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Sample records for unrelated protein antigens

  1. Epitopes shared by unrelated antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Anda, P; Backenson, P B; Coleman, J L; Benach, J L

    1994-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M kappa-chain murine monoclonal antibody (CAB) reacted in a Western blot (immunoblot) with approximately 30 polypeptides from a whole-cell lysate of several American and European Borrelia burgdorferi strains. The reactive antigen with the highest M(r) was measured at 93 kDa (p93) and had an NH2-terminal sequence identical to the one previously reported for this antigen. The lowest reactive antigen had an M(r) of 16,000. All antigens recognized by CAB had isoelectric points within a narrow acidic range, between 5.4 and 6.2. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether the broad reactivity of CAB could be due to degradation of the antigen with the highest M(r), since such spontaneous degradation of p93 has already been reported, and to determine whether CAB could recognize shared epitopes in different antigens. Treatment of B. burgdorferi with protease inhibitors did not result in changes in CAB reactivity, indicating that if such degradation existed, it was most likely not due to the action of endogenous proteases. Likewise, protease treatment of intact organisms and recovery of the antigens in the insoluble fraction of a Triton X-114 partition indicated that they were internal and thus less likely to be degraded by experimental procedures. Amino-terminal sequences of other reactive polypeptides showed one approximately 72-kDa polypeptide to be identical to the DnaK homolog of B. burgdorferi. Two other antigens at approximately 49 and 47 kDa were blocked to Edman degradation. Finally, one sequenced polypeptide with a molecular mass of approximately 38.5 kDa had a strong identity with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of other bacteria and vertebrates. Thus, while it cannot be ruled out that some of the CAB reactivity may be due to fragmentation of p93, there is strong evidence to indicate the presence of a shared epitope in at least three, possibly five, unrelated antigens of B. burgdorferi. A linear epitope within amino acid residues 357 to 371 of p93 was identified. Evidence is presented for a discontinuous epitope in the carboxy-terminal region of the DnaK homolog, which bears strong amino acid identity with the p93 epitope. The conserved amino acid sequences necessary for these shared epitopes indicate possible genetic and/or functional relatedness among these various antigens. Images PMID:7509314

  2. Genetic control of sensitization to structurally unrelated antigens and its relationship to histocompatibility antigens in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Greczy, A F; de Weck, A L

    1975-01-01

    Five strains of guinea-pigs homozygous for GPL-A and 2/13 histocompatibility antigens were sequentially immunized with seven structurally unrelated antigens (TGAL, BPO-BGG, ASAN, BPO-PLL, phenetidine, horseradish peroxidase and DNP-dodecapeptide). Considerable differences in the immune response were observed, as measured by delayed skin reactivity and antigen-induced lymphocyte stimulation in vitro. The data presented show that when the progeny of various back-cross matings are analysed for their responder status, the responses to the antigens (TGAL, BPO-BGG, phenetidine and ASAN) are in most cases linked to the genes controlling the respective histocompatibility antigens. However, it appears that the responses to the various antigens in our system may be under polygenic control. PMID:47308

  3. Search for identical octapeptides in unrelated proteins: Structural plasticity revisited.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, K M; Selvaraj, S

    2012-01-01

    Since proteins are dynamic in nature, they can alter their local structure in response to changes in their environment factors such as temperature, pH, phosphorylation, and binding of other small molecules. These conformational changes are extremely important for the correct folding and functioning of proteins. There are also a number of diseases associated with protein conformational change such as amyloid diseases. To stimulate research into the above factors which specify one conformation over another, different theoretical models have been proposed and tested against sequence similar distant structure protein fragments. In order to simplify the computational complexity of identifying conformational changes in proteins, various local sequence search algorithms were employed and the structural plasticity in unrelated proteins was examined by various research groups. In the present work, we revisit the mechanism of structural plasticity in unrelated proteins with increased number of structures in Protein Data Bank by comparing identical octapeptides in unrelated proteins with dictionary of protein secondary structure extracted from existing experimental data. Our goal is to bring out the influence of hydrophobic residues, hydrophilic residues, flanking residues, difference in secondary structural propensities of surrounding residues, difference in phi-psi angles and local and nonlocal interactions in identical octapeptides adopting different conformations. Also we have used surrounding hydrophobicity, environment dependent interaction energy, atomic mean force potential, structural unit contacts and difference profiles models to explore the factors which cause structural plasticity. The results discussed here may provide insights into protein folding, design and function. PMID:23325556

  4. The Recognition of Identical Ligands by Unrelated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Barelier, Sarah; Sterling, Teague; O'Meara, Matthew J; Shoichet, Brian K

    2015-12-18

    The binding of drugs and reagents to off-targets is well-known. Whereas many off-targets are related to the primary target by sequence and fold, many ligands bind to unrelated pairs of proteins, and these are harder to anticipate. If the binding site in the off-target can be related to that of the primary target, this challenge resolves into aligning the two pockets. However, other cases are possible: the ligand might interact with entirely different residues and environments in the off-target, or wholly different ligand atoms may be implicated in the two complexes. To investigate these scenarios at atomic resolution, the structures of 59 ligands in 116 complexes (62 pairs in total), where the protein pairs were unrelated by fold but bound an identical ligand, were examined. In almost half of the pairs, the ligand interacted with unrelated residues in the two proteins (29 pairs), and in 14 of the pairs wholly different ligand moieties were implicated in each complex. Even in those 19 pairs of complexes that presented similar environments to the ligand, ligand superposition rarely resulted in the overlap of related residues. There appears to be no single pattern-matching "code" for identifying binding sites in unrelated proteins that bind identical ligands, though modeling suggests that there might be a limited number of different patterns that suffice to recognize different ligand functional groups. PMID:26421501

  5. Antigenic protein modifications in Ehrlichia

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, S; THIRUMALAPURA, N; CROSSLEY, E C; ISMAIL, N; WALKER, D H

    2009-01-01

    To develop effective vaccination strategies againstEhrlichia, we have previously reported developing an animal model of cross-protection in which C57BL/6 mice primed withE. muris were resistant to lethal infection withIxodes ovatus ehrlichia (IOE). Polyclonal antibody produced in mice after priming withE. muris and later injected with IOE-detected antigenic proteins inE. muris and IOE cell lysates. Cross-reaction of antigenic proteins was observed when we probed both theE. muris and IOE cell lysates with IOE andE. muris-specific polyclonal antibody. Analysis of the total proteins ofE. muris and IOE by two dimensional electrophoresis showed that bothE. muris and IOE have the same antigenic proteins. Finally, studies on post-translational protein modifications using a novel technique, Eastern blotting, showed thatE. muris proteins are more lipoylated and glycosylated than those of IOE. PMID:19493209

  6. Conservation of the three-dimensional structure in non-homologous or unrelated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we examine examples of conservation of protein structural motifs in unrelated or non-homologous proteins. For this, we have selected three DNA-binding motifs: the histone fold, the helix-turn-helix motif, and the zinc finger, as well as the globin-like fold. We show that indeed similar structures exist in unrelated proteins, strengthening the concept that three-dimensional conservation might be more important than the primary amino acid sequence. PMID:23244440

  7. C-Reactive Protein and Cognition Are Unrelated to Leukoaraiosis

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Fabricio Correia; Rosset, Idiane; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Chaves, Marcia Lorena Fagundes; Roriz-Cruz, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with leukoaraiosis in elderly brain. However, several studies indicate that leukoaraiosis is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. It is unknown how the effect of CRP on cognition is mediated by leukoaraiosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between serum levels of CRP, the presence of leukoaraiosis, and cognitive impairment in a population of coronary patients over 50 years old. CRP levels explained 7.18% (P: 0.002) of the variance of the MMSE. The adjustment for the presence of leukoaraiosis little changed this variance (5.98%, P: 0.005), indicating that only a small portion of the CRP influence on cognition was mediated via leukoaraiosis. Patients with CRP levels ?5.0 had 2.9 (95% CI: 1.26–6.44) times more chance to present cognitive impairment (P: 0.012). We found that elevated serum levels of CRP were associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in elderly and it was not mediated by presence of leukoaraiosis. PMID:24587705

  8. Effects of mismatching for Minor Histocompatibility Antigens on clinical outcomes in HLA-matched, unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplants

    PubMed Central

    Spellman, Stephen; Warden, Melissa B.; Haagenson, Michael; Pietz, Bradley C.; Goulmy, Els; Warren, Edus H.; Wang, Tao; Ellis, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies in HLA-matched sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have reported an association between mismatches in minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg) and outcomes. We assessed whether single and multiple minor mHAg mismatches are associated with outcomes in 730 unrelated donor, HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 allele-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1996 and 2003. Patients had acute and chronic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, received myeloablative conditioning regimens and calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) prophylaxis, and most received bone marrow (85%). Donor and recipient DNA samples were genotyped for mHAg including: HA-1, HA-2, HA-3, HA-8, HB-1, CD31125/563. Primary outcomes included grades III–IV acute GvHD and survival; secondary outcomes included chronic GvHD, engraftment, and relapse. Single disparities at HA-1, HA-2, HA-3, HA-8, and HB-1 were not significantly associated with any of the outcomes analyzed. In HLA-A2 positive individuals, single CD31563 or multiple mHAg mismatches in the HvG vector were associated with lower risk of grades III–IV acute GVHD. Based on these data, we conclude that mHAg incompatibility at HA-1, HA-2, HA-3, HA-8, HB-1 and CD31 has no detectable effect on the outcome of HLA matched unrelated donor HSCT. PMID:19539218

  9. Antigenic Properties of N Protein of Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus causes two important rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. Twenty-four species that represent sero- and genotypes have been registered within the genus Hantavirus by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Among the viral proteins, nucleocapsid (N) protein possesses an immunodominant antigen. The antigenicitiy of N protein is conserved compared with that of envelope glycoproteins. Therefore, N protein has been used for serological diagnoses and seroepidemiological studies. An understanding of the antigenic properties of N protein is important for the interpretation of results from serological tests using N antigen. N protein consists of about 430 amino acids and possesses various epitopes. The N-terminal quarter of N protein bears linear and immunodominant epitopes. However, a serotype-specific and multimerization-dependent antigenic site was found in the C-terminal half of N protein. In this paper, the structure, function, and antigenicity of N protein are reviewed. PMID:25123683

  10. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) Induces Memory CD4 T Cell Anergy in vivo and Impairs Recall Immunity to Unrelated Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Janik, David K; Lee, William T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Naïve and memory T cells can utilize unique regulatory pathways to promote protection but prevent self-reactivity. A bacterial superantigen SEB exploits unique TCR proximal signaling processes in memory CD4 T cells to induce clonal anergy. The aim of this study was to determine if SEB could antagonize memory CD4 T cells in vivo and whether there would be consequences on recall immune responses. We evaluated Ab responses to a T-dependent antigen as a measurement of memory T cell helper function. Method BALB/c mice were primed with TNP-RGG to elicit memory B cells and also immunized with an ovalbumin peptide to elicit memory helper T cells. Another group of TNP-RGG immunized mice were used as adoptive transfer recipients of exogenous DO11.10 memory T cells. Mice were challenged with TNP-OVA with or without prior administration of SEB. B cells secreting IgM or IgG TNP-specific Ab were enumerated by ELISPOT as indicators of primary versus secondary humoral immunity. Results Comparing the SEB and non-SEB-treated groups, the SEB-treated group failed to produce TNP-specific IgG in response to challenge with TNP-OVA, even if they were previously immunized with OVA. All groups produced IgM, indicating that the primary Ab responses and naïve helper T cells were not impacted by SEB. SEB had no negative impact when DO11.10 × Fyn−/− memory T cells were used as donor cells. Conclusion The present study indicated that SEB selectively targeted memory CD4 T cells in vivo and prevented helper function. Consequently, recall humoral immunity was lost. The data are most consistent with in vivo T cell anergy as opposed to indirect suppression as elimination of Fyn kinase restored helper function. These data suggest that bacterial superantigens can impair post-vaccination memory cell responses to unrelated antigens via their ability to target Vb families and antagonize memory cell activation. PMID:26807307

  11. Marrow grafts between phenotypically DLA-identical and haploidentical unrelated dogs: additional antigens controlling engraftment are not detected by cell-mediated lympholysis

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Weiden, P.L.; DeRose, S.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow transplants with low marrow cell doses (less than or equal to4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg) from unrelated donors were carried out in 16 dogs conditioned with 9 Gy (900 rad) of total body irradiation. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. Eleven donor-recipient pairs were phenotypically identical (group 1) for the known antigens of the canine major histocompatibility complex (DLA) and in five the donor was homozygous and the recipient heterozygous for DLA (group 2), as determined by serological histocompatibility typing and mixed leukocyte cultures including homozygous cell typing. In addition, lymphocytes from donors and recipients in group 1 were mutually nonreactive in cell-mediated lympholysis; lymphocytes from recipients in group 2 were not cytotoxic against donor cells. Eight dogs rejected their grafts and eight showed sustained engraftment; of these, four died from graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of rejection was higher than in DLA-identical littermates but lower than in DLA-nonidentical unrelated or littermate dogs. These results indicate that antigens different from the recognized alleles at DLA are involved in the control of engraftment. These antigens most likely represent the expression of unrecognized differences within DLA or are coded for by a locus different from but linked to DLA-A, B, C or D; they are not recognized in the cell-mediated lympholysis assay.

  12. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for hematological malignancies from mismatched 9/10 human leukocyte antigen unrelated donors: comparison with transplants from 10/10 unrelated donors and human leukocyte antigen identical siblings.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Sobh, Mohamad; Serrier, Caroline; Morisset, Stéphane; Labussière, Hélène; Ducastelle, Sophie; Barraco, Fiorenza; Gilis, Lila; Thomas, Xavier; Nicolini, Franck E

    2015-04-01

    We studied the outcome of 213 patients who received allo-HSCT for hematological malignancies, 121 (57%) from HLA identical siblings, 63 (29%) from 10/10 HLA identical unrelated donors and 29 (14%) from 9/10 HLA mismatched unrelated donors. Engraftment was lower in the 9/10 HLA group (90%) than in the 10/10 HLA group (95%) than in the sibling group (99%); 3 months CI of aGVHD ? 2 was 32% (23-41), 20% (15-26) and 27% (23-32) respectively; the one year CI of extensive cGVHD was 21% (13-30), 9% (5-13) and 17% (14-21) respectively. The median OS was 10 months (5-21), 18 months (11-NR) and 60 months (31-NR) respectively with 2-years probability of 19% (8-44), 43% (31-59) and 63% (54-74) respectively. TRM was significantly higher in the 9/10 HLA group with 1 year CI of 45% (35-55), compared to 33% (27-39) in the unrelated 10/10 HLA group and 12% (9-15) in the identical siblings group (p < 0.001). PMID:25029640

  13. Protein Folding Activity of Ribosomal RNA Is a Selective Target of Two Unrelated Antiprion Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tribouillard-Tanvier, Déborah; Dos Reis, Suzana; Gug, Fabienne; Voisset, Cécile; Béringue, Vincent; Sabate, Raimon; Kikovska, Ema; Talarek, Nicolas; Bach, Stéphane; Huang, Chenhui; Desban, Nathalie; Saupe, Sven J.; Supattapone, Surachai; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Chédin, Stéphane; Vilette, Didier; Galons, Hervé; Sanyal, Suparna; Blondel, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background 6-Aminophenanthridine (6AP) and Guanabenz (GA, a drug currently in use for the treatment of hypertension) were isolated as antiprion drugs using a yeast-based assay. These structurally unrelated molecules are also active against mammalian prion in several cell-based assays and in vivo in a mouse model for prion-based diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the identification of cellular targets of these drugs. Using affinity chromatography matrices for both drugs, we demonstrate an RNA-dependent interaction of 6AP and GA with the ribosome. These specific interactions have no effect on the peptidyl transferase activity of the ribosome or on global translation. In contrast, 6AP and GA specifically inhibit the ribosomal RNA-mediated protein folding activity of the ribosome. Conclusion/Significance 6AP and GA are therefore the first compounds to selectively inhibit the protein folding activity of the ribosome. They thus constitute precious tools to study the yet largely unexplored biological role of this protein folding activity. PMID:18478094

  14. Identification of antigenic proteins of setaria cervi by immunoblotting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, N.A.; Kaushal, D.C.; Ghatak, S.

    1987-04-01

    Identification and characterization of antigenic proteins of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) adults and microfilariae was done by immunoblotting technique using hyperimmune rabbit sera against S. cervi and Brugia malayi. The antigens recognized by these sera were detected by using /sup 125/I protein-A followed by autoradiography. Fifteen different antigens were observed to be common between adult and microfilarial stages of the parasite. Some stage specific antigens were also identified. Many antigens of S. cervi adults and microfilariae were also recognized by rabbit anti-B.malayi serum showing the existence of common antigenic determinants between the bovine and human filarial parasites.

  15. Protection of chickens to antigenically variant avian influenza virus challenge after immunization with two antigenically unrelated strains of the same subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antigenic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) within a subtype has been well established and is believed to be driven by the selection of immunologic escape mutants. In regions where vaccination against AIV has been implemented for prolonged periods (e.g. Vietnam and Egypt), vaccines which...

  16. Effect of proteins on the immunogenicity of enterobacterial common antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, H M; Adamus, G; Romanowska, E; Mayer, H

    1981-01-01

    Enterobacterial common antigen isolated by two independent extraction procedures was found to precipitate with a number of basic or hydrophobic proteins. Complexes of enterobacterial common antigen with protamine sulfate, with methylated bovine serum albumin or with a fraction of outer membrane proteins of two different Shigella wild types proved to be highly immunogenic in rabbits upon intravenous immunization, in contrast to the enterobacterial common antigen preparations by themselves. This explains why crude isolates of enterobacterial common antigen usually are good immunogens in contrast to the isolated antigen, which was described to be either not or only very poorly immunogenic. Images PMID:7309231

  17. Engineering less immunogenic and antigenic FVIII proteins.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies against blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), referred to clinically as "inhibitors", is the most challenging and deleterious adverse event to occur following intravenous infusions of FVIII to treat hemophilia A. Inhibitors occlude FVIII surfaces that must bind to activated phospholipid membranes, the serine proteinase factor IXa, and other components of the 'intrinsic tenase complex' in order to carry out its important role in accelerating blood coagulation. Inhibitors develop in up to one of every three patients, yet remarkably, a substantial majority of severe hemophilia A patients, who circulate no detectable FVIII antigen or activity, acquire immune tolerance to FVIII during initial infusions or else after intensive FVIII therapy to overcome their inhibitor. The design of less immunogenic FVIII proteins through identification and modification ("de-immunization") of immunodominant T-cell epitopes is an important goal. For patients who develop persistent inhibitors, modification of B-cell epitopes through substitution of surface-exposed amino acid side chains and/or attachment of bulky moieties to interfere with FVIII attachment to antibodies and memory B cells is a promising approach. Both experimental and computational methods are being employed to achieve these goals. Future therapies for hemophilia A, as well as other monogenic deficiency diseases, are likely to involve administration of less immunogenic proteins in conjunction with other novel immunotherapies to promote a regulatory cellular environment promoting durable immune tolerance. PMID:26566286

  18. Immunological unresponsiveness to protein antigens in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.

    1964-01-01

    The immunological responses of rabbits to HSA, HGG or BSA were tested at various times later in animals which had received the corresponding antigens before or shortly after birth. As judged by the criterion of failure to show immune elimination of antigen, a high proportion of the rabbits remained unresponsive at times when it was calculated that all the originally administered antigen would have been eliminated from the circulation. Furthermore, removal of antigen by passively administered antibody failed to restore the capacity to respond. It is concluded that, in respect of the antigens used, their persistence in the extracellular body fluids is not a prerequisite for maintenance of immunological unresponsiveness. Further administration of the same antigen to rabbits which had escaped from a state of specific immunological unresponsiveness generally produced a very weak response, and in a few instances resulted in a return to the unresponsive state. When the cross-reacting antigens HSA and BSA were administered adsorbed on alum to rabbits made unresponsive by neonatal contact with BSA and HSA respectively, and at the same time a further dose of the original antigen was given, antibodies were formed which were specific for the second antigen and did not cross-react with the first. In only 1/9 animals was responsiveness to the first antigen restored. The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:14193157

  19. Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, T.P.; Woods, K.R.

    1981-06-01

    A method is presented for locating protein antigenic determinants by analyzing amino acid sequences in order to find the point of greatest local hydrophilicity. This is accomplished by assigning each amino acid a numerical value (hydrophilicity value) and then repetitively averaging these values along the peptide chain. The point of highest local average hydrophilicity is invariably located in, or immediately adjacent to, an antigenic determinant. It was found that the prediction success rate depended on averaging group length, with hexapeptide averages yielding optimal results. The method was developed using 12 proteins for which extensive immunochemical analysis has been carried out and subsequently was used to predict antigenic determinants for the following proteins: hepatitis B surface antigen, influenza hemagglutinis, fowl plague virus hemagglutinin, human histocompatibility antigen HLA-B7, human interferons, Escherichia coli and cholera enterotoxins, ragweed allergens Ra3 and Ra5, and streptococcal M protein. The hepatitis B surface antigen sequence was synthesized by chemical means and was shown to have antigenic activity by radioimmunoassay.

  20. Protein polymorphism of a human plasma apolipoprotein D antigenic epitope.

    PubMed

    Camato, R; Marcel, Y L; Milne, R W; Lussier-Cacan, S; Weech, P K

    1989-06-01

    Based on our previous observation that monoclonal antibody anti-apoD-4E11 reacted with several HDL proteins we studied them further with three questions in mind: i) is there common protein polymorphism in healthy individuals? ii) how many proteins are present and what are their characteristics? iii) are they all apolipoproteins and do they have the same lipoprotein distribution as apoD? Isolated, delipidated apoD was used as a standard for radioimmunometric assay of plasma with antibody 4E11. The antigen varied from 3 to 11 mumol-equivalents of apoD per liter of plasma (equivalent to 5-20 mg apoD/dl plasma) with means of 6.1 and 6.8 mumol/l in men and women, respectively. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of plasma found up to eight 4E11-antigenic-proteins of different Mr, each heterogeneous in pI. All plasmas tested contained apoD and an Mr 38,000 antigen, the latter being the most immunoreactive. Six proteins of Mr 70,000-94,000 were found, but the number varied between subjects. Eighty nine percent of the plasma antigen was associated with lipoproteins: 83% with HDL and VHDL, 5% with LDL and VLDL. Lipoproteins of all sizes, separated by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, contained the antigen. ApoD was almost the only 4E11-antigen in LDL, and was in two states: the one free, the other an apoD-apoB mixed disulfide complex. The apparent proportions of higher Mr antigens increased with increasing lipoprotein density, and the proportion of apoD decreased reciprocally. None of these 4E11-antigenic-proteins cross-reacted with antiserum to retinol-binding protein. PMID:2477480

  1. Isoform I (mdr3) is the major form of P-glycoprotein expressed in mouse brain capillaries. Evidence for cross-reactivity of antibody C219 with an unrelated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, L; Pouliot, J F; Murphy, G F; Béliveau, R

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in various non-cancerous tissues such as the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. We used several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies to establish which P-gp isoforms are expressed in isolated mouse brain capillaries. P-gp class I isoform was detected in capillaries with a Western immunoblotting procedure using a specific antiserum. No immunoreactivity was observed with either class II- or class III-specific antisera. Immunoreactivity was observed with mAb C219. However, this antibody detected two distinct immunoreactive proteins (155 and 190 kDa) in the isolated brain capillaries. These two proteins comigrated as a broad band when the samples were submitted to heat prior to gel electrophoresis. The glycoprotein nature of these two antigens was evaluated by their sensitivity to N-glycanase treatment. Following this treatment, the size of the proteins was reduced from 190 and 155 kDa to 180 and 120 kDa, respectively. Triton X-114 phase-partitioning studies showed that the 190 kDa immunoreactive protein was poorly solubilized by Triton X-114, while the 155 kDa protein was partitioned in the detergent-rich phase. In labelling experiments, only the 155 kDa protein was photolabelled with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. These results show that a 190 kDa protein detected by antibody C219 is an antigen unrelated to the three P-gp isoforms presently known. Cross-reactivity of C219 with an unrelated protein emphasizes the fact that more than one antibody should be used in the assessment of P-gp expression in cell lines and tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848274

  2. Structural basis for recognition of AT-rich DNA by unrelated xenogeneic silencing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Blair R. G.; Li, Yifei; Cote, Atina; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Ding, Pengfei; Hughes, Timothy R.; Navarre, William Wiley; Xia, Bin; Liu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    H-NS and Lsr2 are nucleoid-associated proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and Mycobacteria, respectively, that play an important role in the silencing of horizontally acquired foreign DNA that is more AT-rich than the resident genome. Despite the fact that Lsr2 and H-NS proteins are dissimilar in sequence and structure, they serve apparently similar functions and can functionally complement one another. The mechanism by which these xenogeneic silencers selectively target AT-rich DNA has been enigmatic. We performed high-resolution protein binding microarray analysis to simultaneously assess the binding preference of H-NS and Lsr2 for all possible 8-base sequences. Concurrently, we performed a detailed structure-function relationship analysis of their C-terminal DNA binding domains by NMR. Unexpectedly, we found that H-NS and Lsr2 use a common DNA binding mechanism where a short loop containing a “Q/RGR” motif selectively interacts with the DNA minor groove, where the highest affinity is for AT-rich sequences that lack A-tracts. Mutations of the Q/RGR motif abolished DNA binding activity. Netropsin, a DNA minor groove-binding molecule effectively outcompeted H-NS and Lsr2 for binding to AT-rich sequences. These results provide a unified molecular mechanism to explain findings related to xenogeneic silencing proteins, including their lack of apparent sequence specificity but preference for AT-rich sequences. Our findings also suggest that structural information contained within the DNA minor groove is deciphered by xenogeneic silencing proteins to distinguish genetic material that is self from nonself. PMID:21673140

  3. Linking the functions of unrelated proteins using a novel directed evolution domain insertion method

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Wayne R.; Busse, Kathy; Allemann, Rudolf K.; Jones, D. Dafydd

    2008-01-01

    We have successfully developed a new directed evolution method for generating integral protein fusions comprising of one domain inserted within another. Creating two connections between the insert and accepting parent domain can result in the inter-dependence of the separate protein activities, thus providing a general strategy for constructing molecular switches. Using an engineered transposon termed MuDel, contiguous trinucleotide sequences were removed at random positions from the bla gene encoding TEM-1 ?-lactamase. The deleted trinucleotide sequence was then replaced by a DNA cassette encoding cytochrome b562 with differing linking sequences at each terminus and sampling all three reading frames. The result was a variety of chimeric genes encoding novel integral fusion proteins that retained TEM-1 activity. While most of the tolerated insertions were observed in loops, several also occurred close to the termini of ?-helices and ?-strands. Several variants conferred a switching phenotype on Escherichia coli, with bacterial tolerance to ampicillin being dependent on the presence of haem in the growth medium. The magnitude of the switching phenotype ranged from 4- to 128-fold depending on the insertion position within TEM-1 and the linker sequences that join the two domains. PMID:18559359

  4. Identification of antigenic proteins of the nosocomial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens and their linear epitope sites, we have paved the way for crucial future research and applications including the design of point-of-care devices, vaccine development and serological screenings for a highly relevant nosocomial pathogen. PMID:25333280

  5. Identification of Antigenic Proteins of the Nosocomial Pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F.; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens and their linear epitope sites, we have paved the way for crucial future research and applications including the design of point-of-care devices, vaccine development and serological screenings for a highly relevant nosocomial pathogen. PMID:25333280

  6. Outcomes of Patients with Myeloid Malignancies Treated with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Matched Unrelated Donors Compared with One Human Leukocyte Antigen Mismatched Related Donors Using HLA Typing at 10 Loci

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, Stefan O.; Saliba, Rima M.; Rondon, Gabriela; Patah, Poliana A.; Aung, Fleur; Cano, Pedro; Andersson, Borje S.; Kebriaei, Partow; Popat, Uday; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Champlin, Richard E.; de Lima, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Most candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor. Some patients may have a related donor with whom they are mismatched at 1 antigen/allele. It is not known whether such a match is preferable to a matched unrelated donor (MUD). We evaluated the outcomes (survival, relapse, nonrelapse mortality [NRM]) of all 28 patients with a single HLA antigen/allele mismatch identified through high-resolution HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1, and all 318 patients with myeloid malignancies who received transplants from a 10/10 MUD treated during the same period of time at a single institution. Overall, outcomes for patients treated from a 1-antigen/allele mismatch related donor were significantly worse than from a MUD, primarily because of increased NRM. Overall survival (OS) rates at 3 years for 1-antigen/allele mismatched related donor and MUD transplant recipients were 19% and 45% (P =.007), and NRM rates were 40% and 26% (P =.05), respectively. Patients with class I mismatches appeared to have poorer OS than did patients with class II mismatches. A higher incidence of graft rejection was identified in the mismatched related donor group (P =.02). These results indicate that transplant outcomes are better with a MUD than with a 1 antigen/allele-mismatched related donor. PMID:20969970

  7. Protein Stains to Detect Antigen on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, Anil; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting/electroblotting) is the gold standard in the analysis of complex protein mixtures. Electroblotting drives protein molecules from a polyacrylamide (or less commonly, of an agarose) gel to the surface of a binding membrane, thereby facilitating an increased availability of the sites with affinity for both general and specific protein reagents. The analysis of these complex protein mixtures is achieved by the detection of specific protein bands on a membrane, which in turn is made possible by the visualization of protein bands either by chemical staining or by reaction with an antibody of a conjugated ligand. Chemical methods employ staining with organic dyes, metal chelates, autoradiography, fluorescent dyes, complexing with silver, or prelabeling with fluorophores. All of these methods have differing sensitivities and quantitative determinations vary significantly. This review will describe the various protein staining methods applied to membranes after western blotting. "Detection" precedes and is a prerequisite to obtaining qualitative and quantitative data on the proteins in a sample, as much as to comparing the protein composition of different samples. "Detection" is often synonymous to staining, i.e., the reversible or irreversible binding by the proteins of a colored organic or inorganic chemical. PMID:26139252

  8. Immunological Properties of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Fusion Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Michael J.; Hastings, Gillian Z.; Brown, Alan L.; Grace, Ken G.; Rowlands, David J.; Brown, Fred; Clarke, Berwyn E.

    1990-04-01

    The immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an N-terminal fusion with hepatitis B core antigen. In this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis B core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide with an added helper T-cell epitope. The fusion proteins can be readily administered without adjuvant or with adjuvants acceptable for human and veterinary application and can elicit a response after nasal or oral dosing. The fusion proteins can also act as T-cell-independent antigens. These properties provide further support for their suitability as presentation systems for "foreign" epitopes in the development of vaccines.

  9. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  10. Ready display of antigenic peptides in a protein 'mimogen'.

    PubMed

    Vallée, M Robert J; Schombs, Matthew W; Balaban, Zack J; Colyer, John; Davis, Benjamin G

    2016-02-01

    Given the dependence of much modern biology upon the use of antibodies as tools and reagents, their variability and the often associated lack-of-detail about function and identity creates experimental errors. Here we describe the proof-of-principle for a potentially general, versatile method for the display of antigens in a soluble yet standard format on a lateral protein scaffold that mimics normal epitopes in a protein antigen (a 'mimogen') and confirm their utility in phosphorylation-dependent recognition by specific antibodies. PMID:26785124

  11. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses through these receptors are propagated and modified by accessory molecules, and discuss how signal amplification and diversification are achieved. PMID:9779983

  12. Demonstration of heterogeneity among the antigenic proteins of Mobiluncus species.

    PubMed Central

    Schwebke, J R; Hillier, S L; Fohn, M J; Lukehart, S A

    1990-01-01

    The protein and antigenic profiles of the American Type Culture Collection type strains of Mobiluncus species and those of 114 clinical isolates were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and immunoblotting with homologous polyvalent antisera. The majority of isolates (82%) possessed characteristic protein profiles and could be identified to the species level by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The major protein bands were also antigenic, and some antigenic cross-reactivity was noted between the two Mobiluncus species. All of the isolates were examined for reactivity with a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies previously prepared against the type strains. While 56 of 60 clinical isolates of Mobiluncus curtisii (93%) reacted with one or more of the monoclonal antibodies, only 23 of 54 clinical isolates which were identified as Mobiluncus mulieris by biochemical methods (48%) reacted with one or more of the monoclonal antibodies. One of the 4 M. curtisii isolates (25%) and 11 of the 31 M. mulieris isolates (35%) which did not react with the monoclonal antibodies also had atypical protein profiles. These results demonstrate a high degree of heterogeneity in the protein and antigenic profiles of Mobiluncus isolates and suggest that further taxonomic division may be appropriate. Images PMID:1691207

  13. On Modeling Human Leukocyte Antigen-Identical Sibling Match Probability for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Estimating the Need for an Unrelated Donor Source.

    PubMed

    Besse, Kelsey; Maiers, Martin; Confer, Dennis; Albrecht, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Prior studies of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) therapy for the treatment of malignant or nonmalignant blood disorders assume a 30% likelihood that a patient will find a match among siblings and, therefore, a 70% likelihood of needing an unrelated donor source. This study utilizes birth data and statistical modeling to assess the adequacy of these estimates to describe the probability among US population cohorts segmented by race/ethnicity and age, including ages of greatest HCT utilization. Considerable variation in the likelihood of an HLA-identical sibling was found, ranging from 13% to 51%, depending upon patient age and race/ethnicity. Low sibling match probability, compounded with increased genetic diversity and lower availability among unrelated donors, put the youngest minority patients at the greatest risk for not finding a suitable related or unrelated HCT donor. Furthermore, the present 40-year decline in birth rates is expected to lead to 1.5-fold decrease in access to a matched sibling for today's young adults (18 to 44 years of age) when they reach peak HCT utilization years (near age 61 years) versus their contemporary adult counterparts (44 to 64 years). Understanding the sibling match probability by race/ethnicity and age cohort leads to forecasting the demand for unrelated HCT sources. PMID:26403513

  14. Antigenic structure of the hepatitis C virus envelope 2 protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z X; Sönnerborg, A; Sällberg, M

    1994-12-01

    The antigenic structure of the envelope 2 (e2) protein of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was characterized by the use of 70 synthetic peptides and 131 human sera from persons with antibodies to HCV. Among 34 overlapping peptides spanning the e2 protein of HCV, two major antigenic regions were located to residues 484-499 and residues 554-569. The sequence of the two major antigenic regions of the e2 protein are partly well conserved within the described types of HCV. Both regions contain two Cys residues in close proximity, and the region at residues 554-569 contains a putative N-glycosylation site, which are factors that previously have been suggested to affect the immune recognition of the e2 protein. Using substitution peptide analogues where each position within residues 484-499 and 554-569 were sequentially substituted by Ala or Gly, the most essential residues for antibody binding were found to be the Pro-498, Ala-499, Ala-566, Pro-567, and Pro-568. All of these, except for the Pro-498 and Ala-566, are conserved among different HCV strains. Also, according to previous studies, position 496 often shows variations, which could be explained by position 496 being contained within the antigenic region at residues 484-499. Interestingly, none of the Cys residues at positions 486, 494, 564 and 569 were found to be essential for antibody binding, indicating that these are not essential in maintaining the e2 antigenicity of the peptides. In a material of 114 confirmed anti-HCV positive sera, derived from patients during the acute or the chronic phase of HCV infection, the prevalence of antibodies to the two major linear antigenic regions of the e2 protein was found to be 55% among HCV RNA-positive sera, and 53% among HCV RNA-negative sera. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized two major linear antigenic regions outside the two hypervariable regions of the e2 protein. Since these regions are accessible to the B cells of the infected host, these two regions are likely to be surface exposed either on the precursor polyprotein or the native e2 protein. Also, we could confirm that antibodies to the e2 protein co-exist with HCV viraemia. PMID:7527739

  15. Proteomic analysis identification of antigenic proteins in Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae.

    PubMed

    Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Insawang, Tonkla; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-12-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is the causative agent of human gnathostomiasis. The advanced third stage larva (AL3) of this nematode can migrate into the subcutaneous tissues, including vital organs, often producing severe pathological effects. This study performed immuno-proteomic analysis of antigenic spots, derived from G. spinigerum advanced third stage larva (GSAL3) and recognized by human gnathostomiasis sera, using two-dimensional (2-DE) gel electrophoresis based-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS), and followed by the aid of a database search. The crude GSAL3 extract was fractionated using IPG strips (pH 3-11NL) and followed by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. Each gel was stained with colloidal Coomassie blue or was electro-transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and probed with gnathostomiasis human sera by immunoblotting. Individual Coomassie-stained protein spots corresponding to the antigenic spots recognized by immunoblotting were excised and processed using LC/MS-MS. Of the 93 antigenic spots excised, 87 were identified by LC/MS-MS. Twenty-seven protein types were found, the most abundant being Ascaris suum37. Six spots showed good quality spectra, but could not be identified. This appears to be the first attempt to characterize antigenic proteins from GSAL3 using a proteomic approach. Immuno-proteomics shows promise to assist the search for candidate proteins for diagnosis and vaccine/drug design and may provide better understand of the host-parasite relationship in human gnathostomiasis. PMID:26318732

  16. Expression of the heat-modifiable major outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae type b is unrelated to virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M. S.; Cope, L. D.; Hansen, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The heat-modifiable major outer membrane protein (P1) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been shown to be both exposed on the cell surface and capable of inducing the synthesis of antibodies protective against experimental Hib disease. Chemical mutagenesis of a recombinant plasmid containing the Hib gene encoding P1 resulted in inactivation of P1 expression by this plasmid. The mutated P1 gene was transformed into Hib to obtain an isogenic mutant lacking only the ability to synthesize this surface protein. In addition, the P1 gene was inserted into a plasmid shuttle vector and used to construct a recombinant Hib strain that overexpressed the P1 protein. Lack of P1 expression did not affect the ability of Hib to grow in vitro. Neither the absence nor the overproduction of P1 affected expression of capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide by Hib. The P1-negative mutant and the P1-overexpressing strain were both as susceptible to the bactericidal activity of pooled normal human serum as was the wild-type parent strain, while the P1-negative mutant was as resistant to the bactericidal activity of normal infant rat serum as was the wild-type parent strain. The P1-negative mutant was no less virulent than was the wild-type parent strain in an animal model system, such that both the numbers of animals infected by this mutant and the mean magnitudes of the resultant bacteremias were essentially identical to those obtained with challenge by the wild-type parent strain. Similarly, overexpression of P1 did not detectably affect the virulence of Hib. These data indicate that this protective protein antigen plays no detectable role in the expression of virulence by Hib, as assessed in an animal model system. Images PMID:2785959

  17. Protein Expression Analysis of Melanocyte Differentiation Antigen TRP-2.

    PubMed

    Avogadri, Francesca; Gnjatic, Sacha; Tassello, Jodie; Frosina, Denise; Hanson, Nicole; Laudenbach, Megan; Ritter, Erika; Merghoub, Taha; Busam, Klaus J; Jungbluth, Achim A

    2016-03-01

    Melanocyte differentiation antigens, such as gp100, tyrosinase, and Melan-A and their corresponding antibodies HMB45, T311, and A103, are major diagnostic tools in surgical pathology. Little is known about tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2, or dopachrome tautomerase/DCT) another melanocyte differentiation antigen, which is an enzymatic component of melanogenesis. We identified a commercial reagent to TRP-2, monoclonal antibody (mAb) C-9 and undertook a comprehensive analysis to assess its specificity and usefulness for surgical pathology. Subsequently, we analyzed panels of normal tissues and tumors. We show that TRP-2 is regularly expressed in melanocytes of the normal skin. In cutaneous nevi, TRP-2 is present in junctional as well as in dermal nevocytes. In malignant tumors, C-9 reactivity is restricted to melanocytic and related lesions and present in 84% and 58% of primary and metastatic melanomas, respectively. Ten primary melanomas of the anorectal mucosa were all positive. Like the other melanocyte differentiation antigens, TRP-2 was absent in 6 desmoplastic melanomas. Also, only 2 of 9 angiomyolipomas were TRP-2 positive. We conclude that mAb C-9 is a valuable reagent for the analysis of TRP-2 expression in archival surgical pathology material. The expression pattern of TRP-2 in melanocytic and related lesions appears to parallel other melanocyte differentiation antigens, although the overall incidence is lower than other antigens, such as Melan-A or gp100. PMID:26894771

  18. Antigenic proteins of Helicobacter pylori of potential diagnostic value.

    PubMed

    Khalilpour, Akbar; Santhanam, Amutha; Wei, Lee Chun; Saadatnia, Geita; Velusamy, Nagarajan; Osman, Sabariah; Mohamad, Ahmad Munir; Noordin, Rahmah

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (? 70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture- positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/ TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline- 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients. PMID:23679248

  19. Quantitating protein synthesis, degradation, and endogenous antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Princiotta, Michael F; Finzi, Diana; Qian, Shu-Bing; Gibbs, James; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Buttgereit, Frank; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2003-03-01

    Using L929 cells, we quantitated the macroeconomics of protein synthesis and degradation and the microeconomics of producing MHC class I associated peptides from viral translation products. To maintain a content of 2.6 x 10(9) proteins, each cell's 6 x 10(6) ribosomes produce 4 x 10(6) proteins min(-1). Each of the cell's 8 x 10(5) proteasomes degrades 2.5 substrates min(-1), creating one MHC class I-peptide complex for each 500-3000 viral translation products degraded. The efficiency of complex formation is similar in dendritic cells and macrophages, which play a critical role in activating T cells in vivo. Proteasomes create antigenic peptides at different efficiencies from two distinct substrate pools: rapidly degraded newly synthesized proteins that clearly represent defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and a less rapidly degraded pool in which DRiPs may also predominate. PMID:12648452

  20. Reaginic antibody production to protein antigens of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by mice.

    PubMed Central

    Danneman, P J; Michael, J G

    1976-01-01

    Water-soluble antigens isolated from acetone-dried, gram-negative bacteria elicited reaginic antibody formation in mice. Antibodies specific for Escherichia coli antigens reacted with antigens isolated from several enterobacterial species tested, but not with antigens isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Reaginic antibodies induced by antigens isolated from a P. aeruginosa strain reacted with antigens isolated from several P.aeruginosa serotypes as well as with a purified protein component of the envelope of P. aeruginosa. The anti-Pseudomonas reagins did not cross-react with enterobacterial antigens. Antigenicity of the bacterial extracts was destroyed by trypsin treatment and reduced by heating, which suggested that the antigens were protein in nature. Whole bacterial cells adsorbed out reaginic antibodies, indicating that the antigens are located at or near the surface of the bacteria. PMID:823118

  1. How to Make a Non-Antigenic Protein (Auto) Antigenic: Molecular Complementarity Alters Antigen Processing and Activates Adaptive-Innate Immunity Synergy.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigenicity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide ("adjuvant peptide"), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements. PMID:26179268

  2. Antigenic structure of Coxiella burnetii. A comparison of lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens as vaccines against Q fever.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C; Hoover, T A; Waag, D M; Banerjee-Bhatnagar, N; Bolt, C R; Scott, G H

    1990-01-01

    The antigenic structure of Coxiella burnetii is being investigated by identifying both external and internal cellular epitopes of the morphologic cell types. Both the phase I lipopolysaccharide (LPSI) and several surface proteins are candidates for the development of subunit multivalent vaccines. The protective efficacy of purified LPSI was demonstrated in A/J mice. The purified LPSI preparations contained residual peptides detected by amino acid analysis. Therefore, the protection afforded by LPSI may be, in part, due to the presence of peptides. The purification of proteins free of LPSI must be accomplished before the protective efficacy of proteins or peptides can be established. We have identified three proteins that are both antigenic and immunogenic, as indicated by either enzyme immunoassay, radioimmunoprecipitation, immunoblot assay, or lymphocyte transformation. A 62-kDa protein antigen encoded by the htpB gene of C. burnetii was analyzed for immunogenicity. The purified protein antigen was immunogenic, as it elicited specific antibodies and performed as recall antigen in lymphocyte stimulation assays. The antigen was not detected on the surface of phase I cells but was highly represented on the surface of phase II cells. Therefore, the protein may not be a good candidate for vaccine development. The diagnostic utility of the 62-kDa protein antigen lies in the fact that convalescent and chronic Q fever sera from human patients reacted with the antigen, whereas acute sera did not. Although the 62-kDa protein is a "common antigen," specific peptide-based diagnostic reagents may be useful in the detection of Q fever disease progression. A major surface protein (P1) of roughly 29.5 kDa was purified from the phase I Nine Mile (clone 7) strain. No LPSI was detected in the P1 preparation by three different LPSI monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies prepared against P1 were effective in localizing the protein on the cell surface, in the cell wall, and associated with the peptidoglycan of large cells of C. burnetii. Small, pressure-resistant cells did not contain P1. Mice immunized with two 25-micrograms injections of LPSI produced antibodies against LPSI and phase I whole cells. No antibody was detected against phase II whole cells. Immunization with P1 induced antibody against the LPSI fraction and phase I and phase II whole cells. P1 was more effective than LPSI in reducing the number of infectious C. burnetii in the spleens of challenged mice. The gene encoding another protein (P2) recognized by P1 monoclonal antibodies was cloned and sequenced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2378463

  3. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines requires testing of additional antigens, optimization of the vaccine formulation and a better understanding of the protective immune response. PMID:26079491

  4. Towards Preserving the Immunogenicity of Protein Antigens Carried by Nanoparticles While Avoiding the Cold Chain

    PubMed Central

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are an attractive vaccine carrier with potent adjuvant activity. Data from our previous studies showed that immunization of mice with lecithin/glyceryl monostearate-based nanoparticles with protein antigens conjugated onto their surface induced a strong, quick, and long-lasting antigen-specific immune response. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of preserving the immunogenicity of protein antigens carried by nanoparticles without refrigeration using these antigen-conjugated nanoparticles as a model. The nanoparticles were lyophilized, and the immunogenicity of the antigens was evaluated in a mouse model using bovine serum albumin or the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens. With proper excipients, the nanoparticles can be lyophilized while maintaining the immunogenicity of the antigens. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the model antigen conjugated onto the nanoparticles was undamaged after a relatively extended period of storage at room temperature or under accelerated conditions (37°C) when the nanoparticles were lyophilized with 5% mannitol plus 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone. To our knowledge, the present study represents an early attempt to preserve the immunogenicity of the protein antigens carried by nanoparticles without refrigeration. PMID:20416366

  5. Secretion and antigenicity of hepatitis B virus small envelope proteins lacking cysteines in the major antigenic region.

    PubMed

    Mangold, C M; Unckell, F; Werr, M; Streeck, R E

    1995-08-20

    Disulfide bonds are of crucial importance for the structure and antigenic properties of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope. We have evaluated the role of the eight highly conserved cysteines of the major antigenic region for assembly, secretion, and antigenicity of the envelope proteins. Mutants carrying single or multiple substitutions of alanine for cysteine were analyzed using epitope tagging and transient expression in COS-7 cells. The only single cysteines found to be indispensable for efficient secretion were Cys-107 and Cys-138, but double mutation of Cys-137 and Cys-139 also created a block to secretion. Poorly secreted mutants formed aberrant oligomeric structures. The antigenicity of the secreted or intracellularly retained mutants was analyzed using a panel of six monoclonal antibodies recognizing group- and subtype-specific determinants. We demonstrate that Cys-107 is critical for the structure of the group determinant a, whereas Cys-147, previously implicated in intramolecular disulfide bonding, is dispensable. Mutant proteins lacking Cys-121 and -124, -137, -147, or -149 have grossly distorted structures of the y subtype determinant. Our data raise the possibility that HBV strains carrying cysteine mutations are nonreactive in hepatitis B surface antigen-specific immunoassays. PMID:7645257

  6. Apparent fragility of African hair is unrelated to the cystine-rich protein distribution: a cytochemical electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, N P; Dawber, R P R; Ferguson, D J P

    2005-04-01

    A feature of black African hair is an apparent increased fragility of the hair shaft compared to other ethnic groups (as measured by the tensile force needed to break the hair fibre). This has certain similarities to that reported for trichorrhexis nodosa (weathering secondary to physical damage) and trichothiodystrophy [a genetic disorder associated with reduced cystine (sulphur)-rich proteins and increased fragility]. In the present study, the distribution of the cystine-rich proteins in the hair of black Africans was compared to that of Caucasian and Asian volunteers, plus patients with trichorrhexis nodosa and trichothiodystrophy, using transmission electron microscopy and specific silver stains. It was found that the silver staining pattern of the hair shafts of black Africans was similar to that observed for Caucasians, Asians and also patients with trichorrhexis nodosa. The cuticular cells exhibited an electron dense A layer and exocuticle, and in the cortex the microfibrils forming the macrofibres were outlined by electron-dense material. This contrasts with the abnormal distribution of the cystine-rich proteins seen in trichothiodystrophy. This study is the first formal comparison of the cystine-rich proteins in the various racial groups and shows that there is no abnormality in their distribution in black African hair shafts compared to the other ethnic groups. Therefore, the excessive structural damage observed in the African hair shafts is consistent with physical trauma (resulting from grooming) rather than an inherent weakness due to any structural abnormality. PMID:15810890

  7. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C. )

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the {Delta}{sup 9} desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  8. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs.

    PubMed

    Shanklin, J; Somerville, C

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase (EC 1.14.99.6) was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was no detectable identity between the deduced amino acid sequences of the castor delta 9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase and either the delta 9-stearoyl-CoA desaturase from rat or yeast or the delta 12 desaturase from Synechocystis, suggesting that these enzymes may have evolved independently. However, there was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the delta 9 desaturase is developmentally regulated. PMID:2006187

  9. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Methods: Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. Results: For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 ?g/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB. PMID:23287127

  10. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-03-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of approx. =72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation.

  11. In vivo protein expression and immune responses generated by DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens fused with a reporter protein.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Anita; Jiang, Weiwen; Velaz-Faircloth, Maria; Cobb, Alison J; Henry, Stanley C; Frothingham, Richard

    2002-08-19

    We cloned six mycobacterial antigens into a mammalian expression vector as fusion proteins with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Plasmid DNA was injected intramuscularly, and the injection sites were examined 1 week later. Expression of each antigen-EGFP fusion protein was visualized as green fluorescence in muscle tissue sections. A plasmid expressing EGFP alone and a plasmid with a frameshift mutation served as positive and negative controls. Visualization of fluorescent protein in vivo was 100% specific when compared to in vitro results. In vivo sensitivity was only 37% based on individual injection sites, but increased to 100% when results from multiple injection sites were combined for each plasmid. EGFP alone was expressed in a higher proportion of myocytes than the antigen-EGFP fusion proteins (P < 0.001). There was a trend toward an inverse correlation between protein size and the proportion of myocytes with visible fluorescence (r = -0.68; P = 0.09). We compared antibody subtypes generated to Mycobacterium bovis antigen 85A, when it was expressed alone or as a fusion protein. Inclusion of EGFP modified the immune response toward a Th1 response, as indicated by the ratio of antigen 85A-specific IgG2a to IgG1 generated by each plasmid (antigen 85A alone 0.73 +/- 0.18 versus antigen 85A-EGFP 1.82 +/- 0.57, mean +/- S.D.; P < 0.01), though the magnitude of the antibody isotype shift was modest. Direct visualization of antigen-EGFP fusion proteins provided a simple and rapid method to confirm in vivo antigen expression. PMID:12163270

  12. N-Glycosylation of extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) regulates its secretion, which is unrelated to lipoid proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Shiho; Goto, Yuki; Suzuki, Takehiro; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Simizu, Siro

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and plays important roles in extracellular matrix formation. Additionally, ECM1 gene mutations cause lipoid proteinosis (LP), a rare skin condition of genetic origin. However, an effective therapeutic approach of LP is not established. Here, we showed that ECM1 gene mutation observed in LP patients significantly suppresses its secretion. As ECM1 has three putative N-glycosylation sites and most of mutated ECM1 observed in LP patients are defective in these N-glycosylation sites, we investigated the correlation between LP and N-glycosylation of ECM1. We identified that the Asn354 and Asn444 residues in ECM1 were N-glycosylated by mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, an N-linked glycan at Asn354 negatively regulated secretion of ECM1, contrary to LP patient-derived mutants. These results indicate that the defect of N-glycosylation in ECM1 is not involved in the aberration of secretion of LP-derived mutated ECM1. PMID:25379385

  13. Plasma membrane vesicles decorated with glycolipid-anchored antigens and adjuvants via protein transfer as an antigen delivery platform for inhibition of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaina M; Vartabedian, Vincent F; Bozeman, Erica N; Caoyonan, Brianne E; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Pack, Christopher D; Dey, Paulami; D'Souza, Martin J; Yang, Lily; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    Antigen delivered within particulate materials leads to enhanced antigen-specific immunity compared to soluble administration of antigen. However, current delivery approaches for antigen encapsulated in synthetic particulate materials are limited by the complexity of particle production that affects stability and immunogenicity of the antigen. Herein, we describe a protein delivery system that utilizes plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) derived from biological materials such as cultured cells or isolated tissues and a simple protein transfer technology. We show that these particulate PMVs can be easily modified within 4 h by a protein transfer process to stably incorporate a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form of the breast cancer antigen HER-2 onto the PMV surface. Immunization of mice with GPI-HER-2-modified-PMVs induced strong HER-2-specific antibody responses and protection from tumor challenge in two different breast cancer models. Further incorporation of the immunostimulatory molecules IL-12 and B7-1 onto the PMVs by protein transfer enhanced tumor protection and induced beneficial Th1 and Th2-type HER-2-specific immune responses. Since protein antigens can be easily converted to GPI-anchored forms, these results demonstrate that isolated plasma membrane vesicles can be modified with desired antigens along with immunostimulatory molecules by protein transfer and used as a vaccine delivery vehicle to elicit potent antigen-specific immunity. PMID:26461116

  14. The Leptospiral Antigen Lp49 is a Two-Domain Protein with Putative Protein Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Giuseppe,P.; Oliveira Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Gomes Guimaraes, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Currently available vaccines have limited effectiveness and therapeutic interventions are complicated by the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of leptospirosis. The genome of Leptospira interrogans was recently sequenced and comparative genomic analysis contributed to the identification of surface antigens, potential candidates for development of new vaccines and serodiagnosis. Lp49 is a membrane-associated protein recognized by antibodies present in sera from early and convalescent phases of leptospirosis patients. Its crystal structure was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using selenomethionine-labelled crystals and refined at 2.0 Angstroms resolution. Lp49 is composed of two domains and belongs to the all-beta-proteins class. The N-terminal domain folds in an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, whereas the C-terminal domain presents a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Structural analysis of Lp49 indicates putative protein-protein binding sites, suggesting a role in Leptospira-host interaction. This is the first crystal structure of a leptospiral antigen described to date.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF MULTIPLE ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS ON 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' ATTACHMENT PROTEIN BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinct multiple antigenic determinants of the attachment protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been identified by limited proteolytic cleavage using specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blots prepared from the gels containing the cleaved fragments were probed with antiserum ...

  16. A model for the hepatitis B virus core protein: prediction of antigenic sites and relationship to RNA virus capsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Argos, P; Fuller, S D

    1988-01-01

    The sequences of the core proteins from several serotypes of human hepatitis B virus and related mammalian and avian hepadnaviruses are aligned with the vp3 capsid protein of mengo virus, a picornavirus. The homology indicates an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel fold for the hepatitis protein, as observed in the tertiary structure of the picornavirus protein. The locations of known antigenic sites and other modifications are consistent with this structure for the core protein. The predicted folding suggests additional exposed antigenic sites and supports an evolutionary relationship between this family of enveloped DNA viruses and enveloped and non-enveloped RNA viruses. PMID:2456212

  17. Responses of Bovine WC1+ ?? T Cells to Protein and Nonprotein Antigens of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Michael D.; Kennedy, Hilary E.; Smyth, Allister J.; Girvin, R. Martyn; Andersen, Peter; Pollock, John M.

    2002-01-01

    WC1+ ?? T cells of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle are highly responsive to M. bovis sonic extract (MBSE). In mycobacterial infections of other species, ?? T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1+ ?? T-cell antigenic targets within MBSE require further definition in terms of the dominance of protein versus nonprotein components. The present study sought to characterize the WC1+ ?? T-cell antigenic targets, together with the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2), in the context of M. bovis infection. This was achieved by testing crude and defined antigens to assess protein versus nonprotein recognition by WC1+ ?? T cells in comparison with CD4+ ?? T cells. Both cell types proliferated strongly in response to MBSE, with CD4+ T cells being the major producers of gamma interferon (IFN-?). However, enzymatic digestion of the protein in MBSE removed its ability to stimulate CD4+ T-cell responses, whereas some WC1+ ?? T-cell proliferation remained. The most antigenic protein inducing proliferation and IFN-? secretion in WC1+ ?? T-cell cultures was found to be ESAT-6, which is a potential novel diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate. In addition, WC1+ ?? T-cell proliferation was observed in response to stimulation with prenyl pyrophosphate antigens (isopentenyl pyrophosphate and monomethyl phosphate). High levels of cellular activation (CD25 expression) resulted from MBSE stimulation of WC1+ ?? T cells from infected animals. A similar degree of activation was induced by IL-2 alone, but for WC1+ ?? T-cell division IL-2 was found to act only as a costimulatory signal, enhancing antigen-driven responses. Overall, the data indicate that protein antigens are important stimulators of WC1+ ?? T-cell proliferation and IFN-? secretion in M. bovis infection, with nonprotein antigens inducing significant proliferation. These findings have important implications for diagnostic and vaccine development. PMID:12379688

  18. Shift in S-layer protein expression responsible for antigenic variation in Campylobacter fetus.

    PubMed

    Wang, E; Garcia, M M; Blake, M S; Pei, Z; Blaser, M J

    1993-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus strains possess regular paracrystalline surface layers (S-layers) composed of high-molecular-weight proteins and can change the size and crystalline structure of the predominant protein expressed. Polyclonal antisera demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity among these proteins but suggest differences in epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies to the 97-kDa S-layer protein of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strain 82-40LP showed three different reactivities. Monoclonal antibody 1D1 recognized 97-kDa S-layer proteins from all C. fetus strains studied; reactivity of monoclonal antibody 6E4 was similar except for epitopes in S-layer proteins from reptile strains and strains with type B lipopolysaccharide. Monoclonal antibody 2E11 only recognized epitopes on S-layer proteins from strains with type A lipopolysaccharide regardless of size. In vitro shift from a 97-kDa S-layer protein to a 127-kDa S-layer protein resulted in different reactivity, indicating that size change was accompanied by antigenic variation. To examine in vivo variation, heifers were genetically challenged with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains and the S-layer proteins from sequential isolates were characterized. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies showed that antigenic reactivities of the S-layer proteins were varied, indicating that these proteins represent a system for antigenic variation. PMID:7688715

  19. Purification, characterization, and seroactivity of a 20-kilodalton Brucella protein antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Zygmunt, M S; Gilbert, F B; Dubray, G

    1992-01-01

    An internal protein was purified from cell extracts of Brucella melitensis B115 by a combination of preparative isoelectric focusing and high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 230 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. The protein was resolved to a single band of 20 kDa after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native protein had an isoelectric point of 4.9. The N-terminal sequence of the 20-kDa protein was determined. The 20-kDa protein has been identified as antigen A-2 with a previously described anti-antigen A-2 serum (B. Stemshorn, K. Nielsen, and B. Samagh, Can. J. Comp. Med. 45:77-81, 1981). Antigen A-2 reacted with sera from infected sheep in immunoblotting and may be useful in developing diagnostic tests for brucellosis. Images PMID:1400966

  20. Haploidentical T Cell-Replete Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Patients in or above the Sixth Decade of Age Compared with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from an Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Related or Unrelated Donor.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Didier; Fürst, Sabine; Crocchiolo, Roberto; El-Cheikh, Jean; Granata, Angela; Harbi, Samia; Bouabdallah, Reda; Devillier, Raynier; Bramanti, Stephania; Lemarie, Claude; Picard, Christophe; Chabannon, Christian; Weiller, Pierre-Jean; Faucher, Catherine; Mohty, Bilal; Vey, Norbert; Castagna, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a T cell-replete allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a haploidentical donor (haplo-ID) could be a valid treatment for hematological malignancies. However, little data exist concerning older populations. We provided transplantation to 31 patients over the age of 55 years from a haplo-ID and compared their outcomes with patients of the same ages who underwent transplantation from a matched related (MRD) or an unrelated donor (UD). All 3 groups were comparable, except for their conditioning. Patients in haplo-ID group received 2 days of post-transplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, whereas patients in other groups received pretransplantation antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and additional mycophenolate mofetil in case of 1-antigen mismatch. All patients but 1 in the haplo-ID group engrafted. The incidence of grades 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not statistically different between recipients from haplo-ID (cumulative incidence, 23%) and MRD (cumulative incidence, 21%) transplantations but it was lower than after UD HSCT (cumulative incidence, 44%). No patient in the haplo-ID group developed severe chronic GVHD, compared with cumulative incidences of 16% and 14% after MRD (P = .02) and UD (P = .03) grafts, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse were similar in the 3 groups, whereas nonrelapse mortality after UD HSCT was 3-fold higher than after haplo-ID or MRD HSCT. Overall, 2-year overall survival (70%), progression-free survival (67%), and progression and severe chronic GVHD-free survival (67%) probabilities after haplo-ID did not statistically differ from MRD transplantation (78%, 64%, and 51%, respectively), although they were higher than after UD transplantation (51% [P = .08], 38% [P = .02], and 31% [P = .007]). We conclude that T cell-replete haplo-ID HSCT followed by post-transplantation high-dose- cyclophosphamide in patients over 55 years is associated with promising results, similar to MRD HSCT, and is deserving prospective evaluation. PMID:26341397

  1. 20-kDa protein associated with the murine T-cell antigen receptor is phosphorylated in response to activation by antigen or concanavalin A

    SciTech Connect

    Samelson, L.E.; Harford, J.; Schwartz, R.H.; Klausner, R.D.

