated a Sec61-specific intrabody, a crucial tool that trapped Sec61 in the ER and prevented its recruitment into endosomes without influencing Sec61 activity and antigen presentation in the ER. Expression of this ER intrabody inhibited antigen translocation and cross-presentation, demonstrating that endosomal Sec61 indeed mediates antigen transport across endosomal membranes. Moreover, we showed that the recruitment of Sec61 toward endosomes, and hence antigen translocation and cross-presentation, is dependent on dendritic cell activation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. These data shed light on a long-lasting question regarding antigen cross-presentation and point out a role of the ER-associated degradation machinery in compartments distinct from the ER. PMID:25979419

  10. Protein motion and lock and key complementarity in antigen-antibody reactions.

    PubMed

    Braden, B C; Dall'Acqua, W; Eisenstein, E; Fields, B A; Goldbaum, F A; Malchiodi, E L; Mariuzza, R A; Schwarz, F P; Ysern, X; Poljak, R J

    1995-03-01

    Antibodies possess a highly complementary combining site structure to that of their specific antigens. In many instances their reactions are driven by enthalpic factors including, at least in the case of the reaction of monoclonal antibody D1.3 with lysozyme, enthalpy of solvation. They require minor structural rearrangements, and their equilibrium association constants are relatively high (10(7)-10(11) M-1). By contrast, in an idiotope--anti-idiotope (antibody-antibody) reaction, which is entropically driven, the binding equilibrium constant is only 1.5 x 10(5) M-1 at 20 degrees C. This low value results from a slow association rate (10(3) M-1 s-1) due to a selection of conformational states that allow one of the interacting molecular surfaces (the idiotope on antibody D1.3) to become complementary to that of the anti-idiotopic antibody. Thus, antibody D1.3 reacts with two different macromolecules: with its specific antigen, hen egg lysozyme, and with a specific anti-idiotopic antibody. Complementarity with lysozyme is closer to a "lock and key" model and results in high affinity (2-4 x 10(8) M-1). That with the anti-idiotopic antibody involves conformational changes at its combining site and it results in a lower association constant (1.5 x 10(5) M-1). Thus, an "induced fit" mechanism may lead to a broadening of the binding specificity but with a resulting decrease in the intrinsic binding affinity which may weaken the physiological function of antibodies. PMID:7651966

  11. The effects of serial skin testing with purified protein derivative on the level and quality of antibodies to complex and defined antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several serologic tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when applied after injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin test that signific...

  12. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for protein conformational epitopes present in prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA).

    PubMed

    Tino, W T; Huber, M J; Lake, T P; Greene, T G; Murphy, G P; Holmes, E H

    2000-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a 750-amino acid glycoprotein highly expressed in malignant prostate tissues. PSMA reacts with the murine monoclonal antibody 7E11.C5, whose binding epitope has been mapped to the N-terminal of the protein distributed on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. We have developed murine monoclonal antibodies specific for extracellular epitopes of PSMA. Three of these antibodies--1G9, 3C6, and 4D4--display distinct binding properties consistent with their recognition of conformational epitopes within native PSMA. Results indicate this panel of antibodies binds to native full-length PSMA, but not to fusion proteins containing portions of the linear sequence of the protein. Antibody binding is greatly reduced upon heat denaturation of native PSMA, and these antibodies do not detect PSMA by Western blot. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate the ability of each to bind to full-length PSMA as well as PSM', a form of the protein missing the first 57 amino acids. These results indicate each antibody is specific for an epitope within the extracellular domain, a region spanning residues 44-750. Flow cytometric experiments indicate strong specific binding to live LNCaP cells. Antibody inhibition studies demonstrate that these antibodies recognize at least two distinct epitopes. Taken together, the results demonstrate that these antibodies are specific for native protein conformational epitopes within the extracellular domain. Their properties, in particular strong binding to live cancer cells, make them ideal candidates that are clearly superior to linear sequence epitope specific antibodies for in vivo applications. PMID:10952413

  13. Chinese hamster ovary cells can produce galactose-?-1,3-galactose antigens on proteins

    E-print Network

    Bosques, Carlos J

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including 'human-like' glycosylation profiles. For ...

  14. Electroporation-mediated genetic vaccination for antigen mapping: application to Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Bita; Gnidehou, Sédami; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Doritchamou, Justin; Moussiliou, Azizath; Quiviger, Mickael; Deloron, Philippe; Scherman, Daniel; Bigey, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    Genetic vaccination, consisting in delivering a genetically engineered plasmid DNA by a non-viral vector or technique into a tissue, is currently of great interest. New delivery technique including DNA transfer by electroporation recently greatly improved the potency of this concept. Because it avoids the step of producing a recombinant protein, it is particularly of use in studying the immunogenic properties of large proteins. Here we describe the use of electroporation mediated DNA immunization to identify important protective epitopes from the large VAR2CSA protein from Plasmodium falciparum implicated in the pathology of placental malaria. Immunizing mice and rabbit with DNA plasmids encoding different fragments of VAR2CSA leads to high titer antisera. Moreover an N-terminal region of the protein was found to induce protective functional antibodies. PMID:22265101

  15. Modulation of immune responses in mice to recombinant antigens from PE and PPE families of proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the Ribi adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Chaitra, M G; Nayak, R; Shaila, M S

    2007-10-10

    Three proteins of PE and PPE families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were evaluated for their ability to induce T cell responses in mice. To enhance immunity induced by protein immunization, we tested the efficacy of adjuvant Ribi (monophosphoryl lipid A+TDM), along with three proteins of the PE/PPE family. Balb/c mice were subcutaneously injected with recombinant proteins, encoded by Rv1818c, Rv3018c and Rv3812 genes of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, formulated with Ribi or IFA for comparative study. Sera from mice immunized with Ribi revealed an increase in the specific immunoglobulin G titers by twofold against Ribi than in mice immunized with IFA. Ribi also elicited stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity against the recombinant proteins when compared with IFA. Antigen specific IgG subclass analysis showed that Ribi tends to facilitate IgG2a production, suggesting enhancement of predominant Th1 response which in turn may facilitate increased production of protective IFN-gamma. Furthermore, Ribi preparation increased the number of T cells secreting IFN-gamma. These results indicate that Ribi acts as an effective adjuvant for immune response to antigens of M. tuberculosis. For the first time, we demonstrate that Rv3018c, Rv1818c and Rv3812 proteins of PE/PPE family are T cell antigens with vaccine potential. PMID:17709160

  16. Comparative evaluation of recombinant LigB protein and heat-killed antigen-based latex agglutination test with microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Thirumalesh, Sushma Rahim Assadi; Kalleshamurthy, Triveni; Niharika, Nakkala; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Rajeswari; Sengupta, Pinaki Prasad; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein (LigB) (rLigB) antigen and compare its diagnostic efficacy with LAT using conventional heat-killed leptospiral antigen and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in diagnosing bovine leptospirosis. The PCR-amplified 1053-bp ligB gene sequences from Leptospira borgpetersenii Hardjo serovar were cloned in pET 32 (a) vector at EcoRI and NotI sites and expressed in BL21 E. coli cells as fusion protein with thioredoxin (-57 kDa) and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. Out of 390 serum samples [cattle (n?=?214), buffaloes (n?=?176)] subjected to MAT, 115 samples showed reciprocal titre?100 up to 1600 against one or more serovars. For recombinant LigB protein/antigen-based LAT, agglutination was observed in the positive sample, while no agglutination was observed in the negative sample. Similarly, heat-killed leptospiral antigen was prepared from and used in LAT for comparison with MAT. A two-sided contingency table was used for analysis of LAT using both the antigens separately against MAT for 390 serum samples. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of recombinant LigB LAT were found to be 75.65, 91.27, 78.38 and 89.96 %, respectively, and that of heat-killed antigen-based LAT were 72.17, 89.82, 74.77 and 88.53 %, respectively, in comparison with MAT. This developed test will be an alternative/complementary to the existing battery of diagnostic assays/tests for specific detection of pathogenic Leptospira infection in bovine population. PMID:26065562

  17. Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen: An extracellular matrix protein that selectively regulates tubulogenesis vs. glomerulogenesis during mammalian renal development

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Yashpal S.; Kumar, Anil; Yang, Qiwei; Tian, Yufeng; Wada, Jun; Kashihara, Naoki; Wallner, Elisabeth I.

    1999-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is an extracellular matrix protein and is expressed in the renal tubular basement membranes. Its role in metanephric development was investigated. TIN-ag cDNA, isolated from the newborn mouse library, had an ORF of 1,425 nucleotides, a putative signal sequence, and an ATP/GTP-binding site. The translated sequence had ?80% identity with rabbit TIN-ag. Among various tissues, TIN-ag mRNA was primarily expressed in the newborn kidney. In the embryonic metanephros, TIN-ag expression was confined to the distal convolution or pole of the S-shaped body, the segment of the nascent nephron that is the progenitor of renal tubules. Treatment with TIN-ag antisense oligodeoxynucleotide induced dysmorphogenesis of the embryonic metanephroi, malformation of the S-shaped body, and a decrease in the tubular population, whereas the glomeruli were unaffected. Treatment also led to a decrease of TIN-Ag mRNA, de novo synthesis of TIN-ag protein, and its antibody reactivity. The mRNA expression of glomerular epithelial protein 1 (a marker for renal podocytes), anti-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan antibody reactivity, and wheat germ agglutinin lectin staining of the metanephros were unaffected. The anti-TIN-ag antibody treatment also caused deformation of the S-shaped body and a reduction in the tubular population, whereas the glomeruli were unchanged. The data suggest that the TIN-ag, unlike other basement membrane proteins, selectively regulates tubulogenesis, whereas glomerulogenesis is largely unaffected. PMID:10500175

  18. Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen: an extracellular matrix protein that selectively regulates tubulogenesis vs. glomerulogenesis during mammalian renal development.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Y S; Kumar, A; Yang, Q; Tian, Y; Wada, J; Kashihara, N; Wallner, E I

    1999-09-28

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is an extracellular matrix protein and is expressed in the renal tubular basement membranes. Its role in metanephric development was investigated. TIN-ag cDNA, isolated from the newborn mouse library, had an ORF of 1,425 nucleotides, a putative signal sequence, and an ATP/GTP-binding site. The translated sequence had approximately 80% identity with rabbit TIN-ag. Among various tissues, TIN-ag mRNA was primarily expressed in the newborn kidney. In the embryonic metanephros, TIN-ag expression was confined to the distal convolution or pole of the S-shaped body, the segment of the nascent nephron that is the progenitor of renal tubules. Treatment with TIN-ag antisense oligodeoxynucleotide induced dysmorphogenesis of the embryonic metanephroi, malformation of the S-shaped body, and a decrease in the tubular population, whereas the glomeruli were unaffected. Treatment also led to a decrease of TIN-Ag mRNA, de novo synthesis of TIN-ag protein, and its antibody reactivity. The mRNA expression of glomerular epithelial protein 1 (a marker for renal podocytes), anti-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan antibody reactivity, and wheat germ agglutinin lectin staining of the metanephros were unaffected. The anti-TIN-ag antibody treatment also caused deformation of the S-shaped body and a reduction in the tubular population, whereas the glomeruli were unchanged. The data suggest that the TIN-ag, unlike other basement membrane proteins, selectively regulates tubulogenesis, whereas glomerulogenesis is largely unaffected. PMID:10500175

  19. An Immunoglobulin Binding Protein (Antigen 5) of the Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Salivary Gland Stimulates Bovine Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    AMERI, M.; WANG, X.; WILKERSON, M. J.; KANOST, M. R.; BROCE, A. B.

    2008-01-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is an economically important pest of livestock. Prior studies demonstrated lymphocyte suppression by crude salivary gland extract (SGE) of the stable fly. A dominant 27 kDa protein identified in the SGE was reported to stimulate immunodominant antibody responses in exposed cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine if this protein, now identified as a homolog of insect proteins named antigen 5 (Ag5), was responsible for the lymphocyte suppression and if naïve calves can mount an immune response to it. Calves raised in the winter months were immunized with recombinant Ag5 (rAg5) expressed in Drosophila S2 cells or with “natural” Ag5 protein isolated by preparative gel electrophoresis of SGE. Control calves were immunized with adjuvant alone. Rising antibody concentrations to rAg5 were detected in two of three calves immunized with rAg5 and one of three calves immunized with natural Ag5. Recall lymphocyte responses to rAg5 were detected at 21 and 28 DPI in calves immunized with rAg5 but not in calves immunized with the natural Ag5 or those exposed to adjuvant alone. Mitogen-stimulated bovine lymphocyte responses were not suppressed by rAg5. Further investigation using immunoblotting revealed that rAg5 binds to the Fc and F(ab’)2 portions of bovine IgG, but not to an Fab fragment. These findings suggest that Ag5 of the stable fly salivary gland is not immunosuppressive, but has immunoglobulin binding properties and can invoke specific antibody and memory lymphocyte responses in immunized calves. PMID:18283948

  20. [Prokaryotic expression of the major antigenic domain of equine arteritis virus GL protein and the establishment of putative indirect ELISA assay].

    PubMed

    Liang, Cheng-Zhu; Cao, Rui-Bing; Wei, Jian-Chao; Zhu, Lai-Hua; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2006-06-01

    According to the antigenic analysis of equine arteritis virus (EAV) GL protein, one pair of primers were designed, with which the gene fragment coding the high antigenic domain of EAV GL protein was amplified from the EAV genome. The cloned gene was digested with BamH I and Xho I and then inserted into pET-32a and resulted pET-GL1. The pET-GL1 was transformed into the host cell BL21(DE3) and the expression was optimized including cultivation temperature and concentration of IPTG. The aim protein was highly expressed and the obtained recombinant protein manifested well reactiongenicity as was confirmed by Western blot. The recombinant GL1 protein was purified by the means of His * Bind resin protein purification procedure. Then an indirect ELISA was established to detect antibody against EAV with the purified GL1 protein as the coating antigen. The result showed that the optimal concentration of coated antigen was 9.65 microg/mL and the optimal dilution of serum was 1:80. The positive criterion of this ELISA assay is OD (the tested serum) > 0.4 and OD (the tested serum) /OD (the negative serum) > 2.0. The iGL-ELISA was evaluated versus micro-virus neutralization test. The ELISA was performed on 900 sera from which were preserved by this lab during horse entry/exit inspection, the agreement (94.1%) of these test were considered suitable for individual serological detection. In another test which 180 sera samples were detected by iGL-ELISA and INGEZIM ELISA kit respectively. The agreement ratio between the two methods is 95.6%. PMID:16933616

  1. Antigenic Proteins Involved in Occupational Rhinitis and Asthma Caused by Obeche Wood (Triplochiton Scleroxylon)

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Ana; Campo, Paloma; Palacin, Arantxa; Doña, Inmaculada; Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Galindo, Luisa; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Blanca, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Obeche wood dust is a known cause of occupational asthma where an IgE-mediated mechanism has been demonstrated. Objective To characterize the allergenic profile of obeche wood dust and evaluate the reactivity of the proteins by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays in carpenters with confirmed rhinitis and/or asthma Materials and methods An in-house obeche extract was obtained, and two IgE binding bands were purified (24 and 12 kDa) and sequenced by N-terminal identity. Specific IgE and IgG, basophil activation tests and skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with whole extract and purified proteins. CCD binding was analyzed by ELISA inhibition studies. Results Sixty-two subjects participated: 12 with confirmed occupational asthma/rhinitis (ORA+), 40 asymptomatic exposed (ORA?), and 10 controls. Of the confirmed subjects, 83% had a positive SPT to obeche. There was a 100% recognition by ELISA in symptomatic subjects vs. 30% and 10% in asymptomatic exposed subjects and controls respectively (p<0.05). Two new proteins were purified, a 24 kDa protein identified as a putative thaumatin-like protein and a 12 kDa gamma-expansin. Both showed allergenic activity in vitro, with the putative thaumatin being the most active, with 92% recognition by ELISA and 100% by basophil activation test in ORA+ subjects. Cross-reactivity due to CCD was ruled out in 82% of cases. Conclusions Two proteins of obeche wood were identified and were recognized by a high percentage of symptomatic subjects and by a small proportion of asymptomatic exposed subjects. Further studies are required to evaluate cross reactivity with other plant allergens. PMID:23349765

  2. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOT(TM)). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98?Å reveals a trimer that forms an ?-helical tunnel and a ?-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-?-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen. PMID:26563565

  3. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOTTM). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98?Å reveals a trimer that forms an ?-helical tunnel and a ?-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-?-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen. PMID:26563565

  4. Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...

  5. Specific nongluten proteins of wheat are novel target antigens in celiac disease humoral response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy that is generally understood to be triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins of wheat and related cereals. The skin manifestation of the condition is known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Antibody response to native and deamidated seque...

  6. Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

  7. Effects of glycosylation on antigenicity and immunogenicity of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) harbors three envelope glycoproteins (E(rns), E1 and E2). Previous studies have demonstrated that removal of specific glycosylation sites within these proteins yielded attenuated and immunogenic CSFV mutants. Here we analyzed the effects of lack of glycosylation of...

  8. Interaction and co-localization of JC virus large T antigen and the F-box protein ?-transducin-repeat containing protein

    PubMed Central

    Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M.; Frisque, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Lytic infection and transformation of cultured cells by JC virus (JCV) require five tumor proteins, which interact with factors regulating critical cellular processes. We demonstrate that JCV large T antigen (TAg) binds the F-box proteins ?-transducin-repeat containing protein-1 and 2 (?TrCP1/2). These interactions involve a phosphodegron (DpSGX2–4pS) found in ?TrCP substrates. TAg stability is unaltered, suggesting TAg is a pseudo-substrate. ?TrCP and TAg co-localize in the cytoplasm, and a functional SCF complex is required. We examined whether TAg influences the levels of ?-catenin, a ?TrCP substrate. We were unable to demonstrate that TAg elevates ?-catenin as previously reported, and a mutant TAg unable to bind ?TrCP also had no detectable effect on ?-catenin stability. Results presented in this study link JCV TAg to the cellular degradation complex, SCF?TrCP1/2. Proteasomal degradation is essential for proper regulation of cellular functions, and interference with proteasomal pathways highlights possible JCV pathogenic and oncogenic mechanisms. PMID:21106215

  9. A conserved epitope on several human vitamin K-dependent proteins. Location of the antigenic site and influence of metal ions on antibody binding.

    PubMed

    Church, W R; Messier, T; Howard, P R; Amiral, J; Meyer, D; Mann, K G

    1988-05-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (designated H-11) produced by injecting mice with purified human protein C was found to bind several human vitamin K-dependent proteins. Using a solid-phase competitive radioimmunoassay with antibody immobilized onto microtiter plates, binding of 125I-labeled protein C to the antibody was inhibited by increasing amounts of protein C, prothrombin, and Factors X and VII over a concentration range of 1 X 10(-8) to 1 X 10(-6) M. Other vitamin K-dependent proteins including Factor IX and protein S did not inhibit or inhibited only at the highest concentration binding of radiolabeled protein C to the immobilized antibody. Chemical treatment of prothrombin with a variety of agents including denaturation by sodium dodecyl sulfate, reduction with mercaptoethanol followed by carboxymethylation with iodoacetic acid, citraconylation of lysine residues, removal of metal ion with EDTA, or heat decarboxylation did not destroy the antigenic site recognized by the antibody as measured by immunoblotting of prothrombin or prothrombin derivative immobilized onto nitrocellulose. Immunoblotting of purified vitamin K-dependent polypeptides with the monoclonal antibody following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose indicated that the antigenic site was found on the light chains of protein C and Factor X. Chymotrypsin digestion of prothrombin and isolation on QAE-Sephadex of the peptide representing amino-terminal residues 1-44 of prothrombin further localized the antigenic site recognized by the monoclonal antibody to the highly conserved gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing domain. The exact location of the antigenic determinant for antibody H-11 was established using synthetic peptides. Antibody H-11 bound specifically to synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 1-12 of Factor VII and 1-22 of protein C. Comparison of protein sequences of bovine and human vitamin K-dependent proteins suggests that the sequence Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Xaa-Arg/Lys is required for antibody binding. The glutamic acid residues in this peptide segment are the first 2 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues near the amino-terminal end in the native proteins. Increasing concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+ partially inhibited binding of 125I-protein C to the antibody in a solid-phase assay system with half-maximal binding observed at divalent metal ion concentrations of 2, 4, and 0.6 mM, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2452160

  10. Coadministration of the Three Antigenic Leishmania infantum Poly (A) Binding Proteins as a DNA Vaccine Induces Protection against Leishmania major Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Corvo, Laura; Garde, Esther; Ramírez, Laura; Iniesta, Virginia; Bonay, Pedro; Gómez-Nieto, Carlos; González, Víctor M.; Martín, M. Elena; Alonso, Carlos; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Background Highly conserved intracellular proteins from Leishmania have been described as antigens in natural and experimental infected mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the antigenicity and prophylactic properties of the Leishmania infantum Poly (A) binding proteins (LiPABPs). Methodology/Principal Findings Three different members of the LiPABP family have been described. Recombinant tools based on these proteins were constructed: recombinant proteins and DNA vaccines. The three recombinant proteins were employed for coating ELISA plates. Sera from human and canine patients of visceral leishmaniasis and human patients of mucosal leishmaniasis recognized the three LiPABPs. In addition, the protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine based on the combination of the three Leishmania PABPs has been tested in a model of progressive murine leishmaniasis: BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. The induction of a Th1-like response against the LiPABP family by genetic vaccination was able to down-regulate the IL-10 predominant responses elicited by parasite LiPABPs after infection in this murine model. This modulation resulted in a partial protection against L. major infection. LiPABP vaccinated mice showed a reduction on the pathology that was accompanied by a decrease in parasite burdens, in antibody titers against Leishmania antigens and in the IL-4 and IL-10 parasite-specific mediated responses in comparison to control mice groups immunized with saline or with the non-recombinant plasmid. Conclusion/Significance The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the prophylactic properties of a new family of Leishmania antigenic intracellular proteins, the LiPABPs. The redirection of the immune response elicited against the LiPABP family (from IL-10 towards IFN-? mediated responses) by genetic vaccination was able to induce a partial protection against the development of the disease in a highly susceptible murine model of leishmaniasis. PMID:25955652

  11. A Protein-Conjugate Approach to Develop a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Detection Test for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash P.; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L.; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases. PMID:24901521

  12. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kailash P; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L; Rolán, Hortensia G; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases. PMID:24901521

  13. Functional and antigenic similarities between a 94-kD protein of Schistosoma mansoni (SCIP-1) and human CD59.

    PubMed

    Parizade, M; Arnon, R; Lachmann, P J; Fishelson, Z

    1994-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting approximately 200 million people, primarily in the third world. Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of this disease, parasitize the human mesenteric and portal blood systems while successfully evading host immune responses. During parasite penetration into the mammalian host and shortly afterwards, the larvae rapidly convert from being sensitive to being resistant to C-mediated killing. Treatment of the C-resistant parasitic forms with trypsin renders the parasite susceptible to C attack, thus indicating the presence of C inhibitory protein(s) on the parasite surface. We describe here an intrinsic schistosome C inhibitory protein (SCIP-1) that exhibits antigenic and functional similarities with the human C-inhibitor CD59. Like CD59, SCIP-1 is capable of inhibiting formation of the C membrane attack complex (MAC), probably by binding to C8 and C9 of the C terminal pathway. In addition, SCIP-1 is apparently also membrane-anchored via glycosyl phosphatidylinositol as it can be specifically released with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Soluble SCIP-1, partially purified from Nonidet P-40 extracts of schistosome tegument is capable of inhibiting hemolysis of sensitized sheep erythrocytes and of rabbit erythrocytes by human C. Anti-human CD59 antibodies block this activity of SCIP-1 and in addition, upon binding to intact parasites, render them vulnerable to killing by human and guinea pig C. SCIP-1 is located on the surface of C-resistant forms of the parasite, i.e., 24-h cultured mechanical schistosomula and in vivo-derived adult worms as revealed by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies. These results identify one of the mechanisms schistosomes use to escape immune attack. PMID:7513011

  14. Potential role for Duffy antigen chemokine-binding protein in angiogenesis and maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianguo; Luan, Jing; Liu, Hua; Daniel, Thomas O.; Peiper, Stephen; Chen, Theresa S.; Yu, Yingchun; Horton, Linda W.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Strieter, Robert M.; Richmond, Ann

    2009-01-01

    CXC chemokines, which induce angiogenesis, have glutamine-leucine-arginine amino acid residues (ELR motif) in the amino terminus and bind CXCR2 and the Duffy antigen chemokine-binding protein. Duffy, a seven transmembrane protein that binds CXC and CC chemokines, has not been shown to couple to trimeric G proteins or to transduce intracellular signals, although it is highly expressed on red blood cells, endothelial cells undergoing neovascularization, and neuronal cells. The binding of chemokines by Duffy could modulate chemokine responses positively or negatively. Positive regulation could come through the presentation of chemokine to functional receptors, and negative regulation could come through Duffy competition with functional chemokine receptors for chemokine binding, thus serving as a decoy receptor. To determine whether Duffy has a role in angiogenesis and/or maintenance of homeostasis, we developed transgenic mice expressing mDuffy under the control of the preproendothelin promoter/enhancer (PPEP), which directs expression of the transgene to the endothelium. Two PPEP-mDuffy-transgenic founders were identified, and expression of the transgene in the endothelium was verified by Northern blot, RT-PCR, and immunostaining of tissues. The phenotype of the mice carrying the transgene appeared normal by all visual parameters. However, careful comparison of transgenic and nontransgenic mice revealed two phenotypic differences: mDuffy-transgenic mice exhibited a diminished angiogenic response to MIP-2 in the corneal micropocket assay, and mDuffy-transgenic mice exhibited enhanced hepatocellular toxicity and necrosis as compared with nontransgenic littermates in response to overdose of acetaminophen (APAP; 400 mg/kg body weight). Morover, APAP treatment was lethal in 50% of the mDuffy-transgenic mice 24 h post challenge, and 100% of the nontransgenic litter-mates survived this treatment at the 24 h time point. Our data suggest that enhanced expression of mDuffy on endothelial cells can lead to impaired angiogenic response to chemokines and impaired maintenance of homeostasis in response to toxic stresses. PMID:11781390

  15. Leukocyte Antigen-related Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Negatively Regulates Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juxiang; Niu, Xi-Lin; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, a hallmark of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Transient oxidation and inactivation of protein-tyrosine phosphatases play a critical role in cellular response to ROS production. However, the function of leukocyte antigen-related (LAR) protein-tyrosine phosphatase in ROS signaling is not known. To determine the expression of LAR in ROS-induced apoptosis, we investigated hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and signaling in aortic VSMCs from wild-type and LAR-/- mice. Histone-associated DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activity were significantly enhanced, mitochondrial membrane integrity was compromised, and cell viability was significantly decreased following H2O2 treatment in LAR-/- VSMCs compared with wild-type cells. Stronger and sustained increase in autophosphorylation and activity of Fyn, an Src family tyrosine kinase, was observed in LAR-/- cells compared with wild-type cells following H2O2 treatment. LAR binds to activated Fyn in H2O2-treated VSMCs, and recombinant LAR dephosphorylates phosphorylated-Fyn in vitro. In addition, LAR deficiency enhanced H2O2-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). PP2, a Fyn-specific inhibitor, blocked JAK2, STAT3, and p38 MAPK activation and significantly attenuated apoptosis induced by H2O2. AG490, a JAK2-specific inhibitor, significantly attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis, and blocked H2O2-induced activation of STAT3, but not p38 MAPK in both wild-type and LAR-/- VSMCs. Attenuation of Fyn expression by short hairpin RNA significantly decreased H2O2-induced downstream signaling and apoptosis in VSMCs. Together, these data indicate that LAR regulates Fyn/JAK2/STAT3 and Fyn/p38 MAPK pathways involved in ROS-induced apoptosis. PMID:18854310

  16. The rhesus rotavirus outer capsid protein VP4 functions as a hemagglutinin and is antigenically conserved when expressed by a baculovirus recombinant.

    PubMed Central

    Mackow, E R; Barnett, J W; Chan, H; Greenberg, H B

    1989-01-01

    Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) gene 4 was cloned into lambda bacteriophage, inserted into a polyhedrin promoter shuttle plasmid, and expressed in Sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. The baculovirus-expressed VP4 protein made up approximately 5% of the Spodoptera frugiperda-infected cell protein. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize the virus bound to the expressed VP4 polypeptide, indicating that the expressed VP4 protein was antigenically indistinguishable from viral VP4. In addition, we have determined that the baculovirus-expressed VP4 protein bound to erythrocytes and functions as the RRV hemagglutinin. The endogenous hemagglutinating activity of the VP4 protein, like the virus, was inhibited by guinea pig antirotavirus hyperimmune serum and by VP4-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The human erythrocyte protein, glycophorin, also inhibited hemagglutination by RRV or the expressed VP4 protein and appears to be the rotavirus erythrocyte receptor. The baculovirus-expressed VP4 protein was conserved functionally and antigenically in the absence of other outer or inner capsid rotavirus components and represents a logical candidate for future immunological studies. Images PMID:2538649

  17. Identification of antigens by monoclonal antibody PD4 and its expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jin-Ying; Sun, Guo-Xun; Huang, Su; Ma, Hong; An, Ping; Meng, Lin; Song, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jian; Shou, Cheng-Chao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To clone and express the antigen of monoclonal antibody (MAb) PD4 for further investigation of its function. METHODS: MGC803 cDNA expression library was constructed and screened with PD4 as probes to clone the antigen. After failed in the library screening, immunoprecipitation and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were applied to purify the antigen for sequence analysis. The antigen coming from Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) was further confirmed with Western blot analysis by infecting M. hyorhinis -free HeLa cells and eliminating the M. hyorhinis from MGC803 cells. The full p37 gene was cloned by PCR and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli after site-directed mutations. Immunofluorescence assay was used to demonstrate if p37 protein could directly bind to gastric tumor cell AGS. RESULTS: The cDNA library constructed with MGC803 cells was screened by MAb PD4 as probes. Unfortunately, the positive clones identified with MAb PD4 were also reacted with unrelated antibodies. Then, immunoprecipitation was performed and the purified antigen was identified to be a membrane protein of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) by sequencing of N-terminal amino acid residues. The membrane protein was intensively verified with Western blot by eliminating M. hyorhinis from MGC803 cells and by infecting M. hyorhinis-free HeLa cells. The full p37 gene was cloned and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli after site-directed mutations. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that p37 protein could directly bind to gastric tumor cell AGS. CONCLUSION: The antigen recognized by MAb PD4 is from M. hyorhinis, which suggests the actions involved in MAb PD4 is possibly mediated by p37 protein or M. hyorhinis. As p37 protein can bind directly to tumor cells, the pathogenic role of p37 involved in tumorigenesis justifies further investigation. PMID:14562370

  18. Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Baillie, Les W J; Zheng, Yishan; Lis, Elzbieta K; Savina, Irina N; Howell, Carol A; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R

    2015-05-01

    Polymeric cryogels are efficient carriers for the immobilization of biomolecules because of their unique macroporous structure, permeability, mechanical stability and different surface chemical functionalities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential use of macroporous monolithic cryogels for biotoxin removal using anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins, and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies. The affinity ligand (protein A) was chemically coupled to the reactive hydroxyl and epoxy-derivatized monolithic cryogels and the binding efficiencies of protein A, monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel column were determined. Our results show differences in the binding capacity of protein A as well as monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel adsorbents caused by ligand concentrations, physical properties and morphology of surface matrices. The cytotoxicity potential of the cryogels was determined by an in vitro viability assay using V79 lung fibroblast as a model cell and the results reveal that the cryogels are non-cytotoxic. Finally, the adsorptive capacities of PA from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated towards a non-glycosylated, plant-derived human monoclonal antibody (PANG) and a glycosylated human monoclonal antibody (Valortim(®)), both of which were covalently attached via protein A immobilization. Optimal binding capacities of 108 and 117 mg/g of antibody to the adsorbent were observed for PANG attached poly(acrylamide-allyl glycidyl ether) [poly(AAm-AGE)] and Valortim(®) attached poly(AAm-AGE) cryogels, respectively, This indicated that glycosylation status of Valortim(®) antibody could significantly increase (8%) its binding capacity relative to the PANG antibody on poly(AAm-AGE)-protien-A column (p < 0.05). The amounts of PA which remained in the solution after passing PA spiked PBS through PANG or Valortim bound poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased relative to the amount of PA remained in the solution after passing through unmodified as well as protein A modified poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel columns, indicates efficient PA removal from spiked PBS over 60 min of circulation. The high adsorption capacity towards anthrax toxin PA of the cryogel adsorbents indicated potential application of these materials for treatment of Bacillus anthracis infection. PMID:25736504

  19. Conserved cysteine residues within the E3/19K protein of adenovirus type 2 are essential for binding to major histocompatibility complex antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Sester, M; Burgert, H G

    1994-01-01

    The E3/19K protein of human adenovirus type 2 is a resident transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Its capacity to associate with class I histocompatibility (MHC) antigens abrogates cell surface expression and the antigen presentation function of MHC antigens. At present, it is unclear exactly which structure of the E3/19K protein mediates binding to MHC molecules. Apart from a stretch of approximately 20 conserved amino acids in front of the transmembrane segment, E3/19K molecules from different adenovirus subgroups (B and C) share little homology. Remarkably, the majority of cysteines are conserved. In this report, we examined the importance of cysteine residues for the structure and function of E3/19K. We show that E3/19K contains intramolecular disulfide bonds. By using site-directed mutagenesis, individual cysteines were replaced by serines and mutant proteins were stably expressed in 293 cells. On the basis of the differential binding of monoclonal antibody Tw1.3 and cyanogen bromide cleavage experiments, a structural model of E3/19K is proposed, in which Cys-11 and Cys-28 as well as Cys-22 and Cys-83 are linked by disulfide bonds. Both disulfide bonds (all four cysteines) are absolutely critical for the interaction with human MHC antigens. This was demonstrated by three criteria: loss of E3/19K coprecipitation, lack of transport inhibition, and normal cell surface expression of MHC molecules. Mutation of the three other cysteines had no effect. This indicates that a conformational determinant based on two disulfide bonds is crucial for the function of the E3/19K molecule, namely, to bind and to inhibit transport of MHC antigens. Images PMID:8057424

  20. Comprehensive Analysis and Characterization of Linear Antigenic Domains on HN Protein from Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus Using Yeast Surface Display System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Wang, Gaoling; Shi, Bingtian; Liu, Peixin; Si, Wei; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Li; Zhou, Lunjiang; Xiu, Jinsheng; Liu, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Circulation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed a great threat for the poultry industry worldwide. Antibodies against Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), a membrane protein of NDV with critical roles in NDV infection, have been reported to provide chickens protection from NDV infection. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the in vivo antibody responses against the linear antigenic domains of the HN protein from genotype VII NDV using a yeast surface display system. The results revealed four distinct regions of HN, P1 (1-52aa), P2 (53-192aa), P3 (193-302aa) and P4 (303-571aa), respectively, according to their antigenic potency. Analysis by FACS and ELISA assay indicated P2 to be the dominant linear antigenic domain, with the immunogenic potency to protect the majority of chickens from NDV challenge. In contrast, the P1, P3 and P4 domains showed weak antigenicity in vivo and could not protect chickens from NDV challenge. These results provide important insight into the characteristic of humoral immune responses elicited by HN of NDV in vivo. PMID:26121247

  1. Identification of seroreactive proteins in the culture filtrate antigen of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis human isolates to sera from Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, A-Rum; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Cho, Sang Nae; Collins, Michael T; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Naser, Saleh A; Shin, Sung Jae

    2010-02-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) is unresolved, but it is likely that an interplay of host genetic factors and environmental triggers is relevant. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) has been focused upon as one of these triggers because it causes a similar chronic inflammatory bowel disease in animals. However, the differences among MAP antigens isolated from humans (H-MAP) and cattle (B-MAP) have not been well characterized. In this study, culture filtrate (CF) proteins from MAP isolates were tested with sera from CD patients and healthy controls in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibody produced by seven CD patients reacted differently according to the antigen source: strong reactivity was seen to H-MAP CF, but not to B-MAP CF. Six proteins, ModD, PepA, transaldolase, EchA9, MAP2120c, and MAP2950c, in H-MAP CF reacting specifically with CD patient sera were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that ModD and PepA were the same proteins reacting with sera from cattle infected with MAP. The elevated antibody responses of CD patients to rModD and rPepA were confirmed by ELISA (P<0.001). These results support previous studies showing ModD and PepA as key antigens for the diagnosis of MAP infections. The study also identified additional proteins potentially useful in the design of assays for human MAP infections. PMID:19878316

  2. The C-terminal end of the capsid protein of Avian Nephritis Virus is antigenic and induces broadly cross-reactive antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hewson, K A; Wawegama, N K; O'Rourke, D; Putri, K; Chamings, A; Noormohammadi, A H; Ignjatovic, J

    2015-09-01

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) has been isolated frequently from commercial broilers in many countries. The prevalence and economic impact of ANV however has been difficult to ascertain due to the lack of convenient serological techniques. In this study the full-length and fragments of the ANV capsid protein were expressed in Baculovirus and affinity purified recombinant proteins used for the detection of ANV antibodies in ELISA. The crystal structure of Human Astrovirus (HAstV) was used as a model to determine potential homologous C-terminal antigenic regions in ANV. The rp37 fragment from three ANV strains NSW_3, ANV-1 and ANV-2, and a shorter NSW_3 fragment (rp33) were compared for their ability to detect ANV antibodies in seven reference chicken sera. The ANV-1 rp37 antigen was the most strain specific whereas the NSW_3 rp37 and rp33 antigens detected antibodies in all heterologous sera, including ANV-1 serum. Irrespective of the strain used, the two NSW_3 protein fragments rp37 and rp33 were found to be superior as antigens for ELISA when compared to the full-length capsid protein rp75. An ELISA designed using the NSW_3 rp33 could reliably differentiate between uninfected and infected commercial broiler flocks, as demonstrated by statistically significant differences between the OD values. This study identified an ANV immunogenic region and successfully used recombinant protein expression of this region to detect cross-reactive ANV antibodies. The results of this study facilitate future studies into the epidemiology and importance of ANV infections in commercial poultry. PMID:25934419

  3. Identification of sporozoite surface proteins and antigens of Eimeria nieschulzi (Apicomplexa)

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, M.; Upton, S.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, lectin binding, and {sup 125}I surface labeling of sporozoites were used to probe sporozoites of the rat coccidian, Eimeria nieschulzi. Analysis of silver stained gels revealed greater than 50 bands. Surface iodination revealed about 14 well labeled, and about 10 weakly labeled but potential, surface proteins. The most heavily labeled surface proteins had molecular masses of 60, 53-54, 45, 28, 23-24, 17, 15, 14, 13, and 12 kD. Following electrophoresis and Western blotting, 2 of the 12 125I labeled lectin probes bound to two bands on the blots, which collectively indicated that two bands were glycosylated. Concanavalin A (ConA) specifically recognized a band at 53 kD, which may represent a surface glycoprotein, and a lectin derived from Osage orange (MPA) bound to a single band at 82-88 kD, that may also be a surface molecule. Immunoblotting using sera collected from rats inoculated orally with oocysts, as well as sera from mice hyperimmunized with sporozoites, revealed that many surface molecules appear to be immunogenic.

