Science.gov

Sample records for unsteady aerodynamics experiment

  1. Unsteady Aerodynamic Validation Experiences From the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Chawlowski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW) was held in April 2012, bringing together communities of aeroelasticians, computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists. The extended objective was to assess the state of the art in computational aeroelastic methods as practical tools for the prediction of static and dynamic aeroelastic phenomena. As a step in this process, workshop participants analyzed unsteady aerodynamic and weakly-coupled aeroelastic cases. Forced oscillation and unforced system experiments and computations have been compared for three configurations. This paper emphasizes interpretation of the experimental data, computational results and their comparisons from the perspective of validation of unsteady system predictions. The issues examined in detail are variability introduced by input choices for the computations, post-processing, and static aeroelastic modeling. The final issue addressed is interpreting unsteady information that is present in experimental data that is assumed to be steady, and the resulting consequences on the comparison data sets.

  2. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase V: Test Configuration and Available Data Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.

    2001-08-30

    The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating-blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models, which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic-stall regimes. Much of the effort in the first phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phase V of the experiment is contained in this report.

  3. Low Speed Unsteady Aerodynamics Soumitra Banerjee*

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    Low Speed Unsteady Aerodynamics Soumitra Banerjee* Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061 Unsteady aerodynamics is the study of fluid flow, where the flow field changes with time. The unsteadiness is significant in many aerodynamic applications; few examples

  4. Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

  5. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-07-19

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement.

  6. A Sample of NASA Langley Unsteady Pressure Experiments for Computational Aerodynamics Code Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    As computational fluid dynamics methods mature, code development is rapidly transitioning from prediction of steady flowfields to unsteady flows. This change in emphasis offers a number of new challenges to the research community, not the least of which is obtaining detailed, accurate unsteady experimental data with which to evaluate new methods. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been actively measuring unsteady pressure distributions for nearly 40 years. Over the last 20 years, these measurements have focused on developing high-quality datasets for use in code evaluation. This paper provides a sample of unsteady pressure measurements obtained by LaRC and available for government, university, and industry researchers to evaluate new and existing unsteady aerodynamic analysis methods. A number of cases are highlighted and discussed with attention focused on the unique character of the individual datasets and their perceived usefulness for code evaluation. Ongoing LaRC research in this area is also presented.

  7. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI: Wind Tunnel Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.; Schreck, S.; Larwood, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamics experiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.

  8. Unsteady aerodynamic forces on small-scale wings: experiments, simulations and models

    E-print Network

    Colonius, Tim

    for the unsteady lift and drag forces on small wings in various modes of flight, and to better understand wake structure and lift. Wind tunnel experiments of a wing in single pitch-up and sinusoidal pitch as it retreats to balance lift in forward flight. It has been shown that certain insects3,4 and birds5 , flying

  9. NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment in the NASA-Ames Wind Tunnel: A Comparison of Predictions to Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.; Schreck, S.; Hand, M.; Fingersh, L.J.

    2001-06-22

    Currently, wind turbine designers rely on safety factors to compensate for the effects of unknown loads acting on the turbine structure. This results in components that are overdesigned because precise load levels and load paths are unknown. To advance wind turbine technology, the forces acting on the turbine structure must be accurately characterized because these forces translate directly into loads imparted to the wind turbine structure and resulting power production. Once these forces are more accurately characterized, we will better understand load paths and can therefore optimize turbine structures. To address this problem, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE), which was a test of an extensively instrumented wind turbine in the giant NASA-Ames 24.4-m (80 feet) by 36.6-m (120 feet) wind tunnel. To maximize the benefits from testing, NREL formed a Science Panel of advisers comprised of wind turbine aerodynamics and modeling experts throughout the world. NREL used the Science Panel's guidance to specify the conditions and configurations under which the turbine was operated in the wind tunnel. The panel also helped define test priorities and objectives that would be effective for wind turbine modeling tool development and validation.

  10. Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.

  11. Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.

  12. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.

  13. Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

    1991-01-01

    A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

  14. Unsteady aerodynamics and flow control for flapping wing flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Steven; Nassef, Hany; Pornsinsirirak, Nick; Tai, Yu-Chong; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2003-11-01

    The creation of micro air vehicles (MAVs) of the same general sizes and weight as natural fliers has spawned renewed interest in flapping wing flight. With a wingspan of approximately 15 cm and a flight speed of a few meters per second, MAVs experience the same low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5) flight conditions as their biological counterparts. In this flow regime, rigid fixed wings drop dramatically in aerodynamic performance while flexible flapping wings gain efficacy and are the preferred propulsion method for small natural fliers. Researchers have long realized that steady-state aerodynamics does not properly capture the physical phenomena or forces present in flapping flight at this scale. Hence, unsteady flow mechanisms must dominate this regime. Furthermore, due to the low flight speeds, any disturbance such as gusts or wind will dramatically change the aerodynamic conditions around the MAV. In response, a suitable feedback control system and actuation technology must be developed so that the wing can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency in this extremely dynamic situation; one where the unsteady separated flow field and wing structure are tightly coupled and interact nonlinearly. For instance, birds and bats control their flexible wings with muscle tissue to successfully deal with rapid changes in the flow environment. Drawing from their example, perhaps MAVs can use lightweight actuators in conjunction with adaptive feedback control to shape the wing and achieve active flow control. This article first reviews the scaling laws and unsteady flow regime constraining both biological and man-made fliers. Then a summary of vortex dominated unsteady aerodynamics follows. Next, aeroelastic coupling and its effect on lift and thrust are discussed. Afterwards, flow control strategies found in nature and devised by man to deal with separated flows are examined. Recent work is also presented in using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators and angular speed variation to achieve active flow control for MAVs. Finally, an explanation for aerodynamic gains seen in flexible versus rigid membrane wings, derived from an unsteady three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model with an integrated distributed control algorithm, is presented.

  15. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.

  16. The unsteady aerodynamics of a first stage stator vane row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, V. R.; Fleeter, S.

    1986-03-01

    The fundamental unsteady aerodynamics on a vane row of an axial flow research compressor stage are experimentally investigated, demonstrating the effects of airfoil camber and steady loading. In particular, the rotor wake generated unsteady surface pressure distributions on the first stage vane row are quantified over a range of operating conditions. These cambered airfoil unsteady data are correlated with predictions from a flat plate cascade inviscid flow model. At the design point, the unsteady pressure difference coefficient data exhibit good correlation with the nonseparated predictions, with the aerodynamic phase lag data exhibiting fair trendwise correlation. The quantitative phase lag differences are associated with the camber of the airfoil. An aft suction surface flow separation region is indicated by the steady state surface static pressure data as the aerodynamic loading is increased. This separation affects the increased incidence angle unsteady pressure data.

  17. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Ryan Jantzen

    E-print Network

    Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Maneuvers Ryan Jantzen and Kunihiko Taira Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL Kenneth Granlund and Michael V. Ol§ U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH We report on the development of an aerodynamic force model for a flat

  19. A linear aerodynamic analysis for unsteady transonic cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A potential flow analysis to predict unsteady airloads produced by the vibrations of turbomachinery blades operating at transonic Mach numbers is presented. The unsteady aerodynamic model includes the effects of blade geometry, finite mean pressure variation across the blade row, high frequency blade motion, and shock motion within the framework of a linearized, frequency domain formulation. The unsteady equations are solved implicit, least squares, finite difference approximation which is applicable on arbitrary grids. A numerical solution for the entire unsteady field is determined by matching a solution determined on a rectilinear type cascade mesh, which covers an extended blade passage region, to a solution determined on a detailed polar type local mesh, which covers and extends well beyond the supersonic region(s) adjacent to a blade surface. Cascades of double circular arc and flat plate blades demonstrate the unsteady analysis, and partially illustrate the effects of blade geometry, inlet Mach number, blade vibration frequency and shock motion on unsteady response.

  20. Algorithmic Enhancements for Unsteady Aerodynamics and Combustion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Sankaran; Olsen, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Research in the FY01 focused on the analysis and development of enhanced algorithms for unsteady aerodynamics and chemically reacting flowfields. The research was performed in support of NASA Ames' efforts to improve the capabilities of the in-house computational fluid dynamics code, OVERFLOW. Specifically, the research was focused on the four areas: (1) investigation of stagnation region effects; (2) unsteady preconditioning dual-time procedures; (3) dissipation formulation for combustion; and (4) time-stepping methods for combustion.

  1. Role of computational fluid dynamics in unsteady aerodynamics for aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Goorjian, Peter M.

    1989-01-01

    In the last two decades there have been extensive developments in computational unsteady transonic aerodynamics. Such developments are essential since the transonic regime plays an important role in the design of modern aircraft. Therefore, there has been a large effort to develop computational tools with which to accurately perform flutter analysis at transonic speeds. In the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), unsteady transonic aerodynamics are characterized by the feature of modeling the motion of shock waves over aerodynamic bodies, such as wings. This modeling requires the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. Most advanced codes such as XTRAN3S use the transonic small perturbation equation. Currently, XTRAN3S is being used for generic research in unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of almost full aircraft configurations. Use of Euler/Navier Stokes equations for simple typical sections has just begun. A brief history of the development of CFD for aeroelastic applications is summarized. The development of unsteady transonic aerodynamics and aeroelasticity are also summarized.

  2. Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 percent in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady aerodynamic model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -0.14 percent.

  3. Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunton, Steven L.

    This work develops low-order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing in response to agile maneuvers at low Reynolds number. Model performance is assessed on the basis of accuracy across a range of parameters and frequencies as well as of computational efficiency and compatibility with existing control techniques and flight dynamic models. The result is a flexible modeling procedure that yields accurate, low-dimensional, state-space models. The modeling procedures are developed and tested on direct numerical simulations of a two-dimensional flat plate airfoil in motion at low Reynolds number, Re=100, and in a wind tunnel experiment at the Illinois Institute of Technology involving a NACA 0006 airfoil pitching and plunging at Reynolds number Re=65,000. In both instances, low-order models are obtained that accurately capture the unsteady aerodynamic forces at all frequencies. These cases demonstrate the utility of the modeling procedure developed in this thesis for obtaining accurate models for different geometries and Reynolds numbers. Linear reduced-order models are constructed from either the indicial response (step response) or realistic input/output maneuvers using a flexible modeling procedure. The method is based on identifying stability derivatives and modeling the remaining dynamics with the eigensystem realization algorithm. A hierarchy of models is developed, based on linearizing the flow at various operating conditions. These models are shown to be accurate and efficient for plunging, pitching about various points, and combined pitch and plunge maneuvers, at various angle of attack and Reynolds number. Models are compared against the classical unsteady aerodynamic models of Wagner and Theodorsen over a large range of Strouhal number and reduced frequency for a baseline comparison. Additionally, state-space representations are developed for Wagner's and Theodorsen's models, making them compatible with modern control-system analysis. A number of computational tools are developed throughout this work. Highly unsteady maneuvers are visualized using finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields, which highlight separated flows and wake structures. A new fast method of computing these fields is presented. In addition, we generalize the immersed boundary projection method computations to use a moving base flow, which allows for the simulation of complex geometries undergoing large motions with up to an order of magnitude speed-up. The methods developed in this thesis provide a systematic approach to identify unsteady aerodynamic models from analytical, numerical, or experimental data. The resulting models are shown to be reduced-order models of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations that are expressed in state-space form, and they are, therefore, both efficient and accurate. The specific form of the model, which separates added-mass forces, quasi-steady lift, and transient forces, guarantees that the resulting models are accurate over the entire range of frequencies. Finally, the models are low-dimensional linear systems of ordinary differential equations, so that they are compatible with existing flight dynamic models as well as a wealth of modern control techniques.

  4. Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2010-01-01

    A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.

  5. Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 % in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -.14 %.

  6. Plans for Testing the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment 10m Diameter HAWT in the NASA Ames Wind Tunnel: Minutes, Conclusions, and Revised Text Matrix from the 1st Science Panel Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.; Schreck, S.; Hand, M.; Fingersh, L.; Cotrell, J.; Pierce, K.; Robinson, M.

    2000-08-28

    Currently, the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) research turbine is scheduled to enter the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel in early 2000. To prepare for this 3-week test, a Science Panel meeting was convened at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 1998. During this meeting, the Science Panel and representatives from the wind energy community provided numerous detailed recommendations regarding test activities and priorities. The Unsteady Aerodynamics team of the NWTC condensed this guidance and drafted a detailed test plan. This test plan represents an attempt to balance diverse recommendations received from the Science Panel meeting, while taking into account multiple constraints imposed by the UAE research turbine, the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel, and other sources. The NREL-NASA Ames wind tunnel tests will primarily be focused on obtaining rotating blade pressure data. NREL has been making these types of measurements since 1987 and has considerable experience in doing so. The purpose of this wind tunnel test is to acquire accurate quantitative aerodynamic and structural measurements, on a wind turbine that is geometrically and dynamically representative of full-scale machines, in an environment free from pronounced inflow anomalies. These data will be exploited to develop and validate enhanced engineering models for designing and analyzing advanced wind energy machines.

  7. A semianalytical technique for sensitivity analysis of unsteady aerodynamic computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.

    1988-01-01

    A semianalytical approach is developed for the sensitivity analysis of linear unsteady aerodynamic loads. The semianalytical approach is easier to implement than the analytical approach. It is also computationally less expensive than the finite difference approach when used with panel methods, which require a large number of panels. The semianalytical approach is applied to an isolated airfoil in a 2-D flow and rotating propfan blades in 3-D flow. Sensitivity coefficients with respect to non-shape-dependent variables are shown for some cases. It is expected that the semianalytical approach will be useful in aeroelastic design procedures particularly when mistuning is present, and that it is potentially useful for shape sensitivity analysis of linear unsteady aerodynamics.

  8. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 2: Steady and unsteady aerodynamics of sharp-edged delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of sharp-edged slender wings has been performed. The results show that slender wing theory can be modified to give the potential flow static and dynamic characteristics in incompressible flow. A semiempirical approximation is developed for the vortex-induced loads, and it is shown that the analytic approximation for sharp-edged slender wings gives good prediction of experimentally determined steady and unsteady aerodynamics at M = 0 and M = 1. The predictions are good not only for delta wings but also for so-called arrow and diamond wings. The results indicate that the effects of delta planform lifting surfaces can be included in a simple manner when determining elastic launch vehicle dynamic characteristics. For Part 1 see (N73-32763).

  9. Unsteady Aerodynamic Behavior Measured in Hovering Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Kufeld, Robert M.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A highly-instrumented UH-60A aircraft was tested at NASA-Ames Research Center from August 1993 to February 1994 obtaining an extensive data base for level flight, maneuvers, acoustics (both with respect to ground microphone arrays and inflight microphones), and flight dynamics. A majority of the data obtained are now in an electronic data base, however, only a small fraction of the data have been examined. The proposed paper will examine the issue of hovering steadiness in more detail. In particular, a single set of data obtained during ground acoustic testing may provide considerable insight as the wind speeds were measured at a hover height of 250 feet and the aircraft was positioned in 15 deg. steps in heading from 0 to 180 deg. Also, hover housekeeping data were obtained for many of the 31 flights and these will also allow a characterization of the unsteadiness. The variation in section lift will be examined in terms of the induced flow angle variation and this will be related to possible physical explanations.

  10. Transonic adaptive flutter suppression using approximate unsteady time domain aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Livne, Eli

    1991-01-01

    A digital adaptive controller is applied to the active flutter suppression problem of a wing under time varying flight conditions in subsonic and transonic flow. Linear quadratic controller gain at each time step is obtained using an iterative Riccati solver. The digital adaptive optimal controller is robust with respect to the unknown external loads. Flutter and divergence instabilities are simultaneously suppressed using a trailing-edge control surface and displacement sensing. A new transonic unsteady aerodynamic approximation methodology is developed which enables one to carry out the rapid calculation required for transonic aeroservoelastic applications. This approximation is based on a combination of unsteady subsonic aerodynamics combined with a transonic correction procedure. Aeroservoelastic transient time response is obtained using Roger's approximation, state transition matrices and an iterative time marching algorithm. The aeroservoelastic system in the time domain is modeled using a deterministic ARMA model together with a parameter estimator. Transonic flutter boundaries of a wing structure are computed, in the time domain, using an estimated aeroelastic system matrix and are in good agreement with experimental data for the low transonic Mach number range.