    1985-04-01

    Antigen or concanavalin A activation of a murine T-cell hybrid specific for pigeon cytochrome resulted in phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that was specifically coprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody binding the T-cell antigen receptor. There was no evidence for phosphorylation of the antigen receptor itself. The phosphorylation of the 20-kDa polypeptide was dependent on the concentration of antigen or lectin used to activate the T-cell hybrid and reached a maximum 40 min after the addition of antigen. The 20-kDa protein was also radioiodinated with a hydrophobic photoactivatable labeling reagent. The amount of iodinated 20-kDa protein immunoprecipitable with the anti-receptor antibody did not increase with T-cell activation, indicating that the phosphorylation occurred on a molecule that was constitutively associated with the antigen receptor. Concanavalin A also induced phosphorylation of a 20-kDa polypeptide in a second antigen-specific major histocompatibility complex-restricted T-cell hybrid. Again, the phosphorylated polypeptide was precipitated only by a monoclonal antibody specific for the antigen receptor on this hybrid. Thus, the antigen or concanavalin A-induced activation of T-cell hybrids results in the rapid phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that is associated with the T-cell receptor.

  2. A structurally distinct human mycoplasma protein that generically blocks antigen-antibody union.

    PubMed

    Grover, Rajesh K; Zhu, Xueyong; Nieusma, Travis; Jones, Teresa; Boero, Isabel; MacLeod, Amanda S; Mark, Adam; Niessen, Sherry; Kim, Helen J; Kong, Leopold; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Kwon, Keehwan; Chesi, Marta; Smider, Vaughn V; Salomon, Daniel R; Jelinek, Diane F; Kyle, Robert A; Pyles, Richard B; Glass, John I; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A; Lerner, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of a broadly reactive antibody-binding protein (Protein M) from human mycoplasma. The crystal structure of the ectodomain of transmembrane Protein M differs from other known protein structures, as does its mechanism of antibody binding. Protein M binds with high affinity to all types of human and nonhuman immunoglobulin G, predominantly through attachment to the conserved portions of the variable region of the ? and ? light chains. Protein M blocks antibody-antigen union, likely because of its large C-terminal domain extending over the antibody-combining site, blocking entry to large antigens. Similar to the other immunoglobulin-binding proteins such as Protein A, Protein M as well as its orthologs in other Mycoplasma species could become invaluable reagents in the antibody field. PMID:24503852

  3. Many peptide fragments of alien antigens are homologous with host proteins, thus canalizing T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S

    1991-04-15

    All proteins of this world are constructed in compliance with the same rule. Accordingly, two totally unrelated proteins, on the average, share 30 identical tripeptides, two tetrapeptides, and one pentapeptide per 500 residues. With this in mind, the 221-residue-long influenza virus hemagglutinin II (IVHA-II), as a representative of alien antigens, was compared with three diverse proteins representing the host: 533-residue-long chicken c-src protein kinase (c-src product of the cellular oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus), 595-residue-long human estrogen receptor, and 585-residue-long human serum albumin. Forty-three tripeptides, two tetrapeptides, and one pentapeptide of IVHA-II were also found in one or the other of the three host proteins. Six regions of IVHA-II (9-22 residues long) in which oligopeptides were clustered that were identical to their host oligopeptides were defined as "host-homologous" regions, and the remaining regions were called "nonself" or "pathogen-specific" regions. Because the total number of host proteins is vastly more than three, host-homologous regions were no doubt underestimated, while only one or two regions of IVHA-II must remain as truly pathogen-specific. Nevertheless, oligopeptide analysis of two known T-cell response-eliciting peptide fragments and one known inert peptide fragment of a virus and a malarial protozoan readily revealed the latter to be a host-homologous region. Of the two known T-cell response-eliciting peptide fragments, one was more nonself than the other. Not surprisingly, the more nonself fragment elicited helper T-cell response from individuals of diverse major histocompatibility complex haplotypes, whereas the less nonself fragment elicited cytotoxic T-cell response only from HLA-A2 human individuals. PMID:1707530

  4. Characterization of a protective protein antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed Central

    Groschup, M. H.; Cussler, K.; Weiss, R.; Timoney, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Although vaccination is widely practiced against infection by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in pigs and turkeys, the protective antigen(s) involved have not been fully characterized or purified to homogeneity. Antigens of E. rhusiopathiae strain T28, serotype 2b, and of FRANKFURT XI, serotype N, in culture supernatant and in extracts made with hot acid, 10 mM NaOH, ultrasound or EDTA were compared by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting and in a mouse protection test. EDTA and 10 mM NaOH yielded highly protective extracts; culture supernatant was less protective and ultrasonic or hot acid extracts stimulated little or no protection in mice. Protective antisera from swine, horses and mice recognized prominent bands of molecular mass (m.m.) of 66-64 and 40-39 kDa in EDTA and 10 mM NaOH extracts. Mice immunized with preparations of the 66-64 kDa band purified by preparative electrophoresis were protected. Both antigens were trypsin sensitive, contained no detectable polysaccharide, and showed a marked tendency to aggregate in the absence of SDS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1752312

  5. Co-administration of non-carrier nanoparticles boosts antigen immune response without requiring protein conjugation.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Nani; Chuan, Yap P; Seth, Arjun; Cordoba, Yoann; Lua, Linda H L; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-06-17

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in medicine including through new vaccine approaches. The use of nanoparticles in vaccination has, to date, focused on attaching antigen directly to or within nanoparticle structures to enhance antigen uptake by immune cells. Here we question whether antigen incorporation with the nanoparticle is actually necessary to boost vaccine effectiveness. We show that the immunogenicity of a sub-unit protein antigen was significantly boosted by formulation with silica nanoparticles even without specific conjugation of antigen to the nanoparticle. We further show that this effect was observed only for virus-sized nanoparticles (50 nm) but not for larger (1,000 nm) particles, demonstrating a pronounced effect of nanoparticle size. This non-attachment approach has potential to radically simplify the development and application of nanoparticle-based formulations, leading to safer and simpler nanoparticle applications in vaccine development. PMID:24793947

  6. An approach to postembedding staining of protein (immunoglobulin) antigen embedded in plastic: prerequisites and limitations.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, H; Batsford, S; Vogt, A

    1980-10-01

    A method is described for performing postembedding staining of protein (immunoglobulin) antigen embedded in styrene-methacrylate resin. Fixation of specimens in a combination of 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.2% picric acid and washing in buffer containing 7% sucrose, followed by abrupt dehydration with absolute acetone in the cold preserved the antigenicity, although in a masked form. The masked antigenicity could be reexposed by treatment with nonspecific protease. Staining with fluorescent-, peroxidase-, or ferritin-labeled antibodies on semi- and ultrathin sections resulted in specific localization of the antigen. We applied this technique to the localization of rabbit immunoglobulin in specimens of renal tissue obtained from rats with anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis; we also localized human IgG in a renal biopsy specimen. The prerequisites for recovery of antigenicity are such that preservation of tissue structure at the light microscopic level is good, but relatively poor at the electron microscopic level. PMID:6158534

  7. Plant heat shock protein 70 as carrier for immunization against a plant-expressed reporter antigen.

    PubMed

    Buriani, Giampaolo; Mancini, Camillo; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Baschieri, Selene

    2011-04-01

    Mammalian Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), have potent immune-stimulatory properties due to the natural capability to associate with polypeptides and bind receptors on antigen presenting cells. The present study was aimed to explore whether plant HSP, and in particular HSP70, share similar properties. We wanted in particular to evaluate if HSP70 extracted in association to naturally bound polypeptides from plant tissues expressing a recombinant "reporter" antigen, carry antigen-derived polypeptides and can be used to activate antigen-specific immune responses. This application of HSP70 has been very poorly investigated so far. The analysis started by structurally modeling the plant protein and defining the conditions that ensure maximal expression levels and optimal recovery from plant tissues. Afterwards, HSP70 was purified from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing a heterologous "reporter" protein. The purification was carried out taking care to avoid the release from HSP70 of the polypeptides chaperoned within plant cells. The evaluation of antibody titers in mice sera subsequent to the subcutaneous delivery of the purified HSP70 demonstrated that it is highly effective in priming humoral immune responses specific to the plant expressed "reporter" protein. Overall results indicated that plant-derived HSP70 shares structural and functional properties with the mammalian homologue. This study paves the way to further investigations targeted at determining the properties of HSP70 extracted from plants expressing foreign recombinant antigens as a readily available immunological carrier for the efficient delivery of polypeptides derived from these antigens. PMID:20559870

  8. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures. PMID:26341468

  9. Candidate Antigens for Q Fever Serodiagnosis Revealed by Immunoscreening of a Coxiella burnetii Protein Microarray?

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Paul A.; Chen, Chen; Bouman, Timo; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Cockrell, Diane C.; Brown, Wendy C.; Barbian, Kent D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Samuel, James E.; Felgner, Philip L.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Diagnosis of Q fever is usually based on serological testing of patient serum. The diagnostic antigen of test kits is formalin-fixed phase I and phase II organisms of the Nine Mile reference strain. Deficiencies of this antigen include (i) potential for cross-reactivity with other pathogens; (ii) an inability to distinguish between C. burnetii strains; and (iii) a need to propagate and purify C. burnetii, a difficult and potentially hazardous process. Consequently, there is a need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests utilizing defined antigens, such as recombinant C. burnetii protein(s). Here we describe the use of a C. burnetii protein microarray to comprehensively identify immunodominant antigens recognized by antibody in the context of human C. burnetii infection or vaccination. Transcriptionally active PCR products corresponding to 1,988 C. burnetii open reading frames (ORFs) were generated. Full-length proteins were successfully synthesized from 75% of the ORFs by using an Escherichia coli-based in vitro transcription and translation system (IVTT). Nitrocellulose microarrays were spotted with crude IVTT lysates and probed with sera from acute Q fever patients and individuals vaccinated with Q-Vax. Immune sera strongly reacted with approximately 50 C. burnetii proteins, including previously identified immunogens, an ankyrin repeat-domain containing protein, and multiple hypothetical proteins. Recombinant protein corresponding to selected array-reactive antigens was generated, and the immunoreactivity was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This sensitive and high-throughput method for identifying immunoreactive C. burnetii proteins will aid in the development of Q fever serodiagnostic tests based on recombinant antigen. PMID:18845831

  10. Molecular conservation of the P6 outer membrane protein among strains of Haemophilus influenzae: analysis of antigenic determinants, gene sequences, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, M B; Munson, R S; Apicella, M A; Sikkema, D J; Molleston, J P; Murphy, T F

    1991-01-01

    Infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae are a major worldwide health problem. In particular, nontypeable strains of H. influenzae are a common cause of otitis media in infants and children. A vaccine to prevent these infections would result in the prevention of substantial morbidity and cost savings. A problem in identifying an appropriate vaccine antigen has been the enormous antigenic heterogeneity among nontypeable strains of H. influenzae. The present study was undertaken to characterize the conservation of the P6 outer membrane protein (approximately 16,000 daltons) among strains of H. influenzae. A total of 20 type b strains and 20 nontypeable strains of diverse geographic and clinical origins was studied. Three approaches were taken. (i) Antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were present on P6 in all 40 strains tested. The molecular weight of P6 was identical in all strains. (ii) Comparison of the DNA sequences of the P6 genes from three epidemiologically and serologically unrelated strains demonstrated 100% homology at the amino acid level and 97 to 99% homology at the nucleotide level. (iii) Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that the P6 gene and flanking sequences were highly conserved among all strains. These three independent series of experiments indicated that the P6 protein is highly conserved among strains of H. influenzae. P6 should receive serious consideration for inclusion in a vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae. Images PMID:1713197

  11. Implication of Antigenic Conversion of Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharides That Involve Interaction with Surfactant Protein D

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Nishitani, Chiaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Kuroki, Yoshio; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We propose two antigenic types of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides (LPS): highly antigenic epitope-carrying LPS (HA-LPS) and weakly antigenic epitope-carrying LPS (WA-LPS) based on human serum reactivity. Strains carrying WA-LPS are highly prevalent in isolates from gastric cancer patients. WA-LPS exhibits more potent biological activities compared to HA-LPS, namely, upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and induction of enhanced epithelial cell proliferation. The results of competitive binding assays using monosaccharides and methylglycosides, as well as binding assays using glycosidase-treated LPS, suggested that ?-linked N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and ?-linked d-galactose residues largely contributed to the highly antigenic epitope and the weakly antigenic epitope, respectively. WA-LPS exhibited greater binding activity to surfactant protein D (SP-D) in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and this interaction was inhibited by methyl-?-d-galactoside. The biological activities of WA-LPS were markedly enhanced by the addition of SP-D. Lines of evidence suggested that removal of ?-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine residue, which comprises the highly antigenic epitope, results in exposure of the weakly antigenic epitope. The weakly antigenic epitope interacted preferentially with SP-D, and SP-D enhanced the biological activity of WA-LPS. PMID:22615243

  12. [Incomplete antigens derived from milk proteins in the serum of infants allergic to milk].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Vanella LM; de González Lascano AM; Miguez VM

    1978-11-01

    1. Sera of 22 children with cow's milk clinical hypersensitivity were studied to demonstrate the presence of substances immunologically related with milk. They were compared with 23 controls. The infants of both groups were feed with bovine milk. The immunogenic capacity of cow's milk and their major proteins were experimentally investigated. 2. Specific rabbit antisera were obtained by injection of antigens with incomplete Freund adjuvant. Double difussion gel, passive hemagglutination and ultramicromethod for the determination of antigen antibody precipitated were performed. 3. Immunogenicity was proved by precipitation and hemagglutination methods. by precipitation cow's milk antigens were present in 5 of 22 sera of antigenic patients, in 3 of them ALA antigens were present and in only 1 of them, caseina were present. By hemagglutination, 12 of 22 allergic infants showed ALA and BLG and 11 caseine (C). In 2 of 7 controls, beta lactoglobuline (BLG) was present and in an other one C. It was possible to detect incomplete antigens related with ALA, BLG, and C in allergic infants as well as controls. A significative difference was found for BLG (P less than 0.01) and it was highest (P less than 0.003) in infants with protein calorie malnutrition. 4. It is concluded that sensitization depends not only on stimulation of incomplete or complete antigens, as were observed in this study but on the host's capacity to form citrotropic antibody in humoral hypersensitivity or to stimulate lymphocytes in cellular immunity field.

  13. Genetic and antigenic characterization of caev (caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) recombinant transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Rosati, S; Pittau, M; Tolari, F; Erre, G; Kwang, J

    1995-08-01

    The env gene fragment of an Italian strain of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAEV) coding for the hydrophilic region of transmembrane protein was amplified, cloned and expressed in prokaryotic system as fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. Sequence analysis revealed 63 to 66% amino acid homology, when compared with three ovine lentiviruses and 83% when compared with one caprine lentivirus. The recombinant transmembrane protein was efficiently expressed, purified under denaturing conditions and used as antigen in western blotting and ELISA. Sera from clinically diseased goats strongly reacted in western blotting and naturally infected animals seroconverted between 20 and 33 weeks of age. An indirect ELISA performed with this antigen showed improved sensitivity in comparison with agar gel immunodiffusion test. Our results confirm that transmembrane protein is an important immunological marker in CAEV infection and its use as antigen may enhance the validity of serological diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis. PMID:7483249

  14. Particulate systems as adjuvants and carriers for peptide and protein antigens.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming Tao; Davies, Nigel M; Blanchfield, Joanne T; Toth, Istvan

    2006-10-01

    The most common feature for antigen-delivery systems is their particulate nature. Together with a certain depot effect, it is the particulate nature that primarily dictates whether the antigen-delivery system will be successful in inducing a certain type and strength of immune response. In this article, we will summarize recent data on particulate delivery systems for peptide and protein antigens with a main focus on lipid or polymer-based particles, all of which possess high potential as both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for parenteral, nasal, and possibly oral administration. PMID:17076640

  15. A 20-kDa protein associated with the murine T-cell antigen receptor is phosphorylated in response to activation by antigen or concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Samelson, L E; Harford, J; Schwartz, R H; Klausner, R D

    1985-01-01

    Antigen or concanavalin A activation of a murine T-cell hybrid specific for pigeon cytochrome c and restricted to the Ek alpha:Ek beta immune response-associated (Ia) molecule resulted in phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that was specifically coprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody binding the T-cell antigen receptor. There was no evidence for phosphorylation of the antigen receptor itself. The phosphorylation of the 20-kDa polypeptide was dependent on the concentration of antigen or lectin used to activate the T-cell hybrid and reached a maximum 40 min after the addition of antigen. Moreover, the phosphorylation induced by antigen in the presence of Ia molecule-bearing B cells was specifically blocked by the addition of appropriate anti-Ia molecule monoclonal antibodies. The 20-kDa protein was also radioiodinated with a hydrophobic photoactivatable labeling reagent. The amount of iodinated 20-kDa protein immunoprecipitable with the anti-receptor antibody did not increase with T-cell activation, indicating that the phosphorylation occurred on a molecule that was constitutively associated with the antigen receptor. Concanavalin A also induced phosphorylation of a 20-kDa polypeptide in a second antigen-specific major histocompatibility complex-restricted T-cell hybrid. Again, the phosphorylated polypeptide was precipitated only by a monoclonal antibody specific for the antigen receptor on this hybrid. Thus, the antigen or concanavalin A-induced activation of T-cell hybrids results in the rapid phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that is associated with the T-cell antigen receptor. Images PMID:3856875

  16. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effector Proteins as Carriers for Heterologous Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines. PMID:22252866

  17. Overexpression and Enzymatic Assessment of Antigenic Fragments of Hyaluronidase Recombinant Protein From Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sadoogh Abbasian, Shabnam; Ghaznavi Rad, Ehsanollah; Akbari, Neda; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; pakzad, Iraj; Abtahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan polymers to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. This enzyme is a dimer of identical subunits. Hyaluronidase has different pharmaceutical and medical applications. Previously, we produced a recombinant hyaluronidase antigenic fragment of Streptococcus pyogenes. Objectives: This study aimed to improve the protein production and purity of hyaluronidase recombinant protein from S. pyogenes. In addition, the enzymatic activity of this protein was investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of hyaluronidase antigenic fragments was optimized using IPTG concentration, time of induction, temperature, culture, and absorbance of 0.6-0.8-1 at 600 nm. Afterwards, the expressed proteins were purified and the enzymatic activity was assessed by turbid metric method. Results: Data indicated that maximum protein is produced in OD = 0.8, 0.5 mM Isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), 37ºC, NB 1.5x, without glucose, incubated for overnight. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein was similar to the commercial form of hyaluronidase. Conclusions: The results showed that an antigenic fragment of the recombinant hyaluronidase protein from S. pyogenes has a considerable enzymatic activity. It can be suggested to use it for medical purposes. In addition, applications of bioinformatics software would facilitate the production of a smaller protein with same antigenic properties and enzymatic activity. PMID:25789122

  18. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines. PMID:22252866

  19. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  20. Screening and Identification of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick Dermacentor silvarum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiantian; Cui, Xuejiao; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Hui; Wu, Meng; Zeng, Hua; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingze; Hu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore tick proteins as potential targets for further developing vaccine against ticks, the total proteins of unfed female Dermacentor silvarum were screened with anti-D. silvarum serum produced from rabbits. The results of western blot showed that 3 antigenic proteins of about 100, 68, and 52 kDa were detected by polyclonal antibodies, which means that they probably have immunogenicity. Then, unfed female tick proteins were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and target proteins (100, 68, and 52 kDa) were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, respectively. The comparative results of peptide sequences showed that they might be vitellogenin (Vg), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), respectively. These data will lay the foundation for the further validation of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by D. silvarum. PMID:26797451

  1. Strong Antibody Responses Induced by Protein Antigens Conjugated onto the Surface of Lecithin-Based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Hau, Andrew M.; He, Yongqun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    An accumulation of research over the years has demonstrated the utility of nanoparticles as antigen carriers with adjuvant activity. Herein we defined the adjuvanticity of a novel lecithin-based nanoparticle engineered from emulsions. The nanoparticles were spheres of around 200 nm. Model protein antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. Mice immunized with the BSA-conjugated nanoparticles developed strong anti-BSA antibody responses comparable to that induced by BSA adjuvanted with incomplete Freund's adjuvant and 6.5-fold stronger than that induced by BSA adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. Immunization of mice with the PA-conjugated nanoparticles elicited a quick, strong, and durable anti-PA antibody response that afforded protection of the mice against a lethal dose of anthrax lethal toxin challenge. The potent adjuvanticity of the nanoparticles was likely due to their ability to move the antigens into local draining lymph nodes, to enhance the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and to activate APCs. This novel nanoparticle system has the potential to serve as a universal protein-based vaccine carrier capable of inducing strong immune responses. PMID:19729045

  2. Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fernando L; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Bannantine, John P; Stabel, Judith R

    2015-02-25

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) to identify individual proteins within the complexes. Identity of individual proteins within complexes was further confirmed by MS upon excision of spots from 2D SDS-PAGE gels. Among the seven putative membrane complexes observed, major membrane protein (MAP2121c), a key MAP antigen involved in invasion of epithelial cells, was found to form a complex with cysteine desulfurase (MAP2120c). Other complexes found included those involved in energy metabolism (succinate dehydrogenase complex) as well as a complex formed by Cfp29, a characterized T cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To determine antigenicity of proteins, Western blot was performed on replicate 2D SDS-PAGE gels with sera from noninfected control cows (n=9) and naturally infected cows in the subclinical (n=10) and clinical (n=13) stages of infection. Clinical animals recognized MAP2121c in greater proportion than subclinical and control cows, whereas cysteine desulfurase recognition was not differentiated by infection status. To further characterize antigenicity, recombinant proteins were expressed for 10 of the proteins identified and evaluated in an interferon-gamma (IFN-?) release assay as well as immunoblots. This study reveals the presence of protein complexes in the cell envelope of MAP, suggesting protein interactions in the envelope of this pathogen. Furthermore the identification of antigenic proteins with potential as diagnostic targets was characterized. PMID:25500374

  3. Proteomic Screening of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Ha; slam, Mohammad Saiful; You, Myung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. For detection of antigens from Haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-DE) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. Reactivity bands and 2-DE immunoblotting were performed following 2-DE electrophoresis to identify protein spots. The proteome of the partially fed female had a larger number of lower molecular weight proteins than that of the unfed female tick. The total number of detected spots was 818 for unfed and 670 for partially fed female ticks. The 2-DE immunoblotting identified 10 antigenic spots from unfed females and 8 antigenic spots from partially fed females. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) of relevant spots identified calreticulin, putative secreted WC salivary protein, and a conserved hypothetical protein from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Swiss Prot protein sequence databases. These findings indicate that most of the whole body components of these ticks are non-immunogenic. The data reported here will provide guidance in the identification of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by H. longicornis. PMID:25748713

  4. Protein quality, antigenicity, and antioxidant activity of soy-based foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Silván, Jose Manuel; Moreno, Francisco Javier; Villamiel, Mar; Del Castillo, M Dolores

    2008-08-13

    Commercial soy-based foodstuffs, including beverages ( n = 15), cow's milk supplemented with soy isoflavones ( n = 1), snacks ( n = 1), and biscuits ( n = 2), were analyzed to find any link between alterations in protein quality, safety (antigenicity), functionality (antioxidant activity), and food processing. Protein content was analyzed by the Kjeldhal method and available lysine by OPA assay. Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) and electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE) protein profiles were obtained to monitor modifications in the structure of soy allergens. The antigenicity was estimated by immunoblotting against soy total antibodies. Total phenol content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu, while peroxyl radical scavenging activity of the sample was determined by ORAC FL assay. Protein content did not differ of those declared by the producers. Lysine availability was higher in liquid soy beverages compared to that in other soy foodstuffs studied here. 7S and 11S soy allergens were detected by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Both data indicated changes in soy protein patterns due to processing of instant powdered soymilk, soy snacks, and biscuits. Immunoblotting assay showed modifications in the antigenic response of these foodstuffs based on soy, suggesting that their processing had altered the structure of soy allergens. RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotting resulted in adequate analytical approaches for detecting changes in protein structure due to processing and adulteration. Protein quality, antigenicity, and antioxidant activity of soy products can be affected as a function of the intensity of the thermal processing. PMID:18620400

  5. Responses of bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T cells to protein and nonprotein antigens of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael D; Kennedy, Hilary E; Smyth, Allister J; Girvin, R Martyn; Andersen, Peter; Pollock, John M

    2002-11-01

    WC1(+) gammadelta T cells of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle are highly responsive to M. bovis sonic extract (MBSE). In mycobacterial infections of other species, gammadelta T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets within MBSE require further definition in terms of the dominance of protein versus nonprotein components. The present study sought to characterize the WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets, together with the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2), in the context of M. bovis infection. This was achieved by testing crude and defined antigens to assess protein versus nonprotein recognition by WC1(+) gammadelta T cells in comparison with CD4(+) alphabeta T cells. Both cell types proliferated strongly in response to MBSE, with CD4(+) T cells being the major producers of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). However, enzymatic digestion of the protein in MBSE removed its ability to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell responses, whereas some WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation remained. The most antigenic protein inducing proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell cultures was found to be ESAT-6, which is a potential novel diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate. In addition, WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation was observed in response to stimulation with prenyl pyrophosphate antigens (isopentenyl pyrophosphate and monomethyl phosphate). High levels of cellular activation (CD25 expression) resulted from MBSE stimulation of WC1(+) gammadelta T cells from infected animals. A similar degree of activation was induced by IL-2 alone, but for WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell division IL-2 was found to act only as a costimulatory signal, enhancing antigen-driven responses. Overall, the data indicate that protein antigens are important stimulators of WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in M. bovis infection, with nonprotein antigens inducing significant proliferation. These findings have important implications for diagnostic and vaccine development. PMID:12379688

  6. Western blot analysis of antibody response to pneumococcal protein antigens in a murine model of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Mouneimne, H; Juvin, M; Beretti, J L; Azoulay-Dupuis, E; Vallee, E; Geslin, P; Petitpretz, P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1997-01-01

    To detect new antigen candidates for serological tests, we studied the antibody response to pneumococcal protein antigens in mice infected intratracheally with various Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Sera were tested by Western blotting against whole-cell protein extracts. Mice developed a detectable immunoglobulin G-type response against a small number of polypeptides. The antibody response was strain dependent: sera from individuals infected with the same strain gave similar banding patterns on immunoblots. The banding patterns varied with the strain used for infection. However, a band at 36 to 38 kDa was recognized by all reactive sera. This band appeared to correspond to a polypeptide that was antigenically well conserved among the different S. pneumoniae serotypes. An antibody response to this antigen developed in mice irrespective of the capsular type, the virulence, and the susceptibility to penicillin G of the infecting strain. Thus, this 36- to 38-kDa protein antigen may be of value for the development of a serological test for humans. PMID:9384307

  7. A Unique Human Mycoplasma Protein that Generically Blocks Antigen-Antibody Union

    PubMed Central

    Nieusma, Travis; Jones, Teresa; Boreo, Isabel; MacLeod, Amanda S.; Mark, Adam; Niessen, Sherry; Kim, Helen J.; Kong, Leopold; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Kwon, Keehwan; Chesi, Marta; Smider, Vaughn V.; Salomon, Daniel R.; Jelinek, Diane F.; Kyle, Robert A.; Pyles, Richard B.; Glass, John I.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery and crystal structure of a human mycoplasma protein, Protein M, which binds with high affinity to antibodies, predominantly through attachment to the variable region of the ? and ? light chains. Protein M broadly blocks antibody-antigen union and its mechanism of inhibition is of considerable interest because, as a diversity system, the binding mode of each antibody is different. Protein M thus appears to function by a mechanism that is independent of the sequences of members of the extensive antibody repertoire. By anchoring to conserved regions of the antibody light chains, Protein M is in a position to extend its large C-terminal domain over the antibody combining site and block entrance to macromolecular antigens. PMID:24503852

  8. Antigenic identification of virion structural proteins from infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Peng; Dong, Chuan-Fu; Weng, Shao-Ping; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ye; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-12-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), belonging to the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, is one of the major agents causing mortality and economic losses to the freshwater fish culture industry in Asian countries. Currently, little information regarding the antigenic properties of Megalocytivirus (especially ISKNV) is available. Our previous study using four different workflows with systematic and comprehensive proteomic approaches led to the identification of 38 ISKNV virion-associated proteins (J. Virol. 2869-2877, 2011). Thus, in this report, the antigenicity of 31 structural proteins from ISKNV virion was investigated. A one-dimensional gel electrophoresis immunoblot profile coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS was applied to identify six immunogenic viral proteins, namely, ORFs major capsid protein (006L), 054L, 055L, 101L, 117L, and 125L. Then, the antigenicity of 31 structural proteins was characterized by Western blot by using pooled sera from mandarin fish that survived ISKNV infection. Of the 31 viral proteins, 22 were recognized by the fish ISKNV antiserum. Furthermore, this antiserum neutralizes MFF-1 cells ISKNV infection. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the immunogenicity of viral proteins and characterization of the proteome of megalocytivirus infective agents. Our findings are expected to promote the development of effective vaccine candidates. PMID:21888976

  9. ABC proteins in antigen translocation and viral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Parcej, David; Tampé, Robert

    2010-08-01

    How ABC transporters work is a key issue because of their important roles in multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria, reduced efficacy of antitumor drugs, cholesterol metabolism, cell homeostasis and immune response. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in crystallization and structure determination of (mostly) bacterial ABC transporters, as well as in functional studies on ABC systems involved in human pathology. In this review, we use the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) to illustrate what is known regarding the mechanism of substrate transport. We also discuss the chemical basis of substrate recognition by TAP and the allosteric cross-talk between the binding of substrate, the release of chemical energy by ATP hydrolysis and cross-membrane translocation. Finally, we detail the role of TAP in a large macromolecular assembly, which optimally loads MHC class I molecules, and the interference with this machinery by TAP-targeted viral factors. Because of structural and probable mechanistic similarities, the understanding of the detailed structure and mechanism of TAP will be applicable to all ABC systems, including those of medical relevance. PMID:20644544

  10. Antigen Cross-Presentation and Heat Shock Protein-Based Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zachova, Katerina; Krupka, Michal; Raska, Milan

    2016-02-01

    Vaccines currently in the clinical use contain adjuvants stimulating preferably Th2 type of immune response associated with the production of specific antibodies, mostly of neutralizing isotypes. This kind of immune response is effective only against some types of pathogens and has limited effect against tumors and many viruses where parallel activation of antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity is required. One of the main objectives of the current vaccine research is the development of approaches leading to the induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response including cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). Induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response to exogenously delivered antigen requires their cross-presentation by antigen presenting cells, especially dendritic cells. The cross-presentation principles seem to be crucial for effective activation of CTL. In this paper, we discuss some approaches to employing heat shock proteins for induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in the context of cross-presentation and cross-priming principles. PMID:26518489

  11. Entamoeba histolytica antigenic protein detected in pus aspirates from patients with amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Othman, Nurulhasanah; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Yahya, Maya Mazuwin; Leow, Voon Meng; Lim, Boon Huat; Noordin, Rahmah

    2013-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and is endemic in many underdeveloped countries. We investigated antigenic E. histolytica proteins in liver abscess aspirates using proteomics approach. Pus samples were first tested by real-time PCR to confirm the presence of E. histolytica DNA and the corresponding serum samples tested for E. histolytica-specific IgG by a commercial ELISA. Proteins were extracted from three and one pool(s) of pus samples from ALA and PLA (pyogenic liver abscess) patients respectively, followed by analysis using isoelectric focussing, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Unpurified pooled serum samples from infected hamsters and pooled human amoebic-specific IgG were used as primary antibodies. The antigenic protein band was excised from the gel, digested and analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-MS/MS. The results using both primary antibodies showed an antigenic protein band of ?14kDa. Based on the mass spectrum analysis, putative tyrosine kinase is the most probable identification of the antigenic band. PMID:23680184

  12. Sensing protein antigen and microvesicle analytes using high-capacity biopolymer nano-carriers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Milani, Gloria; Takatsuki, Hideyo; Lana, Tobia; Persson, Malin; Frasson, Chiara; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; MÃ¥nsson, Alf

    2016-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems with molecular motor driven transport of analytes attached to cytoskeletal filament shuttles (actin filaments, microtubules) circumvent challenges with nanoscale liquid transport. However, the filaments have limited cargo-carrying capacity and limitations either in transportation speed (microtubules) or control over motility direction (actin). To overcome these constraints we here report incorporation of covalently attached antibodies into self-propelled actin bundles (nanocarriers) formed by cross-linking antibody conjugated actin filaments via fascin, a natural actin-bundling protein. We demonstrate high maximum antigen binding activity and propulsion by surface adsorbed myosin motors. Analyte transport capacity is tested using both protein antigens and microvesicles, a novel class of diagnostic markers. Increased incubation concentration with protein antigen in the 0.1-100 nM range (1 min) reduces the fraction of motile bundles and their velocity but maximum transportation capacity of >1 antigen per nm of bundle length is feasible. At sub-nanomolar protein analyte concentration, motility is very well preserved opening for orders of magnitude improved limit of detection using motor driven concentration on nanoscale sensors. Microvesicle-complexing to monoclonal antibodies on the nanocarriers compromises motility but nanocarrier aggregation via microvesicles shows unique potential in label-free detection with the aggregates themselves as non-toxic reporter elements. PMID:26617251

  13. Immunoassay using /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled protein A and antigen-coated tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, A.P.; Langone, J.J.

    1981-09-15

    Antigen-coated plastic tubes were used with /sup 125/I- or enzyme-labeled stapylococcal protein A in a general immunoassay method for antigens and haptens. Protein A reacts with immunoglobulin G(IgG) regardless of antibody specificity at sites distal to the antigen combining site and does not inhibit the immune reaction. It therefore serves as a general tracer and its use eliminates the need to purify and to label individual components for each assay. Macromolecular antigens were bound to polystyrene or polypropylene tubes by direct passive absorption. Haptens with free carboxyl groups were bound covalently to poly-L-lysine and these conjugates passively absorbed to the tube surface. Optimal assay conditions were established for the quantitative determination of immunoglobulins and the folate derivatives, methotrexate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, using /sup 125/I-labeled protein A or protein A labeled with alkaline phosphatase. The method has been used to estimate levels of IgG, IgA, Igm, and IgE in serum in volumes up to 1 ml.

  14. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Permyakova, Natalia V.; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Uvarova, Elena A.; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Nesterov, Andrey E.; Novikovskaya, Anna A.; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L.; Moshkin, Mikhail P.; Deineko, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  15. Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus.

    PubMed Central

    Green, K Y; Kapikian, A Z; Valdesuso, J; Sosnovtsev, S; Treanor, J J; Lew, J F

    1997-01-01

    The Norwalk and Hawaii viruses are antigenically distinct members of the family Caliciviridae and are considered to be important etiologic agents of epidemic gastroenteritis, with most studies focusing on the role of Norwalk virus. To further investigate the importance of Hawaii virus, Hawaii virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by expression of its capsid protein in the baculovirus system and these VLPs were used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was efficient in the detection of a serologic response to Hawaii virus. The ready availability of Hawaii VLPs should enable larger-scale epidemiological studies to further elucidate the importance of this agent. PMID:9196224

  16. Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Green, K Y; Kapikian, A Z; Valdesuso, J; Sosnovtsev, S; Treanor, J J; Lew, J F

    1997-07-01

    The Norwalk and Hawaii viruses are antigenically distinct members of the family Caliciviridae and are considered to be important etiologic agents of epidemic gastroenteritis, with most studies focusing on the role of Norwalk virus. To further investigate the importance of Hawaii virus, Hawaii virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by expression of its capsid protein in the baculovirus system and these VLPs were used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was efficient in the detection of a serologic response to Hawaii virus. The ready availability of Hawaii VLPs should enable larger-scale epidemiological studies to further elucidate the importance of this agent. PMID:9196224

  17. Antigenic mapping of the recombinant Norwalk virus capsid protein using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M E; Tanaka, T N; Kitamoto, N; White, L J; Ball, J M; Jiang, X; Estes, M K

    1996-03-01

    Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of a group of noncultivatable caliciviruses that infect humans and cause outbreaks of epidemic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. The NV virion is composed of 180 copies of a single structural protein that, when expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus, assembles into empty recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) which are morphologically and antigenically similar to native NV. We have begun to dissect the antigenic structure of the rNV particles using monoclonal antibodies made to the rNV VLPs. Ten MAbs made to rNV particles were characterized for their reactivity as detector antibodies by ELISA, as capture antibodies in an ELISA to detect NV in stools, by Western blot, and by immunoprecipitation. Seven of the MAbs recognize discontinuous epitopes, requiring the rNV capsid protein to remain at least partially folded, while the other three recognize continuous epitopes. Eight of the MAbs map to the C-terminal half of the capsid protein as they react by Western blot and by immunoprecipitation with a 32K trypsin cleavage product of the full-length 58K capsid protein, suggesting that the C-terminal half of the capsid protein may contain the immunodominant epitopes. The three MAbs that recognize continuous epitopes map to the extreme C terminus of the capsid protein, between amino acids 457 and 530, in a region that is relatively conserved among different human calicivirus capsid proteins. These MAbs which were assigned into three antigenic groups will be useful as tools to further dissect the structural and antigenic topography of the NV virion, and as unlimited reagents to detect NV in diagnostic assays. PMID:8599210

  18. Immunogenicity of hypothetical highly conserved proteins as novel antigens in Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Pablo A; Moretta, Rosalia; Ruybal, Paula; Wilkowsky, Silvina; Farber, Marisa D

    2014-03-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-transmitted Gram-negative intraerythrocytic bacterium and the etiological agent of bovine Anaplasmosis. Even though considerable research efforts have been undertaken, Anaplasmosis vaccine development remains a challenging field. Outer-membrane-specific antigens responsible for the ability of more complex immunogens could have a significant role in the protective response. Thus, the identification of outer-membrane antigens represents a major goal in the development of bacterial vaccines. Considering that 40 % of the annotated proteins in A. marginale remain as hypothetical, we selected three candidate antigens, AM1108, AM127, and AM216 based on experimental evidence, in silico structure prediction of ?-barrel outer membrane, and orthology clustering. Sequence alignment and analysis demonstrated a high degree of conservation for the three proteins between the isolates from Argentina compared to the American strains. We confirmed the transcription of the three genes in the intraerythrocytic stage. AM1108 and AM216 recombinant proteins elicited specific T-cell response proliferation and a significant rise in TNF-? and IFN-? transcript levels, respectively. Only AM1108 was able to be recognized by specific antibodies from infected bovines. This study allowed the identification of new candidate components of the outer-membrane fraction of A. marginale. Further studies will be required to analyze their potential as effective antigens for being included in rational vaccine strategies. PMID:24126603

  19. Pulmonary histiocytosis X. Immunoperoxidase staining for HLA-DR antigen and S100 protein.

    PubMed

    Flint, A; Lloyd, R V; Colby, T V; Wilson, B W

    1986-10-01

    Immunoperoxidase staining for S100 protein and HLA-DR antigen was used to identify histiocytosis X (HX) cells in 23 cases of pulmonary histiocytosis X (PHX), three cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and one case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. S100 protein was present in HX cells in 22 of the PHX cases; HLA-DR antigen was present in HX cells from 16 cases. Varying numbers of peribronchiolar and interstitial cells were positive for either S100 or HLA-DR in two of the three cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and in the case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Immunoperoxidase staining for chromogranin showed isolated neuroendocrine cells within the mucosa and wall or airways, sites in which HX cells were occasionally found. As other types of dendritic cells, as well as some neuroendocrine cells, may contain S100 protein, positive staining for S100 is not specific for HX cells. PMID:3533003

  20. Application of a Novel Radioimmunoassay to Identify Baculovirus Structural Proteins That Share Interspecies Antigenic Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gale E.; Summers, Max D.

    1981-01-01

    Immunological comparisons were made of baculovirus structural proteins by using a modification of the radioimmunological techniques described by Renart et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 3116-3120, 1979) and Towbin et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 4350-4354, 1979). Viral proteins were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose, and incubated with viral antisera, and the antibodies were detected with 125I-labeled Staphylococcus aureus protein A. Antisera were prepared to purified and intact virions from five baculoviruses: Autographa californica, Porthetria dispar, Trichoplusia ni, and Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) and T. ni granulosis virus (GV). These antisera were tested against the virion structural polypeptides of 17 different species of baculoviruses. Specific multiple-nucleocapsid NPV (MNPV), single-nucleocapsid NPV (SNPV), and GV virion polypeptides were shown to have similar antigenic determinants and thus be immunologically related. The molecular weights of the virion polypeptides with cross-reacting antigenic determinants were identified. Antisera prepared to purified A. californica and H. zea MNPV polyhedrin (the occlusion body protein from NPVs) recognized antigenic determinants on all the polyhedrins and granulins (occlusion body protein from GVs) that were tested. No immunological relationship was detected between A. californica MNPV polyhedrin and any of the A. californica MNPV virion structural polypeptides present on either the virus isolated from occlusion bodies or A. californica MNPV extracellular virus from infected-cell cultures. Images PMID:16789210

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS OF Taenia solium ONCOSPHERE PROTEINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ANTIGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that post-translational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi genes for two major protein antigens in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, E V; Stover, C K; Rice, R M

    1987-01-01

    Several polypeptide antigens of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi are recognized by human or primate convalescent sera and may be important protective immunogens. Molecular cloning and expression of the genes encoding the 110K (110 kilodalton) and 56K polypeptide antigens of R. tsutsugamushi Karp were accomplished in the lambda gt11 expression vector system. Southern blot analysis with the cloned fragments for the 56K polypeptide antigen (0.7 kilobases) and the 110K polypeptide antigen (5.4 kilobases) confirmed that the insert DNA was rickettsial and not host cell in origin. Expression of a complete 110K polypeptide was shown to be independent of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside induction, suggesting that an intact rickettsial promoter was operational. Epitopes of the 56K polypeptide were expressed as lac promoter-dependent beta-galactosidase fusion proteins. Polyclonal antibody, affinity purified against the recombinant 110K and 56K polypeptides, reacted with polypeptides of similar size in the Kato and Gilliam strains of R. tsutsugamushi. Group-reactive, but not strain-specific, monoclonal antibodies against the 56K polypeptide reacted with the cloned portion of the 56K polypeptide. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the cloned 56K Karp antigen gene product is recognized by human convalescent serum. Images PMID:3106214

  3. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells. PMID:23982308

  4. Specific nongluten proteins of wheat are novel target antigens in celiac disease humoral response.

    PubMed

    Huebener, Sina; Tanaka, Charlene K; Uhde, Melanie; Zone, John J; Vensel, William H; Kasarda, Donald D; Beams, Leilani; Briani, Chiara; Green, Peter H R; Altenbach, Susan B; Alaedini, Armin

    2015-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, ?-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  5. Specific Nongluten Proteins of Wheat Are Novel Target Antigens in Celiac Disease Humoral Response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  6. Mature Erythrocyte Surface Antigen Protein Identified in the Serum of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Muhi, Jamail; Abdu Sani, Asmahani Azira; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to identify circulating Plasmodium falciparum proteins in patient serum, which may be useful as diagnostic markers. Depletion of highly abundant proteins from each pooled serum sample obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients and healthy individuals was performed using the Proteoseek Antibody-Based Albumin/IgG Removal Kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL). In analysis 1, the depleted serum was analyzed directly by NanoLC-MS/MS. In analysis 2, the depleted serum was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by western blot analysis. Subsequently, the selected band was analyzed by NanoLC-MS/MS. The result of analysis 1 revealed the presence of two mature erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA) proteins and chloroquine resistance transporter protein (PfCRT). In addition, analysis 2 revealed an antigenic 75-kDa band when the membrane was probed with purified IgG from the pooled serum obtained from P. falciparum-infected patients. MS/MS analysis of this protein band revealed fragments of P. falciparum MESA proteins. Thus, in this study, two different analyses revealed the presence of Plasmodium MESA protein in pooled serum from malaria patients; thus, this protein should be further investigated to determine its usefulness as a diagnostic marker. PMID:26392156

  7. Determinants of antigenicity and specificity in immune response for protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Target specific antibodies are pivotal for the design of vaccines, immunodiagnostic tests, studies on proteomics for cancer biomarker discovery, identification of protein-DNA and other interactions, and small and large biochemical assays. Therefore, it is important to understand the properties of protein sequences that are important for antigenicity and to identify small peptide epitopes and large regions in the linear sequence of the proteins whose utilization result in specific antibodies. Results Our analysis using protein properties suggested that sequence composition combined with evolutionary information and predicted secondary structure, as well as solvent accessibility is sufficient to predict successful peptide epitopes. The antigenicity and the specificity in immune response were also found to depend on the epitope length. We trained the B-Cell Epitope Oracle (BEOracle), a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, for the identification of continuous B-Cell epitopes with these protein properties as learning features. The BEOracle achieved an F1-measure of 81.37% on a large validation set. The BEOracle classifier outperformed the classical methods based on propensity and sophisticated methods like BCPred and Bepipred for B-Cell epitope prediction. The BEOracle classifier also identified peptides for the ChIP-grade antibodies from the modENCODE/ENCODE projects with 96.88% accuracy. High BEOracle score for peptides showed some correlation with the antibody intensity on Immunofluorescence studies done on fly embryos. Finally, a second SVM classifier, the B-Cell Region Oracle (BROracle) was trained with the BEOracle scores as features to predict the performance of antibodies generated with large protein regions with high accuracy. The BROracle classifier achieved accuracies of 75.26-63.88% on a validation set with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, protein arrays and western blot results from Protein Atlas database. Conclusions Together our results suggest that antigenicity is a local property of the protein sequences and that protein sequence properties of composition, secondary structure, solvent accessibility and evolutionary conservation are the determinants of antigenicity and specificity in immune response. Moreover, specificity in immune response could also be accurately predicted for large protein regions without the knowledge of the protein tertiary structure or the presence of discontinuous epitopes. The dataset prepared in this work and the classifier models are available for download at https://sites.google.com/site/oracleclassifiers/. PMID:21693021

  8. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. PMID:26148816

  9. Plasmodium vivax Antigen Discovery Based on Alpha-Helical Coiled Coil Protein Motif

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Castellanos, Angélica; Kajava, Andrey V.; Servis, Catherine; Felger, Ingrid; Moret, Remy; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-01-01

    Protein ?-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with ?-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high ?-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the ?-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-? by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the ?-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes. PMID:24959747

  10. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Edwards, Aled M.; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols. PMID:26437229

  11. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shone, Clifford C; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Laura J; Tighe, Patrick J; Wilcox, Mark H; Monaghan, Tanya M

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated <10% coefficient of variation (CV). Significant correlation was observed between microarray and ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. PMID:26178385

  12. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

  13. Stage-specific expression of plasmodial proteins containing an antigenic marker of the intraerythrocytic cisternae.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Das, A; Song, J Y; Crary, J L; Haldar, K

    1991-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody, LWLI, recognized 3 proteins of 45, 50 and 102 kDa in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The 45- and 50-kDa proteins were parasite-encoded and displayed markedly different peptide maps, indicating that they were distinct plasmodial polypeptides with a common antigenic epitope rather than differentially processed forms of a primary translational product. The 45-kDa protein was present throughout intraerythrocytic growth, while the 50-kDa molecule was not detected earlier than 11 h in the life cycle. The 102-kDa protein was only expressed in trophozoite- and schizont-infected red cells: its structural relationship to the 45- and 50-kDa proteins, if any, remains undefined. By indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, LWLI bound to flattened intraerythrocytic cisternae exported into the erythrocyte cytoplasm. The results support the theory that proteins recognized by the antibody were concentrated in these compartments and their common antigenic epitope may serve as a marker for the cisternae. Stage-specific expression of LWLI reactive proteins implicates developmental regulation of cisternal functions during asexual parasite development. PMID:1723147

  14. A novel antigen-carrier system: the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acr protein carried by raw starch microparticles.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Mendieta, S A; Guillén, D; Espitia, C; Hernández-Pando, R; Sanchez, S; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R

    2014-10-20

    Microparticles have been used as promising carriers for in vivo vaccine delivery. However, the processes for immobilizing peptides or proteins on microparticles usually require the use of undesirable compounds and complex protocols. In this work, we propose a new immobilization and delivery system with raw starch microparticles and a starch binding domain (SBD) tag fusion protein. The heat shock protein alpha crystallin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used as model. The immunogenicity of the system was investigated in BALB/c mice inoculated with purified Acr-SBDtag protein (pAcr-SBDtag) and starch immobilized Acr-SBDtag protein (μAcr-SBDtag) by oral and intranasal routes. We demonstrated mucosal immunization with the μAcr-SBDtag protein induced systemic antibodies that were predominantly immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a). An analysis of the cytokines from spleen cells and lung homogenates revealed that loaded microparticles induced the secretion of interferon-γ (INF-γ), suggesting an adjuvant effect from the immobilization. The immune responses induced by immobilized protein were primarily affected by the route of administration. These results demonstrate that the system exhibits the necessary characteristics to improve antigen release and presentation to antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mucosae. Because no extra adjuvants were used, we posit that the system may be suitable for delivery and presentation to the field of subunit vaccine development. PMID:25093695

  15. A multiplex ELISA-based protein array for screening diagnostic antigens and diagnosis of Flaviviridae infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zheng, Y; Kang, X; Zhang, X; Hao, H; Chen, W; Liu, L; Li, X; Li, L; Yuan, Q; Chen, F; Yang, Y; Jiang, Y; Jiang, H

    2015-07-01

    Assays with the ability to detect multiple antibodies in parallel have a wide range of potential applications in epidemiologic research. Here, a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based protein array (ELISA-array) was developed to simultaneously detect five Flaviviridae infections. The platform was based on an indirect ELISA and 15 antigens were constructed for specific antibody detection against five Flaviviridae viruses (Japanese B, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses) and four serotypes of dengue virus. The specificity was evaluated by calculating the signal value cross-reacting with serum immunized with other viruses, and the sensitivity of antigens was compared with conventional ELISAs using immunized rabbit polyclonal antisera. IgG and IgM calibration curves were constructed to evaluate the reproducibility of the platform. Finally, 24 dengue fever (DF) infection and 15 tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) infection clinical sera were used to compare the advantage of ELISA-array to ELISA. After initial screening, 9 out of 15 antigens were chosen for ELISA-array printing. By using different virus-immunized rabbit antiserum, 7 out of 9 antigens showed good specificity in the ELISA-array. Eight out of 9 antigens showed four-fold greater sensitivity in ELISA-array compared to that in conventional ELISAs. The coefficients of determination (r (2)) close to 1 showed high reproducibility, and clinical sera test showed that ELISA-array had higher specificity and sensitivity than traditional ELISA. ELISA-array was a good platform for antigen screening and this multiplexed assay might be a useful and convenient tool for multiple immunological detection of infectious viral antibodies. PMID:25796511

  16. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. PMID:26297626

  17. Production, safety and antitumor efficacy of recombinant Oncofetal Antigen/immature laminin receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Adel L; Liu, Bainan; Rohrer, James W; Coggin, Joseph H; Tucker, J Allan; Pannell, Lewis K; Schwarzenberger, Paul O

    2009-06-01

    We describe here for the first time an efficient high yield production method for clinical grade recombinant human Oncofetal Antigen/immature laminin receptor protein (OFA/iLRP). We also demonstrate significant antitumor activity for this protein when administered in liposomal delivery form in a murine model of syngeneic fibrosarcoma. OFA/iLRP is a therapeutically very promising universal tumor antigen that is expressed in all mammalian solid tumors tested so far. We have cloned the human OFA/iLRP cDNA in a bacterial expression plasmid which incorporates a 6x HIS-tag. Large scale cultures of the plasmid transformed Escherichia coli were performed and the crude HIS-tagged OFA/iLRP was isolated as inclusion bodies and solubilized in guanidine chloride. The protein was then purified by successive passage through three column chromatography steps of immobilized metal affinity, anion exchange, and gel filtration. The resulting protein was 94% pure and practically devoid of endotoxin and host cell protein. The purified OFA/iLRP was tested in mice for safety and efficacy in tumor rejection with satisfactory results. This protein will be used for loading onto autologous dendritic cells in an FDA approved phase I/II human cancer vaccine trial in OFA/iLRP-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:19268360

  18. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of buckwheat protein on antigenicity and allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jeongok; Han, Youngshin; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Ahn, Kangmo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to its beneficial health effects, use of buckwheat has shown a continuous increase, and concerns regarding the allergic property of buckwheat have also increased. This study was conducted for evaluation of the hydrolytic effects of seven commercial proteases on buckwheat allergens and its allergenicity. MATERIALS/METHODS Extracted buckwheat protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes at individual optimum temperature and pH for four hours. Analysis was then performed using SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA) with rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein, and direct ELISA with pooled serum of 21 buckwheat-sensitive patients. RESULTS Alkaline protease, classified as serine peptidase, was most effective in reducing allergenicity of buckwheat protein. It caused decomposition of the whole buckwheat protein, as shown on SDS-PAGE, and results of immunoblotting showed that the rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein no longer recognized it as an antigen. Allergenicity showed a decrease of more than 50% when pooled serum of patients was used in ELISA. Two proteolytic enzymes from Aspergillus sp. could not hydrolyze buckwheat allergens effectively, and the allergenicity even appeared to increase. CONCLUSIONS Serine-type peptidases appeared to show a relatively effective reduction of buckwheat allergenicity. However, the antigenicity measured using rabbit antiserum did not correspond to the allergenicity measured using sera from human patients. Production of less allergenic buckwheat protein may be possible using enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24944772

  19. Yersinia outer proteins (YOPS) E, K and N are antigenic but non-protective compared to V antigen, in a murine model of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Leary, S E; Griffin, K F; Galyov, E E; Hewer, J; Williamson, E D; Holmström, A; Forsberg, A; Titball, R W

    1999-03-01

    The pathogenic Yersiniae produce a range of virulence proteins, encoded by a 70 kb plasmid, which are essential for infection, and also form part of a contact-dependent virulence mechanism. One of these proteins, V antigen, has been shown to confer a high level of protection against parenteral infection with Y. pestis in murine models, and is considered to be a protective antigen. In this study, the protective efficacy of V antigen has been compared in the same model with that of other proteins (YopE, YopK and YopN), which are part of the contact-dependent virulence mechanism. Mice immunised with two intraperitoneal doses of V antigen or each of the Yops, administered with either Alhydrogel or interleukin-12, produced high antigen-specific serum IgG titres. As shown in previous studies, V+Alhydrogel was fully protective, and 5/5 mice survived a subcutaneous challenge with 90 or 9x10(3) LD50's of Y. pestis GB. In addition, these preliminary studies also showed that V+IL-12 was partially protective: 4/5 or 3/5 mice survived a challenge with 90 or 9x10(3) LD50's, respectively. In contrast, none of the mice immunised with the Yops survived the challenges, and there was no significant delay in the mean time to death compared to mice receiving a control protein. These results show that using two different vaccine regimens, Yops E, K and N, failed to elicit protective immune responses in a murine model of plague, whereas under the same conditions, V antigen was fully or partially protective. PMID:10089156

  20. Recombinant Bacillus anthracis spore proteins enhance protection of mice primed with suboptimal amounts of protective antigen

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; McDaniel, Dennis; Darnell, Steve; Bull, Robert L.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2008-01-01

    Inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores given with protective antigen (PA) contribute to immunity against anthrax in several animal models. Antiserum raised against whole irradiated B. anthracis spores has been shown to have anti-germination and opsonic activities in vitro. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that surface-exposed spore proteins might serve as supplemental components of a PA-based anthrax vaccine. The protective anti-spore serum was tested for reactivity with recombinant forms of 30 proteins known, or believed to be, present within the B. anthracis exosporium. Eleven of those proteins were reactive with this antiserum, and, subsequently a subset of this group was used to generate rabbit polyclonal antibodies. These sera were evaluated for recognition of the immunogens on intact spores generated from Sterne strain, as well as from an isogenic mutant lacking the spore surface protein Bacillus collagen-like antigen (BclA). The data were consistent with the notion that the antigens in question were located beneath BclA on the basal surface of the exosporium. A/J mice immunized with either the here-to-for hypothetical protein p5303 or the structural protein BxpB, each in combination with subprotective levels of PA, showed enhanced protection against subcutaneous spore challenge. While neither anti-BxpB or anti-p5303 antibodies reduced the rate of spore germination in vitro, both caused increased uptake and lead to a higher rate of destruction by phagocytic cells. We conclude that by facilitating more efficient phagocytic clearance of spores, antibodies against individual exosporium components can contribute to protection against B. anthracis infection. PMID:18657585

  1. Detection of single protein molecules at interfaces after antibody-antigen binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, F.; Boehme, S.; Martin, J.; Seeger, Stefan

    1997-12-01

    The fluorescence-based detection of single dye labeled protein molecules at interfaces is presented. Glass substrates with covalent immobilized antibodies serve for capturing matching antigens from volume concentrations between 10-12 and 10-17 mol/l. The unspecific binding at the interface has been reduced to a level down to 0.1% of the maximum signal level. At concentrations lower than 10-13 mol/l we observe single antibody-antigen complexes at the surface. We developed a scanning method for counting single antibody- antigen complexes. The counting results are used for calibrating the volume concentration dependency. AT the present stage, the detection limit of this molecule counting process is of the order of 10-17 mol/l, and the dynamic range detectable antigen concentration is more than 8 orders of magnitude, without reaching a limiting value. The instrumental set-up is similar to that of a confocal microscope. A diode laser is used as an excitation source. As an first application in early-stage-diagnostics, we investigated the detection of a single cardiac-actin molecule in human plasma.

  2. Detection of single protein molecules at interfaces after antibody-antigen binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, Frank; Boehme, S.; Martin, J.; Seeger, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    The fluorescence-based detection of single dye labeled protein molecules at interfaces is presented. Glass substrates with covalent immobilized antibodies serve for capturing matching antigens from volume concentrations between 10-12 and 10-17 mol/l. The unspecific binding at the interface has been reduced to a level down to 0.1% of the maximum signal level. At concentrations lower than 10-13 mol/l we observe single antibody-antigen complexes at the surface. We developed a scanning method for counting single antibody- antigen complexes. The counting results are used for calibrating the volume concentration dependency. AT the present stage, the detection limit of this molecule counting process is of the order of 10-17 mol/l, and the dynamic range detectable antigen concentration is more than 8 orders of magnitude, without reaching a limiting value. The instrumental set-up is similar to that of a confocal microscope. A diode laser is used as an excitation source. As an first application in early-stage-diagnostics, we investigated the detection of a single cardiac-actin molecule in human plasma.