  4. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary feeding for the characterization of candidate tick protective antigens. While an effect on tick weight and oviposition was observed, the effect on pathogen levels was not evident probably due to high tick-to-tick variations among other factors. Nevertheless, these results together with previous results of RNA interference functional studies suggest that these proteins are good candidate vaccine antigens for the control of R. microplus infestations and infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina. PMID:24450836

  5. Surface-exposed antigenic cleavage fragments of Neisseria gonorrhoeae proteins 1A and IB.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, S; Layh, G; Buchanan, T B

    1986-01-01

    Whole bacteria, isolated outer membranes, and purified protein I (PI) from one transparent (O-) and two different opaque (O+) phenotype gonococcal strains (serogroups I, II, and III; PI serotypes 1, 5, and 9b) were each treated with tolylsulfonyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone-trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and proteinase K. Protein IA (PIA) of strain 7122 (O-, serotype 1, serogroup I) was resistant to proteolysis by tolysulfonyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone-trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin and only slightly affected by proteinase K, as long as it was associated with intact bacteria or isolated outer membranes. Purified PIA however was cleaved by these enzymes, resulting in two to five fragments. In contrast, all preparations of strains 5766 opaque phenotype (O+, serotype 7, serogroup II) and 1955 (O+, serotype 9b, serogroup III) were accessible to proteolysis, resulting in cleavage fragments of PIB compatible to those described previously by O. Barrera and J. Swanson (Infect. Immun. 44:565-568, 1984), M. S. Blake et al. (Infect. Immun. 33:212-222, 1981), and Blake (in G. K. Schoolnik, ed., The Pathogenic Neisseriae, 1985). Our data indicated that the purified PIB fraction was more accessible to proteases than the PIBs of whole bacteria or outer membranes. The fragmentation pattern of PIA cleavage products were quite different from PIB fragments, consistent with the different structure of these two groups of PI molecules. Time-dependent cleavage experiments with proteases, i.e., alpha-chymotrypsin, indicated that PIA was subsequently cleaved into smaller fragments. Highly reactive monoclonal antibodies, each specific for a surface-exposed epitope of PIA of strain 7122 or PIB of strains 5766 and 1955, as assessed by coagglutination, Western blot, and immunofluorescence, were reacted with PIA and PIB cleavage fragments in Western blot experiments. All cleavage fragments of the purified PIA and PIB preparations with molecular weights of greater than or equal to 14,200 showed immune reaction in Western blotting, whereas whole cell and outer membrane PIB fragments were less reactive with the specific monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3096894

  6. A heat shock operon in Coxiella burnetti produces a major antigen homologous to a protein in both mycobacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, M H; Williams, J C

    1988-01-01

    A gene library from the DNA of Coxiella burnetii has been constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. A particular clone, pJB196, reacted strongly with Coxiella-specific antibodies elicited in a number of different species of animals. This clone produced two abundant C. burnetii-specific polypeptides, a 14-kilodalton nonimmunoreactive protein and a 62-kilodalton immunoreactive protein. Sequencing identified two open reading frames, encoding polypeptides of 10.5 and 58.3 kilodaltons. The only transcriptional control element observed on the 5' side of the initiation codon resembled a heat shock promoter. This heat shock promoter was functionally regulated in Escherichia coli, since both proteins were produced by growth conditions at 37 degrees C and neither protein was detected at 23 degrees C. There were four sequences from the literature that were highly homologous (greater than 50%) to the 62-kilodalton protein from C. burnetii. Three were from Mycobacterium species and represent the immunodominant antigen of this genus. The other was from E. coli, detected as a gene that complements or suppresses a temperature-sensitive RNase activity. Since the recombinant protein was immunogenic, it may serve as an efficacious vaccine against C. burnetii and other pathogenic microorganisms that express the conserved antigen. Images PMID:3343219

  7. Negative staining and immunoelectron microscopy of adhesion-deficient mutants of Streptococcus salivarius reveal that the adhesive protein antigens are separate classes of cell surface fibril.

    PubMed Central

    Weerkamp, A H; Handley, P S; Baars, A; Slot, J W

    1986-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the cell wall-associated protein antigens of Streptococcus salivarius HB, which are involved in specific adhesive properties of the cells, was studied. Mutants which had lost the adhesive properties and lacked the antigens at the cell surface were compared with the parent strain. Immunoelectron microscopy of cryosections of cells labeled with affinity-purified, specific antisera and colloidal gold-protein A complexes was used to locate the antigens. Antigen C (AgC), a glycoprotein involved in attachment to host surfaces, was mainly located in the fibrillar layer outside the cell wall. A smaller amount of label was also found throughout the cytoplasmic area in the form of small clusters of gold particles, which suggests a macromolecular association. Mutant HB-7, which lacks the wall-associated AgC, accumulated AgC reactivity intracellularly. Intracellular AgC was often found associated with isolated areas of increased electron density, but sometimes seemed to fill the entire interior of the cell. Antigen B (AgB), a protein responsible for interbacterial coaggregation, was also located in the fibrillar layer, although its distribution differed from that of the wall-associated AgC since AgB was found predominantly in the peripheral areas. A very small amount of label was also found in the cytoplasmic area as discrete gold particles. Mutant HB-V5, which lacks wall-associated AgB, was not labeled in the fibrillar coat, but showed the same weak intracellular label as the parent strain. Immunolabeling with serum against AgD, another wall-associated protein but of unknown function, demonstrated its presence in the fibrillar layer of strain HB. Negatively stained preparations of whole cells of wild-type S. salivarius and mutants that had lost wall-associated AgB or AgC revealed that two classes of short fibrils are carried on the cell surface at the same time. AgB and AgC are probably located on separate classes of short, protease-sensitive fibrils 91 and 72 nm in length, respectively. A third class of only very sparsely distributed short fibrils (63 nm) was observed on mutant HB-V51, which lacks both wall-associated AgB and AgC antigens. The identity of these fibrils and whether they are present on the wild type are not clear. The function of long, protease-resistant fibrils of 178 nm, which are also present on the wild-type strain, remains unknown. Images PMID:2419308

  8. Biophysical and formulation studies of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 extracellular domain recombinant protein, a lead vaccine candidate antigen for intestinal schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Curti, Elena; Rezende, Wanderson C; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Volkin, David B.; Hotez, Peter J; Middaugh, C Russell; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    A candidate vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis is under development. The vaccine is comprised of a recombinant 9 kDa antigen protein corresponding to the large extracellular domain of a tetraspanin surface antigen protein of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-TSP-2. Here, we describe the biophysical profile of the purified, recombinant Sm-TSP-2 produced in the yeast PichiaPink™, which in preclinical studies in mice was shown to be an effective vaccine against intestinal schistosomiasis. Biophysical techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and light scattering were employed to generate an empirical phase diagram, a color based map of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperatures and pH. From these studies a pH range of 6.0–8.0 was determined to be optimal for maintaining the stability and conformation of the protein at temperatures up to 25 °C. Sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose were selected as excipients that prevented physical degradation during storage. The studies described here provide guidance for maximizing the stability of soluble recombinant Sm-TSP-2 in preparation of its further development as a vaccine. PMID:23880663

  9. Biophysical and formulation studies of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 extracellular domain recombinant protein, a lead vaccine candidate antigen for intestinal schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Curti, Elena; Rezende, Wanderson C; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Hotez, Peter J; Middaugh, C Russell; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-11-01

    A candidate vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis is under development. The vaccine is comprised of a recombinant 9 kDa antigen protein corresponding to the large extracellular domain of a tetraspanin surface antigen protein of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-TSP-2. Here, we describe the biophysical profile of the purified, recombinant Sm-TSP-2 produced in the yeast PichiaPink, which in preclinical studies in mice was shown to be an effective vaccine against intestinal schistosomiasis. Biophysical techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and light scattering were employed to generate an empirical phase diagram, a color based map of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperatures and pH. From these studies a pH range of 6.0-8.0 was determined to be optimal for maintaining the stability and conformation of the protein at temperatures up to 25 °C. Sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose were selected as excipients that prevented physical degradation during storage. The studies described here provide guidance for maximizing the stability of soluble recombinant Sm-TSP-2 in preparation of its further development as a vaccine. PMID:23880663

  10. Stability and activity of MCSP-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) depend on the scFv antigen-binding domain and the protein backbone.

    PubMed

    Krug, Christian; Birkholz, Katrin; Paulus, Alexander; Schwenkert, Michael; Schmidt, Patrick; Hoffmann, Nicole; Hombach, Andreas; Fey, Georg; Abken, Hinrich; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells emerged as effective tools in the immunotherapy of cancer but can produce severe on-target off-tissue toxicities. This risk can conceivably be overcome, at least partially, by transient transfection. The design of CARs, however, has so far not been optimized for use in non-permanent T cell modification. Here we compared the performance of T cells modified with three different first- and second-generation CARs, each specific for MCSP (HMW-MAA) which is commonly expressed by melanoma cells. Upon RNA transfer, the expression of all receptors was limited in time. The second-generation CARs, which combined CD28-CD3? signaling, were expressed at higher levels and more prolonged than first-generation CARs with CD3? only. The CD28 domain increased the cytokine production, but had only an indirect effect on the lytic capacity, by prolonging the CAR expression. Especially for the second-generation CARs, the scFv clearly impacted the level and duration of CAR expression and the T cell performance. Thus, we identified a CAR high in both expression and anti-tumor cell reactivity. T cells transfected with this CAR increased the mean survival time of mice after challenge with melanoma cells. To facilitate clinical application, this CAR was used to redirect T cells from late-stage melanoma patients by RNA transfection. These T cells mediated effective antigen-specific tumor cell lysis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, even after cryoconservation of the transfected T cells. Taken together, the analysis identified a CAR with superior anti-melanoma performance after RNA transfer which is a promising candidate for clinical exploration. PMID:26515978

  11. Formalin Inactivation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Alters the Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Neutralization Epitope in Envelope Protein Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Chen, Li-Kuang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines are widely available, but the effects of formalin inactivation on the antigenic structure of JEV and the profile of antibodies elicited after vaccination are not well understood. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to map the antigenic structure of live JEV virus, untreated control virus (UCV), formalin-inactivated commercial vaccine (FICV), and formalin-inactivated virus (FIV). The binding activity of T16 MAb against Nakayama-derived FICV and several strains of FIV was significantly lower compared to live virus and UCV. T16 MAb, a weakly neutralizing JEV serocomplex antibody, was found to inhibit JEV infection at the post-attachment step. The T16 epitope was mapped to amino acids 329, 331, and 389 within domain III (EDIII) of the envelope (E) glycoprotein. When we explored the effect of formalin inactivation on the immunogenicity of JEV, we found that Nakayama-derived FICV, FIV, and UCV all exhibited similar immunogenicity in a mouse model, inducing anti-JEV and anti-EDII 101/106/107 epitope-specific antibodies. However, the EDIII 329/331/389 epitope-specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FICV-immunized and FIV-immunized mouse serum than for UCV-immunized. Formalin inactivation seems to alter the antigenic structure of the E protein, which may reduce the potency of commercially available JEV vaccines. Virus inactivation by H2O2, but not by UV or by short-duration and higher temperature formalin treatment, is able to maintain the antigenic structure of the JEV E protein. Thus, an alternative inactivation method, such as H2O2, which is able to maintain the integrity of the E protein may be essential to improving the potency of inactivated JEV vaccines. PMID:26495991

  12. Immunological responses to Salmonella R antigens. The bacterial cell and the protein edestin as carriers for R oligosaccharide determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorff, K K; Schlecht, S; Rüde, E; Westphal, O

    1975-01-01

    Responses in rabbits to heat-killed Salmonella minnesota R mutants (chemotypes Ra, Rc and Re) were heterogeneous with respect to the amounts and specific haemagglutinin activities (SHAA) of IgM and IgG antibodies produced to each mutant. Amounts of antibodies in IgM and IgG fractions of sera were determined by quantitative precipitation. For comparison, antibodies were also isolated using an R oligosaccharide-specific immunoadsorbent and quantitated spectrophotometrically. SHAA (haemagglutinating units/mg antibody) of IgG antibodies were similar for all three mutants. In contrast, the Ra mutant induced IgM antibodies with the highest SHAA, while the Re mutant induced IgM antibodies 10-fold lower in activity. The ratio of the amount of IgM/IgG produced was approximately 1/1 for both the Ra and the Rc mutants, while the ratio for the Re mutant was about 1/2. Salmonella R oligosaccharide-protein conjugates (chemotypes Rb2, Rc and Re) were prepared, and the responses to these antigens were compared with those to the heat-killed mutants. The conjugates were specific for the given chemotype, and they were strongly immunogenic when incorporated into Freund's complete adjuvant and administered intramuscularly. Haemagglutinin titres were relatively high, but amounts of antibodies were considerably reduced when the conjugates were administered intravenously without adjuvant. Rabbits immunized with the conjugates in the same manner as with heat-killed R mutants produced predominantly IgM responses in all three cases. PMID:49297

  13. Immune checkpoints: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    KOLACINSKA, AGNIESZKA; CEBULA-OBRZUT, BARBARA; PAKULA, LUKASZ; CHALUBINSKA-FENDLER, JUSTYNA; MORAWIEC-SZTANDERA, ALINA; PAWLOWSKA, ZOFIA; ZAWLIK, IZABELA; MORAWIEC, ZBIGNIEW; JESIONEK-KUPNICKA, DOROTA; SMOLEWSKI, PIOTR

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways built into the immune system, and recent studies have emphasized the role of these checkpoints in carcinogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two major immune checkpoints, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), in the serum of 35 patients with stage I and II breast cancer. Serum concentrations of CTLA-4 and PD-1 were measured at three time points: i) Preoperatively; ii) during anesthesia following the harvesting of sentinel nodes (SNs); and iii) 24 h postoperatively. Control samples were obtained from 25 healthy, age-matched females. Assessment of CTLA-4 and PD-1 expression levels was conducted using flow cytometry. A statistically significant difference in PD-1 expression was identified between breast cancer patients preoperatively and healthy controls (26.31±11.87 vs. 12.72±8.15; P<0.0001). In addition, a statistically significant association was found between CTLA-4 and PD-1 levels prior to surgery (P=0.0084). In addition, CTLA-4 expression was associated with age (P=0.0453), with elevated levels of CTLA-4 detected in older breast cancer patients. Higher PD-1 expression levels were observed in T2 tumors compared with T1 tumors prior to surgery and intraoperatively; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a decrease in PD-1 levels was observed subsequent to harvesting SNs with metastasis, but not in SN-negative patients (P=0.05). A negative correlation was also observed between PD-1 expression and progesterone receptor (PR) status following surgery (P=0.024). These results provided a basis for further investigation of immune checkpoints in breast cancer. Breast cancer patients exhibit an altered profile of immune checkpoint markers, with higher concentrations of PD-1 observed in larger, PR-negative tumors. PMID:26622629

  14. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  15. Characterization of hepatitis delta antigen: specific binding to hepatitis delta virus RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J H; Chang, M F; Baker, S C; Govindarajan, S; Lai, M M

    1990-01-01

    It has previously been shown that human hepatitis virus delta antigen has an RNA-binding activity (Chang et al., J. Virol. 62:2403-2410, 1988). In the present study, the specificity of such an RNA-protein interaction was demonstrated by expressing various domains of the delta antigen in Escherichia coli as TrpE fusion proteins and testing their RNA-binding activities in a Northwestern protein-RNA immunoblot assay and RNA gel mobility shift assay. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA bound specifically to the delta antigen in the presence of an excess amount of unrelated RNAs and a relatively high salt concentration. Both genome- and antigenome-sense HDV RNAs and at least two different regions of HDV genomic RNA bound to the delta antigen. Surprisingly, these two different regions of HDV genomic RNA could compete with each other for delta antigen binding, although they do not have common nucleotide sequences. In contrast, this binding could not be competed with by other viral or cellular RNA. Since both the genomic and antigenomic HDV RNAs had strong intramolecular complementary sequences, these results suggest that the binding of delta antigen is probably specific for a secondary structure unique to the HDV RNA. By expressing different subdomains of the delta antigen, we found that the middle one-third of delta antigen was responsible for binding HDV RNA. Neither the N-terminal nor the C-terminal domain bound HDV RNA. Binding between the delta antigen and HDV RNA was also demonstrated within the HDV particles isolated from the plasma of a human delta hepatitis patient. This in vivo binding resisted treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.5% Nonidet P-40. In addition, we showed that the antiserum from a human patient with delta hepatitis reacted with all three subdomains of the delta antigen, indicating that all of the domains are immunogenic in vivo. These studies demonstrated the specific interaction between delta antigen and HDV RNA. Images PMID:2200884

  16. Genome scale identification of Treponema pallidum antigens.

    PubMed

    McKevitt, Matthew; Brinkman, Mary Beth; McLoughlin, Melanie; Perez, Carla; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Weinstock, George M; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-07-01

    Antibody responses for 882 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum were examined. Sera collected from infected rabbits were used to systematically identify 106 antigenic proteins, including 22 previously identified antigens and 84 novel antigens. Additionally, sera collected from rabbits throughout the course of infection demonstrated a progression in the breadth and intensity of humoral immunoreactivity against a representative panel of T. pallidum antigens. PMID:15972547

  17. Characterization of a 60-kDa Thermally Stable Antigenic Protein as a Marker for the Immunodetection of Bovine Plasma-Derived Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2015-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling. Results from western blot confirmed the 60-kDa protein to be present in the plasma fraction of bovine blood. Further proteomic analyses involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) and amino acid sequencing revealed the 60-kDa protein to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The sELISA proved capable of detecting BPFIs in all the commercial dietary supplements tested, including those that were formulated with hydrolyzed BPFIs. The assay could also detect 0.01% and 0.5% of different BPFIs in spiked raw and cooked ground beef, respectively. This assay based on the detection of BSA therefore has the potential to become a valuable analytical tool to protect consumers who avoid consuming BPFIs for religious, health, or ethical reasons. PMID:26172875

  18. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against duck Tembusu virus E protein: an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of Tembusu virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaofei; Shaozhou, Wulin; Zhang, Qingshan; Li, Chenxi; Qiu, Na; Meng, Runzhe; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-03-01

    The E protein of flaviviruses is the primary antigen that induces protective immunity, but a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the E protein of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has never been characterized. Six hybridoma cell lines secreting DTMUV anti-E mAbs were prepared and designated 2A5, 1F3, 1G2, 1B11, 3B6, and 4F9, respectively. An immunofluorescence assay indicated that the mAbs could specifically bind to duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells infected with DTMUV and that the E protein was distributed in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. Immunoglobulin isotyping differentiated the mAbs as IgG1 (1G2, 1B11, 4F9, 1F3, and 2A5) and IgG2b (3B6). The mAbs were used to identify three epitopes, A (2A5, 1F3, and 1G2), B (1B11 and 4F9), and C (3B6) on the E protein on the basis of a competitive binding assay. By using mAbs 1F3 and 3B6, we developed an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect E antigen from clinical samples. The AC-ELISA did not react with other known pathogens, indicating that the mAbs are specific for DTMUV. Compared to RT-PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of the AC-ELISA was 94.1 % and 98.0 %, respectively. This AC-ELISA thus represents a sensitive and rapid method for detecting DTMUV infection in birds. PMID:25588821

  19. Immunoproteomic identification of secretory and subcellular protein antigens and functional evaluation of the secretome fraction of Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly recognized species of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish K; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Yadav, Jaglit S

    2009-05-01

    Mycobacterium immunogenum has been associated with occupational pulmonary disease hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The aim of this study was to identify immunogenic proteins (antigens) in this pathogen as a first step toward understanding its virulence factors and role in HP etiology. Immunoproteomic profiling of secreted and subcellular protein fractions using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Time of flight (MALDI-TOF) led to the identification of 33 immunoreactive proteins, comprising of 4 secretory, 6 cell wall-associated, 11 membranous, and 12 cytosolic proteins. Of these, eight immunoreactive proteins represented homologues of the known mycobacterial antigens, namely heat shock protein GroEL, antigen 85A, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), L-asparaginase, polyketide synthase, PE-PGRS, PPE, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Global functional search revealed that the remaining 25 novel mycobacterial antigens in M. immunogenum showed homology with hypothetical proteins (11 antigens) and other bacterial proteins (14 antigens) with a role in virulence, survival, and/or diverse metabolic functions. To understand immunogenicity of the secretome in M. immunogenum, the major protein spot on the secretome 2D-gel (consisting of multiple secretory antigens such as OtsB and CtpA, among others) was eluted and subjected to functional characterization in terms of induction of innate immune response in murine alveolar macrophages. The secretome eluate caused up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-18 and down-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, implying a potential of the secreted antigens to cause host immune response underlying the M. immunogenum-induced lung disease HP. This is the first report on identification of antigens in M. immunogenum as well as on the potential of its secretome proteins to induce host response. The identified antigens could have likely roles in virulence and/or diagnosis and serve as potential targets for drug, biocide, and/or vaccine development. PMID:19209886

  20. Computational design of protein antigens that interact with the CDR H3 loop of HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5.

    PubMed

    Azoitei, M L; Ban, Y A; Kalyuzhny, O; Guenaga, J; Schroeter, A; Porter, J; Wyatt, R; Schief, William R

    2014-10-01

    Rational design of proteins with novel binding specificities and increased affinity is one of the major goals of computational protein design. Epitope-scaffolds are a new class of antigens engineered by transplanting viral epitopes of predefined structure to protein scaffolds, or by building protein scaffolds around such epitopes. Epitope-scaffolds are of interest as vaccine components to attempt to elicit neutralizing antibodies targeting the specified epitope. In this study we developed a new computational protocol, MultiGraft Interface, that transplants epitopes but also designs additional scaffold features outside the epitope to enhance antibody-binding specificity and potentially influence the specificity of elicited antibodies. We employed MultiGraft Interface to engineer novel epitope-scaffolds that display the known epitope of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibody 2F5 and that also interact with the functionally important CDR H3 antibody loop. MultiGraft Interface generated an epitope-scaffold that bound 2F5 with subnanomolar affinity (K(D)?=?400 pM) and that interacted with the antibody CDR H3 loop through computationally designed contacts. Substantial structural modifications were necessary to engineer this antigen, with the 2F5 epitope replacing a helix in the native scaffold and with 15% of the native scaffold sequence being modified in the design stage. This epitope-scaffold represents a successful example of rational protein backbone engineering and protein-protein interface design and could prove useful in the field of HIV vaccine design. MultiGraft Interface can be generally applied to engineer novel binding partners with altered specificity and optimized affinity. PMID:25043744

  1. Parasite antigens*

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The currently available preparations used as antigen in the serological investigation of parasitic diseases are ill-defined heterogeneous mixtures, and there is an evident need for better characterized reagents. Antigens of different parasite species (schistosomes, filariae, trypanosomes, and plasmodia) are discussed and parasite sources enumerated. Modern methods for the preparation of antigenic extracts and their fractionation are described, together with certain guidelines as to their biochemical characterization and their immunological activity. In order to implement this endeavour and to make better use of serological techniques in parasitic diseases, proposals are made concerning collaborative research and field application among a number of laboratories on schistosome, onchocercal, trypanosome, and plasmodial antigens. PMID:1084794

  2. Immobilization antigen vaccine adjuvanted by parasitic heat shock protein 70C confers high protection in fish against cryptocaryonosis.

    PubMed

    Josepriya, T A; Chien, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Song, Yen-Ling

    2015-08-01

    The immobilization antigen (iAg) has been demonstrated as a protective immunogen against Cryptocaryon irritans infection. In this study, C-terminal domain of heat shock protein 70 cloned from C. irritans (Hsp70C) was tested for its immuno-stimulatory effects. The iAg and Hsp70C cDNAs were constructed independently in secretory forms and were encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. In the first immunization trial, grouper fingerlings orally intubated with iAg and iAg:Hsp70C presented 96% and 100% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively, after a lethal challenge. In the second trial, both iAg and iAg:Hsp70C groups showed 100% RPS and the skin trophont burden was significantly lowered. The iAg:Hsp70C still provides a significantly high protection of 51% RPS at 49 days post immunization, when an even more serious lethal infection occurs. RT-qPCR results showed that Hsp70C could up-regulate the expression of i) T cell markers: Cluster of Differentiation 8 alpha (CD8?) and CD4, ii) cytokine genes: Interferon gamma (IFN?), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF?) and Interleukin 12 p40 (IL-12/P40), iii) antibody genes: Immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgMH) and IgTH, and iv) major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I & MHC-II), in the spleen of iAg:Hsp70C group. Furthermore, significantly high levels of iAg-specific IgM was detected in skin mucus which efficiently immobilized live theronts in iAg- and iAg:Hsp70C-immunized fish at 5 weeks post immunization. Hsp70C significantly increased the number of nonspecific CD8(+) skin leucocytes which exerted cytotoxicity against theronts, although cytotoxic activity showed no difference among the various groups. Because of this complementary cooperation of cellular and humoral immune responses, Hsp70C enhances the efficacy of iAg vaccine and constrains C. irritans infection. In view of the severe loss caused by cryptocaryonosis, application of this parasitic vaccine in farmed and ornamental fish, is worthy to be considered. PMID:25957883

  3. Combining Viral Vectored and Protein-in-adjuvant Vaccines Against the Blood-stage Malaria Antigen AMA1: Report on a Phase 1a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel GW; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines—chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising “mixed-modality” regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible. PMID:25156127

  4. JC Virus Small t Antigen Binds Phosphatase PP2A and Rb Family Proteins and Is Required for Efficient Viral DNA Replication Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M.; Frisque, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV) produces five tumor proteins encoded by transcripts alternatively spliced from one precursor messenger RNA. Significant attention has been given to replication and transforming activities of JCV's large tumor antigen (TAg) and three T? proteins, but little is known about small tumor antigen (tAg) functions. Amino-terminal sequences of tAg overlap with those of the other tumor proteins, but the carboxy half of tAg is unique. These latter sequences are the least conserved among the early coding regions of primate polyomaviruses. Methodology and Findings We investigated the ability of wild type and mutant forms of JCV tAg to interact with cellular proteins involved in regulating cell proliferation and survival. The JCV P99A tAg is mutated at a conserved proline, which in the SV40 tAg is required for efficient interaction with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the C157A mutant tAg is altered at one of two newly recognized LxCxE motifs. Relative to wild type and C157A tAgs, P99A tAg interacts inefficiently with PP2A in vivo. Unlike SV40 tAg, JCV tAg binds to the Rb family of tumor suppressor proteins. Viral DNAs expressing mutant t proteins replicated less efficiently than did the intact JCV genome. A JCV construct incapable of expressing tAg was replication-incompetent, a defect not complemented in trans using a tAg-expressing vector. Conclusions JCV tAg possesses unique properties among the polyomavirus small t proteins. It contributes significantly to viral DNA replication in vivo; a tAg null mutant failed to display detectable DNA replication activity, and a tAg substitution mutant, reduced in PP2A binding, was replication-defective. Our observation that JCV tAg binds Rb proteins, indicates all five JCV tumor proteins have the potential to influence cell cycle progression in infected and transformed cells. It remains unclear how these proteins coordinate their unique and overlapping functions. PMID:20485545

  5. [Synthesis and antigenic activity of peptides from the C-terminal part of the NS4-protein of the hepatitis A virus].

    PubMed

    Semiletov, Iu A; Firsova, T V; Kuzin, S N; Khudiakov, Iu E; Shibnev, V A

    1993-11-01

    A set of four peptides from the HCV NS4-protein C-terminal region (aa 1921-1940) were obtained by solid-phase synthesis using activated esters and symmetrical anhydrides of Boc-amino acids. Peptide 1921-1940 has demonstrated a positive reaction in ELISA with individual anti-HCV-positive sera from patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C (80% and 56%, respectively). We analysed the antigenic properties of the peptide 1921-1940 and its fragments and suggested at least two antibody recognizing sites to be contained in this region. PMID:8285926

  6. Seroreactivity to a large panel of field-derived Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and merozoite surface protein 1 variants reflects seasonal and lifetime acquired responses to malaria.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jason A; Pablo, Jozelyn; Niangaly, Amadou; Travassos, Mark A; Ouattara, Amed; Coulibaly, Drissa; Laurens, Matthew B; Takala-Harrison, Shannon L; Lyke, Kirsten E; Skinner, Jeff; Berry, Andrea A; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kouriba, Bourema; Thera, Mahamadou A; Felgner, Philip L; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V

    2015-01-01

    Parasite antigen diversity poses an obstacle to developing an effective malaria vaccine. A protein microarray containing Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1, n = 57) and merozoite surface protein 1 19-kD (MSP119, n = 10) variants prevalent at a malaria vaccine testing site in Bandiagara, Mali, was used to assess changes in seroreactivity caused by seasonal and lifetime exposure to malaria. Malian adults had significantly higher magnitude and breadth of seroreactivity to variants of both antigens than did Malian children. Seroreactivity increased over the course of the malaria season in children and adults, but the difference was more dramatic in children. These results help to validate diversity-covering protein microarrays as a promising tool for measuring the breadth of antibody responses to highly variant proteins, and demonstrate the potential of this new tool to help guide the development of malaria vaccines with strain-transcending efficacy. PMID:25294612

  7. Effects of Serial Skin Testing with Purified Protein Derivative on the Level and Quality of Antibodies to Complex and Defined Antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-Infected Cattle.

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V; Stafne, Molly R; Bass, Kristin E; Maggioli, Mayara F; Thacker, Tyler C; Linscott, Rick; Lawrence, John C; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Esfandiari, Javan; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P

    2015-06-01

    Several serological tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when used after the injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin testing, which significantly boosts M. bovis-specific antibody responses. The present findings demonstrate the onset and duration of boosted antibody responses after the injection of M. bovis PPD for the caudal fold test (CFT) and Mycobacterium avium and M. bovis PPDs for the comparative cervical test (CCT), administered in series in cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis. While skin tests boosted the responses to certain antigens (i.e., MPB83 and MPB70), they did not affect the responses to other antigens (e.g., ESAT-6, CFP10, MPB59, and MPB64). Administration of the CCT 105 days after the CFT resulted in an even greater secondary boost in antibody responses to MPB83 and MPB70 and to a proteinase K-digested whole-cell sonicate (WCS-PK) of M. bovis. Both IgM and IgG contributed to the initial boost in the MPB83/MPB70-specific antibody response after the CFT. The secondary boost after the CCT was primarily due to increased IgG levels. Also, the avidity of antibodies to MPB83 and MPB70 increased after the CCT in M. bovis-infected cattle. The avidity of antibodies to the WCS-PK antigens increased in the interval between the CFT and the CCT but did not increase further after the CCT. Together, these findings demonstrate that the administration of PPDs for skin tests results in additive enhancement (i.e., when the CFT and CCT are performed in series), both qualitative and quantitative, of MPB83/MPB70-specific antibody responses. PMID:25855555

  8. Potential Impact of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on the Acquisition of Antibodies against Glutamate-Rich Protein and Apical Membrane Antigen 1 in Children Living in Southern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Sylla, Khadime; Sow, Doudou; Tine, Roger; Faye, Babacar; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Dieng, Yemou; Lo, Aminata Collé; Abiola, Annie; Cisse, Badara; Ndiaye, Daouda; Theisen, Michael; Gaye, Oumar; Alifrangis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is defined as the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial drug to children during the peak of malaria transmission season with the aim of preventing malaria-associated mortality and morbidity. SMC using sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) combined with amodiaquine (AQ) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission. However, a concern is whether SMC can delay the natural acquisition of immunity toward malaria parasites in areas with intense SMC delivery. To investigate this, total IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens glutamate-rich protein R0 (GLURP-R0) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in Senegalese children under the age of 10 years in 2010 living in Saraya and Velingara districts (with SMC using SP+AQ [SMC+] since 2007) and Tambacounda district (without SMC (SMC?)). For both P. falciparum antigens, total IgG response were significantly higher in the SMC? compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0, P < 0.001 and for AMA-1, P = 0.001). There was as well a nonsignificant tendency for higher percentage of positive responders in the SMC? compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0: 22.2% versus 14.4%, respectively [P = 0.06]; for AMA-1: 45.6% versus 40.0%, respectively [P = 0.24]). Results suggest that long-term malaria chemoprevention by SMC/SP+AQ have limited impact on the development of acquired immunity, as tested using the P. falciparum antigens GLURP-R0 and AMA-1. However, other factors, not measured in this study, may interfere as well. PMID:26283746

  9. Potential Impact of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on the Acquisition of Antibodies Against Glutamate-Rich Protein and Apical Membrane Antigen 1 in Children Living in Southern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Sylla, Khadime; Sow, Doudou; Tine, Roger; Faye, Babacar; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Dieng, Yemou; Lo, Aminata Collé; Abiola, Annie; Cisse, Badara; Ndiaye, Daouda; Theisen, Michael; Gaye, Oumar; Alifrangis, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is defined as the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial drug to children during the peak of malaria transmission season with the aim of preventing malaria-associated mortality and morbidity. SMC using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) combined with amodiaquine (AQ) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission. However, a concern is whether SMC can delay the natural acquisition of immunity toward malaria parasites in areas with intense SMC delivery. To investigate this, total IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens glutamate-rich protein R0 (GLURP-R0) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in Senegalese children under the age of 10 years in 2010 living in Saraya and Velingara districts (with SMC using SP + AQ [SMC+] since 2007) and Tambacounda district (without SMC (SMC-)). For both P. falciparum antigens, total IgG response were significantly higher in the SMC- compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0, P < 0.001 and for AMA-1, P = 0.001). There was as well a nonsignificant tendency for higher percentage of positive responders in the SMC- compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0: 22.2% versus 14.4%, respectively [P = 0.06]; for AMA-1: 45.6% versus 40.0%, respectively [P = 0.24]). Results suggest that long-term malaria chemoprevention by SMC/SP + AQ have limited impact on the development of acquired immunity, as tested using the P. falciparum antigens GLURP-R0 and AMA-1. However, other factors, not measured in this study, may interfere as well. PMID:26283746

  10. Molecular Evolution and Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein VP1 of Duck Hepatitis A Viruses: Implications for Antigenic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuli; Sheng, Zizhang; Huang, Bing; Qi, Lihong; Li, Yufeng; Yu, Kexiang; Liu, Cunxia; Qin, Zhuoming; Wang, Dan; Song, Minxun; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the family Picornaviridae, is the major cause of outbreaks with high mortality rates in young ducklings. It has three distinctive serotypes and among them, serotypes 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) were recognized in China. To investigate evolutionary and antigenic properties of the major capsid protein VP1 of these two serotypes, a primary target of neutralizing antibodies, we determined the VP1 coding sequences of 19 DHAV-1 (spanning 2000-2012) and 11 DHAV-3 isolates (spanning 2008-2014) associated with disease outbreaks. By bioinformatics analysis of VP1 sequences of these isolates and other DHAV strains reported previously, we demonstrated that DHAV-1 viruses evolved into two genetic lineages, while DHAV-3 viruses exhibited three distinct lineages. The rate of nucleotide substitution for DHAV-1 VP1 genes was estimated to be 5.57 x 10-4 per site per year, which was about one-third times slower than that for DHAV-3 VP1 genes. The population dynamics analysis showed an upward trend for infection of DHAV-1 viruses over time with little change observed for DHAV-3 viruses. Antigenic study of representative DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains covering all observed major lineages revealed no detectable changes in viral neutralization properties within the serotype, despite the lack of cross-neutralization between serotypes 1 and 3 strains. Structural analysis identified VP1 mutations in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viruses that underpin the observed antigenic phenotypes. Results of our experiments described here shall give novel insights into evolution and antigenicity of duck picornaviruses. PMID:26173145

  11. Antigenicity, Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Three Proteins Expressed in the Promastigote and Amastigote Stages of Leishmania infantum against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Garde, Esther; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; da Silva, Viviane Gomes; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two Leishmania infantum hypothetical proteins present in the amastigote stage, LiHyp1 and LiHyp6, were combined with a promastigote protein, IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor (HRF); to compose a polyproteins vaccine to be evaluated against L. infantum infection. Also, the antigenicity of the three proteins was analyzed, and their use for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was evaluated. The LiHyp1, LiHyp6, and HRF DNA coding sequences were cloned in prokaryotic expression vectors and the recombinant proteins were purified. When employed in ELISA assays, all proteins were recognized by sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, and presented no cross-reactivity with either sera from dogs vaccinated with a Brazilian commercial vaccine, or sera of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected or Ehrlichia canis-infected animals. In addition, the antigens were not recognized by antibodies from non-infected animals living in endemic or non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three proteins administered in the presence of saponin, individually or in combination (composing a polyproteins vaccine), were evaluated in a VL murine model: BALB/c mice infected with L. infantum. Spleen cells from mice inoculated with the individual proteins or with the polyproteins vaccine plus saponin showed a protein-specific production of IFN-?, IL-12, and GM-CSF after an in vitro stimulation, which was maintained after infection. These animals presented significant reductions in the parasite burden in different evaluated organs, when compared to mice inoculated with saline or saponin. The decrease in parasite burden was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-? against parasite total extracts (produced mainly by CD4+ T cells), correlated to the induction of parasite proteins-driven NO production. Mice inoculated with the recombinant protein-based vaccines showed also high levels of parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. The polyproteins vaccine administration induced a more pronounced Th1 response before and after challenge infection than individual vaccines, which was correlated to a higher control of parasite dissemination to internal organs. PMID:26367128

  12. A Small Antigenic Determinant of the Chikungunya Virus E2 Protein Is Sufficient to Induce Neutralizing Antibodies which Are Partially Protective in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Christopher; Büchner, Sarah M.; Schnierle, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L) and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA) alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the ?-ribbon (called B+) was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+) induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine. PMID:25905779

  13. A single amino acid substitution (R441A) in the receptor-binding domain of SARS coronavirus spike protein disrupts the antigenic structure and binding activity

    SciTech Connect

    He Yuxian . E-mail: yhe@nybloodcenter.org; Li Jingjing; Jiang Shibo

    2006-05-26

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has two major functions: interacting with the receptor to mediate virus entry and inducing protective immunity. Coincidently, the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 318-510) of SAR-CoV S protein is a major antigenic site to induce neutralizing antibodies. Here, we used RBD-Fc, a fusion protein containing the RBD and human IgG1 Fc, as a model in the studies and found that a single amino acid substitution in the RBD (R441A) could abolish the immunogenicity of RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice and rabbits. With a panel of anti-RBD mAbs as probes, we observed that R441A substitution was able to disrupt the majority of neutralizing epitopes in the RBD, suggesting that this residue is critical for the antigenic structure responsible for inducing protective immune responses. We also demonstrated that the RBD-Fc bearing R441A mutation could not bind to soluble and cell-associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV and failed to block S protein-mediated pseudovirus entry, indicating that this point mutation also disrupted the receptor-binding motif (RBM) in the RBD. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence to show that a single amino acid residue at key position in the RBD can determine the major function of SARS-CoV S protein and imply for designing SARS vaccines and therapeutics.