  11. An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2013-12-01

    An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

  12. Aerodynamic coefficients in generalized unsteady thin airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two cases are considered: (1) rigid body motion of an airfoil-flap combination consisting of vertical translation of given amplitude, rotation of given amplitude about a specified axis, and rotation of given amplitude of the control surface alone about its hinge; the upwash for this problem is defined mathematically; and (2) sinusoidal gust of given amplitude and wave number, for which the upwash is defined mathematically. Simple universal formulas are presented for the most important aerodynamic coefficients in unsteady thin airfoil theory. The lift and moment induced by a generalized gust are evaluated explicitly in terms of the gust wavelength. Similarly, in the control surface problem, the lift, moment, and hinge moments are given as explicit algebraic functions of hinge location. These results can be used together with any of the standard numerical inversion routines for the elementary loads (pitch and heave).

  13. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  14. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  15. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 3: Unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries was performed. The results show that the experimentally observed pulsating flow on spiked bodies and in forward facing cavities can be described by the developed simple mathematical model of the phenomenon. Static experimental data is used as a basis for determination of the oscillatory frequency of spike-induced flow pulsations. The agreement between predicted and measured reduced frequencies is generally very good. The spiked-body mathematical model is extended to describe the pulsations observed in forward facing cavities and it is shown that not only the frequency but also the pressure time history can be described with the accuracy needed to predict the experimentally observed time average effects. This implies that it should be possible to determine analytically the impact of the flow pulsation on the structural integrity of the nozzles for the jettisoned empty SRM-shells.

  16. Calculation of subsonic and supersonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces using velocity potential aerodynamic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.

    1976-01-01

    Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.

  17. Fast-Running Aeroelastic Code Based on Unsteady Linearized Aerodynamic Solver Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing aeroelastic analyses for turbomachines for use by NASA and industry. An aeroelastic analysis consists of a structural dynamic model, an unsteady aerodynamic model, and a procedure to couple the two models. The structural models are well developed. Hence, most of the development for the aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines has involved adapting and using unsteady aerodynamic models. Two methods are used in developing unsteady aerodynamic analysis procedures for the flutter and forced response of turbomachines: (1) the time domain method and (2) the frequency domain method. Codes based on time domain methods require considerable computational time and, hence, cannot be used during the design process. Frequency domain methods eliminate the time dependence by assuming harmonic motion and, hence, require less computational time. Early frequency domain analyses methods neglected the important physics of steady loading on the analyses for simplicity. A fast-running unsteady aerodynamic code, LINFLUX, which includes steady loading and is based on the frequency domain method, has been modified for flutter and response calculations. LINFLUX, solves unsteady linearized Euler equations for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blades, starting from a steady nonlinear aerodynamic solution. First, we obtained a steady aerodynamic solution for a given flow condition using the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic code TURBO. A blade vibration analysis was done to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating blades, and an interface code was used to convert the steady aerodynamic solution to a form required by LINFLUX. A preprocessor was used to interpolate the mode shapes from the structural dynamic mesh onto the computational dynamics mesh. Then, we used LINFLUX to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic forces for a given mode, frequency, and phase angle. A postprocessor read these unsteady pressures and calculated the generalized aerodynamic forces, eigenvalues, and response amplitudes. The eigenvalues determine the flutter frequency and damping. As a test case, the flutter of a helical fan was calculated with LINFLUX and compared with calculations from TURBO-AE, a nonlinear time domain code, and from ASTROP2, a code based on linear unsteady aerodynamics.

  18. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 2009-1299 Unsteady Aerodynamics and Wing Kinematics Effect in

    E-print Network

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 2009-1299 Unsteady Aerodynamics and Wing of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms such as wake capture, leading-edge vortex, Weis­Fogh "clap aerodynamics are of particular interests in this study. Simulations have shown that the vortex topologies

  19. Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.

  20. Development and applications of supersonic unsteady consistent aerodynamics for interfering parallel wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, K.; Smith, G. C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical development of unsteady supersonic aerodynamic influence coefficients for isolated and nearly parallel interfering coplanar and noncoplanar wings is described. Numerical formulations based on triangular discretizations of wings and diaphragms are handled in a kinematically consistent manner. Examples of isolated wing cases are compared with respect to aerodynamic influence coefficients and flutter boundaries. Aerodynamic influence coefficients for interfering wings are compared where corresponding results are available.

  1. Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav

    2011-01-01

    Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.

  2. Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Turbomachinery Aeroelastic and Aeroacoustic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Ayer, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows of axial-flow turbomachines. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of the blading. The emphasis has been placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, high Reynolds number flows driven by small amplitude unsteady excitations have been considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations and lead to a better understanding of the relevant flow physics. In addition, they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for use in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies. Under the present effort, inviscid interaction and linearized inviscid unsteady flow models have been formulated, and inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic steady and unsteady cascade flows have been developed. In this report, we describe the linearized inviscid unsteady analysis, LINFLO, the steady inviscid/viscid interaction analysis, SFLOW-IVI, and the unsteady viscous layer analysis, UNSVIS. These analyses are demonstrated via application to unsteady flows through compressor and turbine cascades that are excited by prescribed vortical and acoustic excitations and by prescribed blade vibrations. Recommendations are also given for the future research needed for extending and improving the foregoing asymptotic analyses, and to meet the goal of providing efficient inviscid/viscid interaction capabilities for subsonic and transonic unsteady cascade flows.

  3. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F

    2015-02-28

    A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859

  4. Hugoniot Experiments with unsteady waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratandunono, Dayne

    2015-06-01

    Recent development of transparent shock wave standard materials, such as quartz, enables continuous tracking of shock waves using optical velocimetry, thus providing information on shock wave steadiness and pressure perturbations in the target. From a first order perturbation analysis, we develop a set of analytical formulas that connect the pressure perturbations at the drive surface to the shock velocity perturbations observed in measurements. With targets that incorporate a calibrated transparent witness material, such as quartz, and with the analytical formulas describing the perturbation response, it is possible to determine the sound speed and Gruneisen coefficient of an unknown sample by using evolution of the non-steady perturbations as a probe. These formulas are used to improve the accuracy of traditional shock wave impedance match Hugoniot experiments of opaque samples driven with non-steady waves. The method is well suited for use in laser-based Hugoniot experiments where the shock waves can be unsteady, with fluctuations and/or accelerating or decelerating trends. We apply this technique to recent laser-based Hugoniot measurements and the results are presented.

  5. Successive smoothing algorithm for constructing the semiempirical model developed at ONERA to predict unsteady aerodynamic forces. [aeroelasticity in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petot, D.; Loiseau, H.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.

  6. Unsteady Aerodynamic and Dynamic Analysis of the Meridian UAS in a Rolling-Yawing Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykins, Ryan

    The nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic effects of operating the Meridian unmanned aerial system (UAS) in crosswinds and at high angular rates is investigated in this work. The Meridian UAS is a large autonomous aircraft, with a V-tail configuration, operated in Polar Regions for the purpose of remotely measuring ice sheet thickness. The inherent nonlinear coupling produced by the V-tail, along with the strong atmospheric disturbances, has made classical model identification methods inadequate for proper model development. As such, a powerful tool known as Fuzzy Logic Modeling (FLM) was implemented to generate time-dependent, nonlinear, and unsteady aerodynamic models using flight test data collected in Greenland in 2011. Prior to performing FLM, compatibility analysis is performed on the data, for the purpose of systematic bias removal and airflow angle estimation. As one of the advantages of FLM is the ability to model unsteady aerodynamics, the reduced frequency for both longitudinal and lateral-directional motions is determined from the unbiased data, using Theodorsen's theory of unsteadiness, which serves as an input parameter in modeling. These models have been used in this work to identify pilot induced oscillations, unsteady coupling motions, unsteady motion due to the slipstream and cross wind interaction, and destabilizing motions and orientations. This work also assesses the accuracy of preliminary aircraft dynamic models developed using engineering level software, and addresses the autopilot Extended Kalman Filter state estimations.

  7. Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.

  8. Numerical Study of Steady and Unsteady Canard-Wing-Body Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugene, L. Tu

    1996-01-01

    The use of canards in advanced aircraft for control and improved aerodynamic performance is a topic of continued interest and research. In addition to providing maneuver control and trim, the influence of canards on wing aerodynamics can often result in increased maximum lift and decreased trim drag. In many canard-configured aircraft, the main benefits of canards are realized during maneuver or other dynamic conditions. Therefore, the detailed study and understanding of canards requires the accurate prediction of the non-linear unsteady aerodynamics of such configurations. For close-coupled canards, the unsteady aerodynamic performance associated with the canard-wing interaction is of particular interest. The presence of a canard in close proximity to the wing results in a highly coupled canard-wing aerodynamic flowfield which can include downwash/upwash effects, vortex-vortex interactions and vortex-surface interactions. For unsteady conditions, these complexities of the canard-wing flowfield are further increased. The development and integration of advanced computational technologies provide for the time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulations of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flox,fields. Simulation, are performed for non-linear flight regimes at transonic Mach numbers and for a wide range of angles of attack. For the static configurations, the effects of canard positioning and fixed deflection angles on aerodynamic performance and canard-wing vortex interaction are considered. For non-static configurations, the analyses of the canard-wing body flowfield includes the unsteady aerodynamics associated with pitch-up ramp and pitch oscillatory motions of the entire geometry. The unsteady flowfield associated with moving canards which are typically used as primary control surfaces are considered as well. The steady and unsteady effects of the canard on surface pressure integrated forces and moments, and canard-wing vortex interaction are presented in detail including the effects of the canard on the static and dynamic stability characteristics. The current study provides an understanding of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flowfield. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the canard on aerodynamic performance as well as the detailed flow physics of the canard-wing flowfield interactions. The computational tools developed to accurately predict the time-accurate flowfield of moving canards provides for the capability of coupled fluids-controls simulations desired in the detailed design and analysis of advanced aircraft.

  9. Development of a nonlinear vortex method. [steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads of highly sweptback wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, O. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of reliable nonlinear vortex methods for predicting the steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads of highly sweptback wings at large angles of attack. Abstracts of the papers, talks, and theses produced through this research are included. The modified nonlinear discrete vortex method and the nonlinear hybrid vortex method are highlighted.

  10. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 185248 The unsteady aerodynamics of slender wings and aircraft

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    on the flow structure over delta wings and complete aircraft configurations. First, the flow structureProgress in Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 185­248 The unsteady aerodynamics of slender wings and aircraft undergoing large amplitude maneuvers Robert C. Nelson*, Alain Pelletier Department of Aerospace

  11. Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamics in the Wake of a Freely Flying European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J.; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight. PMID:24278243

  12. An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Oscillating Airfoil Unsteady Aerodynamics at Large Mean Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capece, Vincent R.; Platzer, Max F.

    2003-01-01

    A major challenge in the design and development of turbomachine airfoils for gas turbine engines is high cycle fatigue failures due to flutter and aerodynamically induced forced vibrations. In order to predict the aeroelastic response of gas turbine airfoils early in the design phase, accurate unsteady aerodynamic models are required. However, accurate predictions of flutter and forced vibration stress at all operating conditions have remained elusive. The overall objectives of this research program are to develop a transition model suitable for unsteady separated flow and quantify the effects of transition on airfoil steady and unsteady aerodynamics for attached and separated flow using this model. Furthermore, the capability of current state-of-the-art unsteady aerodynamic models to predict the oscillating airfoil response of compressor airfoils over a range of realistic reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and loading levels will be evaluated through correlation with benchmark data. This comprehensive evaluation will assess the assumptions used in unsteady aerodynamic models. The results of this evaluation can be used to direct improvement of current models and the development of future models. The transition modeling effort will also make strides in improving predictions of steady flow performance of fan and compressor blades at off-design conditions. This report summarizes the progress and results obtained in the first year of this program. These include: installation and verification of the operation of the parallel version of TURBO; the grid generation and initiation of steady flow simulations of the NASA/Pratt&Whitney airfoil at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg.; and the investigation of the prediction of laminar separation bubbles on a NACA 0012 airfoil.

  13. Fully unsteady subsonic and supersonic potential aerodynamics for complex aircraft configurations for flutter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.

    1975-01-01

    A general theory for study, oscillatory or fully unsteady potential compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, one obtains a set of differential-delay equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative which is expressed in terms of the generalized coordinates of the structure. For oscillatory flow, the motion consists of sinusoidal oscillations around a steady, subsonic or supersonic flow. For fully unsteady flow, the motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed for time t or = 0 and of small perturbations around the steady state for time t 0.

  14. Characteristic boundary conditions for three-dimensional transonic unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristic far-field boundary conditions for the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small disturbance potential equation have been developed. The boundary conditions were implemented in the XTRAN3S finite difference code and tested for a flat plate rectangular wing with a pulse in angle of attack; the freestream Mach number was 0.85. The calculated force response shows that the characteristic boundary conditions reduce disturbances that are reflected from the computational boundaries.

  15. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 3: Booster interference effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the interference flow field on the space-shuttle boost configuration has been made. The results show that the interference effects can dominate the shuttle aerodynamics. Vortices shed from shock-induced flow separations on the forward portion of the vehicle affect the aerodynamic loads on the aft portion of the booster. Thus, the forebody and aft-body flow fields are coupled. This coupling and the associated time lag due to the finite convection speed of the vortices furnish a mechanism whereby the unsteady aerodynamics can cause undamping of certain low frequency elastic modes of the booster. A preliminary order-of-magnitude analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the shuttle booster indicates that negative aerodynamic damping could occur for at least one bending mode and be of sufficient magnitude to dominate the structural damping. The implication of these results, (with the possibility of undamped oscillations leading to structural failure), is serious enough to warrant further, more detailed analysis.

  16. Integral-equation methods in steady and unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics for interdisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the development of computational methods for steady and unsteady aerodynamics has perennially paced advancements in aeroelastic analysis and design capabilities. Since these capabilities are of growing importance in the analysis and design of high-performance aircraft, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of appropriate aerodynamic methodology. The contributions to those efforts from the integral-equations research program at the NASA Langley Research Center is reviewed. Specifically, the current scope, progress, and plans for research and development for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed, and example applications are shown in order to highlight the generality, versatility, and attractive features of this methodology.

  17. Current status of computational methods for transonic unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Malone, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity is reviewed. The key features of challenging aeroelastic applications are discussed in terms of the flowfield state: low-angle high speed flows and high-angle vortex-dominated flows. The critical role played by viscous effects in determining aeroelastic stability for conditions of incipient flow separation is stressed. The need for a variety of flow modeling tools, from linear formulations to implementations of the Navier-Stokes equations, is emphasized. Estimates of computer run times for flutter calculations using several computational methods are given. Applications of these methods for unsteady aerodynamic and transonic flutter calculations for airfoils, wings, and configurations are summarized. Finally, recommendations are made concerning future research directions.

  18. Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 2: Parameters estimated from wind tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.

  19. Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic State-Space Models from CFD-Based Pulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Raveh, Daniella E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for computing discrete-time state-space models of linearized unsteady aerodynamic behavior directly from aeroelastic CFD codes is presented. The method involves the treatment of CFD-based pulse responses as Markov parameters for use in a system identification /realization algorithm. Results are presented for the AGARD 445.6 Aeroelastic Wing with four aeroelastic modes at a Mach number of 0.96 using the EZNSS Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver with aeroelastic capability. The System/Observer/Controller Identification Toolbox (SOCIT) algorithm, based on the Ho-Kalman realization algorithm, is used to generate 15th- and 32nd-order discrete-time state-space models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of the wing over the entire frequency range of interest.

  20. Application of the ASP3D Computer Program to Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2006-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.