  3. Antibody affinity maturation using yeast display with detergent-solubilized membrane proteins as antigen sources

    PubMed Central

    Tillotson, Benjamin J.; de Larrinoa, Iñigo F.; Skinner, Colin A.; Klavas, Derek M.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2013-01-01

    Antigen preparations in the form of detergent-solubilized cell lysates could, in principle, render membrane proteins (MPs) compatible with in vitro antibody engineering technologies. To this end, detergent-solubilized cell lysates were coupled with the yeast surface display platform to affinity mature an anti-transferrin receptor (TfR) single-chain antibody (scFv). Lysates were generated from TfR-expressing HEK293 cells by solubilization with detergent-containing buffer after undergoing plasma membrane-restricted biotinylation. Lysate-resident TfR was then combined with a mutagenic anti-TfR scFv library in a competitive, dissociation rate screen, and scFvs were identified with up to 4-fold improved dissociation rates on the surface of yeast. Importantly, although the lysates contained a complex mixture of biotinylated proteins, the engineered scFvs retained their TfR binding specificity. When secreted by yeast as soluble proteins, mutant scFvs bound to cell surface TfR with 3–7-fold improvements in equilibrium binding affinity. Although a known MP antigen was targeted for purposes of this study, employing biotin tagging as a means of antigen detection makes the lysate-based approach particularly flexible. We have previously shown that yeast display can be used to identify lead antibodies using cell lysate-resident MP antigens, and combined with this work showing that antibodies can also be quantitatively engineered using cell lysates, these approaches may provide a high-throughput platform for generation and optimization of antibodies against MPs. PMID:23109730

  4. A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) consist of the antigen-recognition portion of a monoclonal antibody fused to an intracellular signaling domain capable of activating T-cells. CARs displayed on the surface of transduced cells perform non-MHC-restricted antigen recognition and activating intracellular signaling pathways for induction of target cytolysis, cytokine secretion and proliferation. Clinical trials are in progress assessing the use of mature T-lymphocytes transduced with CARs targeting CD19 antigen to treat B-lineage malignancies. CD19 is an attractive target for immunotherapy because of its consistent and specific expression in most of the stages of maturation and malignancies of B-lymphocyte origin, but not on hematopoietic stem cells. Antibodies against the extracellular domain of the CAR molecule (anti-Fab, Fc or idiotype) have been used for detection of CAR expression in research and clinical samples by flow cytometry, but may need development for each construct and present significant background in samples from xenograft models. Methods A specific reagent for the detection of anti-CD19 CAR expression was developed, a fusion protein consisting of human CD19 extracellular domains and the Fc region of human IgG1 (CD19sIg). Genes encoding CD19sIg fusion proteins were constructed by fusing either exons 1 to 3 (CD19sIg1-3) or exons 1 to 4 (CD19sIg1-4) of the human CD19 cDNA to a human IgG1Fc fragment. These fusion proteins are intended to work in similar fashion as the MHC Tetramers used for identification of antigen-specific T-cells, and may also have other applications in studies of activation of anti-CD19 CAR bearing cells. The CD19sIg proteins were produced from 293 T cells by stable lentiviral vector transduction and purification from culture medium. Results ELISA assays using several different monoclonal antibodies to CD19 demonstrated dose-related specific binding by the fusion molecule CD19sIg1-4, but no binding by CD19sIg1-3. Conjugation of the CD19sIg1-4 fusion protein to Alexa Fluor 488 allowed specific and sensitive staining of anti-CD19 CAR-bearing cells for flow cytometry assays, detecting as low as 0.5% of CAR-modified primary cells with minimal background staining. Conclusions This fusion molecule is a sensitive reagent for detection of anti-CD19 CAR derived from any monoclonal antibody present in CAR-modified T-cells. PMID:23360526

  5. Partial characterization and isolation of 130 kDa antigenic protein of Dicrocoelium dendriticum adults.

    PubMed

    Revilla-Nuín, B; Manga-González, M Y; Miñambres, B; González-Lanza, C

    2005-12-10

    The study focused on characterizing and isolating Dicrocoelium dendriticum antigens or their fractions that could be used for the immunological diagnosis of dicrocoeliosis. Somatic (SoAg) and excretory-secretory antigens (ESAg) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and their specificity was evaluated by Western blot with homologous and heterologous sera. The antigens were partially purified by chromatographic techniques of gel-filtration (Sephacryl S-300) and ion exchange (Hitrap-DEAE-Sepharose). Western blot analysis using sera of ovine infected with D. dendriticum revealed eight main antigenic polypeptides ranging from 24 to 205 kDa for SoAg and seven for ESAg with apparent molecular mass in the range of 26-205 kDa. We detected a specific parasite protein with an approximate molecular weight of 130 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels, arranged as a 450 kDa tetramer in native conditions. It also showed strong immunoreactivity by Western blot against ovine sera experimentally infected with D. dendriticum. Gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-300) also showed other specific proteins, one of about 24 kDa in SoAg and another of about 42 kDa in ESAg. The elution conditions of 450 kDa protein (130 kDa monomer) by DEAE chromatography were similar to those from the somatic antigen (pH 7.2, 0.1M NaCl, in 29-34 ml fractions) and from the excretion-secretion antigen (pH 8.0, 0.1M NaCl, in 29-35 ml fractions). The suitability of 130 kDa polypeptide for D. dendriticum infection diagnosis was confirmed by Western blot using a pool of sera as well as individual serum samples from experimentally infected sheep. The sequence of amino termini of 130 kDa polypeptide from both fractions was the same and identical to that reported for a peptide from D. dendriticum described as a globin. This sequence also revealed an appreciable similarity with the amino end of globins from some phylogenetically related worms. PMID:16165277

  6. Divergent effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on immunity to orally administered protein and particulate antigens in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Thomas, M J; MacKenzie, S; Parrott, D M

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influences immune responses to dietary protein antigens in experimental animals. Simultaneous intravenous administration of LPS to normal mice fed ovalbumin (OVA) prevented the induction of tolerance for serum IgG antibody responses but did not alter the tolerance of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In addition, exogenous LPS did not enhance the ability of spleen accessory cells to present OVA to primed T cells. LPS-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice developed full tolerance of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after feeding a range of doses of OVA that was equal in degree and persistence to that seen in normal, congenic C3H/HeOla mice and also had normal antigen-presenting cell (APC) activity for OVA. In contrast, C3H/HeJ mice were primed by feeding SRBC instead of developing the systemic tolerance found in normal C3H mice. Our results indicate the complexity of mechanisms that may regulate systemic immunity to orally administered antigens of different forms. Nevertheless, LPS does not modulate DTH responses to fed OVA and does not enhance APC activity, and we conclude that bacterial LPS may be unable to influence hypersensitivity to dietary proteins in man. Images Figure 1 PMID:3488267

  7. Isolation of a peptide binding protein and its role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.; Pierce, S.K.; Margoliash, E.

    1986-03-05

    A mouse T cell hybrid, TPc9.1, recognizes pigeon cytochrome c (Pc) as processed and presented by histocompatible antigen presenting cells (APC). When paraformaldehyde fixed APC are employed, only a peptide fragment of Pc, Pc 81-104, and not the native Pc, is capable of stimulating TPc9.1 cells. Pc 81-104 appears to associate tightly with the APC surface since paraformaldehyde fixed APC which have been incubated with Pc 81-104 remain stimulatory following extensive washing. When APC are surface labeled with /sup 125/I, solubilized and affinity purified on Pc 81-104-Sepharose 4B columns, two predominant polypeptides of approximately 72 and 74 kd are isolated. Little or no immunoglobulin, Class I or Class II proteins are obtained under these conditions. Antisera from rabbits immunized with the affinity purified material, but not preimmune sera, block the activation of TPc 9.1 cells by Pc as well as Pc 81-104 when presented by live APC. Furthermore, these antisera are even more effective in blocking the activation of TPc9.1 cells by either APC which had been pulsed with Pc and then paraformaldehyde fixed, or by Pc 81-104 when added to paraformaldehyde fixed APC, suggesting that these antisera were not affecting antigen processing. Thus, these peptide binding proteins may play a role in antigen presentation, and they are being further characterized.

  8. A novel tumor antigen derived from enhanced degradation of bax protein in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cláudia Trindade; Miners, Kelly L; Dolton, Garry; Pepper, Chris; Fegan, Chris; Mason, Malcolm D; Man, Stephen

    2011-08-15

    Cancer cells frequently exhibit defects in apoptosis, which contribute to increased survival and chemotherapeutic resistance. For example, genetic mutations or abnormal proteasomal degradation can reduce expression of Bax which limits apoptosis. In cancers where abnormal proteasomal degradation of Bax occurs, we hypothesized that Bax peptides that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules would be generated for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated T cells against pooled Bax peptides, using the blood of healthy human donors. Although T-cell responses were of low frequency (0.15%), a CD8(+) T-cell clone (KSIVB17) was isolated that optimally recognized Bax(136-144) peptide (IMGWTLDFL) presented by HLA-A*0201. KSIVB17 was able to recognize and kill a variety of HLA-matched cancer cells including primary tumor cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). No reactivity was seen against HLA-matched, nontransformed cells such as PHA blasts and skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, KSIVB17 reactivity corresponded with the proteasomal degradation patterns of Bax protein observed in cancer cells. Taken together, our findings suggest a new concept for tumor antigens based on regulatory proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in normal cells, but that have abnormally enhanced degradation in cancer cells. Bax degradation products offer candidate immune antigens in cancers such as CLL in which increased Bax degradation correlates with poor clinical prognosis. PMID:21697278

  9. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Karen E; Kidd, Stephen P; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis "infectome." These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the same study. PMID:26322022

  10. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J.; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M.; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis “infectome.” These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the same study. PMID:26322022

  11. Heat shock protein HSP60 and the perspective for future using as vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Bajzert, Joanna; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are widely spread in nature, highly conserved proteins, found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. HSPs have been classified in 10 families, one of them is the HSP60 family. HSP60 function in the cytoplasm as ATP-dependent molecular chaperones by assisting the folding of newly synthesised polypeptides and the assembly of multiprotein complexes. There is a large amount of evidence which demonstrate that HSP60 is expressed on the cell surface. Especially in bacteria the expression on the surface occurs constitutively and increases remarkably during host infection. HSP60 also play an important role in biofilm formation. In the extracellular environment, HSP60 alone or with self or microbial proteins can acts not only as a link between immune cells, but also as a coordinator of the immune system activity. This protein could influence the immune system in a different way because they act as an antigen, a carrier of other functional molecules or as a ligand for receptor. They are able to stimulate both cells of the acquired (naïve, effector, regulatory T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte) and the innate (macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells) immune system. HSPs have been reported to be potent activators of the immune system and they are one of the immunodominant bacterial antigens they could be a good candidate for a subunit vaccine or as an adjuvant. PMID:26561841

  12. Dynamics of the Antigen-binding Grooves in CD1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Diana; Anselmi, Claudio; Bond, Peter J.; Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2013-01-01

    CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of endogenous and foreign lipids on the cell surface for recognition by T cell receptors. To sample a diverse antigen pool, CD1 proteins are repeatedly internalized and recycled, assisted, in some cases, by lipid transfer proteins such as saposins. The specificity of each CD1 isoform is, therefore, conferred in part by its intracellular pathway but also by distinct structural features of the antigen-binding domain. Crystal structures of CD1-lipid complexes reveal hydrophobic grooves and pockets within these binding domains that appear to be specialized for different lipids. However, the mechanism of lipid loading and release remains to be characterized. Here we gain insights into this mechanism through a meta-analysis of the five human CD1 isoforms, in the lipid-bound and lipid-free states, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Strikingly, for isoforms CD1b through CD1e, our simulations show the near-complete collapse of the hydrophobic cavities in the absence of the antigen. This event results from the spontaneous closure of the binding domain entrance, flanked by two ?-helices. Accordingly, we show that the anatomy of the binding cavities is restored if these ?-helices are repositioned extrinsically, suggesting that helper proteins encountered during recycling facilitate lipid exchange allosterically. By contrast, we show that the binding cavity of CD1a is largely preserved in the unliganded state because of persistent electrostatic interactions that keep the portal ?-helices at a constant separation. The robustness of this binding groove is consistent with the observation that lipid exchange in CD1a is not dependent on cellular internalization. PMID:23677998

  13. Changes in lamina propria dendritic cells on the oral administration of exogenous protein antigens during weaning.

    PubMed

    Ohue, Ryuji; Nakamoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2012-05-01

    Two critical periods of maximum exposure to antigens occur in young mammals, immediately after birth and at weaning, as a result of colonization by commensal bacteria and the ingestion of new diets. At weaning, active immune responses of antibody production against dietary proteins are known to occur, but simultaneously, oral tolerance is acquired for harmless food proteins. However, regulated mechanisms of the immune system at weaning remain to be elucidated although its immune responses may be somewhat similar to those in adulthood. Considering that tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are likely to be a key factor in the acquisition of oral tolerance, in the present study, we examined the changes of dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria (LP) on exposure to food proteins at weaning. C57BL/6 female mice were weaned at the age of 3 weeks and orally administered 10 mg of ovalbumin (OVA) for ten consecutive days after weaning. The administration led to a decrease in the plasma level of immunoglobulin specific for OVA, suggesting the acquisition of oral tolerance. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled OVA was significantly observed for CD11c(+)LPDCs. When we analyzed the changes of two types of LPDCs, PDCA-1(+) MHC II(+) DCs and CD103(+) MHC II(+) DCs, ten consecutive gavages of OVA marginally, but not significantly, augmented only the frequency of PDCA-1(+) MHC II(+) DCs. Considering that the change of APCs likely appears immediately on the response to antigen intake, we found the statistically significant increase in the frequency of PDCA-1(+) DCs, but not in that of CD103(+) DCs, even after two treatments, indicating PDCA-1(+) DCs to be recruited in the LP within 2 days of exposure to food proteins. These results suggest that the behavior of tolerogenic PDCA-1(+) DCs may change at weaning with the removal of the immunoprotective components of maternal milk. PMID:21509613

  14. Evidence that several high-frequency human blood group antigens reside on phosphatidylinositol-linked erythrocyte membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Telen, M J; Rosse, W F; Parker, C J; Moulds, M K; Moulds, J J

    1990-04-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder associated with absence of expression of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked membrane proteins from circulating hematopoietic cells of multiple lineages. Recent work demonstrated that decay accelerating factor, one such PI-linked protein, bears the Cromer-related blood group antigens. This study demonstrated that other high incidence antigens, including Cartwright (Yta/Ytb), Holley-Gregory (Hy/Gya), John Milton Hagen (JMH), and Dombrock (Doa/Dob), are absent from the complement-sensitive (PNH III) erythrocytes of patients with PNH. The relatively normal, complement-insensitive erythrocytes from the same patients express these antigens normally. Therefore, these antigens most likely reside on PI-linked proteins absent from PNH III, but not PNH I, erythrocytes. PMID:2317557

  15. Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, X; Wang, M; Graham, D Y; Estes, M K

    1992-01-01

    Norwalk virus capsid protein was produced by expression of the second and third open reading frames of the Norwalk virus genome, using a cell-free translation system and baculovirus recombinants. Analysis of the expressed products showed that the second open reading frame encodes a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 58,000 (58K protein) and that this protein self-assembles to form empty viruslike particles similar to native capsids in size and appearance. The antigenicity of these particles was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of paired serum samples from volunteers who developed illness following Norwalk virus challenge. These particles also induced high levels of Norwalk virus-specific serum antibody in laboratory animals following parenteral inoculation. A minor 34K protein was also found in infected insect cells. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N terminus of the 34K protein indicated that the 34K protein was a cleavage product of the 58K protein. The availability of large amounts of recombinant Norwalk virus particles will allow the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable tests for the diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection as well as the implementation of structural studies. Images PMID:1328679

  16. Fluorescence Evaluation of Antigen-Antibody Reactivity on Surface of Proteinaceous Occlusion Body: Toward Application in Reusable Protein Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Suzuki, Kenji; Ikeda, Keiko; Mori, Hajime; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    A proteinaceous occlusion body, which is produced by insect viruses and consists of polyhedrin protein, has attracted much attention as a capsule for occluding an antigen protein. The occlusion body is called polyhedron. Its shape is cubic and its size is a few ?m. Because several antigen proteins will be on the surface of polyhedra and several chemically active sites will be exposed, the polyhedra can be used as elements of protein chips to monitor antigen-antibody reactions. This idea is demonstrated by fixing a single polyhedron on a glass substrate and inducing an antigen-antibody reaction individually, and confirmed using relevant fluorescence microscopic images. Furthermore, a technique of cleaning the reacted surface is developed on the basis of the solubility of the polyhedrin matrix in an alkaline solution. The antigen-antibody complex on the surface can be removed by washing with the alkaline solution, and the antigen inside the polyhedron is exposed to the surface. On the basis of these results, the possibility of developing a “reusable protein chip” using the polyhedron is proposed.

  17. Influenza virus-like particles engineered by protein transfer with tumor-associated antigens induces protective antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaina M; Vartabedian, Vincent F; Kim, Min-Chul; He, Sara; Kang, Sang-Moo; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2015-06-01

    Delivery of antigen in particulate form using either synthetic or natural particles induces stronger immunity than soluble forms of the antigen. Among naturally occurring particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) have been genetically engineered to express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and have shown to induce strong TAA-specific immune responses due to their nano-particulate size and ability to bind and activate antigen-presenting cells. In this report, we demonstrate that influenza VLPs can be modified by a protein transfer technology to express TAAs for induction of effective antitumor immune responses. We converted the breast cancer HER-2 antigen to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form and incorporated GPI-HER-2 onto VLPs by a rapid protein transfer process. Expression levels on VLPs depended on the GPI-HER-2 concentration added during protein transfer. Vaccination of mice with protein transferred GPI-HER-2-VLPs induced a strong Th1 and Th2-type anti-HER-2 antibody response and protected mice against a HER-2-expressing tumor challenge. The Soluble form of GPI-HER-2 induced only a weak Th2 response under similar conditions. These results suggest that influenza VLPs can be enriched with TAAs by protein transfer to develop effective VLP-based subunit vaccines against cancer without chemical or genetic modifications and thus preserve the immune stimulating properties of VLPs for easier production of antigen-specific therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:25689082

  18. Influenza virus-like particles engineered by protein transfer with tumor-associated antigens induces protective antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaina M.; Vartabedian, Vincent F.; Kim, Min-Chul; He, Sara; Kang, Sang-Moo; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of antigen in particulate form using either synthetic or natural particles induces stronger immunity than soluble forms of the antigen. Among naturally occurring particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) have been genetically engineered to express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and have shown to induce strong TAA-specific immune responses due to their nano-particulate size and ability to bind and activate antigen-presenting cells. In this report, we demonstrate that influenza VLPs can be modified by a protein transfer technology to express TAAs for induction of effective antitumor immune responses. We converted the breast cancer HER-2 antigen to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form and incorporated GPI-HER-2 onto VLPs by a rapid protein transfer process. Expression levels on VLPs depended on the GPI-HER-2 concentration added during protein transfer. Vaccination of mice with protein transferred GPI-HER-2-VLPs induced a strong Th1 and Th2-type anti-HER-2 antibody response and protected mice against a HER-2-expressing tumor challenge. Soluble form of GPI-HER-2 induced only a weak Th2 response under similar conditions. These results suggest that influenza VLPs can be enriched with TAAs by protein transfer to develop effective VLP-based subunit vaccines against cancer without chemical or genetic modifications and thus preserve the immune stimulating properties of VLPs for easier production of antigen-specific therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:25689082

  19. Antigen heterogeneity among isolates of Mycoplasma bovis is generated by high-frequency variation of diverse membrane surface proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rosengarten, R; Behrens, A; Stetefeld, A; Heller, M; Ahrens, M; Sachse, K; Yogev, D; Kirchhoff, H

    1994-01-01

    The protein and antigen profiles of 11 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis of whole organisms. The isolates examined included the type strain PG45 and 10 other filter-cloned strains or purified isolates both from animals without clinical signs and from clinical cases of bovine mastitis, arthritis, or pneumonia. While the overall protein patterns visualized by silver staining were very similar, marked differences in the antigen banding profiles were detected by rabbit antiserum prepared against whole organisms from one of the strains analyzed. This antigenic heterogeneity was shown to be independent of the geographical origin, the type of clinical disease, and the site of isolation and was also observed among serial isolates from a single animal. Antigen profiles were further monitored throughout sequentially subcloned populations of the PG45 strain. This clonal analysis revealed a high-frequency variation in the expression levels of several prominent antigens. All of these variable antigens were defined by detergent-phase fractionation with Triton X-114 as amphiphilic integral membrane proteins. A subset of different-sized membrane proteins was identified by a monoclonal antibody raised against a PG45 subclone expressing a 63- and a 46-kDa variant antigen within that set. The selective susceptibility of these proteins to trypsin treatment of intact organisms and their ability to bind the monoclonal antibody in colony immunoblots demonstrated that they were exposed on the cell surface. In addition, their preferential recognition by serum antibodies from individual cattle with naturally induced M. bovis mastitis or arthritis confirmed that they were major immunogens of this organism. These studies establish that the apparent antigenic heterogeneity among M. bovis isolates reported here does not represent stable phenotypic strain differences generated from accumulated mutational events but reflects distinct expression patterns of diverse, highly variable membrane surface proteins. Images PMID:7927789

  20. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  1. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  2. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the Sta58 major antigen gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: sequence homology and antigenic comparison of Sta58 to the 60-kilodalton family of stress proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stover, C K; Marana, D P; Dasch, G A; Oaks, E V

    1990-01-01

    The scrub typhus 58-kilodalton (kDa) antigen (Sta58) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi is a major protein antigen often recognized by humans infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae. A 2.9-kilobase HindIII fragment containing a complete sta58 gene was cloned in Escherichia coli and found to express the entire Sta58 antigen and a smaller protein with an apparent molecular mass of 11 kDa (Stp11). DNA sequence analysis of the 2.9-kilobase HindIII fragment revealed two adjacent open reading frames encoding proteins of 11 (Stp11) and 60 (Sta58) kDa. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences disclosed a high degree of homology between the R. tsutsugamushi proteins Stp11 and Sta58 and the E. coli proteins GroES and GroEL, respectively, and the family of primordial heat shock proteins designated Hsp10 Hsp60. Although the sequence homology between the Sta58 antigen and the Hsp60 protein family is striking, the Sta58 protein appeared to be antigenically distinct among a sample of other bacterial Hsp60 homologs, including the typhus group of rickettsiae. The antigenic uniqueness of the Sta58 antigen indicates that this protein may be a potentially protective antigen and a useful diagnostic reagent for scrub typhus fever. Images PMID:2108930

  3. An efficient system to generate monoclonal antibodies against membrane-associated proteins by immunisation with antigen-expressing mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for protein antigens usually depends on purified recombinant protein for both immunisation and hybridoma screening. Purification of recombinant protein in sufficient yield and purity is a tedious undertaking and can be demanding especially in the case of membrane proteins. Furthermore, antibodies generated against a purified recombinant protein are frequently incapable of binding to the endogenous protein in its native context. Results We describe a strategy to generate monoclonal antibodies against membrane or membrane-associated proteins that completely bypasses any need for purified recombinant antigen. This approach utilises stably transfected mammalian cells expressing recombinant antigens on their cell surface for immunisation of mice. The transfected cells are also used for measuring seroconversion, hybridoma selection and antibody characterisation. By presenting the antigen in its native conformation for immunisation and hybridoma selection, this procedure promotes the generation of antibodies capable of binding to the endogenous protein. In the present study, we applied this approach successfully for three predicted GPI-anchored proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusions The described entirely cell-based technology is a fast and efficient approach for obtaining antibodies reactive with endogenous cell-surface proteins in their native conformation. PMID:21159168

  4. Identification of secreted proteins as novel antigenic vaccine candidates of Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Song, Shuai; Yang, Dongxia; Li, Chunling; Li, Guoqing

    2015-03-30

    Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is a swine pathogen responsible for the Glässer's disease, which has received more attention in the past decade due to the increasing economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. As traditional inactive vaccine of H. parasuis has obvious disadvantage, to identify efficient immunoprotective antigens would undoubtedly contribute to the development of novel subunit vaccines. The putative secreted proteins of H. parasuis are potentially essential components of more potent vaccines. In the present study, six secreted proteins (PflA, Gcp, Ndk, HsdS, RnfC and HAPS_0017) were selected from the annotated H. parasuis serovar 5 genome as immunogenic protein with bioinformatic and experimental approaches. These proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and their immunogenicity was assessed in a mouse challenge model. The results showed that subcutaneous injection with the recombinant proteins resulted in the production of antibodies with high levels. Antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses were detected in the splenocytes of the immunized animals. CD4(+) T-cell populations were higher in the vaccinated animals 3 weeks after the booster immunization than those of the control animals. A significant increase was observed in the cytokine levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-? in the culture supernatants of splenocytes. Furthermore, immunized mice conferred different levels of protection against challenge with a lethal dose of highly virulent serovar 5 strain (H46). Our results indicate that these six secreted proteins induced a good Th1 response and protection against H. parasuis infection, could be potential subunit vaccine candidates. PMID:25704800

  5. Plasmodium falciparum Antigen 332 Is a Resident Peripheral Membrane Protein of Maurer's Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sandra; Angeletti, Davide; Wahlgren, Mats; Chen, Qijun; Moll, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    During the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite remodels the host cell cytosol by inducing membranous structures termed Maurer's clefts and inserting parasite proteins into the red blood cell cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Pf332 is the largest known asexual malaria antigen that is exported into the red blood cell cytosol where it associates with Maurer's clefts. In the current work, we have utilized a set of different biochemical assays to analyze the solubility of the endogenous Pf332 molecule during its trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum within the parasite to the host cell cytosol. Solubilization studies demonstrate that Pf332 is synthesized and trafficked within the parasite as a peripheral membrane protein, which after export into the host cell cytosol associates with the cytoplasmic side of Maurer's clefts in a peripheral manner. By immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that Pf332 persists in close association with Maurer's clefts throughout trophozoite maturation and schizogony, and does not become exposed at the host cell surface. Our data also indicate that Pf332 interacts with the host cell cytoskeleton, but only in very mature parasite stages. Thus, the present study describes Pf332 as a resident peripheral membrane protein of Maurer's clefts and suggests that the antigen participates in host cytoskeleton modifications at completion of the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. PMID:23185236

  6. Preparation of dichlorvos-protein complete antigen by Mannich-type reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qianqian; Xu, Ying; Zhou, Youxiang; Lu, Liang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2010-08-01

    Dichlorvos (DDVP) residues have been linked to substantial adverse health effects on several organ systems. To ensure food safety, rapid and low-cost immunological methods must be applied to detect DDVP residues in food. In immunological methods, a key step is coupling DDVP to carrier proteins to obtain a complete antigen due to DDVP being hapten. In the current research, DDVP was coupled with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) using a method based on Mannich-type reaction. A DDVP-cBSA conjugate, with a molar ratio of 40:1 DDVP to cBSA was synthesized. The cationized proteins and their conjugates were identified by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra, which showed the characteristic bands of the ethylenediamine group and DDVP, respectively. BALB/c mice were immunized with DDVP-cBSA. One hybridoma cell line secreted anti-DDVP monoclonal antibody (Mab) that had high sensitivity and specificity for DDVP. Competitive ELISA identified an IC50 of 600 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 1 ng/mL in aqueous solution. The Mab had some cross-reactivity with phosmet, but no cross-reactivity with chlorothalonil and procymidone. We also detected a trace of DDVP in waste water. In conclusion the Mannich-type reaction couples DDVP to protein, yielding an antigen for the production of Mab to detect residual DDVP in the environment.

  7. Cloning, expression, and antigenic characterization of recombinant protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T S; Tramuta, C; Catania, S; Matucci, A; Giuffrida, M G; Baro, C; Profiti, M; Bertolotti, L; Rosati, S

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a member of the most important avian mycoplasmas, causing chronic respiratory disease in chickens and leading to important economic losses in the poultry industry. Recombinant technology represents a strategic approach used to achieve highly reliable and specific diagnostic tests in veterinary diseases control: in particular this aspect is crucial for confirming mycoplasma infection and for maintaining mycoplasma-free breeder flocks. In this study, we identified a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (i.e., E2) protein by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), characterized it in immunoblotting assays, and analyzed its recombinant (r-E2) in a rec-ELISA test. For full-length protein expression in Escherichia coli (EC) a point mutation was introduced. A rabbit antiserum produced against r-E2 was tested in a Western Blot using different samples of Mycoplasma species. The results showed the applicability of site-directed mutagenesis, with a good yield of the r-E2 after purification. Also, anti-E2 serum reacted with all the tested MG strains showing no cross reaction with other mycoplasmas. The developed E2 ELISA test was capable of detecting MG antibodies in the sera examined. Those results demonstrate the antigenic stability of the E2 protein which could represent a recombinant antigen with potential diagnostic applications. PMID:25667423

  8. Demonstration of an outer membrane protein that is antigenically specific for Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Islam, Abul Hasnat Mohammad Shafiqul; Singh, Kirnpal-Kaur Banga; Ismail, Asma

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that is resistant to many types of antibiotics, and hence, a fast, sensitive, specific, and economical test for its rapid diagnosis is needed. Development of such a test requires a specific antigen, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the prime candidates. The goal of this study was to find a specific OMP of A. baumannii and demonstrate the presence of specific IgM, IgA, and IgG against the candidate protein in human serum. OMPs of A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and 16 other clinical isolates of A. baumannii were extracted from an overnight culture grown at 37 °C. Protein profiles were obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analysis was performed to detect the presence of IgM, IgA, and IgG against the OMP in host serum. An antigenic 34.4-kDa OMP was uniquely recognized by IgM, IgA, and IgG from patients with A. baumannii infection, and it did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The band was also found in the other 16 A. baumannii isolates. This 34.4-kDa OMP is a prime candidate for development of a diagnostic test for the presence of A. baumannii. PMID:21146712

  9. Improved serodiagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection with synthetic peptide antigen from capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, B; Fang, C T; Popovsky, M A; Ye, J; Zhang, M; Wang, C Y

    1991-01-01

    Cloning and expression of hepatitis C virus have allowed the development of immunoassays to detect hepatitis C virus infection. However, currently available recombinant fusion protein C100-3 assays, based on a nonstructural protein of the virus, are limited in sensitivity, particularly for detecting acute infection. In this report seroconversion panels showed that an assay based on synthetic peptides, derived from immunodominant regions of both capsid and nonstructural proteins, accelerated hepatitis C virus antibody detection by 4-10 weeks. In screening, this enzyme immunoassay increased detection from 47% to 64% in plasmapheresis donors with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (greater than 100 international units per liter), from 15% to 24% in anti-hepatitis B core antigen-positive blood donors, and from 28% to 42% in renal dialysis patients when compared with nonstructural peptide-based assays. The screening assay was repeatedly reactive for 27 of 2902 volunteer blood donor samples (0.93%); four sera reacted only with the capsid antigen. The peptide test distinguished true from false positive results in agreement with recombinant immunoblot assay in 96% of blood donor samples repeatably reactive on a recombinant hepatitis C virus enzyme immunoassay. Images PMID:1850834

  10. A Review of Pneumococcal Vaccines: Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations and Future Protein Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Calvin C.; Rogers, P. David

    2016-01-01

    This review describes development of currently available pneumococcal vaccines, provides summary tables of current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in children and adults, and describes new potential vaccine antigens in the pipeline. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteremia, remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Introductions of unconjugated and conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have each reduced the rate of pneumococcal infections caused by the organism S. pneumoniae. The first vaccine developed, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), protected adults and children older than 2 years of age against invasive disease caused by the 23 capsular serotypes contained in the vaccine. Because PPSV23 did not elicit a protective immune response in children younger than 2 years of age, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing seven of the most common serotypes from PPSV23 in pediatric invasive disease was developed for use in children younger than 2 years of age. The last vaccine to be developed, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), contains the seven serotypes in PCV7, five additional serotypes from PPSV23, and a new serotype not contained in PPSV23 or PCV7. Serotype replacement with virulent strains that are not contained in the polysaccharide vaccines has been observed after vaccine implementation and stresses the need for continued research into novel vaccine antigens. We describe eight potential protein antigens that are in the pipeline for new pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:26997927

  11. Mapping antigenic domains expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Baehr, W; Zhang, Y X; Joseph, T; Su, H; Nano, F E; Everett, K D; Caldwell, H D

    1988-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate prokaryotic intracellular pathogen of humans that infects mucosal epithelial cells. Exposed domains of its major outer membrane protein (MOMP) are both serotyping and protective antigenic determinants. To identify these domains, we have cloned and epitope-mapped the genes of serovars A, C (C serogroup) and L2, B (B serogroup) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Predominantly conserved regions of the genes of both serogroups are interspersed with four short variable domains (I-IV). Recombinant phage clones expressing specific MOMP antigenic determinants revealed that protective serotype-specific recognized epitopes in variable domains I and II. Protective subspecies and serogroup-specific mAbs recognized overlapping determinants in variable domain IV near the C terminus. A nonprotective species-specific mAb mapped to an invariant peptide of nine residues contained within variable domain IV. In the intact chlamydial organism of serovar B, variable domains II and IV were susceptible to proteolytic digestion, whereas both N and C termini were protected. These results suggest an arrangement of MOMP in the outer membrane in which three of the four variable domains are exposed to the outside and in which both N and C termini are presumably oriented toward the periplasmic space. This molecular analysis of MOMP antigenic determinants and their surface topology on intact chlamydiae will be useful toward the development of a recombinant subunit or synthetic chlamydial vaccine. Images PMID:2453883

  12. Is the Campylobacter jejuni secretory protein Cj0069 a suitable antigen for serodiagnostics?

    PubMed

    Corso, J; Lugert, R; Groß, U; Zautner, A E

    2011-03-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most common bacterial pathogen of gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry is the main reservoir and consequently the main origin of infections for humans. As a consequence of a primary Campylobacter infection which typically manifests as diarrhea, there is an increased risk to suffer from post-infectious complications such as reactive arthritis, neuropathia, myositis or a Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Usually the verification of acute campylobacteriosis is made by stool culture. In contrast, post-infectious complications can be diagnosed by serological assays. Since most of them are based on whole cell lysates, an insufficient specificity results from cross-reactions between related species. Therefore, the use of recombinant antigens becomes more and more favorable. Campylobacter is able to secrete a number of proteins, which are amongst others necessary for cell invasion and therefore play a crucial role for virulence. One of these, Cj0069, has a similar specificity and sensitivity in the detection of anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG compared to the well-established antigens OMP18 and P39. This makes it a suitable antigen for diagnosing C. jejuni post-infectious complications. PMID:24466437

  13. Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae Kyu; Petersen, Mark A.; Murray, Sara G.; Baeten, Kim M.; Meyer-Franke, Anke; Chan, Justin P.; Vagena, Eirini; Bedard, Catherine; Machado, Michael R.; Coronado, Pamela E. Rios; Prod'homme, Thomas; Charo, Israel F.; Lassmann, Hans; Degen, Jay L.; Zamvil, Scott S.; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity and macrophage recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) are critical determinants of neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms that drive immunological responses targeted to the CNS remain largely unknown. Here we show that fibrinogen, a central blood coagulation protein deposited in the CNS after blood–brain barrier disruption, induces encephalitogenic adaptive immune responses and peripheral macrophage recruitment into the CNS leading to demyelination. Fibrinogen stimulates a unique transcriptional signature in CD11b+ antigen-presenting cells inducing the recruitment and local CNS activation of myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells. Fibrinogen depletion reduces Th1 cells in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-dependent antigen presentation, CXCL10- and CCL2-mediated recruitment of T cells and macrophages, respectively, are required for fibrinogen-induced encephalomyelitis. Inhibition of the fibrinogen receptor CD11b/CD18 protects from all immune and neuropathologic effects. Our results show that the final product of the coagulation cascade is a key determinant of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26353940

  14. Novel protein isoforms of carcinoembryonic antigen are secreted from pancreatic, gastric and colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) is an oncofetal cell surface glycoprotein. Because of its high expression in cancer cells and secretion into serum, CEA has been widely used as a serum tumor marker. Although other members of CEACAM family were investigated for splice variants/variants-derived protein isoforms, few studies about the variants of CEACAM5 have been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of novel CEACAM5 splice variants and splice variant-derived protein isoforms in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Results We identified two novel CEACAM5 splice variants in gastrointestinal (pancreatic, gastric, and colorectal) cancer cell lines. One of the variants possessed an alternative minor splice site that allowed generation of GC-AG intron. Furthermore, CEA protein isoforms derived from the novel splice variants were expressed in cancer cell lines and those protein isoforms were secreted into the culture medium. Although CEA protein isoforms always co-existed with the full-length protein, the secretion patterns of these isoforms did not correlate with the expression patterns. Conclusions This is the first study to identify the expression of CEA isoforms derived from the novel splice variants processed on the unique splice site. In addition, we also revealed the secretion of those isoforms from gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Our findings suggested that discrimination between the full-length and identified protein isoforms may improve the clinical utility of CEA as a tumor marker. PMID:24070190

  15. Chlamydial disease pathogenesis. The 57-kD chlamydial hypersensitivity antigen is a stress response protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R P; Belland, R J; Lyng, K; Caldwell, H D

    1989-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection of humans is commonly a localized inflammation that can result in infertility, blindness, and perhaps arthritis. The pathogenic process(es) that cause these sequelae are thought to be immunological. A 57-kD protein that is common among Chlamydia elicits ocular inflammation when introduced onto the conjunctivae of guinea pigs or nonhuman primates previously sensitized by chlamydial infection. This protein is thought to mediate the immunopathology that follows chlamydial infection. To more thoroughly characterize this chlamydial component, we cloned its gene from a C. psittaci strain and identified a particular recombinant that produced the 57-kD polypeptide. The recombinant gene product was immunoreactive with a monospecific anti-57-kD serum, and elicited an ocular inflammation similar to that produced by the 57-kD antigen isolated from chlamydiae. Sequencing identified two ORFs that encode polypeptides of 11.2 and 58.1 kD and are co-transcribed. These two polypeptides show homology with Escherichia coli groE and Coxiella burnetii htp heat-shock proteins. Striking homology (greater than 50%) was found between the 57-kD protein and the HtpB, GroEL, 65-k Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Hsp60 proteins. Thus, the 57-kD chlamydial protein, previously implicated as mediating a deleterious immunologic response to chlamydial infections, is a stress-induced protein similar to those that occur universally in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PMID:2571668

  16. Chlamydial disease pathogenesis. The 57-kD chlamydial hypersensitivity antigen is a stress response protein

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection of humans is commonly a localized inflammation that can result in infertility, blindness, and perhaps arthritis. The pathogenic process(es) that cause these sequelae are thought to be immunological. A 57-kD protein that is common among Chlamydia elicits ocular inflammation when introduced onto the conjunctivae of guinea pigs or nonhuman primates previously sensitized by chlamydial infection. This protein is thought to mediate the immunopathology that follows chlamydial infection. To more thoroughly characterize this chlamydial component, we cloned its gene from a C. psittaci strain and identified a particular recombinant that produced the 57-kD polypeptide. The recombinant gene product was immunoreactive with a monospecific anti-57-kD serum, and elicited an ocular inflammation similar to that produced by the 57-kD antigen isolated from chlamydiae. Sequencing identified two ORFs that encode polypeptides of 11.2 and 58.1 kD and are co-transcribed. These two polypeptides show homology with Escherichia coli groE and Coxiella burnetii htp heat-shock proteins. Striking homology (greater than 50%) was found between the 57-kD protein and the HtpB, GroEL, 65-k Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Hsp60 proteins. Thus, the 57-kD chlamydial protein, previously implicated as mediating a deleterious immunologic response to chlamydial infections, is a stress-induced protein similar to those that occur universally in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PMID:2571668

  17. Use of western blot to study Microsporum canis antigenic proteins in canine dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Peano, Andrea; Min, Annarita Molinar; Beccati, Massimo; Menzano, Arianna; Pasquetti, Mario; Gallo, Maria Grazia

    2011-05-01

    Western blotting was used to describe the Microsporum canis proteins with antigenic activity in dogs with dermatophytosis. Electrophoretic separation of whole fungal strain extract cultured from a cat was performed under denaturing conditions. The proteins were blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed with sera collected from 22 dogs with dermatophytosis (18 M. canis, 3 M. gypseum, 1 Trichophyton mentagrophytes; group A), 20 dogs with skin diseases other than dermatophytosis, and 22 dogs with no clinical cutaneous signs (group B, n = 42). Nine principal IgG-binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of 180, 144, 130, 120, 102, 96, 80, 68, and 48 kD were visualised on group A blots. For these proteins, serological cross-reactivity with different strains of M. canis may be indirectly confirmed, whereas additional proteins were found to react with sera from individual dogs. The proteins visualised in this study may represent diagnostic markers of dermatophyte infection. The proteins should be further evaluated for their role in the cellular immune response of dogs with dermatophytosis. PMID:19912544

  18. Identification of antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain recognized by human immunoglobulin G using immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi-Meng; Ji, Yong-Sheng; Elashram, Saeed A; Lu, Zhi-Min; Liu, Xian-Yong; Suo, Xun; Chen, Qi-Jun; Wang, Heng

    2012-12-21

    Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous intracellular protozoan, infects one third of the world human population. It is of great medical significance, especially for pregnant women and immune-compromised patients. Accurate and early detection of T. gondii infection is crucial in the management of this disease. To obtain potential diagnostic markers, immunoproteomics was employed to identify immunodominant proteins separated by 2-D immunobloting and probed with sera collected from Toxoplasma-positive pregnant women. MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS analyses identified a total of 18 immunoreactive proteins that were recognized by Toxoplasma-positive sera, whereas none was reactive with the negative-control sera from healthy, Toxoplasma-negative volunteers. Pregnant women showed a diverse immunoreactivity pattern with each serum recognizing one to eight identified tachyzoite proteins. The identified proteins were localized in the membrane, cytoplasm and specific organelles of T. gondii, and are involved in host cell invasion, metabolism and cell structure. Among these 18 proteins, actin, catalase, GAPDH, and three hypothetical proteins had a broad reactivity with Toxoplasma-positive sera, indicating their potential as diagnostic markers for toxoplasmosis. Each of several combinations of the identified proteins offered 100% detection of Toxoplasma infections of all 28 Toxoplasma-positive women. The study findings suggest that Toxoplasma tachyzoites are highly immunogenic and highlights the heterogeneity of host responses to Toxoplasma infection and the importance of using combinations of immunogens as diagnostic antigens. The findings have significant implications to the development of diagnostic reagents with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23026549

  19. The 14-3-3 protein detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with prion-unrelated neurological diseases is expressed constitutively in neurons and glial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Satoh, J; Kurohara, K; Yukitake, M; Kuroda, Y

    1999-01-01

    The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of 30-kD proteins originally identified by two-dimensional analysis of brain protein extracts. Recently, the detection of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is utilized as a highly reliable test for the premortem diagnosis of prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. For the initial step, to clarify the biological implication of the CSF 14-3-3 protein in these diseases, its expression was investigated in neural tissues and cultures and CSF samples from patients with a variety of neurological diseases by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. The constitutive expression of the 14-3-3 protein was identified in all neural and nonneural tissues examined. It was expressed in all neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in culture with its location in both cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. The 14-3-3 protein was detected in the CSF of 8 out of 71 patients, including 1 Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease patient and 7 patients with prion-unrelated neurological diseases, such as meningoencephalitis of viral, bacterial, or tuberculous origin, multiple sclerosis, and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes. These results suggest that the 14-3-3 protein expressed constitutively at substantial levels in both neurons and glial cells might be released into the CSF as a disease-nonspecific consequence of the extensive brain damage and indicate that the analysis of the 14-3-3 protein in the CSF is not useful as a screening test for prion diseases. PMID:10343153

  20. Bi-antigenic immunoassay models based on the recombinant PvpA proteins for Mycoplasma gallisepticum diagnosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Büyüktanir, Ozlem; Genç, Oktay; Yurdusev, Nevzat

    2010-11-01

    The present study aimed to produce the relatively conserved central fragment of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum PvpA cytadhesin as recombinant antigen and to determine its species-specific diagnostic potential in comparison with the full-length recombinant rPvpA336 protein. For this purpose, a recombinant protein (rPvpA134) consisting of 134 amino acids with apparent molecular mass of 27 kD was produced and highly purified. The rPvpA134 protein was composed of the amino acid residues at positions 133-265 with respect to the wild-type PvpA. Two bi-antigenic diagnostic models based on Western blot and enzymatic rapid immunofiltration assay (ERIFA) were developed to compare simultaneously the diagnostic potential of the recombinant antigens rPvpA134 and rPvpA336. Although 40% of the confirmed rPvpA336-positive chicken sera were detected as reactive with rPvpA134, this protein would be a useful secondary diagnostic antigen with which to confirm species-specific antibody response for monitoring M. gallisepticum infections. It can be concluded from the present study that 2 bi-antigenic models were successfully adapted to the specific diagnosis of chicken M. gallisepticum. Furthermore, by virtue of its simplicity and rapidity, the ERIFA model has multi-antigenic application potential, making it an alternative field test that is widely applicable in the veterinary diagnostic field. PMID:21088174

  1. Lentiviral Protein Transfer Vectors Are an Efficient Vaccine Platform and Induce a Strong Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Katharina M.; Schülke, Stefan; Scheuplein, Vivian A. M.; Malczyk, Anna H.; Reusch, Johannes; Kugelmann, Stefanie; Muth, Anke; Koch, Vivian; Hutzler, Stefan; Bodmer, Bianca S.; Schambach, Axel; Buchholz, Christian J.; Waibler, Zoe; Scheurer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To induce and trigger innate and adaptive immune responses, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) take up and process antigens. Retroviral particles are capable of transferring not only genetic information but also foreign cargo proteins when they are genetically fused to viral structural proteins. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of lentiviral protein transfer vectors (PTVs) for targeted antigen transfer directly into APCs and thereby induction of cytotoxic T cell responses. Targeting of lentiviral PTVs to APCs can be achieved analogously to gene transfer vectors by pseudotyping the particles with truncated wild-type measles virus (MV) glycoproteins (GPs), which use human SLAM (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) as a main entry receptor. SLAM is expressed on stimulated lymphocytes and APCs, including dendritic cells. SLAM-targeted PTVs transferred the reporter protein green fluorescent protein (GFP) or Cre recombinase with strict receptor specificity into SLAM-expressing CHO and B cell lines, in contrast to broadly transducing vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped PTVs. Primary myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) incubated with targeted or nontargeted ovalbumin (Ova)-transferring PTVs stimulated Ova-specific T lymphocytes, especially CD8+ T cells. Administration of Ova-PTVs into SLAM-transgenic and control mice confirmed the observed predominant induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and demonstrated the capacity of protein transfer vectors as suitable vaccines for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses. IMPORTANCE This study demonstrates the specificity and efficacy of antigen transfer by SLAM-targeted and nontargeted lentiviral protein transfer vectors into antigen-presenting cells to trigger antigen-specific immune responses in vitro and in vivo. The observed predominant activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells indicates the suitability of SLAM-targeted and also nontargeted PTVs as a vaccine for the induction of cytotoxic immune responses. Since cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes are a mainstay of antitumoral immune responses, PTVs could be engineered for the transfer of specific tumor antigens provoking tailored antitumoral immunity. Therefore, PTVs can be used as safe and efficient alternatives to gene transfer vectors or live attenuated replicating vector platforms, avoiding genotoxicity or general toxicity in highly immunocompromised patients, respectively. Thereby, the potential for easy envelope exchange allows the circumventing of neutralizing antibodies, e.g., during repeated boost immunizations. PMID:26085166

  2. A novel mitochondrial protein of Neurospora crassa immunoprecipitates with known enzyme subunits but is not antigenic

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, E. )

    1989-04-01

    {sup 14}C labeled 4{prime}-phosphopantetheine (PAN) is detectable as 2 bands after SDS-PAGE of mitochondrial proteins. The bands comigrate with subunit 6 of cytochrome oxidase (COX) and a small ATPase subunit in tube gel slices of immunoprecipitates. However, other work demonstrated these bands to be due to modification of a novel protein, related to acyl carrier protein (ACP) of spinach and E. coli, that exists in two forms. To resolve this discrepancy, 1-dimensional (1D) slab and 2-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE was used for increased resolution over tube gels. Total mitochondrial protein gels from PAN labeled cells were western blotted, probed for COX, and autoradiographed. In 1D there is exact migration of PAN with COX6. In 2D PAN overlaps a protein distinct from and not antigenically related to COX subunits. These data suggest it is the ACP-like protein that in PAN-modified. Its possible association with COX during assembly will be discussed.

  3. Antigenic validation of recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Khulape, S A; Maity, H K; Pathak, D C; Mohan, C Madhan; Dey, S

    2015-09-01

    The outer membrane glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is important for virus infection and subsequent immune response by host, and offers target for development of recombinant antigen-based immunoassays and subunit vaccines. In this study, the expression of HN protein of NDV is attempted in yeast expression system. Yeast offers eukaryotic environment for protein processing and posttranslational modifications like glycosylation, in addition to higher growth rate and easy genetic manipulation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be better expression system for HN protein than Pichia pastoris as determined by codon usage analysis. The complete coding  sequence of HN gene was amplified with the histidine tag, cloned in pESC-URA under GAL10 promotor and transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant HN (rHN) protein was characterized by western blot, showing glycosylation heterogeneity as observed with other eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity column purification. The protein could be further used as subunit vaccine. PMID:26435147

  4. Detection of antibody-antigen reaction by silicon nitride slot-ring biosensors using protein G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomoya; Hirowatari, Anna; Ikeda, Takeshi; Fukuyama, Masataka; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Kuroda, Akio; Yokoyama, Shin

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors using ring resonators with silicon nitride (SiN) slot waveguides have been fabricated. The temperature coefficient of the resonance wavelength of the SiN resonator is 0.006 nm/°C, which is one order of magnitude smaller than that of Si. The sensitivity of the biosensor has been improved by using slot waveguide together with Si-binding protein (designated as Si-tag), which bonds to SiN or SiO2 surface, as an anchoring molecule to immobilize bioreceptors on the SiN rings in an oriented manner. Furthermore, the protein G, which strongly bonds to many kinds of mammalian antibodies only by mixing the antibody solution, is used to efficiently immobilize the antigen on the sensor surface. By means of these devises the sensitivity of the biosensor has been improved by factor of 10-100 compared with that of normal Si ring resonator sensors without slot. Then the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) with the sensitivity of ~1×10-8 g/ml, which is the concentration of strongly suspicious for the prostate cancer, has been achieved.

  5. Identification of the p53 protein domain involved in formation of the simian virus 40 large T-antigen-p53 protein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, T H; Wallis, J; Levine, A J

    1986-01-01

    An expression vector utilizing the enhancer and promoter region of the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA regulating a murine p53 cDNA clone was constructed. The vector produced murine p53 protein in monkey cells identified by five different monoclonal antibodies, three of which were specific for the murine form of p53. The murine p53 produced in monkey cells formed an oligomeric protein complex with the SV40 large tumor antigen. A large number of deletion mutations, in-frame linker insertion mutations, and linker insertion mutations resulting in a frameshift mutation were constructed in the cDNA coding portion of the p53 protein expression vector. The wild-type and mutant p53 cDNA vectors were expressed in monkey cells producing the SV40 large T antigen. The conformation and levels of p53 protein and its ability to form protein complexes with the SV40 T antigen were determined by using five different monoclonal antibodies with quite distinct epitope recognition sites. Insertion mutations between amino acid residues 123 and 215 (of a total of 390 amino acids) eliminated the ability of murine p53 to bind to the SV40 large T antigen. Deletion (at amino acids 11 through 33) and insertion mutations (amino acids 222 through 344) located on either side of this T-antigen-binding protein domain produced a murine p53 protein that bound to the SV40 large T antigen. The same five insertion mutations that failed to bind with the SV40 large T antigen also failed to react with a specific monoclonal antibody, PAb246. In contrast, six additional deletion and insertion mutations that produced p53 protein that did bind with T antigen were each recognized by PAb246. The proposed epitope for PAb246 has been mapped adjacent (amino acids 88 through 109) to the T-antigen-binding domain (amino acids 123 through 215) localized by the mutations mapped in this study. Finally, some insertion mutations that produced a protein that failed to bind to the SV40 T antigen appeared to have an enhanced ability to complex with a 68-kilodalton cellular protein in monkey cells. Images PMID:3016321

  6. Structure and function of a 40,000-molecular-weight protein antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A B; Andersen, P; Ljungqvist, L

    1992-01-01

    A gene encoding a protein antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a molecular weight of 40,000 has been sequenced. On the basis of sequence homology and functional analyses, we demonstrated that the protein is an L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1). The enzyme was demonstrated in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum but not in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The enzyme may play a role in cell wall synthesis because L-alanine is an important constituent of the peptidoglycan layer. Although no consensus signal sequence was identified, we found evidence which suggests that the enzyme is secreted across the cell membrane. The enzyme was characterized and purified by chromatography, thus enabling further studies of its role in virulence and interaction with the immune system of M. tuberculosis-infected individuals. Images PMID:1587598

  7. Echinococcus granulosus antigen B: a Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein at the host-parasite interface.

    PubMed

    Silva-Álvarez, Valeria; Folle, Ana Maite; Ramos, Ana Lía; Zamarreño, Fernando; Costabel, Marcelo D; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Salinas, Gustavo; Córsico, Betina; Ferreira, Ana María

    2015-02-01

    Lipids are mainly solubilized by various families of lipid binding proteins which participate in their transport between tissues as well as cell compartments. Among these families, Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Proteins (HLBPs) deserve special consideration since they comprise intracellular and extracellular members, are able to bind a variety of fatty acids, retinoids and some sterols, and are present exclusively in cestodes. Since these parasites have lost catabolic and biosynthetic pathways for fatty acids and cholesterol, HLBPs are likely relevant for lipid uptake and transportation between parasite and host cells. Echinococcus granulosus antigen B (EgAgB) is a lipoprotein belonging to the HLBP family, which is very abundant in the larval stage of this parasite. Herein, we review the literature on EgAgB composition, structural organization and biological properties, and propose an integrated scenario in which this parasite HLBP contributes to adaptation to mammalian hosts by meeting both metabolic and immunomodulatory parasite demands. PMID:25451555

  8. Determination of antibody from typhoid patients against lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens of Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Mekara, Y; Maneekarn, N; Vithayasai, V; Makonkawkeyoon, S

    1990-12-01

    Although the Widal test is simple, inexpensive and the most widely used for serodiagnosis of typhoid fever, the sensitivity and specificity of the test is sometimes doubtful. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens of Salmonella typhi which was compared with the Widal test in various groups of subjects. In typhoid patients with hemocultures positive for S. typhi (TP group), ELISA positivity was found on 100% for IgG antiprotein, 94.44% for IgG anti-LPS and 88.89% for IgM to both the protein and LPS antigens. In contrast, the Widal test was positive in only 61.11% for anti-O and 83.33% for anti-H antibodies. In healthy control subjects (HC group), only 5% of serum samples were positive for IgG anti-protein and none was positive for IgG anti-LPS or IgM to either the protein or LPS. In contrast, the Widal test was positive in 7.5% of HC group for anti-O and 17.5% for anti-H antibodies. In blood bank donors (BB group), both ELISA and Widal tests were positive in 23-40% of sera. Since the hospital records of BB group were incomplete. It might be possible that some of these subjects had recently been infected with S. typhi. Our data indicate that the standard Widal test was associated with false negative reactions in 16-39% of blood culture positive subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2091664

  9. Claudin 1 and Claudin 7 Gene Polymorphisms and Protein Derangement are Unrelated to the Growth Pattern and Tumor Volume of Colon Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Victoria, Hahn-Strömberg; Henrik, Edvardsson; Lennart, Bodin; Lennart, Franzén

    2010-01-01

    Tight junctions together with adherens junctions are important for preserving tissue integrity. In tumors the normal tissue structure is lost which results in a disorganization and change of phenotype. In this study we assessed the complexity of the invasive front of colon carcinoma using an objective morphometrical technique based on the estimation of fractal dimension and number of free tumor cell clusters. The complexity of the invasive front was correlated to Claudin 1 and Claudin 7 protein expression as well as genetic polymorphisms of their genes. Thirty-three colon carcinomas were used. Images from the invasive front of the tumors were captured and used to calculate a complexity index of the invasive front. The tight junction proteins Claudin 1 and Claudin 7 were stained immunohistochemically in the tumor and in the surrounding normal mucosa. Screening of their genes was performed using DNA sequencing. A significant aberration of protein expression was seen for both Claudin 1 and Claudin 7 compared to normal mucosa. Both homozygous and heterozygous polymorphisms in exon 2 of claudin 1 were found. In claudin 7 a homozygous polymorphism was seen in exon 4. All individuals with tumors that showed either of these polymorphisms also showed the same polymorphism in the adjacent normal mucosa. A significant correlation was found between polymorphisms in CLDN 7 and tumor differentiation p<0.02. However no correlations were found to Complexity Index, tumor size, localization or tumor stage (pT and pN). The results show that there is a perturbed expression of claudin 1 and claudin 7 proteins in colon tumors compared to normal mucosa. A high incidence of polymorphisms was found in normal tissue and tumors. It remains to be shown if these polymorphisms are coupled to the occurrence of colon carcinomas. PMID:23675182

  10. Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in soybean seed yields an immunogenic antigenic protein.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Gasic, Ksenija; Soria-Guerra, Ruth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious disease of swine and contributes to severe worldwide economic losses in swine production. Current vaccines against PRRS rely on the use of an attenuated-live virus; however, these are unreliable. Thus, alternative effective vaccines against PRRS are needed. Plant-based subunit vaccines offer viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional vaccines. In this study, efforts have been undertaken to develop a soybean-based vaccine against PRRSV. A construct carrying a synthesized PRRSV-ORF7 antigen, nucleocapsid N protein of PRRSV, has been introduced into soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. cvs. Jack and Kunitz, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants carrying the sORF7 transgene have been successfully generated. Molecular analyses of T(0) plants confirmed integration of the transgene and transcription of the PRRSV-ORF7. Presence of a 15-kDa protein in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines was confirmed by Western blot analysis using PRRSV-ORF7 antisera. The amount of the antigenic protein accumulating in seeds of these transgenic lines was up to 0.65% of the total soluble protein (TSP). A significant induction of a specific immune response, both humoral and mucosal, against PRRSV-ORF7 was observed following intragastric immunization of BALB/c female mice with transgenic soybean seeds. These findings provide a 'proof of concept', and serve as a critical step in the development of a subunit plant-based vaccine against PRRS. PMID:21971995

  11. B-cell epitopes of antigenic proteins in Leishmania infantum: an in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Assis, L M; Sousa, J R; Pinto, N F S; Silva, A A; Vaz, A F M; Andrade, P P; Carvalho, E M; De Melo, M A

    2014-07-01

    Serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis is often hindered by cross-reactions to other parasitic diseases. Identifying specific B-cell epitopes in proteins is therefore important for immunodiagnostics, as well as for disease control by vaccines. This study aimed to identify linear and conformational B-cell epitopes and to evaluate the secondary structure of antigen proteins in Leishmania infantum using in silico analysis. Linear epitopes were predicted using the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB), BepiPred and BcePred programs. The conformational B-cell epitopes were identified using the CBTOPE server. The combination of the predictions using IEDB, BepiPred and BcePred generated 148 linear epitopes from the calpain-like cysteine peptidase (CP), thiol-dependent reductase 1 (TDR1) and HSP70 proteins. In total, 164 conformational epitopes were predicted, mostly located in the linear epitope region. The predicted epitopes are located in α helix and random coil regions in the thiol-dependent reductase 1 and HSP70 proteins. New linear and conformational B-cell epitopes of L. infantum proteins were identified in silico, and the prediction using various programs ensures greater accuracy of the results, as suggested by confirmation of previously identified HSP70 epitopes. PMID:24606067

  12. Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Elliott, T. F.; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LNI) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered Trademark) Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark) software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

  13. Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LN1) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate Containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered TradeMark)Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark)a software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

  14. A viral vaccine encoding PSA induces antigen spreading to a common set of self proteins in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nesslinger, Nancy J.; Ng, Alvin; Tsang, Kwong-Yok; Ferrara, Theresa; Schlom, Jeff; Gulley, James L.; Nelson, Brad H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported a randomized phase II clinical trial combining a poxvirus-based vaccine encoding PSA with radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Here we investigate whether vaccination against PSA induced immune responses to additional tumor-associated antigens and how this influenced clinical outcome. Experimental Design Pre- and post-treatment serum samples from patients treated with vaccine + external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) versus EBRT alone were evaluated by Western blot and serological screening of a prostate cancer cDNA expression library (SEREX) to assess the development of treatment-associated autoantibody responses. Results Western blotting revealed treatment-associated autoantibody responses in 15/33 (45.5%) patients treated with vaccine + EBRT versus 1/8 (12.5%) treated with EBRT alone. SEREX screening identified 18 antigens, which were assembled on an antigen array with 16 previously identified antigens. Antigen array screening revealed that seven of 33 patients (21.2%) treated with vaccine + EBRT demonstrated a vaccine-associated autoantibody response to four ubiquitously expressed self antigens: DIRC2, NDUFS1, MRFAP1 and MATN2. These responses were not seen in patients treated with EBRT alone, or other control groups. Patients with autoantibody responses to this panel of antigens had a trend towards decreased biochemical-free survival. Conclusions Vaccine + EBRT induced antigen spreading in a large proportion of patients. A subset of patients developed autoantibodies to a panel of four self antigens and showed a trend toward inferior outcomes. Thus, cancer vaccines directed against tumor-specific antigens can trigger autoantibody responses to self proteins, which may influence the efficacy of vaccination. PMID:20562209

  15. CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells generated by exposure to a model protein antigen prevent allograft rejection: antigen-specific reactivation in vivo is critical for bystander regulation.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mahzuz; Feng, Gang; Wood, Kathryn J; Bushell, Andrew R

    2005-06-15

    The importance of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in the control of immune responses is established, but their antigen specificity in vivo remains unclear. Understanding Treg-cell specificity requirements will be important if their potential is to be developed for immunotherapy. Pretreatment of recipient mice with donor alloantigen plus anti-CD4 antibody generates CD25(+)CD4(+) Treg cells with the capacity to prevent skin allograft rejection in adoptive transfer recipients. Here we demonstrate that, although this regulation can be antigen-specific, reactivation with the original tolerizing alloantigen allows the Treg cells to suppress rejection of third-party allografts. Aware of the limitations of alloantigen pretreatment, we asked whether graft-protective Treg cells could be generated against unrelated, nongraft antigens. We demonstrate that bystander regulation also extends to CD25(+)CD4(+) Treg cells generated in vivo by exposure to nominal antigens under anti-CD4 antibody cover. Providing these Treg cells are reexposed to the tolerizing antigens before adoptive transfer, they prevent the rejection of fully allogeneic skin grafts. That this might form the basis of a clinically relevant tolerance induction strategy is demonstrated by the fact that, when combined with subtherapeutic anti-CD8 antibody, Treg cells generated in response to nongraft antigens facilitate the acceptance of cardiac allografts in primary recipients. PMID:15713793

  16. Potential value of major antigenic protein 2 for serological diagnosis of heartwater and related ehrlichial infections.