  14. Association of Streptococcus pneumoniae common protein antigen (CPA) antibodies and pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected African children.

    PubMed

    Ditse, Z; Adrian, P V; Kuwanda, L; Madhi, S A

    2013-09-13

    Due to the high cost and limited serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), pneumococcal common protein antigens (CPAs) are being investigated as potential vaccine candidates. CPAs are likely to be immunogenic in infants and could confer serotype-independent protection. There are limited data on natural antibody kinetics against CPAs in African populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of naturally acquired antibody titres to 15 CPAs and explore their association to concurrent pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in children aged 4-7 years with and without underlying HIV-infection and/or previous PCV-vaccination. A 15-plex Luminex assay was established to measure serum IgG titres against "cell-wall associated or surface-exposed" proteins (PspA, PspC, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, SP0082, PdB and PcsB), "membrane-associated" proteins (PsaA, SP0609, SP0749, PpmA, SlrA, StkP and SP2194) as well as the hypothetical protein, SP2027. Archived serum samples from HIV-uninfected (n=212) and HIV-infected (n=74) children were analyzed. Concurrent pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization was determined with standard microbiological methods. HIV-uninfected children had significantly higher antibody titres against PspA, PspC, PdB, SP0082, LytB, IgA1 proteinase and PcsB compared to HIV-infected children. In contrast, antibody titres against membrane associated proteins (PsaA, SP2027, PpmA and SlrA) were significantly lower in HIV-uninfected compared to HIV-infected children. Higher antibody titres against PdB, and PcsB were associated with the absence of pneumococcal colonization. There was no association between anti-CPA titres and PCV vaccination. In conclusion PdB and PcsB antigens are potential vaccine-candidates which may protect against pneumococcal colonization and consequently pneumococcal disease. PMID:23845819

  15. Antigenic role of the endosymbionts of filarial nematodes: IgG response against the Wolbachia surface protein in cats infected with Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, C; Ceciliani, F; McCall, J W; Ricci, I; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

    2000-01-01

    Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners' cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D. immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D. immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and experimentally infected cats. WSP was recognized only by sera from positive cats and from cats experimentally infected with D. immitis; this protein was not recognized by sera from negative cats and from cats before experimental infection with D. immitis. The results of Western blot assays on WSP thus support the hypothesis that infection with filarial nematodes induces the production of antibodies against Wolbachia proteins. PMID:11197127

  16. The Yersinia pestis V antigen is a regulatory protein necessary for Ca2(+)-dependent growth and maximal expression of low-Ca2+ response virulence genes.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S B; Cowan, C; Perry, R D; Straley, S C

    1991-01-01

    The low-Ca2+ response is a multicomponent virulence regulon of the human-pathogenic yersiniae in which 12 known virulence genes are coordinately regulated in response to environmental cues of temperature, Ca2+, and nucleotides such as ATP. Yersinial growth also is regulated, with full growth yield being permitted at 37 degrees C only if Ca2+ or a nucleotide is present. In this study, we constructed and characterized a mutant Yersinia pestis specifically defective in the gene encoding the V antigen, one of the virulence genes of the low-Ca2+ response. An in-frame internal deletion-insertion mutation was made by removing bases 51 through 645 of lcrV and inserting 61 new bases. The altered lcrV was introduced into the low-Ca2+ response plasmid in Y. pestis by allelic exchange, and the resulting mutant was characterized for its two-dimensional protein profiles, growth, expression of an operon fusion to another low-Ca2+ response virulence operon, and virulence in mice. The mutant had lost its Ca2+ and nucleotide requirement for growth, showed diminished expression of Ca2(+)-and nucleotide-regulated virulence genes, and was avirulent in mice. The mutation could be complemented with respect to the growth property by supplying native V antigen operon sequences in trans in high copy number (on pBR322). Partial complementation of the growth defect and almost complete complementation of the virulence defect were seen with a lower-copy-number complementing replicon (a pACYC184 derivative). The data are consistent with the interpretation that V antigen is bifunctional, with a role in regulating growth and expression of low-Ca2+ response virulence genes in addition to its putative role as a secreted virulence protein. Images PMID:1901573

  17. An Influenza Virus M2 Protein Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor Modulates Influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1 Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Simon J; Blair, Natalie F; McGill, Niolette; Ligertwood, Yvonne; Dutia, Bernadette M; Johannessen, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    A potential target for the development of universal vaccine strategies against Influenza A is the M2 protein – a membrane protein with a highly conserved extracellular domain. In this study we developed engineered T-cell receptors, by fusing M2-specific antibody sequences with T-cell receptor transmembrane and signaling domains to target influenza infected cells. When expressed on T-cells, these novel T-cell receptors (chimeric antigen receptors - CARs) are able to recognize specific antigens on the surface of target cells via an MHC-independent mechanism. Using an existing monoclonal antibody (14C2) specific for the M2 ectodomain (M2e), we generated an M2-specific CAR. We tested the specificity of this M2 CAR in vitro by measuring the activation of T-cells in response to M2-specific peptides or M2-expressing cell lines. Both Jurkat T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing the M2-specific CAR responded to specific antigen stimulation by upregulating NFAT and producing ?-interferon. To test whether the M2-specific CAR are effective at recognizing influenza infected cells in vivo we used an established BALB/c murine infection model. At day 4 post-infection, when M2 CAR expressing splenocytes could be detected in the lung, the Influenza A/WSN/33 virus titre was around 50% of that in control mice. Although the lung virus titre later increased in the treated group, virus was cleared in both groups of mice by day 8. The results provide support for the development of M2e as a target for cell mediated immunotherapy. PMID:23493233

  18. Identification and characterization of epitopes shared between the mycobacterial 65-kilodalton heat shock protein and the actively secreted antigen 85 complex: their in situ expression on the cell wall surface of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Rambukkana, A; Das, P K; Burggraaf, J D; Faber, W R; Teeling, P; Krieg, S; Thole, J E; Harboe, M

    1992-01-01

    Both mycobacterial hsp65 and the actively secreted antigen 85 complex of 30-kDa region proteins are considered to be major immune targets in mycobacterial diseases. In this study, by using a novel series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed to these antigens, we identified and partially characterized three unique epitopes (Rb2, Pe12, and A2h11) that are shared between mycobacterial hsp65 and the individual components of the antigen 85 complex. Dot blot assays with native purified proteins revealed that all three MAbs are strongly bound to hsp65 and antigens 85A (MPT44) and 85B (MPT59), while a weak reaction or no reaction was found with antigen 85C (MPT45). Immunoblotting showed that MAb Rb2 reacted strongly with both hsp65 and the antigen 85 complex proteins, whereas MAbs Pe12 and A2h11 reacted strongly with the former but weakly with the latter. Moreover, these MAbs did not react with other closely related MPT51 and MPT64 secreted proteins. Further characterization of these epitopes was performed by using recombinant fusion and truncated proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG hsp65 (MbaA) and the M. leprae 30- and 31-kDa antigen 85 complex fusion proteins. In hsp65, Rb2-Pe12- and A2h11-reactive epitopes were found to reside in the C-terminal region of amino acid residues 479 to 540 and 303 to 424, respectively. In the M. leprae 30- and 31-kDa antigen 85 complex, all three epitopes were located in an N-terminal region of amino acid residues 55 to 266, one of the known fibronectin-binding sites of the M. leprae antigen 85 complex. Comparison of these MAb-reactive amino acid sequence regions between mycobacterial hsp65 and the components of the antigen 85 complex revealed that these regions show certain amino acid sequence identities. Furthermore, by immunoperoxidase and immunogold ultracytochemistry, we demonstrated that Rb2-, Pe12-, and A2h11-reactive epitopes are expressed both on the cell wall surface and in the cytosol of M. leprae bacilli within the lesions of lepromatous leprosy patients and in M. leprae-infected armadillo liver tissue. Images PMID:1383151

  19. [Prokaryotic expression and antigenic activity analysis on the matrix protein genes of two strains of human metapneumovirus recently identified in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shou-Chun; Qian, Yuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Ding, Ya-Xin

    2007-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently identified respiratory virus more like human respiratory syncytial virus in clinical symptoms. Matrix protein (M) is one of the most important structural proteins. For further studying of hMPV, the full length of M genes from the recombinant plasmid pUCm-M1816 and pUCmM1817 were cloned by PCR and sub-cloned into the pET30a(+) vector, which is a prokaryotic expression vector, after dual-enzyme digestion with Bam HI and Xho I. The positive recombinated plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and expressed under the inducing of IPTG. Target proteins were characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. In this article, we' ve successfully constructed the recombinated plasmids pET30a-M1816 and pET30a-M1817 which have correct open reading frames confirmed by dual-enzyme digestion analysis and sequencing. The fusion proteins with 6 x His-N were highly produced after inducing by 1mmol/ L IPTG at 37 degrees C. A unique protein band with approximate 27.6 kD was characterized by SDS-PAGE. Most of the target protein existed in inclusion body. Western blot analysis showed that the target protein has specific binding reaction to rabbit antiserum against polypeptides of the matrix protein of hMPV. So the M genes were highly expressed in the prokaryotic system and the expressed M proteins have specific antigenic activities. It can be used for further studying of hMPV infections in Beijing. PMID:17886723

  20. Stoichiometric complex formation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its interacting protein: purification and crystallization of the DNA polymerase and PCNA monomer mutant complex from Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Hirokazu; Matsumiya, Shigeki; Tsuchiya, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2006-03-01

    A stable stoichiometric complex of archaeal DNA polymerase with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was formed using a PCNA monomer mutant and the complex was successfully crystallized. Replicative DNA polymerase interacts with processivity factors, the ?-subunit of DNA polymerase III or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), in order to function with a long template DNA. The archaeal replicative DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus interacts with PCNA via its PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) motif at the C-terminus. The PCNA homotrimeric ring contains one PIP interacting site on each monomer and since the ring can accommodate up to three molecules simultaneously, formation of a stable stoichiometric complex of PCNA with its interacting protein has been difficult to control in vitro. A stable complex of the DNA polymerase with PCNA, using a PCNA monomer mutant, has been purified and crystallized. The best ordered crystal diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 225.3, b = 123.3, c = 91.3 Å.

  1. Correlation between levels of expression of minichromosome maintenance proteins, Ki-67 proliferation antigen and metallothionein I/II in laryngeal squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Nowinska, Katarzyna; Chmielewska, Magdalena; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Pula, Bartosz; Pastuszewski, Wojciech; Krecicki, Tomasz; Podhorska-Oko?ow, Marzena; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    MCM2, MCM3 and MCM7 are minichromosome maintenance proteins found in dividing cells and they play a role in DNA synthesis. Increased MCM expression level is observed in cells of different cancer types. Additionally, metallothioneins (MT-I/II) are involved in control of cell proliferation and differentiation and changes of their expression are observed in many types of cancer. Ki-67 is known cancer cell proliferation antigen currently used in prognostic evaluation. The study material consisted of 83 laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC) cases and 10 benign hypertrophic lesions of larynx epithelium as a control group. For the present study, laryngeal cancer cell line HEp-2 and human keratinocytes were employed, and to evaluate expression of all the markers, immunohistochemical method (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) and western blot analysis were used. Statistical analysis showed strong positive correlation between expression of MCM2, MCM3, MCM7 and Ki-67 antigen in LSCC. Additionally, moderate positive correlation was observed between MCM3 and MT-I/II expression. In cancer cells, the level of expression of MCM3, MCM2, MCM7 and Ki-67 markers was increasing with the grade of LSCC malignancy. IF and western blot analysis showed higher MCM2, MCM3, MCM7 expression in HEp-2 cells in comparison to their expression in keratinocytes. MCM proteins might be useful markers of cell proliferation in LSCC. PMID:26648405

  2. Detection of antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in children with community-acquired pneumonia: effects of combining pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness.

    PubMed

    Borges, I C; Andrade, D C; Vilas-Boas, A-L; Fontoura, M-S H; Laitinen, H; Ekström, N; Adrian, P V; Meinke, A; Cardoso, M-R A; Barral, A; Ruuskanen, O; Käyhty, H; Nascimento-Carvalho, C M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of combining different numbers of pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness on the detection of IgG responses against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, three Haemophilus influenzae proteins, and five Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in 690 children aged <5 years with pneumonia. Serological tests were performed on acute and convalescent serum samples with a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The median sampling interval was 19 days, the median age was 26.7 months, and the median duration of illness was 5 days. The rate of antibody responses was 15.4 % for at least one pneumococcal antigen, 5.8 % for H. influenzae, and 2.3 % for M. catarrhalis. The rate of antibody responses against each pneumococcal antigen varied from 3.5 to 7.1 %. By multivariate analysis, pre-existing antibody levels showed a negative association with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens; the sampling interval was positively associated with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens. A sampling interval of 3 weeks was the optimal cut-off for the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. Duration of illness was negatively associated with antibody responses against PspA. Age did not influence antibody responses against the investigated antigens. In conclusion, serological assays using combinations of different pneumococcal proteins detect a higher rate of antibody responses against S. pneumoniae compared to assays using a single pneumococcal protein. Pre-existing antibody levels and sampling interval influence the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. These factors should be considered when determining pneumonia etiology by serological methods in children. PMID:25894988

  3. Effect of cholinomimetics and adrenomimetics on proliferation of mouse B lymphocytes during primary immune response to protein antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Ado, A.D.; Dontsov, V.I.; Gol'dshtein, M.M.

    1985-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of neurotransmitters on proliferation of B lymphocytes induced by specific antigen. Experiments were carried out on female mice. To estimate proliferative activity, lymphocytes enriched with B cells were incubated in medium 199 for 2 h at 37 degrees C in a dose of 2.10/sup 6/-5.10/sup 6/ cells with 2 microCi of /sup 3/H-(methyl)-thymidine. The effect of acetylcholine on incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into B lymphocytes of mice immunized with different doses of antigen during culture is shown. Discordance of effects of adrenalin and acetylcholine on incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into B lymphocytes of mice immunized with different doses of ovalbumin is also shown.

  4. Tandem Fusion of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Allows Assembly of Virus-Like Particles in Bacteria and Plants with Enhanced Capacity to Accommodate Foreign Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Peyret, Hadrien; Gehin, Annick; Thuenemann, Eva C.; Blond, Donatienne; El Turabi, Aadil; Beales, Lucy; Clarke, Dean; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Stuart, David I.; Holmes, Kris; Stonehouse, Nicola J.; Whelan, Mike; Rosenberg, William; Lomonossoff, George P.; Rowlands, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs) when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. Specifically, the major insertion region (MIR) on the HBcAg protein allows the insertion of foreign sequences, which are then exposed on the tips of surface spike structures on the outside of the assembled particle. Here, we present a novel strategy which aids the display of whole proteins on the surface of HBc particles. This strategy, named tandem core, is based on the production of the HBcAg dimer as a single polypeptide chain by tandem fusion of two HBcAg open reading frames. This allows the insertion of large heterologous sequences in only one of the two MIRs in each spike, without compromising VLP formation. We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. The results show that tandem core particles can be produced with unmodified MIRs, or with one MIR in each tandem dimer modified to contain the entire sequence of GFP or of a camelid nanobody. Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody) retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. This technology paves the way for the display of natively folded proteins on the surface of HBc particles either through direct fusion or through non-covalent attachment via a nanobody. PMID:25830365

  5. A Bicistronic DNA Vaccine Containing Apical Membrane Antigen 1 and Merozoite Surface Protein 4/5 Can Prime Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Partially Protect Mice against Virulent Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rainczuk, A.; Scorza, T.; Spithill, T. W.; Smooker, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate malaria vaccine will require the delivery of multiple antigens from different stages of the complex malaria life cycle. In order to efficiently deliver multiple antigens with use of DNA vaccine technology, new antigen delivery systems must be assessed. This study utilized a bicistronic vector construct, containing an internal ribosome entry site, expressing a combination of malarial candidate antigens: merozoite surface protein 4/5 (MSP4/5) (fused to a monocyte chemotactic protein 3 chemoattractant sequence) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) (fused to a tissue plasminogen activator secretion signal). Transfection of COS 7 cells with bicistronic plasmids resulted in production and secretion of both AMA-1 and MSP4/5 in vitro. Vaccination of BALB/c mice via intraepidermal gene gun and intramuscular routes against AMA-1 and MSP4/5 resulted in antibody production and significant in vitro proliferation of splenocytes stimulated by both AMA-1 and MSP4/5. Survival of BALB/c mice vaccinated with bicistronic constructs after lethal Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS erythrocytic-stage challenge was variable, although significant increases in survival and reductions in peak parasitemia were observed in several challenge trials when the vaccine was delivered by the intramuscular route. This study using a murine model demonstrates that the delivery of malarial antigens via bicistronic vectors is feasible. Further experimentation with bicistronic delivery systems is required for the optimization and refinement of DNA vaccines to effectively prime protective immune responses against malaria. PMID:15385453

  6. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  7. Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines Derived from Mutant Strains Engineered To Express Factor H Binding Proteins from Antigenic Variant Groups 1 and 2?

    PubMed Central

    Koeberling, Oliver; Giuntini, Serena; Seubert, Anja; Granoff, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, which are treated with detergents to decrease endotoxin activity, are safe and effective in humans. However, the vaccines elicit serum bactericidal antibody responses largely directed against PorA, which is antigenically variable. We previously prepared a native (non-detergent-treated) OMV vaccine from a mutant of group B strain H44/76 in which the lpxL1 gene was inactivated, which resulted in penta-acylated lipid A with attenuated endotoxin activity. To enhance protection, we overexpressed factor H binding protein (fHbp) from the antigenic variant 1 group. The vaccine elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses in mice against strains with fHbp variant 1 (?70% of group B isolates) but not against strains with variant 2 or 3. In the present study, we constructed a mutant of group B strain NZ98/254 with attenuated endotoxin that expressed both endogenous variant 1 and heterologous fHbp variant 2. A mixture of the two native OMV vaccines from the H44/76 and NZ98/254 mutants stimulated proinflammatory cytokine responses by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells similar to those stimulated by control, detergent-treated OMV vaccines from the wild-type strains. In mice, the mixture of the two native OMV vaccines elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses against strains with heterologous PorA and fHbp in the variant 1, 2, or 3 group. By adsorption studies, the principal bactericidal antibody target was determined to be fHbp. Thus, native OMV vaccines from mutants expressing fHbp variants have the potential to be safe for humans and to confer broad protection against meningococcal disease from strains expressing fHbp from each of the antigenic variant groups. PMID:19109451

  8. An enhanced antigen-retrieval protocol for immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Syrbu, Sergei I; Cohen, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Formalin is the most commonly used fixative for light microscopy because of its preservation of -morphological details. A major adverse effect of formalin fixation is formation of cross-linkages between epitopes (amino acid residues) and unrelated proteins by formaldehyde groups. The great majority of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies used for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues necessitate unmasking antigens for antigen retrieval. There are currently two major antigen-retrieval procedures based on treatment of deparaffinized tissue sections with heat or, less commonly, with enzymatic digestion. The use of various antigen-retrieval solutions and heating sources does not allow standardization of IHC staining and minimalization of interlaboratory discrepancies. We developed a novel modified antigen-retrieval protocol for reversing the effect of -formalin fixation. The key feature of this protocol is treatment of deparaffinized tissue sections at reduced constant heat (97(o)C in a water bath) for 40 min in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5), 1 mM EDTA, and 0.05% SDS (Tris-EDTA-SDS) buffer. Sections are then immunostained with primary and secondary antibodies conjugated with polymer-labeled Horse Radish Peroxidase. Compared to conventional antigen-retrieval procedures, this protocol more efficiently reverses the effect of formalin fixation of a wide variety of cellular antigens and in most instances decreases the use of primary antibody by 2-40 times, resulting in cost savings. Moreover, this protocol eliminates the need for using different antigen-retrieval methods in the laboratory, which reduces both time and labor for medical technologists. PMID:21370027

  9. NY-BR-1 protein expression in breast carcinoma: a mammary gland differentiation antigen as target for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Storz, Martina; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Fehr, Mathias K; Fink, Daniel; Ferrone, Soldano; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Jungbluth, Achim A; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Jäger, Dirk; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2007-11-01

    NY-BR-1 is a recently identified differentiation antigen of the mammary gland. To use NY-BR-1 for T-cell-based immunotherapy, analysis of its co-expression with HLA class I antigens is required. In the present tissue microarray study, primary breast cancers (n = 1,444), recurrences (n = 88), lymph node (n = 525) and distant metastases (n = 91) were studied for NY-BR-1 expression using a novel monoclonal antibody. NY-BR-1 expression was compared with prognosis, estrogen receptor, HER2-status, EGFR and HLA class I antigen expression. NY-BR-1 was more frequently expressed in grade 1 (82%) than in grade 2 (69%) and grade 3 (46%) carcinomas (P < 0.0001). Moreover, NY-BR-1 expression correlated directly with estrogen receptor expression (P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated with HER2-status and EGFR expression (P < 0.0001 for both). Considering high expression level of co-expression, 198/1,321 (15%) primary breast carcinomas and 4/65 (6%) distant metastases expressed NY-BR-1 and HLA class I, suggesting that active immunotherapy can be applied to about 10% of breast cancer patients. Survival analysis showed an association of NY-BR-1 expression with better patient outcome (P = 0.015). No difference between NY-BR-1 expression of primary tumors and metastases could be found, indicating that the presence of NY-BR-1 in metastases can be deduced from their corresponding primary. Forty-three paired biopsies taken from patients before and after chemotherapy suggest that NY-BR-1 expression is not influenced by preceding chemotherapy (kappa = 0.89, P < 0.0001). In summary, the co-expression of NY-BR-1 with HLA class I antigens and its expression in metastases without modification by chemotherapy suggest that NY-BR-1 targeted immunotherapy represents a viable strategy in addition to other targeted cancer drug therapies of breast cancer. PMID:17410359

  10. Release of mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Majlessi, Laleh; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Casadevall, Arturo; Brosch, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved from a Mycobacterium canettii-like progenitor pool into one of the most successful and widespread human pathogens. The pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis is linked to its ability to secrete/export/release selected mycobacterial proteins, and it is also established that active release of mycobacterial antigens is a prerequisite for strong immune recognition. Recent research has enabled mycobacterial secretion systems and vesicle-based release of mycobacterial antigens to be elucidated, which together with host-related specificities constitute key variables that determine the outcome of infection. Here, we discuss recently discovered, novel aspects on the nature and the regulation of antigen release of the tuberculosis agent with particular emphasis on the biological characterization of mycobacteria-specific ESX/type VII secretion systems and their secreted proteins, belonging to the Esx, PE, and PPE categories. The importance of specific mycobacterial antigen release is probably best exemplified by the striking differences observed between the cellular events during infection with the ESX-1-deficient, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG compared to the virulent M. tuberculosis, which are clearly important for design of more specific diagnostics and more efficient vaccines. PMID:25703550

  11. Bifunctional hybrids between the variable domains of an immunoglobulin and the maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli: production, purification and antigen binding.

    PubMed

    Brégégère, F; Schwartz, J; Bedouelle, H

    1994-02-01

    Hybrids were constructed between the maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli (MalE) and the variable domains (V-domains) of D1.3, a mouse antibody directed against hen lysozyme. Each V-domain was fused with the C- or N-terminus of MalE and expressed in E. coli, either alone or associated with the other V-domain, as a heterodimer (Fv) or as a single-chain fragment (scFv). The hybrids were exported into the bacterial periplasm, purified by affinity chromatography on cross-linked amylose and separated from incomplete products by ion-exchange chromatography. Hybrids between MalE and Fv bound the antigen specifically, with affinities increased up to 10-fold when compared to native D1.3. This strongly suggests that MalE contributed to the binding. The affinities and specificities of the different hybrids, as well as their levels of contamination by incomplete products, depended on their fusion pattern with MalE. Hybrids between MalE and either single V-domain also bound hen lysozyme specifically, which shows that each V-domain can recognize the antigen when fused with MalE. The high affinity of VH-MalE (KD = 3 nM) could be due to both participation of MalE in the binding and a conformational adaptation of the lone V-domain. PMID:8170930

  12. Nonmyeloablative Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Patients with Poor-Risk, Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Georges, George E.; Maris, Michael B.; Maloney, David G.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Sorror, Mohamed L.; Shizuru, Judith A.; Niederwieser, Dietger W.; Agura, Edward D.; Bruno, Benedetto; McSweeney, Peter A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Mielcarek, Marco; Storer, Barry E.; Storb, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome of unrelated donor nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with poor-risk multiple myeloma. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Seventeen patients (71%) had chemotherapy-refractory disease and 14 patients (58%) had disease relapse or progression after prior autologous transplantation. Thirteen patients underwent planned autologous transplantation followed 43–135 days later with unrelated transplantation, while 11 proceeded directly to unrelated transplantation. All 24 patients were treated with fludarabine (90 mg/m2) and 2 Gray total body irradiation and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. The median follow-up was 3 years after allografting. One patient experienced non-fatal graft rejection. The incidences of acute grades II, III and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 54%, 13% and 75%, respectively. The 3-year non-relapse mortality was 21%. Complete responses were observed in 10 patients (42%) and partial responses in 4 (17%). At 3 years, overall and progression-free survival rates were 61% and 33%, respectively. Patients receiving tandem autologous-unrelated transplantation had superior overall and progression-free survivals, 77% and 51%, compared to patients proceeding directly to unrelated donor transplantation, 44% and 11%, respectively (progression-free survival p-value, 0.03). In summary, for patients with poor-risk, relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, cytoreductive autologous transplantation followed with nonmyeloablative conditioning and unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation is effective treatment with low non-relapse mortality, high complete remission rates and prolonged disease-free survival. PMID:17287157

  13. Major cytoplasmic membrane protein of Legionella pneumophila, a genus common antigen and member of the hsp 60 family of heat shock proteins, induces protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Blander, S J; Horwitz, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the capacity of the major cytoplasmic membrane protein (MCMP) of Legionella pneumophila, a genus common antigen and member of the hsp 60 family of heat shock proteins, to induce protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease. We purified MCMP to homogeneity from L. pneumophila by buffer extraction, ion-exchange chromatography, and molecular sieve chromatography. Guinea pigs immunized with MCMP developed a strong cell-mediated immune response to the immunogen manifest by marked cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity. Guinea pigs immunized with MCMP and then challenged with a lethal aerosol dose of L. pneumophila exhibited a high level of protective immunity. Altogether, in four independent experiments, 55 of 64 (86%) animals immunized three times with 0.6-40 micrograms MCMP including 11 of 11 (100%) animals immunized three times with 40 micrograms MCMP survived aerosol challenge with L. pneumophila compared with 1 of 29 (3%) sham-immunized control animals (P < 0.0001, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel X2 statistic for pooled data). To our knowledge, MCMP is the first member of the hsp 60 family of proteins shown to induce protective immunity to a microbial pathogen. MCMP has potential as a vaccine against Legionnaires' disease. Since MCMP is a genus common antigen, vaccination with a combination of MCMPs derived from different Legionella species has the potential of inducing protective immunity against all the major Legionella species causing human disease. Images PMID:8432872

  14. RALP1 Is a Rhoptry Neck Erythrocyte-Binding Protein of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites and a Potential Blood-Stage Vaccine Candidate Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Arumugam, Thangavelu U.; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Takeo, Satoru; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek; Long, Carole A.; Torii, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate. PMID:24002067

  15. Bioinformatic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Polymorphic Membrane Proteins PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH as Potential Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P.; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most important infectious cause of infertility in women with important implications in public health and for which a vaccine is urgently needed. Recent immunoproteomic vaccine studies found that four polymorphic membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH) are immunodominant, recognized by various MHC class II haplotypes and protective in mouse models. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate genetic and protein features of Pmps (focusing on the N-terminal 600 amino acids where MHC class II epitopes were mapped) in order to understand antigen variation that may emerge following vaccine induced immune selection. We used several bioinformatics platforms to study: i) Pmps’ phylogeny and genetic polymorphism; ii) the location and distribution of protein features (GGA(I, L)/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues) that may impact pathogen-host interactions and protein conformation; and iii) the existence of phase variation mechanisms that may impact Pmps’ expression. We used a well-characterized collection of 53 fully-sequenced strains that represent the C. trachomatis serovars associated with the three disease groups: ocular (N=8), epithelial-genital (N=25) and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (N=20). We observed that PmpF and PmpE are highly polymorphic between LGV and epithelial-genital strains, and also within populations of the latter. We also found heterogeneous representation among strains for GGA(I, L)/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues, suggesting possible alterations in adhesion properties, tissue specificity and immunogenicity. PmpG and, to a lesser extent, PmpH revealed low polymorphism and high conservation of protein features among the genital strains (including the LGV group). Uniquely among the four Pmps, pmpG has regulatory sequences suggestive of phase variation. In aggregate, the results suggest that PmpG may be the lead vaccine candidate because of sequence conservation but may need to be paired with another protective antigen (like PmpH) in order to prevent immune selection of phase variants. PMID:26131720

  16. The effect of sodium tetradecyl sulfate on mobility and antigen detectability of microtubule proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J L; Steffen, W

    1997-10-01

    Several factors been reported to influence the mobility of polypeptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) including the brand of SDS. Using microtubule proteins from axonemes of Lytechinus pictus and Spisula solidissima sperm and meiotic spindles of Spisula solidissima we demonstrate that the change in mobility was caused by sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), a major contaminant of many commercial SDS brands. We also examined the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and different SDS brands as a tool in extracting more information from immunoblot studies. Commercial SDS containing contaminants other than sodium tetradecyl sulfate reduced or eliminated the immunosignal from certain polypeptides and the loss of antigenicity could not even be recovered by immunoblot under "renaturing" conditions. It can thus be concluded that STS can be useful in separating and identifying comigrating polypeptides and in detecting additional immunobands in immunoblots. PMID:9420152

  17. Aggregation-associated loss of antigenicity observed for denatured virion protein 1 of Equine rhinitis A virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Kriegshäuser, Gernot; Kuechler, Ernst; Skern, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a picornavirus which causes an acute respiratory infection in horses worldwide, and virus neutralization (VN) has been the standard method for the detection of ERAV antibody in horse serum. Previous studies have identified recombinant virion protein VP1 (rVP1) purified under native conditions to be of high potential for the development of a diagnostic ERAV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This study presents an optimized protocol for the expression and purification of native full-length rVP1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon denaturation, rVP1 no longer reacts to ERAV antibody in a prototype ELISA. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) performed on native and denatured rVP1 indicates that denatured rVP1 forms multimeric aggregates that may causally connect to the loss of antigenicity observed in the ELISA. PMID:19463730

  18. Antigenic variation in ciliates: antigen structure, function, expression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Martin C; Schmidt, Helmut J

    2007-01-01

    In the past decades, the major focus of antigen variation research has been on parasitic protists. However, antigenic variation occurs also in free-living protists. The antigenic systems of the ciliates Paramecium and Tetrahymena have been studied for more than 100 yr. In spite of different life strategies and distant phylogenetic relationships of free-living ciliates and parasitic protists, their antigenic systems have features in common, such as the presence of repeated protein motifs and multigene families. The function of variable surface antigens in free-living ciliates is still unknown. Up to now no detailed monitoring of antigen expression in free-living ciliates in natural habitats has been performed. Unlike stochastic switching in parasites, antigen expression in ciliates can be directed, e.g. by temperature, which holds great advantages for research on the expression mechanism. Regulated expression of surface antigens occurs in an exclusive way and the responsible mechanism is complex, involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional features. The involvement of homology-dependent effects has been proposed several times but has not been proved yet. PMID:17300509

  19. The Stress Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (Mkk)7 Is a Negative Regulator of Antigen Receptor and Growth Factor Receptor–Induced Proliferation in Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takehiko; Wada, Teiji; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Irie-Sasaki, Junko; Matsumoto, Goichi; Goto, Takayuki; Yao, Zhengbin; Wakeham, Andrew; Mak, Tak W.; Suzuki, Akira; Cho, Sarah K.; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos; Oliveira-dos-Santos, Antonio J.; Katada, Toshiaki; Nishina, Hiroshi; Penninger, Josef M.

    2001-01-01

    The dual specificity kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MKK)7 and MKK4 are the only molecules known to directly activate the stress kinases stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in response to environmental or mitogenic stimuli. To examine the physiological role of MKK7 in hematopoietic cells, we used a gene targeting strategy to mutate MKK7 in murine T and B cells and non-lymphoid mast cells. Loss of MKK7 in thymocytes and mature B cells results in hyperproliferation in response to growth factor and antigen receptor stimulation and increased thymic cellularity. Mutation of mkk7 in mast cells resulted in hyperproliferation in response to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-3 and stem cell factor (SCF). SAPK/JNK activation was completely abolished in the absence of MKK7, even though expression of MKK4 was strongly upregulated in mkk7?/? mast cell lines, and phosphorylation of MKK4 occurred normally in response to multiple stress stimuli. Loss of MKK7 did not affect activation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or p38 MAPK. mkk7?/? mast cells display reduced expression of JunB and the cell cycle inhibitor p16INK4a and upregulation of cyclinD1. Reexpression of p16INK4a in mkk7?/? mast cells abrogates the hyperproliferative response. Apoptotic responses to a variety of stimuli were not affected. Thus, MKK7 is an essential and specific regulator of stress-induced SAPK/JNK activation in mast cells and MKK7 negatively regulates growth factor and antigen receptor–driven proliferation in hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the MKK7-regulated stress signaling pathway can function as negative regulator of cell growth in multiple hematopoietic lineages. PMID:11560992

  20. Evaluation of the recombinant Heat shock protein B (HspB) of Coxiella burnetii as a potential antigen for immunodiagnostic of Q fever in goats.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Isabelle; Rousset, Elodie; Dufour, Philippe; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Cupo, Anny; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2009-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that causes a worldwide zoonosis, the Q fever. Currently, to diagnose the infection in ruminants, whole cell antigens-based ELISAs are used. In this study a heat shock protein, the HspB, was evaluated for its ability to be recognized by the goat immune system and its capacity to sign a stage of infection. The htpB gene of C. burnetii was cloned and sequenced. A high identity (>90%) was observed among the htpB genes of four ruminant strains tested. A recombinant protein was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. The rHspB protein was used to determine the IgG reactivity by ELISA. Sera from experimentally and naturally infected goats were tested. The rHspB is recognized early during the infection course, at 18 days post-infection. Moreover, 80-90% of the animals tested were positive at 39-60dpi. In addition, animals presenting a reactivation of the infection displayed a higher reactivity, statistically significant (p<0.05), than that of the animals in latent infection. These findings suggest that the rHspB could be a good candidate for the development of an ELISA test making possible the detection of recent C. burnetii infection in goats as well as reactivation in those with latent infection. PMID:18835111

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF A MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS PARTIAL PROTEIN ARRAY FOR DISCOVERY OF NOVEL ANTIGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome sequence available for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the technology is now developed for protein arrays to detect the presence of antibodies directed against MAP in host serum. The power of this approach is that it enables a direct comparison of MAP protein...

  2. GM-CSF-neuroantigen fusion proteins reverse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and mediate tolerogenic activity in adjuvant-primed environments: association with inflammation-dependent, inhibitory antigen presentation2

    PubMed Central

    Islam, S.M. Touhidul; Curtis, Alan D.; Taslim, Najla; Wilkinson, Daniel S.; Mannie, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain fusion proteins comprised of GM-CSF and neuroantigen (NAg) are potent, NAg-specific inhibitors of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). An important question was whether GMCSF-NAg tolerogenic vaccines retained inhibitory activity within inflammatory environments or were contingent upon steady-state conditions. A GMCSF-MOG fusion protein reversed established paralytic disease in both passive and active models of EAE in C57BL/6 mice. The fusion protein also reversed EAE in CD4-deficient and B cell-deficient mice. Notably, GMCSF-MOG inhibited EAE when co-injected adjacent to the MOG35-55/CFA emulsion. GMCSF-MOG also retained dominant inhibitory activity when directly emulsified with MOG35-55 in the CFA emulsion in both C57BL/6 or B cell-deficient models of EAE. Likewise, when combined with PLP139-151 in CFA, GMCSF-PLP inhibited EAE in SJL mice. When deliberately emulsified in CFA with the NAg, GMCSF-NAg inhibited EAE even though NAg was present at more than a 30-fold molar excess. In vitro studies revealed that the GMCSF domain of GMCSF-MOG stimulated growth and differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells (DC) and simultaneously targeted the MOG35-55 domain for enhanced presentation by these DC. These inflammatory DC presented MOG35-55 to MOG-specific T cells by an inhibitory mechanism that was mediated in part by IFN-? signaling and NO production. In conclusion, GMCSF-NAg was tolerogenic in CFA-primed pro-inflammatory environments by a mechanism associated with targeted antigen presentation by inflammatory DC and an inhibitory IFN-?/ NO pathway. The inhibitory activity of GMCSF-NAg in CFA-primed lymphatics distinguishes GMCSF-NAg fusion proteins as a unique class of inflammation-dependent tolerogens that are mechanistically distinct from naked peptide or protein-based tolerogens. PMID:25049359

  3. Phenidone blocks the increases of proenkephalin and prodynorphin gene expression induced by kainic acid in rat hippocampus: involvement of Fos-related antigene protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Suh, J H; Won, J S; Jhoo, W K; Song, D K; Kim, Y H; Wie, M B; Suh, H W

    1998-01-26

    To determine the possible role of cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase pathway in the regulation of proenkephalin (proENK) and prodynorphin (proDYN) gene expression induced by kainic acid (KA) in rat hippocampus, the effects of esculetin, aspirin, or phenidone on the seizure activity, proENK and proDYN mRNA levels, and the level of fos-related antigene (Fra) protein induced by KA in rat hippocampus were studied. Esculetin (5 mg/kg), aspirin (15 mg/kg), or phenidone (50 mg/kg) was administered orally five times every 12 h before the injection of KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Seizure activity induced by KA was significantly attenuated by phenidone. However, neither esculetin nor aspirin affected KA-induced seizure activity. The proENK and proDYN mRNA levels were markedly increased 4 and 24 h after KA administration. The elevations of both proENK and proDYN mRNA levels induced by KA were inhibited by pre-administration with phenidone, but not with esculetin and aspirin. ProENK-like protein level increased by KA administration was also inhibited by pre-administration with phenidone, but not with esculetin and aspirin. The increases of proENK and proDYN mRNA levels induced by KA were well correlated with the increases of Fra protein level. Additionally, the induction of Fra protein was inhibited by pre-administration with phenidone, but not with esculetin and aspirin. The results suggest that blockade of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways appears to be responsible for increases of proENK and proDYN mRNA levels induced by KA via inhibiting the induction of Fra protein in rat hippocampus. PMID:9519284

  4. UNREL(TM) -REL to ASM translator Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Mann, Tim

    . UNREL, DEDCODREL, SPLITLIB: Copyright O 1986/7Riclin Computer Products, All rights reserved. CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Incorporated LDOS is a trademark of MISOSYS, Inc. LS-DOS a trademark on both the UNREL-T80 product (usable on a TRS-80 with either LDOS(TM) 5.x or LS-DOS(TM) 6.x

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected CBA/J mice can generate robust and protective responses to antigen Ag85 when delivered as a soluble protein, but fail to respond efficiently in the context of natural infection

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Gillian L.; Cyktor, Joshua; Flaherty, David K.; Stromberg, Paul C.; Carruthers, Bridget; Turner, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Summary In CBA/J mice, susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with low interferon-gamma (IFN-?) responses to antigens (Antigen 85 (Ag85) and Early Secreted Antigenic Target-6 (ESAT-6)) that have been defined as immunodominant. Here, we asked whether the failure of CBA/J mice to recognize Ag85 is a consequence of M.tb infection or whether CBA/J mice have a general defect in generating specific T cell responses to this protein antigen. We compared CBA/J mice during primary M.tb infection, Ag85 vaccination followed by M.tb challenge, or M.tb memory immune mice for their capacity to generate Ag85-specific IFN-? responses and to control M.tb infection. CBA/J mice did not respond efficiently to Ag85 in the context of natural infection or re-infection. In contrast, CBA/J mice could generate Ag85-specific IFN-? responses and protective immunity when this antigen was delivered as a soluble protein. Our data indicate that although M.tb infection of CBA/J mice does not drive an Ag85 response, they can fully and protectively respond to Ag85 if it is delivered as a vaccine. The data from this experimental model suggest that the Ag85-containing vaccines in clinical trials should protect M.tb susceptible humans. PMID:22531914

  6. Cyclosporine inhibits macrophage-mediated antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, H.K.; Palay, D.; Wentworth, P.; Cluff, C.