  1. Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion: A prototype method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three- dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.

  2. A Digital Program for Calculating the Interaction Between Flexible Structures, Unsteady Aerodynamics and Active Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peele, E. L.; Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program, ISAC, is described which calculates the stability and response of a flexible airplane equipped with active controls. The equations of motion relative to a fixed inertial coordinate system are formulated in terms of the airplane's rigid body motion and its unrestrained normal vibration modes. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived from a doublet lattice lifting surface theory. The theoretical basis for the program is briefly explained together with a description of input data and output results.

  3. Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral-equations and finite-difference method for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite-difference solution of the transonic small-perturbation equation, the integral-equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.

  4. Neural Net-Based Redesign of Transonic Turbines for Improved Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Rai, Man Mohan; Huber, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology (RSM) and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The optimization procedure yields a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. The computed results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the tremendous advantages that can be gained by including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.

  5. Improving the Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance of Transonic Turbines using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.; Huber, Frank W.

    1999-01-01

    A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The procedure yielded a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the advantages of including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.

  6. Investigation of pump hydraulic noise by unsteady aerodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroi, B.; Tourret, J.; Bertinier, M.; Pluviose, M.

    An experimental method is developed to further understand the physical mechanisms of acoustic wave generation in centrifugal flow turbine engines. This method measures the complete unsteady pressure field throughout the engine and its variations with rotor position or airflow. Time pressure signals are obtained synchronously by using a large number of fixed and rotating transducers. These time signal values are then formed into a grid pattern to obtain a complete picture of instantaneous pressure from inlet to exhaust. With films developed from successive photos, the influence of various flow parameters can be seen along with the generation of acoustic waves at the exhaust. The details of probe installation and measuring techniques are described along with grid and photo interpretations.

  7. Unsteady Aerodynamic Modeling in Roll for the NASA Generic Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Frink, Neal T.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the impact of loss-of-control conditions on commercial transport aircraft is a primary goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. One aspect in developing the supporting technologies is to improve the aerodynamic models that represent these adverse conditions. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. In this paper, a more general mathematical model is proposed for the subscale NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) that covers both low and high angles of attack. Particular attention is devoted to the stall region where full-scale transports have demonstrated a tendency for roll instability. The complete aerodynamic model was estimated from dynamic wind-tunnel data. Advanced computational methods are used to improve understanding and visualize the flow physics within the region where roll instability is a factor.

  8. Physically weighted approximations of unsteady aerodynamic forces using the minimum-state method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, Mordechay; Hoadley, Sherwood Tiffany

    1991-01-01

    The Minimum-State Method for rational approximation of unsteady aerodynamic force coefficient matrices, modified to allow physical weighting of the tabulated aerodynamic data, is presented. The approximation formula and the associated time-domain, state-space, open-loop equations of motion are given, and the numerical procedure for calculating the approximation matrices, with weighted data and with various equality constraints are described. Two data weighting options are presented. The first weighting is for normalizing the aerodynamic data to maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second weighting is one in which each tabulated coefficient, at each reduced frequency value, is weighted according to the effect of an incremental error of this coefficient on aeroelastic characteristics of the system. This weighting yields a better fit of the more important terms, at the expense of less important ones. The resulting approximate yields a relatively low number of aerodynamic lag states in the subsequent state-space model. The formulation forms the basis of the MIST computer program which is written in FORTRAN for use on the MicroVAX computer and interfaces with NASA's Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) computer program. The program structure, capabilities and interfaces are outlined in the appendices, and a numerical example which utilizes Rockwell's Active Flexible Wing (AFW) model is given and discussed.

  9. Unsteady Aerodynamics on a Pitching Plunging Flat Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Adam; Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Biology has shown that natural fliers utilize unsteady flow mechanisms to enhance their lift characteristics in low Reynolds number flight regimes. This study will investigate the interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEVs) and tip vortices over a low aspect ratio flat plate being subjected to a pitch-plunge kinematic motion. Previous studies have shown the creation of stable vortices off the leading edge at the three quarter span location between times 0.25 and 0.50 in the kinematic motion. This study furthers previous knowledge by mapping the flow field around these vortex cores. This will allow for an understanding into the interaction of the LEV with tip vortices and how the LEVs convect downstream. Specifically we look to validate the interactions between these vortex systems leading to enhanced lift as has been demonstrated in very low Reynolds number numerical simulations. A combination of two dimensional and stereo Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is used to measure the flow field around the flat plate at various spanwise and chordwise locations. The PIV measurements are triggered by the dynamic motion rig allowing for phase averaging at key locations throughout the motion cycle.

  10. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  11. Validation of DYSTOOL for unsteady aerodynamic modeling of 2D airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, A.; Gomez-Iradi, S.; Munduate, X.

    2014-06-01

    From the point of view of wind turbine modeling, an important group of tools is based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory using 2D aerodynamic calculations on the blade elements. Due to the importance of this sectional computation of the blades, the National Renewable Wind Energy Center of Spain (CENER) developed DYSTOOL, an aerodynamic code for 2D airfoil modeling based on the Beddoes-Leishman model. The main focus here is related to the model parameters, whose values depend on the airfoil or the operating conditions. In this work, the values of the parameters are adjusted using available experimental or CFD data. The present document is mainly related to the validation of the results of DYSTOOL for 2D airfoils. The results of the computations have been compared with unsteady experimental data of the S809 and NACA0015 profiles. Some of the cases have also been modeled using the CFD code WMB (Wind Multi Block), within the framework of a collaboration with ACCIONA Windpower. The validation has been performed using pitch oscillations with different reduced frequencies, Reynolds numbers, amplitudes and mean angles of attack. The results have shown a good agreement using the methodology of adjustment for the value of the parameters. DYSTOOL have demonstrated to be a promising tool for 2D airfoil unsteady aerodynamic modeling.

  12. Hugoniot experiments with unsteady waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratanduono, D. E.; Munro, D. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.

    2014-07-01

    Recent development of transparent shock wave standard materials, such as quartz, enables continuous tracking of shock waves using optical velocimetry, providing information on shock wave steadiness and pressure perturbations in the target. From a first order perturbation analysis, we develop a set of analytical formulas that connect the pressure perturbations at the drive surface to the shock velocity perturbations observed in measurements. With targets that incorporate a calibrated transparent witness material, such as quartz, and with the analytical formulas describing the perturbation response, it is possible to determine the sound speed and Grüneisen coefficient of an unknown sample by using evolution of the non-steady perturbations as a probe. These formulas can also be used to improve the accuracy of traditional shock wave impedance match Hugoniot experiments of opaque samples driven with non-steady waves.

  13. Stochastic model for aerodynamic force dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow

    E-print Network

    Luhur, Muhammad Ramzan; Kühn, Martin; Wächter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a stochastic approach to estimate the aerodynamic forces with local dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow. This is done by integrating a stochastic model of lift and drag dynamics for an airfoil into the aerodynamic simulation software AeroDyn. The model is added as an alternative to the static table lookup approach in blade element momentum (BEM) wake model used by AeroDyn. The stochastic forces are obtained for a rotor blade element using full field turbulence simulated wind data input and compared with the classical BEM and dynamic stall models for identical conditions. The comparison shows that the stochastic model generates additional extended dynamic response in terms of local force fluctuations. Further, the comparison of statistics between the classical BEM, dynamic stall and stochastic models' results in terms of their increment probability density functions gives consistent results.

  14. unsteady aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces and structural dynamics such as power take-off and control system responses.

    E-print Network

    unsteady aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces and structural dynamics such as power take (Figure 1) and tidal turbine projects with a higher degree of accuracy than current models. The wind plant such as frontal passages through a wind plant and their effect on turbine power production and mechanical loading

  15. Application of a one-strip integral method to the unsteady supersonic aerodynamics of an inclined flat surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The method of integral relations is applied in a one-strip approximation to the perturbation equations governing small motions of an inclined, sharp-edged, flat surface about the mean supersonic steady flow. Algebraic expressions for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics are obtained and a set of ordinary differential equations are obtained for general oscillatory motion. Results are presented for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics and for the variation of the unsteady forces with frequency. The method gives accurate results for the aerodynamic forces at low reduced frequency which are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, for cases in which the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly with frequency, the results are qualitatively correct, but of limited accuracy. Calculations indicate that for a range of inclination angles near shock detachment such that the flow in the shock layer is low supersonic, the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly both with inclination angle and with reduced frequency.

  16. Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamics of Linear Oscillating Cascade With Supersonic Leading-Edge Locus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.; Erwin, Dan

    2004-01-01

    An experimental influence coefficient technique was used to obtain unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients and, consequently, unsteady pressures for a cascade of symmetric airfoils oscillating in pitch about mid-chord. Stagger angles of 0 deg and 10 deg were investigated for a cascade with a gap-to-chord ratio of 0.417 operating at an axial Mach number of 1.9, resulting in a supersonic leading-edge locus. Reduced frequencies ranged from 0.056 to 0.2. The influence coefficients obtained determine the unsteady pressures for any interblade phase angle. The unsteady pressures were compared with those predicted by several algorithms for interblade phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg.

  17. Feasibility investigation of general time-domain unsteady aerodynamics of rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a general theory for the time-domain unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotors is investigated. The wake theory gives a linearized relation between the downwash and the wing bound circulation, in terms of the impulse response obtained directly in the time domain. This approach makes it possible to treat general wake configurations, including discrete wake vorticity with rolled-up and distorted geometry. The investigation establishes the approach for model order reduction; determines when a constrained identification method is needed; verifies the formulation of the theory for rolled-up, distorted trim wake geometry; and verifies the formulation of the theory for wake geometry perturbations. The basic soundness of the approach is demonstrated by the results presented. A research program to complete the development of the method is outlined. The result of this activity will be an approach for analyzing the aeroelastic stability and response of helicopter rotors, while retaining the important influence of the complicated rotor wake configuration.

  18. Low dimensional state-space representations for classical unsteady aerodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunton, Steven L.; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2010-11-01

    This work develops reduced order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a small wing in response to agile maneuvers and gusts. In particular, the classical unsteady models of Wagner and Theodorsen are cast into a low-dimensional state-space framework. Low order state-space models are more computationally efficient than the classical formulations, and are well suited for modification with nonlinear dynamics and the application of control techniques. Reduced order models are obtained using the eigensystem realization algorithm on force data from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a pitching or plunging 2D flat plate at Reynolds numbers between 100 and 1000. Models are tested on rapid pitch and plunge maneuvers with a range of effective angle-of-attack. We evaluate the performance of the models based on agreement with results from DNS, in particular, the ability to reproduce lift forces over a range of pitching and plunging frequencies. Bode plots of the reduced order models, Wagner's and Theodorsen's methods, and DNS provide a concise assessment.

  19. Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1990-01-01

    The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

  20. The application of general aerodynamic lifting surface elements to problems in unsteady transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using combined subsonic and supersonic linear theory as a means for solving unsteady transonic flow problems in an economical and yet realistic manner. With some modification, existing linear theory methods are combined into a single program and a simple algorithm is derived for determining interference between lifting surface elements of different Mach number. The method is applied to a wide variety of problems for which measured unsteady pressure distributions and Mach number distributions are available. By comparing theory and experiment, the transonic method solutions show a significant improvement over uniform flow solutions. It is concluded that with these refinements the method will provide a means for performing realistic transonic flutter and dynamic response analyses at costs which are compatible with current linear theory based solutions.

  1. Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics of the F/A-18E at Conditions Promoting Abrupt Wing Stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Byrd, James E.

    2003-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of an 8% F/A-18E model was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel (16-Ft TT) to investigate the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) characteristics of this aircraft. During this test, both steady and unsteady measurements of balance loads, wing surface pressures, wing root bending moments, and outer wing accelerations were performed. The test was conducted with a wide range of model configurations and test conditions in an attempt to reproduce behavior indicative of the AWS phenomenon experienced on full-scale aircraft during flight tests. This paper focuses on the analysis of the unsteady data acquired during this test. Though the test apparatus was designed to be effectively rigid. model motions due to sting and balance flexibility were observed during the testing, particularly when the model was operating in the AWS flight regime. Correlation between observed aerodynamic frequencies and model structural frequencies are analyzed and presented. Significant shock motion and separated flow is observed as the aircraft pitches through the AWS region. A shock tracking strategy has been formulated to observe this phenomenon. Using this technique, the range of shock motion is readily determined as the aircraft encounters AWS conditions. Spectral analysis of the shock motion shows the frequencies at which the shock oscillates in the AWS region, and probability density function analysis of the shock location shows the propensity of the shock to take on a bi-stable and even tri-stable character in the AWS flight regime.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamics Compared for a Linear Oscillating Cascade With a Supersonic Leading-Edge Locus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.; Erwin, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained to help validate analytical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to compute unsteady cascade aerodynamics in a supersonicaxial- flow regime. Results from two analytical codes and one CFD code were compared with experimental data. One analytical code did not account for airfoil thickness or camber; another, using piston theory (piston code), accounted for thickness and camber upstream of the first shockwave/airfoil impingement locations. The Euler CFD code accounted fully for airfoil shape.

  3. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.

  4. Introduction of the ASP3D Computer Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.

  5. A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.

  6. Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The combined experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by such machines. The analysis showed that inflow conditions were extremely variable and that these inflows yielded three different operational regimes. Each regime produces very different aerodynamic loading conditions that must be tolerated by the turbine. The two conditions not predicted from wind tunnel data are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators.

  7. User's Manual for DuctE3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis of Ducted Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1997-01-01

    The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.

  8. PROP3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Propellers. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.

  9. Identification of an unsteady aerodynamic model up to high angle of attack regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yigang

    1997-12-01

    The harmonic oscillatory tests for a fighter aircraft configuration using the Dynamic Plunge-Pitch-Roll (DyPPiR) model mount at Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel are described and analyzed. The corresponding data reduction methods are developed on the basis of multirate digital signal processing techniques. Since the model is sting-mounted to the support system of DyPPiR, the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is first used to identify the frequencies of the elastic modes of sting. Then the sampling rate conversion systems are built up in digital domain to resample the data at a lower rate without introducing distortions to the signals of interest. Finally linear-phase Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are designed by Remez exchange algorithm to extract the aerodynamic characteristics responses to the programmed motions from the resampled measurements. These data reduction procedures are also illustrated through examples. The results obtained from the harmonic oscillatory tests are then illustrated and the associated flow mechanisms are discussed. Since no significant hysteresis loops are observed for the lift and the drag coefficients for the current angle of attack range and the tested reduced frequencies, the dynamic lags of separated and vortex flow effects are small in the current oscillatory tests. However, large hysteresis loops are observed for pitch moment coefficient in the current tests. This observation suggests that at current flow conditions, pitch moment has large pitch rate dotalpha dependencies. Then the nondimensional maximum pitch rate \\ qsb{max} is introduced to characterize these harmonic oscillatory motions. It is found that at current flow conditions, all the hysteresis loops of pitch moment coefficient with same \\ qsb{max} are tangential to one another at both top and bottom of the loops, implying approximately same maximum offset of these loops from static values. Several cases are also illustrated. Based on the results obtained and those from references, a state-space model is developed to describe the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics up to the high angle of attack regime. A nondimensional coordinate is introduced as the state variable describing the flow separation or vortex burst. First-order differential equation is used to govern the dynamics of flow separation or vortex bursting through this state variable. To be valid for general configurations, Taylor series expansions in terms of the input variables are used in the determination of aerodynamic characteristics, resembling the current approach of the stability derivatives. However, these derivatives are longer constant. They are dependent on the state variable of flow separation or vortex burst. In this way, the changes in stability derivatives with the angle of attack are included dynamically. The performance of the model is then validated by the wind-tunnel measurements of an NACA 0015 airfoil, a 70sp° delta wing and, finally two F-18 aircraft configurations. The results obtained show that within the framework of the proposed model, it is possible to obtain good agreement with different unsteady wind tunnel data in high angle-of-attack regime.