    PubMed

    Bowie, M V; Reddy, G R; Semu, S M; Mahan, S M; Barbet, A F

    1999-03-01

    Cowdria ruminantium is the etiologic agent of heartwater, a disease causing major economic loss in ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Development of a serodiagnostic test is essential for determining the carrier status of animals from regions where heartwater is endemic, but most available tests give false-positive reactions with sera against related Erhlichia species. Current approaches rely on molecular methods to define proteins and epitopes that may allow specific diagnosis. Two major antigenic proteins (MAPs), MAP1 and MAP2, have been examined for their use as antigens in the serodiagnosis of heartwater. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if MAP2 is conserved among five geographically divergent strains of C. ruminantium and (ii) to determine if MAP2 homologs are present in Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the organism responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. These two agents are closely related to C. ruminantium. The map2 gene from four strains of C. ruminantium was cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported map2 gene from the Crystal Springs strain. Only 10 nucleic acid differences between the strains were identified, and they translate to only 3 amino acid changes, indicating that MAP2 is highly conserved. Genes encoding MAP2 homologs from E. canis and E. chaffeensis also were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid analysis of MAP2 homologs of E. chaffeensis and E. canis with MAP2 of C. ruminantium revealed 83.4 and 84.4% identities, respectively. Further analysis of MAP2 and its homologs revealed that the whole protein lacks specificity for heartwater diagnosis. The development of epitope-specific assays using this sequence information may produce diagnostic tests suitable for C. ruminantium and also other related rickettsiae. PMID:10066656

  17. Potential Value of Major Antigenic Protein 2 for Serological Diagnosis of Heartwater and Related Ehrlichial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Michael V.; Reddy, G. Roman; Semu, Shalt M.; Mahan, Suman M.; Barbet, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Cowdria ruminantium is the etiologic agent of heartwater, a disease causing major economic loss in ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Development of a serodiagnostic test is essential for determining the carrier status of animals from regions where heartwater is endemic, but most available tests give false-positive reactions with sera against related Erhlichia species. Current approaches rely on molecular methods to define proteins and epitopes that may allow specific diagnosis. Two major antigenic proteins (MAPs), MAP1 and MAP2, have been examined for their use as antigens in the serodiagnosis of heartwater. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if MAP2 is conserved among five geographically divergent strains of C. ruminantium and (ii) to determine if MAP2 homologs are present in Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the organism responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. These two agents are closely related to C. ruminantium. The map2 gene from four strains of C. ruminantium was cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported map2 gene from the Crystal Springs strain. Only 10 nucleic acid differences between the strains were identified, and they translate to only 3 amino acid changes, indicating that MAP2 is highly conserved. Genes encoding MAP2 homologs from E. canis and E. chaffeensis also were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid analysis of MAP2 homologs of E. chaffeensis and E. canis with MAP2 of C. ruminantium revealed 83.4 and 84.4% identities, respectively. Further analysis of MAP2 and its homologs revealed that the whole protein lacks specificity for heartwater diagnosis. The development of epitope-specific assays using this sequence information may produce diagnostic tests suitable for C. ruminantium and also other related rickettsiae. PMID:10066656

  18. Polarity protein Par3 controls B-cell receptor dynamics and antigen extraction at the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Reversat, Anne; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Lankar, Danielle; Malbec, Odile; Obino, Dorian; Maurin, Mathieu; Penmatcha, Naga Venkata Gayathri; Amoroso, Alejandro; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Mellman, Ira; Darchen, François; Desnos, Claire; Pierobon, Paolo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement with surface-tethered antigens leads to the formation of an immune synapse, which facilitates antigen uptake for presentation to T-lymphocytes. Antigen internalization and processing rely on the early dynein-dependent transport of BCR–antigen microclusters to the synapse center, as well as on the later polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). MTOC repositioning allows the release of proteases and the delivery of MHC class II molecules at the synapse. Whether and how these events are coordinated have not been addressed. Here we show that the ancestral polarity protein Par3 promotes BCR–antigen microcluster gathering, as well as MTOC polarization and lysosome exocytosis, at the synapse by facilitating local dynein recruitment. Par3 is also required for antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes. Par3 therefore emerges as a key molecule in the coupling of the early and late events needed for efficient extraction and processing of immobilized antigen by B-cells. PMID:25631815

  19. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species. PMID:26986566

  20. Prostate specific antigen detection in patient sera by fluorescence-free BioCD protein array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Ming; Nolte, David D.; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence-free biosensor arrays for protein detection directly measure the protein surface density, and do not require a fluorophore or enzyme label, and provide quantitative and consistent signals. However, few fluorescence-free biosensor protein arrays have demonstrated successful application in high-background samples, such as serum, due to non-specific binding. We tested the BioCD as a fluorescence-free biosensor based on optical interferometry, and used it to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker of prostate cancer) in patient sera in a 96-well anti-PSA microarray. We have attained a 4 ng/ml detection limit in serum and have measured PSA concentrations in patient sera. The measured concentrations correlated well with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results. The measurement of PSA concentrations in high-level protein backgrounds suggests that the BioCD has a potential for clinical applications by removing the restriction of fluorescence-free biosensors from high-background applications. PMID:20236816

  1. Lineage specific antigenic differences in porcine torovirus hemagglutinin-esterase (PToV-HE) protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-esterases (HE) are viral envelope proteins present in some members from the toro-, corona- and orthomyxovirus families, all related with enteric and/or respiratory tract infections. HE proteins mediate reversible binding to sialic acid receptor determinants, very abundant glycan residues in the enteric and respiratory tracts. The role of the HE protein during the torovirus infection cycle remains unknown, although it is believed to be important in the natural infection process. The phylogenetic analysis of HE coding sequences from porcine torovirus (PToV) field strains revealed the existence of two distinct HE lineages. In a previous study, PToV virus strains with HE proteins from the two lineages were found coexisting in a pig herd, and they were even obtained from the same animal at two consecutive sampling time points. In this work, we report antigenic differences between the two HE lineages, and discuss the possible implications that the coexistence of viruses belonging to both lineages might have on the spread and sustainment of PToV infection in the farms. PMID:24364900

  2. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nicole R; Hecht, Karen A; Hu, DeHong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas C; Rorrer, Gregory L; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-03-18

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins comprising either enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or single chain antibodies engineered with a tetracysteine tagging sequence. Of interest were the site-specific binding of (1) the fluorescent biarsenical probe AsCy3 and AsCy3e to the tetracysteine tagged fusion proteins and (2) high and low molecular mass antigens, the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), to biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies. Analysis of biarsenical probe binding using fluorescence and structured illumination microscopy indicated differential colocalization with EGFP in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting the use of either EGFP or bound AsCy3 and AsCy3e in studying biosilica maturation. Large increases in the lifetime of a fluorescent analogue of TNT upon binding single chain antibodies provided a robust signal capable of discriminating binding to immobilized antibodies in the transformed frustule from nonspecific binding to the biosilica matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an ability to engineer diatoms to create antibody-functionalized mesoporous silica able to selectively bind chemical and biological agents for the development of sensing platforms. PMID:26746113

  3. Use of Pre-S Protein-Containing Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigens and a Powerful Adjuvant To Develop an Immune Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Jung Sun; Ahn, Byung Cheol; Jo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Hyo Sun; Sung, Young Chul; Yoon, Jaeseung; Morrey, John

    2012-01-01

    A hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been developed using a new adjuvant and HBV surface antigens produced from a CHO cell line. The purified HBV surface antigens are composed of L protein, M protein, and S protein in a mixture of 20- and 40-nm-diameter particles and filamentous forms. This HBV surface antigen, formulated with L-pampo, a proprietary adjuvant, induced 10 times more antibody than the same antigen with alum and was capable of inducing strong immune responses in three different HBV transgenic mice. In spite of the presence of a large amount of HBV antigen in the blood, no antibody against HBV surface antigen was normally detected in these transgenic mice. After immunization, the HBV antigen was also cleared from the blood. PMID:22155769

  4. The circumsporozoite protein is an immunodominant protective antigen in irradiated sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kota Arun; Sano, Gen-ichiro; Boscardin, Silvia; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Zavala, Fidel; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2006-12-14

    Malaria infection starts when mosquitoes inject sporozoites into the skin. The parasites enter the blood stream and make their way to the liver where they develop into the exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs). Immunization with irradiated sporozoites (IrSp) leads to robust protection against malaria infection in rodents, monkeys and humans by eliciting antibodies to circumsporozoite protein (CS) that inhibit sporozoite infectivity, and T cells that destroy the EEFs. To study the role of non-CS antigens in protection, we produced CS transgenic mice that were tolerant to CS T-cell epitopes. Here we show that in the absence of T-cell-dependent immune responses to CS, protection induced by immunization with two doses of IrSp was greatly reduced. Thus, although hundreds of other Plasmodium genes are expressed in sporozoites and EEFs, CS is a dominant protective antigen. Nevertheless, sterile immunity could be obtained by immunization of CS transgenics with three doses of IrSp. PMID:17151604

  5. Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Mejima, Mio; Kohda, Tomoko; Harada, Norihiro; Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Kataoka, Nobuhiro; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Tsukada, Hideo; Kozaki, Shunji; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccines because they induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. Here we developed an intranasal vaccine-delivery system with a nanometre-sized hydrogel (`nanogel') consisting of a cationic type of cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). A non-toxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type-A neurotoxin BoHc/A administered intranasally with cCHP nanogel (cCHP-BoHc/A) continuously adhered to the nasal epithelium and was effectively taken up by mucosal dendritic cells after its release from the cCHP nanogel. Vigorous botulinum-neurotoxin-A-neutralizing serum IgG and secretory IgA antibody responses were induced without co-administration of mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, intranasally administered cCHP-BoHc/A did not accumulate in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Moreover, intranasally immunized tetanus toxoid with cCHP nanogel induced strong tetanus-toxoid-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. These results indicate that cCHP nanogel can be used as a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination.

  6. MAP1272c Encodes an NlpC/P60 Protein, an Antigen Detected in Cattle with Johne's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lingle, Cari K.; Stabel, Judith R.; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Garcia, Brandon L.; Raeber, Alex J.; Schacher, Pascal; Kapur, Vivek; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2012-01-01

    The protein encoded by MAP1272c has been shown to be an antigen of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that contains an NlpC/P60 superfamily domain found in lipoproteins or integral membrane proteins. Proteins containing this domain have diverse enzymatic functions that include peptidases, amidases, and acetyltransferases. The NlpC protein was examined in comparison to over 100 recombinant proteins and showed the strongest antigenicity when analyzed with sera from cattle with Johne's disease. To further localize the immunogenicity of NlpC, recombinant proteins representing defined regions were expressed and evaluated with sera from cattle with Johne's disease. The region from amino acids 74 to 279 was shown to be the most immunogenic. This fragment was also evaluated against a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two monoclonal antibodies were produced in mice immunized with the full-length protein, and each recognized a distinct epitope. These antibodies cross-reacted with proteins from other mycobacterial species and demonstrated variable sizes of the proteins expressed from these subspecies. Both antibodies were further analyzed, and their interaction with MAP1272c and MAP1204 was characterized by a solution-based, luminescent binding assay. These tools provide additional means to study a strong antigen of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:22593240

  7. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-01-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines. PMID:26631605

  8. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-12-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines.

  9. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for analysis of protein antigens in a meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dick, Lawrence W; Mehl, John T; Loughney, John W; Mach, Anna; Rustandi, Richard R; Ha, Sha; Zhang, Lan; Przysiecki, Craig T; Dieter, Lance; Hoang, Van M

    2015-01-01

    The development of a multivalent outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine where each strain contributes multiple key protein antigens presents numerous analytical challenges. One major difficulty is the ability to accurately and specifically quantitate each antigen, especially during early development and process optimization when immunoreagents are limited or unavailable. To overcome this problem, quantitative mass spectrometry methods can be used. In place of traditional mass assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), quantitative LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used during early-phase process development to measure key protein components in complex vaccines in the absence of specific immunoreagents. Multiplexed, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry methods using protein extraction by either detergent or 2-phase solvent were developed to quantitate levels of several meningococcal serogroup B protein antigens in an OMV vaccine candidate. Precision was demonstrated to be less than 15% RSD for the 2-phase extraction and less than 10% RSD for the detergent extraction method. Accuracy was 70 to 130% for the method using a 2-phase extraction and 90-110% for detergent extraction. The viability of MS-based protein quantification as a vaccine characterization method was demonstrated and advantages over traditional quantitative methods were evaluated. Implementation of these MS-based quantification methods can help to decrease the development time for complex vaccines and can provide orthogonal confirmation of results from existing antigen quantification techniques. PMID:25997113

  10. Characteristics of protective immunity engendered by vaccination of mice with purified culture filtrate protein antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A D; Sonnenberg, M G; Ordway, D J; Furney, S K; Brennan, P J; Belisle, J T; Orme, I M

    1995-01-01

    In this study highly purified culture filtrate proteins obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Erdman and H37Rv were tested for their capacity to stimulate immune T cells in vitro, and to immunize mice in vivo. Analysis of the culture filtrate antigen pool revealed a complex mixture of proteins; after separation of this pool into fractions of defined molecular size using an electrophoretic method, it was found that multiple fractions strongly stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion by immune CD4 T cells in vitro. In a further series of experiments mice were given multiple immunizations with the culture filtrate protein pool suspended in emulsions of incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Such mice were as resistant as mice given live bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine to a low dose aerosol challenge infection with M. tuberculosis, but this resistance waned to low levels by 5 months post-vaccination. Furthermore, experiments using the filtrate antigens to boost or augment immunity induced by the BCG vaccination itself were unsuccessful. These data therefore support the hypothesis that the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis contain multiple antigens that are strongly recognized by T cells acquired during the initial expression of protective immunity to tuberculosis. Conventional immunization with these purified protein antigens can engender a strong degree of protective immunity, but this immunity is apparently not sustained at the same level as that induced by the live vaccine, perhaps suggesting a lack of suitable stimulation of memory immunity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7558141

  11. Immunogenicity and antigenic relationships among spike proteins of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus subtypes G1 and G2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Shi, Hongyan; Zhang, Xin; Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Shibo; Feng, Li

    2016-03-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that infects cells lining the small intestine of swine, resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. The amino acid sequence of the spike (S) protein, which is the principal target recognized by host immune cells, has multiple mutations that distinguish the two PEDV genotypes, G1 and G2. To determine whether these mutations lead to changes in antigenicity, as suggested by the failure of PEDV vaccines in China, we first optimized the codons of typical S genes of the CV777 vaccine strain (G1 subtype) and LNCT2 strain (G2 subtype) and expressed the recombinant full-length sequence of the S protein in a eukaryotic expression system. The IgG antibody levels of serum from mice immunized with purified S protein were markedly high. Antigenicity was compared by detection of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) against the virus and S protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and a serum cross-neutralization (SN) assay. Reactivity with the PAbs revealed significant cross-reactivity between the two PEDV subtypes, although there was a twofold difference in the antigenic responses based on PAb titers in the ELISA and IFA. Consistent with the variation in the S gene sequences, the SN titer suggested differences in the neutralization activity of the S protein between the two subtypes, which could explain the antigenic variation between the PEDV subtypes G1 and G2. PMID:26611909

  12. Coupling of protein antigens to erythrocytes through disulfide bond formation: preparation of stable and sensitive target cells for immune hemolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Y H; Bankert, R B

    1981-01-01

    An efficient technique has been developed for coupling protein antigens to erythrocyte membranes. The procedure involves three steps. First, 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl residues are introduced into the protein by reaction with a heterobifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(pyridyldithio) propionate. Second, the addition of disulfide groups to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) is achieved by coupling dithiodiglycolic acid to SRBC with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide. The disulfide bonds of the dithiodiglycolyl-SRBC conjugate are then reduced with dithiothreitol. Finally, the 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl-protein conjugate is covalently coupled to the thiolated SRBC through thiol/disulfide exchange to form the disulfide-linked antigen-SRBC conjugate. The procedure requires only 10-500 microgram of protein antigen for the preparation of 50 microliter of packed protein-coupled SRBC. Antibodies binding to antigen on the erythrocyte initiate a complement-dependent immune lysis of the target cells. Target cells prepared by this method are stable for at least 4 wk at 4 degrees C in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) and are capable of detecting as little as 40 pg of antibody in a hemolytic assay without noticeable nonspecific lysis. PMID:7017733

  13. Cell-Free Expression and In Situ Immobilization of Parasite Proteins from Clonorchis sinensis for Rapid Identification of Antigenic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Shin, Hyun-Il; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards genetic sequencing of human parasites has provided the groundwork for a post-genomic approach to develop novel antigens for the diagnosis and treatment of parasite infections. To fully utilize the genomic data, however, high-throughput methodologies are required for functional analysis of the proteins encoded in the genomic sequences. In this study, we investigated cell-free expression and in situ immobilization of parasite proteins as a novel platform for the discovery of antigenic proteins. PCR-amplified parasite DNA was immobilized on microbeads that were also functionalized to capture synthesized proteins. When the microbeads were incubated in a reaction mixture for cell-free synthesis, proteins expressed from the microbead-immobilized DNA were instantly immobilized on the same microbeads, providing a physical linkage between the genetic information and encoded proteins. This approach of in situ expression and isolation enables streamlined recovery and analysis of cell-free synthesized proteins and also allows facile identification of the genes coding antigenic proteins through direct PCR of the microbead-bound DNA. PMID:26599101

  14. Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) expression by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with CARs directed against a variety of tumor associated antigens. Despite the improvements in the design of CARs and expansion of the number of target antigens, there is no universal flow cytometric method available to detect the expression of CARs on the surface of transduced lymphocytes. Methods Currently anti-fragment antigen binding (Fab) conjugates are most widely used to determine the expression of CARs on gene-modified lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The limitations of these reagents are that many of them are not commercially available, generally they are polyclonal antibodies and often the results are inconsistent. In an effort to develop a simple universal flow cytometric method to detect the expression of CARs, we employed protein L to determine the expression of CARs on transduced lymphocytes. Protein L is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding protein that binds to the variable light chains (kappa chain) of Ig without interfering with antigen binding site. Protein L binds to most classes of Ig and also binds to single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) and Fab fragments. Results We used CARs derived from both human and murine antibodies to validate this novel protein L based flow cytometric method and the results correlated well with other established methods. Activated human PBLs were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing two human antibody based CARs (anti-EGFRvIII, and anti-VEGFR2), two murine antibody derived CARs (anti-CSPG4, and anti-CD19), and two humanized mouse antibody based CARs (anti-ERBB2, and anti-PSCA). Transduced cells were stained first with biotin labeled protein L followed by phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated streptavidin (SA) and analyzed by flow cytometry. For comparison, cells were stained in parallel with biotin conjugated goat-anti-mouse Fab or CAR specific fusion proteins. Using protein L, all CAR transduced lymphocytes exhibited specific staining pattern ranging from 40 to 80% of positive cells (compared to untransduced cells) and staining was comparable to the pattern observed with anti-Fab antibodies. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the feasibility of employing Protein L as a general reagent for the detection of CAR expression on transduced lymphocytes by flow cytometry. PMID:22330761

  15. Immune responses to Streptococcus sobrinus surface protein antigen A expressed by recombinant Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, T A; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K; Curtiss, R

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we used a vaccine strain of Salmonella typhimurium to express antigenic determinants of the SpaA antigen of Streptococcus sobrinus, which is involved in the caries-forming process. We cloned either a single repeat (pYA2901) or three tandem repeats (pYA2905) of the 0.48-kb fragment of the spaA gene, which codes for an important component of the SpaA protein, plus a 1.2-kb minor antigenic determinant and measured the resulting immune responses to SpaA in orally immunized BALB/c mice. The single or triple repeat of the spaA gene fragment was inserted into the Asd+ vector pYA292 and was transformed into the S. typhimurium delta cya delta crp vaccine strain chi 4072 containing delta asd in the chromosome. Female BALB/c mice were then orally immunized with two doses of the S. typhimurium containing either of the two SpaA constructs, and the immune responses to the expressed SpaA protein were assessed. Significant serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-SpaA titers were detected in mice immunized with chi 4072(pYA2905) but not chi 4072(pYA2901). Salivary anti-SpaA IgA titers were minimal and were only detected in mice immunized with S. typhimurium expressing the SpaA encoded by pYA2905. Intestinal anti-SpaA IgA titers, however, were detected in both groups of mice, particularly in mice immunized with chi 4072(pYA2905). An oral booster 26 weeks after the initial series of immunizations resulted in increased serum IgG titers in both chi 4072(pYA2901)- and chi 4072(pYA2905)-immunized animals, particularly in the chi 4072(pYA2905)-immunized animals. No anamnestic IgA response was detected in the saliva following the booster immunization. Images PMID:8478075

  16. Antigenic analysis monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes of ?B protein of Muscovy duck reovirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Yin, Xiuchen; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Jinzhe; Liu, Chunguo; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2012-02-01

    ?B is one of the major structural proteins of Muscovy duck reovirus (DRV), which is able to induce protective immune response in target birds. Four anti-DRV ?B MAbs were identified belong to two distinct epitopes, designated A (1E5, 4E3, and 5D8) and B (2F7) (Liu et al., 2010). To understand antigenic determinants of the ?B protein, a set of 20 (P1-P20), partially overlapping and consecutive peptides spanning ?B were expressed and then screened by MAbs. With Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), two minimal units of the linear epitopes, 19YIRAPACWD27 (epitope B) and 65TDGVCFPHHK74 (epitope A), were identified within N-terminal region of the ?B protein. The epitope B was highly conserved among DRV and avian reovirus (ARV) strains through sequence alignment analysis. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and ELISA, confirmed that epitope B is a broad group-specific epitope among DRV and ARV. Epitope A could only react with chicken embyonated fibroblast cells (CEF) infected with DRV, but not ARV. However, both peptides have good immunogenicity and could induce antibodies against DRV in BALB/c mice. This report documents the first identification of ?B epitopes in the precise locations. The two probes would be useful in the development of discriminating diagnostic kits for DRV and ARV infection. PMID:22197425

  17. A High Throughput Protein Microarray Approach to Classify HIV Monoclonal Antibodies and Variant Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Dotsey, Emmanuel Y.; Gorlani, Andrea; Ingale, Sampat; Achenbach, Chad J.; Forthal, Donald N.; Felgner, Philip L.; Gach, Johannes S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput discovery of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been applied to greatly advance our understanding of the specificity, and functional activity of antibodies against HIV. Thousands of antibodies have been generated and screened in functional neutralization assays, and antibodies associated with cross-strain neutralization and passive protection in primates, have been identified. To facilitate this type of discovery, a high throughput-screening tool is needed to accurately classify mAbs, and their antigen targets. In this study, we analyzed and evaluated a prototype microarray chip comprised of the HIV-1 recombinant proteins gp140, gp120, gp41, and several membrane proximal external region peptides. The protein microarray analysis of 11 HIV-1 envelope-specific mAbs revealed diverse binding affinities and specificities across clades. Half maximal effective concentrations, generated by our chip analysis, correlated significantly (P<0.0001) with concentrations from ELISA binding measurements. Polyclonal immune responses in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected subjects exhibited different binding patterns, and reactivity against printed proteins. Examining the totality of the specificity of the humoral response in this way reveals the exquisite diversity, and specificity of the humoral response to HIV. PMID:25938510

  18. The polycomb group proteins, BMI-1 and EZH2, are tumour-associated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Steele, J C; Torr, E E; Noakes, K L; Kalk, E; Moss, P A; Reynolds, G M; Hubscher, S G; van Lohuizen, M; Adams, D H; Young, L S

    2006-01-01

    We used SEREX technology to identify novel tumour-associated antigens in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and found serological responses to the polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI-1, which is overexpressed in a range of different tumour types. Further studies identified T-cell responses to both BMI-1 and another PcG protein, EZH2, in cancer patients and at relatively lower levels in some normal donors. We next identified several CD8+ T-cell epitopes derived from BMI-1 and EZH2 and demonstrated that EZH2-derived peptides elicited more significant interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release than BMI-1-derived peptides. That CD8+ T cells were responsible for the observed responses was confirmed for EZH2 by both IFN-γ capture assays and tetramer staining using an HLA-A0201-restricted, EZH2-derived YMSCSFLFNL (aa 666–674) epitope. The ability of YMSCSFLFNL (aa 666–674) to stimulate the in vitro expansion of specific T cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes was greatly enhanced when the CD25+ T-cell population was depleted. EZH2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones specific for two HLA-A0201 epitopes were generated and found to recognise endogenously processed EZH2 in both HLA-matched fibroblasts and tumour cell lines. Given the widespread overexpression of PcG proteins in cancer and their critical role in oncogenesis, these data suggest that they may be useful targets for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:17024127

  19. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  20. Preliminary protective capacity study of a Dicrocoelium dendriticum antigenic protein in hamsters.

    PubMed

    González-Lanza, C; Manga-González, M Y; Revilla-Nuín, B

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective capacity of 130 kDa Dicrocoelium dendriticum protein in hamsters experimentally infected with this parasite. Forty hamsters divided into four groups of ten animals each were used: G1 (control), G2 (infected), G3 (immunized with Freund's adjuvant and infected), G4 (130 kDa protein vaccinated + adjuvant and infected). Infection with 40 metacercariae/hamster was carried out 4 weeks after the last immunization. Parasitological studies [number of eggs per gram (epg) and worm burden] and biochemical parameters (total proteins, albumin, and total bilirubin), hepatic enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)], and total IgG levels were determined. A reduction in epg in G3 and G4 was observed 16 weeks postinfection with the higher reduction percentage in the latter (25.2%). No statistically significant differences were detected in the number of recovered worms among groups, although the mean was slightly less in G4 (12.2 +/- 2.08, mean +/- SE) than in G2 (15.4 +/- 2.90). In G4, global protection was 20.9% and an increase in AST and ALT levels was observed. Total IgG levels were similar in the three infected groups. The protection obtained was inadequate, so the antigen dose, immunization-infection period, adjuvants, and immunization route must be optimized. PMID:16738887

  1. The novel lupus antigen related protein acheron enhances the development of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Rong; Scully, Steve J; Yan, Wei; Bentley, Brooke; Mueller, James; Brown, Christine; Bigelow, Carol; Schwartz, Lawrence M

    2012-02-01

    Acheron (Achn) is a new member of the Lupus antigen family of RNA binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that Achn controls developmental decisions in neurons and muscle. In the human mammary gland, Achn expression is restricted to ductal myoepithelial cells. Microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry have shown that Achn expression is elevated in some basal-like ductal carcinomas. To study the possible role of Achn in breast cancer, we engineered human MDA-MB-231 cells to stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type Achn (AchnWT), as well as Achn lacking either its nuclear localization signal (AchnNLS) or its nuclear export signal (AchnNES). In in vitro assays, AchnWT and AchnNES, but not AchnNLS, enhanced cell proliferation, lamellipodia formation, and invasive activity and drove expression of the elevated expression of the metastasis-associated proteins MMP-9 and VEGF. To determine if Achn could alter the behavior of human breast cancer cells in vivo, Achn-engineered MDA-MB-231 cells were injected into athymic SCID/Beige mice. AchnWT and AchnNES-expressing tumors displayed enhanced angiogenesis and an approximately 5-fold increase in tumor size relative to either control cells or those expressing AchnNLS. These data suggest that Achn enhances human breast tumor growth and vascularization and that this activity is dependent on nuclear localization. PMID:21387291

  2. THE NOVEL LUPUS ANTIGEN RELATED PROTEIN ACHERON ENHANCES THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Rong; Scully, Steve J.; Yan, Wei; Bentley, Brooke; Mueller, James; Brown, Christine; Bigelow, Carol; Schwartz, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Acheron (Achn) is a new member of the Lupus Antigen family of RNA binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that Achn controls developmental decisions in neurons and muscle. In the human mammary gland, Achn expression is restricted to ductal myoepithelial cells. Microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry have shown that Achn expression is elevated in some basal-like ductal carcinomas. To study the possible role of Achn in breast cancer, we engineered human MDA-MB-231 cells to stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type Achn (AchnWT), as well as Achn lacking either its nuclear localization signal (AchnNLS) or its nuclear export signal (AchnNES). In in vitro assays, AchnWT and AchnNES, but not AchnNLS, enhanced cell proliferation, lamellipodia formation, and invasive activity and drove expression of the elevated expression of the metastasis-associated proteins MMP-9 and VEGF. To determine if Achn could alter the behavior of human breast cancer cells in vivo, Achn-engineered MDA-MB-231 cells were injected into athymic SCID/Beige mice. AchnWT and AchnNES-expressing tumors displayed enhanced angiogenesis and an approximately five-fold increase in tumor size relative to either control cells or those expressing AchnNLS. These data suggest that Achn enhances human breast tumor growth and vascularization, and that this activity is dependent on nuclear localization. PMID:21387291

  3. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  4. Expression of haptoglobin-related protein and its potential role as a tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, F P; Katumuluwa, A I; Pasternack, G R

    1989-01-01

    These studies describe the detection of a haptoglobin species, its characterization as the HPR gene product, and its association with both pregnancy and neoplasia. Previous work showed that the early recurrence of human breast cancer correlated with immunohistochemical staining with a commercial antiserum ostensibly directed against pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A). Use of this antiserum to guide purification of the putative antigen led to the present identification and purification of a strongly immunoreactive protein species distinct from PAPP-A that was present in the plasma of pregnant women at term. Unlike PAPP-A, a homotetramer of 200-kDa polypeptides, the immunoreactive protein consists of a light (alpha) chain (16.5 kDa) and a heavy (beta) chain (40 kDa); protein microsequencing of the beta chain showed it to be a member of the haptoglobin family. The alpha chain of this haptoglobin species differs from ordinary haptoglobin 1 and 2 alpha chains both structurally and immunologically and represents the product of the HPR gene, haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr), since (i) the apparent molecular mass is the same as that predicted for Hpr alpha chain, (ii) the peptide map differs from that of haptoglobin 1 in a manner predicted by the HPR nucleotide sequence, (iii) monospecific antibodies that react with epitopes shared by the unique alpha chain and a synthetic peptide derived from the HPR nucleotide sequence do not detect these epitopes in either haptoglobin 1 or 2, and (iv) sequences of alpha-chain peptides were consistent with this identification, excluding haptoglobin 1 but not haptoglobin 2. The immunohistochemical reactivity of antibodies raised to the synthetic Hpr peptide is similar to that of anti-PAPP-A. Moreover, staining of neoplastic breast tissue is abolished by preincubation with purified Hpr. Images PMID:2465547

  5. Identification of antigenic proteins associated with trichloroethylene-induced autoimmune disease by serological proteome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianjun; Xing Xiumei; Huang Haiyan; Jiang Yingzhi; He Haowei; Xu Xinyun; Yuan Jianhui; Zhou Li; Yang Linqing; Zhuang Zhixiong

    2009-11-01

    Although many studies indicated that trichloroethylene (TCE) could induce autoimmune diseases and some protein adducts were detected, the proteins were not identified and mechanisms remain unknown. To screen and identify autoantigens which might be involved in TCE-induced autoimmune diseases, three groups of sera were collected from healthy donors (I), patients suffering from TCE-induced exfoliative dermatitis (ED) (II), and the healed ones (III). Serological proteome analysis (SERPA) was performed with total proteins of TCE-treated L-02 liver cells as antigen sources and immunoglobins of the above sera as probes. Highly immunogenic spots (2-fold or above increase compared with group I) in group II and III were submitted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. Western blot analysis was followed using commercial antibodies and individual serum. Six proteins were identified. Among them, Enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase peroxisoma 1 and lactate dehydrogenase B only showed stronger immunogenicity for group II sera, while Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, ribosomal protein P0 and proteasome activator subunit1 isoform1 also showed stronger immunogenicity for group III sera. Noteworthy, NM23 reacted only with group II sera. Western blot analysis of NM23 expression indicated that all of the individual serum of group II showed immune activity, which confirmed the validity of SERPA result. These findings revealed that there exist autoantibodies in group II and III sera. Besides, autoantibodies of the two stages of disease course were different. These autoantigens might serve as biomarkers to elucidate mechanisms underlying TCE toxicity and are helpful for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of TCE-induced autoimmune diseases.

  6. Expression of haptoglobin-related protein and its potential role as a tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, F P; Katumuluwa, A I; Pasternack, G R

    1989-02-01

    These studies describe the detection of a haptoglobin species, its characterization as the HPR gene product, and its association with both pregnancy and neoplasia. Previous work showed that the early recurrence of human breast cancer correlated with immunohistochemical staining with a commercial antiserum ostensibly directed against pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A). Use of this antiserum to guide purification of the putative antigen led to the present identification and purification of a strongly immunoreactive protein species distinct from PAPP-A that was present in the plasma of pregnant women at term. Unlike PAPP-A, a homotetramer of 200-kDa polypeptides, the immunoreactive protein consists of a light (alpha) chain (16.5 kDa) and a heavy (beta) chain (40 kDa); protein microsequencing of the beta chain showed it to be a member of the haptoglobin family. The alpha chain of this haptoglobin species differs from ordinary haptoglobin 1 and 2 alpha chains both structurally and immunologically and represents the product of the HPR gene, haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr), since (i) the apparent molecular mass is the same as that predicted for Hpr alpha chain, (ii) the peptide map differs from that of haptoglobin 1 in a manner predicted by the HPR nucleotide sequence, (iii) monospecific antibodies that react with epitopes shared by the unique alpha chain and a synthetic peptide derived from the HPR nucleotide sequence do not detect these epitopes in either haptoglobin 1 or 2, and (iv) sequences of alpha-chain peptides were consistent with this identification, excluding haptoglobin 1 but not haptoglobin 2. The immunohistochemical reactivity of antibodies raised to the synthetic Hpr peptide is similar to that of anti-PAPP-A. Moreover, staining of neoplastic breast tissue is abolished by preincubation with purified Hpr. PMID:2465547

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens: Structure and serology of multivalent human mucin MUC1-HIV V3 chimeric proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, J.D.; Gatewood, J.M.; Mariappan, S.V.S.

    1995-01-03

    Molecular modeling and two-dimensional NMR techniques enable us to identify structural features in the third variable region (V3) loop of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surface glycoprotein gp120, in particular the principal neutralizing determinant (PND), that remain conserved despite the sequence variation. The conserved structure of the PND is a solvent-accessible protruding motif or a knob, structurally isomorphous with the immunodominant knobs in the tandem repeat protein of human mucin 1 (MUC1) (a tumor antigen for breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer). We have replaced the mucin antigenic knobs by the PND knobs of the HIV MN isolate in a set of chimeric human MUC1/HIV V3 antigens. This produced multivalent HIV antigens in which PNDs are located at regular intervals and separated by extended mucin spacers. In this article we show by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy that the multivalent antigens preserve the PNDs in their native structure. We also demonstrate by ELISA that the antigens correctly present the PNDs for binding to monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antisera from HIV-infected patients. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Tumor antigen delivered by Salmonella III secretion protein fused with heat shock protein 70 induces protection and eradication against murine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangying; Zhou, Ping; Cai, Jianguo; Yang, Guimei; Liang, Shenghua; Ren, Daming

    2010-12-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium possess the ability to stimulate innate immune responses and preferentially allocate within the solid tumor. These two main characteristics make attenuated Salmonella one of the most attractive vehicles for development of vaccine and also targeted cancer therapies. However, location of Salmonella prevents the process of antigen presentation. Salmonella Type III secretion system can be utilized to circumvent this problem because this system secretes the protein it encoded outside the cells. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is referred to as an "immunochaperone" for its capacity to elicit tumor-specific adaptive immune responses in the form of Hsp70-TAA (tumor associated antigen) complex. Hsp70 facilitates the cross-presentation of exogenous antigens through its receptor on antigen-presenting cells and therefore activates an antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, which can directly contribute to potent anti-tumor immunity. Here, we designed a novel therapeutic vaccine utilizing the type III secretion system and Hsp70 to deliver and present the tumor-specific antigen. This live recombinant bacteria vaccine, when administrated orally, successfully broke the immune tolerance, induced a specific CTL response against tumor cells, and therefore revealed protective and therapeutic effects against generation and growth of B16F10 melanoma in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20880334

  9. THE BABESIA BOVIS MEROZOITE SURFACE ANTIGEN 2 LOCUS CONTAINS FOUR TANDEMLY ARRANGED AND EXPRESSED GENES ENCODING IMMUNOLOGICALLY DISTINCT PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the variable merozoite surface antigen (vmsa) gene family of Babesia bovis encode membrane proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion. In this study, we have identified and sequenced the complete 8.3-kb genomic locus containing msa-2, a member of the vmsa family, in the biologically cloned...

  10. Alphavirus Replicon DNA Expressing HIV Antigens Is an Excellent Prime for Boosting with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) or with HIV gp140 Protein Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Maria L.; Ljungberg, Karl; Tatoud, Roger; Weber, Jonathan; Esteban, Mariano; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination with DNA is an attractive strategy for induction of pathogen-specific T cells and antibodies. Studies in humans have shown that DNA vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity needs further improvement. As a step towards this goal, we have previously demonstrated that immunogenicity is increased with the use of an alphavirus DNA-launched replicon (DREP) vector compared to conventional DNA vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effect of varying the dose and number of administrations of DREP when given as a prime prior to a heterologous boost with poxvirus vector (MVA) and/or HIV gp140 protein formulated in glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA-AF) adjuvant. The DREP and MVA vaccine constructs encoded Env and a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein from HIV clade C. One to three administrations of 0.2 μg DREP induced lower HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses than the equivalent number of immunizations with 10 μg DREP. However, the two doses were equally efficient as a priming component in a heterologous prime-boost regimen. The magnitude of immune responses depended on the number of priming immunizations rather than the dose. A single low dose of DREP prior to a heterologous boost resulted in greatly increased immune responses compared to MVA or protein antigen alone, demonstrating that a mere 0.2 μg DREP was sufficient for priming immune responses. Following a DREP prime, T cell responses were expanded greatly by an MVA boost, and IgG responses were also expanded when boosted with protein antigen. When MVA and protein were administered simultaneously following multiple DREP primes, responses were slightly compromised compared to administering them sequentially. In conclusion, we have demonstrated efficient priming of HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses with a low dose of DREP, and shown that the priming effect depends on number of primes administered rather than dose. PMID:25643354

  11. Heat Shock Protein-90 Inhibitors Enhance Antigen Expression on Melanomas and Increase T Cell Recognition of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Timothy J.; Dunn, Ian S.; Rose, Lenora B.; Newton, Estelle E.; Pandolfi, Franco; Kurnick, James T.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to enhance antigen-specific T cell recognition of cancer cells, we have examined numerous modulators of antigen-expression. In this report we demonstrate that twelve different Hsp90 inhibitors (iHsp90) share the ability to increase the expression of differentiation antigens and MHC Class I antigens. These iHsp90 are active in several molecular and cellular assays on a series of tumor cell lines, including eleven human melanomas, a murine B16 melanoma, and two human glioma-derived cell lines. Intra-cytoplasmic antibody staining showed that all of the tested iHsp90 increased expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and TRP-2, as well as MHC Class I. The gliomas showed enhanced gp100 and MHC staining. Quantitative analysis of mRNA levels showed a parallel increase in message transcription, and a reporter assay shows induction of promoter activity for Melan-A/MART-1 gene. In addition, iHsp90 increased recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for Melan-A/MART-1. In contrast to direct Hsp90 client proteins, the increased levels of full-length differentiation antigens that result from iHsp90 treatment are most likely the result of transcriptional activation of their encoding genes. In combination, these results suggest that iHsp90 improve recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for a melanoma-associated antigen as a result of increasing the expressed intracellular antigen pool available for processing and presentation by MHC Class I, along with increased levels of MHC Class I itself. As these Hsp90 inhibitors do not interfere with T cell function, they could have potential for use in immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:25503774

  12. Protein Array Profiling of Tic Patient Sera Reveals a Broad Range and Enhanced Immune Response against Group A Streptococcus Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Bombaci, Mauro; Grifantini, Renata; Mora, Marirosa; Reguzzi, Valerio; Petracca, Roberto; Meoni, Eva; Balloni, Sergio; Zingaretti, Chiara; Falugi, Fabiana; Manetti, Andrea G. O.; Margarit, Immaculada; Musser, James M.; Cardona, Francesco; Orefici, Graziella; Grandi, Guido; Bensi, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, GAS) is widely recognized as a major cause of common pharyngitis as well as of severe invasive diseases and non-suppurative sequelae associated with the existence of GAS antigens eliciting host autoantibodies. It has been proposed that a subset of paediatric disorders characterized by tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms would exacerbate in association with relapses of GAS-associated pharyngitis. This hypothesis is however still controversial. In the attempt to shed light on the contribution of GAS infections to the onset of neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorders affecting as many as 3% of children and adolescents, we tested the antibody response of tic patient sera to a representative panel of GAS antigens. In particular, 102 recombinant proteins were spotted on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides and probed against 61 sera collected from young patients with typical tic neuropsychiatric symptoms but with no overt GAS infection. Sera from 35 children with neither tic disorder nor overt GAS infection were also analyzed. The protein recognition patterns of these two sera groups were compared with those obtained using 239 sera from children with GAS-associated pharyngitis. This comparative analysis identified 25 antigens recognized by sera of the three patient groups and 21 antigens recognized by tic and pharyngitis sera, but poorly or not recognized by sera from children without tic. Interestingly, these antigens appeared to be, in quantitative terms, more immunogenic in tic than in pharyngitis patients. Additionally, a third group of antigens appeared to be preferentially and specifically recognized by tic sera. These findings provide the first evidence that tic patient sera exhibit immunological profiles typical of individuals who elicited a broad, specific and strong immune response against GAS. This may be relevant in the context of one of the hypothesis proposing that GAS antigen-dependent induction of autoantibodies in susceptible individuals may be involved the occurrence of tic disorders. PMID:19623252

  13. The Golgi protein RCAS1 controls cell surface expression of tumor-associated O-linked glycan antigens.

    PubMed

    Engelsberg, Arne; Hermosilla, Ricardo; Karsten, Uwe; Schülein, Ralf; Dörken, Bernd; Rehm, Armin

    2003-06-20

    Tumor immunology has received a large impetus from the identification of tumor-associated antigens. Among them, a monoclonal antibody, 22.1.1, was instrumental in defining a novel tumor-associated antigen that was termed "receptor binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells" (RCAS1). RCAS1 was proposed to induce growth arrest and apoptosis on activated immune cells, mediated by a putative death receptor. Structurally, RCAS1 was predicted to exist as a type II transmembrane protein and in a soluble form. Here, we analyzed occurrence, membrane topology, and subcellular localization of the RCAS1-encoded gene product. RCAS1 was shown to be a ubiquitously expressed type III transmembrane protein with a Golgi-predominant localization. Monoclonal antibody 22.1.1 failed to recognize RCAS1, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Instead, we showed that the cognate 22.1.1 epitope is identical with the tumor-associated O-linked glycan Tn (N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, GalNAc). Overexpression of RCAS1 in cell lines that are negative for 22.1.1 surface staining led to the generation of Tn and the closely related TF (Thomsen-Friedenreich, Galbeta1-3GalNAc) antigen, thus providing a functional link to the generation of the 22.1.1 epitope. We suggest that RCAS1 modulates surface expression of tumor-associated, normally cryptic O-linked glycan structures and contributes indirectly to the antigenicity of tumor cells. PMID:12672804

  14. Sensitization to enhanced green fluorescence protein minor histocompatibility antigen by gene transduction into dendritic cells and peritoneal exudate macrophages.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Eigo; Li, Xiao-Kang; Hara, Yuhko; Ogata, Keiichi; Guo, Lei; Kitazawa, Yuhsuke; Funeshima-Fuji, Naoko; Satoh, Takashi; Miyagi, Tohko; Sugiura, Wataru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Teramoto, Kenichi; Arii, Shigeki; Kimura, Hiromitsu

    2007-11-01

    Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) has been widely applied to gene transduction in cellular and molecular biology as a reporter element. When applied to cell transplantation, it raises fundamental issues concerning cell-associated antigens, in particular, a model of minor histocompatibility antigen(s). Although it is well known that immunological behavior of minor histocompatibility antigens mimic tumor associated antigens (TAA), identified genes coding minor histocompatibility antigens are few and far between. Inasmuch as immunity and tolerance to TAA are provided by immunological behavior of minor histocompatibility antigen such as histocompatibility antigen of the Y chromosome, H-Y, it occurs to us that transgenic as well as transduced EGFP provides a useful model system to be applied to tumor immunology. In this respect, genetic modification of specialized antigen-presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC), such as gene transduction of EGFP into DC, would provide one of the most important strategies in transplantation as well as tumor immunology inasmuch as DC play a key role in initiating primary immune responses, As far as gene transduction into DC is concerned, others have reported that successful gene transduction occurs in DC by adenoviral vector systems. However, our previous studies concerning EGFP transduction into DC suggested that this view should be carefully examined and interpreted. Employing adenoviral and lentiviral vector systems as well as specialized APC of rat DC and peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM), EGFP-transduced APC were examined to determine whether and to what extent the EGFP-transduced APC were able to sensitize non-transgenic littermates against transgenic EGFP as antigen(s). Thus EGFP-transgenic cardiac isografts were transplanted to non-transgenic littermates and examined to determine if sensitization of non-transgenic littermate recipients with the EGFP-transduced APC was able to reject the test grafts in an accelerated manner. In this study, we examined this and provide further evidence that widely used viral vector systems are unable to transfer the reporter gene EGFP into mature rat DC generated from bone marrow cells (BMC), driven by Flt3/Flk2 ligand and IL-6. Nevertheless, successful gene transduction was obtained by either applying a lentiviral vector system to the developing DC progenitor cells during a long-term culture of rat BMC or by applying an adenoviral vector system to PEM. Thus, successful gene transduction into specialized APC was verified by in vivo priming of non-transgenic littermates with the EGFP-transduced APC, followed by accelerated rejection of EGFP-transgenic cardiac isografts. PMID:18005848

  15. Murine carcinoma expressing carcinoembryonic antigen-like protein is restricted by antibody against neem leaf glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Das, Arnab; Barik, Subhasis; Bose, Anamika; Roy, Soumyabrata; Biswas, Jaydip; Baral, Rathindranath; Pal, Smarajit

    2014-11-01

    We have generated a polyclonal antibody against a novel immunomodulator, neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) that can react to a specific 47 kDa subunit of NLGP. Generated anti-NLGP antibody (primarily IgG2a) was tested for its anti-tumor activity in murine carcinoma (EC, CT-26), sarcoma (S180) and melanoma (B16Mel) tumor models. Surprisingly, tumor growth restriction was only observed in CT-26 carcinoma models, without any alteration in other tumor systems. Comparative examination of antigenicity between four different tumor models revealed high expression of CEA-like protein on the surface of CT-26 tumors. Subsequent examination of the cross-reactivity of anti-NLGP antibody with purified or cell bound CEA revealed prominent recognition of CEA by anti-NLGP antibody, as detected by ELISA, Western Blotting and immunohistochemistry. This recognition seems to be responsible for anti-tumor function of anti-NLGP antibody only on CEA-like protein expressing CT-26 tumor models, as confirmed by ADCC reaction in CEA(+) tumor systems where dependency to anti-NLGP antibody is equivalent to anti-CEA antibody. Obtained result with enormous therapeutic potential for CEA(+) tumors may be explained in view of the epitope spreading concept, however, further investigation is crucial. PMID:25128841

  16. NEDDylation in liver cancer: The regulation of the RNA binding protein Hu antigen R.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, David; Martínez-Chantar, María L

    2015-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer death. The current view of cancer progression and malignancy supports the notion that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational modification (PTM) regulation and a metabolic switch or reprogramming in order to progress in an unfriendly environment. NEDDylation is a post-translational modification of the proteins involved in several processes such as cell growth, viability and development. A ground-breaking knowledge on a new critical aspect of HCC research has been to identify that NEDDylation plays a role in HCC by regulating the liver oncogenic driver Hu antigen R (HuR). HuR is a RNA-binding protein that stabilizes target mRNAs involved in cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and survival, all well-established hallmarks of cancer. And importantly, HuR levels were found to be highly representative in liver and colon cancer. These findings open a completely new area of research, exploring the impact that NEDDylation plays in liver diseases and paving the way for novel therapeutical approaches. PMID:25841271

  17. Mass Spectrometry of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptidomes Reveals Strong Effects of Protein Abundance and Turnover on Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Bassani-Sternberg, Michal; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    HLA class I molecules reflect the health state of cells to cytotoxic T cells by presenting a repertoire of endogenously derived peptides. However, the extent to which the proteome shapes the peptidome is still largely unknown. Here we present a high-throughput mass-spectrometry-based workflow that allows stringent and accurate identification of thousands of such peptides and direct determination of binding motifs. Applying the workflow to seven cancer cell lines and primary cells, yielded more than 22,000 unique HLA peptides across different allelic binding specificities. By computing a score representing the HLA-I sampling density, we show a strong link between protein abundance and HLA-presentation (p < 0.0001). When analyzing overpresented proteins – those with at least fivefold higher density score than expected for their abundance – we noticed that they are degraded almost 3 h faster than similar but nonpresented proteins (top 20% abundance class; median half-life 20.8h versus 23.6h, p < 0.0001). This validates protein degradation as an important factor for HLA presentation. Ribosomal, mitochondrial respiratory chain, and nucleosomal proteins are particularly well presented. Taking a set of proteins associated with cancer, we compared the predicted immunogenicity of previously validated T-cell epitopes with other peptides from these proteins in our data set. The validated epitopes indeed tend to have higher immunogenic scores than the other detected HLA peptides. Remarkably, we identified five mutated peptides from a human colon cancer cell line, which have very recently been predicted to be HLA-I binders. Altogether, we demonstrate the usefulness of combining MS-analysis with immunogenesis prediction for identifying, ranking, and selecting peptides for therapeutic use. PMID:25576301

  18. Antigenic relationships among the porin proteins of encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae clones.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D; Hamel, J; Brodeur, B R; Musser, J M

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) specific for Haemophilus influenzae were generated to identify antigenic determinants shared among encapsulated H. influenzae clones. Sixteen MAbs reacted by Western immunoblot with a protein of an approximate molecular size of 40 kilodaltons corresponding to the P2 major outer membrane protein (porin). These MAbs also reacted with purified and recombinant H. influenzae porin. Fourteen of the MAbs recognized cell surface-exposed epitopes, and two of the MAbs, P2-16 and P2-17, identified epitopes that are not present or are not accessible on the cell surface. The reactivity spectrum of the MAb panel was studied by dot immunoassay against 32 serologically nontypeable and 119 encapsulated H. influenzae strains recovered worldwide, representing the major serotype a, b, and d clone families. MAbs P2-4 and P2-6 recognized only serotype b clones assigned to primary phylogenetic division I. These clones account for more than 99% of all invasive episodes worldwide. MAbs P2-3, P2-8, and P2-11 reacted with division I serotype b isolates and also identified all genetically allied strains expressing serotype a and d polysaccharide capsules. In contrast, none of the 16 MAbs reacted with genetically divergent serotype a or b clones assigned to primary phylogenetic division II. These results demonstrate that, in general, the patterns of P2 protein surface epitope exposure are cognate with genetic lineages of encapsulated H. influenzae strains and support the hypothesis that the population structure of encapsulated H. influenzae is predominantly clonal. Images PMID:1697600

  19. Mannosylated Mucin-Type Immunoglobulin Fusion Proteins Enhance Antigen-Specific Antibody and T Lymphocyte Responses

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tomas; Nilsson, Anki; Chatzissavidou, Nathalie; Sjöblom, Magnus; Rova, Ulrika; Holgersson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented. OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays. Immunizations with the OVA ? mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect. Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23071675

  20. Evaluation of multiple antigenic peptides based on the Chikungunya E2 protein for improved serological diagnosis of infection.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Santwana; Kumar, Pradeep; Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Parida, M M; Hoti, S L; Rao, D N

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) reemerged and numerous outbreaks were reported all over the world. After screening CHIKV-positive sera, we had already reported many dominant epitopes within the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV. In the present study, we aimed at developing a highly sensitive immunodiagnostic assay for CHIKV based on a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) approach using selective epitopes of the E2 protein. MAPs in four different E2 peptide combinations were screened with CHIKV-positive sera. The MAPs reacted with all CHIKV-positive sera and no reactivity was seen with healthy or dengue-positive sera. Our results indicate that MAP 1 seems to be an alternate antigen to full-length protein E2 for immunodiagnosis of CHIKV infections with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25412351

  1. Development and validation of an ELISA using a protein encoded by ORF2 antigenic domain of porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The capsid protein (ORF2) is a major structural protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). A simple and reliable diagnostic method based on ORF2 protein immunoreactivity would serve as a valuable diagnostic method for detecting serum antibodies to PCV2 and monitoring PCV infection. Here, we reported an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) by using an antigenic domain (113-147AA) of ORF2-encoded antigen, expressed in E. coli, for diagnosis of PCV infection. Results The ELISA was performed on 288 serum samples collected from different porcine herds and compared with an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). In total, 262 of 288 samples were positive as indicated by both I-ELISA and IFA. The specificity and sensitivity of I-ELISA were 87.7% and 93.57%. Conclusions This ELISA is suitable for detection and discrimination of PCV2 infection in both SPF and farm antisera. PMID:20958981

  2. Molecular cloning and antigenic mapping of heat-shock protein 70 from the malaria species Plasmodium bergheI.

    PubMed

    Fan, J Y; Davidson, E A

    1996-11-01

    We have isolated a 70-kD heat-shock protein (hsp-70) cDNA from Plasmodium berghei. A cDNA clone encoding the P. berghei hsp-70 was isolated and sequenced, demonstrating that it is highly homologous with other Plasmodium hsp-70s. One of the common features is a series of GGMP amino acid repeats at the carboxy terminus; there is also a long, AT-rich 5' untranslated region, a hallmark of other malarial RNAs. Hydropathy and antigenicity analyses suggest the presence of two hydrophilic domains. Recombinant peptides comprising different fragments of hsp-70 were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed for antigenicity with antiserum from mice immunized with sonicated extracts of P. berghei. Antigenic sites map to regions that include the two hydrophilic domains. PMID:8940993

  3. Structure of the C-terminal domain of AspA (antigen I/II-family) protein from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael; Nylander, Sa; Jenkinson, Howard F; Persson, Karina

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes can cause an array of diseases in humans, including moderate infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat) as well as life threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and puerperal fever. The antigen I/II family proteins are cell wall anchored adhesin proteins found on the surfaces of most oral streptococci and are involved in host colonization and biofilm formation. In the present study we have determined the crystal structure of the C2-3-domain of the antigen I/II type protein AspA from S. pyogenes M type 28. The structure was solved to 1.8 Å resolution and shows that the C2-3-domain is comprised of two structurally similar DEv-IgG motifs, designated C2 and C3, both containing a stabilizing covalent isopeptide bond. Furthermore a metal binding site is identified, containing a bound calcium ion. Despite relatively low sequence identity, interestingly, the overall structure shares high similarity to the C2-3-domains of antigen I/II proteins from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans, although certain parts of the structure exhibit distinct features. In summary this work constitutes the first step in the full structure determination of the AspA protein from S. pyogenes. PMID:24918040

  4. Engineered hepatitis B virus surface antigen L protein particles for in vivo active targeting of splenic dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Hidenori; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Jung, Joohee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Arakawa, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shun’ichi

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of adaptive T-cell responses. By capturing exogenous antigens and presenting antigen-derived peptides via major histocompatibility complex molecules to naïve T cells, DCs induce antigen-specific immune responses in vivo. In order to induce effective host immune responses, active delivery of exogenous antigens to DCs is considered important for future vaccine development. We recently generated bionanocapsules (BNCs) consisting of hepatitis B virus surface antigens that mediate stringent in vivo cell targeting and efficient endosomal escape, and after the fusion with liposomes (LP) containing therapeutic materials, the BNC-LP complexes deliver them to human liver-derived tissues in vivo. BNCs were further modified to present the immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc-interacting domain (Z domain) derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A in tandem. When mixed with IgGs, modified BNCs (ZZ-BNCs) displayed the IgG Fv regions outwardly for efficient binding to antigens in an oriented-immobilization manner. Due to the affinity of the displayed IgGs, the IgG-ZZ-BNC complexes accumulated in specific cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo. After mixing ZZ-BNCs with antibodies against DCs, we used immunocytochemistry to examine which antibodies delivered ZZ-BNCs to mouse splenic DCs following intravenous injection of the ZZ-BNCs. ZZ-BNCs displaying anti-CD11c monoclonal antibodies (?-CD11c-ZZ-BNCs) were found to accumulate with approximately 62% of splenic DCs, and reside within some of them. After the fusion with liposomes containing antigens, the ?-CD11c-ZZ-BNCs could elicit the respective antibodies more efficiently than other nontargeting control vaccines, suggesting that this DC-specific nanocarrier is promising for future vaccines. PMID:22848163

  5. Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major surface protein 5–glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA. Three hundred and eight sera with significant MBP antibody binding (=30%I) in Anaplasma negative herds was 1...

  6. Antigenic structure of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and association with cellular protein p53 on the surfaces of simian virus 40-infected and -transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M; Butel, J S

    1984-01-01

    The antigenic structure of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T-ag) in the plasma membranes of SV40-transformed mouse cells and SV40-infected monkey cells was characterized as a step toward defining possible biological function(s). Wild-type SV40, as well as a deletion mutant of SV40 (dl1263) which codes for a truncated T-ag with an altered carboxy terminus, was used to infect permissive cells. Members of a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against antigenic determinants on either the amino or the carboxy terminus of the T-ag polypeptide were able to precipitate surface T-ag (as well as nuclear T-ag) from both SV40-transformed and SV40-infected cells. Cellular protein p53 was coprecipitated with T-ag by all T-ag-reactive reagents from the surface and nucleus of SV40-transformed cells. In contrast, T-ag, but not T-ag-p53 complex, was recovered from the surface of SV40-infected cells. These results confirm that nuclear T-ag and surface T-ag are highly related molecules and that a complex of SV40 T-ag and p53 is present at the surface of SV40-transformed cells. Detectable levels of such a complex do not appear to be present on SV40-infected cells. Both the carboxy and amino termini of T-ag are exposed on the surfaces of SV40-transformed and -infected cells. The possible relevance of the presence of a T-ag-p53 complex on the surface of SV40-transformed cells and its absence from SV40-infected cells is considered. Images PMID:6205166

  7. Lamprey VLRB response to influenza virus supports universal rules of immunogenicity and antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Altman, Meghan O; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Herrin, Brantley R

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) are a crown jewel of jawed vertebrate evolution. Through recombination and mutation of small numbers of genes, Igs can specifically recognize a vast variety of natural and man-made organic molecules. Jawless vertebrates evolved a parallel system of humoral immunity, which recognizes antigens not with Ig, but with a structurally unrelated receptor called the variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB). We exploited the convergent evolution of Ig and VLRB antibodies (Abs) to investigate if intrinsic chemical features of foreign proteins determine their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Surprisingly, we find lamprey VLRB and mouse Ig responses to influenza A virus are extremely similar. Each focuses ~80% of the response on hemagglutinin (HA), mainly through recognition of the major antigenic sites in the HA globular head domain. Our findings predict basic conservation of Ab responses to protein antigens, strongly supporting the use of animal models for understanding human Ab responses to viruses and protein immunogens. PMID:26252514

  8. Antigenic Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein in Parasite Isolates of Western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Escalante, Ananías A.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly ? Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4+, and T-CD8+ cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions. PMID:21292878

  9. Naptumomab estafenatox, an engineered antibody-superantigen fusion protein with low toxicity and reduced antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Göran; Skartved, Niels-Jörgen; Wallén-Ohman, Marie; Nyhlén, Helen Carlsson; Behm, Kristina; Hedlund, Gunnar; Nederman, Thore

    2010-06-01

    Antibody-targeted superantigens have a potential to become useful drugs for tumor therapy. However, clinical practice has identified several issues that need to be addressed to optimize such molecules. On the basis of the experience from superantigen products in clinical trials, a novel tumor-targeted superantigen, naptumomab estafenatox (5T4FabV18-SEA/E-120 or ABR-217620) has been designed. Critical properties, such as tumor reactivity, therapeutic window, and seroreactivity were all improved. The engineered 5T4Fab moiety recognizes the 5T4 antigen expressed on a large number of solid tumor forms with an affinity in the order of 1 nM. The fusion protein induces T-cell mediated killing of tumor cells at concentrations around 10 pM. Compared with a construct with a wild-type superantigen, it is more potent in mediating killing of tumor cells but a 10,000-fold less active in mediating killing of MHC class II positive cells. The target epitopes for naturally occurring antibodies toward bacterial superantigens are reduced. Only large excesses of human anti-SEA antibodies neutralize the antitumor effects of the antibody-targeted superantigen. Naptumomab estafenatox induces dramatic reduction of established human tumors in Severe Combined Immunodeficient mice grafted with human lymphocytes. Thus, naptumomab estafenatox is a novel optimized tumor-targeted superantigen currently investigated in clinical trials. PMID:20463598

  10. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-02-23

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  11. One gene but different proteins and diseases: the complexity of dystonin and bullous pemphigoid antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Künzli, Kseniia; Favre, Bertrand; Chofflon, Michel; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Since the immunochemical identification of the bullous pemphigoid antigen 230 (BP230) as one of the major target autoantigens of bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 1981, our understanding of this protein has significantly increased. Cloning of its gene, development and characterization of animal models with engineered gene mutations or spontaneous mouse mutations have revealed an unexpected complexity of the gene encoding BP230. The latter, now called dystonin (DST), is composed of at least 100 exons and gives rise to three major isoforms, an epithelial, a neuronal and a muscular isoform, named BPAG1e (corresponding to the original BP230), BPAG1a and BPAG1b, respectively. The various BPAG1 isoforms play a key role in fundamental processes, such as cell adhesion, cytoskeleton organization, and cell migration. Genetic defects of BPAG1 isoforms are the culprits of epidermolysis bullosa and complex, devastating neurological diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances of our knowledge about several BPAG1 isoforms, their role in various biological processes and in human diseases. PMID:26479498

  12. Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Early Secreted Antigenic Target 6 Recombinant Protein as a Diagnostic Marker in Skin Test

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Jale; Mosavari, Nader; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Arefpajohi, Reza; Tebianian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious disease in the developing world. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test diagnoses TB using tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), but this test is incapable of distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection from bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination or an infection caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study was performed to evaluate the use of recombinant early secretory antigenic target 6 (rESAT-6), a secretory protein found only in MTB, Mycobacterium bovis, and few other mycobacterial species, as a skin marker for MTB in guinea pigs. Methods We prepared recombinant MTB ESAT-6 and evaluated its use as a specific antigen for MTB in guinea pigs. Results Our results show that the purified MTB rESAT-6 antigen is capable of inducing a positive reaction only in guinea pigs sensitized to MTB. No such reaction was observed in the animals sensitized to M. bovis, BCG vaccination, or NTM (Mycobacterium avium). Conclusion Our study results confirm that the ESAT-6 antigen is more specific to MTB infection than PPD and could be used in more specific skin tests for detection of MTB in large animals and in humans. PMID:25737829

  13. Algae as Protein Factories: Expression of a Human Antibody and the Respective Antigen in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Franziska; Lau, Julia; Klingl, Andreas; Maier, Uwe G.