    1986-03-01

    The influence of cyclosporine on antigen-specific, macrophage-dependent T cell activation was analyzed in vitro. Murine T cell activation by antigens derived from Listeria monocytogenes was monitored by the production of interleukin-2. Pretreatment (2 hrs., 37/sup 0/C) of macrophages with cyclosporine resulted in a population of macrophages with a markedly diminished capacity to support the activation of T lymphocytes. When cyclosporine-pretreated macrophages were added to cultures of antigen and untreated T cells, the dose of cyclosporine which produced 50% inhibition was 1.5 ..mu..g/ml. Appropriate control experiments indicated that cyclosporine was indeed inhibiting at the macrophage level. The addition of interleukin-1 or indomethacin to the cultures did not alter the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine. Under conditions which produced >90% inhibition of antigen presentation, macrophage surface Ia expression was not altered, and the uptake and catabolism of radiolabelled antigen was normal. Thus, cyclosporine inhibits antigen presentation by a mechanism which appears unrelated to changes in Il-1 elaboration, prostaglandin production, Ia expression, or antigen uptake and catabolism.

  7. Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hyunsu; Wheat, L. Joseph; Baden, Lindsey; Stafford, Susan; Wu, Zheng; Issa, Nicolas; Caliendo, Angela M.; Denning, David W.; Soman, Kizhake; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Nguyen, M. Hong; Sugrue, Michele W.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Wingard, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. In this group, Aspergillus infections account for the majority of deaths due to mold pathogens. Although early detection is associated with improved outcomes, current diagnostic regimens lack sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation were enrolled in a multi-site prospective observational trial. Proven and probable IPA cases and matched controls were subjected to discovery proteomics analyses using a biofluid analysis platform, fractionating plasma into reproducible protein and peptide pools. From 556 spots identified by 2D gel electrophoresis, 66 differentially expressed post-translationally modified plasma proteins were identified in the leukemic subgroup only. This protein group was rich in complement components, acute-phase reactants and coagulation factors. Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides), fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan), and cell wall components (?-D glucan) were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. In this verification cohort, a machine learning ensemble-based algorithm, generalized pathseeker (GPS) produced a greater case classification accuracy than galactomannan (GM) or host proteins alone. In conclusion, Integration of host response proteins with GM improves the diagnostic detection of probable IPA in patients undergoing treatment for hematologic malignancy. Upon further validation, early detection of probable IPA in leukemia treatment will provide opportunities for earlier interventions and interventional clinical trials. PMID:26581097

  8. Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens.

    PubMed

    Brasier, Allan R; Zhao, Yingxin; Spratt, Heidi M; Wiktorowicz, John E; Ju, Hyunsu; Wheat, L Joseph; Baden, Lindsey; Stafford, Susan; Wu, Zheng; Issa, Nicolas; Caliendo, Angela M; Denning, David W; Soman, Kizhake; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong; Sugrue, Michele W; Alexander, Barbara D; Wingard, John R

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. In this group, Aspergillus infections account for the majority of deaths due to mold pathogens. Although early detection is associated with improved outcomes, current diagnostic regimens lack sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation were enrolled in a multi-site prospective observational trial. Proven and probable IPA cases and matched controls were subjected to discovery proteomics analyses using a biofluid analysis platform, fractionating plasma into reproducible protein and peptide pools. From 556 spots identified by 2D gel electrophoresis, 66 differentially expressed post-translationally modified plasma proteins were identified in the leukemic subgroup only. This protein group was rich in complement components, acute-phase reactants and coagulation factors. Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides), fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan), and cell wall components (?-D glucan) were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. In this verification cohort, a machine learning ensemble-based algorithm, generalized pathseeker (GPS) produced a greater case classification accuracy than galactomannan (GM) or host proteins alone. In conclusion, Integration of host response proteins with GM improves the diagnostic detection of probable IPA in patients undergoing treatment for hematologic malignancy. Upon further validation, early detection of probable IPA in leukemia treatment will provide opportunities for earlier interventions and interventional clinical trials. PMID:26581097

  9. Recombinant Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane protein 1 (Tromp1) expressed in Escherichia coli has porin activity and surface antigenic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, D R; Champion, C I; Exner, M M; Shang, E S; Skare, J T; Hancock, R E; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1996-01-01

    We recently reported the cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a 31-kDa Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum rare outer membrane porin protein, designated Tromp1 (D. R. Blanco, C. I. Champion, M. M. Exner, H. Erdjument-Bromage, R. E. W. Hancock, P. Tempst, J. N. Miller, and M. A. Lovett, J. Bacteriol. 177:3556-3562, 1995). Here, we report the stable expression of recombinant Tromp1 (rTromp1) in Escherichia coli. rTromp1 expressed without its signal peptide and containing a 22-residue N-terminal fusion resulted in high-level accumulation of a nonexported soluble protein that was purified to homogeneity by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Specific antiserum generated to the FPLC-purified rTromp1 fusion identified on immunoblots of T. pallidum the native 31-kDa Tromp1 protein and two higher-molecular-mass oligomeric forms of Tromp1 at 55 and 80 kDa. rTromp1 was also expressed with its native signal peptide by using an inducible T7 promoter. Under these conditions, rTromp1 fractionated predominantly with the E. coli soluble and outer membrane fractions, but not with the inner membrane fraction. rTromp1 isolated from the E. coli outer membrane and reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers showed porin activity based on average single-channel conductances of 0.4 and 0.8 nS in 1 M KCl. Whole-mount immunoelectron microscopy using infection-derived immune serum against T. pallidum indicated that rTromp1 was surface exposed when expressed in E. coli. These findings demonstrate that rTromp1 can be targeted to the E. coli outer membrane, where it has both porin activity and surface antigenic exposure. PMID:8955283

  10. Differential roles of heat shock protein 70 in the in vitro nuclear import of glucocorticoid receptor and simian virus 40 large tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; DeFranco, D B

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear import of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) was analyzed in vitro with digitonin-permeabilized cells (S. A. Adam, R. Sterne-Marr, and L. Gerace, J. Cell Biol. 111:807-816, 1990). Indirect immunofluorescence methods were used to monitor the transport of GRs from rat hepatoma and fibroblast cell cytosol into HeLa nuclei. In vitro nuclear import of GRs was shown to be hormone dependent and to require ATP and incubation at ambient temperatures (i.e., 30 degrees C). Hormone-dependent dissociation of GR-bound proteins, such as the 90-kDa heat shock protein, hsp90, is part of an activation process that is obligatory for the expression of the receptor's DNA-binding activity. Inhibition of in vitro GR activation by Na2MoO4 blocked hormone-dependent nuclear import, demonstrating that receptor activation is required for nuclear import. The addition to GR-containing cytosol of antiserum directed against the cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock protein, hsp70, while effective in blocking the nuclear import of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 TAg), did not affect hormone-dependent nuclear import of endogenous, full-length GRs or an exogenously added truncated GR protein (i.e., XGR556) that lacks a hormone-binding domain but possesses a constitutively active nuclear localization signal sequence (NLS). Depletion of hsp70 from HeLa cell cytosol did not affect the nuclear import of exogenously added XGR556 but led to inhibition of SV40 TAg nuclear import. Thus, two closely related NLSs, one contained within GRs and the other contained within SV40 TAg, are distinguished by their differential requirements for hsp70 in vitro. Images PMID:8035791

  11. Trophoblast and ovarian cancer antigen LK26. Sensitivity and specificity in immunopathology and molecular identification as a folate-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Garin-Chesa, P.; Campbell, I.; Saigo, P. E.; Lewis, J. L.; Old, L. J.; Rettig, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    The LK26 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M(r)35,000 to 40,000) of normal placenta and gestational choriocarcinomas that shows highly restricted distribution in normal tissues, being expressed primarily in a subset of simple epithelia. In this study, immunohistochemical methods were used to examine LK26 expression in 78 ovarian tumors and > 400 tumors of other histological types. Ovarian carcinomas derived from coelomic epithelium showed the most consistent and strongest immunostaining for LK26, with 52 of 56 cases being LK26+. Ovarian tumors of sex cord, germ cell, and stromal origin were generally LK26-. LK26 was not found in normal fetal or adult ovary; however, it was present in the lining epithelia of some benign ovarian cysts. Mesotheliomas, which share a common mesothelial origin with LK26+ ovarian tumors, expressed no or only low levels of LK26. Other epithelial cancers expressed LK26 in subsets of cases and generally showed heterogeneous or weak immunostaining; this group of LK26+ tumors includes endometrial (10 of 11 cases tested), colorectal (six of 27), breast (11 of 53), lung (six of 18), and renal cell (nine of 18) carcinomas. Four of five brain metastases derived from epithelial cancers and three of 21 neuroendocrine carcinomas showed prominent LK26 immunoreactivity. Only rare neuroectodermal tumors (two of 70) and none of the sarcomas (none of 58) or lymphomas tested (none of 21) were LK26+. Tests with cultured cells showed that the LK26 proteins expressed in choriocarcinoma and ovarian cancer cells are biochemically similar, and transfection experiments identified LK26 as an adult-type, high-affinity folate-binding protein. The present study provides the first detailed specificity and sensitivity analysis for folate-binding protein/LK26 in human tumors and defines a role for folate-binding protein/LK26 in immunobiological studies of ovarian cancers and other LK26+ neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8434649

  12. A new subtype of avian influenzavirus: antigenic characteristics of envelope antigens

    PubMed Central

    Tumová, Bela; Isa?enko, Valentina; Easterday, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The haemagglutination and neuraminidase antigens of three influenza A isolates from ducks in the Ukraine were compared with those of a collection of reference strains of influenza A virus. Duck/Ukraine/1/60 virus contained haemagglutinin related to that of duck/England/56 while its neuraminidase was related to that of turkey/Wisconsin/68 virus and the human A/Hong Kong/1/68 virus. Duck/Ukraine/2/60 and duck/Ukraine/1/63 were themselves closely related. They contained haemagglutinin antigens unrelated to the six haemagglutinin subtypes previously described for avian influenzaviruses and it is suggested that they should be classified as belonging to haemagglutinin subtype Hav7. The neuraminidase antigens of these isolates were antigenically related to those of a number of other avian influenza viruses isolated in England, Canada, and Italy and to that of A/equine/ Miami/63 virus. PMID:4541002

  13. The adenovirus E1A transforming protein activates the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter via an activating transcription factor site.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, G F; Mathews, M B

    1991-01-01

    The transforming region of adenovirus (E1) stimulates expression of a reporter construct linked to the promoter for the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene in a cotransfection assay (G. F. Morris and M. B. Mathews, J. Biol. Chem. 264:13856-13864, 1989). The major products of the E1 region were assessed individually for their contribution to transactivation of the PCNA promoter. The E1A 13S and 12S products and the E1B 19-kDa product elevated expression from the PCNA promoter, whereas the E1B 55-kDa product did not. Induction of the PCNA promoter by E1A differed from transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E3 promoter in that the PCNA promoter is activated by the E1A 12S product whereas the E3 promoter is repressed; furthermore, the PCNA promoter is activated upon E1A overexpression, whereas the E3 promoter responds less well to high amounts of E1A. A site for the activating transcription factor ATF located approximately 50 nucleotides upstream from the transcription initiation site in the PCNA promoter mediates a positive response to the E1A 12S and 13S products. Images PMID:1682506

  14. Antigen presentation subverted: Structure of the human cytomegalovirus protein US2 bound to the class I molecule HLA-A2.

    PubMed

    Gewurz, B E; Gaudet, R; Tortorella, D; Wang, E W; Ploegh, H L; Wiley, D C

    2001-06-01

    Many persistent viruses have evolved the ability to subvert MHC class I antigen presentation. Indeed, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes at least four proteins that down-regulate cell-surface expression of class I. The HCMV unique short (US)2 glycoprotein binds newly synthesized class I molecules within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently targets them for proteasomal degradation. We report the crystal structure of US2 bound to the HLA-A2/Tax peptide complex. US2 associates with HLA-A2 at the junction of the peptide-binding region and the alpha3 domain, a novel binding surface on class I that allows US2 to bind independently of peptide sequence. Mutation of class I heavy chains confirms the importance of this binding site in vivo. Available data on class I-ER chaperone interactions indicate that chaperones would not impede US2 binding. Unexpectedly, the US2 ER-luminal domain forms an Ig-like fold. A US2 structure-based sequence alignment reveals that seven HCMV proteins, at least three of which function in immune evasion, share the same fold as US2. The structure allows design of further experiments to determine how US2 targets class I molecules for degradation. PMID:11391001

  15. Small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of sperm associated antigen 9 having structural homology with c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Ritu; Jagadish, Nirmala; Garg, Manoj; Mishra, Deepshikha; Dahiya, Neetu; Chaurasiya, Dipak; Suri, Anil . E-mail: anil@nii.res.in

    2006-02-03

    Recently, we reported a novel testis-specific sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) protein, a new member of the JNK-interacting protein family, having a functional role in sperm-egg fusion [N. Jagadish, R. Rana, R. Selvi, D. Mishra, M. Garg, S. Yadav, J.C. Herr, K. Okumura, A. Hasegawa, K. Koyama, A. Suri, Biochem. J. 389 (2005) 73-82]. NCBI Blast searches revealed SPAG9 nucleotide sequence similarities with ESTs of various cancerous tissues. In the present study, we compared the efficiency of two independent SPAG9 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs, BS/U6/spag9 and BS/U6/spag9-I, to ablate the SPAG9 expression in mammalian cells. A positive correlation between the ratio of target gene versus siRNA and the suppression of SPAG9 expression was observed. Further, the cotransfection of BS/U6/spag9 with pcDNA-SPAG9 and pFlag-CMV2-JNK-3 resulted in specific suppression of SPAG9 without affecting JNK-3 expression. The present investigation will eventually extend the application of SPAG9 siRNA in in vivo targeting experiments that aim to define the SPAG9 functional genomics in tumor and reproductive biology.

  16. The NS1 protein of influenza A virus suppresses interferon-regulated activation of antigen-presentation and immune-proteasome pathways.

    PubMed

    Tisoncik, Jennifer R; Billharz, Rosalind; Burmakina, Svetlana; Belisle, Sarah E; Proll, Sean C; Korth, Marcus J; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Garcíia-Sastre, Adolfo; Katze, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    The NS1 protein of influenza virus counters host antiviral defences primarily by antagonizing the type I interferon (IFN) response. Both the N-terminal dsRNA-binding domain and the C-terminal effector domain are required for optimal suppression of host responses during infection. To better understand the regulatory role of the NS1 effector domain, we used an NS1-truncated mutant virus derived from human H1N1 influenza isolate A/Texas/36/91 (Tx/91) and assessed global transcriptional profiles from two independent human lung cell-culture models. Relative to the wild-type Tx/91-induced gene expression, the NS1 mutant virus induced enhanced expression of innate immune genes, specifically NF-?B signalling-pathway genes and IFN-? and -? target genes. We queried an experimentally derived IFN gene set to gauge the proportion of IFN-responsive genes that are suppressed specifically by NS1. We show that the C-terminally truncated NS1 mutant virus is less efficient at suppressing IFN-regulated gene expression associated with activation of antigen-presentation and immune-proteasome pathways. This is the first report integrating genomic analysis from two independent human culture systems, including primary lung cells, using genetically similar H1N1 influenza viruses that differ only in the length of the NS1 protein. PMID:21593271

  17. Repertoires of T cells directed against a large protein antigen, beta- galactosidase. II. Only certain T helper or T suppressor cells are relevant in particular regulatory interactions

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    11 cyanogen bromide (CB) peptides, comprising 70% of the large protein, Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (GZ), were studied for their ability to induce T suppressor (Ts) cells capable of strongly suppressing the in vitro anti-fluorescein (FITC) response to GZ-FITC. Only CB-2 (amino acid residues 3-92) and CB-3 (residues 93-187) were found to bear such Ts-inducing epitopes. In examining the specificity of T helper cell (Th) targets susceptible to CB-2 and CB-3-specific Ts, it appeared that only nearly Th targets could be suppressed. Thus, CB- 10-primed Th were not suppressed by either Ts; even CB-3-primed Ts did not suppress CB-2-specific Th, although CB-2-specific Ts were effective. Furthermore, analysis of the suppression pattern revealed a hierarchical use of potential epitopes on native GZ in triggering functional regulatory T cells. A dominant Th epitope near the amino terminus of GZ tops a hierarchy of potential Th, most of which are never engaged. The dominant determinant seems to exist on the peptide CB-2-3 (residues 3-187), and presumably is destroyed by its cleavage at Met 92; the Th cells that it induces are suppressible by each of the Ts- inducing peptides. In the GZ system, where the native antigen is quite large, the interactions between Th and Ts are highly circumscribed. This may be attributable to the topology of antigen fragments produced during processing; any relevant fragment must bear at least a Ts- and Th-reactive determinant to permit intercellular regulation. A final implication of these results is that, not only does the existence of a Th-inducing determinant depend on its being an appropriate distance from a B cell epitope, but the existence of Ts-inducing determinants likewise depends on the existence of a neighboring Th-B cell association. PMID:2409208

  18. N-Linked Glycosylation of the Hemagglutinin Protein Influences Virulence and Antigenicity of the 1918 Pandemic and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangjie; Jayaraman, Akila; Maniprasad, Pavithra; Raman, Rahul; Houser, Katherine V.; Pappas, Claudia; Zeng, Hui; Sasisekharan, Ram; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is a major virulence determinant for the 1918 pandemic influenza virus; however, it encodes no known virulence-associated determinants. In comparison to seasonal influenza viruses of lesser virulence, the 1918 H1N1 virus has fewer glycosylation sequons on the HA globular head region. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that a 1918 HA recombinant virus, of high virulence, could be significantly attenuated in mice by adding two additional glycosylation sites (asparagine [Asn] 71 and Asn 286) on the side of the HA head. The 1918 HA recombinant virus was further attenuated by introducing two additional glycosylation sites on the top of the HA head at Asn 142 and Asn 172. In a reciprocal experimental approach, deletion of HA glycosylation sites (Asn 142 and Asn 177, but not Asn 71 and Asn 104) from a seasonal influenza H1N1 virus, A/Solomon Islands/2006 (SI/06), led to increased virulence in mice. The addition of glycosylation sites to 1918 HA and removal of glycosylation sites from SI/06 HA imposed constraints on the theoretical structure surrounding the glycan receptor binding sites, which in turn led to distinct glycan receptor binding properties. The modification of glycosylation sites for the 1918 and SI/06 viruses also caused changes in viral antigenicity based on cross-reactive hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers with antisera from mice infected with wild-type or glycan mutant viruses. These results demonstrate that glycosylation patterns of the 1918 and seasonal H1N1 viruses directly contribute to differences in virulence and are partially responsible for their distinct antigenicity. PMID:23740978

  19. In vitro binding of anthrax protective antigen on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface through Hoc-capsid interactions: A strategy for efficient display of large full-length proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shivachandra, Sathish B.; Rao, Mangala; Janosi, Laszlo; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Matyas, Gary R.; Alving, Carl R.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Rao, Venigalla B. . E-mail: rao@cua.edu

    2006-02-05

    An in vitro binding system is described to display large full-length proteins on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface at high density. The phage T4 icosahedral capsid features 155 copies of a nonessential highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, at the center of each major capsid protein hexon. Gene fusions were engineered to express the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA) from Bacillus anthracis fused to the N-terminus of Hoc and the 130-kDa PA-Hoc protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified PA-Hoc was assembled in vitro on hoc {sup -} phage particles. Binding was specific, stable, and of high affinity. This defined in vitro system allowed manipulation of the copy number of displayed PA and imposed no significant limitation on the size of the displayed antigen. In contrast to in vivo display systems, the in vitro approach allows all the capsid binding sites to be occupied by the 130-kDa PA-Hoc fusion protein. The PA-T4 particles were immunogenic in mice in the absence of an adjuvant, eliciting strong PA-specific antibodies and anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing antibodies. The in vitro display on phage T4 offers a novel platform for potential construction of customized vaccines against anthrax and other infectious diseases.

  20. Genetic variation in protein specific antigen detected prostate cancer and the effect of control selection on genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Evans, David M; Kemp, John P.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Douglas F; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a minority of the genetic component of prostate cancer (PrCa) risk has been explained. Some observed associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PrCa might arise from associations of these SNPs with circulating prostate specific antigen (PSA) because PSA values are used to select controls. Methods We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of screen detected PrCa (ProtecT 1146 cases and 1804 controls); meta-analysed the results with those from the previously published UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study (1854 cases and 1437 controls); investigated associations of SNPs with PrCa using either ‘low’ (PSA <0.5ng/ml) or ‘high’ (PSA ?3ng/ml, biopsy negative) PSA controls; and investigated associations of SNPs with PSA. Results The ProtecT GWAS confirmed previously reported associations of PrCa at 3 loci: 10q11.23, 17q24.3 and 19q13.33. The meta-analysis confirmed associations of PrCa with SNPs near 4 previously identified loci (8q24.21,10q11.23, 17q24.3 and 19q13.33). When comparing PrCa cases with low PSA controls, alleles at genetic markers rs1512268, rs445114, rs10788160, rs11199874, rs17632542, rs266849 and rs2735839 were associated with an increased risk of PrCa, but the effect-estimates were attenuated to the null when using high PSA controls (p for heterogeneity in effect-estimates<0.04). We found a novel inverse association of rs9311171-T with circulating PSA. Conclusions Differences in effect estimates for PrCa observed when comparing low vs. high PSA controls, may be explained by associations of these SNPs with PSA. Impact These findings highlight the need for inferences from genetic studies of PrCa risk to carefully consider the influence of control selection criteria. PMID:24753544

  1. The MF6p/FhHDM-1 Major Antigen Secreted by the Trematode Parasite Fasciola hepatica Is a Heme-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Perteguer, María J.; Muiño, Laura; Guitián, Esteban; Gárate, Teresa; Ubeira, Florencio M.

    2014-01-01

    Blood-feeding parasites have developed biochemical mechanisms to control heme intake and detoxification. Here we show that a major antigen secreted by Fasciola hepatica, previously reported as MF6p, of unknown function (gb|CCA61804.1), and as FhHDM-1, considered to be a helminth defense molecule belonging to the family of cathelicidin-like proteins (gb|ADZ24001.1), is in fact a heme-binding protein. The heme-binding nature of the MF6p/FhHDM-1 protein was revealed in two independent experiments: (i) immunopurification of the secreted protein·heme complexes with mAb MF6 and subsequent analysis by C8 reversed-phase HPLC and MS/MS spectrometry and (ii) analysis of the binding ability of the synthetic protein to hemin in vitro. By immunohistochemistry analysis, we have observed that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is produced by parenchymal cells and transported to other tissues (e.g. vitellaria and testis). Interestingly, MF6p/FhHDM-1 is absent both in the intestinal cells and in the lumen of cecum, but it can be released through the tegumental surface to the external medium, where it binds to free heme molecules regurgitated by the parasite after hemoglobin digestion. Proteins that are close analogs of the Fasciola MF6p/FhHDM-1 are present in other trematodes, including Clonorchis, Opistorchis, Paragonimus, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium. Using UV-visible spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation techniques, we observed that synthetic MF6p/FhHDM-1 binds to hemin with 1:1 stoichiometry and an apparent Kd of 1.14 × 10?6 m?1. We also demonstrated that formation of synthetic MF6p/FhHDM-1·hemin complexes inhibited hemin degradation by hydrogen peroxide and hemin peroxidase-like activity in vitro. Our results suggest that MF6p/FhHDM-1 may be involved in heme homeostasis in trematodes. PMID:24280214

  2. Construction of expression systems for flaA and flaB genes of Helicobacter pylori and determination of immunoreactivity and antigenicity of recombinant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Liang, Shao-Hui; Mao, Ya-Fei; Li, Li-Wei; Li, Shu-Ping

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To clone flagellin genes A (flaA) and B (flaB) from a clinical strain of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and to construct prokaryotic expression systems of the genes and identify immunity of the fusion proteins. METHODS: The flaA and flaB genes from a clinical H pylori isolate Y06 were amplified by high fidelity PCR. The nucleotide sequences of target DNA amplification fragments from the two genes were sequenced after T-A cloning. The recombinant expression vector pET32a inserted with flaA and flaB genes was constructed, respectively. The expressions of FlaA and FlaB fusion proteins in E. coli BL21DE3 induced by isopropylthio-?-D-galactoside (IPTG) at different concentrations were examined by SDS-PAGE. Western blot using commercial antibodies against whole cell of H pylori and immunodiffusion assay using self-prepared rabbit antiserum against FlaA (rFlaA) or FlaB (rFlaB) recombinant proteins were applied to the determination of the fusion proteins immunity. ELISA was used to detect the antibodies against rFlaA and rFlaB in sera of 125 H pylori infected patients and to examine rFlaA and rFlaB expression in 98 clinical isolates of H pylori, respectively. RESULTS: In comparison with the reported corresponding sequences, the nucleotide sequence homologies of the cloned flaA and flaB genes were from 96.28%-97.13% and 96.31%-97.73%, and their putative amino acid sequence homologies were 99.61%-99.80% and 99.41%-100% for the two genes, respectively. The output of rFlaA and rFlaB expressed by pET32a-flaA-BL21DE3 and pET32a-flaB-BL21DE3 systems was as high as 40%-50% of the total bacterial proteins. Both rFlaA and rFlaB were able to combine with the commercial antibodies against whole cell of H pylori and to induce rabbits to produce specific antibodies with the same 1:2 immunodiffusion titers after the animals were immunized with the two recombinant proteins. Ninety-eight and zero point 4 and 92.80% of the serum samples from 125 patients infected with H pylori were positive for rFlaA and rFlaB antibodies, respectively. One hundred percent and 98.98% of the 98 tested isolates of H pylori were detectable for rFlaA and rFlaB epitopes, respectively. CONCLUSION: Two prokaryotic expression systems with high efficiency of H pylori flaA and flaB genes were successfully established. The expressed rFlaA and rFlaB showed satisfactory immunoreactivity and antigenicity. High frequencies of FlaA and FlaB expression in different H pylori clinical strains and the general existence of specific antibodies against FlaA and FlaB in H pylori infected patients strongly indicate that FlaA and FlaB are excellent antigen candidates for developing H pylori vaccine. PMID:14562386

  3. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents

    PubMed Central

    Vollert, Craig T.; Moree, Wilna J.; Gregory, Steven; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more effective antigen retrieval agents. PMID:26612041

  4. Characterization of an antigenic site that contains a dominant, type-specific neutralization determinant on the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue 2 virus

    SciTech Connect

    Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2007-09-30

    The surface of the mature dengue virus (DENV) particle consists of 90 envelope (E) protein dimers that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. The E protein ectodomain can be divided into three structural domains designated ED1, ED2, and ED3, of which ED3 contains the critical and dominant virus-specific neutralization sites. In this study the ED3 epitopes recognized by seven, murine, IgG1 DENV-2 type-specific, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were determined using site-directed mutagenesis of a recombinant DENV-2 ED3 (rED3) protein. A total of 41 single amino acid substitutions were introduced into the rED3 at 30 different surface accessible residues. The affinity of each MAb with the mutant rED3s was assessed by indirect ELISA and the results indicate that all seven MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes with residues K305 and P384 critical for binding. These residues are conserved among DENV-2 strains and cluster together on the upper lateral face of ED3. A linear relationship was observed between relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion by MAb and neutralization of the majority of virus infectivity ({approx} 90%) for all seven MAbs. Depending on the MAb, it is predicted that between 10% and 50% relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion is necessary for virus neutralization and for all seven MAbs occupancy levels approaching saturation were required for 100% neutralization of virus infectivity. Overall, the conserved antigenic site recognized by all seven MAbs is likely to be a dominant DENV-2 type-specific, neutralization determinant.

  5. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wenbin; Zhou, You; Li, Jiwei; Mysore, Raghavendra; Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian; Chang, Mau-Sun; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Yan, Daoguang

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  6. Intracellular processing of liposome-encapsulated antigens by macrophages depends upon the antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M; Wassef, N M; Alving, C R; Krzych, U

    1995-01-01

    Two proteins, a recombinant malaria protein (R32NS1) and conalbumin, were encapsulated in separate liposomes. The mechanisms of presentation of unencapsulated and liposome-encapsulated R32NS1 and conalbumin to antigen-specific T-cell clones were investigated in in vitro antigen presentation assays using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMs) as antigen-presenting cells. A much lower concentration of liposomal antigen than of unencapsulated antigen was required for T-cell proliferation. Liposome-encapsulated conalbumin required intracellular processing by BMs for antigen-specific T-cell proliferation, as determined by inhibition with chloroquine, NH4Cl, leupeptin, brefeldin A, monensin, antimycin A, NaF, and cycloheximide and by treatment of BMs with glutaraldehyde. Liposome-encapsulated conalbumin therefore follows the classical intracellular antigen processing pathway described for protein antigens. Similarly, unencapsulated conalbumin also required intracellular processing for presentation to antigen-specific T cells. In contrast, both unencapsulated R32NS1 and liposome-encapsulated R32NS1 were presented to T cells by BMs without undergoing internalization and intracellular processing. These results suggest that the antigen itself is the major element that determines whether a requirement exists for intracellular processing of liposomal antigens by macrophages. PMID:7790049

  7. Purification of a high molecular weight actin filament gelation protein from Acanthamoeba that shares antigenic determinants with vertebrate spectrins

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    I have purified a high molecular weight actin filament gelation protein (GP-260) from Acanthamoeba castellanii, and found by immunological cross-reactivity that it is related to vertebrate spectrins, but not to two other high molecular weight actin-binding proteins, filamin or the microtubule-associated protein, MAP-2. GP-260 was purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, selective precipitation with actin and myosin-II, chromatography on hydroxylapatite in 0.6 M Kl, and selective precipitation at low ionic strength. The yield was 1-2 micrograms/g cells. GP-260 had the same electrophoretic mobility in SDS as the 260,000-mol-wt alpha-chain of spectrin from pig erythrocytes and brain. Electron micrographs of GP-260 shadowed on mica showed slender rod-shaped particles 80-110 nm long. GP-260 raised the low shear apparent viscosity of solutions of Acanthamoeba actin filaments and, at 100 micrograms/ml, formed a gel with a 8 microM actin. Purified antibodies to GP-260 reacted with both 260,000- and 240,000-mol-wt polypeptides in samples of whole ameba proteins separated by gel electrophoresis in SDS, but only the 260,000-mol-wt polypeptide was extracted from the cell with 0.34 M sucrose and purified in this study. These antibodies to GP-260 also reacted with purified spectrin from pig brain and erythrocytes, and antibodies to human erythrocyte spectrin bound to GP-260 and the 240,000-mol-wt polypeptide present in the whole ameba. The antibodies to GP-260 did not bind to chicken gizzard filamin or pig brain MAP-2, but they did react with high molecular weight polypeptides from man, a marsupial, a fish, a clam, a myxomycete, and two other amebas. Fluorescent antibody staining with purified antibodies to GP-260 showed that it is concentrated near the plasma membrane in the ameba. PMID:6209283

  8. A new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein, LiHyT, used as a vaccine antigen against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Garde, Esther; Rodrigues, Marcella Rezende; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Soto, Manuel; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a new Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein, LiHyT, as a vaccine candidate against VL. The immunogenicity of the recombinant protein (rLiHyT) plus saponin was evaluated in BALB/c mice. In the results, it is shown that rLiHyT plus saponin vaccinated mice produced high levels of IFN-?, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation of spleen cells using both rLiHyT and Leishmania infantum SLA. The protective efficacy was evaluated after subcutaneous challenge with stationary promastigotes of L. infantum. Immunized and infected mice, when compared to the controls, showed significant reductions in the number of parasites in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and in the paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-?, mainly by CD4(+) T cells, with a minor contribution of CD8(+) T cells. In these mice, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, as well as a predominance of LiHyT- and parasite-specific IgG2a isotype antibodies, were also observed. The present study showed that a new Leishmania-specific protein, when combined with a Th1-type adjuvant, presents potential to be used as a vaccine against VL. PMID:26593442

  9. Self-assembly of in vitro-translated human papillomavirus type 16 L1 capsid protein into virus-like particles and antigenic reactivity of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, S; Shah, K V; Kotloff, K L; Ghim, S J; Viscidi, R P

    1996-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 capsid protein is the major component of the HPV virion. We prepared L1 protein of HPV-16 in a cell-free system. The L1 gene was cloned in an expression plasmid and transcribed and translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The expressed protein had the molecular mass (55 kDa) expected for the L1 protein, and it assembled into virus-like particles that closely resembled papillomavirus virions. The protein retained conformational epitopes, as evidenced by its reactivity with monoclonal antibodies which recognize only intact viral particles. In radioimmunoprecipitation assays with sera from college women grouped by their genital tract HPV DNA status, high reactivity was found in 68% of HPV-16 DNA-positive women, in 23% of women with other HPVs, and in 19% of HPV-negative women. In comparison, none of the sera of children were reactive. The results of the radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed a significant correlation with results obtained with the same sera in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with virus-like particles produced in baculovirus (chi-square test for linear trend, P = 0.0023). Although the amounts of L1 protein obtained are small, the ability to produce virus-like particles by in vitro translation may be useful in the study of virus assembly, virus binding, and the immunological response to HPV infection. PMID:8914767

  10. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11–21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1–5 and 51–100 contain epitopes shared with human coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human echovirus 6 (E-6). The N-terminal truncated protein of VP1, VP16–43, exhibited good stability and was recognized by anti-EV-71 specific rabbit sera. Alignment analysis showed that VP16–43 is highly conserved among EV-71 strains from different genotypes but was heterologous among other enteroviruses. When the GST-VP16–43 fusion protein was incorporated as antibody-capture agent in a WB assay and an ELISA for detecting anti-EV-71 IgM in human sera, sensitivities of 91.7% and 77.8% were achieved, respectively, with 100% specificity for both. The characterized EV-71 VP1 protein truncated to positions 6–43 aa has potential as an antigen for detection of anti-EV-71 IgM for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection in a WB format. PMID:24952304

  11. Myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) as a marker antigen of central nervous system contaminations for routine food control.

    PubMed

    Villmann, Carmen; Sandmeier, Barbara; Seeber, Silke; Hannappel, Ewald; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Becker, Cord-Michael

    2007-08-22

    Spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) have been widely attributed to transmission by ingestion of mammalian central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Reliable exclusion of this epidemiological important route of transmission relies on an effective surveillance of food contamination. Here, myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) is identified as a specific and largely heat-resistant marker for detection of food contaminations by CNS tissue. PLP is a component of oligodendritic glial sheaths of neuronal processes that is specifically expressed in the CNS. A highly selective polyclonal antibody was developed directed against an epitope present in the full-length PLP protein, but absent from the developmentally regulated splice variant DM-20. In combination with a hydrophobic extraction of PLP from tissue samples, the antibody reliably detected PLP from spinal cord, cerebellum, and cortex of different mammalian species. Consistent with earlier reports on PLP expression, no cross-reactivity was observed with peripheral nerve or extraneural tissue, except for a very faint signal obtained with heart. When applied to an artificial CNS contamination present in sausages, the antibody reliably detected a low concentration (1%) of the contaminant. Application of heat, as used during conventional sausage manufacturing, led to a predominant alteration of arginine residues in the PLP protein and a partial loss of immunoreactivity. In contrast, a stretch of hydrophilic amino acids(112-122) proved to be heat-resistant, preserving the immunogenicity of this PLP epitope during heating. Taken together, the excellent CNS specificity of PLP immunodetection and the presence of a heat-resistant epitope have permitted the development of a highly sensitive immunoassay for CNS contamination in routine food control. PMID:17629299

  12. Mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin and laminin-binding protein share antigenic methyllysines that confer resistance to proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pethe, Kevin; Bifani, Pablo; Drobecq, Hervé; Sergheraert, Christian; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Locht, Camille; Menozzi, Franco D.