  10. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  11. An investigation into the effects of unsteady parameters on the aerodynamics of a low Reynolds number pitching airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiralaei, M. R.; Alighanbari, H.; Hashemi, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    The growing applications of low Reynolds number (LRN) operating vehicles impose the need for accurate LRN flow solutions. These applications usually involve complex unsteady phenomena, which depend on the kinematics of the vehicle such as pitching, plunging, and flapping of a wing. The objective of the present study is to address the issues related to LRN aerodynamics of a harmonically pitching NACA0012 airfoil. To this end, the influence of unsteady parameters, namely, amplitude of oscillation, d, reduced frequency, k, and Reynolds number, Re, on the aerodynamic performance of the model is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations discretized based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The resulting instantaneous lift coefficients are compared with analytical data from Theodorsen’s method. The simulation results reveal that d, k, and Re are of great importance in the aerodynamic performance of the system, as they affect the maximum lift coefficients, hysteresis loops, strength, and number of the generated vortices within the harmonic motion, and the extent of the so-called figure-of-eight phenomenon region. Thus, achieving the optimum lift coefficients demands a careful selection of these parameters.

  12. Advanced Small Perturbation Potential Flow Theory for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced small perturbation (ASP) potential flow theory has been developed to improve upon the classical transonic small perturbation (TSP) theories that have been used in various computer codes. These computer codes are typically used for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The codes exploit the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP theory was developed methodically by first determining the essential elements required to produce full-potential-like solutions with a small perturbation approach on the requisite Cartesian grid. This level of accuracy required a higher-order streamwise mass flux and a mass conserving surface boundary condition. The ASP theory was further developed by determining the essential elements required to produce results that agreed well with Euler solutions. This level of accuracy required mass conserving entropy and vorticity effects, and second-order terms in the trailing wake boundary condition. Finally, an integral boundary layer procedure, applicable to both attached and shock-induced separated flows, was incorporated for viscous effects. The resulting ASP potential flow theory, including entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects, is shown to be mathematically more appropriate and computationally more accurate than the classical TSP theories. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data. The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which also is briefly described with representative results.

  13. On the use of Pade approximants to represent unsteady aerodynamic loads for arbitrarily small motions of wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vepa, R.

    1976-01-01

    The general behavior of unsteady airloads in the frequency domain is explained. Based on this, a systematic procedure is described whereby the airloads, produced by completely arbitrary, small, time-dependent motions of a thin lifting surface in an airstream, can be predicted. This scheme employs as raw materials any of the unsteady linearized theories that have been mechanized for simple harmonic oscillations. Each desired aerodynamic transfer function is approximated by means of an appropriate Pade approximant, that is, a rational function of finite degree polynomials in the Laplace transform variable. Although these approximations have many uses, they are proving especially valuable in the design of automatic control systems intended to modify aeroelastic behavior.

  14. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrarca, J. R.; Harrison, B. A.; Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge and trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges were extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation of collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accomodated.

  15. Three-Dimensional Unsteady Simulation of Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Modern High Pressure Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.

  16. Development of unsteady aerodynamic analyses for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Hall, Kenneth C.; Ayer, Timothy C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of turbomachinery blading. Emphasis is being placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, flow driven by small-amplitude unsteady excitations in which viscous effects are concentrated in thin layers are being considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations, lead to a better understanding of the relevent physics, and they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications. Under the present phase (Task 3), the effort was focused on providing inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic unsteady cascade flows.

  17. Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Linear Cascade of Airfoils in Separated Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capece, Vincent R.; Ford, Christopher; Bone, Christopher; Li, Rui

    2004-01-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to investigate methods to modify the leading edge separation region, which could lead to an improvement in aeroelastic stability of advanced airfoil designs. The airfoil section used is representative of current low aspect ratio fan blade tip sections. The experimental potion of this study investigated separated zone boundary layer from removal through suction slots. Suction applied to a cavity in the vicinity of the separation onset point was found to be the most effective location. The computational study looked into the influence of front camber on flutter stability. To assess the influence of the change in airfoil shape on stability the work-per-cycle was evaluated for torsion mode oscillations. It was shown that the front camberline shape can be an important factor for stabilizing the predicted work-per-cycle and reducing the predicted extent of the separation zone. In addition, data analysis procedures are discussed for reducing data acquired in experiments that involve periodic unsteady data. This work was conducted in support of experiments being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Flutter Cascade. The spectral block averaging method is presented. This method is shown to be able to account for variations in airfoil oscillation frequency that can occur in experiments that force oscillate the airfoils to simulate flutter.

  18. Aerodynamic Effects in a Dropped Ping-Pong Ball Experiment*

    E-print Network

    Nagurka, Mark L.

    Aerodynamic Effects in a Dropped Ping-Pong Ball Experiment* MARK NAGURKA Dept. of Mechanical addresses aerodynamic modeling issues related to a simple experiment in which a ping- pong ball is dropped) between bounce sounds, after a ping-pong ball is dropped onto a hard table surface. (Musician Arthur

  19. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  20. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  1. Development and applications of supersonic unsteady consistent aerodynamics for intering parallel wings: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program written in support of the problem to determine aerodynamic influence coefficients on parallel interfering wings is described. The information is geared to the programmer. It is sufficient to describe the program logic and the required peripheral storage.

  2. Application of two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic to a free-tip rotor response analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, L.; Kumagai, H.

    1985-01-01

    The free-tip rotor utilizes a rotor blade tip which is structurally decoupled from the blade inboard section. The tip is free to pitch about its own pitch axis to respond to the local flow angularity changes. The tip also experiences the heaving motion due to the flapping of the rotor blade. For an airfoil in any pitching and heaving motion which can be expanded into a Fourier series, the lift and moment calculated by Theodoren's theory is simply the linear combination of the lift and moment calculated for each harmonic. These lift and moment are then used to determine the response of the free-tip rotor. A parametric study is performed to determine the effect of mechanical damping, mechanical spring, sweep, friction, and a constant control moment on the free-tip rotor response characteristics and the resulting azimuthal lift distributions. The results showed that the free-tip has the capability to suppress the oscillatory lift distribution around the azimuth and to eliminate a significant negative life peak on the advancing tip. This result agrees with the result of the previous analysis based on the steady aerodynamics.

  3. Estimation of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Load on Space Shuttle External Tank Protuberances from a Component Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Martin, F. W.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.

  4. Finite element approach to the integrated potential formulation of general unsteady supersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, K.; Smith, G. C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical formulation of the integrated potential approach for general unsteady supersonic configurations is related to numerical solution approaches using an arbitrary finite element mesh. Work remains to be done on adequate numerical handling of singular integrals, discussed in an appendix. Limited results on a planar rectangular wing are presented.

  5. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling parallelograms in coupled tumbling-helical motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane

    2013-05-01

    Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.

  6. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling parallelograms in coupled tumbling-helical motions.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2013-05-01

    Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card. PMID:23767634

  7. Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.

    1993-01-01

    Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.

  8. Fluctuating surface pressure characteristics on slender cones in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic Mach-number flow. [flow-induced unsteady aerodynamic loads on space shuttle orbiter configurations in reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, H. H.; Clemente, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    A program is presented to determine the flow-induced unsteady aerodynamic loads on space-shuttle orbiter configurations in the early reentry phase. Experiments on 8 degree half-angle cone/flat-base configurations were conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 6 and 15 and Reynolds numbers corresponding to shuttle reentry. Data are available at free-stream Mach-numbers of 0.67, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 15, and 22. It is shown that empirical expressions could be developed for the Mach-number dependence of the overall fluctuation pressure under an attached turbulent boundary layer and under a separated base-flow region.

  9. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.

    1994-08-01

    Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation's energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

  10. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

  11. AirDyn: an instrumented model-scale helicopter for measuring unsteady aerodynamic loading in airwakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Curran, J.; Padfield, G. D.; Owen, I.

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer' to which we have given the name AirDyn. The AirDyn has been designed, in particular, to measure the effect of a ship airwake on a helicopter translating over the ship's landing deck. The AirDyn, which has been implemented in a water tunnel, in preference to a wind tunnel, senses the integrated effect of a turbulent airwake on the helicopter, and the resulting unsteady forces and moments are an indication of the workload the pilot would need to exert to counteract these effects in a real helicopter. Binocular sensing elements and semiconductor strain gauges have been adopted to achieve high sensitivity and relatively high stiffness. The compact strain gauge balance is fitted into the helicopter fuselage, and protective coatings and a flexible bellows are used to seal the balance and protect it from the water. The coefficient matrix of the AirDyn has been obtained by static calibrations, while impulse excitation tests have confirmed that its frequency response is suitable for the measurements of unsteady loads. The application of the instrument is illustrated by using it to quantify the effect that a bulky ship mast has on the airwake and thus on a helicopter as it lands onto a simplified ship in a scaled 50 knot headwind.

  12. Modeling of Aircraft Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics/Part 3 - Parameters Estimated from Flight Data. Part 3; Parameters Estimated from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1996-01-01

    A nonlinear least squares algorithm for aircraft parameter estimation from flight data was developed. The postulated model for the analysis represented longitudinal, short period motion of an aircraft. The corresponding aerodynamic model equations included indicial functions (unsteady terms) and conventional stability and control derivatives. The indicial functions were modeled as simple exponential functions. The estimation procedure was applied in five examples. Four of the examples used simulated and flight data from small amplitude maneuvers to the F-18 HARV and X-31A aircraft. In the fifth example a rapid, large amplitude maneuver of the X-31 drop model was analyzed. From data analysis of small amplitude maneuvers ft was found that the model with conventional stability and control derivatives was adequate. Also, parameter estimation from a rapid, large amplitude maneuver did not reveal any noticeable presence of unsteady aerodynamics.

  13. Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics, production version (SOUSSA-P 1.1). Volume 1: Theoretical manual. [Green function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morino, L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments of the Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed and summarized. Applying the Green's function method to the fully unsteady (transient) potential equation yields an integro-differential-delay equation. With spatial discretization by the finite-element method, this equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time. Time solution by Laplace transform yields a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. Premultiplying and postmultiplying by the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash to the generalized coordinates one obtains the matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces. The frequency and mode-shape dependence of this matrix makes the program SOUSSA useful for multiple frequency and repeated mode-shape evaluations.

  14. Experimental determination of unsteady blade element aerodynamics in cascades. Volume 2: Translation mode cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic translational model flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.52 and a setting angle of 0.90 rad. Unique graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistic high reduced frequency level of 0.15. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time steady and time unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated.

  15. Aerodynamic sensitivities from subsonic, sonic and supersonic unsteady, nonplanar lifting-surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.

  16. Flexible Launch Vehicle Stability Analysis Using Steady and Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin can be caused by the aerodynamic undamping one of the lower-frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic line loads derived from steady rigid aerodynamics. However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers, where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping.Amethod of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteady aerodynamics is developed that uses unsteady computational fluid dynamics to compute the response of selected lower-frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle line loads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteady aerodynamic line-load response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping, and mass matrices. The results are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady computational aeroelasticity and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteady aerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady computational aeroelastic results.

  17. Unsteady supersonic aerodynamic theory for interfering surfaces by the method of potential gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. P.; Arppa, K.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized solution of the hyperbolic wave equation was further developed to relate the velocity components at a field point to the potential gradient distribution in the dependence domain. Singular integrals were evaluated in closed form, with numerical integration methods for more complex but analytic functions. Idealization of the lifting surfaces by trapezoidal elements with two sides parallel to the streamlines is computationally efficient. Streamwise integrals were performed analytically, and spanwise integrals were neccessary only on element leading and trailing sides. All integrands vanish on the Mach cone. Pressure distribution on a double delta wing and generalized aerodynamic coefficients for three AGARD planforms were calculated and compared with available results.

  18. User's Guide for MSAP2D: A Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Multistage Compressors and Turbines. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.

  19. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 4: 747/orbiter aeroelastic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A quasi-steady analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the lateral (antisymmetric) modes of the 747/orbiter vehicle was accomplished. The interference effect of the orbiter wake on the 747 tail furnishes an aerodynamic undamping contribution to the elastic modes. Likewise, the upstream influence of the 747 tail and aft fuselage on the orbiter beaver-tail rail fairing also is undamping. Fortunately these undamping effects cannot overpower the large damping contribution of the 747 tail and the modes are damped for the configurations analyzed. However, significant interference effects of the orbiter on the 747 tail have been observed in the pitch plane. The high response of the 747 vertical tail in the orbiter wave was also considered. Wind tunnel data points to flapping of the OMS pod wakes as the source of the wake resonance phenomenon.

  20. Unsteady Aerodynamic Testing Using the Dynamic Plunge Pitch and Roll Model Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutze, Frederick H.; Fan, Yigang

    1999-01-01

    A final report on the DyPPiR tests that were run are presented. Essentially it consists of two parts, a description of the data reduction techniques and the results. The data reduction techniques include three methods that were considered: 1) signal processing of wind on - wind off data; 2) using wind on data in conjunction with accelerometer measurements; and 3) using a dynamic model of the sting to predict the sting oscillations and determining the aerodynamic inputs using an optimization process. After trying all three, we ended up using method 1, mainly because of its simplicity and our confidence in its accuracy. The results section consists of time history plots of the input variables (angle of attack, roll angle, and/or plunge position) and the corresponding time histories of the output variables, C(sub L), C(sub D), C(sub m), C(sub l), C(sub m), C(sub n). Also included are some phase plots of one or more of the output variable vs. an input variable. Typically of interest are pitch moment coefficient vs. angle of attack for an oscillatory motion where the hysteresis loops can be observed. These plots are useful to determine the "more interesting" cases. Samples of the data as it appears on the disk are presented at the end of the report. The last maneuver, a rolling pull up, is indicative of the unique capabilities of the DyPPiR, allowing combinations of motions to be exercised at the same time.

  1. Synthesized airfoil data method for prediction of dynamic stall and unsteady airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangwani, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed analysis of dynamic stall experiments has led to a set of relatively compact analytical expressions, called synthesized unsteady airfoil data, which accurately describe in the time-domain the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of stalled airfoils. An analytical research program was conducted to expand and improve this synthesized unsteady airfoil data method using additional available sets of unsteady airfoil data. The primary objectives were to reduce these data to synthesized form for use in rotor airload prediction analyses and to generalize the results. Unsteady drag data were synthesized which provided the basis for successful expansion of the formulation to include computation of the unsteady pressure drag of airfoils and rotor blades. Also, an improved prediction model for airfoil flow reattachment was incorporated in the method. Application of this improved unsteady aerodynamics model has resulted in an improved correlation between analytic predictions and measured full scale helicopter blade loads and stress data.

  2. A comparison of baseline aerodynamic performance of optimally-twisted versus non-twisted HAWT blades

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A.; Robinson, M.C.; Hand, M.M.; Fingersh, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    NREL has completed the initial twisted blade field tests of the ``Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.`` This test series continues systematic measurements of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The blade twist distribution optimizes power production at a single angle of attack along the span. Abrupt transitions into and out of stall are created due to rapid changes in inflow. Data from earlier experiments have been analyzed extensively to characterize the steady and unsteady response of untwisted blades. In this report, a characterization and comparison of the baseline aerodynamic performance of the twisted versus non-twisted blade sets will be presented for steady flow conditions.

  3. Predicting Unsteady Aeroelastic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas W.; Mook, Dean T.

    1990-01-01

    New method for predicting subsonic flutter, static deflections, and aeroelastic divergence developed. Unsteady aerodynamic loads determined by unsteady-vortex-lattice method. Accounts for aspect ratio and angle of attack. Equations for motion of wing and flow field solved iteratively and simultaneously. Used to predict transient responses to initial disturbances, and to predict steady-state static and oscillatory responses. Potential application for research in such unsteady structural/flow interactions as those in windmills, turbines, and compressors.