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are thought to offer great potential as expression system for various industrial, therapeutic and diagnostic recombinant proteins as they combine high growth rates with all benefits of eukaryotic expression systems. Moreover, microalgae exhibit a phototrophic lifestyle like land plants, hence protein expression is fuelled by photosynthesis, which is CO2-neutral and involves only low production costs. So far, however, research on algal bioreactors for recombinant protein expression is very rare calling for further investigations in this highly promising field. In this study, we present data on the expression of a monoclonal human IgG antibody against the Hepatitis B surface protein and the respective antigen in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Antibodies are fully-assembled and functional and accumulate to 8.7% of total soluble protein, which complies with 21 mg antibody per gram algal dry weight. The Hepatitis B surface protein is functional as well and is recognized by algae-produced and commercial antibodies. PMID:22164289

  14. [Evaluation of a Rapid Antigen Detection Kit Targeting L7/L12 Ribosomal Protein for Mycoplasma pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Kuroki, Haruo; Itagaki, Tsutomu; Iwata, Satoshi; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of a rapid antigen detection assay for L7/L12 ribosomal protein (Ribotest Mycoplasma; Asahi Kasei Pharma) for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients with pneumonia and/or bronchitis; real-time PCR and the L 7/L12 antigen assays were performed with each sample. Serum was also taken from each patient, and the particle agglutination (PA) method was used to detect anti-M. pneumoniae antibody in these samples. Macrolide-resistance genes were detected and M. pneumoniae P1 protein subtyping was performed on PCR-positive samples. PCR assays were positive for 85 of 212 specimens (40.1%). Sensitivity and specificity of the L7/L12 antigen assays relative to the PCR standard were 74.1% (63/85) and 81.1% (103/127), respectively. For PCR-positive specimens with a large quantity of M. pneumoniae nucleic acid, sensitivity of the L7/L12 antigen assays seemed to be high. In PCR-positive specimens with fewer than 1.0 x 10(6) copies/mL of M. pneumoniae nucleic acid, sensitivity of the L7/L12 antigen assays seemed to be low. When the PA method was used as the standard, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the L7/L12 antigen assays were 41.7% (5/12) and 75.3% (58/77), respectively, for single serum and 60.9% (14/23) and 85.7% (18/21), respectively, for paired sera. The macrolide-resistance gene A2063G was detected in 20 of the 30 tested PCR-positive specimens (66.7%). Of these 20 A2063G-positive specimens, 13 (65.0%) were positive for the L7/L12 antigen assays. Tne numbers of M. pneumoniae P1 subtypes were as follows: types I (22), IIa(2), IIc(1), and untypable (5). The L7/L12 antigen assays gave positive results for 17 of 21 (81.0%) subtype I, 1 of 2 (50.0%) IIa, and 1 of 1(100%) IIc specimens. PMID:26552132

  15. Epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigen induces localized allergic dermatitis and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine after single exposure to aerosolized antigen in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Spergel, J M; Mizoguchi, E; Brewer, J P; Martin, T R; Bhan, A K; Geha, R S

    1998-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and its relationship to asthma remains incomplete. Herein, we describe a murine model of epicutaneous (EC) sensitization to the protein allergen, chicken egg albumin, ovalbumin (OVA), which results in a rise in total and OVA-specific serum IgE and leads to the development of a dermatitis characterized by infiltration of CD3(+) T cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils and by local expression of mRNA for the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and interferon-gamma. A single exposure of the EC sensitized mice to aerosolized OVA induced eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway hyperresponsiveness to intravenous methacholine as assessed by measurement of pulmonary dynamic compliance (Cdyn). These results suggest a possible role for EC exposure to antigen in atopic dermatitis and in the development of allergic asthma. PMID:9541491

  16. Human CD8+ herpes simplex virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones recognize diverse virion protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, M A; Koelle, D; Hartog, K; Sekulovich, R E; Corey, L; Burke, R L

    1992-01-01

    The role of the HLA class I-restricted, CD8+, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the control of human HSV infections is controversial because previous reports suggest that a substantial portion of the antigen-specific lytic response is mediated by CD4+ cells. To address this question directly, we isolated HSV-specific CD8+ CTL clones from a patient with recurrent genital herpes. These CTL were cloned by coculturing responder peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with phytohemagglutinin-stimulated PBMC that had been infected with live HSV-2 and then irradiated prior to the addition of responder cells. After 1 week, CTL were cloned by limiting dilution using phytohemagglutinin stimulation and allogeneic feeder PBMC. Seven clones were isolated; all seven clones were CD8+ CD4- CD3+ DRbright, six lysed only HSV-2-infected targets, and one lysed both HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected targets. Antigen presentation was restricted by two to three different HLA class I loci. To determine the antigens recognized by these HSV-specific CTL, target cells were infected with HSV in the presence of acyclovir, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, or cycloheximide in a series of drug block/release protocols to limit the repertoire of viral gene expression to select transcriptional classes. Five of the clones exhibited a different pattern of cytotoxicity, suggesting that each recognized a distinct HSV antigen. One of the clones appears to be directed against an immediate-early antigen; six of the clones recognize virion proteins. Five of these clones recognized internal virion proteins that could be introduced into target cells by HSV infection in the absence of virus gene expression. Antigen specificity was further tested by using vaccinia virus vectors that express glycoproteins gD2 and gB2 or the tegument protein VP16. One clone lysed vaccinia virus/gD2-infected target cells; the remaining clones did not recognize any of these gene products. The diversity of the CD8+ response from a single individual indicated that several different antigens are recognized when presented in the context of a variety of class I HLA alleles, a pattern that markedly differs from that described for another human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus. Images PMID:1310769

  17. Immune-stimulating complexes containing Quil A and protein antigen prime class I MHC-restricted T lymphocytes in vivo and are immunogenic by the oral route.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Donachie, A M; Reid, G; Jarrett, O

    1991-01-01

    Induction of all forms of protective immunity by oral immunization with subunit vaccines is an ideal goal for the development of novel vaccines, but creates several theoretical problems from the point of view of antigen processing mechanisms. We show here that incorporation of the protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) in lipophilic immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMS) induces very strong primary immune responses in mice and requires very small amounts of antigen. OVA ISCOMS were particularly efficient at stimulating T-cell-mediated immunity in vivo, including delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and potent class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic T-cell responses. Furthermore, unlike native protein, OVA in ISCOMS was immunogenic when given orally. Thus, ISCOMS seem to allow protein to enter both the endogenous and exogenous pathways of antigen processing and overcome the usual induction of tolerance after feeding antigen. ISCOMS could provide potentially useful adjuvants for the development of oral subunit vaccines. PMID:2026440

  18. Sugar-Protein Connectivity Impacts on the Immunogenicity of Site-Selective Salmonella O-Antigen Glycoconjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Giuseppe; Hu, Qi-Ying; Usera, Aimee; Robinson, Zack; Allan, Martin; Singh, Alok; Imase, Hidetomo; Cobb, Jennifer; Zhai, Huili; Quinn, Douglas; Lei, Ming; Saul, Allan; Adamo, Roberto; MacLennan, Calman A; Micoli, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    A series of glycoconjugates with defined connectivity were synthesized to investigate the impact of coupling Salmonella typhimurium O-antigen to different amino acids of CRM197 protein carrier. In particular, two novel methods for site-selective glycan conjugation were developed to obtain conjugates with single attachment site on the protein, based on chemical modification of a disulfide bond and pH-controlled transglutaminase-catalyzed modification of lysine, respectively. Importantly, conjugation at the C186-201 bond resulted in significantly higher anti O-antigen bactericidal antibody titers than coupling to K37/39, and in comparable titers to conjugates bearing a larger number of saccharides. This study demonstrates that the conjugation site plays a role in determining the immunogenicity in mice and one single attachment point may be sufficient to induce high levels of bactericidal antibodies. PMID:26350581

  19. Sugar–Protein Connectivity Impacts on the Immunogenicity of Site-Selective Salmonella O-Antigen Glycoconjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Giuseppe; Hu, Qi-Ying; Usera, Aimee; Robinson, Zack; Allan, Martin; Singh, Alok; Imase, Hidetomo; Cobb, Jennifer; Zhai, Huili; Quinn, Douglas; Lei, Ming; Saul, Allan; Adamo, Roberto; MacLennan, Calman A; Micoli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A series of glycoconjugates with defined connectivity were synthesized to investigate the impact of coupling Salmonella typhimurium O-antigen to different amino acids of CRM197 protein carrier. In particular, two novel methods for site-selective glycan conjugation were developed to obtain conjugates with single attachment site on the protein, based on chemical modification of a disulfide bond and pH-controlled transglutaminase-catalyzed modification of lysine, respectively. Importantly, conjugation at the C186-201 bond resulted in significantly higher anti O-antigen bactericidal antibody titers than coupling to K37/39, and in comparable titers to conjugates bearing a larger number of saccharides. This study demonstrates that the conjugation site plays a role in determining the immunogenicity in mice and one single attachment point may be sufficient to induce high levels of bactericidal antibodies. PMID:26350581

  20. BINDING OF ANTIGEN BY IMMUNOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Bystryn, Jean-Claude; Siskind, Gregory W.; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1973-01-01

    The binding of antigen to cells with antibody on their surface has been studied in a model system consisting of murine myeloma cells (MOPC 315) and DNP conjugates. Specific binding occurred between the DNP groups of DNP conjugates and cell surface immunoglobulin. Using this model, the binding affinities of multivalent and univalent DNP conjugates were measured directly by equilibrium-binding techniques and indirectly by displacement of bound conjugate with univalent hapten. With both approaches the multivalent conjugate was shown to bind to cells with an avidity 100–300 fold greater than the univalent hapten. Nonspecific binding of unrelated protein and repeated washing of cells was found to markedly dedecrease the specific binding of univalent conjugates, presumably because the relatively weak bonds dissociate readily. PMID:4734402

  1. Epitope mapping of the N-terminal portion of tissue transglutaminase protein antigen to identify linear epitopes in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Buccato, Patrick; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Real Fernández, Feliciana; Berti, Brunilde; Cocola, Francesco; Papini, Anna Maria; Rovero, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune mediated disease with complex and multifactorial etiology. Gluten intake triggers a composite immune response involving T-cells and B-cells and leading to the secretion of autoantibodies if a genetic predisposition is present. Untreated CD patients show high levels of circulating autoantibodies directed to different auto-antigens present in the intestinal mucosa. The most important auto-antigen is the endomysial enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG). Both IgA and IgG antibody isotypes to tTG are known, but only the IgA antibodies demonstrate the highest disease specificity and thus are considered disease biomarkers. Because the pathogenicity and exact tTG binding properties of these autoantibodies are still unclear, the characterization of tTG antigenic domains is a crucial step in understanding CD onset and the autoimmune pathogenesis. Overlapping peptide libraries can be used for epitope mapping of selected protein portions to determine antigenic fragments contributing to the immunological activity and possibly develop innovative peptide-based tools with high specificity and sensitivity for CD. We performed an epitope mapping study to characterize putative linear auto-antigenic epitopes present in the tTG N-terminal portion (1-230). A library of 23 overlapping peptides spanning tTG(1-230) was generated by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis and screened by immunoenzymatic assays employing patients' sera. The results indicate that four synthetic peptides, that is, Ac-tTG(1-15)-NH2 , Ac-tTG(41-55)-NH2 , Ac-tTG(51-65)-NH2 , and Ac-tTG(151-165)-NH2 , are recognized by IgA autoantibodies circulating in CD patients' sera. These results offer important insight on the nature of the antigen-antibody interaction. PMID:24831711

  2. Shared Antigens Between Heterologous Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Minden, Percy; McClatchy, J. Kenneth; Farr, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Sera from normal rabbits were shown to have antibodies that bound radiolabeled test antigens derived from many taxonomically unrelated bacteria. Sera from rabbits that had been immunized with sonically treated material of 12 different bacteria, including M. bovis strain BCG, had antibodies that bound not only radiolabeled homologous test antigens but also radiolabeled antigens from many unrelated bacteria. Binding by normal and immunized sera to radiolabeled test antigens was inhibited by homologous unlabeled test antigens but not by substances such as bovine serum albumin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sheep erythrocytes, and endotoxin. The broad range of shared or cross-reactivity among antigens in bacteria may explain the presence of antibodies to many bacteria in sera from normal humans and previously unimmunized experimental animals. The presence of these antibodies raises the question whether resistance to many bacterial infections may be partly due to immune mechanisms, whether cellular or humoral, that have been stimulated by unrelated bacteria. PMID:4344028

  3. Functional insights from a comparative study on the dynamics of Antigen85 proteins and MPT51 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shobana; Annaraj, David; Selvan, Anitha; Biswas, Pallavi Guha; Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Anishetty, Sharmila

    2015-12-01

    Antigen85 (Ag85) proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are mycolyl transferases that aid in cell wall biosynthesis. MPT51 (Ag85D) is closely related to Ag85 proteins. We have performed a comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of Ag85 proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) and MPT51. We observe that helix ?5, ?7-?9 loop, and N-terminal region of helix ?9 of Ag85 proteins are mobile, suggestive of lid like movement over the active site. Further, in Ag85B, we observe the proposed scooting mode of the hydrophobic gating residue Phe232. Our simulations also show a similar scooting mode for Phe232 of Ag85A and Trp158 of Ag85C. We also found aromatic residue clusters at the ends of the hydrophobic channel of Ag85 proteins, which may have functional significance. Although MPT51 lacks the tunnel, it has the aromatic clusters. The aromatic cluster region has the ability to bind trehalose. From an immunoinformatics study, a promiscuous linear epitope was identified in MPT51 which could be useful in subunit vaccine studies. Recent studies have shown that a mycobacterial protein HupB, interacts with Ag85 proteins and has a regulatory role in cell wall biogenesis, with implications in growth rate and latency. We performed molecular docking studies of HupB protein with Ag85 proteins and predicted potential sites of interaction in Ag85 proteins. The insights gained through the current study can potentially pave way for newer therapeutic interventions. Graphical Abstract Dynamics of antigen85 proteins and MPT51 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:26564147

  4. Diversity of Ehrlichia ruminantium Major Antigenic Protein 1-2 in Field Isolates and Infected Sheep?

    PubMed Central

    Barbet, Anthony F.; Byrom, Barbara; Mahan, Suman M.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins expressed from the map1 multigene family of Ehrlichia ruminantium are strongly recognized by immune T and B cells from infected animals or from animals that were infected and have recovered from heartwater disease (although still remaining infected carriers). Analogous multigene clusters also encode the immunodominant outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in other ehrlichial species. Recombinant protein analogs of the expressed genes and DNA vaccines based on the multigene clusters have been shown to induce protective immunity, although this was less effective in heterologous challenge situations, where the challenge strain major antigenic protein 1 (MAP1) sequence differed from the vaccine strain MAP1. Recent data for several ehrlichial species show differential expression of the OMPs in mammalian versus tick cell cultures and dominant expression of individual family members in each type of culture system. However, many genes in the clusters appear to be complete and functional and to generate mRNA transcripts. Recent data also suggest that there may be a low level of protein expression from many members of the multigene family, despite primary high-level expression from an individual member. A continuing puzzle, therefore, is the biological roles of the different members of these OMP multigene families. Complete genome sequences are now available for two geographically divergent strains of E. ruminantium (Caribbean and South Africa strains). Comparison of these sequences revealed amino acid sequence diversity in MAP1 (89% identity), which is known to confer protection in a mouse model and to be the multigene family member primarily expressed in mammalian cells. Surprisingly, however, the greatest sequence diversity (79% identity) was in the less-studied map1-2 gene. We investigated here whether this map1-2 diversity was a general feature of E. ruminantium in different cultured African strains and in organisms from infected sheep. Comparison of MAP1-2s revealed amino acid identities of 75 to 100% (mean of 86%), compared to 84 to 100% (mean of 89%) for MAP1s. Interestingly, MAP1-2s varied independently of MAP1s such that E. ruminantium strains with similar MAP1s had diverse MAP1-2s and vice versa. Different MAP1-2s were found in individual infected sheep. Different regions of a protein may be subjected to different evolutionary forces because of recombination and/or selection, which results in those regions not agreeing with a phylogeny deduced from the whole molecule. This appears to be true for both MAP1 and MAP1-2, where statistical likelihood methods detect heterogeneous evolutionary rates for segments of both molecules. Sera from infected cattle recognized a MAP1-2 variable-region peptide in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but less strongly and consistently than a MAP1 peptide (MAP1B). Heterologous protective immunity may depend on recognition of a complex set of varying OMP epitopes. PMID:19307215

  5. Pan-Serotype Diagnostic for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Using the Consensus Antigen of Nonstructural Protein 3B

    PubMed Central

    Van Dreumel, Alyssa K.; Michalski, Wojtek P.; McNabb, Leanne M.; Shiell, Brian J.; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B.

    2015-01-01

    An amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3B, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven FMDV serotypes are described. The amino acid consensus sequence of the 3B protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3B. The consensus 3B (c3B) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-binding protein (MBP) using a bacterial expression system and was affinity purified using amylose resin. The MBP-c3B protein was used as the antigen in the development of a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of anti-3B antibodies in bovine sera. The comparative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at 47% inhibition were estimated to be 87.22% and 93.15%, respectively. Reactivity of c3B with bovine sera representing the seven FMDV serotypes demonstrated the pan-serotype diagnostic capability of this bioreagent. The consensus antigen and competition ELISA are described here as candidates for a pan-serotype diagnostic test for FMDV infection. PMID:25788546

  6. Pan-Serotype Diagnostic for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Using the Consensus Antigen of Nonstructural Protein 3B.

    PubMed

    Van Dreumel, Alyssa K; Michalski, Wojtek P; McNabb, Leanne M; Shiell, Brian J; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Peck, Grantley R

    2015-06-01

    An amino acid consensus sequence for the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3B, including all three contiguous repeats, and its use in the development of a pan-serotype diagnostic test for all seven FMDV serotypes are described. The amino acid consensus sequence of the 3B protein was determined from a multiple-sequence alignment of 125 sequences of 3B. The consensus 3B (c3B) protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant fusion protein with maltose-binding protein (MBP) using a bacterial expression system and was affinity purified using amylose resin. The MBP-c3B protein was used as the antigen in the development of a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of anti-3B antibodies in bovine sera. The comparative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at 47% inhibition were estimated to be 87.22% and 93.15%, respectively. Reactivity of c3B with bovine sera representing the seven FMDV serotypes demonstrated the pan-serotype diagnostic capability of this bioreagent. The consensus antigen and competition ELISA are described here as candidates for a pan-serotype diagnostic test for FMDV infection. PMID:25788546

  7. Studies on antigen competition

    PubMed Central

    Brody, N. I.; Siskind, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Antigenic competition between two haptenic determinants was studied. It was shown that antigenic competition was greater if a 1- or 2-week interval is imposed between injection of the two antigens. Preimmunization with one antigen or with the carrier protein to which one hapten is coupled will decrease the effect of antigenic competition on the antibody response to that antigen or hapten and bring about a greater degree of depression of the antibody response to the second haptenic determinant. Finally, antigenic competition does not occur if the two antigens are injected so as to drain into different groups of regional lymph nodes. This is true even if a 3- or 7-day time interval is imposed between injection of the two antigens. The results are interpreted as suggesting that competition occurs at the level of the antigen `processing' or `localizing' step in the immune response. PMID:4111170

  8. Variation of expression defects in cell surface 190-kDa protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Nomura, Ryota; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus mutans, which consists of four serotypes, c, e, f, and k, possesses a 190-kDa cell surface protein antigen (PA) for initial tooth adhesion. We used Western blot analysis to determine PA expression in 750 S. mutans isolates from 150 subjects and found a significantly higher prevalence of the isolates with PA expression defects in serotypes f and k compared to serotypes c and e. Moreover, the defect patterns could be classified into three types; no PA expression on whole bacterial cells and in their supernatant samples (Type N1), PA expression mainly seen in supernatant samples (Type N2), and only low expression of PA in the samples of whole bacterial cells (Type W). The underlying reasons for the defects were mutations in the gene encoding PA as well as in the transcriptional processing of this gene for Type N1, defects in the sortase gene for Type N2, and low mRNA expression of PA for Type W. Since cellular hydrophobicity and phagocytosis susceptibility of the PA-defective isolates were significantly lower than those of the normal expression isolates, the potential implication of such defective isolates in systemic diseases involving bacteremia other than dental caries was suggested. Additionally, multilocus sequence typing was utilized to characterize S. mutans clones that represented a proportion of isolates with PA defects of 65-100%. Therefore, we described the molecular basis for variation defects in PA expression of S. mutans. Furthermore, we also emphasized the strong association between PA expression defects and serotypes f and k as well as the clonal relationships among these isolates. PMID:25792295

  9. Inhibition of T-cell antigen receptor-mediated transmembrane signaling by protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R T; Ho, S N; Barna, T J; Rusovick, K M; McKean, D J

    1988-12-01

    The murine T-lymphoma cell line LBRM-33 is known to require synergistic signals delivered through the antigen receptor (Ti-CD3) complex, together with interleukin 1 (IL-1), for activation of IL-2 gene expression and IL-2 production. Although 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was capable of replacing IL-1 as an activating stimulus under certain conditions, biologic studies indicated that TPA failed to synergize with Ti-CD3-dependent stimuli under conditions in which IL-1 was clearly active. Acute exposure to TPA and other active phorbol esters resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the increases in phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration stimulated by phytohemagglutinin or anti-Ti antibodies. TPA treatment induced no direct alteration of phospholipase C enzymatic activities in LBRM-33 cells. In contrast, both Ti-CD3 cross-linkage and TPA rapidly stimulated the phosphorylation of identical CD3 complex polypeptides, presumably via activation of protein kinase C. Exposure of LBRM-33 cells to TPA resulted in a time-dependent, partial down-regulation of surface Ti-CD3 expression. Thus, TPA treatment inhibited the responsiveness of LBRM-33 cells to Ti-CD3-dependent stimuli by inducing an early desensitization of Ti-CD3 receptors, followed by a decrease in membrane receptor expression. These studies indicate that phorbol esters deliver bidirectional signals that both inhibit Ti-CD3-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis and augment IL-2 production in LBRM-33 cells. PMID:2977423

  10. Tyrosine-phosphorylated Galectin-3 Protein Is Resistant to Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Cleavage*

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Vitaly; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Kho, Dhong Hyo; Wang, Yi; Raz, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a chimeric carbohydrate-binding protein, which interacts with cell surface carbohydrate-containing molecules and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and has been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, angiogenesis, motility, and metastasis. It is expressed in a wide range of tumor cells and is associated with tumor progression. The functions of galectin-3 are dependent on its localization and post-translational modifications such as cleavage and phosphorylation. Recently, we showed that galectin-3 Tyr-107 is phosphorylated by c-Abl; concomitantly, it was also shown that galectin-3 can be cleaved at this site by prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a chymotrypsin-like serine protease, after Tyr-107, resulting in loss of galectin-3 multivalency while preserving its carbohydrate binding activity. Galectin-3 is largely a monomer in solution but may form a homodimer by self-association through its carbohydrate recognition domain, whereas, in the presence of a ligand, galectin-3 polymerizes up to pentamers utilizing its N-terminal domain. Oligomerization is a unique feature of secreted galectin-3, which allows its function by forming ordered galectin-glycan structures, i.e. lattices, on the cell surface or through direct engagement of specific cell surface glycoconjugates by traditional ligand-receptor binding. We questioned whether Tyr-107 phosphorylation by c-Abl affects galectin-3 cleavage by PSA. The data suggest a role for galectin-3 in prostate cells associated with increased activity of c-Abl kinase and loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) activity. In addition, the ratio of phosphorylated/dephosphorylated galectin-3 might be used as a complementary value to that of PSA for prognosis of prostate cancer and a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:22232548

  11. Animal cooperation among unrelated individuals.

    PubMed

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    2002-12-01

    The evolution of cooperation has long been a topic near and dear to the hearts of behavioral and evolutionary ecologists. Cooperative behaviors run the gamut from fairly simple to very complicated and there are a myriad of ways to study cooperation. Here I shall focus on three paths that have been delineated in the study of intraspecific cooperation among unrelated individuals: reciprocity, byproduct mutualism, and group selection. In each case, I attempt to delineate the theory underlying each of these paths and then provide examples from the empirical literature. In addition, I shall briefly touch upon some recent work that has attempted to examine (or re-examine) the role of cognition and phylogeny in the study of cooperative behavior. While empirical and theoretical work has made significant strides in the name of better understanding the evolution and maintenance of cooperative behavior in animals, much work remains for the future. "From the point of view of the moralist, the animal world is on about the same level as the gladiator's show. The creatures are fairly well treated, and set to fight; whereby the strongest, the swiftest and the cunningest live to fight another day. The spectator has no need to turn his thumb down, as no quarter is given em leader the weakest and the stupidest went to the wall, while the toughest and the shrewdest, those who were best fitted to cope with their circumstances, but not the best in any other way, survived. Life was a continuous free fight, and em leader a war of each against all was the normal state of existence." (Huxley 1888) PMID:12536274

  12. A computational method for identification of vaccine targets from protein regions of conserved human leukocyte antigen binding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational methods for T cell-based vaccine target discovery focus on selection of highly conserved peptides identified across pathogen variants, followed by prediction of their binding of human leukocyte antigen molecules. However, experimental studies have shown that T cells often target diverse regions in highly variable viral pathogens and this diversity may need to be addressed through redefinition of suitable peptide targets. Methods We have developed a method for antigen assessment and target selection for polyvalent vaccines, with which we identified immune epitopes from variable regions, where all variants bind HLA. These regions, although variable, can thus be considered stable in terms of HLA binding and represent valuable vaccine targets. Results We applied this method to predict CD8+ T-cell targets in influenza A H7N9 hemagglutinin and significantly increased the number of potential vaccine targets compared to the number of targets discovered using the traditional approach where low-frequency peptides are excluded. Conclusions We developed a webserver with an intuitive visualization scheme for summarizing the T cell-based antigenic potential of any given protein or proteome using human leukocyte antigen binding predictions and made a web-accessible software implementation freely available at http://met-hilab.cbs.dtu.dk/blockcons/. PMID:26679766

  13. Studies of the antibody-dependent killing of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni employing haptenic target antigens. I. Evidence that the loss in susceptibility to immune damage undergone by developing schistosomula involves a change unrelated to the masking of parasite antigens by host molecules

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for coupling a hapten, trinitrophenyl (TNP), to the surface of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni which results in a minimal loss in their viability as judged by morphological examination in vitro and survival after injection in vivo. Skin-stage (3-h-old) and lung-stage (5-d-old) schistosomula surface labeled in this manner were then compared for their susceptibility to killing by anti-TNP antibody- dependent effector mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. TNP skin-stage larvae were readily rejected in mice actively immunized against TNP bovine gamma globulin and were highly susceptible to anti-TNP-dependent killing mediated either by complement or purified human eosinophils in vitro. In contrast, TNP-lung-stage schistosomula, which were shown by microfluorimetry to bind anti-TNP antibody to approximately the same extent as skin-stage schistosomula, were found to be resistant to killing by the same in vivo and in vitro mechanisms. These findings suggest that the insusceptibility of postskin-stage schistosomula to antibody-dependent killing must result at least in part from an intrinsic structural change in the integument of the parasite and cannot be caused solely by the masking of parasite antigens by acquired host molecules, a mechanism of immune evasion previously proposed for schistosomes. PMID:7400756

  14. Biochemical activities of T-antigen proteins encoded by simian virus 40 A gene deletion mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R; Peden, K; Pipas, J M; Nathans, D; Tjian, R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed T antigens produced by a set of simian virus 40 (SV40) A gene deletion mutants for ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Virus stocks of nonviable SV40 A gene deletion mutants were established in SV40-transformed monkey COS cells. Mutant T antigens were produced in mutant virus-infected CV1 cells. The structures of the mutant T antigens were characterized by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies directed against distinct regions of the T-antigen molecule. T antigens in crude extracts prepared from cells infected with 10 different mutants were immobilized on polyacrylamide beads with monoclonal antibodies, quantified by Coomassie blue staining, and then assayed directly for T antigen-specific ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Our results indicate that the T antigen coding sequences required for origin binding map between 0.54 and 0.35 map units on the SV40 genome. In contrast, sequences closer to the C terminus of T antigen (between 0.24 and 0.20 map units) are required for ATPase activity. The presence of the ATPase activity correlated closely with the ability of the mutant viruses to replicate and to transform nonpermissive cells. The origin binding activity was retained, however, by three mutants that lacked these two functions, indicating that this activity is not sufficient to support either cellular transformation or viral replication. Neither the ATPase activity nor the origin binding activity correlated with the ability of the mutant DNA to activate silent rRNA genes or host cell DNA synthesis. Images PMID:6300658

  15. Local and systemic immune responses induced by a recombinant chimeric protein containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTB.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Fisch, Andressa; Gomes, Charles K; Jorge, Sérgio; Galli, Vanessa; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Dellagostin, Odir; Conceição, Fabricio R

    2014-09-17

    A multi-antigen chimera composed of three antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (R1, P42, and NrdF) and the mucosal adjuvant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was constructed, and its antigenic and immunogenic properties were evaluated in mice and pigs. In addition, we compared the effect of the fusion and co-administration of these proteins in mice. Antibodies against each subunit recognized the chimeric protein. Intranasal and intramuscular immunization of mice with the chimeric protein significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in the serum and tracheobronchial lavages, respectively, against some of the antigens present in the chimeric. Swine immunized with the chimeric protein developed an immune response against all M. hyopneumoniae antigens present in the fusion with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The adjuvant rLTB enhanced the immune response in both fused and co-administered antigens; however, better results were obtained with the chimeric protein. This multi-antigen is a promising vaccine candidate that may help control M. hyopneumoniae infection. PMID:25091529

  16. [Isolation and identification in Senegal of the most immunogenic protein soluble antigen of a Clostridium chauvoei strain].

    PubMed

    Mbengue, M B

    2008-02-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the pathogenic agent for blackleg, a toxinfection disease in bovine and small ruminants, always lethal and involving considerable economic losses. Some bacteriological, biochemical, immunological studies permitted to isolate identify the major soluble antigenic protein of this bacteria. It's a protein fragment of 70 kDa weight, the 19 fraction, excreted by the bacteria in a suitable culture medium. The 19 fraction of extracellular medium leads to antibodies production on guinea pigs revealed by the ELISA/antibody test. PMID:18431995

  17. Phosphate starvation enhances expression of the immunodominant 38-kilodalton protein antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: demonstration by immunogold electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Espitia, C; Elinos, M; Hernández-Pando, R; Mancilla, R

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an enriched Proskauer-Beck-Youmans culture medium in the presence and in the absence of phosphate salts. Immunoblot analysis of sonic extracts showed overexpression of the 38-kDa protein antigen by bacilli grown in the medium without phosphate. These observations were confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy, which showed that the number of gold particles was significantly higher in bacilli grown in medium without phosphate than in bacilli grown in medium with phosphate. The 38-kDa protein was located mainly in the wall and on the cell surface. Images PMID:1612766

  18. The IgM antigen receptor of B lymphocytes is associated with prohibitin and a prohibitin-related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, M; Kim, K M; Adachi, T; Nielsen, P J; Reth, M; Köhler, G; Lamers, M C

    1994-01-01

    The two major classes of antigen receptors on murine B lymphocytes, mIgM and mIgD, are both contained in a complex with two additional molecules, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which permit signal transduction. Accordingly, early biochemical events after antigen binding to either receptor are similar; biological effects, however, are different. Here, we describe three newly discovered intracellular proteins of 32, 37 and 41 kDa molecular mass, that are non-covalently associated with mIgM, but not with mIgD. These proteins coprecipitate with mIgM in Triton X-100 and Nonidet P-40, but not in digitonin lysates. In addition, mIgM is to some extent associated with 29 and 31 kDa proteins that are predominantly associated with mIgD (see accompanying paper). Amino acid sequencing of p32 and p37 identified p32 as mouse prohibitin; this was corroborated by Western blot analysis with antibodies specific for rat prohibitin. p37 is a newly discovered protein. cDNA clones for both proteins were isolated and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of p32 is identical to that of rat prohibitin. p37 is highly homologous to p32. Since prohibitin was identified as an inhibitor of cell proliferation, its association with mIgM, but not mIgD, could explain the different biological events elicited after engagement of each receptor. Images PMID:8070406

  19. Immune responses of a chimaeric protein vaccine containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens and LTB against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana B; Sácristan, Rubén Del Pozo; Michiels, Annelies; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Maes, Dominiek

    2014-08-01

    A recombinant chimaeric protein containing three Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens (C-terminal portion of P97, heat shock protein P42, and NrdF) fused to an adjuvant, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB), was used to immunize pigs against enzootic pneumonia. The systemic and local immune responses, as well as the efficacy of the chimaeric protein in inducing protection against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection were evaluated. In total, 60 male piglets, purchased from a M. hyopneumoniae-free herd, at 4 weeks of age were randomly allocated to six different experimental groups of 10 animals each: recombinant chimaeric protein by intramuscular (IM) (1) or intranasal (IN) (2) administration, commercial bacterin by IM administration (3), and the adjuvant LTB by IM (4, control group A) or IN (5, control group B) administration. All groups were immunized at 24 and 38 days of age and challenged at 52 days of age. The sixth group that was not challenged was used as the negative control (IN [n=5] or IM [n=5] administration of the LTB adjuvant). Compared with the non-challenged group, administration of the chimaeric protein induced significant (P<0.05) IgG and IgA responses against all individual antigens present in the chimaera, but it could not confer a significant protection against M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs. This lack of effectiveness points towards the need for further studies to improve the efficacy of this subunit-based vaccine approach. PMID:24909331

  20. Brucella abortus Omp19 recombinant protein subcutaneously co-delivered with an antigen enhances antigen-specific T helper 1 memory responses and induces protection against parasite challenge.

    PubMed

    Coria, Lorena M; Ibañez, Andrés E; Pasquevich, Karina A; Cobiello, Paula L González; Frank, Fernanda M; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana

    2016-01-20

    The discovery of effective adjuvants for many vaccines especially those with limited commercial appeal, such as vaccines to poverty-related diseases, is required. In this work, we demonstrated that subcutaneous co-administration of mice with the outer membrane protein U-Omp19 from Brucella spp. plus OVA as antigen (Ag) increases Ag-specific T cell proliferation and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses in vitro and in vivo. U-Omp19 treated dendritic cells promote IFN-? production by specific CD4(+) T cells and increases T cell proliferation. U-Omp19 co-administration induces the production of Ag specific effector memory T cell populations (CD4(+) CD44(high) CD62L(low) T cells). Finally, subcutaneous co-administration of U-Omp19 with Trypanosoma cruzi Ags confers protection against virulent parasite challenge, reducing parasitemia and weight loss while increasing mice survival. These results indicate that the bacterial protein U-Omp19 when delivered subcutaneously could be a suitable component of vaccine formulations against infectious diseases requiring Th1 immune responses. PMID:26707377

  1. Molecular characterization and antigenic properties of a novel Babesia gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (BgGARP).

    PubMed

    Mousa, Ahmed Abdelmoniem; Cao, Shinuo; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; El Kirdasy, Ahmed; Salama, Akram; Attia, Mabrouk; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Zhou, Mo; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Masatani, Tatsunori; El Aziz, Sami Ahmed Abd; Moussa, Waheed Mohammed; Chahan, Bayin; Fukumoto, Shinya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; El Ballal, Salah Sayed; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-10-01

    Identification and molecular characterization of Babesia gibsoni proteins with potential antigenic properties are crucial for the development and validation of the serodiagnostic method. In this study, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel B. gibsoni 76-kDa protein by immunoscreening of the parasite cDNA library. Computer analysis revealed that the protein presents a glutamic acid-rich region in the C-terminal. Therefore, the protein was designated as B. gibsoni glutamic acid-rich protein (BgGARP). A BLASTp analysis of a translated BgGARP polypeptide demonstrated that the peptide shared a significant homology with a 200-kDa protein of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. A truncated BgGARP cDNA (BgGARPt) encoding a predicted 13-kDa peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and mouse antisera against the recombinant protein were used to characterize a corresponding native protein. The antiserum against recombinant BgGARPt (rBgGARPt) recognized a 140-kDa protein in the lysate of infected erythrocytes, which was detectable in the cytoplasm of the parasites by confocal microscopic observation. In addition, the specificity and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with rBgGARPt were evaluated using B. gibsoni-infected dog sera and specific pathogen-free (SPF) dog sera. Moreover, 107 serum samples from dogs clinically diagnosed with babesiosis were examined using ELISA with rBgGARPt. The results showed that 86 (80.4%) samples were positive by rBgGARPt-ELISA, which was comparable to IFAT and PCR as reference test. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BgGARP is a suitable serodiagnostic antigen for detecting antibodies against B. gibsoni in dogs. PMID:23968686

  2. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA) gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, S.; Das, B.K.; Kapil, A.; Sood, S.; Chaudhry, R.; Gupta, S.; Deb, M.; Nair, D.; Aneja, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP) FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA) gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR) when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world. PMID:25758575

  3. Ultrastructural, protein composition, and antigenic comparison of psittacine beak and feather disease virus purified from four genera of psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, B W; Niagro, F D; Latimer, K S; Lukert, P D; Steffens, W L; Rakich, P M; Pritchard, N

    1990-04-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus, was purified from diseased tissues of a lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea), a black palm cockatoo (Probosiger aterrimus), a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis), and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). The histopathology of diseased feathers and follicular epithelium from the different species was compared; basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the follicular epithelium and intracytoplasmic globular inclusions were observed within macrophages located in the feather pulp from the four species. Psittacine beak and feather disease virus antigen was specifically detected by colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy. The different preparations of purified virions displayed an icosahedral symmetry, were non-enveloped, and had a mean diameter that varied from 12 to 15 nm when negatively stained. Two major viral-associated proteins with approximate molecular weights of 26 and 23 kilodaltons (kd) were consistently demonstrated from the four viral preparations. Purified virions from the four genera were antigenically related. These findings suggest that the PBFD virus purified from numerous genera of diseased birds is similar based on ultrastructural characteristics, protein composition and antigenic reactivity. PMID:2338723

  4. Spike Protein VP8* of Human Rotavirus Recognizes Histo-Blood Group Antigens in a Type-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Wei, Chao; Wang, Leyi; Morrow, Ardythe

    2012-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs), an important cause of severe diarrhea in children, have been found to recognize sialic acid as receptors for host cell attachment. While a few animal RVs (of P[1], P[2], P[3], and P[7]) are sialidase sensitive, human RVs and the majority of animal RVs are sialidase insensitive. In this study, we demonstrated that the surface spike protein VP8* of the major P genotypes of human RVs interacts with the secretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Strains of the P[4] and P[8] genotypes shared reactivity with the common antigens of Lewis b (Leb) and H type 1, while strains of the P[6] genotype bound the H type 1 antigen only. The bindings between recombinant VP8* and human saliva, milk, or synthetic HBGA oligosaccharides were demonstrated, which was confirmed by blockade of the bindings by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Leb and/or H type 1. In addition, specific binding activities were observed when triple-layered particles of a P[8] (Wa) RV were tested. Our results suggest that the spike protein VP8* of RVs is involved in the recognition of human HBGAs that may function as ligands or receptors for RV attachment to host cells. PMID:22345472

  5. Identification of a meiosis-specific protein as a member of the class of cancer/testis antigens

    PubMed Central

    Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur; Zwick, Carsten; Koslowski, Michael; Seitz, Gerhard; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the function of human cancer/testis antigens (CTAs), such as MAGE, BAGE, GAGE, HOM-MEL-40, and NY-ESO-1, the expression of which is restricted to human malignancies and testis. When screening a cDNA expression library enriched for testis-specific representative long transcripts for reactivity with high-titered IgG antibodies from the serum of a patient with renal cell carcinoma, one repeatedly detected antigen, designated HOM-TES-14, turned out to be encoded by the synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SCP-1) gene. SCP-1 is known to be selectively expressed during the meiotic prophase of spermatocytes and is involved in the pairing of homologous chromosomes, an essential step for the generation of haploid cells in meiosis I. Investigation of a broad spectrum of normal and malignant tissues revealed expression of SCP-1 transcripts and antigen selectively in a variety of neoplastic tissues and tumor cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis with specific antiserum showed a cell cycle phase-independent nuclear expression of SCP-1 protein in cancer cells. SCP-1 differs from other members of the class of CTA by its localization on chromosome 1 and its frequent expression in malignant gliomas, breast, renal cell, and ovarian cancer. The aberrant expression of SCP-1 in tumors might contribute to their genomic instability and suggests that the functional role of other CTA might also relate to meiosis. PMID:9560255

  6. Immune response mediated by liposome-associated protein antigens. I. Potentiation of the plaque-forming cell response.

    PubMed

    Shek, P N; Sabiston, B H

    1982-02-01

    Mice, immunized with liposome-associated bovine serum albumin (LSM-BSA), showed a significantly higher BSA-specific plaque-forming cell (PFC) response than did mice injected with fluid BSA (fBSA). Physical association between the liposome carrier and the protein antigen is imperative for potentiating the PFC response, since the injection of empty liposomes, together with fBSA, was found to be ineffective in inducing an immune response. Liposome-associated protein antigen was found to be a potent stimulator of immunological memory, as demonstrated by the ability of LSM-BSA primed animals to generate a vigorous PFC response upon challenge with the weakly immunogenic fBSA. The injection of congenitally athymic homozygous nude (Nu/Nu) mice with LSM-BSA failed to induce significant antibody formation, whereas the heterozygous (Nu/+) littermates gave a normal PFC response to the same LSM-BSA preparation. Thus, BSA remains a T-cell-dependent antigen, despite its entrapment within liposomes, and T lymphocytes appear to play an obligatory role in providing synergistic interactions for eliciting a BSA-specific PFC response to the LSM-BSA. PMID:7037620

  7. Structural and antigenic variation of the structural protein VP3 in serotype 1 poliovirus isolated from vaccinees.

    PubMed

    Cash, P

    1988-06-01

    High resolution two-dimensional PAGE was used to analyse protein variation among serotype 1 poliovirus isolates. Viruses isolated from patients with recent histories of vaccination with live attenuated poliovirus were compared with prototype serotype 1 poliovaccine. The nonvaccine Mahoney and Brunenders strains of serotype 1 poliovirus were also analysed. The overall protein profile was conserved but the structural protein VP3 varied in its net charge among the viruses. Eight out of 14 clinical virus isolates had VP3 with a net basic charge identical to serotype 1 polio vaccine, whereas the remaining clinical isolates had an acidic VP3 similar to the nonvaccine type 1 strains. The altered VP3 mobility correlated with a change in antigenicity as determined by monoclonal antibodies directed to the neutralization site located on VP3. The data clearly illustrated the suitability of two-dimensional PAGE in analysing protein mutations in attenuated vaccine virus excreted by vaccinees. PMID:2849500

  8. Neurofibrillary tangles in some cases of dementia pugilistica share antigens with amyloid beta-protein of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, D.; Haga, S.; Bruton, C.; Ishii, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded temporal lobe sections from eight former boxers' brains were examined using an immunohistochemical method with antibodies to amyloid beta protein. In accord with recent observations in Alzheimer's disease, significant numbers of beta-protein immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were observed in three cases. Most of these immunoreactive NFTs appeared to be tombstone tangles, although not all such tangles were stained. This immunoreaction was completely abolished by preincubation of antibodies with synthetic beta-protein peptides, and the identity of the immunostained NFTs was confirmed by polarization microscopy of sections counterstained with Congo red. However, it is not yet clear if the beta-protein antigens are, in fact, an integral part of paired helical filaments. These observations, together with our recent finding of beta-immunoreactive plaque-like lesions in dementia pugilistica, also emphasize the many similarities in pathology between this condition and Alzheimer's disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:2407121

  9. Engineered topographic determinants with alpha beta, beta alpha beta, and beta alpha beta alpha topologies show high affinity binding to native protein antigen (lactate dehydrogenase-C4).

    PubMed

    Kobs-Conrad, S; Lee, H; DiGeorge, A M; Kaumaya, P T

    1993-12-01

    The use of peptides has attracted much interest in the development of synthetic vaccines. Although our current understanding of peptide antigens as immunogens has been greatly advanced recently, there still remain many obstacles. The B cell response elicited by a peptide antigen is governed by a number of poorly understood events such as epitope structure, T cell dependency and major histocompatibility complex restriction, adjuvancy, route of immunization, and immunogen stability. In this paper, we extend our previous studies on the problem of the topographical nature of antigenic sites on native protein antigens, in terms of how much molecular mimicry must be maintained in an antigenic determinant for the induction of high affinity antibodies specific for native protein. We show here that an antigenic epitope from the model contraceptive vaccine candidate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) can be rationally engineered into a highly structured conformation that mimics the corresponding site in the native three-dimensional protein. Our strategy is based on the selection of an antigenic segment which exhibits certain secondary structural properties and by design principles is fixed in three dimensions by appropriate grafting onto a supersecondary structural motif such as alpha beta, beta alpha beta, or beta alpha beta alpha. The biophysical data are consistent with the proposed secondary structures, and antibodies raised to the various construct show high affinity for the native protein. These studies lend further credence to the conformational nature of peptide epitopes and provide a basis for the rational design of peptide vaccines. PMID:8244959

  10. [Study of the antigenic structure of hepatitis B virus proteins. I. Synthesis of pre-S fragments of hepatitis B virus proteins and their immunogenicity].

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, D E; Il'ina, A V; Andreev, S M; Sokolenko, A A; Pavlikov, S P; Pumpen, P; Novikov, M A

    1990-02-01

    Fragments of hepatitis B virus envelope proteins corresponding to the parts of the pre-S domain were synthesised and immobilized on the carriers with low own immunogenicity. The highest stimulation of the antibody production was observed for the antigens immobilized on microspherical carriers or gelatin modified by H-Gly-Tyr-OH. Among peptides used for immunization, pre-S fragment 134-144, conjugated with microspherical carrier, proved to be the most active. PMID:2344383

  11. Characteristics of carbohydrate antigen binding to the presentation protein HLA-DR

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Brian A; Kasper, Dennis L

    2008-01-01

    Zwitterionic polysaccharide antigens (ZPSs) were recently shown to activate T cells in a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII)-dependent fashion requiring antigen presenting cell (APC)-mediated oxidative processing although little is known about the mechanism or affinity of carbohydrate presentation (Cobb BA, Wang Q, Tzianabos AO, Kasper DL. 2004. Polysaccharide processing and presentation by the MHCII pathway. Cell. 117:677–687). A recent study showed that the helical conformation of ZPSs (Wang Y, Kalka-Moll WM, Roehrl MH, Kasper DL. 2000. Structural basis of the abscess-modulating polysaccharide A2 from Bacteroides fragilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 97:13478–13483; Choi YH, Roehrl MH, Kasper DL, Wang JY. 2002. A unique structural pattern shared by T-cell-activating and abscess-regulating zwitterionic polysaccharides. Biochemistry. 41:15144–15151) is closely linked with immunogenic activity (Tzianabos AO, Onderdonk AB, Rosner B, Cisneros RL, Kasper DL. 1993. Structural features of polysaccharides that induce intra-abdominal abscesses. Science. 262:416–419) and is stabilized by a zwitterionic charge motif (Kreisman LS, Friedman JH, Neaga A, Cobb BA. 2007. Structure and function relations with a T-cell-activating polysaccharide antigen using circular dichroism. Glycobiology. 17:46–55), suggesting a strong carbohydrate structure–function relationship. In this study, we show that PSA, the ZPS from Bacteroides fragilis, associates with MHCII at high affinity and 1:1 stoichiometry through a mechanism mirroring peptide presentation. Interestingly, PSA binding was mutually exclusive with common MHCII antigens and showed significant allelic differences in binding affinity. The antigen exchange factor HLA-DM that catalyzes peptide antigen association with MHCII also increased the rate of ZPS association and was required for APC presentation and ZPS-mediated T cell activation. Finally, the zwitterionic nature of these antigens was required only for MHCII binding, and not endocytosis, processing, or vesicular trafficking to MHCII-containing vesicles. This report is the first quantitative analysis of the binding mechanism of carbohydrate antigens with MHCII and leads to a novel model for nontraditional MHCII antigen presentation during bacterial infections. PMID:18525076

  12. Well-known surface and extracellular antigens of pathogenic microorganisms among the immunodominant proteins of the infectious microalgae Prototheca zopfii

    PubMed Central

    Irrgang, Alexandra; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Weise, Christoph; Azab, Walid; Roesler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P.) are associated with rare but severe infections (protothecosis) and represent a potential zoonotic risk. Genotype (GT) 2 of P. zopfii has been established as pathogenic agent for humans, dogs, and cattle, whereas GT1 is considered to be non-pathogenic. Since pathogenesis is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to determine immunogenic proteins and potential virulence factors of P. zopfii GT2. Therefore, 2D western blot analyses with sera and isolates of two dogs naturally infected with P. zopfii GT2 have been performed. Cross-reactivity was determined by including the type strains of P. zopfii GT2, P. zopfii GT1, and P. blaschkeae, a close relative of P. zopfii, which is known to cause subclinical forms of bovine mastitis. The sera showed a high strain-, genotype-, and species-cross-reactivity. A total of 198 immunogenic proteins have been analyzed via MALDI—TOF MS. The majority of the 86 identified proteins are intracellularly located (e.g., malate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase) but some antigens and potential virulence factors, known from other pathogens, have been found (e.g., phosphomannomutase, triosephosphate isomerase). One genotype-specific antigen could be identified as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a well-known antigen of eukaryotic pathogens with immunological importance when located extracellularly. Both sera were reactive to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase of all investigated strains. This house-keeping enzyme is found to be located on the surface of several pathogens as virulence factor. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed its presence on the surface of P. blaschkeae. PMID:26484314

  13. Human and guinea pig immune responses to Legionella pneumophila protein antigens OmpS and Hsp60.

    PubMed Central

    Weeratna, R; Stamler, D A; Edelstein, P H; Ripley, M; Marrie, T; Hoskin, D; Hoffman, P S

    1994-01-01

    We studied the immune responses of guinea pigs and humans to two Legionella pneumophila antigens. Guinea pigs surviving a lethal intraperitoneal challenge dose of virulent L. pneumophila exhibited strong cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified OmpS (28-kDa major outer membrane protein) and Hsp60 (heat shock protein or common antigen), while weak DTH reactions were noted for extracellular protease (major secretory protein [MSP] [ProA]) and no reaction was observed with an ovalbumin (OA) control. Lymphocyte proliferation responses (LPRs) were measured for peripheral blood and spleen lymphocytes from guinea pigs surviving sublethal and lethal challenge doses of L. pneumophila. Lymphocytes from uninfected animals showed no proliferation to Hsp60 or OmpS, while lymphocytes from sublethally and lethally challenged animals exhibited strong proliferative responses to Hsp60 and OmpS. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified OmpS exhibited low antibody titers and strong DTH and LPRs to OmpS, whereas lymphocytes from animals vaccinated with Hsp60 exhibited weak DTH responses and high antibody titers to Hsp60. All guinea pigs immunized with OmpS survived experimental challenge with L. pneumophila (two of two in a pilot study and seven of seven in trial 2) versus zero of seven OA-immunized controls (P = 0.006 by Fisher's exact test). In three vaccine trials in which animals were vaccinated with Hsp60, only 1 guinea pig of 15 survived lethal challenge. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from humans with legionellosis showed stronger LPRs to OmpS than PBLs from humans with no history of legionellosis (P = 0.0002 by Mann-Whitney test). PBLs of humans surviving legionellosis exhibited a lower but highly significant proliferative response to Hsp60 (P < 0.0001 compared with controls by Mann-Whitney test). These studies indicate that OmpS and Hsp60 are important antigens associated with the development of protective cellular immunity. However, as determined in vaccine trial studies in the guinea pig model for legionellosis, the species-specific antigen OmpS proved much more effective than the genus-common Hsp60 antigen. PMID:7913699

  14. Computational Identification of Antigenicity-Associated Sites in the Hemagglutinin Protein of A/H1N1 Seasonal Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoning; Shen, Xiping; Gao, Wenlong; Li, Juansheng

    2015-01-01

    The antigenic variability of influenza viruses has always made influenza vaccine development challenging. The punctuated nature of antigenic drift of influenza virus suggests that a relatively small number of genetic changes or combinations of genetic changes may drive changes in antigenic phenotype. The present study aimed to identify antigenicity-associated sites in the hemagglutinin protein of A/H1N1 seasonal influenza virus using computational approaches. Random Forest Regression (RFR) and Support Vector Regression based on Recursive Feature Elimination (SVR-RFE) were applied to H1N1 seasonal influenza viruses and used to analyze the associations between amino acid changes in the HA1 polypeptide and antigenic variation based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay data. Twenty-three and twenty antigenicity-associated sites were identified by RFR and SVR-RFE, respectively, by considering the joint effects of amino acid residues on antigenic drift. Our proposed approaches were further validated with the H3N2 dataset. The prediction models developed in this study can quantitatively predict antigenic differences with high prediction accuracy based only on HA1 sequences. Application of the study results can increase understanding of H1N1 seasonal influenza virus antigenic evolution and accelerate the selection of vaccine strains. PMID:25978416

  15. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 87-Kilodalton Antigen, a Heat Shock Protein Useful in Diagnosis: Characterization, Purification, and Detection in Biopsy Material via Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Soraya; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Restrepo, Angela; Hay, Rod J.; Hamilton, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    The 87-kDa antigen derived from the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can be detected in the sera of infected patients, and its levels have been shown to correlate well with response to treatment and with clinical cure. Despite its potential importance, the antigen has been poorly characterized. The 87-kDa antigen was purified to homogeneity via preparative gel electrophoresis; N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed substantial homology with heat shock proteins (hsps) from a variety of organisms. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against a Histoplasma capsulatum 80-kDa hsp showed cross-reactivity to the purified 87-kDa antigen via Western blotting, and the 87-kDa-specific MAb P1B demonstrated that the antigen was expressed at higher levels in yeast than in mycelia by the same technique. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence reactivity using P1B confirmed increased expression of the 87-kDa antigen during the temperature-induced transformation of mycelia to yeast. Yeast-to-mycelium transformation was accompanied by a fall in expression, although the 87-kDa antigen was clearly constitutively expressed in both phases. Immunochemical staining of tissues from patients with MAb P1B who were infected with P. brasiliensis confirmed in vivo expression of the 87-kDa antigen by yeasts, and identification of this antigen via this method appears to be a useful adjunct to other methods used to diagnose paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:11825942

  16. Comparison of colorimetric assays with quantitative amino acid analysis for protein quantification of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Interfering assays using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard with quantitative amino acid (AA) analysis, the most accurate currently available method for protein quantification. The Lowry assay has the lowest inter- and intra-assay variation and gives the best linearity between protein amount and absorbance. In all three assays, the color yield (optical density per mass of protein) of GMMA was markedly different from that of BSA with a ratio of approximately 4 for the Bradford assay, and highly variable between different GMMA; and approximately 0.7 for the Lowry and Non-Interfering assays, highlighting the need for calibrating the standard used in the colorimetric assay against GMMA quantified by AA analysis. In terms of a combination of ease, reproducibility, and proportionality of protein measurement, and comparability between samples, the Lowry assay was superior to Bradford and Non-Interfering assays for GMMA quantification. PMID:25223624

  17. Alteration of the antibody response to Escherichia coli O antigen in mice by prior exposure to various somatic antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, S; Holmgren, J

    1975-01-01

    In the present study in mice we used the Jerne plaque assay to compare the immunity enhancing potential of different Gram-negative bacteria with special regard to their endotoxin. The results confirm the recent finding that injection of Escherichia coli bacteria of various serotypes may enhance the IgG antibody response to the O antigen of a serologically unrelated E. coli strain injected subsequently, but may suppress the IgM antibody formation. The O antibodies formed were of low avidity but were antigen specific. Smaller amounts of antibodies were formed to a serologically unrelated antigen, E. coli O76, which had not been injected. Of the strains tested as primary stimuli E. coli O4 gave considerably greater enhancement than any other serotype including the homologous E. coli O6, when a short interval between the injections was used. The influence of O4 on the serologically unrelated anti-O6 response was stronger than on the response to the cross-reactive E. coli O18 antigen, suggesting that O antigen cross-reactivity is not the basis for the immunomodulation. Formalin-killed bacteria were more effective in this respect than boiled bacteria or purified lipopolysaccharide and rough mutants (E. coli R1--R4) and E. coli O4 were less effective than many of the other smooth E. coli. These findings suggest that shared determinants in the lipid, basic carbohydrate core or Kunin common antigen portions of the endotoxin do not play the major immunomodulating role in this system. Salmonella reading but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa affected the anti-E. coli O6 response in a similar manner. One explanation for the alterations in the immune response observed implies the presence of an antigen determinant shared by many Enterobacteriaceae in such a position in relation to the O antigen that it can be utilized for cellular co-operative events in the O antibody response. The protein portion of the endotoxin protein--lipid--carbohydrate complex is a possible location. PMID:51829

  18. A single Cys sup 706 to Phe substitution in the retinoblastoma protein causes the loss of binding to SV40 T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Bignon, Y.J.; Jinyuh Shew; Lee, E.Y.H.P.; Schnier, J.; Wenhwa Lee ); Rappolee, D. ); Naylor, S.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Most naturally occurring mutants of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein contain large deletions or truncations. The small cell lung carcinoma cell line H209 contains a normal-sized but unphosphorylated RB protein, which fails to form a complex with SV40 T antigen, suggesting that the RB gene of H209 may contain a subtle mutation. To define this mutation, the RB complementary DNA and genomic DNA were sequenced, revealing a point mutation in exon 21 that changed a G to a T. This results in an amino acid substitution of a Phe for Cys{sup 706}. The mutant RB complementary DNA was used as a template for in vitro transcription and translation to synthesize the mutated protein. The resulting protein failed to bind to SV40 T antigen, demonstrating that a single missense mutation of the RB gene led to the complete inactivation of the ability of the RB protein to bind T antigen.

  19. Murine Monoclonal Antibodies for Antigenic Discrimination of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sealy, Robert E.; Jones, Bart G.; Surman, Sherri L.; Branum, Kristen; Howlett, Nanna M.; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the influenza virus field, antibody reagents from research animals have been instrumental in the characterization of antigenically distinct hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane molecules. These small animal reagents continue to support the selection of components for inclusion in human influenza virus vaccines. Other cocktail vaccines against variant pathogens (e.g., polio virus, pneumococcus) are similarly designed to represent variant antigens, as defined by antibody reactivity patterns. However, a vaccine cocktail comprising diverse viral membrane antigens defined in this way has not yet been advanced to a clinical efficacy study in the HIV-1 field. In this study, we describe the preparation of mouse antibodies specific for HIV-1 gp140 or gp120 envelope molecules. Our experiments generated renewable reagents able to discriminate HIV-1 envelopes from one another. Monoclonals yielded more precise discriminatory capacity against their respective immunogens than did a small panel of polyclonal human sera derived from recently HIV-1-infected patients. Perhaps these and other antibody reagents will ultimately support high-throughput cartography studies with which antigenically-distinct envelope immunogens may be formulated into a successful HIV-1 envelope cocktail vaccine. PMID:26544795

  20. Murine Monoclonal Antibodies for Antigenic Discrimination of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sealy, Robert E; Jones, Bart G; Surman, Sherri L; Branum, Kristen; Howlett, Nanna M; Flynn, Patricia M; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-01-01

    In the influenza virus field, antibody reagents from research animals have been instrumental in the characterization of antigenically distinct hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane molecules. These small animal reagents continue to support the selection of components for inclusion in human influenza virus vaccines. Other cocktail vaccines against variant pathogens (e.g., polio virus, pneumococcus) are similarly designed to represent variant antigens, as defined by antibody reactivity patterns. However, a vaccine cocktail comprising diverse viral membrane antigens defined in this way has not yet been advanced to a clinical efficacy study in the HIV-1 field. In this study, we describe the preparation of mouse antibodies specific for HIV-1 gp140 or gp120 envelope molecules. Our experiments generated renewable reagents able to discriminate HIV-1 envelopes from one another. Monoclonals yielded more precise discriminatory capacity against their respective immunogens than did a small panel of polyclonal human sera derived from recently HIV-1-infected patients. Perhaps these and other antibody reagents will ultimately support high-throughput cartography studies with which antigenically-distinct envelope immunogens may be formulated into a successful HIV-1 envelope cocktail vaccine. PMID:26544795

  1. Proteomics reveals differences in protein abundance and highly similar antigenic profiles between Besnoitia besnoiti and Besnoitia tarandi.