    2002-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin produce a heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) required for extrapulmonary dissemination and a laminin-binding protein (LBP) involved in cytoadherence through laminin recognition. These adhesins bear posttranslational modifications that are not present when the proteins are produced in a recombinant (r) form in Escherichia coli. Mass spectrometry analysis of HBHA revealed that the posttranslational modifications are borne by the C-terminal moiety, which comprises the heparin-binding domain made of repeated lysine-rich motifs. Amino acid sequencing showed that these modifications consist of mono- and dimethyllysines within these motifs. The methyllysine-containing repeats were recognized by mAb 4057D2 and were also detected in LBP, which is equally recognized by mAb 4057D2. This Ab does not recognize the recombinant forms of these proteins. However, when rHBHA and rLBP were subjected to NaBH4 and formalin treatment to induce lysine methylation, reactivity with mAb 4057D2 was recovered. Methylated rHBHA displayed enhanced resistance to proteolysis compared with rHBHA, as previously observed for native HBHA. S-adenosylmethionine-dependent HBHA methyltransferase activity was detected in the cell-wall fractions of M. bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin and of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a species that produces LBP but naturally lacks hbhA, suggesting that the same enzyme(s) methylate(s) both LBP and HBHA. This hypothesis was confirmed by the fact that HBHA produced by recombinant M. smegmatis was also methylated. These results show that mycobacteria use enzymatic methylation of lysines to ensure greater stability of their adhesins. PMID:12149464

  13. Label-free detection of antigen protein using a metal mesh device surface-modified by an antibody.

    PubMed

    Seto, Hirokazu; Kamba, Seiji; Kondo, Takashi; Ogawa, Yuichi; Hoshino, Yu; Miura, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    A biosensor for protein detection was developed using antibody-immobilized metal mesh devices. Antihemoglobin antibodies were covalently immobilized on a metal mesh device. Extraordinary transmission with a dipped structure was observed for a metal mesh device immobilized with antihemoglobin antibodies as well as for the original metal mesh device. Hemoglobin in the mixture solution containing albumin at a hundred-fold concentration was detectable using antihemoglobin-immobilized MMDs. The detectability using the antihemoglobin-immobilized metal mesh device was similar to that of a commercially-available kit for the qualitative determination of hemoglobin. PMID:25765271

  14. Analysis of the interaction of ZAP-70 and syk protein-tyrosine kinases with the T-cell antigen receptor by plasmon resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Bu, J Y; Shaw, A S; Chan, A C

    1995-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of a 17-amino acid immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), conserved in each of the signaling subunits of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), mediates the recruitment of ZAP-70 and syk protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) to the activated receptor. The interaction between the two tandemly arranged Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of this family of PTKs and each of the phosphotyrosine-containing ITAMs was examined by real-time measurements of kinetic parameters. The association rate and equilibrium binding constants for the ZAP-70 and syk SH2 domains were determined for the CD3 epsilon ITAM. Both PTKs bound with ka and Kd values of 5 x 10(6) M-1.sec-1 and approximately 25 nM, respectively. Bindings to the other TCR ITAMs (zeta 1, zeta 2, gamma, and delta ITAMs) were comparable, although the zeta 3 ITAM bound approximately 2.5-fold less well. Studies of the affinity of a single functional SH2 domain of ZAP-70 provided evidence for the cooperative nature of binding of the dual SH2 domains. Mutation of either single SH2 domain decreased the Kd by > 100-fold. Finally, the critical features of the ITAM for syk binding were found to be similar to those required for ZAP-70 binding. These data provide insight into the mechanism by which the multisubunit TCR interacts with downstream effector molecules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7761456

  15. Kinetics of Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen and IgM and IgA Antibodies in Capillary Blood Samples from Confirmed Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection—non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA—in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the tests were 96% and 100%, respectively, for NS1, 58.1% and 100%, respectively, for IgM, and 33% and 100%, respectively, for IgA. During the acute phase of the disease, NS1 was the best marker of dengue infection, with a sensitivity of 98.7%, whereas from day 5, all three markers exhibited relevant levels of sensitivity. This first descriptive study of the kinetics of biological markers of dengue in capillary blood samples confirms the usefulness of this biological compartment for dengue diagnosis and argues for its exploitation in community-level and remote settings. PMID:24470561

  16. Protein Antigens Increase the Protective Efficacy of a Capsule-Based Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus in a Rat Model of Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lattar, Santiago M.; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Denoël, Philippe; Germain, Sophie; Buzzola, Fernanda R.; Lee, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an invasive bacterial pathogen, and antibiotic resistance has impeded adequate control of infections caused by this microbe. Moreover, efforts to prevent human infections with single-component S. aureus vaccines have failed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy in rats of vaccines containing both S. aureus capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and proteins. The serotypes 5 CP (CP5) and 8 CP (CP8) were conjugated to tetanus toxoid and administered to rats alone or together with domain A of clumping factor A (ClfA) or genetically detoxified alpha-toxin (dHla). The vaccines were delivered according to a preventive or a therapeutic regimen, and their protective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. Addition of dHla (but not ClfA) to the CP5 or CP8 vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load and bone morphological changes compared with immunization with either conjugate vaccine alone. Both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens were protective. Immunization with dHla together with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used as a control did not reduce staphylococcal osteomyelitis. The emergence of unencapsulated or small-colony variants during infection was negligible and similar for all of the vaccine groups. In conclusion, addition of dHla to a CP5 or CP8 conjugate vaccine enhanced its efficacy against S. aureus osteomyelitis, indicating that the inclusion of multiple antigens will likely enhance the efficacy of vaccines against both chronic and acute forms of staphylococcal disease. PMID:24126523

  17. Evolution of the capsid protein genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus: antigenic variation without accumulation of amino acid substitutions over six decades.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, M A; Dopazo, J; Hernández, J; Mateu, M G; Sobrino, F; Domingo, E; Knowles, N J

    1992-01-01

    The genetic diversification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C over a 6-decade period was studied by comparing nucleotide sequences of the capsid protein-coding regions of viruses isolated in Europe, South America, and The Philippines. Phylogenetic trees were derived for VP1 and P1 (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4) RNAs by using the least-squares method. Confidence intervals of the derived phylogeny (significance levels of nodes and standard deviations of branch lengths) were placed by application of the bootstrap resampling method. These procedures defined six highly significant major evolutionary lineages and a complex network of sublines for the isolates from South America. In contrast, European isolates are considerably more homogeneous, probably because of the vaccine origin of several of them. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that FMDV CGC Ger/26 (one of the earliest FMDV isolates available) belonged to an evolutionary line which is now apparently extinct. Attempts to date the origin (ancestor) of the FMDVs analyzed met with considerable uncertainty, mainly owing to the stasis noted in European viruses. Remarkably, the evolution of the capsid genes of FMDV was essentially associated with linear accumulation of silent mutations but continuous accumulation of amino acid substitutions was not observed. Thus, the antigenic variation attained by FMDV type C over 6 decades was due to fluctuations among limited combinations of amino acid residues without net accumulation of amino acid replacements over time. PMID:1316467

  18. Induction of the nuclear I{kappa}B protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} upon stimulation of B cell antigen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hijioka, Kuniaki; Matsuo, Susumu; Eto-Kimura, Akiko; Takeshige, Koichiro; Muta, Tatsushi . E-mail: tmuta@biology.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-05-04

    The nuclear I{kappa}B protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} is barely detectable in resting cells and is induced in macrophages and fibroblasts following stimulation of innate immunity via Toll-like receptors. The induced I{kappa}B-{zeta} associates with nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B in the nucleus and plays crucial roles in its transcriptional regulation. Here, we examined the induction of I{kappa}B-{zeta} in B lymphocytes, one of the major players in adaptive immunity. Upon crosslinking of the surface immunoglobulin complex, I{kappa}B-{zeta} mRNA was robustly induced in murine B-lymphoma cell line A20 cells. While the crosslinking activated NF-{kappa}B and induced its target gene, I{kappa}B-{alpha}, co-crosslinking of Fc{gamma} receptor IIB to the surface immunoglobulin complex inhibited NF-{kappa}B activation and the induction of I{kappa}B-{zeta} and I{kappa}B-{alpha}, suggesting critical roles for NF-{kappa}B in the induction. These results indicate that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is also induced by stimulation of B cell antigen receptor, suggesting that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses.

  19. Nasal Immunization with a Fusion Protein Consisting of the Hemagglutinin A Antigenic Region and the Maltose-Binding Protein Elicits CD11c+ CD8+ Dendritic Cells for Induced Long-Term Protective Immunity ?

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuan; Hashizume, Tomomi; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Yuzawa, Satoshi; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of a fusion protein consisting of the 25-kDa antigenic region of Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin A and the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein (25k-hagA-MBP) as a nasal vaccine for the prevention of oral infection with P. gingivalis. Nasal immunization with 25k-hagA-MBP induced high levels of 25k-hagA-specific serum IgG, serum IgA, and salivary IgA antibodies in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. These antibody responses were maintained for at least 1 year after immunization. Analysis of cytokine responses showed that nasal administration of 25k-hagA-MBP induced antigen-specific CD4+ T cells producing interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5, but not gamma interferon (IFN-?), in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). Furthermore, increased numbers of CD11c+ CD8?+, but not CD11c+ CD11b+ or CD11c+ B220+, dendritic cells with upregulated expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules were noted in the spleen, CLNs, and nasopharynx-associated lymphoreticular tissues (NALT). Interestingly, when 25k-hagA-MBP or cholera toxin (CT) was given intranasally to enable examination of their presence in neuronal tissues, the amounts of 25k-hagA-MBP were significantly lower than those of CT. Importantly, mice given 25k-hagA-MBP nasally showed a significant reduction in alveolar bone loss caused by oral infection with P. gingivalis, even 1 year after the immunization. These results suggest that 25k-hagA-MBP administered nasally would be an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection and may be an important tool for the prevention of chronic periodontitis in humans. PMID:21115722

  20. Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide ?-MSH, at the origin of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tennoune, N; Chan, P; Breton, J; Legrand, R; Chabane, Y N; Akkermann, K; Järv, A; Ouelaa, W; Takagi, K; Ghouzali, I; Francois, M; Lucas, N; Bole-Feysot, C; Pestel-Caron, M; do Rego, J-C; Vaudry, D; Harro, J; Dé, E; Déchelotte, P; Fetissov, S O

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms at the origin of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia and binge-eating disorder (BED), are currently unknown. Previous data indicated that immunoglobulins (Igs) or autoantibodies (auto-Abs) reactive with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) are involved in regulation of feeding and emotion; however, the origin of such auto-Abs is unknown. Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of ?-MSH. We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with ?-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety and melanocortin receptor 4 signaling. Furthermore, chronic intragastric delivery of E. coli in mice decreased food intake and stimulated formation of ClpB- and ?-MSH-reactive antibodies, while ClpB-deficient E. coli did not affect food intake or antibody levels. Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with ?-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and BED, and that the ED Inventory-2 scores in ED patients correlate with anti-ClpB IgG and IgM, which is similar to our previous findings for ?-MSH auto-Abs. In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with ?-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs. PMID:25290265

  1. Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide ?-MSH, at the origin of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tennoune, N; Chan, P; Breton, J; Legrand, R; Chabane, Y N; Akkermann, K; Järv, A; Ouelaa, W; Takagi, K; Ghouzali, I; Francois, M; Lucas, N; Bole-Feysot, C; Pestel-Caron, M; do Rego, J-C; Vaudry, D; Harro, J; Dé, E; Déchelotte, P; Fetissov, S O

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms at the origin of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia and binge-eating disorder (BED), are currently unknown. Previous data indicated that immunoglobulins (Igs) or autoantibodies (auto-Abs) reactive with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) are involved in regulation of feeding and emotion; however, the origin of such auto-Abs is unknown. Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of ?-MSH. We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with ?-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety and melanocortin receptor 4 signaling. Furthermore, chronic intragastric delivery of E. coli in mice decreased food intake and stimulated formation of ClpB- and ?-MSH-reactive antibodies, while ClpB-deficient E. coli did not affect food intake or antibody levels. Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with ?-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and BED, and that the ED Inventory-2 scores in ED patients correlate with anti-ClpB IgG and IgM, which is similar to our previous findings for ?-MSH auto-Abs. In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with ?-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs. PMID:25290265

  2. Epitopes of the Onchocerca volvulus RAL1 antigen, a member of the calreticulin family of proteins, recognized by sera from patients with onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rokeach, L A; Zimmerman, P A; Unnasch, T R

    1994-01-01

    RAL1 is an antigen (Ag) encoded by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, the parasite causing onchocerciasis (river blindness). RAL1 shares 64.4% identity with the autoantigen calreticulin. The striking similarity of the parasite Ag and the human autoantigen has led to the hypothesis that RAL1 may induce a cross-reactive immune response to calreticulin, which in turn may be involved in the pathogenesis of onchocerciasis. To test this hypothesis, we explored the immune response to RAL1 recombinant Ag (RAL1 rAg) and human calreticulin in patients with O. volvulus infection. A total of 86% of the O. volvulus-infected individuals produced antibodies recognizing RAL1 rAg. Antibody reactivity to RAL1 rAg in patient sera was confined primarily to the central and carboxyl-terminal parts of the molecule. No significant correlations were found to associate recognition of RAL1 rAg, or any particular portion thereof, with a particular disease state. Antibodies against RAL1 thus appear to be produced as a general immune reaction to O. volvulus infection and do not necessarily lead to a cross-reacting response with the host protein. In contrast, 33% of the patient sera tested bound recombinant human calreticulin. All of these sera also recognized a polypeptide encompassing the carboxyl-terminal portion of the RAL1 rAg. These results suggest that recognition of an epitope encoded in the carboxyl-terminal portion of RAL1 is at least in part responsible for inducing a cross-reacting immune response to the host protein. Images PMID:7520419

  3. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch increases mortality after myeloablative unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stephanie J.; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Spellman, Stephen; Wang, Hai-Lin; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Askar, Medhat; Dehn, Jason; Fernandez Viña, Marcelo; Gratwohl, Alois; Gupta, Vikas; Hanna, Rabi; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kassim, Adetola A.; Nishihori, Taiga; Mueller, Carlheinz; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Prasad, Vinod; Robinson, James; Saber, Wael; Schultz, Kirk R.; Shaw, Bronwen; Storek, Jan; Wood, William A.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Anasetti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated. PMID:25161269

  4. Characterisation of Sarcoptes scabiei antigens.

    PubMed

    Hejduk, Gloria; Hofstätter, Katja; Löwenstein, Michael; Peschke, Roman; Miller, Ingrid; Joachim, Anja

    2011-02-01

    In pig herds, the status of Sarcoptes scabiei infections is routinely monitored by serodiagnosis. Crude antigen for ELISA is usually prepared from S. scabiei var. canis or other variations and may lead to variations in the outcome of different tests, making assay standardisation difficult. This study was performed to investigate the antigen profiles of S. scabiei, including differences between hydrophilic and more hydrophobic protein fractions, by Western blotting with sera from pigs with defined infection status. Potential cross-reactivity among S. scabiei (var. canis, suis and bovis), Dermatophagoides farinae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae was also analysed. Hydrophobic S. scabiei antigens were detectable in the range of 40-50 kDa, whilst the hydrophilic fraction showed no specific antigenicity. In the hydrophobic fractions of D. farinae and T. putrescentiae, two major protein fractions in a similar size range could be identified, but no cross-reactivity with Sarcoptes-positive sera was detectable. However, examination of the hydrophilic fractions revealed cross-reactivity between Sarcoptes-positive sera and both the house dust mite and the storage mite in the range of 115 and 28/38 kDa. Specific bands in the same range (42 and 48 kDa) could be detected in blots from hydrophobic fractions of all three tested variations of S. scabiei (var. canis, bovis and suis). These results show that there are considerable differences in mange antibody reactivity, including reactions with proteins from free-living mites, which may interfere with tests based on hydrophilic antigens. Further refinement of antigen and the use of specific hydrophobic proteins could improve ELISA performance and standardisation. PMID:20865427

  5. Early Secreted Antigenic Target of 6- kD Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Primes Dendritic Cells to Stimulate Th17 and Inhibit Th1 Immune Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xisheng; Barnes, Peter F.; Huang, Fangfang; Alvarez, Ivana B.; Neuenschwander, Pierre F.; Sherman, David R.; Samten, Buka

    2012-01-01

    Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kD (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a T-cell antigen that is a potential vaccine candidate, but it is also a virulence factor that mediates pathogenicity. To better understand the effects of ESAT-6 on the immune response, we studied the effect of ESAT-6 on human dendritic cells (DCs). Peripheral blood monocytes were treated with GM-CSF and IL-4 to yield immature DCs, which were matured by addition of lipolysaccharide (LPS) and CD40 ligand (CD40L), with or without ESAT-6. ESAT-6 inhibited LPS/CD40L-induced DC expression of co-stimulatory molecules, reduced DC-stimulated allogeneic T cell proliferation and IL-2 and IFN-? production, and enhanced IL-17 production. ESAT-6-treated DCs also increased IL-17 and reduced IFN-? production by M. tuberculosis-specific autologous T cells. ESAT-6 inhibited LPS/CD40L-induced DC production of IL-12 and enhanced that of IL-23 and IL-1?, without affecting secretion of TNF-?, IL-6 or IL-8 through specific interaction with iDCs. The effects of ESAT-6 were not mediated through cAMP or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Medium from ESAT-6-conditioned DCs increased IL-17 and reduced IFN-? production by T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, and ESAT-6-induced IL-17 production was blocked by neutralizing both IL-23 and IL-1?. ESAT-6 reduced LPS/CD40L-stimulated transcription of IL-12p35 and enhanced that of IL-23p19 through inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-1 and upregulation of activating transcription factor-2 and c-Jun, transcriptional regulators of IL-12p35 and IL-23p19, respectively. We conclude that ESAT-6 increases DC production of IL-23 and IL-1?, while inhibiting that of IL-12, thus enhancing Th17 at the expense of protective Th1 responses. PMID:22904313

  6. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada.

  7. Vaccination with a Fusion Protein That Introduces HIV-1 Gag Antigen into a Multitrimer CD40L Construct Results in Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protection from Viral Challenge by Vaccinia-Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Raffa, Francesca N.; Williams, Cindi-Ann; Kornbluth, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) is a membrane protein that is important for the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-induced CD8+ T cell responses. To be active, CD40L must cluster CD40 receptors on responding cells. To produce a soluble form of CD40L that clusters CD40 receptors necessitates the use of a multitrimer construct. With this in mind, a tripartite fusion protein was made from surfactant protein D (SPD), HIV-1 Gag as a test antigen, and CD40L, where SPD serves as a scaffold for the multitrimer protein complex. This SPD-Gag-CD40L protein activated CD40-bearing cells and bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. Compared to a plasmid for Gag antigen alone (pGag), DNA vaccination of mice with pSPD-Gag-CD40L induced an increased number of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells with increased avidity for major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Gag peptide and improved vaccine-induced protection from challenge by vaccinia-Gag virus. The importance of the multitrimeric nature of the complex was shown using a plasmid lacking the N terminus of SPD that produced a single trimer fusion protein. This plasmid, pTrimer-Gag-CD40L, was only weakly active on CD40-bearing cells and did not elicit strong CD8+ T cell responses or improve protection from vaccinia-Gag challenge. An adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vaccine incorporating SPD-Gag-CD40L was much stronger than Ad5 expressing Gag alone (Ad5-Gag) and induced complete protection (i.e., sterilizing immunity) from vaccinia-Gag challenge. Overall, these results show the potential of a new vaccine design in which antigen is introduced into a construct that expresses a multitrimer soluble form of CD40L, leading to strongly protective CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:24227853

  8. Identification of the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1C as a B cell antigen receptor-associated protein involved in the regulation of B cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Recent data implicating loss of PTP1C tyrosine phosphatase activity in the genesis of the multiple hemopoietic cell defects found in systemic autoimmune/immunodeficient motheaten (me) and viable motheaten (mev) mice suggest that PTP1C plays an important role in modulating intracellular signaling events regulating cell activation and differentiation. To begin elucidating the role for this cytosolic phosphatase in lymphoid cell signal transduction, we have examined early signaling events and mitogenic responses induced by B cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation in me and mev splenic B cells and in CD5+ CH12 lymphoma cells, which represent the lymphoid population amplified in motheaten mice. Despite their lack of functional PTP1C, me and mev B cells proliferated normally in response to LPS. However, compared with wild-type B cells, cells from the mutant mice were hyperresponsive to normally submitogenic concentrations of F(ab')2 anti- Ig antibody, and they exhibited reduced susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of Fc gamma IIRB cross-linking on BCR-induced proliferation. Additional studies of unstimulated CH12 and wild-type splenic B cells revealed the constitutive association of PTP1C with the resting BCR complex, as evidenced by coprecipitation of PTP1C protein and phosphatase activity with BCR components and the depletion of BCR- associated tyrosine phosphatase activity by anti-PTP1C antibodies. These results suggest a role for PTP1C in regulating the tyrosine phosphorylation state of the resting BCR complex components, a hypothesis supported by the observation that PTP1C specifically induces dephosphorylation of a 35-kD BCR-associated protein likely representing Ig-alpha. In contrast, whereas membrane Ig cross-linking was associated with an increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of PTP1C and an approximately 140-kD coprecipitated protein, PTP1C was no longer detected in the BCR complex after receptor engagement, suggesting that PTP1C dissociates from the activated receptor complex. Together these results suggest a critical role for PTP1C in modulating BCR signaling capacity, and they indicate that the PTP1C influence on B cell signaling is likely to be realized in both resting and activated cells. PMID:7539038

  9. Vaccination of cattle with attenuated rinderpest virus stimulates CD4(+) T cell responses with broad viral antigen specificity.

    PubMed

    Lund, B T; Tiwari, A; Galbraith, S; Baron, M D; Morrison, W I; Barrett, T

    2000-09-01

    The immune responses of cattle inoculated with either a virulent or an attenuated vaccine strain of rinderpest virus (RPV) were examined by measuring the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to whole RPV antigen preparations and to individual RPV major structural proteins expressed using recombinant adenoviruses. Responses to the T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA) were also measured as a control to monitor non-specific effects of infection with RPV on T cell responses. Infection with the vaccine strain of RPV was found to induce a strong CD4(+) T cell response. A specific response was detected to all RPV proteins tested, namely the haemagglutinin (H), fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N) and matrix (M) proteins, in animals vaccinated with the attenuated strain of the virus. No one protein was found to be dominant with respect to the induction of T cell proliferative responses. As expected, vaccination of cattle with an unrelated virus vaccine, a capripox vaccine, failed to produce a response to RPV antigens. While profound suppression of T cell responses was observed following infection with the virulent strain of RPV, no evidence of impairment of T cell responsiveness was observed following RPV vaccination, or on subsequent challenge of vaccinated animals with virulent virus. PMID:10950969

  10. Induction of antigen-specific CD4+ HLA-DR-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes as well as nonspecific nonrestricted killer cells by the recombinant mycobacterial 65-kDa heat-shock protein.

    PubMed

    Ab, B K; Kiessling, R; Van Embden, J D; Thole, J E; Kumararatne, D S; Pisa, P; Wondimu, A; Ottenhoff, T H

    1990-02-01

    Acquired cell-mediated immunity to intracellular parasites like mycobacteria is dependent on antigen-specific T lymphocytes. We have recently found that mycobacteria not only induce helper T cells but also cytotoxic CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells as well as nonspecific killer cells that lyse human macrophages in vitro. In addition, we have described that the recombinant heat-shock protein (hsp) 65 of Mycobacterium bovis BCG/M, tuberculosis is an important target antigen for CD4+CD8- cytotoxic T cells. We have now further investigated the cytotoxic effector cells that are induced by the hsp65 of BCG. Purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD)- or hsp65-specific cytotoxic T cells specifically lysed PPD, hsp65 of BCG and hsp65 of M. leprae-pulsed macrophages in an HLA-DR-restricted manner. Nonpulsed macrophages were lysed to a much lower but still significant extent. hsp65-induced effector cells expressed CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8 and CD56 markers. Depletion experiments showed that the antigen-specific HLA-DR-restricted killer cell was of the CD5+CD4+CD8-CD56- phenotype. Experiments using N-terminal truncated hsp65 fusion (cro-lacZ) proteins suggested that the N-terminal 65 amino acid residues of the 540 amino acid molecule are critical for the expression of the cytotoxic target epitope(s) in two individuals tested. In addition to inducing antigen-specific cytotoxic effector cells, the hsp65 also triggered nonspecific nonrestricted effector cells with lytic activity against nonpulsed autologous or allogeneic macrophages as well as K-562 and Daudi tumor cells. hsp65-stimulated effector cells produced both interferon and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. An important finding was that hsp65-stimulated effector cells strongly inhibited colony-forming unit formation from live BCG-infected autologous macrophages. PMID:1690136

  11. Value of detection of serum human epididymis secretory protein 4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 in diagnosis of early endometrial cancer of different pathological subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingui; Zhao, Fengting; Hu, Linli; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the value of detection of human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) from serum in diagnosis of early endometrial cancer of different pathological subtypes and discussed the mechanism of HE4 and CA125 in diagnosis. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescent immunoassay were used to detect HE4 and CA125 from serum in endometrial cancer and control groups. Besides, the concentration of HE4 and CA125 was compared in these two groups, and the expression of CA125 and HE4 and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with endometrial cancer were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the expression of HE4 was much higher in serum of patients with endometrial cancer, while there was no obvious change in the expression of CA125. The threshold detection value was acquired by receiver operating characteristic analysis method, that is, 141.5 pmol/L and 54.5 U/L, respectively. When comparing the concentration of HE4 in patients with endometrial cancer at the early stage (stage I) with healthy people, the difference therein had statistical significance, but there was no obvious difference in CA125. HE4 and CA125 in diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the stages I and II were found with no statistically significant difference. The difference of HE4 in the stages II and III had statistical significance while the difference of CA125 had no statistical significance. The specificity of both HE4 and CA125 was 95%, and the sensitivity of HE4 to uterine papillary serous carcinomas was higher than that to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Thus, the serum HE4 is much better than CA125 in detecting the endometrial cancer at an early stage. PMID:26060409

  12. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming. PMID:25655329

  13. Osteogenic protein 1 in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis: relationship with disease and levels of hyaluronan and antigenic keratan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chubinskaya, Susan; Frank, Benjamin S; Michalska, Margaret; Kumar, Bhavna; Merrihew, Charis A; Thonar, Eugene J-M A; Lenz, Mary Ellen; Otten, Lori; Rueger, David C; Block, Joel A

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of body fluid levels of biochemical markers in joint tissues has begun to provide clinically useful information. Synovial fluid (SF) plays an important role in articular joint lubrication, nutrition, and metabolism of cartilage and other connective tissues within the joint. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) in SF from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or with osteoarthritis (OA) and to correlate levels of OP-1 with those of hyaluronan (HA) and antigenic keratan sulfate (AgKS). SF was aspirated from the knees of patients with either RA or OA and from the knees of asymptomatic organ donors with no documented history of joint disease. The presence of detectable OP-1 in SF was demonstrated by western blots with specific anti-pro-OP-1 and anti-mature OP-1 antibodies. Measurement of levels of OP-1, HA and AgKS was performed using ELISAs. OP-1 was identified in human SF in two forms, pro-OP-1 and active (mature) OP-1--mature OP-1 being detected only in SF from OA patients and RA patients. Levels of OP-1 and HA were higher in RA patients than in OA patients and asymptomatic donors, while the level of AgKS was highest in SF from asymptomatic donors. Statistically significant differences were found between SF levels of OP-1 in RA and OA patients and between SF levels of AgKS among the three groups tested. The SF content of OP-1 tended to correlate positively with HA levels, but negatively with AgKS concentrations. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that measurement of OP-1 in joint fluid may have value in the clinical evaluation of joint disease processes. PMID:16646979

  14. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-Related Malaria Parasite: Genetic Variability of Duffy Binding Protein II and the Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Camargos Costa, Daniela; Pereira de Assis, Gabriela Maíra; de Souza Silva, Flávia Alessandra; Araújo, Flávia Carolina; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Braga Hirano, Zelinda Maria; Satiko Kano, Flora; Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII) and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC), but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII) and simian DARC (sDARC) were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells. PMID:26107662

  15. Human biliverdin reductase suppresses Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP) kinase activity: the reductase regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-NF-kappaB-dependent GPBP expression.

    PubMed

    Miralem, Tihomir; Gibbs, Peter E M; Revert, Fernando; Saus, Juan; Maines, Mahin D

    2010-04-23

    The Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) and the expression of Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP), a nonconventional Ser/Thr kinase for the type IV collagen of basement membrane, are regulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha). The pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulates kinase activity of hBVR and activates NF-kappaB, a transcriptional regulator of GPBP mRNA. Increased GPBP activity is associated with several autoimmune conditions, including Goodpasture syndrome. Here we show that in HEK293A cells hBVR binds to GPBP and down-regulates its TNF-alpha-stimulated kinase activity; this was not due to a decrease in GPBP expression. Findings with small interfering RNA to hBVR and to the p65 regulatory subunit of NF-kappaB show the hBVR role in the initial stimulation of GPBP expression by TNF-alpha-activated NF-kappaB; hBVR was not a factor in mediating GPBP mRNA stability. The interacting domain was mapped to the (281)CX(10)C motif in the C-terminal 24 residues of hBVR. A 7-residue peptide, KKRILHC(281), corresponding to the core of the consensus D(delta)-Box motif in the interacting domain, was as effective as the intact 296-residue hBVR polypeptide in inhibiting GPBP kinase activity. GPBP neither regulated hBVR expression nor TNF-alpha dependent NF-kappaB expression. Collectively, our data reveal that hBVR is a regulator of the TNF-alpha-GPBP-collagen type IV signaling cascade and uncover a novel biological interaction that may be of relevance in autoimmune pathogenesis. PMID:20177069

  16. Circulating antigen-antibody complexes in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Steward, M W; Sisley, B; Mackenzie, C D; El Sheikh, H

    1982-01-01

    The presence of circulating antigen-antibody complexes in the sera of patients with onchocerciasis was investigated using the Clq and conglutinin solid-phase binding assays. Only 50% of patients' sera had demonstrable complexes, levels of complexes were unrelated to microfilarial load and specific anti-onchocercal antibody titres and results with the two tests for complexes were not correlated. Both IgM- and IgG-containing complexes were commonly involved but there was no correlation between the levels of complexes containing these isotypes. Evidence for the presence of IgE in complexes of sera from a minority of individuals was also obtained. PMID:6979445

  17. Cellular immunity in tuberculous pleural effusions: evidence of spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation and antigen-specific accelerated responses to purified protein derivative (PPD).

    PubMed Central

    Lorgat, F; Keraan, M M; Ress, S R

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of in vitro cellular proliferation against a PPD of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or streptococcal antigen (streptokinase-streptodornase) was evaluated in pleural fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with tuberculous and non-tuberculous pleuritis. The peak proliferative response to PPD by mononuclear cells from pleural fluid occurred earlier (day 3) in 65% of patients with tuberculosis, a finding not seen in non-tuberculous effusions. Spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation of both peripheral blood lymphocytes and pleural effusion lymphocytes was frequently observed, irrespective of etiology. However, 20 of 21 tuberculous patients manifesting spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation had accelerated kinetics of proliferation to PPD, which was antigen-specific. These results suggest that spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation occurs as a response to antigen stimulation at the site of disease, and is not a non-specific response to inflammation. Furthermore, enhanced reactivity against mycobacterial antigen, manifested by accelerated kinetics of proliferation, has diagnostic potential in patients with pleural effusions. PMID:1424276

  18. Direct immunodetection of antigens within the precast polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Desai, S; Dworecki, B; Cichon, E

    2001-10-01

    Detection of specific proteins separated by SDS-PAGE is the basis for studying specific antigens. Immunodetection of antigens is commonly performed using Western blotting technique. In this paper we have shown that it is possible to eliminate Western blotting and to detect the antigens directly within the precast polyacrylamide gels by pretreating the gels with 50% isopropanol followed by distilled water treatment. This method would be valuable for large or difficult to transfer proteins. PMID:11567532

  19. Disruption of HLA class II antigen presentation in Burkitt lymphoma: implication of a 47 000 MW acid labile protein in CD4+ T-cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    God, Jason M; Zhao, Dan; Cameron, Christine A; Amria, Shereen; Bethard, Jennifer R; Haque, Azizul

    2014-01-01

    While Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has a well-known defect in HLA class I-mediated antigen presentation, the exact role of BL-associated HLA class II in generating a poor CD4+ T-cell response remains unresolved. Here, we found that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. This defect in CD4+ T-cell recognition was not associated with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules on BL cells, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to elicit CD4+ T-cell activation by BL. Further, the defect was not caused by faulty antigen/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Interestingly, functional class II–peptide complexes were formed at acidic pH 5·5, which restored immune recognition. Acidic buffer (pH 5·5) eluate from BL cells contained molecules that impaired class II-mediated antigen presentation and CD4+ T-cell recognition. Biochemical analysis showed that these molecules were greater than 30 000 molecular weight in size, and proteinaceous in nature. In addition, BL was found to have decreased expression of a 47 000 molecular weight enolase-like molecule that enhances class II-mediated antigen presentation in B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, but not in BL cells. These findings demonstrate that BL likely has multiple defects in HLA class II-mediated antigen presentation and immune recognition, which may be exploited for future immunotherapies. PMID:24628049

  20. Extractable low mass proteins <30kDa from peanut display elevated antigenicity (IgG-binding) and allergenicity (IgE-binding) in vitro and are attenuated by thermal reactivity with non-peanut food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Lee, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    Human allergic reactions to peanut proteins and the associated risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis requires vigilant management of peanuts in food processing. Processed forms of peanuts with attenuated antigenicity and less severe immunogenic responses may lower the risk. Molecular subfractions of raw (UP), blanched (BP) and roasted (RP) peanuts were prepared including water-insoluble (P1), water-soluble high mass (>30kDa, P2) and water-soluble low mass (<30kDa, P3) fractions. Products were screened by measuring binding to IgG (polyclonal antibody against peanut allergen) and IgE (sera from peanut-allergic donors, RAST>3). The results showed that IgE titres were highest for total extracts of RP, particularly for P3 fractions of UP and RP, and were affected by further heating. Antigenicity was also modulated by heating in the presence of either peanut oil or non-peanut food ingredients (lactose, coconut oil). Results support several alternative methods for regulating peanut antigenicity using food processing approaches but require further substantiation in larger numbers of allergic and control donor sera. PMID:26471622

  1. Lipid Nanocapsule as Vaccine Carriers for His-Tagged Proteins: Evaluation of Antigen-Specific Immune Responses to HIV I His-Gag p41 and Systemic Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Saurabh; Jain, Anekant; Woodward, Jerold G.; Mumper, Russell J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design novel nanocapsules (NCs) with surface-chelated nickel (Ni-NCs) as a vaccine delivery system for histidine (His)-tagged protein antigens. Ni-NCs were characterized for binding His-tagged model proteins through high affinity non-covalent interactions. The mean diameter and zeta potential of the optimized Ni-NCs was 214.9 nm and - 14.8 mV, respectively. The optimal binding ratio of His-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (His-GFP) and His-tagged HIV-1 Gag p41 (His-Gag p41) to the Ni-NCs was 1:221 and 1:480 w/w, respectively. Treatment of DC2.4 cells with Ni-NCs did not result in significant loss in the cell viability up to 24 h (<5%). We further evaluated the antibody response of the Ni-NCs using His-Gag p41 as a model antigen. Formulations were administered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice at day 0 (prime) and 14 (boost) followed by serum collection on day 28. Serum His-Gag p41 specific antibody levels were found to be significantly higher at 1 and 0.5 ?g doses of Gag p41-His-Ni-NCs (His-Gag p41 equivalent) compared to His-Gag p41 (1 ?g) adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (AH). The serum IgG2a levels induced by Gag p41-His-Ni-NCs (1 ?g) were significantly higher than AH adjuvanted His-Gag p41. The Ni-NCs alone did not result in elevation of systemic IL-12/p40 and CCL5/RANTES inflammatory cytokine levels upon subcutaneous administration in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, the proposed Ni-NCs can bind His-tagged proteins and have the potential to be used as antigen delivery system capable of generating strong antigen specific antibodies at doses much lower than with aluminum based adjuvant and causing no significant elevation of systemic proinflammatory IL-12/p40 and CCL5/RANTES cytokines. PMID:22068049

  2. SAROTUP: scanner and reporter of target-unrelated peptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Ru, Beibei; Li, Shiyong; Lin, Hao; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2010-01-01

    As epitope mimics, mimotopes have been widely utilized in the study of epitope prediction and the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Screening the random peptide libraries constructed with phage display or any other surface display technologies provides an efficient and convenient approach to acquire mimotopes. However, target-unrelated peptides creep into mimotopes from time to time through binding to contaminants or other components of the screening system. In this study, we present SAROTUP, a free web tool for scanning, reporting and excluding possible target-unrelated peptides from real mimotopes. Preliminary tests show that SAROTUP is efficient and capable of improving the accuracy of mimotope-based epitope mapping. It is also helpful for the development of mimotope-based diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. PMID:20339521

  3. Simultaneous presentation of pancreatic cancer in a genetically unrelated couple.

    PubMed

    Yellu, Mahender R; Olowokure, Olugbenga

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer tend to have a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment, and their 5-year overall survival rate remains dismal. Several risk factors could potentially trigger the development of pancreatic cancer but many of them identified so far have been only weakly linked. Occurrence of pancreatic cancer in a husband and wife around the same time in the same household even when exposed to similar environmental factors is rare. Although familial pancreatic cancer is a known entity, pancreatic cancer in genetically unrelated married couples has not been studied. Here we present such a scenario involving one couple. In this case report, we discuss the chronological events leading to pancreatic cancer in a genetically unrelated married couple and the risk factors that may have led to cancer, in addition to exploring the possible links. PMID:26581697

  4. Renal impairment in cirrhosis unrelated to hepatorenal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Low, Gavin; Alexander, Graeme JM; Lomas, David J

    2015-01-01

    Renal impairment is common in liver disease and may occur as a consequence of the pathophysiological changes that underpin cirrhosis or secondary to a pre-existing unrelated insult. Nevertheless, the onset of renal impairment often portends a worsening prognosis. Hepatorenal syndrome remains one of the most recognized and reported causes of renal impairment in cirrhosis. However, other causes of renal impairment occur and can be classified into prerenal, intrinsic or postrenal, which are the subjects of the present review. PMID:25874649

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the ribosome inactivating proteins dianthin32 and momochin.