  4. The Analysis of Underexpanded Jet Flows for Hypersonic Aerodynamic Experiments in

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    The Analysis of Underexpanded Jet Flows for Hypersonic Aerodynamic Experiments in Vacuum Chambers V of rarefied-gas flows [1]- [3] and aerodynamics of hypersonic probes in wind tunnels [4]-[7]. The objective using quantum concepts [9], [10]. Aerodynamic characteristics of wedges, disks, and plates are studied

  5. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. Volume 2: Data report. Part 1: Text and mode 1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blade along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The tests were conducted for all 96 combinations 2 mean camberline incidence angles 2 pitching amplitudes 3 reduced frequencies and 8 interblade phase angles. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Data obtained during the test program, reproduced from the printout of the data reduction program are complied. A further description of the contents of this report is found in the text that follows.

  6. Computational Study of the Impact of Unsteadiness on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Variable- Speed Power Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    2012-01-01

    The design-point and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion of a variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) was assessed using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analyses with mixing-planes and sector-periodic, unsteady RANS analyses. The VSPT provides one means by which to effect the nearly 50 percent main-rotor speed change required for the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) application. The change in VSPT shaft-speed during the LCTR mission results in blade-row incidence angle changes of as high as 55 . Negative incidence levels of this magnitude at takeoff operation give rise to a vortical flow structure in the pressure-side cove of a high-turn rotor that transports low-momentum flow toward the casing endwall. The intent of the effort was to assess the impact of unsteadiness of blade-row interaction on the time-mean flow and, specifically, to identify potential departure from the predicted trend of efficiency with shaft-speed change of meanline and 3-D RANS/mixing-plane analyses used for design.

  7. Effect of Transition Aerodynamics on Aeroassist Flight Experiment Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minier, Elizabeth A.; Suit, William T.

    1988-01-01

    Various transition methods are used here to study the viscous effects encountered in low density, hypersonic flight, through the transition from free molecular to continuum flow. Methods utilizing Viking data, Shuttle Orbiter data, a Potter number parameter, and a Shock Reynolds number were implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Simulations of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) using open loop guidance were used to assess the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. A bank angle was found for each transition method that would result in a 200 nautical-mile apogee. Once this was done, the open loop guidance was replaced by the proposed guidance algorithm for the AFE. Simulations were again conducted using that guidance and the different transitions for comparison. For the gains used, the guidance system showed some sensitivity in apogee altitude to the transition method assumed, but the guidance was able to successfully complete the mission.

  8. Evaluation of unsteady aerodynamic forces and pressure in wings and turbines at low Reynolds number by combining particle image velocimetry and proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Vaquero, Arturo

    Aerodynamic unsteady forces in stationary and rotating wings are analyzed in this dissertation by using a combination of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. Recent progress in experimental measurements has demonstrated the use of TR-PIV to calculate forces by applying the integral conservation of momentum equation in its different forms. However, a more accurate and robust method is needed for unsteady forces calculations. With this in mind, a modified pressure Poisson method is developed and applied in this work, showing its superior behavior compared to other methodologies described in the past. The independence of the calculated forces shows the robustness and stability of the method. Whereas force calculations have been recently considered, the role of flow structures in force fluctuations has not been revealed yet and it is the main focus of this study. To elucidate these relations, a hybrid PIV-POD analysis is applied to reconstruct the velocity field from the most energetic modes of the flow. A model describing the vortex-force relations is proposed in terms of lift and drag variations during the vortex shedding process. A spectral analysis of the calculated forces suggests symmetric periodic lift, drag and circulation variations at the shedding frequency. Moreover, lift, drag and circulation signals are in phase, which supports lift-circulation proportionality. However, non-symmetric drag fluctuations are found at double the shedding frequency within a shedding cycle. For instance, when a positive or negative circulation vortex detaches, different values in the maximum and minimum drag are obtained. The data and physical relations obtained in this work such as main frequencies, vortex-force fluctuations and behavior of reduced-order models can aid in the development of CFD applications at low Re. The methodology described can be applied to any moving or stationary wing at different Reynolds numbers and angles of attack which would provide additional data for numerical codes. Furthermore, accurate measurements of unsteady forces allow determining narrower and more precise safety margins. Moreover, these measurements could be of application in flow control since forces are related to flow features simultaneously.

  9. Modeling of Unsteady Three-dimensional Flows in Multistage Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Pratt, Edmund T., Jr.; Kurkov, Anatole (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and/or industrial experience is that many of the current unsteady aerodynamic theories model a single blade row in an infinitely long duct, ignoring potentially important multistage effects. However, unsteady flows are made up of acoustic, vortical, and entropic waves. These waves provide a mechanism for the rotors and stators of multistage machines to communicate with one another. In other words, wave behavior makes unsteady flows fundamentally a multistage (and three-dimensional) phenomenon. In this research program, we have has as goals (1) the development of computationally efficient computer models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of blade rows embedded in a multistage machine (these models will ultimately be capable of analyzing three-dimensional viscous transonic flows), and (2) the use of these computer codes to study a number of important multistage phenomena.

  10. Modeling of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Flows in Multistage Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Pratt, Edmund T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and/or industrial experience is that many of the current unsteady aerodynamic theories model a single blade row in an infinitely long duct, ignoring potentially important multistage effects. However, unsteady flows are made up of acoustic, vortical, and entropic waves. These waves provide a mechanism for the rotors and stators of multistage machines to communicate with one another. In other words, wave behavior makes unsteady flows fundamentally a multistage (and three-dimensional) phenomenon. In this research program, we have has as goals (1) the development of computationally efficient computer models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of blade rows embedded in a multistage machine (these models will ultimately be capable of analyzing three-dimensional viscous transonic flows), and (2) the use of these computer codes to study a number of important multistage phenomena.

  11. Unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter model undergoing large-amplitude pitching motions at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Shah, Gautam H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of harmonic or constant-rate-ramp pitching motions (giving angles of attack from 0 to 75 deg) on the aerodynamic performance of a fighter-aircraft model with highly swept leading-edge extensions are investigated experimentally in the NASA Langley 12-ft low-speed wind tunnel. The model configuration and experimental setup are described, and the results of force and moment measurements and flow visualizations are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Large force overshoots and hysteresis are observed and attributed to lags in vortical-flow development and breakup. The motion variables have a strong influence on the persistence of dynamic effects, which are found to affect pitch-rate capability more than flight-path turning performance.

  12. A summary of measured hydraulic data for the series of steady and unsteady flow experiments over uniform grass roughness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Dannie L.; Flynn, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    The measured hydraulic data collected in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility located at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center, near Bay St. Louis, Miss., are summarized for a series of experiments designed to study steady and unsteady flow over uniform grass roughness. All experiments were conducted during the 1973 and 1974 test seasons. Tables of measured ground-surface elevations, water-surface elevations, and point velocities are included for all experiments. A total of 19 steady flow experiments and 7 unsteady flow experiments for varying grass heights are included. The tabulated point velocities and water-surface elevations for the unsteady flow experiments were selected to represent the general changes in the flow variables as the flood wave passed through the facility but do not include all collected data. However, all data that were collected have been stored on computer disk storage and may be retrieved using the listing programs and memory locations. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Inverse problems and optimal experiment design in unsteady heat transfer processes identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artyukhin, Eugene A.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental-computational methods for estimating characteristics of unsteady heat transfer processes are analyzed. The methods are based on the principles of distributed parameter system identification. The theoretical basis of such methods is the numerical solution of nonlinear ill-posed inverse heat transfer problems and optimal experiment design problems. Numerical techniques for solving problems are briefly reviewed. The results of the practical application of identification methods are demonstrated when estimating effective thermophysical characteristics of composite materials and thermal contact resistance in two-layer systems.

  14. A summary of measured hydraulic data for the series of steady and unsteady flow experiments over patterned roughness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Dannie L.; Flynn, Kathleen M.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes and makes available to other investigators the measured hydraulic data collected during a series of experiments designed to study the effect of patterned bed roughness on steady and unsteady open-channel flow. The patterned effect of the roughness was obtained by clear-cut mowing of designated areas of an otherwise fairly dense coverage of coastal Bermuda grass approximately 250 mm high. All experiments were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility during the period of October 7 through December 12, 1974. Data from 18 steady flow experiments and 10 unsteady flow experiments are summarized. Measured data included are ground-surface elevations, grass heights and densities, water-surface elevations and point velocities for all experiments. Additional tables of water-surface elevations and measured point velocities are included for the clear-cut areas for most experiments. One complete set of average water-surface elevations and one complete set of measured point velocities are tabulated for each steady flow experiment. Time series data, on a 2-minute time interval, are tabulated for both water-surface elevations and point velocities for each unsteady flow experiment. All data collected, including individual records of water-surface elevations for the steady flow experiments, have been stored on computer disk storage and can be retrieved using the computer programs listed in the attachment to this report. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. Volume 2: Data report. Part 2: Mode 2 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1981-01-01

    Computer data are provided for tests conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge.

  16. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Knowledge Based Airfoil Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Knowledge Based Airfoil Aerodynamic aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. The approach employs the unsteady CFD flow simulations in the near on analyzing the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of an airfoil and examining the sensitivities

  17. Critical review of the trailing edge condition in steady and unsteady flow. Blade flutter in compressors and fans: Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radwan, S. F.; Rockwell, D. O.; Johnson, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Existing interpretations of the trailing edge condition, addressing both theoretical and experimental works in steady, as well as unsteady flows are critically reviewed. The work of Kutta and Joukowski on the trailing edge condition in steady flow is reviewed. It is shown that for most practical airfoils and blades (as in the case of most turbomachine blades), this condition is violated due to rounded trailing edges and high frequency effects, the flow dynamics in the trailing edge region being dominated by viscous forces; therefore, any meaningful modelling must include viscous effects. The question of to what extent the trailing edge condition affects acoustic radiation from the edge is raised; it is found that violation of the trailing edge condition leads to significant sound diffraction at the tailing edge, which is related to the problem of noise generation. Finally, various trailing edge conditions in unsteady flow are discussed, with emphasis on high reduced frequencies.

  18. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag : joint experiments and computations lead to smart design.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaste, David M; Salari, Kambiz; Hammache, Mustapha; Browand, Fred; Pointer, W. David; Ortega, Jason M.; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Satran, D.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Chatalain, Philippe; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Hsu, Tsu-Ya; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2004-06-01

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  19. Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data

    SciTech Connect

    Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.

  20. The Modern Design of Experiments for Configuration Aerodynamics: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The effects of slowly varying and persisting covariate effects on the accuracy and precision of experimental result is reviewed, as is the rationale for run-order randomization as a quality assurance tactic employed in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) to defend against such effects. Considerable analytical complexity is introduced by restrictions on randomization in configuration aerodynamics tests because they involve hard-to-change configuration variables that cannot be randomized conveniently. Tradeoffs are examined between quality and productivity associated with varying degrees of rigor in accounting for such randomization restrictions. Certain characteristics of a configuration aerodynamics test are considered that may justify a relaxed accounting for randomization restrictions to achieve a significant reduction in analytical complexity with a comparably negligible adverse impact on the validity of the experimental results.

  1. Experiments on the External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Douglas A.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    In our previous work (APS/DFD97, Ii1), flow visualization was used to observe canine olfactory airflows for the first time. We have since observed two general types of such flows: high-frequency ("short") sniffing during close inspection of an object and low-frequency ("long") sniffing of more distant objects. In both cases the inspiratory airflow pattern is essentially an inviscid sink flow. However, a comparison of the two types of olfaction shows that the dog has some directional control over the twin turbulent jets generated from its nostrils during expiration. During close inspection of a scent source from directly above, the canine nostrils direct the expired air rearward, so that it does not impinge upon the object. However, when "scanning" the vicinity of a scent source on the ground, the motion of the dog's nose can aim its expiratory jets directly at the source. If particulates are present, they are then readily entrained and can be subsequently inspired. No significant distinction was observed between pet animals and a trained explosive detection dog regarding this behavior. High-speed video records of these experiments will be shown. (Research supported by DARPA.)

  2. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-01-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  3. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-03-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  4. Coupled 2-dimensional cascade theory for noise and unsteady aerodynamics of blade row interaction in turbofans. Volume 1: Theory development and parametric studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.

  5. The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T

    1940-01-01

    Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.

  6. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag through joint experiments and computations.

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, Kambiz; Browand, Fred; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Pointer, W. David; Taylor, Lafayette; Pankajakshan, Ramesh; Whitfield, David; Plocher, Dennis; Ortega, Jason M.; Merzel, Tai; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Radovich, Charles; Eastwood, Craig; Paschkewitz, John; Castellucci, Paul; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2005-08-01

    Class 8 tractor-trailers are responsible for 11-12% of the total US consumption of petroleum. Overcoming aero drag represents 65% of energy expenditure at highway speeds. Most of the drag results from pressure differences and reducing highway speeds is very effective. The goal is to reduce aerodynamic drag by 25% which would translate to 12% improved fuel economy or 4,200 million gal/year. Objectives are: (1) In support of DOE's mission, provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag; (2) To shorten and improve design process, establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information; (3) Demonstrate new drag-reduction techniques; and (4) Get devices on the road. Some accomplishments are: (1) Concepts developed/tested that exceeded 25% drag reduction goal; (2) Insight and guidelines for drag reduction provided to industry through computations and experiments; (3) Joined with industry in getting devices on the road and providing design concepts through virtual modeling and testing; and (4) International recognition achieved through open documentation and database.

  7. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY FLOW

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY FLOW William Walker Virginia Polytechnic to obtain unsteady aerodynamic data from a two dimensional wing, and analyzing the pressure variations with time over the wing surface. The data was gathered by using electronic pressure transducers

  8. Implementing a Remote Laboratory Experience into a Joint Engineering Degree Program: Aerodynamic Levitation of a Beach Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, S. R.; Fahmy, Y.; Buckner, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference…

  9. Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Kiran

    Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It is hypothesized, and verified with experimental and computational data, that LEV formation always occurs at the same critical value of LESP irrespective of motion kinematics. Further, the applicability of the LESP criterion in influencing the occurrence of LEV formation is demonstrated. To model the growth and convection of leading-edge vortices, the unsteady thin-airfoil theory is augmented with discrete-vortex shedding from the leading edge. The LESP criterion is used to predict and modulate the shedding of leading-edge vorticity. Comparisons with experiments and CFD for test-cases with different airfoils, Reynolds numbers and motion kinematics, show that the method performs remarkably well in predicting force coefficients and flowfields for unsteady flows. The use of a single empirical parameter - the critical LESP value, allows the determination of onset, growth and termination of leading-edge vortex shedding. In the final part of the research, the discrete-vortex model is extended to flows where the freestream velocity is varying or small in comparison with motion velocity. With this extension, the method is made applicable to a larger set of 2D flows such as perching and hovering maneuvers, gusts, and sinusoidally varying freestream. Abstractions of perching and hovering are designed as test cases and used to validate the low-order model's performance in highly-unsteady, vortex-dominated flows. Alongside development of the low-order methodology, several features of unsteady flows are studied and analyzed with the aid of CFD and experiments. While remaining computationally inexpensive and retaining the essential flow-physics, the method is seen to be successful in prediction of both force coefficients and flow histories.

  10. Dynamic control of aerodynamic forces on a moving platform using active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzozowski, Daniel P.

    The unsteady interaction between trailing edge aerodynamic flow control and airfoil motion in pitch and plunge is investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a two degree-of-freedom traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the trailing edge of the airfoil using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The effect of the unsteady motion on the model-embedded flow control is assessed in both trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection maneuvers. The time-varying aerodynamic lift and pitching moment are estimated from a PIV wake survey using a reduced order model based on classical unsteady aerodynamic theory. These measurements suggest that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within 2--3 convective time scales, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.

  11. Intermittent Behavior of the Separated Boundary Layer along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade under Periodic Unsteady Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeztuerk, B; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper experimentally and theoretically studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and aerodynamic characteristics on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds number of 110,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). For one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, intermittency behaviors were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The current investigation attempts to extend the intermittency unsteady boundary layer transition model developed in previously to the LPT cases, where separation occurs on the suction surface at a low Reynolds number. The results of the unsteady boundary layer measurements and the intermittency analysis were presented in the ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms. The analysis of the boundary layer experimental data with the flow separation, confirms the universal character of the relative intermittency function which is described by a Gausssian function.