    PubMed

    García-Lunar, P; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M; Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Alvarez-García, G

    2014-10-15

    Besnoitia besnoiti and Besnoitia tarandi are two cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites of the genus Besnoitia. B. besnoiti uses cattle as an intermediate host, in which it causes a disease that progresses in two sequential phases: the acute anasarca stage and the chronic scleroderma stage. Reindeer and caribou act as intermediate hosts for B. tarandi, which causes clinical signs similar to those caused by B. besnoiti. Previous studies demonstrated high molecular similarity, as determined by 18S and ITS-1 RNA sequences, between these Besnoitia spp., and strong serological cross-reactivity between these species has recently been demonstrated. Thus, a difference gel electrophoresis approach and mass spectrometry analysis were used to describe the proteomes and explore differences in protein abundance between B. besnoiti and B. tarandi in tachyzoite extracts. Immunoproteomes were also compared using 2-DE immunoblotting with polyclonal sera from experimentally infected rabbits. From approximately 1400 spots detected in DIGE-gels, 28 and 29 spots were differentially abundant in B. besnoiti and B. tarandi tachyzoites, respectively (± 1.5-fold, p<0.05). Four and 13 spots were exclusively detected in B. besnoiti and B. tarandi, respectively. Of the 32 differentially abundant spots analyzed by MALDI-TOF/MS, 6 up-regulated B. besnoiti proteins (LDH; HSP90; purine nucleoside phosphorylase and 3 hypothetical proteins) and 6 up-regulated B. tarandi proteins (G3PDH; LDH; PDI; mRNA decapping protein and 2 hypothetical proteins) were identified. Interestingly, no specific antigen spots were recognized by sera on any of the Besnoitia species studied and a similar antigen profile has been observed for B. tarandi and B. besnoiti sera when cross reactions were studied. This fact corroborates the difficulty in discerning Besnoitia infections using current serological assays. The present study underscores the importance of sequencing the B. besnoiti genome for species diversity studies of the genus Besnoitia. PMID:25260331

  2. Partial Purification of Integral Membrane Antigenic Proteins from Trypanosoma evansi That Display Immunological Cross-Reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Norma P.; Camargo, Rocío E.; Uzcanga, Graciela L.; Bubis, José

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax, which are the major causative agents of animal trypanosomosis in Venezuela, have shown a very high immunological cross-reactivity. Since the production of T. vivax antigens is a limiting factor as this parasite is difficult to propagate in experimental animal models, our goal has been to identify and isolate antigens from T. evansi that cross-react with T. vivax. Here, we used the Venezuelan T. evansi TEVA1 isolate to prepare the total parasite lysate and its corresponding cytosolic and membranous fractions. In order to extract the T. evansi integral membrane proteins, the particulate portion was further extracted first with Triton X-100, and then with sodium dodecyl sulfate. After discarding the cytosolic and Triton X-100 solubilized proteins, we employed sedimentation by centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients to partially purify the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized proteins from the Triton X-100 resistant particulate fraction of T. evansi. We obtained enriched pools containing polypeptide bands with apparent molecular masses of 27?kDa, 31?kDa, and 53?kDa, which were recognized by anti-T. vivax antibodies from experimentally and naturally infected bovines. PMID:24757558

  3. [A comparative analysis of various antigenic proteins found in Haemonchus contortus--a review].

    PubMed

    Tak, I R; Dar, J S; Dar, S A; Ganai, B A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F

    2015-01-01

    Many innovative researches on the development and introduction of recombinant vaccines against many economically important parasites were carried out in the 20th century. Research continues to hold promise with the development of immunological and molecular approaches for control of these parasites and in this regard it has already been seen that blood-sucking parasites such as Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia ostertagi are susceptible to control by vaccines containing "novel" or "concealed" antigens. Haemonchus contortus is primarily pathogenic to sheep and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to mortality in young animals. Current means of control which are dependent on repeated treatment with anthelmintics are responsible for the increasing drug resistance of this parasite. Together with the growing concern of residual chemicals in the environment and food chain, this has led to attempts to better understand the biology of the parasite with an aim to develop alternate means of control, including the development of molecular vaccines. More problematic and also important is the formulation and delivery strategy to induce expulsion of this parasite, using vaccines containing recombinant "conventional" antigens. Tremendous progress has been made in the last decade in identifying several antigens from Haemonchus contortus which in their native form stimulate useful levels of protective immunity. Vaccines have been developed against H. contortus using 'novel' gut antigens from the parasite, but variable responsiveness of the host sheep has resulted in varying degrees of protection which are stimulated by these vaccines. Computer models have also been used to simulate vaccine efficacy in worm control and have yielded good results. This review will try to summarise the protective efficacy and also the molecular properties of principal candidate antigens which are expressed by this parasite. The review will try to cover the aspirations, current success, limitations and problems faced by researchers in the control of this economically important parasite. PMID:26710767

  4. The expression and antigenicity of a truncated spike-nucleocapsid fusion protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Feng; Niu, Dongsheng; Mu, Jingsong; He, Bo; Han, Weiguo; Fan, Baoxing; Huang, Shengyong; Qiu, Yan; You, Bo; Chen, Weijun

    2008-01-01

    Background In the absence of effective drugs, controlling SARS relies on the rapid identification of cases and appropriate management of the close contacts, or effective vaccines for SARS. Therefore, developing specific and sensitive laboratory tests for SARS as well as effective vaccines are necessary for national authorities. Results Genes encoding truncated nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARSCoV were cloned into the expression vector pQE30 and fusionally expressed in Escherichia coli M15. The fusion protein was analyzed for reactivity with SARS patients' sera and with anti-sera against the two human coronaviruses HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43 by ELISA, IFA and immunoblot assays. Furthermore, to evaluate the antigen-specific humoral antibody and T-cell responses in mice, the fusion protein was injected into 6-week-old BALB/c mice and a neutralization test as well as a T-cell analysis was performed. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of immunization, BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with SARSCoV at day 33 post injection and viral loads were determined by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Serological results showed that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated S-N fusion protein derived the SARS virus were > 99% (457/460) and 100.00% (650/650), respectively. Furthermore there was no cross-reactivity with other two human coronaviruses. High titers of antibodies to SRASCoV appeared in the immunized mice and the neutralization test showed that antibodies to the fusion protein could inhibit SARSCoV. The T cell proliferation showed that the fusion protein could induce an antigen-specific T-cell response. Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed that BALB/c mice challenged intranasally with SARSCoV at day 33 post injection were completely protected from virus replication. Conclusion The truncated S-N fusion protein is a suitable immunodiagnostic antigen and vaccine candidate. PMID:19038059

  5. Identification of immunoreactive antigens of human papillomavirus type 6b by using Escherichia coli-expressed fusion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, S A; Firzlaff, J M; Langenberg, A; Galloway, D A

    1988-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPVs) infect the genital epithelium and are found in proliferative lesions ranging from benign condylomata to invasive carcinomas. The immunological response to these infections is poorly understood because of the lack of purified viral antigens. In this study, bacterially derived fusion proteins expressing segments of all the major open reading frames (ORFs) of HPV type 6b (HPV-6b) have been used in Western blot (immunoblot) assays to detect antibodies directed against HPV-encoded proteins. The most striking reactivities present in sera from patients with genital warts were to the HPV-6b L1 ORF protein and, to a lesser extent, to the HPV-6b L2 ORF protein. Two cases of reactivity to HPV-6b E2 ORF were observed, but no reactivities were seen with other HPV-6b constructs. Two sera reacted with the HPV-16 L2 fusion protein, and two sera reacted with the HPV-16 E4 protein. The antibodies directed against the HPV-6b fusion proteins showed no cross-reactivity with comparable regions of the HPV-16 ORFs. This assay provides a useful approach for further studies of HPV serology. Images PMID:2835513

  6. Delivery of heterologous protein antigens via hemolysin or autotransporter systems by an attenuated ler mutant of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengru; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Yang, Zhuolu; Mao, Ying; Hackethal, Veronica L; Greco, Karla M; Choy, Wendy; Davis, Katherine; Butterton, Joan R; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we describe the use of an attenuated regulatory mutant of a rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (rEPEC) as a live vaccine vector to deliver heterologous protein antigens using two dedicated transport systems, a Salmonella autotransporter and the E. coli hemolysin apparatus. We previously reported that an isogeneic ler (LEE encoded regulator) mutant of rEPEC O103:H2 is attenuated and immunogenic in rabbits. We first evaluated the Salmonella autotransporter MisL containing the immunodominant B-cell epitope of the circumsporozoite protein from Plasmodium falciparum, (NANP)8, fused to the C-terminal translocator domain under the control of the constitutive Tac17 promoter. The rEPEC ler mutant was able to express and to translocate the (NANP)8 passenger peptide to the bacterial surface. We next investigated the delivery of Shiga toxin B subunit (Stx1B) from human enterohemorrhagic E. coli by the rEPEC ler mutant via the MisL autotransporter or the E. coli hemolysin secretion apparatus. The autotransporter and hemolysin plasmids expressed similar levels of Stx1B (30-40 ng/ml/OD600). Only 6% of Stx1B was found in the autotransporter supernatants; the rest was cell-associated, with a small fraction of the Stx1B surface-exposed as determined by immunofluorescence. In contrast, 88% of Stx1B was secreted into culture supernatants by the hemolysin secretion system. In an in vivo study, no significant protection was observed in rabbits inoculated with the ler mutant harboring the Stx1B-autotransporter plasmid following experimental challenge with RDEC-H19A, the prototype rEPEC containing an Stx-converting phage. In contrast, rabbits inoculated with the rEPEC ler mutant containing the Stx1B-hemolysin fusion were partially protected from RDEC-H19A infection as demonstrated by decreased weight loss (p<0.008) when compared to rabbits inoculated with the parent ler mutant. Our results suggest that attenuated rEPEC are capable of serving as vaccine vectors to express heterologous protein antigens from different cellular locations and deliver these antigens to the intestinal mucosa. With this system, secreted proteins may be more effective than cell-associated antigens in generating protection. PMID:16098637

  7. Exemptions from Unrelated Business Tax: Rental Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George E.

    1975-01-01

    Section 512(b) of the Internal Revenue Code contains several categorical exemptions from the unrelated business tax including rental income. The article covers various problems faced by nonprofit organizations such as parochial schools in leasing or selling property. (LBH)

  8. Coordinated trans activation of DNA synthesis- and precursor-producing enzymes by polyomavirus large T antigen through interaction with the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mudrak, I; Ogris, E; Rotheneder, H; Wintersberger, E

    1994-01-01

    Previously constructed Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts producing polyomavirus large T antigen after addition of dexamethasone were used to study the transcriptional activation by the viral protein of five genes coding for enzymes involved in DNA synthesis and precursor production, namely, dihydrofolate reductase, thymidine kinase, thymidylate synthase, DNA polymerase alpha, and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen. It was found that all these genes, whose expression is stimulated at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle after growth stimulation by serum addition, are coordinately trans activated when T antigen is induced in cells previously growth arrested by serum withdrawal. Cell lines carrying the information for a mutant form of large T antigen, in which a glutamic acid residue in the binding site for the retinoblastoma protein was changed into aspartic acid, were constructed to test the involvement of an interaction of T antigen with the retinoblastoma protein in this reaction. It was found that the mutated T protein is incapable of stimulating transcription of any one of the genes. The promoter of three of the genes (dihydrofolate reductase, thymidine kinase, and DNA polymerase alpha) unequivocally carries binding sites for transcription factor E2F, suggesting that complexes forming with this growth- and cell cycle-regulating transcription factor are the targets for T antigen. Although there is so far no evidence that thymidylate synthase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are regulated via E2F, our data indicate that the retinoblastoma protein still is involved in the control of these genes. mRNA for E2F itself increases in amount at the G1/S border in serum-stimulated cells but not during polyomavirus T antigen-induced transcriptional activation of DNA synthesis enzymes in arrested cells. Images PMID:7906859

  9. Identification of a common antigenic site in the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Casal, J I; Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Plana-Duran, J; Sanz, A

    1998-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N protein genes from two PRRSV isolates Olot/91 (European) and Quebec 807/94 (North American) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was dissected using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E.coli. Three antigenic sites were found. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues, respectively. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50 to 66). This hydrophillic region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin. However, since this epitope is not recognized by many pig sera, it is not adequate for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire N protein. PMID:9782317

  10. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Biffar, Lucia; Hammer, Sabine E.; Kvisgaard, Lise K.; Larsen, Lars E.; Stewart, Graham R.; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Steinbach, Falko; Graham, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress toward market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralizing antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell-mediated immunity plays a key role. Therefore, we hypothesized that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely related (subtype 1) or divergent (subtype 3) PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-γ responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5), and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M) protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by coexpression of TNF-α and mobilization of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved among strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus, M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens, which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development. PMID:26909080

  11. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Biffar, Lucia; Hammer, Sabine E; Kvisgaard, Lise K; Larsen, Lars E; Stewart, Graham R; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Steinbach, Falko; Graham, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress toward market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralizing antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell-mediated immunity plays a key role. Therefore, we hypothesized that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely related (subtype 1) or divergent (subtype 3) PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-? responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5), and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M) protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by coexpression of TNF-? and mobilization of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved among strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus, M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens, which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development. PMID:26909080

  12. Chemically modified inulin microparticles serving dual function as a protein antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Gallovic, Matthew D; Montjoy, Douglas G; Collier, Michael A; Do, Clement; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2016-02-23

    To develop a new subunit vaccine adjuvant, we chemically modified a naturally-occurring, immunostimulatory inulin polysaccharide to produce an acid-sensitive biopolymer (acetalated inulin, Ace-IN). Various hydrophobic Ace-IN polymers were formed into microparticles (MPs) by oil-in-water emulsions followed by solvent evaporation These Ace-IN MPs possessed tunable degradation characteristics that, unlike polyesters used in FDA-approved microparticulate formulations, had only pH-neutral hydrolytic byproducts. Macrophages were passively targeted with cytocompatible Ace-IN MPs. TNF-α production by macrophages treated with Ace-IN MPs could be altered by adjusting the polymers' chemistry. Mice immunized with Ace-IN MPs encapsulating a model ovalbumin (OVA) antigen showed higher production of anti-OVA IgG antibody levels relative to soluble antigen. The antibody titers were also comparable to an alum-based formulation. This proof-of-concept establishes the potential for chemically-modified inulin MPs to simultaneously enable dual functionality as a stimuli-controlled antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant. PMID:26753184

  13. Heat-shock protein 70 as a tumor antigen for in vitro dendritic cell pulsing in renal cell carcinoma cases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Dong; Sui, Cheng-Guang; Tian, Xin; Li, Yan; Yang, Chun-Ming; Ma, Ping; Liu, Yun-Peng; Jiang, You-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Immunological functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) have long been recognized. In this study we aimed to efficiently purify HSP70 from renal cell carcinoma and test it as a tumor antigen for pulsing dendritic cells in vitro. HSP70 was purified from renal cell carcinoma specimens by serial column chromatography on Con A-sepharose, PD-10, ADP-agarose and DEAE-cellulose, and finally subjected to fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Dendritic cells derived from the adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF and exposed to tumor HSP70. After 24 hours, dendritic cells were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. T cells obtained from the non-adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then co-cultured with HSP70-pulsed dendritic cells and after 3 days T cell cytotoxicity towards primary cultured renal cell carcinoma cells was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Dendritic cells pulsed in vitro with tumor-derived HSP70 expressed higher levels of CD83, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR maturation markers than those pulsed with tumor cell lysate and comparable to that of dendritic cells pulsed with tumor cell lysate plus TNF-?. Concomitantly, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes induced by HSP70-pulsed dendritic cells presented the highest cytotoxic activity. There were no significant differences when using homologous or autologous HSP70 as the tumor antigen. HSP70 can be efficiently purified by chromatography and induces in vitro dendritic cell maturation in the absence of TNF-?. Conspecific HSP70 may effectively be used as a tumor antigen to pulse dendritic cells in vitro. PMID:25374234

  14. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen Chen, Fulin

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  15. Inferring epitopes of a polymorphic antigen amidst broadly cross-reactive antibodies using protein microarrays: a study of OspC proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Baum, Elisabeth; Randall, Arlo Z; Zeller, Michael; Barbour, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Epitope mapping studies aim to identify the binding sites of antibody-antigen interactions to enhance the development of vaccines, diagnostics and immunotherapeutic compounds. However, mapping is a laborious process employing time- and resource-consuming 'wet bench' techniques or epitope prediction software that are still in their infancy. For polymorphic antigens, another challenge is characterizing cross-reactivity between epitopes, teasing out distinctions between broadly cross-reactive responses, limited cross-reactions among variants and the truly type-specific responses. A refined understanding of cross-reactive antibody binding could guide the selection of the most informative subsets of variants for diagnostics and multivalent subunit vaccines. We explored the antibody binding reactivity of sera from human patients and Peromyscus leucopus rodents infected with Borrelia burgdorferi to the polymorphic outer surface protein C (OspC), an attractive candidate antigen for vaccine and improved diagnostics for Lyme disease. We constructed a protein microarray displaying 23 natural variants of OspC and quantified the degree of cross-reactive antibody binding between all pairs of variants, using Pearson correlation calculated on the reactivity values using three independent transforms of the raw data: (1) logarithmic, (2) rank, and (3) binary indicators. We observed that the global amino acid sequence identity between OspC pairs was a poor predictor of cross-reactive antibody binding. Then we asked if specific regions of the protein would better explain the observed cross-reactive binding and performed in silico screening of the linear sequence and 3-dimensional structure of OspC. This analysis pointed to residues 179 through 188 the fifth C-terminal helix of the structure as a major determinant of type-specific cross-reactive antibody binding. We developed bioinformatics methods to systematically analyze the relationship between local sequence/structure variation and cross-reactive antibody binding patterns among variants of a polymorphic antigen, and this method can be applied to other polymorphic antigens for which immune response data is available for multiple variants. PMID:23826301

  16. Inferring Epitopes of a Polymorphic Antigen Amidst Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Using Protein Microarrays: A Study of OspC Proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Michael; Barbour, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Epitope mapping studies aim to identify the binding sites of antibody-antigen interactions to enhance the development of vaccines, diagnostics and immunotherapeutic compounds. However, mapping is a laborious process employing time- and resource-consuming ‘wet bench’ techniques or epitope prediction software that are still in their infancy. For polymorphic antigens, another challenge is characterizing cross-reactivity between epitopes, teasing out distinctions between broadly cross-reactive responses, limited cross-reactions among variants and the truly type-specific responses. A refined understanding of cross-reactive antibody binding could guide the selection of the most informative subsets of variants for diagnostics and multivalent subunit vaccines. We explored the antibody binding reactivity of sera from human patients and Peromyscus leucopus rodents infected with Borrelia burgdorferi to the polymorphic outer surface protein C (OspC), an attractive candidate antigen for vaccine and improved diagnostics for Lyme disease. We constructed a protein microarray displaying 23 natural variants of OspC and quantified the degree of cross-reactive antibody binding between all pairs of variants, using Pearson correlation calculated on the reactivity values using three independent transforms of the raw data: (1) logarithmic, (2) rank, and (3) binary indicators. We observed that the global amino acid sequence identity between OspC pairs was a poor predictor of cross-reactive antibody binding. Then we asked if specific regions of the protein would better explain the observed cross-reactive binding and performed in silico screening of the linear sequence and 3-dimensional structure of OspC. This analysis pointed to residues 179 through 188 the fifth C-terminal helix of the structure as a major determinant of type-specific cross-reactive antibody binding. We developed bioinformatics methods to systematically analyze the relationship between local sequence/structure variation and cross-reactive antibody binding patterns among variants of a polymorphic antigen, and this method can be applied to other polymorphic antigens for which immune response data is available for multiple variants. PMID:23826301

  17. The human immunodeficiency virus antigen Nef forms protein bodies in leaves of transgenic tobacco when fused to zeolin

    PubMed Central

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; Bellucci, Michele; Mainieri, Davide; Rossi, Marika; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Arcioni, Sergio; Vitale, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Protein bodies (PB) are stable polymers naturally formed by certain seed storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The human immunodeficiency virus negative factor (Nef) protein, a potential antigen for the development of an anti-viral vaccine, is highly unstable when introduced into the plant secretory pathway, probably because of folding defects in the ER environment. The aim of this study was to promote the formation of Nef-containing PB in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by fusing the Nef sequence to the N-terminal domains of the maize storage protein ?-zein or to the chimeric protein zeolin (which efficiently forms PB and is composed of the vacuolar storage protein phaseolin fused to the N-terminal domains of ?-zein). Protein blots and pulse–chase indicate that fusions between Nef and the same ?-zein domains present in zeolin are degraded by ER quality control. Consistently, a mutated zeolin, in which wild-type phaseolin was substituted with a defective version known to be degraded by ER quality control, is unstable in plant cells. Fusion of Nef to the entire zeolin sequence instead allows the formation of PB detectable by electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation, leading to zeolin–Nef accumulation higher than 1% of total soluble protein, consistently reproduced in independent transgenic plants. It is concluded that zeolin, but not its ?-zein portion, has a positive dominant effect over ER quality control degradation. These results provide insights into the requirements for PB formation and avoidance of quality-control degradation, and indicate a strategy for enhancing foreign protein accumulation in plants. PMID:18540021

  18. Evidence for an inhibitory feedback loop regulating simian virus 40 large T-antigen fusion protein nuclear transport.

    PubMed Central

    Seydel, U; Jans, D A

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear protein import is central to eukaryotic cell function. It is dependent on ATP, temperature and cytosolic factors, and requires specific targeting sequences called nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Nuclear import kinetics was studied in vitro using digitonin-permeabilized cells of the HTC rat hepatoma cell line and a fluorescently labelled beta-galactosidase fusion protein carrying amino acids 111-135 of the simian virus 40 large T-antigen (T-ag), including the NLS. Nuclear accumulation was rapid, reaching steady-state after about 80 min at 37 degrees C (t1/2 at about 17 min). Surprisingly, maximal nuclear concentration was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of the cytosolic extract and of cytoplasmic T-ag protein. Neither preincubation of cells for 1 h at 37 degrees C before the addition of T-ag protein nor the addition of fresh transport medium after 1 h and continuation of the incubation for another hour affected the maximal nuclear concentration. If cells were allowed to accumulate T-ag protein for 1 h before the addition of fresh transport medium containing different concentrations of T-ag protein and incubated for a further hour, the maximal nuclear concentration did not change unless the concentration of T-ag protein in the second transport mixture exceeded that in the first, in which case the nuclear concentration increased. Nuclear import of T-ag thus appeared (i) to be strictly unidirectional over 2 h at 37 degrees C and (ii) to be regulated by an inhibitory feedback loop, whereby the cytosolic concentration of protein appears to determine directly the precise end point of nuclear accumulation. This study represents the first characterization of this previously undescribed mechanism of regulation of nuclear protein import. PMID:8670127

  19. Detergent pretreatment of solid phase globular proteins in ELISA`s. Enhanced antigenicity and subsequent sensitivity. Final report, September 1989-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, G.C.; Bouhmadouche, M.; Williamson, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    Methods for pretreatment and rejuvenation of preimmobilized globular proteins used in immunodiagnostics were investigated using reagents routinely used in ELISA`s. Rabbit and goat gamma globulins, functioning as antigens, and antibodies on non-covalent, and covalent solid surfaces, were monitored for detergent mediated desorption, denaturation, non-specific binding and altered antigenicity. The results from fourteen commercially supplied polyvinyl- and polystyrene-derivatized microtiter plates coated with antibody or antigenic lgG were compared with commercial microtiter diagnostic plates with preimmobilized lgG. Wash solutions had no effect on immobilized gamma globulins when the solid phase protein functioned as an antibody on covalent or noncovalent surfaces. In addition to tween 20 removing up to 50% of noncovalently bound protein additional binding sites are apparently exposed on solid phase antigens, evident by an increase in signal, which cannot be explained by nonspecific binding. However, no increase in signal was evident when antigen was preimmobilized covalently. The role of between 20 and other reagent components in ELISA-based assays are explored. The screening of noncovalent preimmobilized antigen coated surfaces prior to use for deteraent mediated enhancement is suggested.

  20. Identification of Immunoreactive Leishmania infantum Protein Antigens to Asymptomatic Dog Sera through Combined Immunoproteomics and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in countries in the Mediterranean basin, where dogs are the domestic reservoirs and represent important elements in the transmission of the disease. Since the major focal areas of human VL exhibit a high prevalence of seropositive dogs, the control of canine VL could reduce the infection rate in humans. Efforts toward this have focused on the improvement of diagnostic tools, as well as on vaccine development. The identification of parasite antigens including suitable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and/or II-restricted epitopes is very important since disease protection is characterized by strong and long-lasting CD8+ T and CD4+ Th1 cell-dominated immunity. In the present study, total protein extract from late-log phase L. infantum promastigotes was analyzed by two-dimensional western blots and probed with sera from asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs. A total of 42 protein spots were found to differentially react with IgG from asymptomatic dogs, while 17 of these identified by Coommasie stain were extracted and analyzed. Of these, 21 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry; they were mainly involved in metabolism and stress responses. An in silico analysis predicted that the chaperonin HSP60, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, enolase, cyclophilin 2, cyclophilin 40, and one hypothetical protein contain promiscuous MHCI and/or MHCII epitopes. Our results suggest that the combination of immunoproteomics and bioinformatics analyses is a promising method for the identification of novel candidate antigens for vaccine development or with potential use in the development of sensitive diagnostic tests. PMID:26906226

  1. Identification and characterization of a Trypanosoma congolense 46 kDa protein as a candidate serodiagnostic antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Suganuma, Keisuke; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Yamasaki, Shino; Igarashi, Ikuo; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-06-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is a major livestock pathogen in Africa, causing large economic losses with serious effects on animal health. Reliable serodiagnostic tests are therefore urgently needed to control T. congolense infection. In this study, we have identified one T. congolense protein as a new candidate serodiagnostic antigen. The 46.4 kDa protein (TcP46, Gene ID: TcIL3000.0.25950) is expressed 5.36 times higher in metacyclic forms than epimastigote forms. The complete nucleotide sequences of TcP46 contained an open reading frame of 1,218 bp. Southern blot analysis indicated that at least two copies of the TcP46 gene were tandemly-arranged in the T. congolense genome. The recombinant TcP46 (rTcP46) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the native TcP46 protein is expressed in the cytoplasm during all life-cycle stages of the parasite. Moreover, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on rTcP46 detected the specific antibodies as early as 8 days post-infection from mice experimentally infected with T. congolense. No cross-reactivity was observed in the rTcP46-based ELISA against serum samples from cattle experimentally infected with Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale. These results suggest that rTcP46 could be used as a serodiagnostic antigen for T. congolense infection. PMID:24492330

  2. Identification of Immunoreactive Leishmania infantum Protein Antigens to Asymptomatic Dog Sera through Combined Immunoproteomics and Bioinformatics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Agallou, Maria; Athanasiou, Evita; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in countries in the Mediterranean basin, where dogs are the domestic reservoirs and represent important elements in the transmission of the disease. Since the major focal areas of human VL exhibit a high prevalence of seropositive dogs, the control of canine VL could reduce the infection rate in humans. Efforts toward this have focused on the improvement of diagnostic tools, as well as on vaccine development. The identification of parasite antigens including suitable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and/or II-restricted epitopes is very important since disease protection is characterized by strong and long-lasting CD8+ T and CD4+ Th1 cell-dominated immunity. In the present study, total protein extract from late-log phase L. infantum promastigotes was analyzed by two-dimensional western blots and probed with sera from asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs. A total of 42 protein spots were found to differentially react with IgG from asymptomatic dogs, while 17 of these identified by Coommasie stain were extracted and analyzed. Of these, 21 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry; they were mainly involved in metabolism and stress responses. An in silico analysis predicted that the chaperonin HSP60, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, enolase, cyclophilin 2, cyclophilin 40, and one hypothetical protein contain promiscuous MHCI and/or MHCII epitopes. Our results suggest that the combination of immunoproteomics and bioinformatics analyses is a promising method for the identification of novel candidate antigens for vaccine development or with potential use in the development of sensitive diagnostic tests. PMID:26906226

  3. Establishment of a human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing cell line in a protein-free chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Okabe, T; Kawai, K

    1985-01-01

    To examine whether a human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing cell can proliferate and sythesize CEA in vitro in culture without protein supplements, long-term cultivation of such cells was carried out in a protein-free chemically defined medium. Using stepwise decreases in fetal bovine serum concentration, continuous growth of the cells was established in a protein-free am's F-12 medium. The cells, designated as HLC-Yl, have been propagated in this medium for 3 years. The population doubling time of the cells is about 52 h. Addition of the serum stimulated the cell growth (population doubling time = 27 h). Saturation density was not increased by the addition of serum. The cells grown in a protein-free F-12 secrete large amounts of CEA (65.4 +/- 2.6 ng/10(6) cells/24 h). Addition of serum did not stimulate the production of CEA. The cells produced tumours when inoculated into athymic nude mice. The mice bearing the tumour showed high serum CEA levels, and CEA was demonstrated in the tumour tissue by the immunoperoxidase method. The present study suggests that cells grown in a protein-free medium do not require serum components for their growth or CEA synthesis and provide an excellent model for better understanding the growth and production of CEA in human lung cancer cells. PMID:4019568

  4. Expression, characterisation and antigenicity of a truncated Hendra virus attachment protein expressed in the protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kerstin; Dos Reis, Vinicius Pinho; Finke, Stefan; Sauerhering, Lucie; Stroh, Eileen; Karger, Axel; Maisner, Andrea; Groschup, Martin H; Diederich, Sandra; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus within the genus Henipavirus that has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans and horses in Australia since 1994. HeV infection of host cells is mediated by the membrane bound attachment (G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins, that are essential for receptor binding and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The eukaryotic unicellular parasite Leishmania tarentolae has recently been established as a powerful tool to express recombinant proteins with mammalian-like glycosylation patterns, but only few viral proteins have been expressed in this system so far. Here, we describe the purification of a truncated, Strep-tag labelled and soluble version of the HeV attachment protein (sHeV G) expressed in stably transfected L. tarentolae cells. After Strep-tag purification the identity of sHeV G was confirmed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. The functional binding of sHeV G to the HeV cell entry receptor ephrin-B2 was confirmed in several binding assays. Generated polyclonal rabbit antiserum against sHeV G reacted with both HeV and Nipah virus (NiV) G proteins in immunofluorescence assay and efficiently neutralised NiV infection, thus further supporting the preserved antigenicity of the purified protein. PMID:26585033

  5. APPLICATION OF A NOVEL RADIOIMMUNOASSAY TO IDENTIFY BACULOVIRUS STRUCTURAL PROTEINS THAT SHARE INTERSPECIES ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral proteins were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels, transferred to nitrocellulose, and incubated with viral antisera, and the antibodies were detected with 125 I-labeled Staphylococcus aureus protein A. Antisera were prepared to purified and intact virions from five bacul...

  6. The 75-kilodalton antigen of Bartonella bacilliformis is a structural homolog of the cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Padmalayam, I; Anderson, B; Kron, M; Kelly, T; Baumstark, B

    1997-01-01

    A genomic library of Bartonella bacilliformis was constructed and screened with human anti-Bartonella serum from a patient with the chronic, verruga peruana phase of bartonellosis. An immunoreactive clone isolated from this library was found to code for a 591-amino-acid protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the FtsZ family of proteins. The degree of amino acid identity between the B. bacilliformis protein (FtsZ[Bb]) and the other FtsZ proteins is especially pronounced over the N-terminal 321 amino acids (N-terminal domain) of the sequence, with values ranging from 45% identity for the homolog from Micrococcus luteus (FtsZ[Ml]) to 91% identity for the homolog from Rhizobium melliloti, (FtsZ[Rm1]). All of the functional domains required for FtsZ activity are conserved in FtsZ(Bb) and are located within the N-terminal domain of the protein. FtsZ(Bb) is approximately twice as large as most of the other FtsZ proteins previously reported, a property it shares with FtsZ(Rm1). Like the Rhizobium homolog, FtsZ(Bb) has a C-terminal region of approximately 256 amino acids that is absent in the other FtsZ proteins. Evidence is presented that implicates this region in the protein's antigenicity and suggests that, unlike most other FtsZ homologs, FtsZ(Bb) is at least partly exposed at the cell surface. PCR analysis revealed that an ftsZ gene similar in size to the B. bacilliformis gene is present in Bartonella henselae, a bacterium that is closely related to B. bacilliformis. PMID:9226264

  7. Non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic activity of blood mononuclear cells stimulated with secreted mycobacterial proteins and other mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1994-01-01

    Several observations indicate that non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity, mediated for example by natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, may serve as an important antimicrobial defense mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of different mycobacterial antigens on non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity and further to investigate the ways by which various lymphocyte subpopulations contribute to the development of this cytotoxicity. Non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity was induced following stimulation of mononuclear cells with tuberculin purified protein derivative, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), short- and long-term culture filtrates of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and 30-31-kDa secreted mycobacterial protein. These antigens also induced proliferation and production of gamma interferon. The CD4+ cells proliferated and expressed interleukin-2 receptors following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens. Depletion studies after antigen stimulation showed that the cytotoxic effector cells were CD16+ CD56+ and CD4-; the CD4+ cells alone did not mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. To evaluate the influence of CD4+ cells on the development of non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity, blood mononuclear cells were depleted of CD4+ cells before antigen stimulation. When mononuclear cells were incubated with purified protein derivative or short-term culture filtrate in the absence of CD4+ cells, cytotoxic activity was reduced. This reduction was abolished by interleukin-2 but not by gamma interferon. We conclude that several mycobacterial antigens are able to induce non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. This study indicates that non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens is induced by cytokines released by antigen-specific activated CD4+ cells. PMID:7960109

  8. Particle-based transcutaneous administration of HIV-1 p24 protein to human skin explants and targeting of epidermal antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Amselgruber, Sarah; Hadam, Sabrina; Munier, Sevérine; Pavot, Vincent; Verrier, Bernard; Hackbarth, Steffen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2014-02-28

    Transcutaneous immunization is a promising vaccination strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigate the combination of cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) and particle-based antigen delivery to target the HIV-1 p24 protein to skin antigen presenting cells (APC). The CSSS treatment pre-activates skin APC and opens hair follicles, where protein-loaded particles accumulate and allow for sustained delivery of the loaded antigen to perifollicular APC. We found that poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) particles targeted the adsorbed HIV-1 p24 protein to the hair follicles. Small amounts of PS and PLA particles were found to translocate to the epidermis and be internalized by skin cells, whereas most of the particles aggregated in the hair follicle canal, where they released the loaded antigen. The p24 protein diffused to the epidermis and dermis and was detected in skin cells, especially in Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. Furthermore, the combination of CSSS and particle-based delivery resulted in activation and maturation of Langerhans cells (HLA-DR, CD80 and CD83). We conclude that particle-based antigen delivery across partially disrupted skin barrier is a feasible and effective approach to needle-free transcutaneous vaccination. PMID:24384300

  9. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai . E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

    2006-08-15

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

  10. Validation of a structural comparison of the antigenic characteristics of Usutu virus and West Nile virus envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Fall, Gamou; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Skern, Tim

    2014-08-30

    Cross-reactions observed in serological assays between Usutu virus (USUV), the USUV outlier subtype strain CAR_1969 and West Nile virus (WNV) suggest that they share antigenic features amongst their structural outer proteins especially envelope (E) proteins. To investigate the molecular background of this observation, we compared the E protein sequences of seven USUV strains, USUV subtype strain CAR_1969 and WNV strain 2471, focusing on the binding site defined by the WNV neutralizing antibody E16. USUV SouthAfrica_1959 differs from WNV 2741 in three of four residues critical for E16 antibody binding and five of the 12 additionally involved residues. In contrast, USUV subtype CAR_1969 differs from WNV 2741 in two critical residues and five additional residues. Furthermore, USUV subtype CAR_1969 differs from other USUV strains in two critical residues. E16 antibody binding has previously been shown to be highly specific for WNV; thus, the observed variation in amino acid residues suggests that the region corresponding to the WNV E16 epitope is probably not responsible for the observed cross-reactions between WNV and USUV. Seroneutralisation assays confirmed these findings for WNV and USUV, however, showed occurring cross-reactivity between WNV and USUV subtype CAR_1969 at high antibody titers. The sequence diversity in this region might also explain some of the observed different antigenic characteristics of USUV strains and USUV subtype CAR_1969. A therapeutic effect of E16 antibody has been described in WNV infected mice; therefore, a USUV specific antibody generated against the region corresponding to the WNV E16 binding site might represent an approach for treating USUV infections. PMID:24874193

  11. Evaluation of the antigenicity of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein formulas using the mouse basophil activation test.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Takeshi; Nakazato, Yuki; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are widely used for infants with cow's milk allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the mouse basophil activation test (BAT) in the evaluation of residual antigenicity in these formulas. Whole blood samples derived from ?-lactoglobulin- or casein-immunized mice were incubated with one of the following formulas: conventional, partially hydrolyzed, or extensively hydrolyzed. Basophilic activation was analyzed by flow cytometry using an IgE-dependent activation marker CD200R1 and an IgG-dependent activation marker CD200R3. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by i.v. injection of milk formula and results were compared. Conventional formula induced pronounced changes in CD200R1 and CD200R3 expression on basophils, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not elicit any changes in these markers. Similarly, challenge with conventional formula induced anaphylaxis, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not induce anaphylaxis. Although the partially hydrolyzed formula also induced basophilic activation and systemic anaphylaxis, the magnitude of these effects was smaller than that observed with the conventional formula. Compared to CD200R1, the observed trend in CD200R3 expression resembled the results obtained from systemic anaphylaxis test more closely. These findings show that mouse BAT, in particular using CD200R3, is highly useful for the evaluation of antigenicity of milk formulas. PMID:26626100

  12. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Tang, Christoph M; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J; Masignani, Vega

    2013-02-26

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen-antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ?1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  13. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen

    PubMed Central

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.; Tang, Christoph M.; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J.; Masignani, Vega

    2013-01-01

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen–antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ?1,000 Å2 on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen–antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  14. Suppression of cytokines in mice by protein A-V antigen fusion peptide and restoration of synthesis by active immunization.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, R; Motin, V L; Brubaker, R R

    1995-08-01

    It is established that an approximately 70-kb Lcr plasmid enables Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, to multiply in focal necrotic lesions within visceral organs of mice by preventing net synthesis of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), thereby minimizing inflammation (Lcr+). Rabbit antiserum raised against cloned staphylococcal protein A-V antigen fusion peptide (PAV) is known to passively immunize mice against 10 minimum lethal doses of intravenously injected Lcr+ cells of Y. pestis. In this study, injected PAV suppressed TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in mice challenged with avirulent V antigen-deficient Y. pestis (lcrV or Lcr-) and promoted survival in vivo of these isolates as well as salmonellae and Listeria monocytogenes (with which the outcome was lethal). Active immunization of mice with PAV protected against 1,000 minimum lethal doses of intravenously injected Lcr+ cells of Y. pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis but not Yersinia enterocolitica. The progressive necrosis provoked by Lcr+ cells of Y. pestis in visceral organs of nonimmunized mice was replaced after active immunization with PAV by massive infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells (which generated protective granulomas indistinguishable from those formed against avirulent Lcr- mutants in nonimmunized mice). Distinct multiple abscesses typical of Lcr+ cells of Y. pseudotuberculosis were prevented by similar immunization. Significant synthesis of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma occurred in spleens of mice actively immunized with PAV after challenge with Lcr+ cells of Y. pestis. These findings suggest that V antigen contributes to disease by suppressing the normal inflammatory response. PMID:7622225

  15. Loss of T Cell Antigen Recognition Arising from Changes in Peptide and Major Histocompatibility Complex Protein Flexibility: Implications for Vaccine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Insaidoo, Francis K.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Hossain, Moushumi; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Baxter, Tiffany K.; Baker, Brian M.

    2012-05-08

    Modification of the primary anchor positions of antigenic peptides to improve binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is a commonly used strategy for engineering peptide-based vaccine candidates. However, such peptide modifications do not always improve antigenicity, complicating efforts to design effective vaccines for cancer and infectious disease. Here we investigated the MART-1{sub 27-35} tumor antigen, for which anchor modification (replacement of the position two alanine with leucine) dramatically reduces or ablates antigenicity with a wide range of T cell clones despite significantly improving peptide binding to MHC. We found that anchor modification in the MART-1{sub 27-35} antigen enhances the flexibility of both the peptide and the HLA-A*0201 molecule. Although the resulting entropic effects contribute to the improved binding of the peptide to MHC, they also negatively impact T cell receptor binding to the peptide {center_dot} MHC complex. These results help explain how the 'anchor-fixing' strategy fails to improve antigenicity in this case, and more generally, may be relevant for understanding the high specificity characteristic of the T cell repertoire. In addition to impacting vaccine design, modulation of peptide and MHC flexibility through changes to antigenic peptides may present an evolutionary strategy for the escape of pathogens from immune destruction.

  16. Expression and Refolding of Truncated Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein Antigen (r56) of Orientia tsutsugamushi and Its Use in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ching, W.-M.; Wang, H.; Eamsila, C.; Kelly, D. J.; Dasch, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    The variable 56-kDa major outer membrane protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi is the immunodominant antigen in human scrub typhus infections. The gene encoding this protein from Karp strain was cloned into the expression vector pET11a. The recombinant protein (r56) was expressed as a truncated nonfusion protein (amino acids 80 to 456 of the open reading frame) which formed an inclusion body when expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Refolded r56 was purified and compared to purified whole-cell lysate of the Karp strain of O. tsutsugamushi by immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for reactivity with rabbit sera prepared against eight antigenic prototypes of O. tsutsugamushi as well as several other species of Rickettsiales and nonrickettsial antigens. Refolded r56 exhibited broad reactivity with the rabbit antisera against the Orientia prototypes, and the ELISA reactions with the r56 and Karp whole-cell lysate antigens correlated well (r = 0.81, n = 22, sensitivity compared to that of standard ELISA of 91%). Refolded r56 did not react with most antisera against other rickettsial species or control antigens (specificity = 92%, n = 13) using a positive cutoff value determined with eight uninfected rabbit sera. Refolded r56 was evaluated further by ELISA, using 128 sera obtained from patients with suspected scrub typhus from Korat, Thailand, and 74 serum specimens from healthy Thai soldiers. By using the indirect immunoperoxidase assay as the reference assay, the recombinant antigen exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 93% or greater for detection of both IgG and IgM in the ELISA at 1:400 serum dilution. These results strongly suggest that purified r56 is a suitable candidate for replacing the density gradient-purified, rickettsia-derived, whole-cell antigen currently used in the commercial dipstick assay available in the United States. PMID:9665960

  17. Structural Analysis of the Synthetic Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) Antigen DEKnull Relevant for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edwin; Salinas, Nichole D.; Ntumngia, Francis B.; Adams, John H.; Tolia, Niraj H.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) is a protein necessary for P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes. The polymorphic nature of DBP induces strain-specific immune responses that pose unique challenges for vaccine development. DEKnull is a synthetic DBP based antigen that has been engineered through mutation to enhance induction of blocking inhibitory antibodies. We determined the x-ray crystal structure of DEKnull to identify if any conformational changes had occurred upon mutation. Computational and experimental analyses assessed immunogenicity differences between DBP and DEKnull epitopes. Functional binding assays with monoclonal antibodies were used to interrogate the available epitopes in DEKnull. We demonstrate that DEKnull is structurally similar to the parental Sal1 DBP. The DEKnull mutations do not cause peptide backbone shifts within the polymorphic loop, or at either the DBP dimerization interface or DARC receptor binding pockets, two important structurally conserved protective epitope motifs. All B-cell epitopes, except for the mutated DEK motif, are conserved between DEKnull and DBP. The DEKnull protein retains binding to conformationally dependent inhibitory antibodies. DEKnull is an iterative improvement of DBP as a vaccine candidate. DEKnull has reduced immunogenicity to polymorphic regions responsible for strain-specific immunity while retaining conserved protein folds necessary for induction of strain-transcending blocking inhibitory antibodies. PMID:25793371

  18. Hydrolysis with Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease reduces antigenic response to bovine whey protein concentrate and αs-casein.

    PubMed

    Babij, Konrad; Bajzert, Joanna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Lubec, Gert; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Willak-Janc, Ewa; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the effect of hydrolysis with non-commercial Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease on a reduction of the IgE and IgG binding capacity of whey protein concentrate and αs-casein was investigated. The intensity of the protein degradation was analyzed by the degree of hydrolysis, the free amino groups content and RP-HPLC. The ability to bind the antibodies by native proteins and their hydrolysates was determined using a competitive ELISA test. Deep hydrolysis contributed to a significant reduction of immunoreactive epitopes present in WPC. In the case of IgE and IgG present in the serum pool of children with CMA, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h WPC hydrolysate, where the inhibition of the reaction with native WPC was ≤23 and ≤60 %, respectively. The analysis of the IgG reactivity in the antiserum of the immunized goat showed that the lowest antibody binding capacity was exhibited also by 24 h WPC hydrolysate at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml where the inhibition of the reaction with nWPC was ≤47 %. One-hour hydrolysis of α-casein was sufficient to significant reduction of the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) of hydrolysis probably lead to the appearance of new epitopes reactive with polyclonal. PMID:26036686

  19. Temporally defined neocortical translation and polysome assembly are determined by the RNA-binding protein Hu antigen R

    PubMed Central

    Kraushar, Matthew L.; Thompson, Kevin; Wijeratne, H. R. Sagara; Viljetic, Barbara; Sakers, Kristina; Marson, Justin W.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitris L.; Buyske, Steven; Hart, Ronald P.; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2014-01-01

    Precise spatiotemporal control of mRNA translation machinery is essential to the development of highly complex systems like the neocortex. However, spatiotemporal regulation of translation machinery in the developing neocortex remains poorly understood. Here, we show that an RNA-binding protein, Hu antigen R (HuR), regulates both neocorticogenesis and specificity of neocortical translation machinery in a developmental stage-dependent manner in mice. Neocortical absence of HuR alters the phosphorylation states of initiation and elongation factors in the core translation machinery. In addition, HuR regulates the temporally specific positioning of functionally related mRNAs into the active translation sites, the polysomes. HuR also determines the specificity of neocortical polysomes by defining their combinatorial composition of ribosomal proteins and initiation and elongation factors. For some HuR-dependent proteins, the association with polysomes likewise depends on the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4, which associates with HuR in prenatal developing neocortices. Finally, we found that deletion of HuR before embryonic day 10 disrupts both neocortical lamination and formation of the main neocortical commissure, the corpus callosum. Our study identifies a crucial role for HuR in neocortical development as a translational gatekeeper for functionally related mRNA subgroups and polysomal protein specificity. PMID:25157170

  20. Generation of antigen specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells following immunization with soluble protein formulated with novel glycoside adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, N A; Rajananthanan, P; Attard, G S; Morrow, W J

    1999-08-01

    Presentation of peptide on MHC class I molecules is essential to elicit cytolytic T cell (CTL) activity. Such peptides are a result of the cytosolic, or class I, antigen processing pathway. Due to the segregation of the class I and the exogenous processing pathway, soluble protein cannot enter the class I pathway and is thus incapable of inducing CTL. However careful formulation with adjuvants can overcome this obstacle. In this study we evaluated the capacity of two novel amphiphilic adjuvants, better termed delivery vehicles, to elicit CTL activity in a C57Bl/6 murine model with ovalbumin (OVA) as an antigen. Incomplete Freund's adjuvant and aluminium hydroxide (Alhydrogel) were used as reference adjuvants. In addition the oil-in-water emulsion Provax was used throughout as a positive control adjuvant. Both amphiphile preparations were capable of eliciting potent CTL activity after administration of one immunizing dose of ovalbumin. CTL were CD8+ restricted as assessed by in vitro depletion of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. CTL activity was also MHC-restricted as well as specific for the H-2Kb OVA motif SIINFEKL. PMID:10462232

  1. Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 is a chronic lymphocytic leukemia membrane-associated antigen critical to niche homing

    PubMed Central

    Dubovsky, Jason A.; Chappell, Danielle L.; Harrington, Bonnie K.; Agrawal, Kitty; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Bolon, Brad; Johnson, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane antigens are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as they facilitate microenvironment homing, proliferation, and survival. Targeting the CLL membrane and associated signaling patterns is a current focus of therapeutic development. Many tumor membrane targets are simultaneously targeted by humoral immunity, thus forming recognizable immunoglobulin responses. We sought to use this immune response to identify novel membrane-associated targets for CLL. Using a novel strategy, we interrogated CLL membrane-specific autologous immunoglobulin G reactivity. Our analysis unveiled lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1), a lymphocyte-specific target that is highly expressed in CLL. LCP1 plays a critical role in B-cell biology by crosslinking F-actin filaments, thereby solidifying cytoskeletal structures and providing a scaffold for critical signaling pathways. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LCP1 blocked migration toward CXCL12 in transwell assays and to bone marrow in an in vivo xenotransplant model, confirming a role for LCP1 in leukemia migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib or the PI3K inhibitor idelalisib block B-cell receptor induced activation of LCP1. Our data demonstrate a novel strategy to identify cancer membrane target antigens using humoral anti-tumor immunity. In addition, we identify LCP1 as a membrane-associated target in CLL with confirmed pathogenic significance. This clinical trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov; study ID number: OSU-0025 OSU-0156. PMID:24009233

  2. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease virus proteins VPX and VP3.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Lázaro, B; Rodriguez, J F; Casal, J I

    2000-07-01

    The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both proteins was similar to that of the native virus. VPX was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies but VP3 was not. Purified VPX and VP3 were tested in an indirect ELISA with more than 300 chicken sera. There was an excellent correlation between the results of the ELISA using VPX and those of the two commercial kits. VP3 did not perform as well as VPX, and the linear correlation was significantly lower. A comparison with the standard reference technique, seroneutralization, showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive. Therefore, VPX-based ELISA is a good alternative to conventional ELISAs that use whole virions. PMID:10882666

  3. Artificial Salmonella vaccines: O-antigenic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates induce protection against infection with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, S B; Nurminen, M; Lindberg, A A

    1979-01-01

    Outbred mice were vaccinated with various artificial Salmonella vaccines and subsequently challenged intraperitoneally with graded doses of virulent Salmonella typhimurium. The Salmonella vaccines used were: (i) octasaccharide, obtained by hydrolysis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide chain of S. typhimurium strain SH 4809 with phage P22-associated endo-rhamnosidase and covalently linked to either diphtheria toxin or edestine; (ii) purified outer membrane proteins (porins) from S. typhimurium; and (iii) octasaccharide covalently linked to porins. All vaccines induced significant protection against experimental infection of mice with S. typhimurium. However, vaccination with the octasaccharide-porin conjugate resulted in better protection than that obtained by vaccination with octasaccharide or porin vaccines separately. Rabbit antibodies raised against the different vaccines were also passively administered intravenously to mice. Such mice were protected against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium by antibodies specific for the S. typhimurium O-antigen or for the porins. Thus, active immunization with more than one surface component of Salmonella bacteria improved the efficacy of the vaccine. The data from the passive immunization experiments also emphasized the role of humoral immunity for protection against S. typhimurium infection. Images PMID:387597

  4. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. PMID:25261494

  5. Oxidation by Neutrophils-Derived HOCl Increases Immunogenicity of Proteins by Converting Them into Ligands of Several Endocytic Receptors Involved in Antigen Uptake by Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Biedro?, Rafa?; Konopi?ski, Maciej K.; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Józefowski, Szczepan

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of adaptive immune responses to protein antigens has to be preceded by their uptake by antigen presenting cells and intracellular proteolytic processing. Paradoxically, endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake do not bind the majority of proteins, which may be the main reason why purified proteins stimulate at most weak immune responses. A shared feature of different types of adjuvants, capable of boosting immunogenicity of protein vaccines, is their ability to induce acute inflammation, characterized by early influx of activated neutrophils. Neutrophils are also rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection. These cells are the source of potent oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), causing oxidation of proteins present in inflammatory foci. We demonstrate that oxidation of proteins by endogenous, neutrophils-derived HOCl increases their immunogenicity. Upon oxidation, different, randomly chosen simple proteins (yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, human and bovine serum albumin) and glycoproteins (human apo-transferrin, ovalbumin) gain the ability to bind with high affinity to several endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells, which seems to be the major mechanism of their increased immunogenicity. The mannose receptor (CD206), scavenger receptors A (CD204) and CD36 were responsible for the uptake and presentation of HOCl-modified proteins by murine dendritic cells and macrophages. Other scavenger receptors, SREC-I and LOX-1, as well as RAGE were also able to bind HOCl-modified proteins, but they did not contribute significantly to these ligands uptake by dendritic cells because they were either not expressed or exhibited preference for more heavily oxidised proteins. Our results indicate that oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl may be a physiological mechanism of conferring immunogenicity on proteins which in their native forms do not bind to endocytic receptors. This mechanism might enable the immune system to detect infections caused by pathogens not recognized by pattern recognition receptors. PMID:25849867

  6. Simian virus 40 small tumor antigen inhibits dephosphorylation of protein kinase A-phosphorylated CREB and regulates CREB transcriptional stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, W H; Roesler, W J; Klemm, D J

    1994-01-01

    We report that the small tumor (small-t) antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40) forms complexes with nuclear protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and regulates the phosphorylation and transcriptional transactivation function of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-regulatory element binding protein (CREB). PP2A coimmunoprecipitated with small t from nuclear extracts from HepG2 cells expressing small t or from rat liver nuclear extracts to which recombinant small t was added. Protein phosphatase 1 was not detected in small-t immunoprecipitates. In HepG2 cells expressing small t, dibutyryl-cAMP (Bt2cAMP) stimulated the phosphorylation of CREB 65-fold, whereas CREB phosphorylation was stimulated only 5- to 8-fold by Bt2cAMP in cells not expressing small t. Small t also inhibited the dephosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-phosphorylated CREB in rat liver nuclear extracts. In cells expressing small t, Bt2cAMP-stimulated transcription from the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter was enhanced over the level of transcription from the PEPCK promoter in cells not expressing small t. Small t also enhanced Bt2cAMP-stimulated transcription from a Gal4-responsive promoter in cells expressing a chimeric protein containing the Gal4 DNA-binding domain linked to the CREB transactivation domain. However, small t did not stimulate transcription either from a 5' deletion mutant of the PEPCK promoter that is not able to bind CREB or from the Gal4-responsive promoter in the absence of the Gal4-CREB protein. These data suggest that small t enhances Bt2cAMP-stimulated gene transcription by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of PKA-phosphorylated CREB by nuclear PP2A. These findings support previous observations that nuclear PP2A is the primary phosphatase that dephosphorylates PKA-phosphorylated CREB. Images PMID:8065321

  7. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-02-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes (IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon (IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  8. Construction, expression, purification and antigenicity of recombinant Campylobacter jejuni flagellar proteins.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E; Oakley, Brian B; Seal, Bruce S

    2013-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a flagellated, spiral-rod Gram-negative bacterium, is the leading etiologic agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The source of this microorganism for human infection has been implicated as consumption and handling of poultry meat where this microorganism is a commensal in the gut. Because the genomes of many C. jejuni isolates have been sequenced, our ultimate goal is to develop protein arrays for exploring this microorganism and host interactions. In this communication, we report cloning, expression and purification of C. jejuni flagellar proteins in a bacterial expression system. Twelve recombinant proteins were purified, which were confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis and a His tag detection kit. The FlgE1, FlgG, FlgK, FliE, FlgH/FliH and FlaA recombinant proteins were further confirmed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The purified recombinant proteins were tested whether they were immunogenic using antibodies from several sources. BacTrace anti-Campylobacter species antibody reacted to the FlaA recombinant protein, but not others. Rabbit anti-MOMP1 peptide antibody reacted strongly to FliE and weakly to FlaA, but not others. Rabbit anti-MOMP2 peptide antibody reacted strongly to the FlaA, FliG, FliE, FlhF, FlgG, FlgE1 and FliD recombinant proteins, less to FlgK and FlgH/FliH, and did not react to the FliY, FliS and FliH recombinant proteins. These antibody studies suggest that these recombinant flagellar proteins have potential for novel targets for vaccine development. It is also anticipated that these recombinant proteins provide us a very useful tool for investigating host immune response to C. jejuni. PMID:23312848

  9. A new lipid transfer protein homolog identified as an IgE-binding antigen from Japanese cedar pollen.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ragaa Nour; Kawamoto, Seiji; Nishimura, Minori; Pak, Syunka; Aki, Tsunehiro; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Salcedo, Gabriel; Asturias, Juan A; Hayashi, Takaharu; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen is a major cause of seasonal rhinitis and conjunctivitis in Japan, and an understanding of its full allergen repertoire is prerequisite for the development of future molecular diagnostics and immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we report the identification of a new C. japonica pollen IgE-binding antigen (CJP-8) homologous to lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), a class of plant cross-reactive allergens found in foods, latex, and pollen grains. The cjp-8 cDNA encodes a 165-amino acid polypeptide possessing the conserved eight cysteines characteristic of plant LTP family members. Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant CJP-8 (r-CJP-8) reacted with IgE antibody from Japanese cedar pollinosis patients at a 37.5% frequency (6/16). PMID:20208354

  10. Listeriosis in recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants from unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Girmenia, C; Iori, A P; Bernasconi, S; Testi, A M; Moleti, M L; Arcese, W; Martino, P

    2000-09-01

    Two cases of listeriosis in patients submitted to matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation are reported. The patients developed listerial septicemia and listerial septicemia with meningitis and encephalitis 39 and 29 days after transplantation, respectively. Including the present two cases, 19 Listeria monocytogenes infections in related and unrelated donor allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients have been reported to date. Infection occurred earlier in unrelated donor transplant recipients. Listeriosis is a rare complication in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients; however, the widespread practice of performing transplants from a donor-alternative to a human leukocyte antigen-compatible sibling and, in this setting, the need for intensified immunosuppression may predict an increasing and earlier occurrence of listeriosis. PMID:11057507

  11. Transplantations from HLA-identical siblings versus 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    The clinical outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor as well as an HLA-matched unrelated donor has clearly improved due in part to the progress made in the domains of HLA-typing techniques. Although HLA-matched sibling transplantation is still held as the "gold standard," transplantation from HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1-matched unrelated donors (so called 10/10) represent the first choice for patients without a suitable related donor. Several studies have shown that unmanipulated marrow transplantation from an HLA allele-matched unrelated donor resulted in similar outcomes to those observed following sibling transplantation. However, incorporating anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) within graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis should be considered for peripheral blood stem cell grafts in order to decrease the risk of developing chronic GVHD. PMID:27000729

  12. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms positively modulate soluble egg antigen-induced inflammatory hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Stereological analysis and immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and chemokines.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, W.; Bogers, J.; Deelder, A.; Wéry, M.; Van Marck, E.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronized liver granulomas were induced by injecting Sepharose beads to which SEA soluble egg antigen (SEA) or the concanavalin A binding fraction of SEA had been coupled into a mesenteric vein in naive, single-sex (35 days) and bisexually (28 days) Schistosoma mansoni-infected and Plasmodium berghei-immunized mice. Stereological analysis revealed that peak granuloma formation was already reached 8 days after injection in single-sex infected mice compared with 16 days in naive animals. No difference in granuloma formation between naive and P. berghei-immunized animals and between unisexually and bisexually S. mansoni-infected mice was observed. This suggests that the positive immunomodulatory effect on the granulomogenesis is worm specific and not likely to be due to arousal of the immune system by unrelated factors, nor is it influenced by the gender or degree of maturation of female worms. At all stages in time, the concanavalin A binding-fraction-induced granulomas reached only 65 to 70% of the volume of SEA-induced granulomas. Immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins around deposited heads revealed that fibronectin was the dominant extracellular matrix protein and that also type I and IV collagen and laminin were deposited. Temporal analysis of the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-6 was performed. Morphological evidence is presented for the role of adhesion molecules in the initiation and maintenance of hepatic granuloma formation. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was expressed in the granuloma and in hepatic artery branches. From these data, it is concluded that adult S. mansoni worms positively modulate schistosomal hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Adhesion molecules and chemokines play important roles in schistosomal granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176396

  13. Identification of an immunoglobulin A binding motif located in the beta-antigen of the c protein complex of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Jerlström, P G; Talay, S R; Valentin-Weigand, P; Timmis, K N; Chhatwal, G S

    1996-01-01

    The beta-antigen of the c protein complex of group B streptococci contains two immunoglobulin A (IgA)-binding domains called A and B. A 73-amino-acid segment in domain A is responsible for most of the IgA-binding activity. To identify the IgA binding motif, the 73-amino-acid domain was divided into 60 14-amino-acid overlapping peptides spot synthesized onto a cellulose membrane. A 20-residue putative antigenic epitope was identified and expressed as a fusion protein. The fusion protein was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography and used to raise rabbit antiserum. By use of a membrane with spot-synthesized peptide amino acids of decreasing length (from 14 to 6 amino acids), the major antigenic epitope recognized by the anti-fusion protein antibodies was mapped to motif MLKKIE. Anti-fusion protein antibodies inhibited the binding of IgA to group B streptococci. This inhibition could be blocked by the peptide containing the motif MLKKIE. These results indicate that the motif MLKKIE is located in the IgA-binding site. The IgA-binding domain of beta-antigen from three group B streptococcal strains reacted with the anti-fusion protein antibodies, and their coding sequences gave positive signals in Southern hybridization. The sequences of beta-antigen from these strains were amplified by PCR, and sequence analysis showed them to be identical. The results indicate that the motif MLKKIE is required for IgA binding and is present in different group B streptococcal strains. PMID:8698509

  14. dbDiarrhea: the database of pathogen proteins and vaccine antigens from diarrheal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ramana, Jayashree; Tamanna

    2012-12-01

    Diarrhea occurs world-wide and is most commonly caused by gastrointestinal infections which kill around 2.2 million people globally each year, mostly children in developing countries. We describe here dbDiarrhea, which is currently the most comprehensive catalog of proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrhea caused by major bacterial, viral and parasitic species. The current release of the database houses 820 proteins gleaned through an extensive and critical survey of research articles from PubMed. The major contributors to this compendium of proteins are Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These proteins are classified into different categories such as Type III secretion system effectors, Type III secretion system components, and Pathogen proteins. There is another complementary module called 'Host proteins'. dbDiarrhea also serves as a repository of the research articles describing (1) trials of subunit and whole organism vaccines (2) high-throughput screening of Type III secretion system inhibitors and (3) diagnostic assays, for various diarrheal pathogens. The database is web accessible through an intuitive user interface that allows querying proteins and research articles for different organism, keywords and accession number. Besides providing the search facility through browsing, the database supports sequence similarity search with the BLAST tool. With the rapidly burgeoning global burden of the diarrhea, we anticipate that this database would serve as a source of useful information for furthering research on diarrhea. The database can be freely accessed at http://www.juit.ac.in/attachments/dbdiarrhea/diarrhea_home.html. PMID:22917656

  15. The CAP superfamily: cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins--roles in reproduction, cancer, and immune defense.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Gerard M; Roelants, Kim; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2008-12-01