    PubMed

    Porro, G; Bonardi, M A; Giovanetti, E; Lento, P; Modena, D

    1994-04-01

    Female BALB/c mice were immunized with either dianthin32 or momochin, type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) derived from Dianthus charyophyllus and Momordica cochinchinensis, respectively. Five anti-dianthin32 and 6 anti-momochin secreting hybridomas were obtained by somatic fusion of lymphocytes with myeloma cell line NS0. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced were highly specific, as demonstrated by cross-reactivity assays performed with taxonomically related and unrelated type 1 RIPs, and recognized different epitopes of the antigen. The affinity constant of anti-RIPs MAbs ranged between 10(8) M-1 and 10(10) M-1. PMID:7519581

  6. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design. PMID:26188153

  7. Competitive Immunoassays Using Antigen Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Weihua; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Li, Changming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a non-fouling antigen competitive immunoassay microarray based on the polymer brush is reported to detect multiple mycotoxins. The detection is achieved by utilizing highly specific monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory. The polymer brush, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-co-GMA), is synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on standard glass slides. In the polymer brush, the epoxy groups of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) residues provide covalent binding sites for spotted antigens. Moreover, the abundant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains in the brush are able to ultimately suppress the nonspecific protein adsorption in solution (non-fouling). The polymer brush shows a high and uniform protein loading, along with a high resistance to nonspecific protein absorption that are both important to achieve a highly sensitive immunoassay. As a demonstration of a multiplex assay, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) are selected as antigen targets for simultaneous detections using the microarray. PMID:26614080

  8. Computer aided selection of candidate vaccine antigens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Immunoinformatics is an emergent branch of informatics science that long ago pullulated from the tree of knowledge that is bioinformatics. It is a discipline which applies informatic techniques to problems of the immune system. To a great extent, immunoinformatics is typified by epitope prediction methods. It has found disappointingly limited use in the design and discovery of new vaccines, which is an area where proper computational support is generally lacking. Most extant vaccines are not based around isolated epitopes but rather correspond to chemically-treated or attenuated whole pathogens or correspond to individual proteins extract from whole pathogens or correspond to complex carbohydrate. In this chapter we attempt to review what progress there has been in an as-yet-underexplored area of immunoinformatics: the computational discovery of whole protein antigens. The effective development of antigen prediction methods would significantly reduce the laboratory resource required to identify pathogenic proteins as candidate subunit vaccines. We begin our review by placing antigen prediction firmly into context, exploring the role of reverse vaccinology in the design and discovery of vaccines. We also highlight several competing yet ultimately complementary methodological approaches: sub-cellular location prediction, identifying antigens using sequence similarity, and the use of sophisticated statistical approaches for predicting the probability of antigen characteristics. We end by exploring how a systems immunomics approach to the prediction of immunogenicity would prove helpful in the prediction of antigens. PMID:21067543

  9. In vivo, RFX5 binds differently to the human leucocyte antigen-E, -F, and -G gene promoters and participates in HLA class I protein expression in a cell type-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Philippe; Masternak, Krzysztof; Krawczyk, Michal; Reith, Walter; Dausset, Jean; Carosella, Edgardo D; Moreau, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    We analysed the regulation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-E, -F and -G genes, focusing on the SXY module, a promoter region that controls major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression and participates in the expression of classical HLA class I molecules. It comprises the X1, X2 and Y boxes, bound by RFX, X2-BP/ATF/CREB and NFY factors, respectively. The complex recruits the master control factor CIITA. The SXY module is conserved in HLA-E and HLA-F gene promoters, whereas in the HLA-G promoter, the only conserved boxes are S and X1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, performed on HLA-G positive and negative cell lines, demonstrated the in situ binding of RFX5 and CIITA to HLA-E and HLA-F, but not to HLA-G, promoters. In B cells from bare lymphocyte syndrome patients lacking RFX5 or CIITA, we observed lower steady-state levels of HLA-E and HLA-F transcripts but did not find any significant decrease in the cell-surface expression of HLA-E/classical HLA class I. In RFX5-deficient fibroblasts, the cell-surface expression of HLA molecules was decreased. RFX5 and CIITA are thus not involved in HLA-G expression and their importance for the surface expression of HLA-E/classical HLA class I molecules may vary depending on the cell type. PMID:14678199

  10. A comparative study of natural immune responses against Plasmodium vivax C-terminal merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-1) and apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) in two endemic settings

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Fang, Qiang; Jangpatarapongsa, Kulachart; Zhiyong, Tao; Cui, Liwang; Li, Baiqing; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of cellular and humoral immune responses against P. vivax parasite remain poorly understood. Several malaria immunological studies have been conducted in endemic regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites co-exist. In this study, a comparative analysis of immunity to Plasmodium vivax antigens in different geography and incidence of Plasmodium spp. infection was performed. We characterised antibodies against two P. vivax antigens, PvMSP-1 and PvAMA-1, and the cross-reactivity between these antigens using plasma from acute malaria infected patients living in the central region of China and in the western border of Thailand. P. vivax endemicity is found in central China whereas both P. vivax and P. falciparum are endemic in Thailand. There was an increased level of anti-PvMSP-1/anti-PvAMA-1 in both populations. An elevated level of antibodies to total P. vivax proteins and low level of antibodies to total P. falciparum proteins was found in acute P. vivax infected Chinese, suggesting antibody cross-reactivity between the two species. P. vivax infected Thai patients had both anti-P. vivax and anti-P. falciparum antibodies as expected since both species are present in Thailand. More information on humoral and cell mediated immunity during acute P. vivax-infection in the area where only single P. vivax species existed is of great interest in the relation of building up anti-disease severity caused by P. falciparum. This knowledge will support vaccine development in the future. PMID:26713085

  11. Antigen compartmentation and T helper cell tolerance induction

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The process of antigen recognition depends in part on the amount of peptide antigen available and the affinity of the T cell receptor for a particular peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complex. The availability of self antigen is limited by antigen processing, which is compartmentalized such that peptide antigens presented by MHC class I molecules originate in the cytoplasm, whereas peptide antigens presented by MHC class II molecules are acquired from the endocytic pathway. This segregation of the antigen-processing pathways may limit the diversity of antigens that influence the development and selection of, e.g., CD4-positive, MHC class II-specific T cells. Selection in this case might involve only a subset of self- encoded proteins, specifically those that are plasma membrane bound or secreted. To study these aspects of immune development, we engineered pigeon cytochrome for expression in transgenic mice in two forms: one in which it was expressed as a type II plasma membrane protein, and a second in which it was targeted to the mitochondria after cytoplasmic synthesis. Experiments with these mice clearly show that tolerance is induced in the thymus, irrespective of antigen compartmentation. Using radiation bone marrow chimeras, we further show that cytoplasmic/mitochondrial antigen gains access to the MHC class II pathway by direct presentation. As a result of studying the anatomy of the thymus, we show that the amount of antigen and the affinity of the TCR affect the location and time point of thymocytes under-going apoptosis. PMID:8676082

  12. Influence of protein formulation and carrier solution on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: a case study of the plant-produced recombinant anthrax protective antigen pp-PA83.

    PubMed

    Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. PMID:25417936

  13. 78 FR 36196 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Biologics License Applications for Minimally Manipulated, Unrelated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood Intended for Hematopoietic and Immunologic...Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood Intended for Hematopoietic and Immunologic...recommendations for manufacturers, generally cord blood banks, to apply for licensure of...

  14. Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Shi, Yan; Taylor, Clive R.

    2011-01-01

    As a review for the 20th anniversary of publishing the antigen retrieval (AR) technique in this journal, the authors intend briefly to summarize developments in AR-immunohistochemistry (IHC)–based research and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on current challenges and future research directions. Over the past 20 years, the efforts of many different investigators have coalesced in extending the AR approach to all areas of anatomic pathology diagnosis and research and further have led to AR-based protein extraction techniques and tissue-based proteomics. As a result, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue collections are now seen as a literal treasure of materials for clinical and translational research to an extent unimaginable just two decades ago. Further research in AR-IHC is likely to focus on tissue proteomics, developing a more efficient protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue based on the AR principle, and combining the proteomics approach with AR-IHC to establish a practical, sophisticated platform for identifying and using biomarkers in personalized medicine. PMID:21339172

  15. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-02-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen (HBcAg)) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen (HBeAg)). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid.

  16. Multivalent Antigens for Promoting B and T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Courtney, Adam H; Kiessling, Laura L

    2015-08-21

    Efficacious vaccines require antigens that elicit productive immune system activation. Antigens that afford robust antibody production activate both B and T cells. Elucidating the antigen properties that enhance B-T cell communication is difficult with traditional antigens. We therefore used ring-opening metathesis polymerization to access chemically defined, multivalent antigens containing both B and T cell epitopes to explore how antigen structure impacts B cell and T cell activation and communication. The bifunctional antigens were designed so that the backbone substitution level of each antigenic epitope could be quantified using (19)F NMR. The T cell peptide epitope was appended so that it could be liberated in B cells via the action of the endosomal protease cathepsin D, and this design feature was critical for T cell activation. Antigens with high BCR epitope valency induce greater BCR-mediated internalization and T cell activation than did low valency antigens, and these high-valency polymeric antigens were superior to protein antigens. We anticipate that these findings can guide the design of more effective vaccines. PMID:25970017

  17. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (?-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to ?-lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with ?-lactamase in Freund’s adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund’s adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. PMID:16754878

  18. Protein microarrays for gene expression and antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Lueking, A; Horn, M; Eickhoff, H; Büssow, K; Lehrach, H; Walter, G

    1999-05-15

    Proteins translate genomic sequence information into function, enabling biological processes. As a complementary approach to gene expression profiling on cDNA microarrays, we have developed a technique for high-throughput gene expression and antibody screening on chip-size protein microarrays. Using a picking/spotting robot equipped with a new transfer stamp, protein solutions were gridded onto polyvinylidene difluoride filters at high density. Specific purified protein was detected on the filters with high sensitivity (250 amol or 10 pg of a test protein). On a microarray made from bacterial lysates of 92 human cDNA clones expressed in a microtiter plate, putative protein expressors could be reliably identified. The rate of false-positive clones, expressing proteins in incorrect reading frames, was low. Product specificity of selected clones was confirmed on identical microarrays using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivities of some antibodies with unrelated proteins imply the use of protein microarrays for antibody specificity screening against whole libraries of proteins. Because this application would not be restricted to antigen-antibody systems, protein microarrays should provide a general resource for high-throughput screens of gene expression and receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:10328771

  19. Immunogenicity of peptide fusions to hepatitis B virus core antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, S J; Murray, K

    1989-01-01

    Several gene fusions have been constructed in which coding sequences for antigenic regions of the pre-S sequences of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis B surface antigen, and the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus were linked to the 3' end of that for the first 144 residues of hepatitis B core antigen. The sequences were expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli to give stable products that assembled to form particles morphologically similar to hepatitis B core antigen itself. The products exhibited the antigenic and immunogenic characteristics of both the hepatitis B core antigen epitopes and the epitopes carried by the additional sequences, thus illustrating the value of such proteins as immunological reagents and potential vaccines. Images PMID:2474830

  20. Tailoring compensation effects of health-unrelated food properties.

    PubMed

    Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoppert, Karin; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

    2014-09-01

    With the steady rise of the adiposity epidemic, there are increasing calls to stimulate healthier food choices. This is difficult, however, because consumers hold the nearly universal belief that healthy foods are less tasty. To increase their attractiveness, optimizing certain health-unrelated food attributes may help compensate for the loss in taste that is caused by the reduction of fat or sugar. The overall objective of this paper is to examine the boundary conditions under which such compensation effects emerge. Using the example of cookies, we examine how compensation effects depend on (i) the consumer segment, (ii) the configuration of the food product, and (iii) the type of evaluation process. This paper empirically tests compensation effects for optimized flavor intensity. We apply a combination of adaptive conjoint analysis and sensory preference tests. Market simulations and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the intricate interplay among the three contingency variables is far more important than the question of whether compensation effects emerge or not. The analyses uncover four distinct segments and they show that compensation effects depend on which type of health-related attribute is reduced and whether the health-unrelated attribute is improved intrinsically or extrinsically. PMID:24852221

  1. Are backup BM harvests worthwhile in unrelated donor allogeneic transplants?

    PubMed

    Stotler, C; Bolwell, B; Sobecks, R; Dean, R; Serafino, S; Rybicki, L; Andresen, S; Pohlman, B; Kalaycio, M; Copelan, E

    2010-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic blood and marrow transplant program has routinely performed 'backup' autologous harvests in unrelated recipients with hematological malignancies in remission, lymphoma without marrow involvement and CML in chronic phase. We reviewed all adult or cord unrelated donor (URD) transplants performed from January 1995 through September 2008 to evaluate the value of this procedure. Of 130 patients who had backup harvests, 15 (11%) had their backup harvests re-infused, all for graft failure. No patients undergoing fully ablative preparation and unmanipulated or T-depleted grafts from well-matched adult donors required infusion of backup marrow. Nine of 42 patients who underwent T cell grafts from partially matched or mismatched donors, five patients undergoing partially matched ablative transplants from adult donors or cord blood, and one patient undergoing non-myeloablative transplant required infusion of their back-up harvest. Five of 15 patients who received their backup marrow are alive in CR 2-11.6 (median 7.6) years from infusion. Two of these five were bridged to a second URD transplant; the other three showed durable disease-free survival without a second allogeneic transplant. Backup harvest is unnecessary for HLA well-matched myeloablative transplants, but may be useful in patients at higher risk of graft failure. PMID:19421170

  2. Bacterial expression of antigenic sites A and D in the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and evaluation of their inhibitory effects on viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spike (S) protein is a key structural protein of coronaviruses including, the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The S protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein located in the viral envelope and is responsible for mediating the binding of viral particles to specific cell recepto...

  3. Babesia divergens apical membrane antigen-1 (BdAMA-1): A poorly polymorphic protein that induces a weak and late immune response.

    PubMed

    Moreau, E; Bonsergent, C; Al Dybiat, I; Gonzalez, L M; Lobo, C A; Montero, E; Malandrin, L

    2015-08-01

    Babesiosis is an important veterinary and zoonotic tick borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan Babesia spp. which infects red blood cell of its vertebrate host. In order to control the infection, vaccination that targets molecules involved in the invasion process of red blood cells could provide a good alternative to chemotherapy. Among these molecules, Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as an excellent vaccine candidate in Plasmodium spp. In this paper, we have investigated AMA-1 of Babesia divergens (BdAMA-1) as vaccine candidate by evaluating its polymorphism and by studying the humoral response against BdAMA-1 of sheep experimentally infected with B. divergens. Polymorphism of BdAMA-1 was investigated by sequencing the corresponding gene of 9 B. divergens isolates from different geographical areas in France. Two Bdama-1 haplotypes (A and B) could be defined based on 2 non-synonymous point mutations. In silico prediction of linear epitopes revealed that the antigenicity of the 2 haplotypes is very similar. Antibody production against the extracellular domain of BdAMA-1 is weak and late, between 1 and 5 months after the inoculation of parasites. Both IgG1 and IgG2 are components of the anti-BdAMA-1 response. These results indicate that while BdAMA-1 may not be an immuno-dominant antigen, it could induce a mixed type 1 and type 2 immune response. In light of these results, the potential of BdAMA-1 as vaccine candidate is discussed. PMID:25956948

  4. The B cell repertoire of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Frequencies and specificities of peripheral blood B cells reacting with human IgG, human collagens, a mycobacterial heat shock protein and other antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolphi, U; Hohlbaum, A; Lang, B; Peter, H H; Melchers, I

    1993-01-01

    Using a potent in vitro limiting dilution culture system, we have activated human peripheral blood B cells to proliferate and to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASC). Under these conditions 25-100% of B cells are clonally expanded and produce IgM, IgG or IgA. Culture supernatants were tested for antibodies binding to human IgG-Fc fragments (RF), the 65-kD heat shock protein of Mycobacterium bovis (hsp60), human collagens type I, II, IV, V, transferrin, lactoferrin, albumins, and gelatine. All blood samples contained precursors of ASC (p-ASC) able to produce IgM binding to these antigens in frequencies above 0.03% of B cells. Most interestingly, a significant difference exists between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and controls, concerning the relative frequencies of p-ASC able to produce monospecific or multireactive RF. Whereas most p-ASC(RF) in RA patients are monospecific (mean ratio 3.7), most p-ASC(RF) in healthy control persons are cross-reactive with at least one of five other antigens tested (mean ratio 0.2). The data suggest a disease-specific expansion of p-ASC committed to the production of monospecific rheumatoid factors. PMID:8099856

  5. T cell reactivity against antigen 85 but not against the 18- and 65-kD heat shock proteins in the early stages of acquired immunity against Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Launois, P; Niang N'Diaye, M; Sarthou, J L; Drowart, A; Van Vooren, J P; Cartel, J L; Huygen, K

    1994-01-01

    T cell proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 household contacts were tested against the 18- and 65-kD heat shock proteins from Mycobacterium leprae (ML18 and ML65 respectively) and antigen 85 from Myco. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (Ag 85) during a 12-months follow-up study. Among the eight contacts that became positive, eight showed positive reactivity against Ag 85, 5/8 against ML65 and 4/8 against ML18 at the end of the study. Of the 16 contacts who were lepromin-positive either at first or second testing, all responded to Ag 85, 11 to ML 65, but only eight reacted to ML18 antigen. Contacts who were lepromin-positive at first testing developed responses to ML18 only at second testing. In contrast, among the four contacts that remained lepromin-negative during the follow up, three proliferated to Ag 85 either at first or second testing, but only one produced IFN-gamma against Ag 85 at the end of the study. These results demonstrated that T cell reactivity and particularly IFN-gamma secretion against Ag 85, but not against ML18 and ML65, might be a predominant mechanism in the early stages of acquired protective immunity against Myco. leprae. PMID:8149672

  6. Characterization of antigens from type A and B yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Buckley, H R; Campbell, C C

    1977-01-01

    The antigenic composition of cytoplasmic extract and culture filtrate antigens of type A and B yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum grown in a synthetic medium was studied. These preparations from type A and B yeast cells contained varying amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and protein-carbohydrate complexes. The antigenic analysis of these preparations was performed by antigen-antiserum absorption with subsequent immunodiffusion and cross-immunoelectrophoresis with absorption in situ in an intermediate gel. All protein antigens observed in culture filtrate of either type A or B yeast cells were also present in the cytoplasmic extracts of the same type. The cytoplasmic extract of type A and B yeast cells each contained certain characteristic antigens that were not shared by the other type. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis with different molecular weight fractions of the antigenic preparations from both types indicated the polydisperse nature of Histoplasma yeast cell antigens. PMID:193788

  7. Unrelated toxin–antitoxin systems cooperate to induce persistence

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Persisters are drug-tolerant bacteria that account for the majority of bacterial infections. They are not mutants, rather, they are slow-growing cells in an otherwise normally growing population. It is known that the frequency of persisters in a population is correlated with the number of toxin–antitoxin systems in the organism. Our previous work provided a mechanistic link between the two by showing how multiple toxin–antitoxin systems, which are present in nearly all bacteria, can cooperate to induce bistable toxin concentrations that result in a heterogeneous population of slow- and fast-growing cells. As such, the slow-growing persisters are a bet-hedging subpopulation maintained under normal conditions. For technical reasons, the model assumed that the kinetic parameters of the various toxin–antitoxin systems in the cell are identical, but experimental data indicate that they differ, sometimes dramatically. Thus, a critical question remains: whether toxin–antitoxin systems from the diverse families, often found together in a cell, with significantly different kinetics, can cooperate in a similar manner. Here, we characterize the interaction of toxin–antitoxin systems from many families that are unrelated and kinetically diverse, and identify the essential determinant for their cooperation. The generic architecture of toxin–antitoxin systems provides the potential for bistability, and our results show that even when they do not exhibit bistability alone, unrelated systems can be coupled by the growth rate to create a strongly bistable, hysteretic switch between normal (fast-growing) and persistent (slow-growing) states. Different combinations of kinetic parameters can produce similar toxic switching thresholds, and the proximity of the thresholds is the primary determinant of bistability. Stochastic fluctuations can spontaneously switch all of the toxin–antitoxin systems in a cell at once. The spontaneous switch creates a heterogeneous population of growing and non-growing cells, typical of persisters, that exist under normal conditions, rather than only as an induced response. The frequency of persisters in the population can be tuned for a particular environmental niche by mixing and matching unrelated systems via mutation, horizontal gene transfer and selection. PMID:26063817

  8. Diversity in MHC class II antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, John H; Delvig, Alexei A

    2002-01-01

    Processing exogenous and endogenous proteins for presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to T cells is the defining function of antigen-presenting cells (APC) as major regulatory cells in the acquired immune response. MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation to CD4 T cells is achieved by an essentially common pathway that is subject to variation with regard to the location and extent of degradation of protein antigens and the site of peptide binding to MHC class II molecules. These subtle variations reveal a surprising flexibility in the ways a diverse peptide repertoire is displayed on the APC surface. This diversity may have profound consequences for the induction of immunity to infection and tumours, as well as autoimmunity and tolerance. PMID:11918686

  9. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Christoph B.; Piller, Alexander; Linder, Angela; Sauerwein, Kai M. T.; Eibl, Martha M.; Wolf, Hermann M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency. PMID:26186701

  10. Pediatric Cholecystectomy: Clinical Significance of Cases Unrelated to Hematologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Soo-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cholecystectomy is rarely performed in the child and adolescent. However, it is associated with several conditions. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of pediatric patient who underwent cholecystectomy unrelated to hematologic disorders, and then to suggest its clinical significance in management by comparing a simple and complicated gallbladder disease. Methods We reviewed cases of cholecystectomy in pediatric patients (under 18 years old) at a single institution between January 2003 and October 2014. There were 143 cases during the study period and 24 were selected as the subject group. Results There were 7 male (29.2%) and 17 female (70.8%) patients. The mean age was 13.1 years old, and 66.6% of patients were older than 12 years. Mean body weight was 52.7 kg, and body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2, with 41.7% of patients being overweight or obese. We could identify a female predominance and high proportion of overweight or obesity in a complicated disease. There were also significantly increased levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin in this group. Most patients (87.5%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion Cholecystectomy for diseases unrelated to hematologic disorders is rarely performed in the child and adolescent. In general, female patients who are overweight or obese, and those older than 12 years old, require laparoscopic cholecystectomy owing to multiple gallstones. This condition has a tendency to show a complicated gallbladder disease and significantly increased levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin. PMID:26157697

  11. Antigenicity of venous allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Axthelm, S C; Porter, J M; Strickland, S; Baur, G M

    1979-01-01

    With isolated exceptions, the clinical use of venous allografts has been disappointing. Considerable evidence indicates that allograft antigenicity plays a major role in the failure of venous allografts when used as arterial replacements. Recent reports suggest that DMSO-cryopreservation of venous allografts may reduce allograft antigenicity while preserving allograft viability. The present study examines the effect of modifications of vein allografts on subsequent allograft antigenicity. Skin grafts were transplanted from ACI to Lewis inbred strains of male rats. Primary skin graft rejection occurred in 9.0 +/- 1.0 days. Subcutaneous implantation of fresh inferior vena cava from ACI rate into Lewis rats resulted in subsequent skin graft rejection in 5.0 +/- 1.0 days, confirming the antigenicity of venous tissue. Cryopreservation of ACI inferior vena cava for seven days prior to implantation, with or without 15% DMSO, resulted in subsequent skin graft rejection in 5.0 +/- 1.0 days. Treatment of ACI inferior vena cava with 0.30% gluteraldehyde for 20 minutes prior to implantation in Lewis rats resulted in skin graft rejection in 9.0 +/- 1.0 days, the same time as a first set rejection. This study indicates that unmodified veins are normally antigenic and that this antigenicity is not eliminated by cryopreservation with or without DMSO. Gluteraldehyde treatment appears to reduce allograft antigenicity, but results in a nonviable graft. At the present time, there is no known way to reduce the antigenicity of viable venous allografts. PMID:106782

  12. Identification of Circulating Bacterial Antigens by In Vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Dana E.; Crump, Reva B.; Dwi Handayani, Farida; Chantratita, Narisara; Peacock, Sharon J.; Bowen, Richard; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw; Wu, Terry; Lyons, C. Rick; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; Kozel, Thomas R.; AuCoin, David P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detection of microbial antigens in clinical samples can lead to rapid diagnosis of an infection and administration of appropriate therapeutics. A major barrier in diagnostics development is determining which of the potentially hundreds or thousands of antigens produced by a microbe are actually present in patient samples in detectable amounts against a background of innumerable host proteins. In this report, we describe a strategy, termed in vivo microbial antigen discovery (InMAD), that we used to identify circulating bacterial antigens. This technique starts with “InMAD serum,” which is filtered serum that has been harvested from BALB/c mice infected with a bacterial pathogen. The InMAD serum, which is free of whole bacterial cells, is used to immunize syngeneic BALB/c mice. The resulting “InMAD immune serum” contains antibodies specific for the soluble microbial antigens present in sera from the infected mice. The InMAD immune serum is then used to probe blots of bacterial lysates or bacterial proteome arrays. Bacterial antigens that are reactive with the InMAD immune serum are precisely the antigens to target in an antigen immunoassay. By employing InMAD, we identified multiple circulating antigens that are secreted or shed during infection using Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis as model organisms. Potential diagnostic targets identified by the InMAD approach included bacterial proteins, capsular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide. The InMAD technique makes no assumptions other than immunogenicity and has the potential to be a broad discovery platform to identify diagnostic targets from microbial pathogens. PMID:21846829

  13. Involvement of a C-terminal motif in the interference of primate lentiviral Vpu proteins with CD1d-mediated antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Susanna M.; Sauter, Daniel; Sibitz, Sabrina; Sandberg, Johan K.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Moll, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu is emerging as a critical factor for viral evasion from innate immunity. We have previously shown that the Vpu proteins of two HIV-1 group M subtype B strains (NL4-3 and BaL) down-regulate CD1d from the surface of infected dendritic cells (DCs) and inhibit their crosstalk with the innate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of a comprehensive set of primate lentiviral Vpu proteins to interfere with CD1d-mediated immunity. We found that CD1d down-regulation is a conserved function of Vpu proteins from HIV-1 groups M, O and P as well as their direct precursors SIVcpzPtt and SIVgor. At the group M subtype level, subtype C Vpu proteins were significantly weaker CD1d antagonists than subtype B Vpu proteins. Functional characterization of different mutants and chimeras derived from active subtype B and inactive subtype C Vpu proteins revealed that residues in the cytoplasmic domain are important for CD1d down-regulation. Specifically, we identified a C-terminal APW motif characteristic for group M subtype B Vpu proteins necessary for interference with CD1d surface expression. These findings support the notion that Vpu plays an important role in lentiviral evasion from innate immunity. PMID:25872908

  14. Specific recognition of mycobacterial protein and peptide antigens by gamma-delta T cell subsets following infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Promoting effective immunity to Mycobacterium bovis infection is a challenge that is of interest to the fields of human and animal medicine alike. We report that 'd T cells from virulent M. bovis infected cattle respond specifically and directly to complex, protein and non-protein mycobacterial anti...

  15. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  16. Differences in CD1d protein structure determine species-selective antigenicity of isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) to invariant natural killer T (iNKT)Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Joseph P.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Mansour, Salah; Matulis, Gediminas; Patel, Onisha; Lissin, Nikolai; Godfrey, Dale I.; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi; Zähringer, Ulrich; Rossjohn, Jamie; Brenner, Michael B.; Gadola, Stephan D.

    2014-01-01

    Isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) has been identified as a potent CD1d-presented self-antigen for mouse iNKT cells. The role of iGb3 in humans remains unresolved, however, as there have been conflicting reports about iGb3-dependent human iNKT-cell activation, and humans lack iGb3 synthase, a key enzyme for iGb3 synthesis. Given the importance of human immune responses, we conducted a human-mouse cross-species analysis of iNKT-cell activation by iGb3-CD1d. Here we show that human and mouse iNKT cells were both able to recognise iGb3 presented by mouse CD1d (mCD1d), but not human CD1d (hCD1d), as iGb3-hCD1d was unable to support cognate interactions with the iNKT-cell TCR. The structural basis for this discrepancy was identified as a single amino acid variation between hCD1d and mCD1d, a glycine-to-tryptophan modification within the alpha2-helix that prevents flattening of the iGb3 headgroup upon TCR ligation. Mutation of the human residue, Trp153, to the mouse ortholog, Gly155, therefore allowed iGb3-hCD1d to stimulate human iNKT cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that iGb3 is unlikely to be a major antigen in human iNKT-cell biology. PMID:23280365

  17. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Coukos, George; Kandalaft, Lana E.

    2015-01-01

    With its vast amount of uncharacterized and characterized T cell epitopes available for activating CD4+ T helper and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes simultaneously, whole tumor antigen represents an attractive alternative source of antigens as compared to tumor-derived peptides and full-length recombinant tumor proteins for dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy. Unlike defined tumor-derived peptides and proteins, whole tumor lysate therapy is applicable to all patients regardless of their HLA type. DCs are essentially the master regulators of immune response, and are the most potent antigen-presenting cell population for priming and activating naïve T cells to target tumors. Because of these unique properties, numerous DC-based immunotherapies have been initiated in the clinics. In this review, we describe the different types of whole tumor antigens that we could use to pulse DCs ex vivo and in vivo. We also discuss the different routes of delivering whole tumor antigens to DCs in vivo and activating them with toll-like receptor agonists. PMID:26343191

  18. Antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Judith; Abbot, A.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructural location of labelled antigens and carbon in the spleens of rats from 4 minutes to 5 days after injection. Particular attention was focused on the sites of deposition 4 minutes after intra-arterial injection of microgram quantities of 125I-labelled Salmonella flagellar antigens, crayfish haemocyanin and BSA, using colloidal carbon for comparison. The combination of radioautography with both light and electron microscopy showed the importance of antigen binding by lymphocytes in the marginal zone of the spleen. Macrophage sequestration of antigens was not prominent in the spleen, although it occurred in the liver with the flagellar antigens and haemocyanin. In the spleen marginal zone, avid antigen-binding cells were found in situ 4 minutes after the injection of labelled haemocyanin. These appear to be the counterpart in vivo of antigen-binding lymphocytes prepared in vitro. Such cells also occurred infrequently after the injection of labelled polymerized flagellin, but were not found with either BSA or carbon. The apparent movement of flagellar antigen from the marginal zone to the white pulp between 1 and 2 hours after injection was seen to involve lymphocyte-associated antigen. The follicular antigen localization occurring from 1 day onwards after injection was on the dendritic reticular cells of germinal centres, as has been described in lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection. Carbon particles were rapidly sequestered in macrophages of the spleen and liver, although some particles were found between cells in the marginal zone for as long as 2 hours after injection. By 2 and 5 days, however, all the carbon was in phagocytes, even in the white pulp. Differences between the localization of antigens and carbon were clear, even in the ultrastructural sites of their location in tingible body macrophages of germinal centres. The unexpected emphasis of lymphocyte association with labelled antigens in the spleen marginal zone has allowed a revison of the mechanism previously proposed for the movement of antigens within the microenvironments of the spleen. ImagesFIGS 1-2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIGS 6-7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIGS 11-14FIG. 15 PMID:5571538

  19. Overview of Plant-Made Vaccine Antigens against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Marina; Corigliano, Mariana G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an overview of vaccine antigens against malaria produced in plants. Plant-based expression systems represent an interesting production platform due to their reduced manufacturing costs and high scalability. At present, different Plasmodium antigens and expression strategies have been optimized in plants. Furthermore, malaria antigens are one of the few examples of eukaryotic proteins with vaccine value expressed in plants, making plant-derived malaria antigens an interesting model to analyze. Up to now, malaria antigen expression in plants has allowed the complete synthesis of these vaccine antigens, which have been able to induce an active immune response in mice. Therefore, plant production platforms offer wonderful prospects for improving the access to malaria vaccines. PMID:22911156

  20. Original Article: Sensitive and multiplexed detection of proteomic antigens via

    E-print Network

    Wikswo, John

    in the coming decades. Conventional protein detection technologies that are currently used in research settings a sensitive, rapid, single-step, solution-phase antigen detection techni- que based on nanoparticle self

  1. IRRIGATION TO MAXIMIZE VACCINE ANTIGEN PRODUCTION IN PHARMACEUTICAL TOBACCO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology companies have engineered plants to produce recombinant proteins for therapeutic drugs and vaccines. Chlorogen, Inc. located in St. Louis, Missouri, inserted the protective antigen (PA) gene from Bacillus anthracis into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplasts to produce an anthrax va...

  2. MHC Class II Auto-Antigen Presentation is Unconventional

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade; Kim, AeRyon

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is highly critical in adoptive immunity. Only by interacting with antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, helper T cells can be stimulated to fight infections or diseases. The degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments bound to class II molecules is a dynamic, lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperons. Deregulation in any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Indeed, human leukocyte antigens class II genes are the predominant contributors to susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Conventional antigen-processing calls for internalization of extracellular antigens followed by processing and epitope selection within antigen-processing subcellular compartments, enriched with all necessary accessory molecules, processing enzymes, and proper pH and denaturing conditions. However, recent data examining the temporal relationship between antigen uptakes, processing, and epitope selection revealed unexpected characteristics for auto-antigenic epitopes, which were not shared with antigenic epitopes from pathogens. This review provides a discussion of the relevance of these findings to the mechanisms of autoimmunity. PMID:26257739

  3. A HANDHELD MAGNETIC SENSING PLATFORM FOR ANTIGEN AND NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION

    E-print Network

    Hajimiri, Ali

    A HANDHELD MAGNETIC SENSING PLATFORM FOR ANTIGEN AND NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION A. Pai1* , AM for the protein interferon- (IFN- ). KEYWORDS: Nucleic Acid, Antigen, Biosensor, Magnetic Figure 1: (a) Handheld. 1a) with two fully implemented assays for antigens and nucleic acids (Fig 2a,b). It is based

  4. Superheating antigen retrieval.

    PubMed

    Leong, Anthony S-Y; Lee, Eung Seok; Yin, Hui; Kear, Megan; Haffajee, Zenobia; Pepperall, Debbie

    2002-09-01

    Heat-induced antigen retrieval in a variety of solutions has been shown to enhance the immunoreactivity of a wide range of antigens in routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Accurate time and temperature control is important for standardization and optimization of the procedure but is difficult to achieve. This study used a device to attain precise time and temperature control for antigen retrieval at 120 degrees C under 1.9 bar pressure. It compares the efficacy of this method with antigen retrieval in a conventional pressure cooker, by microwave heating at 98 degrees C, and ultrasound retrieval at 40 and 70 W for 40 and 100 seconds. Multitissue and multitumor blocks containing a spectrum of normal tissues and a variety of tumors, respectively, were used, and 42 routine diagnostic antibodies were applied with a standard peroxidase conjugated streptavidin technique. Sections in which antigen retrieval was not performed served as controls. The three heat-induced methods showed distinctly better immunostaining for all antigens compared with those obtained with ultrasound retrieval. The latter method did not produce consistent staining and intensity, and the extent of staining was only marginally better than sections not subjected to antigen retrieval. Superheating at 120 degrees C produced the best overall results with the exception of antibodies to cytokeratin clones Cam 5.2, AE1/3, and 34BE12 in which superheating resulted in slightly inferior immunostaining compared with heating in a pressure cooker and at 98 degrees C. PMID:12373155

  5. Moroccan study of HLA (-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ) polymorphism in 647 unrelated controls: Updating data.

    PubMed

    Brick, Chehrazade; Atouf, Ouafa; Bouayad, Abdellatif; Essakalli, Malika

    2015-08-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) distribution and polymorphism in a large sample of healthy Moroccans in order to extend and update the available data. 647 unrelated Moroccan controls originating from diverse regions of the country were typed using microlymphocytotoxicity for HLA-A and -B, sequence-specific-primer amplification for -C, -DR, and -DQ and Luminex HD for specific -DR. The most frequent allele groups detected were HLA-A2 (19.2%), -B44 (12.4%), -C*07 (24.4%), -DRB1*03 (16.9%), -DRB1*04 (18.4%), -DQB1*02 (28.7%) and -DQB1*03 (27.8%). The most predominant specific alleles found for DRB1 were: *03:01, *04:02, *04:05, *07:01, *11:01, *13:02 and *15:01. Rare allelic variants were detected, for the first time in Moroccan population, at the DRB1*03 (*03:52, *03:54, *03:56), DRB1*07 (*07:07, *07:11, *07:16) and DRB1*11 (*11:70) locus. The most frequent haplotypes were: A2-B44, A30-B18, A2-C*16, A30-C*06, B14-C*08, B58-C*07, B45-C*06, DRB1*03-DQB1*02, DRB1*04-DQB1*03, DRB1*07-DQB1*02 and DRB1*15-DQB1*06. Comparison of genetic distances and haplotypes with other populations shows that the Moroccans are genetically closer to North Africans and Europeans than to sub-Saharan Africans. Our results reflect the high degree of HLA polymorphism in the Moroccan population and provide a useful baseline of healthy Moroccan controls for disease association and anthropological studies. PMID:25952615

  6. Carbohydrate-functionalized nanovaccines preserve HIV-1 antigen stability and activate antigen presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Vela Ramirez, J.E.; Roychoudhury, R.; Habte, H.H.; Cho, M. W.; Pohl, N. L. B.; Narasimhan, B.

    2015-01-01

    The functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with ligands that target specific receptors on immune cells offers the opportunity to tailor adjuvant properties by conferring pathogen mimicking attributes to the particles. Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine adjuvants with desirable characteristics such as immunomodulation, sustained antigen release, activation of antigen presenting cells, and stabilization of protein antigens. These capabilities can be exploited to design nanovaccines against viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, due to the important role of dendritic cells and macrophages in viral spread. In this work, an optimized process was developed for carbohydrate functionalization of HIV-1 antigen-loaded polyanhydride nanoparticles. The carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles preserved antigenic properties upon release and also enabled sustained antigen release kinetics. Particle internalization was observed to be chemistry-dependent with positively charged nanoparticles being taken up more efficiently by dendritic cells. Up-regulation of the activation makers CD40 and CD206 was demonstrated with carboxymethyl-?-d-mannopyranosyl-(1,2)-d-mannopyranoside functionalized nanoparticles. The secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? was shown to be chemistry-dependent upon stimulation with carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles. These results offer important new insights upon the interactions between carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles and antigen presenting cells and provide foundational information for the rational design of targeted nanovaccines against HIV-1. PMID:25068589

  7. Isolation of recombinant protective Helicobacter pylori antigens.

    PubMed

    Hocking, D; Webb, E; Radcliff, F; Rothel, L; Taylor, S; Pinczower, G; Kapouleas, C; Braley, H; Lee, A; Doidge, C

    1999-09-01

    A total of seven clones producing both new and previously described Helicobacter pylori proteins were isolated from a library of H. pylori genomic DNA. The screening approach by which these proteins were detected relied on the use of antisera raised in mice vaccinated with Helicobacter felis sonicate plus cholera toxin, a regimen which protects mice from H. pylori challenge. This strategy was designed to maximize the possibility of obtaining antigens which might be capable of conferring protection from H. pylori infection. Two of the clones were shown to encode the urease enzyme and the heat shock protein HspB, which have already been identified as protective antigens. The other five clones were sequenced, protein coding regions were deduced, and these sequences were amplified by PCR for incorporation into Escherichia coli expression vectors. The proteins produced from these expression systems were purified to allow testing for protective efficacy in an H. pylori mouse model. All five proteins were able to facilitate the clearance of a challenge with H. pylori, as judged by an assay of gastric urease activity and light microscopy on stomach sections. These results clearly indicate that the screening strategy has successfully identified candidate vaccine antigens. PMID:10456921

  8. Purification and characterization of group A streptococcal T-1 antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R H; Vosti, K L

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the recovery of purified T-antigen from crude trypsin extracts of an avirulent strain of M-1 protein deficient, T-type 1 group A Streptococcus. The purified T-antigen was resistant to enzymatic degradation with trypsin and pepsin, formed a single precipitin line with standard T-1 antiserum, failed to react with antisera for teichoic acid, group A carbohydrate, and cross-reactive protein antigens, stimulated only a single precipitin system when rabbits were immunized, contained glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, and serine as the five most predominant amino acids, and consisted of subunit size isomers. Images PMID:70408

  9. Slow platelet recovery after PBPC transplantation from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; Hanks, S G; Akard, L P; Morgan, J A; Nolan, P L; Dugan, M J; Reeves, M I; Thompson, J M

    2009-03-01

    The effects of the composition of PBPC grafts from matched related donors (MRDs) and matched unrelated donors (MUDs) have not been compared. In a single-center study, the compositions of 55 MRD PBPC grafts and 33 MUD grafts were studied for their effect on the rate of engraftment in patients who had evidence of donor cell engraftment on day +28. The MUD grafts came more frequently from young male donors and contained more CD34(+) cells but similar numbers of colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming units-erythroid. The recovery of neutrophils to >500/mm(3) was equally fast in both groups, but recovery of platelets to >20,000/mm(3) was significantly delayed in the MUD group (P<0.001). The MUD group also required more transfusions of platelets and red cells. Patients receiving grafts containing low numbers of CFU-GM had markedly delayed platelet recovery. The patients with the slowest engraftment tended to have prolonged transportation times. Storage experiments suggested a major loss of viable CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM when undiluted PBPC products are stored at room temperature. The data suggest that a fraction of the MUD grafts suffer during transportation. In vitro proliferation assays should be part of the validation and auditing of transportation of MUD grafts. PMID:18997834

  10. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web. PMID:12216954

  11. MicroRNA-519 enhances HL60 human acute myeloid leukemia cell line proliferation by reducing the expression level of RNA-binding protein human antigen R.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kebin; Dong, Bingwei; Wang, Yueyue; Tian, Tao; Zhang, Biying

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in cell apoptosis. However, the role of miR-519 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has yet to be elucidated. The present study identified the effects of miR?519 on HL60 human acute myeloid leukemia cell growth and apoptosis. The expression levels of miR?519 were examined in AML cells, as well as AML tissue samples. Furthermore, cell viability and apoptosis were examined in HL60 cells transfected with miR?519 mimics, miR?519 inhibitors or a negative control. In addition, the effects of human antigen R (HuR) on cell apoptosis were investigated using specific small interfering RNA targeting HuR. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of miR?519 were significantly increased in the AML cells and the tissue samples, suggesting that miR?519 may contribute to abnormal HL60 cell proliferation. Upregulation of miR?519 expression decreased HL60 cell viability and induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of HuR reduced cell migration and enhanced cell apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that miR?519 may contribute to HL60 cell apoptosis by regulating the expression of HuR. PMID:26499919

  12. Two novel neutralizing antigenic epitopes of the s1 subunit protein of a QX-like avian infectious bronchitis virus strain Sczy3 as revealed using a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Zou, Nianli; Xia, Jing; Wang, Fuyan; Duan, Zhenzhen; Miao, Dan; Yan, Qigui; Cao, Sanjie; Wen, Xintian; Liu, Ping; Huang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    The spike (S) protein of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) plays a central role in the pathogenicity, the immune antibody production, serotype and the tissue tropism. In this study, we generate 11 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against S1 subunit of IBV Sczy3 strain, and two mAbs 1D5 and 6A12 were positive in indirect ELISA against both His-S1 protein and the purified whole viral antigen. MAb 6A12 and 1D5 could recognized by other 10 IBV strains (IBVs) from five different genotypes, except that 1D5 had a relatively low reaction with two of the 10 tested IBVs. End-point neutralizing assay performed in chicken embro kidney (CEK) cells revealed that the neutralization titer of 6A12 and 1D5 against Sczy3 reached 1:44.7 and 1:40.6, respectively. After screening a phage display peptide library and peptide scanning, we identified two linear B-cell epitopes that were recognized by the mAbs 1D5 and 6A12, which corresponded to the amino acid sequences (87)PPQGMAW(93) and (412)IQTRTEP(418), respectively, in the IBV S1 subunit. Sequences comparison revealed that epitope (412)IQTRTEP(418) was conserved among IBVs, while the epitope (87)PPQGMAW(93) was relatively variable among IBVs. The novel mAbs and the epitopes identified will be useful for developing diagnostic assays for IBV infections. PMID:26315775

  13. Antigen injection (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  14. Rotavirus antigen test

    MedlinePLUS

    The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children. ... Rotavirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis ("stomach flu") in children. This test is done to diagnose ...