  12. A reduced order model of unsteady flows in turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.C.; Florea, R.; Lanzkron, P.J.

    1995-07-01

    A novel technique for computing unsteady flows about turbomachinery cascades is presented. Starting with a frequency domain CFD description of unsteady aerodynamic flows, the authors form a large, sparse, generalized, non-Hermititan eigenvalue problem that describes the natural modes and frequencies of fluid motion about the cascade. They compute the dominant left and right eigenmodes and corresponding eigenfrequencies using a Lanczos algorithm. Then, using just a few of the resulting eigenmodes, they construct a reduced order model of the unsteady flow field. With this model, one can rapidly and accurately predict the unsteady aerodynamic loads acting on the cascade over a wide range of reduced frequencies and arbitrary modes of vibration. Moreover, the eigenmode information provides insights into the physics of unsteady flows. Finally they note that the form of the reduced order model is well suited for use in active control of aeroelastic and aeroacoustic phenomena.

  13. Numerical solutions for unsteady subsonic vortical flows around loaded cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Atassi, H.M. . Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    A frequency domain linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for three-dimensional unsteady vortical flows around a cascade of loaded airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion of the impinging vortical disturbances by the mean flow. The entire unsteady flow field is calculated in response to upstream three-dimensional harmonic disturbances. Numerical results are presented for two standard cascade configurations representing turbine and compressor bladings for a reduced frequency range from 0.1 to 5. Results show that the upstream gust conditions and blade sweep strongly affect the unsteady blade response.

  14. An aerodynamic model for one and two degree of freedom wing rock of slender delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John

    1993-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.

  15. Unsteady vortex dynamics for finite-aspect-ratio pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantzen, Ryan; Taira, Kunihiko; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael

    2013-11-01

    We examine the vortex dynamics around low-aspect-ratio pitching wings and the corresponding unsteady aerodynamic loading using direct numerical simulations with the immersed boundary projection method. Finite-aspect-ratio wings of two and four with rectangular planforms are considered to pitch about the leading edge, from an angle of attack of ? = 0 to 45°, over a range of reduced frequencies for a Reynolds number of 300. These parameters are chosen to uncover the influence of fast and slow wing motion on the formation of the wake vortices. We also study the relationship between the vortex dynamics and the unsteady forces exerted on the pitching wing emphasizing the influence from the leading-edge and tip vortices. Companion water tunnel experiments are performed with fluorescent dye visualization and direct force measurements at a Reynolds number of 20 , 000 , which highlight qualitative similarities between the flow fields despite the large difference in Reynolds numbers. The insights obtained from the numerical and experimental results are used as a foundation for the development of closed-form models to predict aerodynamic forces for wings undergoing large-amplitude maneuvers representative of flapping wing kinematics and wings in gusty operating conditions. Work supported by the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program.

  16. Design and Execution of the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Large-Article Wind Tunnel Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    The testing of 3- and 6-meter diameter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test articles was completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40 ft x 80 ft Wind Tunnel test section. Both models were stacked tori, constructed as 60 degree half-angle sphere cones. The 3-meter HIAD was tested in two configurations. The first 3-meter configuration utilized an instrumented flexible aerodynamic skin covering the inflatable aeroshell surface, while the second configuration employed a flight-like flexible thermal protection system. The 6-meter HIAD was tested in two structural configurations (with and without an aft-mounted stiffening torus near the shoulder), both utilizing an instrumented aerodynamic skin.

  17. Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.

  18. Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in real-time, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real-time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.

  19. Computational unsteady aerodynamics for lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Two dimensional problems are solved using numerical techniques. Navier-Stokes equations are studied both in the vorticity-stream function formulation which appears to be the optimal choice for two dimensional problems, using a storage approach, and in the velocity pressure formulation which minimizes the number of unknowns in three dimensional problems. Analysis shows that compact centered conservative second order schemes for the vorticity equation are the most robust for high Reynolds number flows. Serious difficulties remain in the choice of turbulent models, to keep reasonable CPU efficiency.

  20. Characterization of unsteady flow processes in a centrifugal compressor stage

    E-print Network

    Gould, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Arthur)

    2006-01-01

    Numerical experiments have been implemented to characterize the unsteady loading on the rotating impeller blades in a modem centrifugal compressor. These consist of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes simulations of ...

  1. Chaotic motion of light particles in an unsteady three-dimensional vortex: experiments and simulation.

    PubMed

    Vanyó, József; Vincze, Miklós; Jánosi, Imre M; Tél, Tamás

    2014-07-01

    We study the chaotic motion of a small rigid sphere, lighter than the fluid in a three-dimensional vortex of finite height. Based on the results of Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements, a sequence of models is set up. The time-independent model is a generalization of the Burgers vortex. In this case, there are two types of attractors for the particle: a fixed point on the vortex axis and a limit cycle around the vortex axis. Time dependence might combine these regular attractors into a single chaotic attractor, however its robustness is much weaker than what the experiments suggest. To construct an aperiodically time-dependent advection dynamics in a simple way, Gaussian noise is added to the particle velocity in the numerical simulation. With an appropriate choice of the noise properties, mimicking the effect of local turbulence, a reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed particle statistics is found. PMID:25122364

  2. Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.

  3. Unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid-body motion. [UFLO5

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, I C

    1981-03-01

    With the aim of developing a fast and accurate computer code for predicting the aerodynamic forces needed for a flutter analysis, some basic concepts in computational transonics are reviewed. The unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid body motion is adequately described by the potential flow equation as long as the boundary layer remains attached. The two dimensional unsteady transonic potential flow equation in quasilinear form with first order radiation boundary conditions is solved by an alternating direction implicit scheme in an airfoil attached sheared parabolic coordinate system. Numerical experiments show that the scheme is very stable and is able to resolve the higher nonlinear transonic effects for filter analysis within the context of an inviscid theory.

  4. Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-12-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans could recover from the point of maximum COM displacement faster than when walking. Consequently, the total time necessary for recovery was not significantly different between walking and running. Future experiments will determine the mechanisms used for compensations during unsteady locomotion at the behavioral, joint, and muscle levels. Using reduced-parameter models will allow common experimental and analytical frameworks for the study of both stability and maneuverability and the determination of general control strategies for unsteady locomotion. PMID:24948138

  5. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  6. Unsteady saltation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    Saltation is an important process on Mars, as it contributes to dust raising, bedform dynamics, and aeolian abrasion. Lander measurements and mesoscale meteorological models suggest that winds in the Martian atmosphere rarely exceed the fluid threshold value that is necessary to aerodynamically initiate saltation, a fact in stark contrast to the existence of dunes and ripples on the planet, many of which are in an active state of migration. In an attempt to reconcile these observations, we perform an unsteady simulation with a simple turbulence model to calculate the saltation transport rate. Sinusoidal wind variations are imposed on the saltation layer. The numerical simulations verify that gusty transport is one of the main manifestations of Martian sediment transport events. A formula for the saltation transport rate is reported, Qm ?(u? -u?it) p , where u? and u?it are the friction velocity and impact threshold friction velocity. The power p varies in the range of 0.7-1.8 on Mars and ?1.5 on Earth, depending on the period and amplitude of the gusty inflow wind. Our results show that the law of Martian and terrestrial transport rate are not universal, and hence one should be cautious when trying to extrapolate existing terrestrial results to Mars.

  7. Some remarks on the design of transonic tunnels with low levels of flow unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabey, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The principal sources of flow unsteadiness in the circuit of a transonic wind tunnel are presented. Care must be taken to avoid flow separations, acoustic resonances and large scale turbulence. Some problems discussed are the elimination of diffuser separations, the aerodynamic design of coolers and the unsteadiness generated in ventilated working sections.

  8. Development of a linearized unsteady Euler analysis for turbomachinery blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Kousen, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for axial-flow turbomachinery blading is described in this report. The linearization is based on the Euler equations of fluid motion and is motivated by the need for an efficient aerodynamic analysis that can be used in predicting the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of blade rows. The field equations and surface conditions required for inviscid, nonlinear and linearized, unsteady aerodynamic analyses of three-dimensional flow through a single, blade row operating within a cylindrical duct, are derived. An existing numerical algorithm for determining time-accurate solutions of the nonlinear unsteady flow problem is described, and a numerical model, based upon this nonlinear flow solver, is formulated for the first-harmonic linear unsteady problem. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a first-harmonic unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. At present this code applies only to two-dimensional flows, but an extension to three-dimensions is planned as future work. The three-dimensional aerodynamic and numerical formulations are described in this report. Numerical results for two-dimensional unsteady cascade flows, excited by prescribed blade motions and prescribed aerodynamic disturbances at inlet and exit, are also provided to illustrate the present capabilities of the LINFLUX analysis.

  9. Unsteady transonic viscous-inviscid interaction using Euler and boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Whitfield, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Euler code is used extensively for computation of transonic unsteady aerodynamics. The boundary layer code solves the 3-D, compressible, unsteady, mean flow kinetic energy integral boundary layer equations in the direct mode. Inviscid-viscous coupling is handled using porosity boundary conditions. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the Euler and boundary layer equations for investigating unsteady viscous-inviscid interaction is examined.

  10. Aerodynamics of biplane and tandem wings at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.; Cleaver, D. J.; Gursul, I.

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of two-wing configurations at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The wing models were rectangular flat plates with a semi-aspect ratio of two. The stagger between the wings was varied from ? X/c = 0 to 1.5; the gap was varied from ? Y/c = 0 to 2 and ? Y/c = -1.5 to 1.5 for biplane and tandem configurations, respectively, with the decalage angle fixed at 0°. Lift, drag, aerodynamic efficiency and power efficiency ratios show that for small incidence angles, performance compared with the single wing is degraded. However, for single-wing post-stall angles of attack, lift performance improves and stall is delayed significantly for many configurations with nonzero gap, i.e., ? Y/c ? 0. For a fixed angle of attack, there are optimal gaps between the wings for which total lift becomes maximum. Particle image velocimetry measurements show that performance improvement relies heavily on the strength of the inter-wing flow and the interaction of the separated shear layers from the leading edge and trailing edge of the leading wing with the trailing wing. Unsteady forces are found to intensify for certain two-wing configurations. A switching between the stalled and unstalled states for the trailing wing as well as a switching between the merged and distinct wakes is shown to have high flow unsteadiness and large lift fluctuations.

  11. Numerical Predictions of Wind Turbine Power and Aerodynamic Loads for the NREL Phase II and IV Combined Experiment Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.

  12. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. I - Unsteady flow concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced military aircraft 'supermaneuverability' requirements entail the sustained operation of airfoils at stalled flow conditions. The present work addresses the effects of separated flow on vehicle dynamics; an analytic method is presented which employs static experimental data to predict the separated flow effect on incompressible unsteady aerodynamics. The key parameters in the analytic relationship between steady and nonsteady aerodynamics are the time-lag before a change of flow conditions can affect the separation-induced aerodynamic loads, the accelerated flow effect, and the moving wall effect.

  13. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  14. High Reynolds Number Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Flight Experiment. Report 2; Aerodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.

  15. Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations solutions on dynamic grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belk, D. M.; Janus, J. M.; Whitfield, D. L.

    1985-07-01

    A method is presented for solving the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations on dynamic grids based on flux vector splitting. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used for handling arbitrary geometries. The discretized equations are solved using an explicit upwind second-order predictor corrector scheme that is stable for a CFL of 2. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used for unsteady impermeable surfaces and for the far-field boundary. Dynamic-grid results are presented for an oscillating air-foil and for a store separating from a reflection plate. For the cases considered of stores separating from a reflection plate, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the store are significantly different from forces obtained by steady-state aerodynamics with the body inclination angle changed to account for plunge velocity.

  16. Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations solutions on dynamic grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belk, D. M.; Janus, J. M.; Whitfield, D. L.

    1986-04-01

    A method is presented for solving the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations on dynamic grids based on flux vector splitting. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used for handling arbitrary geometries. The discretized equations are solved using an explicit upwind second-order predictor corrector scheme that is stable for a CFL of 2. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used for unsteady impermeable surfaces and for the far-field boundary. Dynamic-grid results are presented for an oscillating airfoil and for a store separating from a reflection plate. For the cases considered of stores separating from a reflection plate, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the store are significantly different from forces obtained by steady-state aerodynamics with the body inclination angle changed to account for plunge velocity.

  17. Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations solutions on dynamic grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belk, D. M.; Janus, J. M.; Whitfield, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for solving the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations on dynamic grids based on flux vector splitting. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used for handling arbitrary geometries. The discretized equations are solved using an explicit upwind second-order predictor corrector scheme that is stable for a CFL of 2. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used for unsteady impermeable surfaces and for the far-field boundary. Dynamic-grid results are presented for an oscillating air-foil and for a store separating from a reflection plate. For the cases considered of stores separating from a reflection plate, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the store are significantly different from forces obtained by steady-state aerodynamics with the body inclination angle changed to account for plunge velocity.

  18. Direct use of linear time-domain aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis: Aerodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, J. A.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    The work presented here is the first part of a continuing effort to expand existing capabilities in aeroelasticity by developing the methodology which is necessary to utilize unsteady time-domain aerodynamics directly in aeroservoelastic design and analysis. The ultimate objective is to define a fully integrated state-space model of an aeroelastic vehicle's aerodynamics, structure and controls which may be used to efficiently determine the vehicle's aeroservoelastic stability. Here, the current status of developing a state-space model for linear or near-linear time-domain indicial aerodynamic forces is presented.

  19. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  20. Characterization of Aerodynamic Interactions with the Mars Science Laboratory Reaction Control System Using Computation and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; VanNorman, John; Rhode, Matthew; Paulson, John

    2013-01-01

    On August 5 , 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry capsule successfully entered Mars' atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater. The capsule used a reaction control system (RCS) consisting of four pairs of hydrazine thrusters to fly a guided entry. The RCS provided bank control to fly along a flight path commanded by an onboard computer and also damped unwanted rates due to atmospheric disturbances and any dynamic instabilities of the capsule. A preliminary assessment of the MSL's flight data from entry showed that the capsule flew much as predicted. This paper will describe how the MSL aerodynamics team used engineering analyses, computational codes and wind tunnel testing in concert to develop the RCS system and certify it for flight. Over the course of MSL's development, the RCS configuration underwent a number of design iterations to accommodate mechanical constraints, aeroheating concerns and excessive aero/RCS interactions. A brief overview of the MSL RCS configuration design evolution is provided. Then, a brief description is presented of how the computational predictions of RCS jet interactions were validated. The primary work to certify that the RCS interactions were acceptable for flight was centered on validating computational predictions at hypersonic speeds. A comparison of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to wind tunnel force and moment data gathered in the NASA Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel was the lynch pin to validating the CFD codes used to predict aero/RCS interactions. Using the CFD predictions and experimental data, an interaction model was developed for Monte Carlo analyses using 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation. The interaction model used in the flight simulation is presented.

  1. Impact of Periodic Unsteadiness on Performance and Heat Load in Axial Flow Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Om P.; Stetson, Gary M.; Daniels, William A,; Greitzer, Edward M.; Blair, Michael F.; Dring, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of an analytical and experimental investigation, directed at the understanding of the impact of periodic unsteadiness on the time-averaged flows in axial flow turbomachines, are presented. Analysis of available experimental data, from a large-scale rotating rig (LSRR) (low speed rig), shows that in the time-averaged axisymmetric equations the magnitude of the terms representing the effect of periodic unsteadiness (deterministic stresses) are as large or larger than those due to random unsteadiness (turbulence). Numerical experiments, conducted to highlight physical mechanisms associated with the migration of combustor generated hot-streaks in turbine rotors, indicated that the effect can be simulated by accounting for deterministic stress like terms in the time-averaged mass and energy conservation equations. The experimental portion of this program shows that the aerodynamic loss for the second stator in a 1-1/2 stage turbine are influenced by the axial spacing between the second stator leading edge and the rotor trailing edge. However, the axial spacing has little impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These performance changes are believed to be associated with the change in deterministic stress at the inlet to the second stator. Data were also acquired to quantify the impact of indexing the first stator relative to the second stator. For the range of parameters examined, this effect was found to be of the same order as the effect of axial spacing.