    The cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP) superfamily members are found in a remarkable range of organisms spanning each of the animal kingdoms. Within humans and mice, there are 31 and 33 individual family members, respectively, and although many are poorly characterized, the majority show a notable expression bias to the reproductive tract and immune tissues or are deregulated in cancers. CAP superfamily proteins are most often secreted and have an extracellular endocrine or paracrine function and are involved in processes including the regulation of extracellular matrix and branching morphogenesis, potentially as either proteases or protease inhibitors; in ion channel regulation in fertility; as tumor suppressor or prooncogenic genes in tissues including the prostate; and in cell-cell adhesion during fertilization. This review describes mammalian CAP superfamily gene expression profiles, phylogenetic relationships, protein structural properties, and biological functions, and it draws into focus their potential role in health and disease. The nine subfamilies of the mammalian CAP superfamily include: the human glioma pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1), Golgi associated pathogenesis related-1 (GAPR1) proteins, peptidase inhibitor 15 (PI15), peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), CRISP LCCL domain containing 1 (CRISPLD1), CRISP LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2), mannose receptor like and the R3H domain containing like proteins. We conclude that overall protein structural conservation within the CAP superfamily results in fundamentally similar functions for the CAP domain in all members, yet the diversity outside of this core region dramatically alters target specificity and, therefore, the biological consequences. PMID:18824526

  16. Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin subunit B fusions with Streptococcus sobrinus antigens expressed by Salmonella typhimurium oral vaccine strains: importance of the linker for antigenicity and biological activities of the hybrid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E K; Clark-Curtiss, J E; Curtiss, R

    1993-01-01

    A set of vectors possessing the genes for aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) and the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-B) has been developed. These vectors allow operon or gene fusions of foreign gene epitopes at the C-terminal end of LT-B. Two groups of vectors have been constructed with and without leader sequences to facilitate placing of the foreign antigen in different cell compartments. Two Streptococcus sobrinus genes coding for principal colonization factors, surface protein antigen A (SpaA), and dextranase (Dex), have been fused into the 3' end of the LT-B gene. Resulting protein fusions of approximately 120 to 130 kDa are extremely well recognized by antibodies directed against both SpaA and Dex as well as against LT-B domains and retain the enzymatic activity of dextranase and the biological activity of LT-B in that they bind to GM1 gangliosides. Maximum antigenicity was obtained with the vector possessing an intervening linker of at least six amino acids with two proline residues. Some of the fusion proteins also exhibited another property of LT-B in that they were exported into the periplasm where they oligomerized. LT-B-SpaA and LT-B-Dex hybrid proteins are expressed stably and at a high level in avirulent Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains which are being used to investigate their immunogenicity and types of induced immune responses. The fusion vectors will also be useful for production and purification of LT-B fusion antigens to be used and evaluated in other vaccine compositions. Images PMID:8432584

  17. Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 of a Putative ABC Transporter as a Novel Vaccine Antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Jones, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a common respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with/without protein D of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis has become a high-priority pathogen in otitis media. For the development of antibacterial vaccines and therapies, substrate binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters are important targets. In this study, we identified and characterized a substrate binding protein, SBP2, of M. catarrhalis. Among 30 clinical isolates tested, the sbp2 gene sequence was highly conserved. In 2 different analyses (whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry), polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant SBP2 demonstrated that SBP2 expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the sbp2 mutant. Mice immunized with recombinant SBP2 showed significantly enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lung compared to that in the control group at both 25-?g and 50-?g doses (P < 0.001). We conclude that SBP2 is a novel, attractive candidate as a vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis. PMID:24914218

  18. The Encapsulation of Hemagglutinin in Protein Bodies Achieves a Stronger Immune Response in Mice than the Soluble Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Anna; Melnik, Stanislav; Tschofen, Marc; Arcalis, Elsa; Phan, Hoang T.; Gresch, Ulrike; Lampel, Johannes; Conrad, Udo; Stoger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Zein is a water-insoluble polymer from maize seeds that has been widely used to produce carrier particles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules. We encapsulated a recombinant model vaccine antigen in newly formed zein bodies in planta by generating a fusion construct comprising the ectodomain of hemagglutinin subtype 5 and the N-terminal part of γ-zein. The chimeric protein was transiently produced in tobacco leaves, and H5-containing protein bodies (PBs) were used to immunize mice. An immune response was achieved in all mice treated with H5-zein, even at low doses. The fusion to zein markedly enhanced the IgG response compared the soluble H5 control, and the effect was similar to a commercial adjuvant. The co-administration of adjuvants with the H5-zein bodies did not enhance the immune response any further, suggesting that the zein portion itself mediates an adjuvant effect. While the zein portion used to induce protein body formation was only weakly immunogenic, our results indicate that zein-induced PBs are promising production and delivery vehicles for subunit vaccines. PMID:26909090

  19. Molecular cloning of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) identifies a type II integral membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, M A; Richardson, N E; Sayre, P H; Brown, N R; Masteller, E L; Clayton, L K; Ritz, J; Reinherz, E L

    1988-01-01

    Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is a 100-kDa cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on most acute lymphoblastic leukemias and certain other immature lymphoid malignancies and on normal lymphoid progenitors. The latter are either uncommitted to B- or T-cell lineage or committed to only the earliest stages of B- or T-lymphocyte maturation. To elucidate to homogeneity, obtained the NH2-terminal sequence from both the intact protein and derived tryptic and V8 protease peptides and isolated CALLA cDNAs from a Nalm-6 cell line lambda gt10 library using redundant oligonucleotide probes. The CALLA cDNA sequence predicts a 750-amino acid integral membrane protein with a single 24-amino acid hydrophobic segment that could function as both a transmembrane region and a signal peptide. The COOH-terminal 700 amino acids, including six potential N-linked glycosylation sites compose the extracellular protein segment, whereas the 25 NH2-terminal amino acids remaining after cleavage of the initiation methionine form the cytoplasmic tail. CALLA+ cells contain CALLA transcripts of 2.7 to 5.7 kilobases with the major 5.7- and 3.7-kilobase mRNAs being preferentially expressed in specific cell types. Images PMID:2968607

  20. Retention of structure, antigenicity, and biological function of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) released from polyanhydride nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Haughney, Shannon L.; Petersen, Latrisha K.; Schoofs, Amy D.; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; King, Janice; Briles, David; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a choline-binding protein which is a virulence factor found on the surface of all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Vaccination with PspA has been shown to be protective against a lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae, making it a promising immunogen for use in vaccines. Herein, the design of a PspA-based subunit vaccine using polyanhydride nanoparticles as a delivery platform is described. Nanoparticles based on sebacic acid (SA), 1,6-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH) and 1,8-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane (CPTEG), specifically 50:50 CPTEG:CPH and 20:80 CPH:SA, were used to encapsulate and release PspA. The protein released from the nanoparticle formulations retained its primary and secondary structure as well as its antigenicity. The released PspA was also biologically functional based on its ability to bind to apolactoferrin and prevent its bactericidal activity towards Escherichia coli. When the PspA nanoparticle formulations were administered subcutaneously to mice, the animals elicited a high titer and high avidity anti-PspA antibody response. Together, these studies provide a framework for the rational design of a vaccine against S. pneumoniae based on polyanhydride nanoparticles. PMID:23774257

  1. Vaccination of mice with an antigenic serine protease-like protein elicits a protective immune response against Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuang; Wu, Xiuping; Wang, Xuelin; Bai, Xue; Shi, Haining; Tang, Bin; Liu, Xiaolei; Song, Yanxia; Boireau, Pascal; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Mingyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trichinellosis has major economic impacts on animal husbandry and food safety, and the control and elimination of trichinellosis is a major objective of veterinary medicine. A gene encoding serine protease of Trichinella spiralis (Ts-Adsp) was identified by immunoscreening an adult T. spiralis cDNA library. In this study, the recombinant Ts-Adsp protein (rTs-Adsp) was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. To determine whether the purified rTs-Adsp is a potential vaccine candidate for the control of T. spiralis infection, we immunized BALB/c mice with this protein in combination with an alum adjuvant and subsequently challenged with T. spiralis larvae. The results showed that mice vaccinated with rTs-Adsp exhibited an average reduction in the muscle larvae burden of 46.5% relative to the control group. Immunization with the rTs-Adsp antigen induced both humoral and cellular immune responses, which manifested as elevated specific anti-rTs-Adsp IgG and IgE antibodies and a mixed Th1-Th2 response, as determined by Th1 (IFN-? and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokine profiling, with the Th2 predominant. Thus, purified rTs-Adsp is able to limit the invasion of T. spiralis , and this protein could be an effective vaccine candidate for trichinellosis. PMID:23252743

  2. The human DNA-activated protein kinase phosphorylates simian virus 40 T antigen at amino- and carboxy-terminal sites.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y R; Lees-Miller, S P; Tegtmeyer, P; Anderson, C W

    1991-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation modulates the functions of simian virus 40 large T antigen (TAg) in productive and transforming infections. We recently described a DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) that efficiently phosphorylates TAg and several other nuclear, DNA-binding proteins in vitro (S.P. Lees-Miller, Y.-R. Chen, and C. W. Anderson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:6472-6481, 1990). In this report, we show by direct amino acid sequence analysis that DNA-PK phosphorylates TAg strongly at Ser-677, a residue known to be important for TAg interaction with origin site I and for transformation. We propose that DNA-PK may modulate the role of TAg in repressing early viral transcription and cell transformation, but a role for DNA-PK in regulating simian virus 40 DNA synthesis is not excluded. DNA-PK also phosphorylates Ser-665, and Ser-667, and one or more serines between amino acids 110 and 131. At least six serines, Ser-111, Ser-112, Ser-120, Ser-665, Ser-667, and Ser-677, are phosphorylated in TAg purified from baculovirus vector-infected insect cells. Images PMID:1654434

  3. [Exposure of the major immunodominant epitope of the gp51 envelope protein of bovine leukosis virus on the surface of the hepatitis B core antigen capsid].

    PubMed

    Ul'rikh, R; Borisova, G P; Siakkou, Kh; Plattser, K; Ose, V P; Berzin', I G; Dre?linia, D E; Pushko, P M; Tsibinogin, V V; Pumpen, P P

    1991-01-01

    Insertion of 48 amino acid long sequence of envelope protein gp51 of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), located from position 56 till 103 of mature protein, into Pro144 position of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) leads to the formation of chimeric capsids. These capsids preserve morphology of intact HBcAg but expose on their outer surface BLV epitopes which are localised in the inserted gp51 fragment and responsible for the recognition of chimeras by monoclonal anti-gp51 antibodies MAK14. The anti-genicity of gp51 epitopes within chimeric capsids is not disturbed after shortening of C terminal part of inserted gp51 fragment by deletion of amino acids 73-103. The resulting chimeras show the same capsid-forming ability as well as HBcAg and gp51 antigenic properties. PMID:1715509

  4. Major Trypanosoma cruzi antigenic determinant in Chagas' heart disease shares homology with the systemic lupus erythematosus ribosomal P protein epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Mesri, E A; Levitus, G; Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz, M; Dighiero, G; Van Regenmortel, M H; Levin, M J

    1990-01-01

    A Trypanosoma cruzi lambda gt11 cDNA clone, JL5, expressed a recombinant protein which was found to react predominantly with chronic Chagas' heart disease sera. The cloned 35-residue-long peptide was identified as the carboxyl-terminal portion of a T. cruzi ribosomal P protein. The JL5 13 carboxyl-terminal residues shared a high degree of homology with the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ribosomal P protein epitope. Synthetic peptides comprising the 13 (R-13), 10 (R-10), and 7 (R-7) carboxyl-terminal residues of the JL5 protein were used to study, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the specificity of the Chagas' disease anti-JL5 and SLE anti-P antibodies. The R-13 peptide defined a linear antigenic determinant of the JL5 recombinant protein. As was proved for JL5, R-13 defined antibody specificities which were significantly increased in chronic Chagas' heart disease patients. Only SLE anti-P positive sera were found to react with JL5 and R-13. Fine epitope mapping showed that Chagas' disease anti-JL5 and SLE anti-P antibodies define similar epitopes within the R-13 peptide. The binding of the SLE sera to JL5 was completely blocked by the R-13 peptide, indicating that the shared specificity between anti-JL5 and anti-P autoantibodies was exclusively limited to the conserved linear epitope(s) within the R-13 peptide. The prevalence of high anti-R-13 antibody titers in Chagas' heart disease patients supports the hypothesis that postulates the existence of autoimmune disorders in Chagas' heart disease. PMID:1696282

  5. Antigen 43/Fc?3 chimeric protein expressed by a novel bacterial surface expression system as an effective asthma vaccine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng-Ying; Wang, Cai-Chun; Huang, Yong-Hao; Zhao, Huan-Ge; Guo, Jun-Li; Zhou, Song-Lin; Wang, Hua; Lin, Ying-Ying; Tan, Guang-Hong

    2014-10-01

    The IgE Fc?3 domain is an active immunotherapeutic target for asthma and other allergic diseases. However, previous methods for preparing IgE fusion protein vaccines are complex. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a surface protein found in Escherichia coli that contains ? and ? subunits (the ? subunit contains multiple T epitopes). Here we constructed a novel Ag43 surface display system (Ag43 system) to express Ag43 chimeric proteins to disrupt immune tolerance against IgE. The Ag43 system was constructed from the E. coli strain Tan109, in which the Ag43 gene was deleted and a recombinant plasmid (pETAg43) expressing a partial Ag43 gene was introduced. The Fc?3 domain of the IgE gene was then subcloned into plasmid pETAg43, resulting in a recombinant plasmid pETAg43/Fc?3, which was used to transform Tan109 for Ag43/Fc?3 surface expression. Thereafter, Ag43/Fc?3 was investigated as an asthma vaccine in a mouse model. Ag43/Fc?3 was expressed on and could be separated from the bacterial surface by heating to 60° while retaining activity. Ag43/Fc?3, as a protein vaccine, produced neutralizing autoantibodies to murine IgE, induced significant anti-asthma effects, and regulated IgE and T helper cytokines in a murine asthma model. Data show that Ag43/Fc?3 chimeric protein is a potential model vaccine for asthma treatment, and that the Ag43 system may be an effective tool for novel vaccine preparation to break immune tolerance to other self-molecules. PMID:24750112

  6. T-cell Intracellular Antigen (TIA)-Proteins Deficiency in Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts Alters Cell Cycle Progression and Induces Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Carmen; Izquierdo, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking either T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) or TIA1 related/like protein (TIAR/TIAL1) show high rates of embryonic lethality, suggesting a relevant role for these proteins during embryonic development. However, intrinsic molecular and cellular consequences of either TIA1 or TIAR deficiency remain poorly defined. By using genome-wide expression profiling approach, we demonstrate that either TIA1 or TIAR inactivation broadly alter normal development-associated signalling pathways in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Indeed, these analyses highlighted alterations of cytokine-cytokine and ECM-receptor interactions and Wnt, MAPK, TGF-beta dependent signalling pathways. Consistent with these results, TIA1 and TIAR knockout (KO) MEF show reduced rates of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression delay and increased cell size. Furthermore, TIA-proteins deficiency also caused metabolic deficiencies, increased ROS levels and DNA damage, promoting a gentle rise of cell death. Concomitantly, high rates of autophagy were detected in both TIA1 and TIAR KO MEF with induction of the formation of autophagosomes, as evidenced by the up-regulation of the LC3B protein, and autolysosomes, measured by colocalization of LC3B and LAMP1, as a survival mechanism attempt. Taken together, these observations support that TIA proteins orchestrate a transcriptome programme to activate specific developmental decisions. This program is likely to contribute to mouse physiology starting at early stages of the embryonic development. TIA1/TIAR might function as cell sensors to maintain homeostasis and promote adaptation/survival responses to developmental stress. PMID:24086455

  7. Conserved epitope on several human vitamin K-dependent proteins: location of the antigenic site and influence of metal ions on antibody binding

    SciTech Connect

    Church, W.R.; Messier, T.; Howard, P.R.; Amiral, J.; Meyer, D.; Mann, K.G.

    1988-05-05

    A murine monoclonal antibody (designated H-11) produced by injecting mice with purified human protein C was found to bind several human vitamin K-dependent proteins. Using a solid-phase competitive radioimmunoassay with antibody immobilized onto microtiter plates, binding of /sup 125/I-labeled protein C to the antibody was inhibited by increasing amounts of protein C, prothrombin, and Factors X and VII over a concentration range of 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 1 x 10/sup -6/ M. Chemical treatment of prothrombin with a variety of agents did not destroy the antigenic site recognized by the antibody as measured by immunoblotting of prothrombin or prothrombin derivative immobilized onto nitrocellulose. Immunoblotting of purified vitamin K-dependent polypeptides with the monoclonal antibody following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose indicated that the antigenic site was found on the light chains of protein C and Factor X. The exact location of the antigenic determinant for antibody H-11 was established using synthetic peptides. Comparison of protein sequences of bovine and human vitamin K-dependent proteins suggests that the sequence Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Xaa-Arg/Lys is required for antibody binding. Increasing concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, or Mn/sup 2 +/ partially inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-protein C to the antibody in a solid-phase assay system with half-maximal binding observed at divalent metal ion concentrations of 2, 4, and 0.6 mM, respectively. The antigenic site thus recognized by monoclonal antibody H-11 is located at the amino-terminal region in the highly conserved ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid-containing domains of several, but not all, vitamin K-dependent proteins.

  8. The effect of PS-K, a protein bound polysaccharide, on immune responses against allogeneic antigens.

    PubMed

    Ehrke, M J; Reino, J M; Eppolito, C; Mihich, E

    1983-01-01

    A single dose of PS-K administered to C57B1/6J mice after immunization augmented both the humoral and cellular allogeneic responses against P815 tumor cells. PS-K addition to primary alloantigen sensitization cultures (C57B1/6J spleen cells against X-irradiated P815 cells) resulted in augmented 3H-thymidine uptake and cell mediated cytolytic activity. Ten daily administrations of PS-K to DBA/2J mice after implantation of a mammary tumor of DBA/2HaDD origin results in increased tumor regression and prolonged survival of the mice. PS-K addition to human mixed lymphocyte cultures caused an augmentation of both cell mediated cytolytic activity and 3H thymidine uptake. The dose dependence of the PS-K effects were described by a bell shaped curve and PS-K did not appear to affect the day of peak development of the various responses. The effects were consistently greater if PS-K was administered at the same time or after antigen presentation. Thus, the immunoaugmenting effects induced by PS-K were similar in each model system tested. PMID:6220984

  9. The serological response of the chicken to a protein antigen in multiple emulsion oil adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    In adult chickens administration of 4 mg of bovine serum albumin as a multiple emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) by the s.c., i.m. or i.p. route stimulated a persistent precipitin response that was still detectable in nine out of twelve birds when the experiment was terminated 286 days after injection. In each group the mean serum total antibody response curve was biphasic. An initial rapid response, reaching a peak of 350–500 ?g antibody N/ml of serum on day 7–9, declined in fluctuating fashion and was succeeded after 30–60 days by a slower sustained rise in antibody level, reaching a peak similar to that of the initial response. Splenectomy impaired precipitin production, delayed and suppressed the initial phase of antibody synthesis, but did not significantly alter the second phase. Synthesis during the secondary phase is considered to proceed in the granulomata where, in contrast to other tissues of the body, antigen remains in readily detectable amounts for several weeks after injection. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4202421

  10. Immunodominant antigens in Naegleria fowleri excretory--secretory proteins were potential pathogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Ae-Hee; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Daesik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2009-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous pathogenic free-living amoeba, is the most virulent species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in laboratory animals and humans. The parasite secretes various inducing molecules as biological responses, which are thought to be involved in pathophysiological and immunological events during infection. To investigate what molecules of N. fowleri excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) are related with amoebic pathogenicity, N. fowleri ESPs fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis were reacted with N. fowleri infection or immune sera. To identify immunodominant ESPs, six major protein spots were selected and analyzed by N-terminal sequencing. Finally, six proteins, 58, 40, 24, 21, 18, and 16 kDa of molecular weight, were partially cloned and matched with reference proteins as follow: 58 kDa of exendin-3 precursor, 40 kDa of secretory lipase, 24 kDa of cathepsin B-like proteases and cysteine protease, 21 kDa of cathepsin B, 18 kDa of peroxiredoxin, and 16 kDa of thrombin receptor, respectively. These results suggest that N. fowleri ESPs contained important proteins, which may play an important role in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri. PMID:19756751

  11. BABESIA BOVIS MEROZOITE SURFACE ANTIGEN 1 AND RHOPTRY-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1 ARE EXPRESSED IN SPOROZOITES, AND SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES INHIBIT SPOROZOITE ATTACHMENT TO ERYTHROCYTES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sporozoites of Babesia bovis were examined for the expression of merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) and rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1), two molecules postulated to be involved in the invasion of host erythrocytes. Both MSA-1 and RAP-1 were transcribed and expressed in infectious sporozoites....

  12. The effects of serial skin testing with purified protein derivative on the level and quality of antibodies to complex and defined antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several serologic tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when applied after injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin test that signific...

  13. Protein shift and antigenic variation in the S-layer of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis during bovine infection accompanied by genomic rearrangement of sapA homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M M; Lutze-Wallace, C L; Denes, A S; Eaglesome, M D; Holst, E; Blaser, M J

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from a case of human vaginosis was inoculated into the uterus of a C. fetus-negative heifer. Isolates obtained weekly from the vaginal mucus exhibited variations in high-molecular-mass-protein profiles from that of the original inoculum, which had a dominant 110-kDa S-layer protein. Immunoblots of the weekly isolates with monoclonal antibody probes against the 110-kDa S-layer protein and other C. fetus S-layer proteins demonstrated antigenic shifts. Genomic digests of the isolates probed with a 75-mer oligonucleotide of the conserved sapA region also indicated that antigenic variation of the S-layer is accompanied by DNA rearrangement. PMID:7721688

  14. Protein shift and antigenic variation in the S-layer of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis during bovine infection accompanied by genomic rearrangement of sapA homologs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M M; Lutze-Wallace, C L; Denes, A S; Eaglesome, M D; Holst, E; Blaser, M J

    1995-04-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from a case of human vaginosis was inoculated into the uterus of a C. fetus-negative heifer. Isolates obtained weekly from the vaginal mucus exhibited variations in high-molecular-mass-protein profiles from that of the original inoculum, which had a dominant 110-kDa S-layer protein. Immunoblots of the weekly isolates with monoclonal antibody probes against the 110-kDa S-layer protein and other C. fetus S-layer proteins demonstrated antigenic shifts. Genomic digests of the isolates probed with a 75-mer oligonucleotide of the conserved sapA region also indicated that antigenic variation of the S-layer is accompanied by DNA rearrangement. PMID:7721688

  15. Antigenic Proteins Involved in Occupational Rhinitis and Asthma Caused by Obeche Wood (Triplochiton Scleroxylon)

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Ana; Campo, Paloma; Palacin, Arantxa; Doña, Inmaculada; Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Galindo, Luisa; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Blanca, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Obeche wood dust is a known cause of occupational asthma where an IgE-mediated mechanism has been demonstrated. Objective To characterize the allergenic profile of obeche wood dust and evaluate the reactivity of the proteins by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays in carpenters with confirmed rhinitis and/or asthma Materials and methods An in-house obeche extract was obtained, and two IgE binding bands were purified (24 and 12 kDa) and sequenced by N-terminal identity. Specific IgE and IgG, basophil activation tests and skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with whole extract and purified proteins. CCD binding was analyzed by ELISA inhibition studies. Results Sixty-two subjects participated: 12 with confirmed occupational asthma/rhinitis (ORA+), 40 asymptomatic exposed (ORA?), and 10 controls. Of the confirmed subjects, 83% had a positive SPT to obeche. There was a 100% recognition by ELISA in symptomatic subjects vs. 30% and 10% in asymptomatic exposed subjects and controls respectively (p<0.05). Two new proteins were purified, a 24 kDa protein identified as a putative thaumatin-like protein and a 12 kDa gamma-expansin. Both showed allergenic activity in vitro, with the putative thaumatin being the most active, with 92% recognition by ELISA and 100% by basophil activation test in ORA+ subjects. Cross-reactivity due to CCD was ruled out in 82% of cases. Conclusions Two proteins of obeche wood were identified and were recognized by a high percentage of symptomatic subjects and by a small proportion of asymptomatic exposed subjects. Further studies are required to evaluate cross reactivity with other plant allergens. PMID:23349765

  16. Immunogenic protein variations of Clostridium chauvoei cellular antigens associated with the culture growth phase.

    PubMed

    Mattar, María Aída; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; de Guzmán, Ana María Stefanini

    2002-03-25

    The immunoprotective capacity of four Clostridium chauvoei strains at different growth stages is reported. In all the strains tested, the cells coming from the stationary phase were those with the highest immunoprotective capacity and, depending on the strain, this protective capacity diminished or even disappeared in other phases. Protein profiles were similar in all the strains and few proteins were differentially expressed during growth as shown by SDS-PAGE. For strain 17, a local strain, a clear relationship was observed between the diminution of immunogenicity and the total loss of protective capacity of sonicated cells at late stationary phase. PMID:11985962

  17. Amino terminus of Plasmodium falciparum acidic basic repeat antigen interacts with the erythrocyte membrane through band 3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Ashima; Perween, Ashiya; Mukund, Susmith; Majumdar, Suman; Bhardwaj, Devesh; Chowdhury, Nirupam Roy; Chauhan, Virander S

    2002-06-01

    The acidic basic repeat antigen (ABRA) of Plasmodium falciparum is localised in the parasitophorous vacuole, and associates with the merozoite surface at the time of schizont rupture. By virtue of its protease-like activity, it is implicated in the process of merozoite invasion and schizont rupture, and therefore, possibly interacts with erythrocyte membrane proteins to execute its function during these events. In this study, using Escherichia coli expressed recombinant fragments of ABRA, we have demonstrated that ABRA interacts with red blood cells through its N-terminus. Out of the four human erythrocyte proteins tested, namely, band 3, glycophorin A and B and spectrin, ABRA showed dose-dependent and saturable binding with the band 3 protein. This binding was lost on chymotrypsin treatment of erythrocytes or their membrane extract. Studies with the deletion constructs of the N-terminus revealed that the binding domain lies in the cysteine-rich N-proximal region of ABRA. In addition to the recombinant fragments, native ABRA derived from the P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes also showed binding to band 3 protein. Sequencing of the cysteine-rich 528 bp region, amplified from fifteen field isolates of P. falciparum, showed that not only the five cysteines of mature ABRA but also the whole sequence is fully conserved, even at the nucleotide level. This sequence conservation of the N-terminus and its role in RBC binding suggests that this region may be crucial for any putative function of ABRA, therefore emphasising its importance as a vaccine/drug target. PMID:12076769

  18. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOTTM). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98 Å reveals a trimer that forms an α-helical tunnel and a β-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-β-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen. PMID:26563565

  19. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOT(TM)). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98 Å reveals a trimer that forms an α-helical tunnel and a β-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-β-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen. PMID:26563565

  20. Effects of glycosylation on antigenicity and immunogenicity of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) harbors three envelope glycoproteins (E(rns), E1 and E2). Previous studies have demonstrated that removal of specific glycosylation sites within these proteins yielded attenuated and immunogenic CSFV mutants. Here we analyzed the effects of lack of glycosylation of...

  1. Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

  2. Specific nongluten proteins of wheat are novel target antigens in celiac disease humoral response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy that is generally understood to be triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins of wheat and related cereals. The skin manifestation of the condition is known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Antibody response to native and deamidated seque...

  3. Envelope protein complexes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and their antigenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...

  4. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  5. Immunohistochemical distribution of heat shock protein 70 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse placenta at different gestational stages.

    PubMed

    Ozaydin, Tugba; Sur, Emrah; Oznurlu, Yasemin; Celik, Ilhami; Uluisik, Deniz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemical distribution of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the mouse placenta at different gestational stages. For this purpose a total of 18 Swiss albino female mice at 12-14 weeks of age were used. Females were sacrificed on days 3 (early), 10 (mid-), and 17 (late) of pregnancy and the implantation sites of the pregnant uterus were sampled. The sections were made transversely through the central region of the implantation site and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examination. PCNA and Hsp70 was stained immunohistochemically. Since the definitive placenta was not still formed on day 3 of pregnancy, Hsp70 and PCNA positivity were evaluated in only luminal epithelium and decidual-stromal cells. On days 10 and 17 of pregnancy, Hsp70 and PCNA positivity were evaluated in labyrinth zone, junctional zone and decidual layer of placenta. Hsp70 expression was observed trophoblast cells and decidual cells and was relatively constant throughout the pregnancy. This protein was strongly labeled in the trophoblast cells; while decidual cells were displayed moderate staining. In early pregnant mouse uteri, PCNA was mainly localized in decidual-stromal cells. The trophoblast cells and decidual cells displayed highly proliferative activity at the midgestational period. However there was a significant decrease in the percentage of PCNA positive cells in late gestation. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799792

  6. In silico design, cloning and high level expression of L7/L12-TOmp31 fusion protein of Brucella antigens.

    PubMed

    Golshani, Maryam; Rafati, Sima; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Nejati-Moheimani, Mehdi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Globally, Brucella melitensis and B. abortus are the most common cause of human brucellosis. The outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) and L7/L12 are immunodominant and protective antigens conserved in human Brucella pathogens which are considered as potential vaccine candidates. We aimed to design the fusion protein from Brucella L7/L12 and truncated Omp31proteins, in silico, clone the fusion in pET28a vector, and express it in Escherichia coli host. Two possible fusion forms, L7/L12-TOmp31 and TOmp31-L7/L12 were subjected to in silico modeling and analysis. Analysis and validation of the fusion proteins with three dimensional (3D) models showed that both models are in the range of native proteins. However, L7/L12-Tomp31 structure was more valid than the TOmp31-L7/L12 model and subjected to in vitro production. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) epitope mapping using IEDB database indicated that the model contained good MHC II binders. The L7/L12-TOmp31 coding sequence was cloned in pET28a vector. The integrity of the construct was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, restriction enzyme mapping, and sequencing. The fusion was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) by induction with isopropyl ?-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The rL7/L12-TOmp31 was purified with Ni-NTA column. The yield of the purified rL7/L12-TOmp31 was estimated by Bradford method and found to be 40 mg/L of the culture. Western blotting with anti-His antibody revealed a specific reactivity with purified rL7/L12-TOmp31 produced in E. coli and showed the functional expression in the prokaryotic system. In this study, a new protein vaccine candidate against brucellosis was constructed with the help of bioinformatics tools and the construct was expressed in the bacterial host. Studies evaluating the immunogenicity and cross-protection of this fusion protein against B. melitensis and B. abortus are underway. PMID:26752992

  7. Comparative evaluation of recombinant LigB protein and heat-killed antigen-based latex agglutination test with microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Mohandoss; Thirumalesh, Sushma Rahim Assadi; Kalleshamurthy, Triveni; Niharika, Nakkala; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Shome, Rajeswari; Sengupta, Pinaki Prasad; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to develop latex agglutination test (LAT) using recombinant leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein (LigB) (rLigB) antigen and compare its diagnostic efficacy with LAT using conventional heat-killed leptospiral antigen and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in diagnosing bovine leptospirosis. The PCR-amplified 1053-bp ligB gene sequences from Leptospira borgpetersenii Hardjo serovar were cloned in pET 32 (a) vector at EcoRI and NotI sites and expressed in BL21 E. coli cells as fusion protein with thioredoxin (-57 kDa) and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. Out of 390 serum samples [cattle (n = 214), buffaloes (n = 176)] subjected to MAT, 115 samples showed reciprocal titre≥100 up to 1600 against one or more serovars. For recombinant LigB protein/antigen-based LAT, agglutination was observed in the positive sample, while no agglutination was observed in the negative sample. Similarly, heat-killed leptospiral antigen was prepared from and used in LAT for comparison with MAT. A two-sided contingency table was used for analysis of LAT using both the antigens separately against MAT for 390 serum samples. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of recombinant LigB LAT were found to be 75.65, 91.27, 78.38 and 89.96 %, respectively, and that of heat-killed antigen-based LAT were 72.17, 89.82, 74.77 and 88.53 %, respectively, in comparison with MAT. This developed test will be an alternative/complementary to the existing battery of diagnostic assays/tests for specific detection of pathogenic Leptospira infection in bovine population. PMID:26065562

  8. Antigenicity of recombinant maltose binding protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins with and without factor Xa cleaving

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that MAP expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such prot...

  9. GILT Accelerates Autoimmunity to the Melanoma Antigen Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Matthew P.; Irvine, Kari R.; Antony, Paul A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Cresswell, Peter; Hastings, K. Taraszka

    2011-01-01

    Melanocyte differentiation Ags, including tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, are relevant to both autoimmune skin depigmentation (vitiligo) and tumor immunity, because they are expressed by both benign melanocytes and many malignant melanomas. Melanoma patients generate CD4+ T cells that specifically recognize these proteins. TRP1 contains internal disulfide bonds and is presented by MHC class II molecules. ?-IFN–inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) facilitates the generation of class II-binding peptides by the endocytic reduction of protein disulfide bonds. We show in this study that GILT is required for efficient MHC class II-restricted processing of a TRP1 epitope in vitro and accelerates the onset of vitiligo in TRP1-specific TCR transgenic mice. The presence of GILT confers a small increase in the percentage of autoreactive T cells with an effector memory phenotype that may contribute to earlier disease onset. The onset of vitiligo is associated with a greater increase in the percentage of autoreactive T cells with an effector memory phenotype. Given that many self and tumor Ags have disulfide bonds and are presented on MHC class II, GILT is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of other CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and for the development of effective cancer immunotherapy. PMID:20668223

  10. Testis-expressed protein TSGA10 an auto-antigen in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Reimand, Koit; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Link, Maire; Krohn, Kai; Peterson, Pärt; Uibo, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive disorder. Autoimmune gonadal failure is often one of its features. The aim of this study was to identify targets of immune reactions associated with male autoimmune hypogonadism in APS1. Human testis cDNA expression library immunoscreening with APS1 patients' sera identified the protein testis-specific protein 10 (TSGA10), which is a testis-expressed protein with a key role in spermatogenesis. The corresponding serum autoantibodies were detected by Radioimmunoprecipitation assay in 3 of 40 male (7.5%) and 2 of 26 female (7.7%) APS1 patients but in none of either 32 patients with Addison's disease or 116 healthy controls (p = 0.0055). However, the TSGA10 antibodies in APS1 patients showed no correlation with testicular or ovarian failure or with autoimmune hypogonadism markers. Nevertheless, their presence in a proportion of patients with APS1 highlights the role of TSGA10 as a target of immune reactions in APS1. PMID:18000009

  11. Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial Anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major surface protein 5-glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chungwon; Wilson, Carey; Bandaranayaka-Mudiyanselage, Chandima-Bandara; Kang, Eunah; Adams, D Scott; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Knowles, Donald P; McElwain, Terry F; Evermann, James F; Ueti, Massaro W; Scoles, Glen A; Lee, Stephen S; McGuire, Travis C

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein (MBP) from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of a commercial Anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The number of 358 sera with significant MBP antibody binding (?30%I) in Anaplasma-negative herds was 139 (38.8%) when tested using the recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5)-MBP cELISA without MBP adsorption. All but 8 of the MBP binders were rendered negative (<30%I) using the commercial rMSP5-MBP cELISA with MBP adsorption, resulting in 97.8% specificity. This specificity was higher than some previous reports, so to improve the specificity of the commercial cELISA, a new recombinant antigen designated rMSP5-glutathione S-transferase (GST) was developed, eliminating MBP from the antigen and obviating the need for MBP adsorption. Using the rMSP5-GST cELISA, only 1 of 358 Anaplasma-negative sera, which included the 139 sera with significant (?30%I) MBP binding in the rMSP5-MBP cELISA without MBP adsorption, was positive. This resulted in an improved diagnostic specificity of 99.7%. The rMSP5-GST cELISA without MBP adsorption had comparable analytical sensitivity to the rMSP5-MBP cELISA with MBP adsorption and had 100% diagnostic sensitivity when tested with 135 positive sera defined by nested polymerase chain reaction. Further, the rMSP5-GST cELISA resolved 103 false-positive reactions from selected sera with possible false-positive reactions obtained using the rMSP5-MBP cELISA with MBP adsorption and improved the resolution of 29 of 31 other sera. In summary, the rMSP5-GST cELISA was a faster and simpler assay with higher specificity, comparable sensitivity, and improved resolution in comparison with the rMSP5-MBP cELISA with MBP adsorption. PMID:24318928

  12. [Prokaryotic expression of the major antigenic domain of equine arteritis virus GL protein and the establishment of putative indirect ELISA assay].

    PubMed

    Liang, Cheng-Zhu; Cao, Rui-Bing; Wei, Jian-Chao; Zhu, Lai-Hua; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2006-06-01

    According to the antigenic analysis of equine arteritis virus (EAV) GL protein, one pair of primers were designed, with which the gene fragment coding the high antigenic domain of EAV GL protein was amplified from the EAV genome. The cloned gene was digested with BamH I and Xho I and then inserted into pET-32a and resulted pET-GL1. The pET-GL1 was transformed into the host cell BL21(DE3) and the expression was optimized including cultivation temperature and concentration of IPTG. The aim protein was highly expressed and the obtained recombinant protein manifested well reactiongenicity as was confirmed by Western blot. The recombinant GL1 protein was purified by the means of His * Bind resin protein purification procedure. Then an indirect ELISA was established to detect antibody against EAV with the purified GL1 protein as the coating antigen. The result showed that the optimal concentration of coated antigen was 9.65 microg/mL and the optimal dilution of serum was 1:80. The positive criterion of this ELISA assay is OD (the tested serum) > 0.4 and OD (the tested serum) /OD (the negative serum) > 2.0. The iGL-ELISA was evaluated versus micro-virus neutralization test. The ELISA was performed on 900 sera from which were preserved by this lab during horse entry/exit inspection, the agreement (94.1%) of these test were considered suitable for individual serological detection. In another test which 180 sera samples were detected by iGL-ELISA and INGEZIM ELISA kit respectively. The agreement ratio between the two methods is 95.6%. PMID:16933616

  13. The cellular 107K protein that binds to adenovirus E1A also associates with the large T antigens of SV40 and JC virus.

    PubMed

    Dyson, N; Buchkovich, K; Whyte, P; Harlow, E

    1989-07-28

    The association between the retinoblastoma protein (p105-RB) and either the large T antigen of SV40 or the E1A proteins of adenovirus is thought to be an important step in transformation by these viral oncogenes. E1A and large T antigen share a small region of amino acid homology that is necessary for high affinity binding with p105-RB. Mutations of this homology region were shown to reduce drastically the frequency of transformation mediated by the E1A or large T oncogenes. Previously, this small region in E1A was shown to be sufficient for interaction with a second cellular protein of 107,000 daltons (107K). Here we show that in human cells, the large T antigens of SV40 or JC virus also form complexes with 107K. Demonstration of complexes between 107K and the large T antigens of SV40 and JC virus suggests that these associations may represent another component of a common mechanism for transformation between adenoviruses and polyoma viruses. PMID:2546678

  14. Potential role for Duffy antigen chemokine-binding protein in angiogenesis and maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianguo; Luan, Jing; Liu, Hua; Daniel, Thomas O.; Peiper, Stephen; Chen, Theresa S.; Yu, Yingchun; Horton, Linda W.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Strieter, Robert M.; Richmond, Ann

    2009-01-01

    CXC chemokines, which induce angiogenesis, have glutamine-leucine-arginine amino acid residues (ELR motif) in the amino terminus and bind CXCR2 and the Duffy antigen chemokine-binding protein. Duffy, a seven transmembrane protein that binds CXC and CC chemokines, has not been shown to couple to trimeric G proteins or to transduce intracellular signals, although it is highly expressed on red blood cells, endothelial cells undergoing neovascularization, and neuronal cells. The binding of chemokines by Duffy could modulate chemokine responses positively or negatively. Positive regulation could come through the presentation of chemokine to functional receptors, and negative regulation could come through Duffy competition with functional chemokine receptors for chemokine binding, thus serving as a decoy receptor. To determine whether Duffy has a role in angiogenesis and/or maintenance of homeostasis, we developed transgenic mice expressing mDuffy under the control of the preproendothelin promoter/enhancer (PPEP), which directs expression of the transgene to the endothelium. Two PPEP-mDuffy-transgenic founders were identified, and expression of the transgene in the endothelium was verified by Northern blot, RT-PCR, and immunostaining of tissues. The phenotype of the mice carrying the transgene appeared normal by all visual parameters. However, careful comparison of transgenic and nontransgenic mice revealed two phenotypic differences: mDuffy-transgenic mice exhibited a diminished angiogenic response to MIP-2 in the corneal micropocket assay, and mDuffy-transgenic mice exhibited enhanced hepatocellular toxicity and necrosis as compared with nontransgenic littermates in response to overdose of acetaminophen (APAP; 400 mg/kg body weight). Morover, APAP treatment was lethal in 50% of the mDuffy-transgenic mice 24 h post challenge, and 100% of the nontransgenic litter-mates survived this treatment at the 24 h time point. Our data suggest that enhanced expression of mDuffy on endothelial cells can lead to impaired angiogenic response to chemokines and impaired maintenance of homeostasis in response to toxic stresses. PMID:11781390

  15. Construction and characterization of isogenic mutants of Streptococcus mutans deficient in major surface protein antigen P1 (I/II).

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S F; Progulske-Fox, A; Erdos, G W; Piacentini, D A; Ayakawa, G Y; Crowley, P J; Bleiweis, A S

    1989-01-01

    The gene (spaP) coding for the Streptococcus mutans major surface protein antigen P1 (or I/II) has been cloned into Escherichia coli (S. F. Lee, A. Progulske-Fox, and A. S. Bleiweis, Infect. Immun. 56:2114-2119, 1988). In the present study, this gene has been disrupted in vitro by insertional inactivation with pVA981, which carries a Tcr marker, and transformed into S. mutans NG8 (serotype c) by electroporation. Upon homologous recombination, the defective spaP was integrated into the genome as demonstrated by Southern hybridization analysis. One Tcr mutant, designated 834, selected by its nonreactivity with anti-P1 monoclonal antibodies, was found to lack the cell surface fuzzy layer which was clearly present on the parent cells. Analysis of extracellular fluids, sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized membranes, and cytoplasmic fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that 834 had protein profiles identical to the parent. However, a 185-kilodalton protein which reacts with anti-P1 antibodies was missing from the wall of 834, suggesting that spaP has been specifically inactivated. This mutant displayed levels of glucosyltransferase and fructosyltransferase activities similar to those of the parent. It was much less hydrophobic than the parent. S. mutans NG8 aggregated readily in the presence of clarified whole saliva or a high-molecular-weight salivary agglutinin. This strain also adhered to agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite. The P1-negative mutants, however, did not display these two properties, suggesting that P1 may play a role in saliva-mediated aggregation and adherence. Images PMID:2807526

  16. Dynamic Detection of Anti-Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Antibodies but not HLA-DP Loci Mismatches Can Predict Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Overall Survival in HLA 12/12-Matched Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhijuan; Yuan, Xiaoni; Li, Yang; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhu, Wenjuan; Bao, Xiaojin; Zhao, Qinqin; He, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research provided guidelines for the use of anti-HLA antibodies and HLA-DP-mismatched loci in unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, a deeper understanding of other potentially useful biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes in HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DQA1 (12/12)-matched unrelated donor HSCT is needed to further improve clinical outcomes. We tested HLA genotyping for 123 pairs of patients and donors. Anti-HLA antibodies using the Luminex method was applied to 123, 117, and 106 serum samples collected before and 1 month and 3 months after transplantation. The presences of anti-HLA antibodies at the 3 time points were 37.4% (46 of 123), 40.2% (47 of 117), and 22.6% (24 of 106). Mismatch of HLA-DPB1 and/or DPA1 allele between patient-donor pairs was 83.6% (92 of 110). Patients with anti-HLA antibodies had delayed platelet recovery. The presence of anti-HLA antibodies and their dynamic changes after transplantation were associated with increased occurrence of grades II to IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), higher treatment-related mortality, and reduced overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival, especially in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Multivariate analysis showed that presence of anti-HLA antibodies before transplantation was a risk factor for GVHD and OS. Furthermore, HLA-DP loci-matched subgroup showed a trend towards a lower rate of acute GVHD and a higher OS in the anti-HLA Abs-negative group. Our results suggest that dynamic changes of anti-HLA antibodies independently predict for a negative outcome of HSCT, independent of HLA-DP loci mismatches. Routine monitoring for anti-HLA antibody dynamics should be conducted before and after HSCT. PMID:26283096

  17. WI-1, a novel 120-kilodalton surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells, is a target antigen of cell-mediated immunity in human blastomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B S; Sondel, P M; Jones, J M

    1992-01-01

    A large body of experimental data has demonstrated the central role of T cells in acquired resistance to the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. We examined the human T-cell response to WI-1, a 120-kDa B. dermatitidis yeast cell surface protein recently shown to be an immunodominant antigen of the B-cell response in infected humans. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 blastomycosis patients studied proliferated in response to WI-1 (mean, 19,431 cpm) and to the standard, crude cell wall antigen, Blastomyces alkali- and water-soluble antigen (B-ASWS) (mean, 19,131 cpm); lymphocytes from 10 histoplasmosis patients and 10 normal control subjects did not respond to WI-1. WI-1 stimulation of patient lymphocytes and rechallenge with WI-1 or B-ASWS showed that the antigens share immunodominant epitopes. Of 100 WI-1-responsive T-cell clones derived from peripheral blood, 10 were studied in detail to assess the phenotype, function, and ligands recognized. The clones exhibit the CD3+ CD4+ phenotype of helper T cells; 2 of 10 clones (and 21% of antigen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes) use the V beta 8 T-cell receptor gene element to respond to WI-1. All the clones proliferate in response to both WI-1 and B-ASWS but not other fungal antigens, and some mediate potent cytolytic effects on WI-1- and B-ASWS-labeled targets. WI-1 recognition requires antigen processing and presentation of epitopes in association with HLA-DR (to noncytolytic clones) and HLA-DP (to cytolytic clones). From these findings, we conclude that CD4+ T cells with regulatory and cytolytic properties are involved in the development of acquired resistance of B. dermatitidis, that the cells are directed against WI-1, and that the manner of display of WI-1 peptide epitopes in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex class II may influence the profile of the immune response. PMID:1383148

  18. Conformation study of HA(306-318) antigenic peptide of the haemagglutinin influenza virus protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, A.; Brito, R. M.; Alix, A. J. P.; Lancelin, J. M.; Carvalho, R. A.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Lakhdar-Ghazal, F.

    2006-11-01

    Several HLA-DR alleles present the immunodominant HA(306-318) peptide of haemagglutinin of the influenza virus to T cells. NMR data of the peptide in various water solutions exclude any ?-helix or turn conformations. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies indicate an estimated ?-extended structure in water of 31% and 28%, respectively, with spectra shape similar to the ones observed for ?-sheet containing proteins. The H/D amide exchange suggests a stable length-dependent interchain hydrogen-bonding. The partially ?-extended conformation of HA(306-318) in solution might be close to the one found in HA(306-318)-HLA-DR1 complex. These results suggest different interconverting extended conformations of HA(306-318), depending on the microenvironment of the solution medium. This flexibility emphasizes the ability of some peptides to fit more easily the binding site of several HLA-DR molecules. Similar results were obtained on the HIV P25(263-277) peptide which has been previously shown to be a good DR1 binder. From a vibrational point of view, infrared Amide I frequencies of secondary structures in peptides were ascertained. As previously demonstrated for proteins in solution, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopies appear to be valuable tools for conformational properties of peptides. Their use may contribute to the detection of peptide conformation-binding relationship which has to be further tested by biochemical and biological studies.

  19. Coadministration of the Three Antigenic Leishmania infantum Poly (A) Binding Proteins as a DNA Vaccine Induces Protection against Leishmania major Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Corvo, Laura; Garde, Esther; Ramírez, Laura; Iniesta, Virginia; Bonay, Pedro; Gómez-Nieto, Carlos; González, Víctor M.; Martín, M. Elena; Alonso, Carlos; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Background Highly conserved intracellular proteins from Leishmania have been described as antigens in natural and experimental infected mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the antigenicity and prophylactic properties of the Leishmania infantum Poly (A) binding proteins (LiPABPs). Methodology/Principal Findings Three different members of the LiPABP family have been described. Recombinant tools based on these proteins were constructed: recombinant proteins and DNA vaccines. The three recombinant proteins were employed for coating ELISA plates. Sera from human and canine patients of visceral leishmaniasis and human patients of mucosal leishmaniasis recognized the three LiPABPs. In addition, the protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine based on the combination of the three Leishmania PABPs has been tested in a model of progressive murine leishmaniasis: BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. The induction of a Th1-like response against the LiPABP family by genetic vaccination was able to down-regulate the IL-10 predominant responses elicited by parasite LiPABPs after infection in this murine model. This modulation resulted in a partial protection against L. major infection. LiPABP vaccinated mice showed a reduction on the pathology that was accompanied by a decrease in parasite burdens, in antibody titers against Leishmania antigens and in the IL-4 and IL-10 parasite-specific mediated responses in comparison to control mice groups immunized with saline or with the non-recombinant plasmid. Conclusion/Significance The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the prophylactic properties of a new family of Leishmania antigenic intracellular proteins, the LiPABPs. The redirection of the immune response elicited against the LiPABP family (from IL-10 towards IFN-γ mediated responses) by genetic vaccination was able to induce a partial protection against the development of the disease in a highly susceptible murine model of leishmaniasis. PMID:25955652

  20. A Protein-Conjugate Approach to Develop a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Detection Test for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash P.; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L.; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases. PMID:24901521

  1. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kailash P; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L; Rolán, Hortensia G; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases. PMID:24901521

  2. Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Baillie, Les W J; Zheng, Yishan; Lis, Elzbieta K; Savina, Irina N; Howell, Carol A; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R

    2015-05-01

    Polymeric cryogels are efficient carriers for the immobilization of biomolecules because of their unique macroporous structure, permeability, mechanical stability and different surface chemical functionalities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential use of macroporous monolithic cryogels for biotoxin removal using anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins, and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies. The affinity ligand (protein A) was chemically coupled to the reactive hydroxyl and epoxy-derivatized monolithic cryogels and the binding efficiencies of protein A, monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel column were determined. Our results show differences in the binding capacity of protein A as well as monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel adsorbents caused by ligand concentrations, physical properties and morphology of surface matrices. The cytotoxicity potential of the cryogels was determined by an in vitro viability assay using V79 lung fibroblast as a model cell and the results reveal that the cryogels are non-cytotoxic. Finally, the adsorptive capacities of PA from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated towards a non-glycosylated, plant-derived human monoclonal antibody (PANG) and a glycosylated human monoclonal antibody (Valortim(®)), both of which were covalently attached via protein A immobilization. Optimal binding capacities of 108 and 117 mg/g of antibody to the adsorbent were observed for PANG attached poly(acrylamide-allyl glycidyl ether) [poly(AAm-AGE)] and Valortim(®) attached poly(AAm-AGE) cryogels, respectively, This indicated that glycosylation status of Valortim(®) antibody could significantly increase (8%) its binding capacity relative to the PANG antibody on poly(AAm-AGE)-protien-A column (p < 0.05). The amounts of PA which remained in the solution after passing PA spiked PBS through PANG or Valortim bound poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased relative to the amount of PA remained in the solution after passing through unmodified as well as protein A modified poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel columns, indicates efficient PA removal from spiked PBS over 60 min of circulation. The high adsorption capacity towards anthrax toxin PA of the cryogel adsorbents indicated potential application of these materials for treatment of Bacillus anthracis infection. PMID:25736504

  3. Utilization of protein-A in immuno-histochemical techniques for detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus antigens in tissues of experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Abu Elzein, E M E; Al-Naeem, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes the first record of utilizing the S. aureus protein-A (PA), conjugated to peroxidase enzyme, for the detection of the Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus antigens in tissues of experimentally infected goats. The goats were experimentally infected with a virulent PPR virus, which was previously isolated from a severe natural disease outbreak in gazelles, during 2002 in Saudi Arabia. The technique is rapid, and has the superiority over the peroxidase -anti-peroxidase (PAP) test in that, inactivation of the indigenous peroxidase in the tissues is not required and that it can be used against a wide range of animal species. An advantage over the other immunolabelled conjugates is that PA attaches specifically to the crystalizable fraction (Fc) of the IgG molecule, thus allowing the antigen binding fraction (Fab) of the molecule, free to interact specifically with the antigen. So, it doesn't actually compete with the antigen for the Fab portion of the IgG molecule. In the present study, PA conjugate detected the PPR virus antigens in various tissues of the experimentally infected goats. PMID:19052895

  4. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infected cell proteins are among the most dominant antigens of a live-attenuated HSV-2 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Geltz, Joshua J; Gershburg, Edward; Halford, William P

    2015-01-01

    Virion glycoproteins such as glycoprotein D (gD) are believed to be the dominant antigens of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). We have observed that mice immunized with a live HSV-2 ICP0- mutant virus, HSV-2 0?NLS, are 10 to 100 times better protected against genital herpes than mice immunized with a HSV-2 gD subunit vaccine (PLoS ONE 6:e17748). In light of these results, we sought to determine which viral proteins were the dominant antibody-generators (antigens) of the live HSV-2 0?NLS vaccine. Western blot analyses indicated the live HSV-2 0?NLS vaccine elicited an IgG antibody response against 9 or more viral proteins. Many antibodies were directed against infected-cell proteins of >100 kDa in size, and only 10 ± 5% of antibodies were directed against gD. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of total HSV-2 antigen with 0?NLS antiserum pulled down 19 viral proteins. Mass spectrometry suggested 44% of immunoprecipitated viral peptides were derived from two HSV-2 infected cells proteins, RR-1 and ICP8, whereas only 14% of immunoprecipitated peptides were derived from HSV-2's thirteen glycoproteins. Collectively, the results suggest the immune response to the live HSV-2 0?NLS vaccine includes antibodies specific for infected cell proteins, capsid proteins, tegument proteins, and glycoproteins. This increased breadth of antibody-generating proteins may contribute to the live HSV-2 vaccine's capacity to elicit superior protection against genital herpes relative to a gD subunit vaccine. PMID:25658852

  5. The rhesus rotavirus outer capsid protein VP4 functions as a hemagglutinin and is antigenically conserved when expressed by a baculovirus recombinant.

    PubMed Central

    Mackow, E R; Barnett, J W; Chan, H; Greenberg, H B

    1989-01-01

    Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) gene 4 was cloned into lambda bacteriophage, inserted into a polyhedrin promoter shuttle plasmid, and expressed in Sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. The baculovirus-expressed VP4 protein made up approximately 5% of the Spodoptera frugiperda-infected cell protein. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize the virus bound to the expressed VP4 polypeptide, indicating that the expressed VP4 protein was antigenically indistinguishable from viral VP4. In addition, we have determined that the baculovirus-expressed VP4 protein bound to erythrocytes and functions as the RRV hemagglutinin. The endogenous hemagglutinating activity of the VP4 protein, like the virus, was inhibited by guinea pig antirotavirus hyperimmune serum and by VP4-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The human erythrocyte protein, glycophorin, also inhibited hemagglutination by RRV or the expressed VP4 protein and appears to be the rotavirus erythrocyte receptor. The baculovirus-expressed VP4 protein was conserved functionally and antigenically in the absence of other outer or inner capsid rotavirus components and represents a logical candidate for future immunological studies. Images PMID:2538649

  6. Melanoma antigen-D2: A nucleolar protein undergoing delocalization during cell cycle and after cellular stress.

    PubMed

    Pirlot, Céline; Thiry, Marc; Trussart, Charlotte; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Piette, Jacques; Habraken, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Melanoma antigen D2 (MAGE-D2) is recognized as a cancer diagnostic marker; however, it has poorly characterized functions. Here, we established its intracellular localization and shuttling during cell cycle progression and in response to cellular stress. In normal conditions, MAGE-D2 is present in the cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli. Within the latter, MAGE-D2 is mostly found in the granular and the dense fibrillar components, and it interacts with nucleolin. Transfection of MAGE-D2 deletion mutants demonstrated that Δ203-254 leads to confinement of MAGE-D2 to the cytoplasm, while Δ248-254 prevents its accumulation in nucleoli but still allows its presence in the nucleoplasm. Consequently, this short sequence belongs to a nucleolar localization signal. MAGE-D2 deletion does not alter the nucleolar organization or rRNA levels. However, its intracellular localization varies with the cell cycle in a different kinetic than nucleolin. After genotoxic and nucleolar stresses, MAGE-D2 is excluded from nucleoli and concentrates in the nucleoplasm. We demonstrated that its camptothecin-related delocalization results from two distinct events: a rapid nucleolar release and a slower phospho-ERK-dependent cytoplasm to nucleoplasm translocation, which results from an increased flux from the cytoplasm to nucleoplasm. In conclusion, MAGE-D2 is a dynamic protein whose shuttling properties could suggest a role in cell cycle regulation. PMID:26705694

  7. Characterization of surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) from Acinetobacter baumannii and its role in virulence and fitness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Cai, Ling; Fu, Bao-Quan; Li, Yan-Song; Lu, Shi-Ying; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ma, Xiao-Long; Chi, Dan; Chang, Jiang; Shui, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhao-Hui; Ahmad, Waqas; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-04-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacillus that causes nosocomial infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis and urinary tract and wound infections. In the present study, the surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) gene of A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 was identified, cloned and expressed, and then its roles in fitness and virulence were investigated. Virulence was observed in the human lung cancer cell lines A549 and HEp-2 at one week after treatment with recombinant SurA1. One isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain, GR0015, which was derived from the A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 isolated from diseased chicks in a previous study, highlighted the effect of SurA1 on fitness and growth. Its growth rate in LB broth and killing activity in human sera were significantly decreased compared with strain CCGGD201101. In the Galleria mellonella insect model, the isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain exhibited a lower survival rate and decreased dissemination. These results suggest that SurA1 plays an important role in the fitness and virulence of A. baumannii. PMID:27016767

  8. [Screening methods in the detection of bladder cancer: comparison of nuclear matrix protein-22, bladder tumor antigen and cytological examinations].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Y; Samma, S; Fujimoto, K; Akiyama, T; Yamaguchi, A; Hirayama, A

    2001-05-01

    We evaluated the utility of urinary parameters (Nuclear Matrix Protein-22: NMP-22, Bladder Tumor Antigen: BTA, and cytological examinations) for the diagnosis or post-therapeutic monitoring of bladder cancer. Thirty one tumor-bearing cases including 19 fresh cases and 40 tumor-free cases, were subjects of this study. Using identical voided urine samples, NMP-22, BTA and urinary cytology were examined. The mean values of NMP-22 (cut-off value is 12 U/ml) was 100.5 +/- 26.5 U/ml in the tumor-bearing group and 21.9 +/- 7.8 U/ml in the tumor-free group (p < 0.05): Sensitivity was 74.2%, and specificity was 67.5%. Sensitivity of BTA was 58.1%, and specificity was 97.5%. Only five cases were judged positive by urinary cytology: 16.1% in sensitivity and 100% in specificity. Thus, NMP-22 and BTA were more sensitive than urinary cytology. In conclusion, the new urinary parameters, NMP-22 and BTA, would be less invasive and useful as tumor markers of bladder cancer. NMP-22 seems suitable for screening before the diagnosis and BTA for the post-therapeutic follow-up study. PMID:11433750

  9. Characterization of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates That Do Not Express the Virulence Factor and Vaccine Antigen Factor H Binding Protein ? †

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Tan, Lionel; Exley, Rachel M.; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Tang, Christoph M.