  15. Purification of bovine and human retinal S-antigen using immunoabsorbent polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Mahlberg, K

    1989-01-01

    Bovine retinal S-antigen was prepared using gel filtration chromatography followed by DEAE A-50 or QAE A-50 anion-exchange chromatography. The final purification was performed using immunoadsorbents made from polymerized polyvalent antiserum (rabbit) to bovine serum components. The purity of the antigen was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, double diffusion according to Ouchterlony, immunoblotting and by producing monospecific antiserum to the retinal S-antigen. Both S-antigen preparations (DEAE and QAE) proved to be highly uveitogenic, causing experimental allergic uveitis in guinea pigs within 14 days of immunization. DEAE separated the antigen into three protein peaks but QAE only into one distinct protein peak. All these protein peaks were S-antigen-active and the yield was about the same using both separation systems. After optimizing the purification for bovine retinas, human retinal S-antigen was also prepared. PMID:2660053

  16. Polylysine-mediated translocation of the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain through the anthrax protective antigen pore.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Onkar; Collier, R John

    2014-11-11

    The protective antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin forms oligomeric pores in the endosomal membrane, which translocate the effector proteins of the toxin to the cytosol. Effector proteins bind to oligomeric PA via their respective N-terminal domains and undergo N- to C-terminal translocation through the pore. Earlier we reported that a tract of basic amino acids fused to the N-terminus of an unrelated effector protein (the catalytic domain diphtheria toxin, DTA) potentiated that protein to undergo weak PA-dependent translocation. In this study, we varied the location of the tract (N-terminal or C-terminal) and the length of a poly-Lys tract fused to DTA and examined the effects of these variations on PA-dependent translocation into cells and across planar bilayers in vitro. Entry into cells was most efficient with ?12 Lys residues (K12) fused to the N-terminus but also occurred, albeit 10-100-fold less efficiently, with a C-terminal tract of the same length. Similarly, K12 tracts at either terminus occluded PA pores in planar bilayers, and occlusion was more efficient with the N-terminal tag. We used biotin-labeled K12 constructs in conjunction with streptavidin to show that a biotinyl-K12 tag at either terminus is transiently exposed to the trans compartment of planar bilayers at 20 mV; this partial translocation in vitro was more efficient with an N-terminal tag than a C-terminal tag. Significantly, our studies with polycationic tracts fused to the N- and C-termini of DTA suggest that PA-mediated translocation can occur not only in the N to C direction but also in the C to N direction. PMID:25317832

  17. A novel form of hepatitis delta antigen.

    PubMed

    Bichko, V V; Khudyakov, Y E; Taylor, J M

    1996-05-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is known to express a protein termed the small delta antigen, a structural protein which is also essential for genome replication. During replication, posttranscriptional RNA editing specifically modifies some of the HDV RNA, leading to the production of an elongated form of the delta antigen, the large form, which is essential for virus assembly. The present study showed that yet another form of HDV protein is expressed during genome replication. This novel form is not produced in all infected cells, but it arises during replication in transfected cells and in infected woodchucks, and as was previously reported, patients infected with HDV do make antibodies directed against it. These findings are an indicator of the complexity of gene expression during HDV infection and replication. PMID:8627806

  18. A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay for antibody detection in serum is described in the present work. The developed assay is conducted in solution and utilizes Au nanoparticles coated with the envelope (E) protein of West Nile Virus (WNV) as the SERS-active substrate and malachite...

  19. Immunogenicity comparison of a multi-antigenic peptide bearing V3 sequences of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with TAB9 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Cruz, L J; Quintana, D; Iglesias, E; Garcia, Y; Huerta, V; Garay, H E; Duarte, C; Reyes, O

    2000-05-01

    The multiple antigenic peptide system (MAP) has been proposed as a novel and valuable approach for eliciting antibodies for peptides and developing synthetic vaccines. Multi-epitope polypeptides (MEP) have also been developed as an alternative to the recombinant approach for vaccines. The V3 loop from the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) external glycoprotein (gp120) contains the principal neutralization domain (PND). Antibodies against this region neutralize HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. In this work, a novel presentation of di-epitope MAP was synthesized. A monomeric MAP carrying two identical JY1 V3 sequences as B-cell epitopes and the 830-843 region of tetanus toxoid as a T-helper cell epitope was synthesized. This basic structure was covalently linked to produce a four-JY1-branched homodimer (JY1-MAP4). Additionally, six different monomeric MAPs, bearing four copies of V3 from isolates LR150, JY1, RF, MN, BRVA and IIIB, were synthesized. These monomers were conveniently linked among themselves to produce homodimeric and heterodimeric MAPs of eight V3 branches (V3-MAP8). JY1-MAP8 elicited higher antibody titers in Balb/c mice than JY1-MAP4. The immunogenicity of two different, hexavalent V3-MAP8 mixtures and the MEP TAB9, which tandems the same six V3 sequences in a single molecule, were compared. The antibody response against the mixtures of the heterodimeric MAP showed a wider recognition pattern of the V3 region, while the homodimeric cocktail showed an intermediate pattern. Antibodies elicited by TAB9 recognized only the JY1, LR150 peptides. These results emphasize the influence of V3 epitope presentation upon the characteristics of the antibody response generated. PMID:10823490

  20. Nonconscious Emotional Information Boosts Categorically Unrelated Concurrent Visual Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lufityanto, Galang; Pearson, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Can categorically different sources of unconscious information be utilised to aid in concurrent perceptual decisions? Here, we employ a novel empirical paradigm that utilises a noisy visual decision task and the concurrent presentation of suppressed emotional images. Using continuous flash suppression we rendered both positive and fearful images nonconscious. Participants had to decide the direction of random dot motion stimuli presented simultaneously with the suppressed emotional images. The binary emotional valence of the images (positive or negative) was concordant with the direction of the motion in the decision stimulus (right or left) across 6 levels of dots motion coherence. We found that that suppressed emotional images boosted decision accuracy, sped up reaction times, and increase reports of confidence for brief presentation of stimuli (i.e. 400 ms) relative to a spatial phase-scrambled version of the same images. However, accuracy was no higher when the decisional stimulus was paired with different categories of non-emotional images. To test the contingency between emotional and sensory information, we reversed the association between emotional valence (positive and negative emotion) and dot motion direction on the third block of trials. When the association was reversed the difference in accuracy between the intact emotional images and their phase-scrambled version disappeared. A consistent contingency between emotional valence and dot direction is seemingly required for individuals to utilize unconscious emotional information in the otherwise unrelated decision task. Next, we measured skin conductance while participants performed the emotionally boosted decision task. We found a differential skin conductance response to suppressed normal images compared to the phase-scrambled control images. More importantly, the electrodermal activity declined with increasing dots motion coherence suggesting an interaction with decisional difficultly. Together these data suggest a possible new experimental paradigm to investigate the dynamics of processes and experiences often described as intuition. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325734

  1. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or... Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a) In general. Under section 513(f... or business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section)....

  2. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or... Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a) In general. Under section 513(f... or business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section)....

  3. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or... Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a) In general. Under section 513(f... or business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section)....

  4. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or... Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a) In general. Under section 513(f... or business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section)....

  5. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or... Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a) In general. Under section 513(f... or business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section)....

  6. 26 CFR 1.513-1 - Definition of unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of unrelated trade or business. 1.513-1 Section 1.513-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-1 Definition of unrelated...

  7. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. 1.513-5 Section 1.513-5...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a) In general. Under...

  8. 26 CFR 1.514(a)-1 - Unrelated debt-financed income and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Unrelated debt-financed income and deductions. 1.514(a)-1 Section 1.514(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(a)-1 Unrelated debt-financed income and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 true Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. 1...Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business. (a...business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.513-1 - Definition of unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of unrelated trade or business. 1.513-1 Section 1.513-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-1 Definition of unrelated...

  11. A study on antigenicity and receptor-binding ability of fragment 450-650 of the spike protein of SARS coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jincun; Wang Wei; Yuan Zhihong; Jia Rujing; Zhao Zhendong; Xu Xiaojun; Lv Ping; Zhang Yan; Jiang Chengyu; Gao Xiaoming . E-mail: xmgao@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-03-15

    The spike (S) protein of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is responsible for viral binding with ACE2 molecules. Its receptor-binding motif (S-RBM) is located between residues 424 and 494, which folds into 2 anti-parallel {beta}-sheets, {beta}5 and {beta}6. We have previously demonstrated that fragment 450-650 of the S protein (S450-650) is predominantly recognized by convalescent sera of SARS patients. The N-terminal 60 residues (450-510) of the S450-650 fragment covers the entire {beta}6 strand of S-RBM. In the present study, we demonstrate that patient sera predominantly recognized 2 linear epitopes outside the {beta}6 fragment, while the mouse antisera, induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant S450-650, mainly recognized the {beta}6 strand-containing region. Unlike patient sera, however, the mouse antisera were unable to inhibit the infectivity of S protein-expressing (SARS-CoV-S) pseudovirus. Fusion protein between green fluorescence protein (GFP) and S450-650 (S450-650-GFP) was able to stain Vero E6 cells and deletion of the {beta}6 fragment rendered the fusion product (S511-650-GFP) unable to do so. Similarly, recombinant S450-650, but not S511-650, was able to block the infection of Vero E6 cells by the SARS-CoV-S pseudovirus. Co-precipitation experiments confirmed that S450-650 was able to specifically bind with ACE2 molecules in lysate of Vero E6 cells. However, the ability of S450-510, either alone or in fusion with GFP, to bind with ACE2 was significantly poorer compared with S450-650. Our data suggest a possibility that, although the {beta}6 strand alone is able to bind with ACE2 with relatively high affinity, residues outside the S-RBM could also assist the receptor binding of SARS-CoV-S protein.

  12. Preliminary observations on the potential of gut membrane proteins of Haemonchus contortus as candidate vaccine antigens in sheep on naturally infected pasture.

    PubMed

    Smith, W D; van Wyk, J A; van Strijp, M F

    2001-07-27

    In a trial lasting 11 months in South Africa, faecal egg counts and haematocrits of sheep vaccinated with gut membrane proteins of adult Haemonchus contortus were compared with unvaccinated controls grazing pasture contaminated with the parasite. Vaccination reduced egg output by >82% on average during one 4 month period of the trial and simultaneously significantly reduced the degree of anaemia and deaths due to haemonchosis. Although vaccine immunity was not sufficiently long lasting to prevent a surge in egg output which occurred after the onset of a period of irrigation, re-vaccinating the sheep at this point cleared their newly acquired infection and rapidly restored protection to approximately the level observed beforehand. It was clear that a vaccine based on parasite gut membrane proteins could offer substantial benefits in the control of natural haemonchosis. PMID:11423186

  13. Atomic structure of anthrax protective antigen pore elucidates toxin translocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L; Collier, R John; Zhou, Z Hong

    2015-05-28

    Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen, lethal factor, and oedema factor, is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in humans and animals. Protective antigen forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes lethal factor and oedema factor into the cytosol of target cells. Protective antigen is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. On the basis of biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a phi (?)-clamp composed of phenylalanine (Phe)427 residues of protective antigen catalyses protein translocation via a charge-state-dependent Brownian ratchet. Although atomic structures of protective antigen prepores are available, how protective antigen senses low pH, converts to active pore, and translocates lethal factor and oedema factor are not well defined without an atomic model of its pore. Here, by cryo-electron microscopy with direct electron counting, we determine the protective antigen pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic ?-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  14. Impact of donor characteristics and HLA matching on survival of chinese patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tso-Fu; Huang, He; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Wang, Po-Nan; Wu, Tong; Sun, Jing; Tang, Jih-Luh; Hu, Jiong; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Kao, Ruey-Ho

    2012-12-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of donor characteristics and HLA matching on outcomes in Chinese patients undergoing unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A total of 693 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent HSCT between 2005 and 2010 had available survival data at 100 days or 1 year posttransplantation in the Buddhist Tzu-Chi Stem Cell Center database. The overall survival rates at 100 days and 1 year were 83.3% and 65.2%, respectively. Mismatches of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 at the antigen or allele level, along with inadequate cell dose, were associated with a significant risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.36, P < .001; HR = 1.44, P = .005; and HR = 2.20, P = .009, respectively). In 107 donors with matched HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 and known HLA-C match status, 22.4% had an HLA-C antigen mismatch, resulting in an HR of 2.87 for mortality relative to complete 8/8 matches (P = .005). Recipients with unknown HLA-C match status also had a significantly worse outcome (HR = 1.73; P = .039). Multivariate analysis revealed that cell dose and HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 antigen match status significantly affected the final outcome of survival (P = .012 and <.001, respectively). Our data indicate that HLA-C match status should be confirmed before HSCT from an unrelated donor. Inadequate cell dose remains an important determinant of poor transplantation survival. Further studies to elucidate the importance of matching of specific HLA loci are needed to better understand the risk of HSCT and improve patient outcomes. PMID:22842331

  15. Photoaffinity labeling demonstrates binding between Ia and antigen on antigen-presenting cells

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.; Yip, C.C.; Shevach, E.M.; Delovitch, T.L.

    1986-03-05

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bind and present antigens to immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the context of Ia molecules: however, the molecular nature of the immunogenic complexes on the surface of these cells is unknown. They have used radioiodinated photoreactive Beef insulin (BI) derivatized in the B29 position with (n-(4-(4'-azido-3'-(/sup 125/)iodophenylazo)benzoyl)-3-aminopropyl-n-oxy-succinimide) (B29-AZAP) as antigen to examine the nature of these molecular complexes. The probe was reacted with either of two B hybridoma APCs, TA3 (Ia/sup k/d/) and LB(Ia/sup d/b/) which present insulin on I-A/sup d/ and I-A/sub b/ respectively, to appropriately restricted, BI specific T helper lymphocytes (T/sub H/). Samples were photolyzed, solubilized and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 36-kDa and 27-kDa were specifically labeled on TA3 and LB cells. Treatment of these bands with dithiothreitol or endo-N-..beta..-glycosidase F demonstrates that each is composed of a single glycoprotein. These bands are immunoprecipitable with haplotype specific but not control anti-Ia antibodies. This identifies the labeled bands as the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..- subunits of class II MHC antigens. They conclude that a molecular complex may form between Ia and antigen on APCs and that formation of this complex does not require the presence of an antigen specific T/sub H/ cell receptor.

  16. Selective adsorption of heterophile polyglycerophosphate antigen from antigen extracts of Streptococcus mutans and other gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, S; Tai, S; Slade, H D

    1976-01-01

    Hot saline extracts of Streptococcus mutans have been shown to contain antigenic substances which occasionally react nonspecifically with some antisera against whole cells of various serological groups and types of streptococci. Chromatography of the extract of S. mutans strain MT703 (serotype e) on a diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 column gave two principal antigens. One antigen was eluted without adsorption to the resin and was identified as the serotype-specific polysaccharide. The other antigen, which contained a large quantity of phosphorus, was absorbed to and released from the resin by gradient elution. It was reactive against the antisera specific for polyglycerophosphate (PGP) from group A Streptococcus pyogenes and/or S. mutans strain Ingbritt (type c). The PGP antigen was further purified by gel filtration with Sephadex G-75. Two peaks, PGP-1, and PGP-2, were obtained. Each possessed the same antigenic specificity to anti-PGP serum as shown by immunodiffusion. Chemical analyses revealed that the molar ratio of phosphorus to glycerol in both was about 1:1, although the protein content between the two was significantly different. PGP antigen was found to be widely distributed in hot saline extracts from various gram-positive bacteria, with a few exceptions. However, all gram-negative bacteria examined were free of PGP. The PGP in the hot saline extracts of various gram-positive bacteria possessed an essentially identical antigenic specificity. The addition of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 resin to hot saline extracts successfully removed the cross-reacting PGP antigen. After adsorption of the extract from S. mutans, the supernatant contained only type-specific polysaccharide antigen, except type b, in which both type b-specific polysaccharide and PGP antigens were absorbed with the resin. This simple procedure should be useful for the removal of the PGP-type teichoic acid from antigen extracts of bacteria that contain uncharged polysaccharides. Images PMID:825468

  17. Targeted disruption of a ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA)-like export protein gene in Plasmodium falciparum confers stable chondroitin 4-sulfate cytoadherence capacity.

    PubMed

    Goel, Suchi; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang; Salanti, Ali; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Gowda, D Channe

    2014-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family proteins mediate the adherence of infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelia of various organs, including the placenta, thereby contributing to cerebral, placental, and other severe malaria pathogenesis. Several parasite proteins, including KAHRP and PfEMP3, play important roles in the cytoadherence by mediating the clustering of PfEMP1 in rigid knoblike structures on the infected erythrocyte surface. The lack of a subtelomeric region of chromosome 2 that contains kahrp and pfemp3 causes reduced cytoadherence. In this study, microarray transcriptome analysis showed that the absence of a gene cluster, comprising kahrp, pfemp3, and four other genes, results in the loss of parasitized erythrocytes adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S). The role of one of these genes, PF3D7_0201600/PFB0080c, which encodes PHISTb (Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric b) domain-containing RESA-like protein 1 expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface, was investigated. Disruption of PFB0080c resulted in increased var2csa transcription and VAR2CSA surface expression, leading to higher C4S-binding capacity of infected erythrocytes. Further, PFB0080c-knock-out parasites stably maintained the C4S adherence through many generations of growth. Although the majority of PFB0080c-knock-out parasites bound to C4S even after culturing for 6 months, a minor population bound to both C4S and CD36. These results strongly suggest that the loss of PFB0080c markedly compromises the var gene switching process, leading to a marked reduction in the switching rate and additional PfEMP1 expression by a minor population of parasites. PFB0080c interacts with VAR2CSA and modulates knob-associated Hsp40 expression. Thus, PFB0080c may regulate VAR2CSA expression through these processes. Overall, we conclude that PFB0080c regulates PfEMP1 expression and the parasite's cytoadherence. PMID:25342752

  18. A Systematic Approach Toward Stabilization of CagL, a Protein Antigen from Helicobacter pylori That Is a Candidate Subunit Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Shyamal P.; Pendleton, Kirk P.; Ramsey, Joshua D.; Blanchard, Thomas G.; Picking, William D.

    2013-01-01

    An important consideration in the development of subunit vaccines is loss of activity caused by physical instability of the protein. Such instability often results from suboptimal solution conditions related to pH and temperature. Excipients can help to stabilize vaccines, but it is important to screen and identify excipients that adequately contribute to stabilization of a given formulation. CagL is a protein present in strains of Helicobacter pylori that possess type IV secretion systems. It contributes to bacterial adherence via ?5?1 integrin, thereby making it an attractive subunit vaccine candidate. We characterized the stability of CagL in different pH and temperature conditions using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Stability was assessed in terms of transition temperature (Tm) with the accumulated data then incorporated into an empirical phase diagram (EPD) that provided an overview of CagL physical stability. These analyses indicated maximum CagL stability at pH 4–6 up to 40 °C in the absence of excipient. Using this EPD analysis, aggregation assays were developed to screen a panel of excipients with some found to inhibit CagL aggregation. Candidate stabilizers were selected to confirm their enhanced stabilizing effect. These analyses will help in the formulation of a stable vaccine against H. pylori. PMID:23794457

  19. Novel antigens in non-small cell lung cancer: SP17, AKAP4, and PTTG1 are potential immunotherapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Figueroa, Jose A.; Phan, Tam T.; Grizzi, Fabio; Kim, Minji; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Jenkins, Marjorie R.; Cobos, Everardo; Jumper, Cynthia; Alalawi, Raed; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both genders worldwide, with an incidence only second to prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The lethality of the disease highlights the urgent need for innovative therapeutic options. Immunotherapy can afford efficient and specific targeting of tumor cells, improving efficacy and reducing the side effects of current therapies. We have previously reported the aberrant expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) in tumors of unrelated histological origin. In this study we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of the CTAs, Sperm Protein 17 (SP17), A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) and Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (PTTG1) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and primary tumors. We found that SP17, AKAP4 and PTTG1 are aberrantly expressed in cancer samples, compared to normal lung cell lines and tissues. We established the immunogenicity of these CTAs by measuring CTA-specific autoantibodies in patients' sera and generating CTA-specific autologous cytotoxic lymphocytes from patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results provide proof of principle that the CTAs SP17/AKAP4/PTTG1 are expressed in both human NSCLC cell lines and primary tumors and can elicit an immunogenic response in lung cancer patients. PMID:25739119

  20. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: Evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Saribas, A. Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K.; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. PMID:24418532

  1. Drug-target network in myocardial infarction reveals multiple side effects of unrelated drugs

    PubMed Central

    Azuaje, Francisco J.; Zhang, Lu; Devaux, Yvan; Wagner, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The systems-level characterization of drug-target associations in myocardial infarction (MI) has not been reported to date. We report a computational approach that combines different sources of drug and protein interaction information to assemble the myocardial infarction drug-target interactome network (My-DTome). My-DTome comprises approved and other drugs interlinked in a single, highly-connected network with modular organization. We show that approved and other drugs may both be highly connected and represent network bottlenecks. This highlights influential roles for such drugs on seemingly unrelated targets and pathways via direct and indirect interactions. My-DTome modules are associated with relevant molecular processes and pathways. We find evidence that these modules may be regulated by microRNAs with potential therapeutic roles in MI. Different drugs can jointly impact a module. We provide systemic insights into cardiovascular effects of non-cardiovascular drugs. My-DTome provides the basis for an alternative approach to investigate new targets and multidrug treatment in MI. PMID:22355571

  2. Memory of tolerance and induction of regulatory T cells by erythrocyte-targeted antigens

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Alizée J.; Kontos, Stephan; Diaceri, Giacomo; Quaglia-Thermes, Xavier; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    New approaches based on induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance are being explored for treatment of autoimmunity and prevention of immunity to protein drugs. Antigens associated with apoptotic debris are known to be processed tolerogenically in vivo. Our group is exploring an approach toward antigen-specific tolerization using erythrocyte-binding antigens, based on the premise that as the erythrocytes circulate, age and are cleared, the erythrocyte surface-bound antigen payload will be cleared tolerogenically along with the eryptotic debris. Here, we characterized the phenotypic signatures of CD8+ T cells undergoing tolerance in response to soluble and erythrocyte-targeted antigen. Signaling through programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1), but not through cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), was shown to be required for antigen-specific T cell deletion, anergy and expression of regulatory markers. Generation of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in response to erythrocyte-targeted antigens but not soluble antigen at an equimolar dose was observed, and these cells were required for long-term maintenance of immune tolerance in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. Evidence of infectious tolerance was observed, in that tolerance to a one antigenic epitope was able to regulate responses to other epitopes in the same protein antigen. PMID:26511151

  3. A model of anthrax toxin lethal factor bound to protective antigen

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    A model of anthrax toxin lethal factor bound to protective antigen D. Borden Lacy*, Henry C. Lin Contributed by R. John Collier, September 21, 2005 Anthrax toxin is made up of three proteins: the edema, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three monomeric proteins, protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF

  4. Lipid antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowds, C. Marie; Kornell, Sabin-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are not only a central part of human metabolism but also play diverse and critical roles in the immune system. As such, they can act as ligands of lipid-activated nuclear receptors, control inflammatory signaling through bioactive lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and modulate immunity as intracellular phospholipid- or sphingolipid-derived signaling mediators. In addition, lipids can serve as antigens and regulate immunity through the activation of lipid-reactive T cells, which is the topic of this review. We will provide an overview of the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, the biology of lipid-reactive T cells, and their contribution to immunity. PMID:23999493

  5. Role of Extracellular Matrix Renal Tubulo-interstitial Nephritis Antigen (TINag) in Cell Survival Utilizing Integrin ?v?3/Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK)/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B-Serine/Threonine Kinase (AKT) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ping; Kondeti, Vinay K.; Lin, Sun; Haruna, Yoshisuke; Raparia, Kirtee; Kanwar, Yashpal S.

    2011-01-01

    Tubulo-interstitial nephritis antigen (TINag) is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in tubular basement membranes. Combined mutations in TINag and nephrocystin-1 genes lead to nephronophthisis with reduced cell survival. Because certain extracellular matrix proteins are known to modulate cell survival, studies were initiated in Lewis rats lacking TINag to assess if they are more susceptible to cisplatin-induced injury. Cisplatin induced a higher degree of tubular cell damage and apoptosis in regions where TINag is expressed in a parental Wistar strain. This was accompanied by an accentuated increase in serum creatinine and Kim-1 RNA and renal expression of Bax, p53, and its nuclear accumulation, mtDNA fragmentation, and a decrease of Bcl-2. Cisplatin induced fulminant apoptosis of HK-2 cells with increased caspase3/7 activity, mtDNA fragmentation, and a reduced cell survival. These effects were partially reversed in cells maintained on TINag substratum. Far Western/solid phase assays established TINag binding with integrin ?v?3 comparable with vitronectin. Transfection of cells with ?v-siRNA accentuated cisplatin-induced apoptosis, aberrant translocation of cytochrome c and Bax, and reduced cell survival. The ?v-siRNA decreased expression of integrin-recruited focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p-FAK, while increasing the expression of p53 and p-p53. Similarly, p-AKT was reduced although ILK was unaffected. Inhibition of PI3K had similar adverse cellular effects. These effects were ameliorated in cells on TINag substratum. In vivo, a higher degree of decrease in the expression of p-FAK and pAKT was observed in Lewis rats following cisplatin treatment. These in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate an essential role of TINag in cellular survival to maintain proper tubular homeostasis utilizing integrin ?v?3 and downstream effectors. PMID:21795690

  6. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a positive regulator of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Zheng, Lei; Si, Ying; Luo, Wenyi; Dujardin, Gwendal; Kwan, Thaddaeus; Potochick, Nicholas R; Thompson, Sunnie R; Schneider, David A; King, Peter H

    2014-11-14

    Posttranscriptional gene regulation is governed by a network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with regulatory elements in the mRNA to modulate multiple molecular processes, including splicing, RNA transport, RNA stability, and translation. Mounting evidence indicates that there is a hierarchy within this network whereby certain RBPs cross-regulate other RBPs to coordinate gene expression. HuR, an RNA-binding protein we linked previously to aberrant VEGF mRNA metabolism in models of SOD1-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, has been identified as being high up in this hierarchy, serving as a regulator of RNA regulators. Here we investigated the role of HuR in regulating two RBPs, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, that have been linked genetically to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found that HuR promotes the expression of both RBPs in primary astrocytes and U251 cells under normal and stressed (hypoxic) conditions. For TDP-43, we found that HuR binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and regulates its expression through translational efficiency rather than RNA stability. With HuR knockdown, there was a shift of TDP-43 and FUS mRNAs away from polysomes, consistent with translational silencing. The TDP-43 splicing function was attenuated upon HuR knockdown and could be rescued by ectopic TDP-43 lacking the 3' UTR regulatory elements. Finally, conditioned medium from astrocytes in which HuR or TDP-43 was knocked down produced significant motor neuron and cortical neuron toxicity in vitro. These findings indicate that HuR regulates TDP-43 and FUS/TLS expression and that loss of HuR-mediated RNA processing in astrocytes can alter the molecular and cellular landscape to produce a toxic phenotype. PMID:25239623

  7. Mutations of APC and MYH in unrelated Italian patients with adenomatous polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Gitana; Curia, Maria Cristina; Veschi, Serena; De Lellis, Laura; Mammarella, Sandra; Catalano, Teresa; Stuppia, Liborio; Palka, Giandomenico; Valanzano, Rosa; Tonelli, Francesco; Casale, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Vittoria; Cetta, Francesco; Battista, Pasquale; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Cama, Alessandro

    2005-10-01

    The analysis of APC and MYH mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli patients should provide clues about the genetic heterogeneity of the syndrome in human populations. The entire coding region and intron-exon borders of the APC and MYH genes were analyzed in 60 unrelated Italian adenomatous polyposis coli patients. APC analysis revealed 26 point mutations leading to premature termination, one missense variant and one deletion spanning the entire coding region in 32 unrelated patients. Novel truncating point mutations included c.1176_1177insT (p.His393_PhefsX396), c.1354_1355del (p.Val452_SerfsX458), c.2684C>A (p.Ser895X), c.2711_2712del (p.Arg904_LysfsX910), c.2758_2759del (p.Asp920_CysfsX922), c.4192_4193del (p.Ser1398_SerfsX1407), c.4717G>T (p.Glu1573X) and a novel cryptic APC exon 6 splice site. MYH analysis revealed nine different germline variants in nine patients, of whom five were homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. The mutations included 4 novel MYH missense variants (c.692G>A, p.Arg231His; c.778C>T, p.Arg260Trp; c.1121T>C, p.Leu374Pro; and c.1234C>T, p.Arg412Cys) affecting conserved amino acid residues in the ENDO3c or NUDIX domains of the protein and one novel synonymous change (c.672C>T, p.Asn224Asn). Genotype-phenotype correlations were found in carriers of APC mutations but not in carriers of biallelic MYH mutations, except for a negative correlation with low number of polyps. A distinctive characteristic of patients negative for APC and MYH mutations was a significantly (p<0.0001) older age at diagnosis compared to patients with APC mutations. Moreover, the proportion of cases with an attenuated polyposis phenotype was higher (p = 0.0008) among patients negative for APC and MYH mutations than among carriers of APC or biallelic MYH mutations. PMID:16134147

  8. Antigen presentation in autoimmune disease 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Naomi Jane

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my project was to examine the extent to which endogenous expression of a largely renal-specific antigen influences the repertoire in adulthood of autoreactive T cells specific to that antigen. The renal-specific ...

  9. Binding of myelin basic protein peptides to human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II molecules and their recognition by T cells from multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Valli, A; Sette, A; Kappos, L; Oseroff, C; Sidney, J; Miescher, G; Hochberger, M; Albert, E D; Adorini, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which myelin proteins have been implicated as autoantigens recognized by pathogenic autoreactive T cells. To study the relationship between human myelin basic protein (hMBP) and HLA alleles associated to MS susceptibility, such as DRB1*1501, the binding of synthetic peptides spanning the entire hMBP sequence to 10 purified HLA-DR molecules was determined. All the hMBP peptides tested showed binding affinity for at least one of the DR molecules analyzed, but three hMBP peptides, included in sequences 13-32, 84-103, and 144-163 were found capable of binding to three or more DR molecules. The hMBP peptide 84-103 was the most degenerate in binding, in that it bound to 9 out of 10 DR molecules tested. Interestingly, it bound with highest affinity to DRB1*1501 molecules. To correlate the binding pattern of hMBP peptides to HLA class II molecules with their recognition by T cells, 61 hMBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were established from the peripheral blood of 20 MS patients, who were homozygous, heterozygous, or negative for DRB1*1501. Analysis of hMBP epitopes recognized by these TCL and their HLA restriction demonstrated a very good correlation between binding data and T cell proliferation to hMBP peptides. Although virtually all hMBP peptides tested could be recognized by at least one TCL from MS patients, three immunodominant T cell epitopes were apparent among the TCL examined, corresponding exactly to the hMBP peptides capable of binding to several DR molecules. No major difference could be detected in the recognition of immunodominant hMBP peptides by TCL from DRB1*1501 positive or negative MS patients. These results have implications for the role of hMBP as relevant autoantigen, and of DRB1*1501 as susceptibility allele in MS. PMID:7679413

  10. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  11. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  12. 26 CFR 1.513-2 - Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning before December...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...513-2 Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years...

  13. 26 CFR 1.513-2 - Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning before December...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...513-2 Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years...

  14. 26 CFR 1.513-2 - Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning before December...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...true Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...513-2 Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years...

  15. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income...Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable...

  16. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income...Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable...

  17. [Spectral analysis and synthesis of artificial antigen of the organophosphors pesticide methamidophos].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-hong; Duan, Zhen-juan; Song, Shi-ying; Wang, Shuo

    2007-05-01

    In the present paper, a hapten of methamidophos was synthesized and conjugated with KLH by active ester method, thus the first artificial antigen was obtained. By diazotization method methamidophos conjugated with BSA, and the second artificial antigen was obtained. The synthesized haptens were characterized by MS, IR and 1H NMR, and the two artificial antigens were determined by the method of IR spectrum. The result implied that both the artificial antigens have absorbance peaks of hapten and protein, indicating that they were prepared successfully. This could provide evidence that the method of IR spectrum can be used to determine whether the artificial antigens are synthesized successfully. PMID:17655094

  18. Cellular immune response of lymph nodes from dogs following the intradermal injection of a recombinant antigen corresponding to a 66 kDa protein of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Saint-André Marchal, I; Marchal, T; Bosquet, G; Petavy, A F

    2000-05-23

    A recombinant polypeptide (referred to as EgA31), which represents a 66kDa protein, was prepared from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. In order to assess its potential to induce cellular immune responses, dog popliteal and prescapular lymph nodes were sensitized with this recombinant polypeptide. Subpopulations of lymphocytes were then analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry on lymph node sections. Five days after the sensitization, the paracortical areas of the lymph nodes appeared hypertrophic, the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD5+ cells increased, the number of B-cells began to augment and some secondary follicles occurred, and a number of CD4+ cells appeared in germinal centers. Many large secondary follicles and a significantly augmented number of CD5+ cells in cords of medullae were observed 10 days after the sensitization. These active cellular responses strengthen the interest for further studies on the development of a vaccine with this recombinant polypeptide. PMID:10802288

  19. Synthesis and characterization of antigenic influenza A M2e protein peptide-poly(acrylic) acid bioconjugate and determination of toxicity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Yasemin Budama; Akdeste, Zeynep Mustafaeva; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2014-01-01

    The influenza A virus is a critical public health problem that causes epidemics and pandemics, and occurs widely all over the world. Various vaccines against the virus have not provided a solution to the problem. Different approaches, particularly M2e peptide–based vaccines, are available for developing universal vaccines against influenza A. However, it is important to select a suitable carrier to obtain an effective vaccine. Accordingly, studies on the usage of various carriers are ongoing. Particularly, polymer-based carriers have gained importance due to both drug delivery and adjuvant effects. Therefore, bioconjugate of the M2e protein peptide from the influenza A virus covalent bonded with poly(acrylic) acid was synthesized in our study for the first time. The characterization was performed using size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy; subsequently, it was found that the bioconjugate of the examined lower doses (0.05 and 0.5 mg/ml) have no toxic effects on human cell lines. These results suggest that, in the future, the poly(acrylic) acid bioconjugate of the M2e peptide should be studied in vivo for universal vaccine development against the influenza A virus. PMID:25482080

  20. Expression of the CD46 antigen, and absence of class I MHC antigen, on the human oocyte and preimplantation blastocyst.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J M; Taylor, C T; Melling, G C; Kingsland, C R; Johnson, P M

    1992-01-01

    Expression of CD46 and class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens by human oocytes and 6-8-day unhatched expanded preimplantation blastocysts has been studied by immunocytochemistry. The CD46 antigen, a cell surface complement regulatory protein, was expressed by unfertilized oocytes as well as strongly by both the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of preimplantation blastocysts. In contrast, class I MHC antigens were not usually expressed by either oocytes or blastocysts. These data support the concept that gametes and embryonic cells involved in fertilization and early implantation events, respectively, may be protected from immunological recognition or attack both by the lack of class I MHC antigens and by expression of the CD46 complement regulatory protein. Images Figure 1 PMID:1632879

  1. Differentiated prostatic antigen expression in LNCaP cells following treatment with bispecific antisense oligonucleotides directed against BCL-2 and EGFR.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Marvin; Hollowell, Courtney M P; Guinan, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (oligos) have been administered against in vivo and in vitro prostate cancer models employing LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines. While most oligos consist of a single mRNA binding site targeting a single gene product or those with sequence homology, our lab has developed bispecific oligos directed toward two unrelated proteins. In LNCaP cells, we initially identified bispecifics that increased the expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) while not affecting secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We postulated that surface antigen expression is increased by bispecifics able to form double-stranded regions, acting as interferon (IFN-?) inducers. In other systems, when induced, IFN-? promotes cell surface antigen expression, including HLA and receptors for tumor necrosis factor. To test this hypothesis, we measured the effect of oligo treatment on both IFN-? induction and the expression of another secreted product of differentiated prostate cells, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). This study initially evaluated the inhibition of in vitro propagating LNCaP cells employing mono- and bispecific oligos directed against bcl-2 (the second bispecific binding site was against the epidermal growth factor receptor). Employing RT-PCR, the expression of non-targeted proteins encoded by mRNA for PSMA, PSA, PAP, and IFN-? was subsequently valuated. When LNCaP prostate tumor cells were incubated with oligos and compared to lipofectin-containing controls significant growth inhibition resulted. Employing RT-PCR, the levels of mRNA encoding PSMA were unexpectedly found to be elevated following treatment with the bispecific oligos but not with a monospecific directed solely against bcl-2. No differences were detected in mRNA levels encoding PSA following treatment with either oligo type. IFN-? was significantly induced only by bispecific oligos, and PAP expression was similar to PSA. These data support the hypothesis that double strand-forming bispecific oligos induce IFN-? that enhances cell surface PSMA expression. Expression of tumor-associated surface antigens could increase their recognition and targeting by immunologic defense mechanisms and increase the effectiveness of tumor vaccines. PMID:21573974

  2. 26 CFR 1.141-9 - Unrelated or disproportionate use test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...disposal; (3) $1 million to construct a privately owned recycling facility located at a remote site; and (4) $6 million...facility. (ii) The $1 million of proceeds used for the recycling facility is used for an unrelated use. The...