  2. Assessment of the derivative-moment transformation method for unsteady-load estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohebbian, Ali; Rival, David E.

    2012-08-01

    It is often difficult, if not impossible, to measure the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces on a moving body. For this reason, a classical control-volume technique is typically applied to extract the unsteady forces. However, measuring the acceleration term within the volume of interest using particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be limited by optical access, reflections, as well as shadows. Therefore, in this study, an alternative approach, termed the derivative-moment transformation (DMT) method, is introduced and tested on a synthetic data set produced using numerical simulations. The test case involves the unsteady loading of a flat plate in a two-dimensional, laminar periodic gust. The results suggest that the DMT method can accurately predict the acceleration term so long as appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions are maintained. The major deficiency, which is more dominant for the direction of drag, was found to be the determination of pressure and unsteady terms in the wake. The effect of control-volume size was investigated, suggesting that larger domains work best by minimizing the associated error in the determination of the pressure field. When decreasing the control-volume size, wake vortices, which produce high gradients across the control surfaces, are found to substantially increase the level of error. On the other hand, it was shown that for large control volumes, and with realistic spatial resolution, the accuracy of the DMT method would also suffer. Therefore, a delicate compromise is required when selecting control-volume size in future experiments.

  3. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic response characteristics of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. In addition, a numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flow, which is based upon an existing nonlinear, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis, is described. These aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into an unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. A preliminary version of the LINFLUX code is applied herein to selected, benchmark three-dimensional, subsonic, unsteady flows, to illustrate its current capabilities and to uncover existing problems and deficiencies. The numerical results indicate that good progress has been made toward developing a reliable and useful three-dimensional prediction capability. However, some problems, associated with the implementation of an unsteady displacement field and numerical errors near solid boundaries, still exist. Also, accurate far-field conditions must be incorporated into the FINFLUX analysis, so that this analysis can be applied to unsteady flows driven be external aerodynamic excitations.

  5. Development of a Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis with Application to Wake/Blade-Row Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Chuang, H. Andrew

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The mathematical models needed to describe nonlinear and linearized, inviscid, unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented in this report. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to far-field eigen analyses, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into the three-dimensional unsteady flow code, LINFLUX. This code is applied herein to predict unsteady subsonic flows driven by wake or vortical excitations. The intent is to validate the LINFLUX analysis via numerical results for simple benchmark unsteady flows and to demonstrate this analysis via application to a realistic wake/blade-row interaction. Detailed numerical results for a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade and a fan exit guide vane indicate that LINFLUX is becoming a reliable and useful unsteady aerodynamic prediction capability that can be applied, in the future, to assess the three-dimensional flow physics important to blade-row, aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses.

  6. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  7. Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.

  8. Current research activities: Applied and numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, experiments in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.

  9. Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.

  10. Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.

  11. Aerodynamic and flowfield hysteresis of slender wing aircraft undergoing large-amplitude motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Thompson, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    The implication of maneuvers through large angles of incidence is discussed by examining the unsteady aerodynamic loads, surface pressures, vortical position, and breakdown on slender, flat plate delta wings. Two examples of large amplitude unsteady motions are presented. First, the unsteady characteristics of a 70 degree swept delta wing undergoing pitch oscillation from 0 to 60 degrees is examined. Data is presented that shows the relationship between vortex breakdown and the overshoot and undershoot of the aerodynamic loads and surface pressure distribution. The second example examines the leading edge vortical flow over an 80 degree swept wing undergoing a limit cycle roll oscillation commonly called wing rock.

  12. Viscous oscillating cascade aerodynamics and flutter by a locally analytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. M.; Fleeter, S.

    1992-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the viscous aerodynamics of an harmonically oscillating flat plate airfoil cascade in an incompressible laminar flow. The steady flow field is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, with the unsteady viscous flow modeled as a small perturbation to this steady flow. Solutions for both the steady and the unsteady viscous flow fields are then obtained by developing locally analytical solutions. The significant effects of Reynolds number, elastic axis, interblade phase angle and incidence angle on the oscillating cascade unsteady aerodynamics and torsional flutter characteristics are then demonstrated.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of a distinct wing-body configuration at Mach 6: Experiment, theory, and the hypersonic isolation principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.

  14. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through vortex manipulation. Volume 3: Wing rock experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  15. The unsteady flow over a bat wing in mid-downstroke.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muijres, Florian; Johansson, Christoffer; Barfield, Ryan; Wolf, Marta; Spedding, Geoffrey; Hedenstrom, Anders

    2008-03-01

    Birds, bats and insects have provided inspiration for human-designed small-scale flying machines, and while insects have long been known to rely on unsteady separated flows for their above-average aerodynamic performance at small-scale, the details of air flows over bird and bat wings have been harder to elucidate, mainly because of the extra complexity and precautions required in live experiments. Here we report on the first experiments of the airflow around a bat wing in free (but trained) flight in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. The aerodynamics of fixed wings at these Reynolds numbers are notoriously sensitive to small disturbances of the initially laminar, attached boundary layer, but these flight experiments show that the instantaneous flow fields around the flapping wing bear almost no resemblance to an equivalent fixed-wing experiment. The circulation increment due to the presence of a strong leading-edge vortex is estimated to provide a significant fraction of the total lift. Implications for the design and control of micro-air vehicles are considered.

  16. Simulation of self-induced unsteady motion in the near wake of a Joukowski airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghia, K. N.; Osswald, G. A.; Ghia, U.

    1986-01-01

    The unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis is shown to be capable of analyzing the massively separated, persistently unsteady flow in the post-stall regime of a Joukowski airfoil for an angle of attack as high as 53 degrees. The analysis has provided the detailed flow structure, showing the complex vortex interaction for this configuration. The aerodynamic coefficients for lift, drag, and moment were calculated. So far only the spatial structure of the vortex interaction was computed. It is now important to potentially use the large-scale vortex interactions, an additional energy source, to improve the aerodynamic performance.

  17. Effects of Unsteady Flow Interactions on the Performance of a Highly-Loaded Transonic Compressor Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2015-01-01

    Effects of unsteady flow interactions on the aerodynamic performance of a highly-loaded transonic axial compressor are investigated in the present study. The primary focus of the study is to investigate how unsteady flow interactions between blade rows affect the aerodynamic performance of a highly-loaded transonic axial compressor. Recent experimental and numerical studies of current highly-loaded axial compressor performance indicated that predicting calculating the loss generation is very challenging with various analysis tools. In the present study, the effects of generation and transport of shock induced vortices on the compressor performance is investigated in detail.

  18. Unsteady transition measurements on a pitching three-dimensional wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorber, Peter F.; Carta, Franklin O.

    1992-01-01

    Boundary layer transition measurements were made during an experimental study of the aerodynamics of a rectangular wing undergoing unsteady pitching motions. The wing was tested at chordwise Mach numbers between 0.2 and 0.6, at sweep angles of 0, 15, and 30 deg, and for steady state, sinusoidal, and constant pitch rate motions. The model was scaled to represent a full size helicopter rotor blade, with chord Reynolds numbers between 2 and 6 x 10(exp 6). Sixteen surface hot-film gages were located along three spanwise stations: 0.08, 0.27, and 0.70 chords from the wing tip. Qualitative heat transfer information was obtained to identify the unsteady motion of the point of transition to turbulence. In combination with simultaneous measurements of the unsteady surface pressure distributions, the results illustrate the effects of compressibility, sweep, pitch rate, and proximity to the wing tip on the transition and relaminarization locations.

  19. Application of an airfoil stall flutter computer prediction program to a three-dimensional wing: Prediction versus experiment. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muffoletto, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    An aerodynamic computer code, capable of predicting unsteady and C sub m values for an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall, is used to predict the amplitudes and frequencies of a wing undergoing torsional stall flutter. The code, developed at United Technologies Research Corporation (UTRC), is an empirical prediction method designed to yield unsteady values of normal force and moment, given the airfoil's static coefficient characteristics and the unsteady aerodynamic values, alpha, A and B. In this experiment, conducted in the PSU 4' x 5' subsonic wind tunnel, the wing's elastic axis, torsional spring constant and initial angle of attack are varied, and the oscillation amplitudes and frequencies of the wing, while undergoing torsional stall flutter, are recorded. These experimental values show only fair comparisons with the predicted responses. Predictions tend to be good at low velocities and rather poor at higher velocities.

  20. Prediction of Hyper-X Stage Separation Aerodynamics Using CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Wong, Tin-Chee; Dilley, Arthur D.; Pao, Jenn L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA X-43 "Hyper-X" hypersonic research vehicle will be boosted to a Mach 7 flight test condition mounted on the nose of an Orbital Sciences Pegasus launch vehicle. The separation of the research vehicle from the Pegasus presents some unique aerodynamic problems, for which computational fluid dynamics has played a role in the analysis. This paper describes the use of several CFD methods for investigating the aerodynamics of the research and launch vehicles in close proximity. Specifically addressed are unsteady effects, aerodynamic database extrapolation, and differences between wind tunnel and flight environments.

  1. Simulations of the Unsteady Flow through the Fastrac Supersonic Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RI.V)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.

  2. Simulations of the unsteady flow through the Fastrac Supersonic Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.W.; Dorney, D.J.

    2000-04-01

    Analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.

  3. Numerical simulations of unsteady flows in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorney, Daniel Joseph

    The performance of axial and centrifugal turbomachines is significantly affected by the presence of unsteady and viscous flow mechanisms. Most contemporary design systems, however, use steady or linearized unsteady inviscid flow analyses to generate new blade shapes. In an effort to increase the understanding of unsteady viscous flows in turbomachinery blade rows, and to determine the limitations of linearized inviscid flow analyses, a two-part investigation was conducted. In the first portion of this investigation, a nonlinear viscous flow analysis was developed for the prediction of unsteady flows in two dimensional axial turbomachinery blade rows. The boundary conditions were formulated to allow the specification of vortical, entropic and acoustic excitations at the inlet, and acoustic excitations at exit, of a cascade. Numerical simulations were performed for flat plate and compressor exit guide vane cascades, and the predicted results were compared with solutions from classical linearized theory and linearized inviscid flow analysis. The unsteady pressure fields predicted with the current analysis showed close agreement with the linearized solutions for low to moderate temporal frequency vortical and acoustic excitations. As the temporal frequency of the excitations was increased, nonlinear effects caused discrepancies to develop between the linearized and Navier-Stokes solution sets. The inclusion of viscosity had a significant impact on the unsteady vorticity field, but only a minimal effect on the unsteady pressure field. In the second part of this investigation, a quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis was modified and applied to flows in centrifugal turbomachinery blade rows. Inviscid and viscous flow simulations were performed for a centrifugal impeller at three operating conditions. By comparing the predicted and experimental circumferential distributions of the relative frame velocity and flow angle downstream of the impeller, it was hypothesized that in the experiments the end secondary flows energize the impeller suction surface boundary making the local flow behave like an inviscid fluid. The performance curve generated from the viscous calculations showed close agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, A; Johansson, L C; Wolf, M; von Busse, R; Winter, Y; Spedding, G R

    2007-05-11

    The flapping flight of animals generates an aerodynamic footprint as a time-varying vortex wake in which the rate of momentum change represents the aerodynamic force. We showed that the wakes of a small bat species differ from those of birds in some important respects. In our bats, each wing generated its own vortex loop. Also, at moderate and high flight speeds, the circulation on the outer (hand) wing and the arm wing differed in sign during the upstroke, resulting in negative lift on the hand wing and positive lift on the arm wing. Our interpretations of the unsteady aerodynamic performance and function of membranous-winged, flapping flight should change modeling strategies for the study of equivalent natural and engineered flying devices. PMID:17495171

  5. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of axial-flow turbo-machinery blading.The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to a far-field eigenanalysis, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a three-dimensional linearized unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. This code has been applied to selected, benchmark, unsteady, subsonic flows to establish its accuracy and to demonstrate its current capabilities. The unsteady flows considered, have been chosen to allow convenient comparisons between the LINFLUX results and those of well-known, two-dimensional, unsteady flow codes. Detailed numerical results for a helical fan and a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade indicate that important progress has been made towards the development of a reliable and useful, three-dimensional, prediction capability that can be used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies.

  6. Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Chung K.

    2000-11-01

    The presentation will review recent advances in the understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geometry of stretched, nonequidiffusive, laminar premixed flames, as exemplified by the unsteady propagation of wrinkled flames in nonuniform flow fields. It is first shown that by considering the effects of aerodynamic stretch on the flame structure, and by allowing for mixture nonequidiffusion, the flame responses, especially the flame propagation speed, can be quantitatively as well as qualitatively modified from the idealized planar limit. Subsequently, by treating the flame as a level surface propagating with the stretch-affected flame speed, problems of increasing complexity are presented to illustrate various features of flame propagation. The illustration first treats the flame as a structureless surface propagating into a constant-density combustible with a constant velocity * the laminar flame speed, and demonstrates the phenomena of cusp formation and volumetric burning rate augmentation through flame wrinkling. By using the stretch-affected flame speed, we then describe the phenomena of cusp broadening as well as tip opening of the Bunsen flame. Finally, by allowing for the density jump across the flame surface, a unified dispersion relation is derived for the intrinsic hydrodynamic, body-force, and nonequidiffusive modes of flame

  7. Measurements of Unsteady Wake Interference Between Tandem Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Cahterine B.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-phase, experimental study in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center has provided new insight into the unsteady flow interaction around cylinders in tandem arrangement. Phase 1 of the study characterized the mean and unsteady near-field flow around two cylinders of equal diameter using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire anemometry. These measurements were performed at a Reynolds number of 1.66 x 10(exp 5), based on cylinder diameter, and spacing-to-diameter ratios, L/D, of 1.435 and 3.7. The current phase, Phase 2, augments this dataset by characterizing the surface flow on the same configurations using steady and unsteady pressure measurements and surface flow visualization. Transition strips were applied to the front cylinder during both phases to produce a turbulent boundary layer upstream of the flow separation. For these flow conditions and L/D ratios, surface pressures on both the front and rear cylinders show the effects of L/D on flow symmetry, pressure recovery, and the location of flow separation and attachment. Mean streamlines and instantaneous vorticity obtained from the PIV data are used to explain the flow structure in the gap and near-wake regions and its relationship to the unsteady surface pressures. The combination of off-body and surface measurements provides a comprehensive dataset to develop and validate computational techniques for predicting the unsteady flow field at higher Reynolds numbers.

  8. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of time averaged quantities for unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiqi

    2011-11-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an essential gradient for data assimilation, aerodynamic design, uncertainty quantification and optimal flow control. In particular. the adjoint sensitivity analysis method has been shown to solve very high dimensional optimization problems typically found these applications. This talk focuses on recent developments in extending adjoint sensitivity analysis to unsteady flows. The adjoint equation of unsteady flows must be integrated backwards in time. Each backward time step must use the flow solution at the corresponding time. As a result, the entire time history of the flow solution must be either stored or recalculated. The invention of checkpointing schemes provides an economic solution to this challenge. In particular, the dynamic checkpointing scheme makes this solution more practical for computational fluid dynamics problems. In unsteady flows, the quantities of interest are often long time averages. We demonstrate that sensitivity analysis of these long time averaged quantities poses significant new challenge. A novel windowing scheme is developed to compute correct sensitivity for periodic unsteady flows, such as in laminar vortex shedding. Initial investigation of sensitivity analysis of chaotic unsteady flows, i.e., transitional and turbulent flows, is also discussed. This work is supported by a subcontract of PSAAP program at Stanford awarded to MIT.