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis remains a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis. Complement is a key component of natural immunity against this important human pathogen, which has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade complement-mediated lysis. One approach adopted by the meningococcus is to recruit a human negative regulator of the complement system, factor H (fH), to its surface via a lipoprotein, factor H binding protein (fHbp). Additionally, fHbp is a key antigen in vaccines currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Here we characterize strains of N. meningitidis from several distinct clonal complexes which do not express fHbp; all strains were recovered from patients with disseminated meningococcal disease. We demonstrate that these strains have either a frameshift mutation in the fHbp open reading frame or have entirely lost fHbp and some flanking sequences. No fH binding was detected to other ligands among the fHbp-negative strains. The implications of these findings for meningococcal pathogenesis and prevention are discussed. PMID:21508163

  10. Comprehensive Analysis and Characterization of Linear Antigenic Domains on HN Protein from Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus Using Yeast Surface Display System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Wang, Gaoling; Shi, Bingtian; Liu, Peixin; Si, Wei; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Li; Zhou, Lunjiang; Xiu, Jinsheng; Liu, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Circulation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed a great threat for the poultry industry worldwide. Antibodies against Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), a membrane protein of NDV with critical roles in NDV infection, have been reported to provide chickens protection from NDV infection. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the in vivo antibody responses against the linear antigenic domains of the HN protein from genotype VII NDV using a yeast surface display system. The results revealed four distinct regions of HN, P1 (1-52aa), P2 (53-192aa), P3 (193-302aa) and P4 (303-571aa), respectively, according to their antigenic potency. Analysis by FACS and ELISA assay indicated P2 to be the dominant linear antigenic domain, with the immunogenic potency to protect the majority of chickens from NDV challenge. In contrast, the P1, P3 and P4 domains showed weak antigenicity in vivo and could not protect chickens from NDV challenge. These results provide important insight into the characteristic of humoral immune responses elicited by HN of NDV in vivo. PMID:26121247

  11. Fine specificity of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein binding engagement of the Duffy antigen on human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Asim A; Xainli, Jia; Schloegel, Jesse; Carias, Lenore; Ntumngia, Francis; Shoham, Menachem; Casey, Joanne L; Foley, Michael; Adams, John H; King, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax invasion of human erythrocytes requires interaction of the P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) with its host receptor, the Duffy antigen (Fy) on the erythrocyte surface. Consequently, PvDBP is a leading vaccine candidate. The binding domain of PvDBP lies in a cysteine-rich portion of the molecule called region II (PvDBPII). PvDBPII contains three distinct subdomains based upon intramolecular disulfide bonding patterns. Subdomain 2 (SD2) is highly polymorphic and is thought to contain many key residues for binding to Fy, while SD1 and SD3 are comparatively conserved and their role in Fy binding is not well understood. To examine the relative contributions of the different subdomains to binding to Fy and their abilities to elicit strain-transcending binding-inhibitory antibodies, we evaluated recombinant proteins from SD1+2, SD2, SD3, and SD3+, which includes 24 residues of SD2. All of the recombinant subdomains, except for SD2, bound variably to human erythrocytes, with constructs containing SD3 showing the best binding. Antisera raised in laboratory animals against SD3, SD3+, and SD2+3 inhibited the binding of full-length PvDBPII, which is strain transcending, whereas antisera generated to SD1+2 and SD2 failed to generate blocking antibodies. All of the murine monoclonal antibodies generated to full-length PvDBPII that had significant binding-inhibitory activity recognized only SD3. Thus, SD3 binds Fy and elicits blocking antibodies, indicating that it contains residues critical to Fy binding that could be the basis of a strain-transcending candidate vaccine against P. vivax. PMID:22615246

  12. Identification of seroreactive proteins in the culture filtrate antigen of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis human isolates to sera from Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, A-Rum; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Cho, Sang Nae; Collins, Michael T; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Naser, Saleh A; Shin, Sung Jae

    2010-02-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) is unresolved, but it is likely that an interplay of host genetic factors and environmental triggers is relevant. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) has been focused upon as one of these triggers because it causes a similar chronic inflammatory bowel disease in animals. However, the differences among MAP antigens isolated from humans (H-MAP) and cattle (B-MAP) have not been well characterized. In this study, culture filtrate (CF) proteins from MAP isolates were tested with sera from CD patients and healthy controls in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibody produced by seven CD patients reacted differently according to the antigen source: strong reactivity was seen to H-MAP CF, but not to B-MAP CF. Six proteins, ModD, PepA, transaldolase, EchA9, MAP2120c, and MAP2950c, in H-MAP CF reacting specifically with CD patient sera were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that ModD and PepA were the same proteins reacting with sera from cattle infected with MAP. The elevated antibody responses of CD patients to rModD and rPepA were confirmed by ELISA (P<0.001). These results support previous studies showing ModD and PepA as key antigens for the diagnosis of MAP infections. The study also identified additional proteins potentially useful in the design of assays for human MAP infections. PMID:19878316

  13. Stability and activity of MCSP-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) depend on the scFv antigen-binding domain and the protein backbone.

    PubMed

    Krug, Christian; Birkholz, Katrin; Paulus, Alexander; Schwenkert, Michael; Schmidt, Patrick; Hoffmann, Nicole; Hombach, Andreas; Fey, Georg; Abken, Hinrich; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells emerged as effective tools in the immunotherapy of cancer but can produce severe on-target off-tissue toxicities. This risk can conceivably be overcome, at least partially, by transient transfection. The design of CARs, however, has so far not been optimized for use in non-permanent T cell modification. Here we compared the performance of T cells modified with three different first- and second-generation CARs, each specific for MCSP (HMW-MAA) which is commonly expressed by melanoma cells. Upon RNA transfer, the expression of all receptors was limited in time. The second-generation CARs, which combined CD28-CD3ζ signaling, were expressed at higher levels and more prolonged than first-generation CARs with CD3ζ only. The CD28 domain increased the cytokine production, but had only an indirect effect on the lytic capacity, by prolonging the CAR expression. Especially for the second-generation CARs, the scFv clearly impacted the level and duration of CAR expression and the T cell performance. Thus, we identified a CAR high in both expression and anti-tumor cell reactivity. T cells transfected with this CAR increased the mean survival time of mice after challenge with melanoma cells. To facilitate clinical application, this CAR was used to redirect T cells from late-stage melanoma patients by RNA transfection. These T cells mediated effective antigen-specific tumor cell lysis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, even after cryoconservation of the transfected T cells. Taken together, the analysis identified a CAR with superior anti-melanoma performance after RNA transfer which is a promising candidate for clinical exploration. PMID:26515978

  14. Identification of antigens of pathogenic free-living amoebae by protein immunoblotting with rabbit immune and human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, E L; Newsome, A L; Allen, S D; Knudson, G B

    1994-01-01

    Prominent antigens of pathogenic and nonpathogenic free-living amoebae were identified by using polyclonal rabbit immune sera in immunoblot assays. The intent was to determine if prominent epitopes identified with rabbit immune sera could also be recognized by human sera. With rabbit sera, the development of immunoreactive bands was restricted to molecular masses of greater than 18.5 kDa for Naegleria, Hartmannella, and Vahlkampfia antigens. Two or more broad bands of less than 18.5 kDa were prominent features in three different Acanthamoeba species. Few cross-reactive antibodies could be detected between representative species of the three different subgroups of Acanthamoeba. Naegleria antigen was likewise serologically distinct, as were Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia antigens. The relative lack of cross-reacting antibodies between the pathogenic amoebae suggested that i would be desirable to use a panel of amoebic antigens to represent the range of serologically distinct antigens for assessing reactive antibodies in human sera. In pooled human sera (10 serum specimens per pool), the appearance of minimally reactive bands ranging from 32.5 to 106 kDa was a common feature of all six antigens. A prominent band of less than 18.5 kDa was identified in the Acanthamoeba culbertsoni antigen lane in 2 of the 10 human serum specimen pools. When sera from each of the two groups were tested individually by immunoblotting, the reaction with A. culbertsoni antigen could be associated with one individual. By using a panel of amoebic antigens, this method could prove useful in recognizing undiagnosed amoebic infections by revealing specific reactive antibodies. Images PMID:8556491

  15. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary feeding for the characterization of candidate tick protective antigens. While an effect on tick weight and oviposition was observed, the effect on pathogen levels was not evident probably due to high tick-to-tick variations among other factors. Nevertheless, these results together with previous results of RNA interference functional studies suggest that these proteins are good candidate vaccine antigens for the control of R. microplus infestations and infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina. PMID:24450836

  16. Partial purification and characterization of the major species-specific protein antigens of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia prowazekii identified by rocket immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Dasch, G A; Samms, J R; Williams, J C

    1981-01-01

    Species-specific antigens from Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia prowazekii were readily solubilized by French pressure cell extraction or sonication of Renografin density gradient-purified rickettsiae and were identified by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. As measured by quantitative rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the species-specific typhus rocket antigens (STRAs) appeared to be proteins; they were denatured by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min but not by 50 degrees C treatment, and they were sensitive to pronase and trypsin but were not affected by periodate oxidation, glycosidases of various specificities, phospholipase A, or lipase. STRAs from both R. typhi and R. prowazekii were separated from common antigens by DE52 column chromatography of 100,000-X-g supernatant fractions of rickettsial extracts. The purified STRAs were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on Davis and sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The two purified STRAs were proteins with similar native electrophoretic mobilities in agarose and polyacrylamide gels, and these proteins had similar polypeptide patterns on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Most of the STRA activity migrated as a single protein band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide and Davis polyacrylamide gels, although minor protein bands with STRA activity were also detected. The major STRA proteins constituted 10 to 15% of the total cellular protein of R. typhi and R. prowazekii. According to sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titrations, the STRA of R. prowazekii had substantial cross-reactivity with rabbit antiserum prepared against R. typhi, as shown also by rocket immunoelectrophoresis, whereas the STRA of R. typhi reacted only very weakly with antiserum prepared against R. prowazekii according to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and not at all according to rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Images PMID:6783537

  17. Glycoconjugate Vaccine Containing Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen Linked with Maltose-Binding Protein Elicits Humoral and Cellular Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhongrui; Zhang, Huajie; Shang, Wenjing; Zhu, Faliang; Han, Weiqing; Zhao, Xueer; Han, Donglei; Wang, Peng George; Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    Glycoconjugate is one of the most efficacious and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. Previous studies of glycoconjugates against pathogen E. coli O157:H7 focused more on the humoral responses they elicited. However, little was known about their cellular responses. In this study, we exploited a novel approach based on bacterial protein N-linked glycosylation system to produce glycoconjugate containing Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-antigen linked with maltose-binding protein and examined its humoral and cellular responses in BALB/c mice. The transfer of E. coli O157:H7 O-antigen to MBP was confirmed by western blot and MALDI-TOF MS. Mice injected with glycoconjugate O-Ag-MBP elicited serum bactericidal antibodies including anti-E. coli O157:H7 O-antigen IgG and IgM. Interestingly, O-Ag-MBP also stimulated the secretion of anti-E. coli O157:H7 O-antigen IgA in intestine. In addition, O-Ag-MBP stimulated cellular responses by recruiting Th1-biased CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, O-Ag-MBP induced the upregulation of Th1-related IFN-? and downregulation of Th2-related IL-4, and the upregulation of IFN-? was stimulated by MBP in a dose-dependent manner. MBP showed TLR4 agonist-like properties to activate Th1 cells as carrier protein of O-Ag-MBP. Thus, glycoconjugate vaccine E. coli O157:H7-specific O-Ag-MBP produced by bacterial protein N-linked glycosylation system was able to elicit both humoral and Th1-biased cellular responses. PMID:25137044

  18. Role of S-Layer Protein Antigenic Diversity in the Immune Responses of Sheep Experimentally Challenged with Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus

    PubMed Central

    Grogono-Thomas, R.; Blaser, M. J.; Ahmadi, M.; Newell, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Surface layer proteins (SLPs) are essential for induction of abortion by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in experimentally challenged ewes. These proteins are encoded by multiple sap genes and vary in size and antigenicity. The role of SLP antigenic variation during experimental ovine infection was investigated. Following subcutaneous challenge, the SLPs were highly antigenic, and antibodies were detected in serum, milk, bile, and urine. Fecal anti-SLP antibodies were detected only in animals challenged orally. Ewes challenged with wild-type strain 23D with variable SLPs developed detectable circulating anti-SLP immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by 2 weeks postchallenge. In contrast, ewes challenged with mutants of 23D that had fixed expression of a single SLP developed antibodies within 1 week postchallenge, suggesting that antigenic variation in SLPs may delay the host antibody response. Although not statistically significant, the data from challenge experiments in which vaccinated ewes were used suggested that SLP-expressing vaccines could protect animals from abortion and that this effect was independent of the SLP expressed, indicating involvement of conserved epitopes in the SLP. The conserved 184-amino-acid N-terminal region of the SLP, identified from previously published sequences, was epitope mapped with rabbit anti-SLP antisera by using overlapping synthetic 20-mer peptides. Two putative epitopes were identified at amino acids 81 to 110 and 141 to 160. Amino acids 81 to 100 also bound serum IgG antibodies from experimentally challenged sheep. Conserved antigenic regions of the SLP that induce protective immune responses may enable development of synthetic vaccine candidates for C. fetus subsp. fetus-associated ovine abortion. PMID:12496160

  19. Negative staining and immunoelectron microscopy of adhesion-deficient mutants of Streptococcus salivarius reveal that the adhesive protein antigens are separate classes of cell surface fibril.

    PubMed Central

    Weerkamp, A H; Handley, P S; Baars, A; Slot, J W

    1986-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the cell wall-associated protein antigens of Streptococcus salivarius HB, which are involved in specific adhesive properties of the cells, was studied. Mutants which had lost the adhesive properties and lacked the antigens at the cell surface were compared with the parent strain. Immunoelectron microscopy of cryosections of cells labeled with affinity-purified, specific antisera and colloidal gold-protein A complexes was used to locate the antigens. Antigen C (AgC), a glycoprotein involved in attachment to host surfaces, was mainly located in the fibrillar layer outside the cell wall. A smaller amount of label was also found throughout the cytoplasmic area in the form of small clusters of gold particles, which suggests a macromolecular association. Mutant HB-7, which lacks the wall-associated AgC, accumulated AgC reactivity intracellularly. Intracellular AgC was often found associated with isolated areas of increased electron density, but sometimes seemed to fill the entire interior of the cell. Antigen B (AgB), a protein responsible for interbacterial coaggregation, was also located in the fibrillar layer, although its distribution differed from that of the wall-associated AgC since AgB was found predominantly in the peripheral areas. A very small amount of label was also found in the cytoplasmic area as discrete gold particles. Mutant HB-V5, which lacks wall-associated AgB, was not labeled in the fibrillar coat, but showed the same weak intracellular label as the parent strain. Immunolabeling with serum against AgD, another wall-associated protein but of unknown function, demonstrated its presence in the fibrillar layer of strain HB. Negatively stained preparations of whole cells of wild-type S. salivarius and mutants that had lost wall-associated AgB or AgC revealed that two classes of short fibrils are carried on the cell surface at the same time. AgB and AgC are probably located on separate classes of short, protease-sensitive fibrils 91 and 72 nm in length, respectively. A third class of only very sparsely distributed short fibrils (63 nm) was observed on mutant HB-V51, which lacks both wall-associated AgB and AgC antigens. The identity of these fibrils and whether they are present on the wild type are not clear. The function of long, protease-resistant fibrils of 178 nm, which are also present on the wild-type strain, remains unknown. Images PMID:2419308

  20. Biophysical and formulation studies of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 extracellular domain recombinant protein, a lead vaccine candidate antigen for intestinal schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Curti, Elena; Rezende, Wanderson C; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Hotez, Peter J; Middaugh, C Russell; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-11-01

    A candidate vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis is under development. The vaccine is comprised of a recombinant 9 kDa antigen protein corresponding to the large extracellular domain of a tetraspanin surface antigen protein of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-TSP-2. Here, we describe the biophysical profile of the purified, recombinant Sm-TSP-2 produced in the yeast PichiaPink, which in preclinical studies in mice was shown to be an effective vaccine against intestinal schistosomiasis. Biophysical techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and light scattering were employed to generate an empirical phase diagram, a color based map of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperatures and pH. From these studies a pH range of 6.0-8.0 was determined to be optimal for maintaining the stability and conformation of the protein at temperatures up to 25 °C. Sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose were selected as excipients that prevented physical degradation during storage. The studies described here provide guidance for maximizing the stability of soluble recombinant Sm-TSP-2 in preparation of its further development as a vaccine. PMID:23880663

  1. A heat shock operon in Coxiella burnetti produces a major antigen homologous to a protein in both mycobacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, M H; Williams, J C

    1988-01-01

    A gene library from the DNA of Coxiella burnetii has been constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. A particular clone, pJB196, reacted strongly with Coxiella-specific antibodies elicited in a number of different species of animals. This clone produced two abundant C. burnetii-specific polypeptides, a 14-kilodalton nonimmunoreactive protein and a 62-kilodalton immunoreactive protein. Sequencing identified two open reading frames, encoding polypeptides of 10.5 and 58.3 kilodaltons. The only transcriptional control element observed on the 5' side of the initiation codon resembled a heat shock promoter. This heat shock promoter was functionally regulated in Escherichia coli, since both proteins were produced by growth conditions at 37 degrees C and neither protein was detected at 23 degrees C. There were four sequences from the literature that were highly homologous (greater than 50%) to the 62-kilodalton protein from C. burnetii. Three were from Mycobacterium species and represent the immunodominant antigen of this genus. The other was from E. coli, detected as a gene that complements or suppresses a temperature-sensitive RNase activity. Since the recombinant protein was immunogenic, it may serve as an efficacious vaccine against C. burnetii and other pathogenic microorganisms that express the conserved antigen. Images PMID:3343219

  2. Immunological responses to Salmonella R antigens. The bacterial cell and the protein edestin as carriers for R oligosaccharide determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorff, K K; Schlecht, S; Rüde, E; Westphal, O

    1975-01-01

    Responses in rabbits to heat-killed Salmonella minnesota R mutants (chemotypes Ra, Rc and Re) were heterogeneous with respect to the amounts and specific haemagglutinin activities (SHAA) of IgM and IgG antibodies produced to each mutant. Amounts of antibodies in IgM and IgG fractions of sera were determined by quantitative precipitation. For comparison, antibodies were also isolated using an R oligosaccharide-specific immunoadsorbent and quantitated spectrophotometrically. SHAA (haemagglutinating units/mg antibody) of IgG antibodies were similar for all three mutants. In contrast, the Ra mutant induced IgM antibodies with the highest SHAA, while the Re mutant induced IgM antibodies 10-fold lower in activity. The ratio of the amount of IgM/IgG produced was approximately 1/1 for both the Ra and the Rc mutants, while the ratio for the Re mutant was about 1/2. Salmonella R oligosaccharide-protein conjugates (chemotypes Rb2, Rc and Re) were prepared, and the responses to these antigens were compared with those to the heat-killed mutants. The conjugates were specific for the given chemotype, and they were strongly immunogenic when incorporated into Freund's complete adjuvant and administered intramuscularly. Haemagglutinin titres were relatively high, but amounts of antibodies were considerably reduced when the conjugates were administered intravenously without adjuvant. Rabbits immunized with the conjugates in the same manner as with heat-killed R mutants produced predominantly IgM responses in all three cases. PMID:49297

  3. Immune checkpoints: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    KOLACINSKA, AGNIESZKA; CEBULA-OBRZUT, BARBARA; PAKULA, LUKASZ; CHALUBINSKA-FENDLER, JUSTYNA; MORAWIEC-SZTANDERA, ALINA; PAWLOWSKA, ZOFIA; ZAWLIK, IZABELA; MORAWIEC, ZBIGNIEW; JESIONEK-KUPNICKA, DOROTA; SMOLEWSKI, PIOTR

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways built into the immune system, and recent studies have emphasized the role of these checkpoints in carcinogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two major immune checkpoints, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), in the serum of 35 patients with stage I and II breast cancer. Serum concentrations of CTLA-4 and PD-1 were measured at three time points: i) Preoperatively; ii) during anesthesia following the harvesting of sentinel nodes (SNs); and iii) 24 h postoperatively. Control samples were obtained from 25 healthy, age-matched females. Assessment of CTLA-4 and PD-1 expression levels was conducted using flow cytometry. A statistically significant difference in PD-1 expression was identified between breast cancer patients preoperatively and healthy controls (26.31±11.87 vs. 12.72±8.15; P<0.0001). In addition, a statistically significant association was found between CTLA-4 and PD-1 levels prior to surgery (P=0.0084). In addition, CTLA-4 expression was associated with age (P=0.0453), with elevated levels of CTLA-4 detected in older breast cancer patients. Higher PD-1 expression levels were observed in T2 tumors compared with T1 tumors prior to surgery and intraoperatively; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a decrease in PD-1 levels was observed subsequent to harvesting SNs with metastasis, but not in SN-negative patients (P=0.05). A negative correlation was also observed between PD-1 expression and progesterone receptor (PR) status following surgery (P=0.024). These results provided a basis for further investigation of immune checkpoints in breast cancer. Breast cancer patients exhibit an altered profile of immune checkpoint markers, with higher concentrations of PD-1 observed in larger, PR-negative tumors. PMID:26622629

  4. Cell attachment protein VP8* of a human rotavirus specifically interacts with A-type histo-blood group antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liya; Crawford, Sue E.; Czako, Rita; Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W; Smith, David F.; Le Pendu, Jacques; Estes, Mary K.; Venkataram Prasad, B. V.

    2012-01-01

    As with many other viruses, the initial cell attachment of rotaviruses, major causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis, is mediated by interactions with specific cellular glycans1–4. The distally located VP8* domain of the rotavirus spike protein VP45 mediates such interactions. The existing paradigm is that ‘sialidase-sensitive’ animal rotavirus strains bind to glycans with terminal sialic acid (Sia), whereas ‘sialidase-insensitive’ human rotavirus (HR) strains bind to glycans with internal Sia such as GM13. Although the involvement of Sia in the animal strains is firmly supported by crystallographic studies1,3,6,7, it is not yet known how VP8* of HRs interacts with Sia and whether their cell attachment necessarily involves sialoglycans. We found that VP8* of a HR strain specifically recognizes A-type histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) using a glycan array screen comprised of 511 glycans, and that virus infectivity in HT-29 cells is abrogated by anti-Atype antibodies as well as significantly enhanced in CHO cells genetically modified to express the A-type HBGA, providing a novel paradigm for initial cell attachment of HR. HBGAs are genetically determined glycoconjugates present in mucosal secretions, epithelial and on red blood cells8, and are recognized as susceptibility and cell attachment factors for gastric pathogens like H. pylori9 and noroviruses10. Our crystallographic studies show that the A-type HBGA binds to the HR VP8* at the same location as the Sia in the VP8* of animal rotavirus, and suggest how subtle changes within the same structural framework allow for such receptor switching. These results raise the possibility that host susceptibility to specific HR strains and pathogenesis are influenced by genetically controlled expression of different HBGAs among the world’s population. PMID:22504179

  5. Two separable functional domains of simian virus 40 large T antigen: carboxyl-terminal region of simian virus 40 large T antigen is required for efficient capsid protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Tornow, J; Polvino-Bodnar, M; Santangelo, G; Cole, C N

    1985-01-01

    The carboxyl-terminal portion of simian virus 40 large T antigen is essential for productive infection of CV-1 and CV-1p green monkey kidney cells. Mutant dlA2459, lacking 14 base pairs at 0.193 map units, was positive for viral DNA replication, but unable to form plaques in CV-1p cells (J. Tornow and C.N. Cole, J. Virol. 47:487-494, 1983). In this report, the defect of dlA2459 is further defined. Simian virus 40 late mRNAs were transcribed, polyadenylated, spliced, and transported in dlA2459-infected cells, but the level of capsid proteins produced in infected CV-1 green monkey kidney cells was extremely low. dlA2459 large T antigen lacks those residues known to be required for adenovirus helper function, and the block to productive infection by dlA2459 occurs at the same stage of infection as the block to productive adenovirus infection of CV-1 cells. These results suggest that the adenovirus helper function is required for productive infection by simian virus 40. Mutant dlA2459 was able to grow on the Vero and BSC-1 lines of African green monkey kidney cells. Additional mutants affecting the carboxyl-terminal portion of large T were prepared. Mutant inv2408 contains an inversion of the DNA between the BamHI and BclI sites (0.144 to 0.189 map units). This inversion causes transposition of the carboxyl-terminal 26 amino acids of large T antigen and the carboxyl-terminal 18 amino acids of VP1. This mutant was viable, even though the essential information absent from dlA2459 large T antigen has been transferred to the carboxyl terminus of VP1 of inv2408. The VP1 polypeptide carrying this carboxyl-terminal portion of large T could overcome the defect of dlA2459. This indicates that the carboxyl terminus of large T antigen is a separate and separable functional domain. Images PMID:2982029

  6. Anti-Group B Streptococcus Glycan-Conjugate Vaccines Using Pilus Protein GBS80 As Carrier and Antigen: Comparing Lysine and Tyrosine-directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Nilo, Alberto; Morelli, Laura; Passalacqua, Irene; Brogioni, Barbara; Allan, Martin; Carboni, Filippo; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Zerbini, Francesca; Maione, Domenico; Fabbrini, Monica; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Hu, Qi-Ying; Margarit, Immaculada; Berti, Francesco; Adamo, Roberto

    2015-07-17

    Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive infections in pregnant women, newborns, and elderly people. Vaccination of pregnant women represents the best strategy for prevention of neonatal disease, and GBS polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines are currently under clinical testing. The potential of GBS pilus proteins selected by genome-based reverse vaccinology as protective antigens for anti-streptococcal vaccines has also been demonstrated. Dressing pilus proteins with surface glycan antigens could be an attractive approach to extend vaccine coverage. We have recently developed an efficient method for tyrosine-directed ligation of large glycans to proteins via copper-free azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. This method enables targeting of predetermined sites of the protein, ensuring that protein epitopes are preserved prior to glycan coupling and a higher consistency in glycoconjugate batches. Herein, we compared conjugates of the GBS type II polysaccharide (PSII) and the GBS80 pilus protein obtained by classic lysine random conjugation and by the recently developed tyrosine-directed ligation. PSII conjugated to CRM197, a carrier protein used for vaccines in the market, was used as a control. We found that the constructs made from PSII and GBS80 were able to elicit murine antibodies recognizing individually the glycan and protein epitopes on the bacterial surface. The generated antibodies were efficacious in mediating opsonophagocytic killing of strains expressing exclusively PSII or GBS80 proteins. The two glycoconjugates were also effective in protecting newborn mice against GBS infection following vaccination of the dams. Altogether, these results demonstrated that polysaccharide-conjugated GBS80 pilus protein functions as a carrier comparably to CRM197, while maintaining its properties of protective protein antigen. Glycoconjugation and reverse vaccinology can, therefore, be combined to design vaccines with broad coverage. This approach opens a path to a new generation of vaccines. Tyrosine-ligation allows creation of more homogeneous vaccines, correlation of the immune response to defined connectivity points, and fine-tuning of the conjugation site in glycan-protein conjugates. PMID:25906283

  7. Formalin Inactivation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Alters the Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Neutralization Epitope in Envelope Protein Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Chen, Li-Kuang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines are widely available, but the effects of formalin inactivation on the antigenic structure of JEV and the profile of antibodies elicited after vaccination are not well understood. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to map the antigenic structure of live JEV virus, untreated control virus (UCV), formalin-inactivated commercial vaccine (FICV), and formalin-inactivated virus (FIV). The binding activity of T16 MAb against Nakayama-derived FICV and several strains of FIV was significantly lower compared to live virus and UCV. T16 MAb, a weakly neutralizing JEV serocomplex antibody, was found to inhibit JEV infection at the post-attachment step. The T16 epitope was mapped to amino acids 329, 331, and 389 within domain III (EDIII) of the envelope (E) glycoprotein. When we explored the effect of formalin inactivation on the immunogenicity of JEV, we found that Nakayama-derived FICV, FIV, and UCV all exhibited similar immunogenicity in a mouse model, inducing anti-JEV and anti-EDII 101/106/107 epitope-specific antibodies. However, the EDIII 329/331/389 epitope-specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FICV-immunized and FIV-immunized mouse serum than for UCV-immunized. Formalin inactivation seems to alter the antigenic structure of the E protein, which may reduce the potency of commercially available JEV vaccines. Virus inactivation by H2O2, but not by UV or by short-duration and higher temperature formalin treatment, is able to maintain the antigenic structure of the JEV E protein. Thus, an alternative inactivation method, such as H2O2, which is able to maintain the integrity of the E protein may be essential to improving the potency of inactivated JEV vaccines. PMID:26495991

  8. Characterization of a cross-reactive, immunodominant and HLA-promiscuous epitope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific major antigenic protein PPE68.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Abu S

    2014-01-01

    PPE68 (Rv3873), a major antignic protein encoded by Mycobacteriun tuberculosis-specific genomic region of difference (RD)1, is a strong stimulator of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from tuberculosis patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)-vaccianted healthy subjects in T helper (Th)1 cell assays, i.e. antigen-induced proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) secretion. To confirm the antigen-specific recognition of PPE68 by T cells in IFN-? assays, antigen-induced human T-cell lines were established from PBMCs of M. Bovis BCG-vaccinated and HLA-heterogeneous healthy subjects and tested with peptide pools of RD1 proteins. The results showed that PPE68 was recognized by antigen-specific T-cell lines from HLA-heteregeneous subjects. To further identify the immunodominant and HLA-promiscuous Th1-1 cell epitopes present in PPE68, 24 synthetic peptides covering the sequence of PPE68 were indivdually analyzed for HLA-DR binding prediction analysis and tested with PBMCs from M. bovis BCG-vaccinated and HLA-heterogeuous healthy subjects in IFN-? assays. The results identified the peptide P9, i.e. aa 121-VLTATNFFGINTIPIALTEMDYFIR-145, as an immunodominant and HLA-DR promiscuous peptide of PPE68. Furthermore, by using deletion peptides, the immunodominant and HLA-DR promiscuous core sequence was mapped to aa 127-FFGINTIPIA-136. Interestingly, the core sequence is present in several PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis, and conserved in all sequenced strains/species of M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis complex, and several other pathogenic mycobacterial species, including M. leprae and M. avium-intracellulalae complex. These results suggest that the peptide aa 121-145 may be exploited as a peptide-based vaccine candidate against tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. PMID:25136958

  9. Characterization of a Cross-Reactive, Immunodominant and HLA-Promiscuous Epitope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Major Antigenic Protein PPE68

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Abu S.

    2014-01-01

    PPE68 (Rv3873), a major antignic protein encoded by Mycobacteriun tuberculosis-specific genomic region of difference (RD)1, is a strong stimulator of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from tuberculosis patients and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)-vaccianted healthy subjects in T helper (Th)1 cell assays, i.e. antigen-induced proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) secretion. To confirm the antigen-specific recognition of PPE68 by T cells in IFN-? assays, antigen-induced human T-cell lines were established from PBMCs of M. Bovis BCG-vaccinated and HLA-heterogeneous healthy subjects and tested with peptide pools of RD1 proteins. The results showed that PPE68 was recognized by antigen-specific T-cell lines from HLA-heteregeneous subjects. To further identify the immunodominant and HLA-promiscuous Th1-1 cell epitopes present in PPE68, 24 synthetic peptides covering the sequence of PPE68 were indivdually analyzed for HLA-DR binding prediction analysis and tested with PBMCs from M. bovis BCG-vaccinated and HLA-heterogeuous healthy subjects in IFN-? assays. The results identified the peptide P9, i.e. aa 121-VLTATNFFGINTIPIALTEMDYFIR-145, as an immunodominant and HLA-DR promiscuous peptide of PPE68. Furthermore, by using deletion peptides, the immunodominant and HLA-DR promiscuous core sequence was mapped to aa 127-FFGINTIPIA-136. Interestingly, the core sequence is present in several PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis, and conserved in all sequenced strains/species of M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis complex, and several other pathogenic mycobacterial species, including M. leprae and M. avium-intracellulalae complex. These results suggest that the peptide aa 121–145 may be exploited as a peptide-based vaccine candidate against tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. PMID:25136958

  10. Antigenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Leishmania Amastigote-specific Protein, Member of the Super-oxygenase Family, against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vivian T.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Costa, Lourena E.; Martins, Adriana M. C. C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lage, Daniela P.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Valadares, Diogo G.; Magalhães, Rubens D. M.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Nagem, Ronaldo A. P.; DaRocha, Wanderson D.; Régis, Wiliam C. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate a hypothetical Leishmania amastigote-specific protein (LiHyp1), previously identified by an immunoproteomic approach performed in Leishmania infantum, which showed homology to the super-oxygenase gene family, attempting to select a new candidate antigen for specific serodiagnosis, as well as to compose a vaccine against VL. Methodology/Principal Findings The LiHyp1 DNA sequence was cloned; the recombinant protein (rLiHyp1) was purified and evaluated for its antigenicity and immunogenicity. The rLiHyp1 protein was recognized by antibodies from sera of asymptomatic and symptomatic animals with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), but presented no cross-reactivity with sera of dogs vaccinated with Leish-Tec, a Brazilian commercial vaccine; with Chagas' disease or healthy animals. In addition, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rLiHyp1 plus saponin was evaluated in BALB/c mice challenged subcutaneously with virulent L. infantum promastigotes. rLiHyp1 plus saponin vaccinated mice showed a high and specific production of IFN-?, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with the recombinant protein. Immunized and infected mice, as compared to the control groups (saline and saponin), showed significant reductions in the number of parasites found in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and in the paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-?, produced mainly by CD4 T cells. In these mice, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 response could also be observed. Conclusions/Significance The present study showed that this Leishmania oxygenase amastigote-specific protein can be used for a more sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic CVL and, when combined with a Th1-type adjuvant, can also be employ as a candidate antigen to develop vaccines against VL. PMID:23573301

  11. Induction of CD4+ Th1 Lymphocytes That Recognize Known and Novel Class II MHC Restricted Epitopes from the Melanoma Antigen gp100 by Stimulation with Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Maria R.; Riley, John P.; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    CD4+ T helper cells may play a critical role in the induction and maintenance of a therapeutic immune response to cancer. To evaluate the efficacy with which a recombinant tumor-associated protein can induce antigen-reactive CD4+ T cells, we stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with melanoma in vitro with the purified melanoma antigen gp100 produced in Escherichia coli. In preliminary experiments, we observed that peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells could process and present known HLA-DR?1*0401 and HLA-DR?1*0701 restricted epitopes to gp100-reactive CD4+ T cell lines after being loaded exogenously with protein. Therefore, we used autologous protein-loaded peripheral blood mononuclear cells as antigen presenting cells. From four of nine patients who expressed both HLA-DR?1*0401 and HLA-DR?1*0701, we raised five gp100-reactive CD4+ T cell populations that secreted TH1 type cytokines in response to exogenously loaded protein as well as target cells that endogenously expressed gp100 and MHC class II molecules, including transfectants and melanoma cells. Four of the five cultures specifically recognized the known HLA-DR?1*0401 and HLA-DR?1*0701 restricted epitopes gp100:44–59 and gp100:170–190, respectively. The fifth culture, and 30 T cell clones derived from it, specifically recognized a new peptide, gp100:420–435, in the context of HLA-DR?1*0701. These results suggest that recombinant tumor-associated proteins may be clinically applicable for the generation of CD4+ T helper cells in active vaccination strategies or adoptive cellular immunotherapies. PMID:14770079

  12. Elongation Factor-1? Is a Novel Protein Associated with Host Cell Invasion and a Potential Protective Antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum *

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Teramoto-Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Matsuda, Haruo; Furuya, Masaru; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises obligate intracellular parasites that infect vertebrates. All invasive forms of Apicomplexa possess an apical complex, a unique assembly of organelles localized to the anterior end of the cell and involved in host cell invasion. Previously, we generated a chicken monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D-12-G10, with specificity for an antigen located in the apical cytoskeleton of Eimeria acervulina sporozoites. This antigen was highly conserved among Apicomplexan parasites, including other Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma, Neospora, and Cryptosporidium. In the present study, we identified the apical cytoskeletal antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) and further characterized this antigen in C. parvum to assess its potential as a target molecule against cryptosporidiosis. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that the reactivity of 6D-12-G10 with C. parvum sporozoites was similar to those of anti-?- and anti-?-tubulins antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy with the 6D-12-G10 mAb detected the antigen both on the sporozoite surface and underneath the inner membrane at the apical region of zoites. The 6D-12-G10 mAb significantly inhibited in vitro host cell invasion by C. parvum. MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides revealed that the mAb 6D-12-G10 target antigen was elongation factor-1? (EF-1?). These results indicate that C. parvum EF-1? plays an essential role in mediating host cell entry by the parasite and, as such, could be a candidate vaccine antigen against cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24085304

  13. Analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi GeHo fla gene and antigenic characterization of its gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Gassmann, G S; Jacobs, E; Deutzmann, R; Göbel, U B

    1991-01-01

    The fla gene of Borrelia burgdorferi GeHo was analyzed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural gene encodes a flagellar protein of 336 amino acids. Comparative sequence analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed a high degree of sequence conservation with flagellins from both phylogenetically related and unrelated bacteria. The antigenic properties of the B. burgdorferi Fla protein were studied by synthesizing overlapping octapeptides, which were screened by using a battery of different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies from various species directed against native and denatured flagellar proteins. No single species-independent immunodominant epitope could be located. However, immunoreactive oligopeptides clustered within the variable middle region (N-180 to I-260). This region could constitute a candidate antigen for more specific and sensitive serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Images PMID:1704884

  14. Development and Application of an ELISA Assay Using Excretion/Secretion Proteins from Epimastigote Forms of T. cruzi (ESEA Antigens) for the Diagnosis of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Figueroa, Milagros; Ward, Brian J.; Rodríguez, Jessicca; Jorquera, Alicia; Figuera, Maria A.; Romero, Leomerys; Ndao, Momar

    2012-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for Trypanosoma cruzi was developed using epimastigote secretion/excretion proteins (ESEA antigens) obtained from axenic culture supernatants. A panel of 120 serum samples from subjects with confirmed Chagas disease (n = 50), healthy controls (n = 50), and patients with other parasitic diseases (n = 20) was used to evaluate the new ESEA-based ELISA (ELISAESEA). This new test had excellent sensitivity (98%) and acceptable specificity (88%). Cross-reactivity was observed largely in sera from subjects with Leishmania and Ascaris infections. Using Western blotting and epimastigotes from two distinct T. cruzi isolates, several polypeptide bands with molecular masses ranging from 50 to 220?kDa were detected in pooled chagasic sera. However, the band pattern for each isolate was different. These data suggest that an inexpensive and technically simple ELISA based on ESEA antigens is a promising new tool for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:23049572

  15. VraA (BBI16) Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi Is a Surface-Exposed Antigen with a Repetitive Motif That Confers Partial Protection against Experimental Lyme Borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Skare, Jonathan T.

    2001-01-01

    We have previously described the expression cloning of nine Borrelia burgdorferi antigens, using rabbit serum enriched for antibodies specific for infection-associated antigens, and determined that seven of these antigens were associated with infectious B. burgdorferi strain B31. One of these infection-associated antigens encoded a 451-amino-acid putative lipoprotein containing 21 consecutive and invariant 9-amino-acid repeat sequences near the amino terminus that we have designated VraA for virulent strain-associated repetitive antigen A. The vraA locus (designated BBI16 by The Institute for Genomic Research) maps to one of the 28-kb linear plasmids (designated lp28-4) that is not present in noninfectious strain B31 isolates. Subsequent PCR analysis of clonal isolates of B. burgdorferi B31 from infected mouse skin revealed a clone that lacked only lp28-4. Southern blot and Western blot analyses indicated that the lp28-4 and VraA proteins, respectively, were missing from this clone. We have also determined that VraA is a surface-exposed protein based on protease accessibility assays of intact whole cells. Furthermore, vraA expression is modestly derepressed when cells are grown at 37°C relative to cells grown at 32°C, suggesting that VraA is, in part, a temperature-inducible antigen. Homologues cross-reactive to B. burgdorferi B31 VraA, most with different molecular masses, were identified in several B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates, including B. andersonii, suggesting that the immunogenic epitope(s) present in strain B31 VraA is conserved between Borrelia spp. In protection studies, only 8.3% of mice (1 of 12) immunized with full-length recombinant VraA fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) were susceptible to infectious challenge with 102 B. burgdorferi strain B31, whereas naive mice or mice immunized with GST alone were infected 40% or 63 to 67% (depending on tissues assayed) of the time, respectively. As such, the partial protection elicited by VraA immunization provides an additional testable vaccine candidate to help protect against Lyme borreliosis. PMID:11179306

  16. Comparative studies of strains Ictero No. I and RGA as the type strain of Leptospira interrogans: agglutinin absorption test, protein and antigen profiles, and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Hata, K; Ono, E; Yanagawa, R

    1988-01-01

    Strain Ictero No. I, the first isolate of Leptospira, isolated by Inada and Ido in 1914, was found to be sufficiently qualified to be the type strain of Leptospira interrogans rather than strain RGA. In an agglutinin absorption test, anti-Ictero No. I serum was not absorbed completely with strain RGA, and 25% of the homologous titer remained unabsorbed, while anti-RGA serum was completely absorbed with strain Ictero No. I. Thus, strain Ictero No. I was not serologically identical with strain RGA, and the two strains were considered to be different serovars. A protein band with a molecular weight of approximately 33,000 daltons was detected in strain Ictero No. I but not in strain RGA by SDS-PAGE. By Western blotting, this protein band was detectable with anti-Ictero No. I serum but not with anti-RGA serum. The presence of the 33K protein in strain Ictero No. I, but not in strain RGA, was confirmed by radioimmunoprecipitation using [125I]-labeled antigens, indicating that the protein antigen was surface-exposed. Only 8 of the 89 enzymes activities were different between strains Ictero No. I and RGA (line Sapporo). From the above results, we propose that strain Ictero No. I should be designated as the type strain of L. interrogans instead of strain RGA. PMID:3200169

  17. Selecting soluble/foldable protein domains through single-gene or genomic ORF filtering: structure of the head domain of Burkholderia pseudomallei antigen BPSL2063.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Louise J; Peano, Clelia; Deantonio, Cecilia; Perletti, Lucia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Villa, Riccardo; Matterazzo, Elena; Lassaux, Patricia; Santoro, Claudio; Puccio, Simone; Sblattero, Daniele; Bolognesi, Martino

    2015-11-01

    The 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a conserved domain of the potential Burkholderia pseudomallei antigen and trimeric autotransporter BPSL2063 is presented as a structural vaccinology target for melioidosis vaccine development. Since BPSL2063 (1090 amino acids) hosts only one conserved domain, and the expression/purification of the full-length protein proved to be problematic, a domain-filtering library was generated using β-lactamase as a reporter gene to select further BPSL2063 domains. As a result, two domains (D1 and D2) were identified and produced in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, as a general tool, a genomic open reading frame-filtering library from the B. pseudomallei genome was also constructed to facilitate the selection of domain boundaries from the entire ORFeome. Such an approach allowed the selection of three potential protein antigens that were also produced in soluble form. The results imply the further development of ORF-filtering methods as a tool in protein-based research to improve the selection and production of soluble proteins or domains for downstream applications such as X-ray crystallography. PMID:26527140

  18. Characterization of a 60-kDa Thermally Stable Antigenic Protein as a Marker for the Immunodetection of Bovine Plasma-Derived Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2015-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling. Results from western blot confirmed the 60-kDa protein to be present in the plasma fraction of bovine blood. Further proteomic analyses involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) and amino acid sequencing revealed the 60-kDa protein to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The sELISA proved capable of detecting BPFIs in all the commercial dietary supplements tested, including those that were formulated with hydrolyzed BPFIs. The assay could also detect 0.01% and 0.5% of different BPFIs in spiked raw and cooked ground beef, respectively. This assay based on the detection of BSA therefore has the potential to become a valuable analytical tool to protect consumers who avoid consuming BPFIs for religious, health, or ethical reasons. PMID:26172875

  19. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against duck Tembusu virus E protein: an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of Tembusu virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaofei; Shaozhou, Wulin; Zhang, Qingshan; Li, Chenxi; Qiu, Na; Meng, Runzhe; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-03-01

    The E protein of flaviviruses is the primary antigen that induces protective immunity, but a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the E protein of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has never been characterized. Six hybridoma cell lines secreting DTMUV anti-E mAbs were prepared and designated 2A5, 1F3, 1G2, 1B11, 3B6, and 4F9, respectively. An immunofluorescence assay indicated that the mAbs could specifically bind to duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells infected with DTMUV and that the E protein was distributed in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. Immunoglobulin isotyping differentiated the mAbs as IgG1 (1G2, 1B11, 4F9, 1F3, and 2A5) and IgG2b (3B6). The mAbs were used to identify three epitopes, A (2A5, 1F3, and 1G2), B (1B11 and 4F9), and C (3B6) on the E protein on the basis of a competitive binding assay. By using mAbs 1F3 and 3B6, we developed an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect E antigen from clinical samples. The AC-ELISA did not react with other known pathogens, indicating that the mAbs are specific for DTMUV. Compared to RT-PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of the AC-ELISA was 94.1 % and 98.0 %, respectively. This AC-ELISA thus represents a sensitive and rapid method for detecting DTMUV infection in birds. PMID:25588821

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae Major Outer Membrane Protein Is a Surface-Exposed Antigen That Elicits Antibodies Primarily Directed against Conformation-Dependent Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Katerina; Fischer, Elizabeth; Mead, David; Zhong, Guangming; Peeling, Roseanna; Whitmire, Bill; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2001-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovariants is known to be an immunodominant surface antigen. Moreover, it is known that the C. trachomatis MOMP elicits antibodies that recognize both linear and conformational antigenic determinants. In contrast, it has been reported that the MOMP of Chlamydia pneumoniae is not surface exposed and is immunorecessive. We hypothesized that the discrepancies between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae MOMP exposure on intact chlamydiae and immunogenic properties might be because the focus of the host's immune response is directed to conformational epitopes of the C. pneumoniae MOMP. We therefore conducted studies aimed at defining the surface exposure of MOMP and the conformational dominance of MOMP antibodies. We present here a description of C. pneumoniae species-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), GZD1E8, which recognizes a conformational epitope on the surface of C. pneumoniae. This MAb is potent in the neutralization of C. pneumoniae infectivity in vitro. Another previously described C. pneumoniae species-specific monoclonal antibody, RR-402, displayed very similar characteristics. However, the antigenic determinant recognized by RR-402 has yet to be identified. We show by immunoprecipitation of C. pneumoniae with GZD1E8 and RR-402 MAbs and by mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitated proteins that both antibodies GZD1E8 and RR-402 recognize the MOMP of C. pneumoniae and that this protein is localized on the surface of the organism. We also show that human sera from C. pneumoniae-positive donors consistently recognize the MOMP by immunoprecipitation, indicating that the MOMP of C. pneumoniae is an immunogenic protein. These findings have potential implications for both C. pneumoniae vaccine and diagnostic assay development. PMID:11292727

  1. Phytosterolaemia in three unrelated South African families.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, G. M.; Deppe, W. M.; Marais, A. D.; Biggs, M.

    1994-01-01

    Phytosterolaemia (beta-sitosterolaemia), a rare, autosomal recessive disorder, has not hitherto been reported in Southern Africa. We report four new homozygous patients, from three unrelated families with significant beta-sitosterolaemia (6.6-11.3%), campesterolaemia (2.2-4.6%) and clearly detectable, though unquantified, levels of cholestanol. Three of the four patients had characteristic cutaneous and tendinous xanthomas within the first decade of life. The fourth patient, a 5 year old, was free of xanthomas despite persistently elevated concentrations of plant sterols in her plasma. All our patients were female bringing the male:female ratio in reported cases to 8:23. All were at or below the 50th percentile for height and weight, and presented at some stage with borderline, hypochromic anaemia associated with red cell abnormalities and thrombocytopaenia. The oldest patient showed suggestive clinical evidence of atherosclerosis affecting her aorta, ileofemoral bifurcation and possibly coronary arteries. All homozygotes responded to a diet restricted in phytosterols and the administration of cholestyramine with falls in plasma sterols of up to 68%. The recent discovery of a possible inherited defect in the synthesis of HMG CoA reductase in patients with phytosterolaemia makes this disorder a model system for studying the biological role of this enzyme in regulating the absorption and clearance of sterols other than cholesterol, and the factors governing the sterol composition of cell membranes. PMID:7971627

  2. Computational design of protein antigens that interact with the CDR H3 loop of HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5

    PubMed Central

    Azoitei, M.L.; Ban, Y.A.; Kalyuzhny, O.; Guenaga, J.; Schroeter, A.; Porter, J.; Wyatt, R.; Schief, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Rational design of proteins with novel binding specificities and increased affinity is one of the major goals of computational protein design. Epitope-scaffolds are a new class of antigens engineered by transplanting viral epitopes of pre-defined structure to protein scaffolds, or by building protein scaffolds around such epitopes. Epitope-scaffolds are of interest as vaccine components to attempt to elicit neutralizing antibodies targeting the specified epitope. In this study we developed a new computational protocol, MultiGraft Interface, that transplants epitopes but also designs additional scaffold features outside the epitope to enhance antibody-binding specificity and potentially influence the specificity of elicited antibodies. We employed MultiGraft Interface to engineer novel epitope-scaffolds that display the known epitope of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody 2F5 and that also interact with the functionally important CDR H3 antibody loop. MultiGraft Interface generated an epitope-scaffold that bound 2F5 with sub-nanomolar affinity (KD = 400 pM) and that interacted with the antibody CDR H3 loop through computationally designed contacts. Substantial structural modifications were necessary to engineer this antigen, with the 2F5 epitope replacing a helix in the native scaffold and with 15% of the native scaffold sequence being modified in the design stage. This epitope-scaffold represents a successful example of rational protein backbone engineering and protein-protein interface design and could prove useful in the field of HIV vaccine design. MultiGraft Interface can be generally applied to engineer novel binding partners with altered specificity and optimized affinity. PMID:25043744

  3. Computational design of protein antigens that interact with the CDR H3 loop of HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5.

    PubMed

    Azoitei, M L; Ban, Y A; Kalyuzhny, O; Guenaga, J; Schroeter, A; Porter, J; Wyatt, R; Schief, William R

    2014-10-01

    Rational design of proteins with novel binding specificities and increased affinity is one of the major goals of computational protein design. Epitope-scaffolds are a new class of antigens engineered by transplanting viral epitopes of predefined structure to protein scaffolds, or by building protein scaffolds around such epitopes. Epitope-scaffolds are of interest as vaccine components to attempt to elicit neutralizing antibodies targeting the specified epitope. In this study we developed a new computational protocol, MultiGraft Interface, that transplants epitopes but also designs additional scaffold features outside the epitope to enhance antibody-binding specificity and potentially influence the specificity of elicited antibodies. We employed MultiGraft Interface to engineer novel epitope-scaffolds that display the known epitope of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibody 2F5 and that also interact with the functionally important CDR H3 antibody loop. MultiGraft Interface generated an epitope-scaffold that bound 2F5 with subnanomolar affinity (K(D)?=?400 pM) and that interacted with the antibody CDR H3 loop through computationally designed contacts. Substantial structural modifications were necessary to engineer this antigen, with the 2F5 epitope replacing a helix in the native scaffold and with 15% of the native scaffold sequence being modified in the design stage. This epitope-scaffold represents a successful example of rational protein backbone engineering and protein-protein interface design and could prove useful in the field of HIV vaccine design. MultiGraft Interface can be generally applied to engineer novel binding partners with altered specificity and optimized affinity. PMID:25043744

  4. Functions of replication factor C and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen: Functional similarity of DNA polymerase accessory proteins from human cells and bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Stillman, B. )

    1990-02-01

    The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the replication factors A and C (RF-A and RF-C) are cellular proteins essential for complete elongation of DNA during synthesis from the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication in vitro. All three cooperate to stimulate processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase {delta} on a primed single-stranded M13 template DNA and as such can be categorized as DNA polymerase accessory proteins. Biochemical analyses with highly purified RF-C and PCNA have demonstrated functions that are completely analogous to the functions of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase accessory proteins. A primer-template-specific DNA binding activity and a DNA-dependent ATPase activity copurified with the multisubunit protein RF-C and are similar to the functions of the phage T4 gene 44/62 protein complex. Furthermore, PCNA stimulated the RF-C ATPase activity and is, therefore, analogous to the phage T4 gene 45 protein, which stimulates the ATPase function of the gene 44/62 protein complex. Indeed, some primary sequence similarities between human PCNA and the phage T4 gene 45 protein could be detected. These results demonstrate a striking conservation of the DNA replication apparatus in human cells and bacteriophage T4.

  5. Parasite antigens*

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The currently available preparations used as antigen in the serological investigation of parasitic diseases are ill-defined heterogeneous mixtures, and there is an evident need for better characterized reagents. Antigens of different parasite species (schistosomes, filariae, trypanosomes, and plasmodia) are discussed and parasite sources enumerated. Modern methods for the preparation of antigenic extracts and their fractionation are described, together with certain guidelines as to their biochemical characterization and their immunological activity. In order to implement this endeavour and to make better use of serological techniques in parasitic diseases, proposals are made concerning collaborative research and field application among a number of laboratories on schistosome, onchocercal, trypanosome, and plasmodial antigens. PMID:1084794

  6. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein C displays a repressor activity mediated by T-cell intracellular antigen-1-related/like protein to modulate Fas exon 6 splicing through a mechanism involving Hu antigen R

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, José M.

    2010-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA)-proteins are known regulators of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, pull-down experiments and mass spectrometry indicate that TIAR/TIAL1 and hnRNP C1/C2 are associated in HeLa nuclear extracts. Co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down assays confirmed this interaction. Interestingly, binding requires the glutamine-rich (Q-rich) C-terminal domain of TIAR and the leucine-rich plus acidic residues-rich C-terminal domains of hnRNP C1/C2. This interaction also occurs in an RNA-dependent manner. Recombinant GFP-TIAR and RFP-hnRNP C1 proteins display partial nuclear co-localization when overexpressed in HeLa cells, and this requires the Q-rich domain of TIAR. hnRNP C1 overexpression in the presence of rate-limiting amounts of TIAR in HeLa and HEK293 cells affects alternative splicing of Fas and FGFR2 minigenes, promoting Fas exon 6 and FGFR2 exon K-SAM skipping, respectively. The repressor activity of hnRNP C1 on Fas exon 6 splicing is mediated by Hu antigen R (HuR). Experiments involving tethering approaches showed that the repressor capacity of hnRNP C1 is associated with an exonic splicing silencer in Fas exon 6. This effect was reversed by splice-site strengthening and is linked to its basic leucine zipper-like motif. These results suggest that hnRNP C1/C2 acts as a bridge between HuR and TIAR to modulate alternative Fas splicing. PMID:20699271

  7. [Selection of cross-protective antigens from outer membrane proteins of three pathogenic vibrios isolated from infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongwen; Mao, Zhijuan; Yu, Lian

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are universal conditioned-pathogenic bacteria in marine culture environment, and the outbreak of vibrio disease resulted in a serious damage to aquaculture. Considering that vibrio disease in aquatic species, especially fishes, usually originated from mixed infection of different species (serotypes or subspecies) of vibrios, it is important to select the potential cross-protective protein antigens as candidates of polyvalent or combined vaccines. In present research, several strains of vibrios were isolated from infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and subsequently identified as six strains of V. harveyi, one V. parahaemolyticus and one V. alginolyticus by physiological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Their outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were extracted and the SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results show that three immuno-blots with common molecular weight presented at approximate 45 kDa, 35 kDa and 22 kDa on their OMP electrophoretogram, indicating the existence of antigens with cross-protection in their OMPs. With the aids of combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D) and Western blotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), a deduced porin (GenBank Accession No. ZP_01260407) from V. alginolyticus and a maltoporin precursor (GenBank Accession No. NP_801154) from V. parahaemolyticus were able to react with polyclonal antibody to whole V. harveyi, suggesting these two proteins could act as the cross-protective antigens and the vaccines prepared with these porins would be probable to bring cross protection to three different vibrios. PMID:23593870

  8. The immunoregulatory protein human B7H3 is a tumor-associated antigen that regulates tumor cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Wen; Tekle, Christina; Fodstad, Oystein

    2008-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) 376.96 has been used for detection of micrometastatic tumor cells due to its high binding specificity for a wide range of tumor cells, but the identity and function of its target antigen have not been known. Here, using immunoprecipitation and siRNA technology, we demonstrate that the antigen is the human 4Ig-B7H3 (4Ig-hB7H3) protein, previously known as an immunoregulatory protein in immune cells. Immunoblots of whole cell lysates, subcellular fractionation and tunicamycin treatment of human tumor cells indicated that 4Ig-hB7H3 is a approximately 100-kDa N-linked glycosylated membrane protein. The tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced the expression of 4Ig-hB7H3 in FEMX-I (melanoma), MA11 (breast cancer), and OHS (osteosarcoma) cells, suggesting that 4Ig-hB7H3 may be implicated in tumorigenesis. Most importantly, siRNA-downregulation of hB7H3 reduced cell adhesion to fibronectin of melanoma and breast cancer cells by up to 50 %, and migration and matrigel-invasion by more than 70 %, but surprisingly had no apparent impact on cell proliferation. In conclusion, our data present 4Ig-hB7H3 as a tumor-associated antigen and suggests a novel biological role of 4Ig-hB7H3 in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:18690846

  9. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses to potential Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine protein antigens in young children with cystic fibrosis following colonization and infection

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ryka; Kyd, Jennelle M.; Carzino, Rosemary; Armstrong, David; Grimwood, Keith; Otczyk, Diana C.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important prognostic determinant in cystic fibrosis (CF). Little is known however, about P. aeruginosa induced local mucosal and systemic immune responses. Twenty CF children were categorized according to their P. aeruginosa status: (1) chronic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), (2) prior successfully treated initial LRTI, (3) isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) colonization, and (4) no known URT colonization or previous LRTI. Their antibody responses, and those of six non-CF disease controls, in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid to potential P. aeruginosa vaccine antigens outer membrane protein F (OprF), outer membrane protein H (OprH), catalase A (KatA) and a whole killed cell (WKC) extract were evaluated. Outer membrane protein G (OprG) responses were also measured in blood. Natural exposure, colonization and infection resulted in detectable antibody levels in BAL and serum in all CF groups. Both chronically infected and URT colonized CF children had substantially elevated immunoglobulin A antibody levels in the BAL fluid and sera toward the WKC extract and OprF antigen compared with the other groups of CF children and non-CF controls. The serum levels of specific P. aeruginosa antibodies involving immunoglobulin G and M isotypes increased with chronic LRTI, especially antibody levels to KatA, OprH and WKC extract, which were substantially greater in chronically infected children compared with all other groups. In conclusion, natural exposure, URT colonization and LRTI with P. aeruginosa all induce substantial mucosal and systemic antibody responses to potential vaccine antigens with chronically infected CF children having the highest levels. PMID:23249482

  10. Evaluation of Protective Potential of Yersinia pestis Outer Membrane Protein Antigens as Possible Candidates for a New-Generation Recombinant Plague Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Telepnev, Maxim V.; Motin, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1? strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1? mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1? CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains. PMID:23239803

  11. Evaluation of protective potential of Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein antigens as possible candidates for a new-generation recombinant plague vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erova, Tatiana E; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Telepnev, Maxim V; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2013-02-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1(-) strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1(-) mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1(-) CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains. PMID:23239803

  12. Pandemic influenza vaccine: characterization of A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) recombinant hemagglutinin protein and insights into H1N1 antigen stability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent H1N1 influenza pandemic illustrated the shortcomings of the vaccine manufacturing process. The A/California/07/2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine or A(H1N1)pdm09 was available late and in short supply as a result of delays in production caused by low yields and poor antigen stability. Recombinant technology offers the opportunity to shorten manufacturing time. A trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) vaccine candidate for seasonal influenza produced using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) was shown to be as effective and safe as egg-derived trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in human clinical studies. In this study, we describe the characterization of the A/California/07/2009 rHA protein and compare the H1N1 pandemic rHA to other seasonal rHA proteins. Results Our data show that, like other rHA proteins, purified A/California/07/2009 rHA forms multimeric rosette-like particles of 20–40?nm that are biologically active and immunogenic in mice as assayed by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers. However, proteolytic digest analysis revealed that A/California/07/2009 rHA is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation than rHA proteins derived from other seasonal influenza viruses. We identified a specific proteolytic site conserved across multiple hemagglutinin (HA) proteins that is likely more accessible in A/California/07/2009 HA, possibly as a result of differences in its protein structure, and may contribute to lower antigen stability. Conclusion We conclude that, similar to the recombinant seasonal influenza vaccine, recombinant A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine is likely to perform comparably to licensed A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines and could offer manufacturing advantages. PMID:23110350

  13. Targeting of Nasal Mucosa-Associated Antigen-Presenting Cells In Vivo with an Outer Membrane Protein A Derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Goetsch, Liliane; Gonzalez, Alexandra; Plotnicky-Gilquin, Hélène; Haeuw, Jean François; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Beck, Alain; Bonnefoy, Jean Yves; Corvaïa, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Administration of vaccines by the nasal route has recently proven to be one of the most efficient ways for inducing both mucosal and systemic antibody responses in experimental animals. Our results demonstrate that P40, a well-defined outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae, is indeed a carrier molecule suitable for nasal immunization. Using fragments from the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (RSV-A) G protein as antigen models, it has been shown that P40 is able to induce both systemic and mucosal immunity when fused or coupled to a protein or a peptide and administered intranasally (i.n.) to naive or K. pneumoniae-primed mice. Confocal analyses of nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue after i.n. instillation of P40 showed that this molecule is able to cross the nasal epithelium and target CD11c-positive cells likely to be murine dendritic cells or macrophages. More importantly, this targeting of antigen-presenting cells following i.n. immunization with a subunit of the RSV-A molecule in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant results in both upper and lower respiratory tract protection against RSV-A infection. PMID:11553588

  14. Combining Viral Vectored and Protein-in-adjuvant Vaccines Against the Blood-stage Malaria Antigen AMA1: Report on a Phase 1a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel GW; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines—chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising “mixed-modality” regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible. PMID:25156127

  15. The fraction 1 and V protein antigens of Yersinia pestis activate dendritic cells to induce primary T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, R; Burke, F; Robinson, J H; Bedford, P A; Jones, S M; Knight, S C; Williamson, E D

    2007-01-01

    The F1 and V antigens of Yersinia pestis, despite acting as virulence factors secreted by the organism during infection, also combine to produce an effective recombinant vaccine against plague, currently in clinical trial. The protective mechanisms induced by rF1 + rV probably involve interactions with dendritic cells (DC) as antigen uptake, processing and presenting cells. To study such interactions, naive ex vivo DC from bone marrow, spleen and lymph node were cultured with rF1, rV or combined antigens and demonstrated to secrete interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 into the culture supernatant. Cytokine production in response to pulsing was dependent on the maturity of the bone marrow-derived DC culture, so that pulsed 8-day-old cultures had accumulated significantly more intracellular IL-4 and IL-12 than unpulsed cells. DC, pulsed with rF1 + rV for 2–24 h, were able to prime naive autologous lymph node T cells to proliferate in an antigen dose-dependent manner, with an order of potency of 3d bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) > 7d BMDC > splenic DC. Significantly, cell-free supernatants from rF1 + rV-pulsed BMDC and splenic DC were also able to induce specific primary responses effectively in naive T cells, suggesting that these supernatants contained stimulatory factor(s). This study suggests an important role for DC, or factors secreted by them, in the induction of protective immunity to plague by the rF1 and rV antigens. PMID:17645768

  16. Cloning and characterization of the antigenic membrane protein (Amp) gene and in situ detection of Amp from malformed flowers infected with Japanese hydrangea phyllody phytoplasma.

    PubMed

    Arashida, R; Kakizawa, S; Ishii, Y; Hoshi, A; Jung, H-Y; Kagiwada, S; Yamaji, Y; Oshima, K; Nam