  3. 20 CFR 416.922 - When you have two or more unrelated impairments-initial claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.922 When you have two or more unrelated impairments—initial claims. (a)...

  4. 26 CFR 1.513-5 - Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-5 Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or...

  5. 26 CFR 1.513-6 - Certain hospital services not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-6 Certain hospital services not unrelated trade or...

  6. 26 CFR 1.513-6 - Certain hospital services not unrelated trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.513-6 Certain hospital services not unrelated trade or...

  7. Molecular characteristics of an immobilization antigen gene of the fish-parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite of fish, expresses surface antigens (i-antigens), which react with host antibodies that render them immobile. The nucleotide sequence of an i-antigen gene of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6 was deduced. The predicted protein of 47...

  8. Characterization of Brucella ovis surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Suarez, C E; Pacheco, G A; Vigliocco, A M

    1988-12-01

    A rough antigen (SRA) extracted from Brucella ovis in hot saline by Myers procedure, showed three precipitation lines when tested in immunodiffusion against sera from experimentally infected rams. The components responsible for the lines could be isolated by ultracentrifugation or gel filtration which gave 3 fractions, named PI, PII and PIII. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) appeared in the pellet (SRA-pp) after ultracentrifugation as judged by the presence of lipids, sugar composition, 2 keto-2deoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO), and its characteristic immunoelectrophoretic and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns. SRA-pp contained the antigen responsible for one of the immunoprecipitation lines of SRA and the supernatant (SRA-sn) contained only antigens responsible for the other two. Gel filtration of SRA-pp showed the presence of PI, while SRA-sn gave PII with high protein content and PIII with high carbohydrate content. Immunological activity in gel diffusion (GD) of the Fraction PII and PIII was specific for sera of B. ovis infected rams. Sera from rams experimentally infected with smooth strains (Brucella abortus and melitensis), were not able to react with these antigens. PMID:3148241

  9. Cryptic female preference for genetically unrelated males is mediated by ovarian fluid in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea

    2011-08-22

    As inbreeding is costly, it has been suggested that polyandry may evolve as a means to reduce the negative fitness consequences of mating with genetically related males. While several studies provide support for this hypothesis, evidence of pure post-copulatory mechanisms capable of biasing paternity towards genetically unrelated males is still lacking; yet these are necessary to support inbreeding avoidance models of polyandry evolution. Here we showed, by artificially inseminating a group of female guppies with an equal number of sperm from related (full-sib) and unrelated males, that sperm competition success of the former was 10 per cent lower, on average, than that of the unrelated male. The paternity bias towards unrelated males was not due to differential embryo survival, as the size of the brood produced by control females, which were artificially inseminated with the sperm of a single male, was not influenced by their relatedness with the male. Finally, we collected ovarian fluid (OF) from virgin females. Using computer-assisted sperm analysis, we found that sperm velocity, a predictor of sperm competition success in the guppy, was significantly lower when measured in a solution containing the OF from a sister as compared with that from an unrelated female. Our results suggest that sperm-OF interaction mediates sperm competition bias towards unrelated mates and highlight the role of post-copulatory mechanisms in reducing the cost of mating with relatives in polyandrous females. PMID:21227973

  10. Strategies for optimal expression of vaccine antigens from Taeniid cestode parasites in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles; Jenkins, David; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2011-07-01

    Investigations were undertaken into optimizing the expression of Cestode parasite vaccine antigens in the bacterium, Escherichia coli to levels sufficient for mass production. A strategy to genetically engineer the antigens and improve their expression in E. coli was investigated. Plasmid constructs encoding truncated parasite antigens were prepared, leading to removal of N and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of the antigens. This approach was found to be an effective strategy for improving expression of the TSOL18 recombinant antigen of Taenia solium in E. coli. Clear demonstration that plasmid construct modification can be used to significantly improve heterologous expression in E. coli was shown for the EG95 antigen of Echinococcus granulosus. Removal of hydrophobic stretches of amino acids from the N and C termini of EG95 by genetic manipulation led to a substantial change in expression of the protein from an insoluble to a soluble form. The data demonstrate that the occurrence of hydrophobic regions in the antigens are a major feature that hindered their expression in E. coli. It was also shown that retaining a minimal protein domain (a single fibronectin type III domain) led to high level expression of functional protein that is antigenic and host protective. Two truncated antigens were combined from two species of parasite (EG95NC? from E. granulosus and Tm18N? from Taenia multiceps) and expressed as a single hybrid antigen in E. coli. The hybrid antigens were expressed at a high level and retained antigenicity of their respective components, thereby simplifying production of a multi-antigen vaccine. The findings are expected to have an impact on the preparation of recombinant Cestode vaccine antigens using E. coli, by increasing their utility and making them more amenable to large-scale production. PMID:21222242

  11. Definition of tumor antigens suitable for vaccine construction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J J; Houghton, A N

    1995-12-01

    The treatment of cancer with tumor vaccines has been a goal of physicians and scientists ever since effective immunization against infectious disease with vaccines was developed. In the past, major tumor antigens had not been molecularly characterized. Recent advances are, however, beginning to define potential molecular targets and strategies and this had evolved with the principle that T-cell mediated responses are a key target for approaches to cancer immunization. In addition, these antigens are not truly foreign and tumour antigens fit more with a self/altered self paradigm, compared to a non-self paradigm for antigens recognized in infectious diseases. Potential antigens include the glycolipids and glycoproteins (e.g. gangliosides), the developmental antigens (e.g. MAGE, tyrosinase, melan-A and gp75) and mutant oncogene products (e.g. p53, ras, and HER-2/neu). Innovations for construction of cancer vaccines are emerging from these advances in molecular immunology and cancer biology. While vaccines against infectious agents are models for vaccine development, there are clearly distinct considerations and problems associated with cancer vaccines. One of the focal issues in designing active cancer immunotherapy is that cancer cells are derived from normal host cells. Thus, the antigenic profile of cancer cells closely mimics that of normal cells. How the immune system identifies and destroys cancer cells is therefore crucial. Clearly, the ultimate goal of tumor vaccine design is the generation of antigen-specific vaccines. The recent success identifying molecularly defined tumor antigens opens up potentially novel strategies for this approach. Vaccine possibilities include purified proteins and glycolipids, peptides, cDNA expressed in various vectors, and a range of immune adjuvants. The molecular and structural definition of tumor antigens provides an opportunity for cautious optimism that we are entering an era when we will soon begin to recapitulate the success of immunization against infectious disease. PMID:8938270

  12. Antigens and allergic asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.E.; Swanson, M.C.

    1987-06-01

    There are few reliable epidemiologic data on the overall frequency and importance of allergy. We describe a practical method for quantifying the concentration of both amorphous and morphologically defined antigens in the air. A high volume air sampler is used to collect airborne particles and has a facility to separate samples into different particle sizes. Samples are tested for allergenic activity by radioallergosorbent test inhibition assay. Preliminary findings from studies of community wide, amorphous and common household allergens are reported.

  13. Immunogenicity of 60 novel latency-related antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Vidal, M?del Mar; Latorre, Irene; Franken, Kees L. C. M.; Díaz, Jéssica; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Casas, Irma; Maldonado, José; Milà, Cèlia; Solsona, Jordi; Jimenez-Fuentes, M. Ángeles; Altet, Neus; Lacoma, Alícia; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Ausina, Vicente; Prat, Cristina; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Domínguez, José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our work here was to evaluate the immunogenicity of 60 mycobacterial antigens, some of which have not been previously assessed, notably a novel series of in vivo-expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (IVE-TB) antigens. We enrolled 505 subjects and separated them in individuals with and without latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) vs. patients with active tuberculosis (TB). Following an overnight and 7 days stimulation of whole blood with purified recombinant M. tuberculosis antigens, interferon-? (IFN-?) levels were determined by ELISA. Several antigens could statistically significantly differentiate the groups of individuals. We obtained promising antigens from all studied antigen groups [dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) encoded antigens; resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpf) antigens; IVE-TB antigens; reactivation associated antigens]. Rv1733, which is a probable conserved transmembrane protein encoded in DosR regulon, turned out to be very immunogenic and able to discriminate between the three defined TB status, thus considered a candidate biomarker. Rv2389 and Rv2435n, belonging to Rpf family and IVE-TB group of antigens, respectively, also stood out as LTBI biomarkers. Although more studies are needed to support our findings, the combined use of these antigens would be an interesting approach to TB immunodiagnosis candidates. PMID:25339944

  14. Association of HLA-E polymorphism with severe bacterial infection and early transplant-related mortality in matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tamouza, Ryad; Rocha, Vanderson; Busson, Marc; Fortier, Catherine; El Sherbini, Sherif M; Esperou, Hélène; Filion, Alain; Socié, Gérard; Dulphy, Nicolas; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Toubert, Antoine; Gluckman, Eliane; Charron, Dominique

    2005-07-15

    Despite prophylactic measures, susceptibility to severe infections in patients who had undergone bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is quite variable. To evaluate the potential role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E polymorphism on the incidence of early infections, we analyzed 77 unrelated-donor (UD) BMT pairs identically matched for classical HLA class I and class II alleles. Multivariate analysis taking into account the patient-, donor- and transplant-related factors showed that bacterial infections and transplant-related mortality (TRM) at day 180 were high when the donor genotype was HLA-E*0101/E*0101 (hazard ratio [HR]=2.20; P=0.03 and HR=2.12, P=0.048, respectively), suggesting that homozygous state for HLA-E*0101 allele is a risk factor for early severe bacterial infections and TRM in UD-BMT. PMID:16003246

  15. IgG Responses to Anopheles gambiae Salivary Antigen gSG6 Detect Variation in Exposure to Malaria Vectors and Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Will; Bousema, Teun; Jones, Sophie; Gesase, Samwel; Hashim, Rhamadhan; Gosling, Roly; Carneiro, Ilona; Chandramohan, Daniel; Theander, Thor; Ronca, Raffaele; Modiano, David; Arcà, Bruno; Drakeley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to malaria vectors is important to our understanding of spatial and temporal variations in disease transmission and facilitates the targeting and evaluation of control efforts. Recently, an immunogenic Anopheles gambiae salivary protein (gSG6) was identified and proposed as the basis of an immuno-assay determining exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors. In the present study, IgG responses to gSG6 and 6 malaria antigens (CSP, AMA-1, MSP-1, MSP-3, GLURP R1, and GLURP R2) were compared to Anopheles exposure and malaria incidence in a cohort of children from Korogwe district, Tanzania, an area of moderate and heterogeneous malaria transmission. Anti-gSG6 responses above the threshold for seropositivity were detected in 15% (96/636) of the children, and were positively associated with geographical variations in Anopheles exposure (OR 1.25, CI 1.01–1.54, p?=?0.04). Additionally, IgG responses to gSG6 in individual children showed a strong positive association with household level mosquito exposure. IgG levels for all antigens except AMA-1 were associated with the frequency of malaria episodes following sampling. gSG6 seropositivity was strongly positively associated with subsequent malaria incidence (test for trend p?=?0.004), comparable to malaria antigens MSP-1 and GLURP R2. Our results show that the gSG6 assay is sensitive to micro-epidemiological variations in exposure to Anopheles mosquitoes, and provides a correlate of malaria risk that is unrelated to immune protection. While the technique requires further evaluation in a range of malaria endemic settings, our findings suggest that the gSG6 assay may have a role in the evaluation and planning of targeted and preventative anti-malaria interventions. PMID:22768250

  16. THE ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF GLOBIN CASEINATE.

    PubMed

    Gay, F P; Robertson, T B

    1913-05-01

    This study of globin and its compound with casein (globin caseinate) shows that globin fails to produce fixation antibodies in rabbits after repeated injections, thus agreeing with our own work and with that of others with similar histon bodies which are primarily toxic. When globin is combined with casein, however, it gives rise to antibodies that react not only with globin caseinate and casein but also with globin. The antibodies in antiglobin casein serum are apparently separate, one for globin and one for casein. In other words, the change in globin undergone on combination with casein has apparently rendered it antigenic. We did not succeed in demonstrating the genesis of this new antigenic property by anaphylaxis experiments. A further investigation of similar and more complex combined proteins is indicated and gives promise of more light on the nature of biological specificity. PMID:19867665

  17. Antigenic Characterization of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Elizabeth M.; Perry, Malcolm B.; Clouthier, Sharon C.; Kay, William W.

    2001-01-01

    Flavobacteria are a poorly understood and speciated group of commensal bacteria and opportunistic pathogens. The psychrotroph Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold water disease, septicemic diseases that heavily impact salmonids. Consequently, two verified but geographically diverse isolates were characterized phenotypically and biochemically. A facile typing system was devised which readily discriminated between closely related species and was verified against a pool of recent prospective isolates. F. psychrophilum was found to be enveloped in a loosely attached, strongly antigenic outer layer comprised of a predominant, highly immunogenic, low-molecular-mass carbohydrate antigen as well as several protein antigens. Surface-exposed antigens were visualized by a combination of immunoflourescence microscopy, immunogold transmission, and thin-section electron microscopy and were discriminated by Western blotting using rabbit antisera, by selective extraction with EDTA-polymyxin B agarose beads, and by extrinsic labeling of amines with sulfo–N-hydoxysuccinimide–biotin and glycosyl groups with biotin hydrazide. The predominant ?16 kDa antigen was identified as low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas high-molecular-mass LPS containing O antigen was not as prevalent on whole cells but was abundant in culture supernatants. Rainbow trout convalescent antisera recognized both molecular mass classes of LPS as well as a predominant ?20-kDa protein. This study represents the first description at the molecular level of the surface characteristics and potential vaccine targets of confirmed F. psychrophilum strains. PMID:11157240

  18. Intron positions in actin genes seem unrelated to the secondary structure of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, K; Kabsch, W

    1994-01-01

    A catalogue of intron positions along the coding sequence was assembled from the large number of actin genes known for different eukaryotes. 36 positions in the amino acid sequence were compared with the known three-dimensional structure of actin. At least 20 but not more than 23 intron positions are at the start or end of a secondary structural element (beta-strand, alpha-helix or 3/10 helix) while eight positions interrupt such an element. Statistical analysis shows that due to the large number of end positions the boundaries of secondary structural elements are not correlated with the intron positions. In addition, the observed intron pattern seems compatible with the null hypothesis, i.e. intron positions are randomly distributed along the actin sequence. Images PMID:8137812

  19. Immunogenicity and protection studies with recombinant mycobacteria and vaccinia vectors coexpressing the 18-kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, K W; McKenzie, K R; Radford, A J; Ramshaw, I; Britton, W J

    1996-01-01

    The activation of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is essential for the control of leprosy infection in humans and experimental animals. T cells recognize a variety of protein antigens from Mycobacterium leprae, including the 18-kDa protein, which is limited in distribution among mycobacteria and which is absent from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Adjuvant preparations of mycobacterial protein antigens have had limited protective efficacy for experimental infections in animals. Since recombinant vectors may elicit more effective T-cell responses than adjuvant preparations, recombinant vaccinia virus (VV18) and M. bovis BCG (BCG18) vectors expressing the 18-kDa protein of M. leprae were prepared. Both VV18 and BCG18 stimulated anti-18-kDa protein antibody and lymphocyte proliferative responses. Sequential immunization with VV18 followed by BCG18 induced higher levels of specific immunoglobulin G2a antibodies than immunoglobulin G1 antibodies, in contrast to immunization with VV18 or BCG18 alone. The protective efficacy of immunization with VV18 from a challenge with BCG18 was examined in two murine models of mycobacterial infection. After intravenous challenge, mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus exhibited lower initial levels of replication and earlier clearance of BCG18 from their spleens than mice immunized with vaccinia virus expressing an unrelated protein. After footpad infection in a dissemination model, there was earlier clearance of BCG18 from specifically immunized mice. However, immunization of mice with VV18 did not prevent a productive mycobacterial infection. PMID:8675337

  20. Comparison of the reactivities of baculovirus-expressed recombinant Norwalk virus capsid antigen with those of the native Norwalk virus antigen in serologic assays and some epidemiologic observations.

    PubMed Central

    Green, K Y; Lew, J F; Jiang, X; Kapikian, A Z; Estes, M K

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Norwalk virus (NV) by immune electron microscopy (IEM) in 1972, serologic studies with this virus have relied on particle-positive fecal material from infected volunteers as the source of antigen because it has not been possible to propagate this virus in cell culture. However, the recent cloning of the NV (strain 8FIIa) genome and expression of the capsid protein in a baculovirus system to form "virus-like particles" has provided a consistent source of antigen (designated rNV). The purpose of the present study was to compare the antigenicities of these rNV particles with those of native NV antigen derived from human fecal material by using well-characterized sera obtained from earlier studies. In IEM studies, the rNV antigen reacted with NV-specific antibodies in a manner similar to that observed previously when particle-positive fecal material was used as antigen. In addition, a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which the rNV antigen was used as antigen, proved efficient and specific for the detection of serologic responses to NV compared with the previously established techniques of IEM and blocking antibody immunoassays in which particle-positive fecal material was used as the antigen. The availability of an unlimited source of antigen will enable serologic studies that will greatly increase our understanding of the epidemiology of NV and its role in human enteric illness. Images PMID:8396590

  1. Antigen-specific immune reactions to ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Urra, Xabier; Miró, Francesc; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain proteins are detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of stroke patients and their concentration is related to the extent of brain damage. Antibodies against brain antigens develop after stroke, suggesting a humoral immune response to the brain injury. Furthermore, induced immune tolerance is beneficial in animal models of cerebral ischemia. The presence of circulating T cells sensitized against brain antigens, and antigen presenting cells (APCs) carrying brain antigens in draining lymphoid tissue of stroke patients support the notion that stroke might induce antigen-specific immune responses. After stroke, brain proteins that are normally hidden from the periphery, inflammatory mediators, and danger signals can exit the brain through several efflux routes. They can reach the blood after leaking out of the damaged blood-brain barrier (BBB) or following the drainage of interstitial fluid to the dural venous sinus, or reach the cervical lymph nodes through the nasal lymphatics following CSF drainage along the arachnoid sheaths of nerves across the nasal submucosa. The route and mode of access of brain antigens to lymphoid tissue could influence the type of response. Central and peripheral tolerance prevents autoimmunity, but the actual mechanisms of tolerance to brain antigens released into the periphery in the presence of inflammation, danger signals, and APCs, are not fully characterized. Stroke does not systematically trigger autoimmunity, but under certain circumstances, such as pronounced systemic inflammation or infection, autoreactive T cells could escape the tolerance controls. Further investigation is needed to elucidate whether antigen-specific immune events could underlie neurological complications impairing recovery from stroke. PMID:25309322

  2. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Benencia, Fabian; Coukos, George

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer vaccines with defined antigens are commonly used, the use of whole tumor cell preparations in tumor immunotherapy is a very promising approach and can obviate some important limitations in vaccine development. Whole tumor cells are a good source of TAAs and can induce simultaneous CTLs and CD4+ T helper cell activation. We review current approaches to prepare whole tumor cell vaccines, including traditional methods of freeze-thaw lysates, tumor cells treated with ultraviolet irradiation, and RNA electroporation, along with more recent methods to increase tumor cell immunogenicity with HOCl oxidation or infection with replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus. PMID:20356763

  3. Dendritic cell preactivation impairs MHC class II presentation of vaccines and endogenous viral antigens

    PubMed Central

    Young, Louise J.; Wilson, Nicholas S.; Schnorrer, Petra; Mount, Adele; Lundie, Rachel J.; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Heath, William R.; Villadangos, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    When dendritic cells (DCs) encounter signals associated with infection or inflammation, they become activated and undergo maturation. Mature DCs are very efficient at presenting antigens captured in association with their activating signal but fail to present subsequently encountered antigens, at least in vitro. Such impairment of MHC class II (MHC II) antigen presentation has generally been thought to be a consequence of down-regulation of endocytosis, so it might be expected that antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves (for instance, viral antigens) would still be presented by mature DCs. Here, we show that DCs matured in vivo could still capture and process soluble antigens, but were unable to present peptides derived from these antigens. Furthermore, presentation of viral antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves was also severely impaired. Indeed, i.v. injection of pathogen mimics, which caused systemic DC activation in vivo, impaired the induction of CD4 T cell responses against subsequently encountered protein antigens. This immunosuppressed state could be reversed by adoptive transfer of DCs loaded exogenously with antigens, demonstrating that impairment of CD4 T cell responses was due to lack of antigen presentation rather than to overt suppression of T cell activation. The biochemical mechanism underlying this phenomenon was the down-regulation of MHC II–peptide complex formation that accompanied DC maturation. These observations have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic DC vaccines and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms causing immunosuppression during systemic blood infections. PMID:17978177

  4. Immune subdominant antigens as vaccine candidates against Mycobacterium tuberculosis§

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Mark T.; Ireton, Gregory C.; Beebe, Elyse A.; Huang, Po-Wei D.; Reese, Valerie A.; Argilla, David; Coler, Rhea N.; Reed, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike most pathogens many of the immunodominant epitopes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are under purifying selection. This startling finding suggests that Mtb may gain an evolutionary advantage by focusing the human immune response against selected proteins. Although the implications of this to vaccine development are incompletely understood, it has been suggested that inducing strong TH1 responses against antigens that are only weakly recognized during natural infection may circumvent this evasion strategy and increase vaccine efficacy. To test the hypothesis that subdominant and/or weak Mtb antigens are viable vaccine candidates and to avoid complications due to differential immunodominance hierarchies in humans and experimental animals we defined the immunodominance hierarchy of 84 recombinant Mtb proteins in experimentally infected mice. We then combined a subset of these dominant or subdominant antigens with a TH1 augmenting adjuvant, GLA-SE to assess their immunogenicity in Mtb-naïve animals and protective efficacy as measured by a reduction in lung Mtb burden of infected animals following prophylactic vaccination. We observed little correlation between immunodominance during primary Mtb infection and vaccine efficacy, confirming the hypothesis that subdominant and weakly antigenic Mtb proteins are viable vaccine candidates. Finally we developed two fusion proteins based on strongly protective subdominant fusion proteins. When paired with the GLA-SE adjuvant these fusion proteins elicited robust TH1 responses and limited pulmonary Mtb for at least six weeks after infection with a single immunization. These finding expand the potential pool of Mtb proteins that can be considered as vaccine antigen candidates. PMID:25086172

  5. Novel antigen delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria; Berardinis, Piergiuseppe De

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the “E2 scaffold” of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  6. Novel antigen delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Maria; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2015-08-12

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the "E2 scaffold" of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  7. Antigen retrieval techniques: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Cote, R J; Taylor, C R

    2001-08-01

    Development of the antigen retrieval (AR) technique, a simple method of boiling archival paraffin-embedded tissue sections in water to enhance the signal of immunohistochemistry (IHC), was the fruit of pioneering efforts guided by the philosophy of rendering IHC applicable to routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for wide application of IHC in research and clinical pathology. On the basis of thousands of articles and many reviews, a book has recently been published that summarizes basic principles for practice and further development of the AR technique. Major topics with respect to several critical issues, such as the definition, application, technical principles, and further studies of the AR technique, are highlighted in this article. In particular, a further application of the heat-induced retrieval approach for sufficient extraction of nucleic acids in addition to proteins, and standardization of routine IHC based on the AR technique in terms of a test battery approach, are also addressed. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of the AR technique may shed light on facilitating the development of molecular morphology. PMID:11457921

  8. ANTIGENIC VARIATION IN RENIBACTERIUM SALMONINARUM P57: FUNCTIONAL AND DIAGNOSTIC IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 57-kDa protein (p57) is an important diagnostic antigen and is also implicated in the pathogenesis of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Little is known about the nature and extent of antigenic variation in p57. Previously, we reported that p57 produced by R. salmoninarum strain 684 contains a...

  9. Renibacterium salmoninarum p57 antigenic variation is restricted in geographic distribution and correlated with genomic markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 57 kDa protein (p57) is an important diagnostic antigen that is implicated in the pathogenesis of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Little is known about the nature and extent of antigenic variation in p57. Previously, we reported that p57 produced by Renibacterium salmoninarum Strain 684 conta...

  10. Interaction of Very Late Antigen-4 with VCAM-1 Supports Transendothelial Chemotaxis of Monocytes by Facilitating

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    Interaction of Very Late Antigen-4 with VCAM-1 Supports Transendothelial Chemotaxis of Monocytes late antigen (VLA)-4 avidity by CC chemokines may promote chemotaxis of monocytes across VCAM-1-bearing protein-1 gradient on endothelium and increased transendothelial chemotaxis of monocytes by a VLA-4

  11. Antibody recycling by engineered pH-dependent antigen binding improves the duration of antigen neutralization.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Shinya; Tachibana, Tatsuhiko; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Higuchi, Yoshinobu; Shimaoka, Shin; Moriyama, Chifumi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Takubo, Ryoko; Doi, Yoshiaki; Wakabayashi, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Akira; Kadono, Shoujiro; Miyazaki, Takuya; Haraya, Kenta; Sekimori, Yasuo; Kojima, Tetsuo; Nabuchi, Yoshiaki; Aso, Yoshinori; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Hattori, Kunihiro

    2010-11-01

    For many antibodies, each antigen-binding site binds to only one antigen molecule during the antibody's lifetime in plasma. To increase the number of cycles of antigen binding and lysosomal degradation, we engineered tocilizumab (Actemra), an antibody against the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), to rapidly dissociate from IL-6R within the acidic environment of the endosome (pH 6.0) while maintaining its binding affinity to IL-6R in plasma (pH 7.4). Studies using normal mice and mice expressing human IL-6R suggested that this pH-dependent IL-6R dissociation within the acidic environment of the endosome resulted in lysosomal degradation of the previously bound IL-6R while releasing the free antibody back to the plasma to bind another IL-6R molecule. In cynomolgus monkeys, an antibody with pH-dependent antigen binding, but not an affinity-matured variant, significantly improved the pharmacokinetics and duration of C-reactive protein inhibition. Engineering pH dependency into the interactions of therapeutic antibodies with their targets may enable them to be delivered less frequently or at lower doses. PMID:20953198

  12. B lymphocytes secrete antigen-presenting vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells contain a specialized late endocytic compartment, MIIC (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class II- enriched compartment), that harbors newly synthesized MHC class II molecules in transit to the plasma membrane. MIICs have a limiting membrane enclosing characteristic internal membrane vesicles. Both the limiting membrane and the internal vesicles contain MHC class II. In this study on B lymphoblastoid cells, we demonstrate by immunoelectron microscopy that the limiting membrane of MIICs can fuse directly with the plasma membrane, resulting in release from the cells of internal MHC class II-containing vesicles. These secreted vesicles, named exosomes, were isolated from the cell culture media by differential centrifugation followed by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The overall surface protein composition of exosomes differed significantly from that of the plasma membrane. Exosome-bound MHC class II was in a compact, peptide-bound conformation. Metabolically labeled MHC class II was released into the extracellular medium with relatively slow kinetics, 10 +/- 4% in 24 h, indicating that direct fusion of MIICs with the plasma membrane is not the major pathway by which MHC class II reaches the plasma membrane. Exosomes derived from both human and murine B lymphocytes induced antigen-specific MHC class II-restricted T cell responses. These data suggest a role for exosomes in antigen presentation in vivo. PMID:8642258

  13. Plant-Based Vaccine Antigen Production.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Trong; Conrad, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The transient and stable expression of potentially therapeutic proteins in plants is a promising tool for the efficient production of vaccines and antibodies at low cost connected with a practically unlimited scale-up. To achieve these goals, two major challenges, inadequate production levels and non-scalable purification technologies, have to be overcome. Here we present and discuss protocols enabling to perform influenza vaccine production by transient expression in tobacco plants, to perform analytical experiments as Western blot, ELISA, and hemagglutination assays and to purify the antigens by classical affinity chromatography and scalable membrane-based Inverse Transition Cycling. PMID:26458828

  14. Comparison of outcomes after unrelated cord blood and unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation in adults with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, A; Labopin, M; Sanz, G; Piemontese, S; Arcese, W; Bacigalupo, A; Blaise, D; Bosi, A; Huang, H; Karakasis, D; Koc, Y; Michallet, M; Picardi, A; Sanz, J; Santarone, S; Sengelov, H; Sierra, J; Vincent, L; Volt, F; Nagler, A; Gluckman, E; Ciceri, F; Rocha, V; Mohty, M

    2015-09-01

    Outcomes after unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo) and after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are encouraging and have become alternative options to treat patients with high-risk acute leukemia without human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donor. We compared outcomes after UCBT and Haplo in adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Median follow-up was 24 months. Analysis was performed separately for patients with AML, n=918 (Haplo=360, UCBT=558) and ALL, n=528 (Haplo=158 and UCBT=370). UCBT was associated with delayed engraftment and higher graft failure in both AML and ALL recipients. In multivariate analysis, UCBT was associated with lower incidence of chronic graft-vs-host disease both in the AML group (hazard ratio (HR)=0.63, P=0.008) and in the ALL group (HR=0.58, P=0.01). Not statistically significant differences were observed between Haplo and UCBT for relapse incidence (HR=0.95, P=0.76 for AML and HR=0.82, P=0.31 for ALL), non-relapse mortality (HR=1.16, P=0.47 for AML and HR=1.23, P=0.23 for ALL) and leukemia-free survival (HR 0.78, P=0.78 for AML and HR=1.00, P=0.84 for ALL). There were no statistically differences on main outcomes after unmanipulated Haplo and UCBT, and both approaches are valid for acute leukemia patients lacking a HLA matched donor. Both strategies expand the donor pool for patients in need. PMID:25882700

  15. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  16. Immunological analysis of cell-associated antigens of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed Central

    Ezzell, J W; Abshire, T G

    1988-01-01

    Sera from Hartley guinea pigs vaccinated with a veterinary live spore anthrax vaccine were compared with sera from guinea pigs vaccinated with the human anthrax vaccine, which consists of aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed culture proteins of Bacillus anthracis V770-NP-1R. Sera from animals vaccinated with the spore vaccine recognized two major B. anthracis vegetative cell-associated proteins that were either not recognized or poorly recognized by sera from animals that received the human vaccine. These proteins, termed extractable antigens 1 (EA1) and 2 (EA2), have molecular masses of 91 and 62 kilodaltons, respectively. The EA1 protein appeared to be coded by chromosomal DNA, whereas the EA2 protein was only detected in strains that possessed the pXO1 toxin plasmid. Both of the extractable antigen proteins were serologically distinct from the components of anthrax edema toxin and lethal toxin. Following vaccination with the live spore vaccine, the EA1 protein was the predominant antigen recognized, as determined by electrophoretic immunotransblots. Vaccine trials with partially purified EA1 demonstrated that it neither elicits protective antibody against anthrax nor delays time to death in guinea pigs challenged intramuscularly with virulent Ames strain spores. In addition, animals vaccinated with sterile gamma-irradiated cell walls had significant antibody titers to the N-acetylglucosamine-galactose polysaccharide of B. anthracis but were neither protected nor had a delay in time to death following challenge. Images PMID:3123387

  17. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  18. Murine lung immunity to a soluble antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, D.N.; Bice, D.E.; Siegel, D.W.; Schuyler, M.R. Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM )

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that soluble antigen triggers antigen-specific immunity in the respiratory tract in a fashion similar to that reported for particulate antigen, the authors examined the development of local and systemic immunity in C57BL/6 mice after intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of a soluble, large molecular weight protein neoantigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Specific anti-KLH IgG and IgM first appeared in the sera of mice on day 7 after primary immunization by i.t. instillation of KLH, with specific serum antibody concentrations remaining elevated at day 11. Cultured spleen cells obtained from mice after primary immunization released only low levels of specific IgM, and no specific IgG. No specific antibody was released by cell populations derived from the lungs of animals undergoing primary immunization. When presensitized mice were given an i.t. challenge with KLH, responses differed markedly from those following primary immunization. Lung-associated lymph node cell populations from challenged mice released greater amounts of specific antibody earlier than did cell populations, which after primary immunization had not released detectable amounts of specific antibody in vitro, released easily detectable amounts of specific antibody after challenge. Thus, i.t. instillation of soluble KLH generates specific immunity in mice in a fashion similar to that reported for particulate antigen. Specific responses following primary immunization occur largely within draining lung-associated lymph nodes. In contrast, presensitized animals challenged i.t. with soluble KLH mount secondary antibody responses in both lung and lung-associated lymph nodes.

  19. Identification of peptides fromm foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins bound by class I swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) alleles, SLA-1*0401 and SLA-2*0401

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of peptide binding to porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules has not been extensively performed. Critical to understanding the adaptive immune response of swine to infection is characterization of Swine Leucocyte Antigens (SLA) class I and class II peptide bind...

  20. Improved antigen cross-presentation by polyethyleneimine-based nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Zhengrong; Huang, Hong; Yang, Yanzhu; Ding, Qian; Mai, Junhua; Guo, Wei; Xu, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In the development of therapeutic vaccines against cancer, it is important to design strategies for antigen cross-presentation to stimulate cell-mediated immune responses against tumor antigens. Methods We developed a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based protein antigen delivery system to promote cross-presentation through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I pathway using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen. PEIs formed nanoparticles with OVA by electrostatic interactions, as demonstrated by electrophoresis analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy analysis. Results The nanoparticles were used to stimulate mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro and resulted in significantly more OVA257–264/MHC I complex presentation on dendritic cell surfaces. The activated dendritic cells interacted specifically with RF33.70 to stimulate interleukin-2 secretion. The cross-presentation promoting effect was more prominent in dendritic cells that had been cultured for longer periods of time (13 days). Further studies comparing the antigen presentation efficacies by other polyanionic agents, such as PLL or lysosomotropic agents, suggested that the unique “proton sponge effect” of PEI facilitated antigen escape from the endosome toward the MHC I pathway. Conclusion Such a PEI-based nanoparticle system may have the potential to be developed into an effective therapeutic vaccine delivery system. PMID:21289984

  1. Pulmonary dry powder vaccine of pneumococcal antigen loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Alfagih, Iman M; Miyaji, Eliane N; Figueiredo, Douglas B; Gonçalves, Viviane M; Ferreira, Daniela M; Dennison, Sarah R; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y

    2015-11-30

    Pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, mainly affects the immunocompromised, the very young and the old, and remains one of the leading causes of death. A steady rise in disease numbers from non-vaccine serotypes necessitates a new vaccine formulation that ideally has better antigen stability and integrity, does not require cold-chain and can be delivered non-invasively. In this study, a dry powder vaccine containing an important antigen of S. pneumoniae, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) that has shown cross-reactivity amongst serotypes to be delivered via the pulmonary route has been formulated. The formulation contains the antigen PspA adsorbed onto the surface of polymeric nanoparticles encapsulated in l-leucine microparticles that can be loaded into capsules and delivered via an inhaler. We have successfully synthesized particles of ?150nm and achieved ?20?g of PspA adsorption per mg of NPs. In addition, the spray-dried powders displayed a FPF of 74.31±1.32% and MMAD of 1.70±0.03?m suggesting a broncho-alveolar lung deposition facilitating the uptake of the nanoparticles by dendritic cells. Also, the PspA released from the dry powders maintained antigen stability (SDS-PAGE), integrity (Circular dichroism) and activity (lactoferrin binding assay). Moreover, the released antigen also maintained its antigenicity as determined by ELISA. PMID:26387622

  2. [Shigella flexneri strains having a new type antigen].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, S; Yamada, S; Kudoh, Y

    1992-04-01

    Five Shigella strains isolated from stool cultures of two domestic dysentery cases and three imported cases in Tokyo in 1986-1989 had an atypial serotype that agglutinated with only antiserum to S. flexneri group 6 factor antigen. These strains showed typical biochemical reactions of S. flexneri and were biochemically identical. Four of the strains were positive for Serény test with guinea pig eye and the cell-invasion test with HeLa cells. The strains also had the virulence-plasmid encoding outer membrane proteins, indicating that these were pathogenic. These strains were serologically identical and gave significant cross-reactions with S. flexneri 1b and 4b that had group 6 factor antigen. However, results of reciprocal absorption tests showed that the O antigen of these strains were not identical to S. flexneri 1b and 4b, and were confirmed to have a new type antigen which can not be included among the known S. flexneri type antigen I-VI. Strain 88-893 is designated as the test strain for this new type antigen of S. flexneri. PMID:1624844

  3. Identification of Enterococcus faecalis antigens specifically expressed in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Uttom K.; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a suspected endodontic pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here we report the identification of in vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis by using a novel immunoscreening technique called change-mediated antigen technology (CMAT) and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Materials and Methods Among 4,500 E. coli recombinant clones screened, 19 positive clones reacted reproducibly with hyperimmune sera obtained from rabbits immunized with E. faecalis cells isolated from an experimental endodontic infection. DNA sequences from 16 of these in vivo-induced (IVI) genes were determined. Results Identified protein antigens of E. faecalis included enzymes involved in housekeeping functions, copper resistance protein, putative outer membrane proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Conclusions In vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis could be identified by using a novel immune-screening technique CMAT and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Detailed analysis of these IVI genes will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the endodontic infection of E. faecalis. PMID:26587417

  4. Proteomic Selection of Immunodiagnostic Antigens for Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Thomas W. M.; Napier, Grant B.; Sullivan, Lauren; Ferguson, Michael A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT) presents a severe problem for agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by several trypanosome species and current means of diagnosis are expensive and impractical for field use. Our aim was to discover