  9. Numerical and experimental study on aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan with splitter blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lifu; Jin, Yingzi; Li, Yi; Jin, Yuzhen; Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Li

    2013-08-01

    To improve the aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan, in this paper the design of a small axial flow fan with splitter blades is studied. The RNG k-? turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm were applied to the steady simulation calculation of the flow field, and its result was used as the initial field of the large eddy simulation to calculate the unsteady pressure field. The FW-H noise model was adopted to predict aerodynamic noise in the six monitoring points. Fast Fourier transform algorithm was applied to process the pressure signal. Experiment of noise testing was done to further investigate the aerodynamic noise of fans. And then the results obtained from the numerical simulation and experiment were described and analyzed. The results show that the static characteristics of small axial fan with splitter blades are similar with the prototype fan, and the static characteristics are improved within a certain range of flux. The power spectral density at the six monitoring points of small axial flow fan with splitter blades have decreased to some extent. The experimental results show sound pressure level of new fan has reduced in most frequency bands by comparing with prototype fan. The research results will provide a proof for parameter optimization and noise prediction of small axial flow fans with high performance.

  10. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A

    2011-12-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s?¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10? or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs. PMID:22126793

  11. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  12. Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    1993-01-01

    In the last two decades, there have been extensive developments in computational aerodynamics, which constitutes a major part of the general area of computational fluid dynamics. Such developments are essential to advance the understanding of the physics of complex flows, to complement expensive wind-tunnel tests, and to reduce the overall design cost of an aircraft, particularly in the area of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of aircraft, particularly modern aircraft, which tend to be more flexible. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur because of the interaction of the flow with flexible components. For example, an aircraft with highly swept wings may experience vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations. Also, undesirable aeroelastic phenomena due to the presence and movement of shock waves occur in the transonic range. Aeroelastically critical phenomena, such as a low transonic flutter speed, have been known to occur through limited wind-tunnel tests and flight tests. Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At Ames a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this contract is to continue the algorithm enhancements of ENSAERO and to apply the code to complicated geometries. During the last year, the geometric capability of the code was extended to simulate transonic flows, a wing with oscillating control surface. Single-grid and zonal approaches were tested. For the zonal approach, a new interpolation technique was introduced. The key development of the algorithm was an interface treatment between moving zones for a control surface using the virtual-zone concept. The work performed during the period, 1 Apr. 1992 through 31 Mar. 1993 is summarized. Additional details on the various aspects of the study are given in the Appendices.

  13. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  14. A Numerical Model of Unsteady, Subsonic Aeroelastic Behavior. Ph.D Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A method for predicting unsteady, subsonic aeroelastic responses was developed. The technique accounts for aerodynamic nonlinearities associated with angles of attack, vortex-dominated flow, static deformations, and unsteady behavior. The fluid and the wing together are treated as a single dynamical system, and the equations of motion for the structure and flow field are integrated simultaneously and interactively in the time domain. The method employs an iterative scheme based on a predictor-corrector technique. The aerodynamic loads are computed by the general unsteady vortex-lattice method and are determined simultaneously with the motion of the wing. Because the unsteady vortex-lattice method predicts the wake as part of the solution, the history of the motion is taken into account; hysteresis is predicted. Two models are used to demonstrate the technique: a rigid wing on an elastic support experiencing plunge and pitch about the elastic axis, and an elastic wing rigidly supported at the root chord experiencing spanwise bending and twisting. The method can be readily extended to account for structural nonlinearities and/or substitute aerodynamic load models. The time domain solution coupled with the unsteady vortex-lattice method provides the capability of graphically depicting wing and wake motion.

  15. Unsteady analysis of rotor blade tip flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskey, B.; Rao, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H computer programs for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrarily shaped wings oscillating in pitch is presented. The effect of several wake parameters on chordwise pressure distribution in VSAERO-TS is given and the convergence characteristics of both programs are discussed. In the program, the influence coefficient for each panel is formulated for a planar surface and so a skewed panel is represented by a projected flat quadrilateral lying in the mean plane. Since panels in the extreme roll-up region of the tip vortex are highly skewed the program was modified to treat each highly skewed panel as a pair of triangles. The programs are validated by comparing the chordwise pressure distribution of several blade tip planforms with experimental data. The comparison, for the most part, is good. The triangular panel representation improved the chordwise pressure distribution near the tip region for higher mean angle of attack.

  16. Comparisons of several aerodynamic methods for application to dynamic loads analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, R. I.; Miller, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study are presented in which the applicability at subsonic speeds of several aerodynamic methods for predicting dynamic gust loads on aircraft, including active control systems, was examined and compared. These aerodynamic methods varied from steady state to an advanced unsteady aerodynamic formulation. Brief descriptions of the structural and aerodynamic representations and of the motion and load equations are presented. Comparisons of numerical results achieved using the various aerodynamic methods are shown in detail. From these results, aerodynamic representations for dynamic gust analyses are identified. It was concluded that several aerodynamic methods are satisfactory for dynamic gust analyses of configurations having either controls fixed or active control systems that primarily affect the low frequency rigid body aircraft response.

  17. Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1989-03-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empennage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies was developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interacting vortex wake is represented by an array of discrete vortices which, in turn, are represented by a finite-core model. The evolution of the interacting vortex wake is calculated by Lagrangian techniques. The viscous flow field of the two-dimensional body is calculated on an Eulerian grid. The flow around circular and elliptic cylinders in the absence of an interacting vortex wake was calculated. These results compare very well with other numerical results and with results obtained from experiment and thereby demonstrate the accuracy of the viscous solution. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4 to 1 elliptic cylinder at 45 degree incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000. The results demonstrate the significant variations in the lift and drag on the elliptic cylinder in the presence of the interacting rotor wake.

  18. The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.

    1990-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.

  19. A comparison of some aerodynamic resistance methods using measurements over cotton and grass from the 1991 California ozone deposition experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padro, J.; Massman, W. J.; Shaw, R. H.; Delany, A.; Oncley, S. P.

    1994-12-01

    Measurements of dry, deposition velocities ( V d ) of O3 (using the eddy correlation technique) made over a cotton field and senescent grass near Fresno California during July and August 1991 were used to test some dry deposition velocity models. Over the cotton field, the observed maximum daytime V d was about 0.8 cm s-1 and the average nighttime value was about 0.2 cm s-1. Over the grass, daytime values averaged about 0.2 cm s-1 and nighttime values about 0.05 cm s-1. Application of a site-specific model known as ADOM (Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model) over the cotton field generally overestimated the observations except for a few hours in the afternoon when the observations were underestimated The overestimation was attributed to inadequacies in the surface resistance formulation and the underestimation to uncertainties in the aerodynamic formulation. Unlike previous studies which focused on the role of surface resistance, we perform additional tests using a large variety of aerodynamic resistance formulae, in addition to those in ADOM, to determine their influence on the modelled V d of O3 over, cotton. Over grass, ADOM considerably overestimated the observations but showed improvement when other surface resistance formulations were applied.

  20. Unsteady Velocity Measurements Taken Behind a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub in Forward Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.

  1. Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity 1987, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Samuel R. (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    This two part document contains copies of the text and figures for the papers presented at the symposium held at NASA Langley on 20 to 22 May, 1987. The papers are grouped in five subject areas. The areas covered by this part includes the following: Methods for vortex and viscous flows; Aeroelastic applications, and Experimental results and cascade flows.

  2. Unsteady aerodynamic characterization of a military aircraft in vertical gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebozec, A.; Cocquerez, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 2.5-m/sec vertical gusts on the flight characteristics of a 1:8.6 scale model of a Mirage 2000 aircraft in free flight at 35 m/sec over a distance of 30 m are investigated. The wind-tunnel setup and instrumentation are described; the impulse-response and local-coefficient-identification analysis methods applied are discussed in detail; and the modification and calibration of the gust-detection probes are reviewed. The results are presented in graphs, and good general agreement is obtained between model calculations using the two analysis methods and the experimental measurements.

  3. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows. Again, to verify and or direct the development of these advanced codes, complete three-dimensional unsteady flow field data are needed.

  4. Numerical solutions of the linearized Euler equations for unsteady vortical flows around lifting airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.

    1990-01-01

    A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.

  5. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Qiuying; Sheng, Chunhua; Afjeh, Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5?MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16?RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed,more »including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines.« less

  6. Aerodynamic performance measurements at moderate Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, M.; McArthur, J.; Spedding, G. R.

    2004-11-01

    There has been renewed interest in the aerodynamics of lifting wings at Reynolds numbers from 10^4 to 10^5, partly due to engineering requirements of small-scale, remotely piloted aircraft, and partly because birds and bats operate in this regime. Even when the wings do not flap or pitch or plunge, the flow over the small aspect ratio wings is likely to be three-dimensional and unsteady. Wind tunnel test results are described where force measurements are combined with DPIV studies. Some problems and principles of such measurement programs will also be discussed.

  7. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Daniel V.

    Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight envelope.

  8. Re-evaluation of an Optimized Second Order Backward Difference (BDF2OPT) Scheme for Unsteady Flow Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Lockard, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experience in the application of an optimized, second-order, backward-difference (BDF2OPT) temporal scheme is reported. The primary focus of the work is on obtaining accurate solutions of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations over long periods of time for aerodynamic problems of interest. The baseline flow solver under consideration uses a particular BDF2OPT temporal scheme with a dual-time-stepping algorithm for advancing the flow solutions in time. Numerical difficulties are encountered with this scheme when the flow code is run for a large number of time steps, a behavior not seen with the standard second-order, backward-difference, temporal scheme. Based on a stability analysis, slight modifications to the BDF2OPT scheme are suggested. The performance and accuracy of this modified scheme is assessed by comparing the computational results with other numerical schemes and experimental data.

  9. Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M., E.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.

  10. Application of Hybrid Method for Aerodynamic Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Song, W. P.

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid prediction method for aerodynamic noise is performed using high order accuracy method in this paper. The method combines a two-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes(URANS) solver with the acoustic analogy method using Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds). Tandem cylinders are chosen to validate the prediction method. The computations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 based on the cylinder diameter. Both the aerodynamic and acoustic results show good agreement with the experimental data, showing a successful application of the hybrid prediction method using two-dimensional URANS simulation.

  11. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  12. Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centin, Kiris C.; Kwak, Dochan

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current effort is two-fold: 1) to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine; and 2) to provide high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis capability to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicle. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to involve liquid propulsion system, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the turbopump components is an important task. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flow are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. Unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available, at least, for real-world engineering applications. Present effort is an attempt to provide this capability so that developers of the vehicle will be able to extract such information as transient flow phenomena for start up, impact of non-uniform inflow, system vibration and impact on the structure. Those quantities are not readily available from simplified design tools. In this presentation, the progress being made toward complete turbo-pump simulation capability for a liquid rocket engine is reported. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbopump, which contains 106 zones with 34.5 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented.

  13. Unsteady Flowfield in a High-Pressure Turbine Modeled by TURBO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Mehmed, Oral

    2003-01-01

    Forced response, or resonant vibrations, in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail because of the large vibratory blade stresses and subsequent high-cycle fatigue. Forced-response vibrations occur when turbomachinery blades are subjected to periodic excitation at a frequency close to their natural frequency. Rotor blades in a turbine are constantly subjected to periodic excitations when they pass through the spatially nonuniform flowfield created by upstream vanes. Accurate numerical prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics phenomena that cause forced-response vibrations can lead to an improved understanding of the problem and offer potential approaches to reduce or eliminate specific forced-response problems. The objective of the current work was to validate an unsteady aerodynamics code (named TURBO) for the modeling of the unsteady blade row interactions that can cause forced response vibrations. The three-dimensional, unsteady, multi-blade-row, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code named TURBO was used to model a high-pressure turbine stage for which benchmark data were recently acquired under a NASA contract by researchers at the Ohio State University. The test article was an initial design for a high-pressure turbine stage that experienced forced-response vibrations which were eliminated by increasing the axial gap. The data, acquired in a short duration or shock tunnel test facility, included unsteady blade surface pressures and vibratory strains.

  14. Calculation and Correlation of the Unsteady Flowfield in a High Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mehmed, Oral

    2002-01-01

    Forced vibrations in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail due to high-cycle fatigue. Such forced response problems will become more pronounced in newer engines with higher pressure ratios and smaller axial gap between blade rows. An accurate numerical prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics phenomena that cause resonant forced vibrations is increasingly important to designers. Validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to model the unsteady aerodynamic excitations is necessary before these codes can be used with confidence. Recently published benchmark data, including unsteady pressures and vibratory strains, for a high-pressure turbine stage makes such code validation possible. In the present work, a three dimensional, unsteady, multi blade-row, Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes code is applied to a turbine stage that was recently tested in a short duration test facility. Two configurations with three operating conditions corresponding to modes 2, 3, and 4 crossings on the Campbell diagram are analyzed. Unsteady pressures on the rotor surface are compared with data.

  15. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  16. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  17. Simulations of Unsteady Aquatic Locomotion: From Unsteadiness in Straight-Line Swimming to Fast-Starts.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman

    2015-10-01

    Unsteady aquatic locomotion is not an exception, but rather how animals often swim. It includes fast-starts (C-start or S-start), escape maneuvers, turns, acceleration/deceleration, and even during steady locomotion the swimming speed fluctuates, i.e., there is unsteadiness. Here, a review of the recent work on unsteady aquatic locomotion with emphasis on numerical simulations is presented. The review is started by an overview of different theoretical and numerical methods that have been used for unsteady swimming, and then the insights provided by these methods on (1) unsteadiness in straight-line swimming and (2) unsteady fast-starts and turns are discussed. The swimming speed's unsteady fluctuations during straight-line swimming are typically less than 3% of the average swimming speed, but recent simulations show that body shape affects fluctuations more than does body kinematics, i.e., changing the shape of the body generates larger fluctuations than does changing its kinematics. For fast-starts, recent simulations show that the best motion to maximize the distance traveled from rest are similar to the experimentally observed C-start maneuvers. Furthermore, another set of simulations, which are validated against measurements of flow in experiments with live fish, investigate the role of fins during the C-start. The simulations showed that most of the force is generated by the body of the fish (not by fins) during the first stage of the C-start when the fish bends itself into the C-shape. However, in the second stage, when it rapidly bends out of the C-shape, more than 70% of the instantaneous hydrodynamic force is produced by the tail. The effect of dorsal and anal fins was less than 5% of the instantaneous force in both stages, except for a short period of time (2 ms) just before the second stage. Therefore, the active control and the erection of the anal/dorsal fins might be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch during the C-start. At the end, the needed future developments in the computational front and their possible applications on investigating stability during unsteady locomotion are discussed. PMID:25888943

  18. Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Huyer, S. )

    1993-04-01

    The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.

  19. Unsteady Simulation of the Viscous Flow About a V-22 Rotor and Wing in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    Results of an unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes simulation of a 0.658-scale V-22 rotor and wing configuration in hover are presented. All geometric components of the flapped-wing and rotor test rig, including rotor blades, are accurately modeled. Rotor motion and rotor/airframe interference effects are simulated directly using moving body overset grid methods. Tiltrotor hover aerodynamics are visualized via unsteady particle trace images. Wing download predictive ability is demonstrated. Simulation results are compared with experimental data.

  20. Aerodynamics Antony Jameson

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    Chapter 11 Aerodynamics Antony Jameson Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA 1 Focus Multidimensional Domains 359 6 Time-stepping Schemes 365 7 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization 379 8 Related Chapters 400 Acknowledgment 400 References 400 1 FOCUS AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.1 Classical aerodynamics

  1. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  2. Experimental investigation of bedload transport processes under unsteady flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Liu, Yi-Liang; Cheng, Kai-Hung

    2004-09-01

    Hydraulic engineering is usually based on theoretical analysis and/or numerical modelling simulation. As the dynamic behaviour of sediment movement under unsteady flow is still unclear, and field measurement is comparatively difficult during a large flood, prior investigations through flume experiments are required. A series of flume experiments, conducted using different inflow hydrographs without sediment supply from upstream, was carried out to investigate the sediment transport process under unsteady flow conditions.A series of triangular hydrographs were performed in the experiments. The results indicate that a temporal lag was found between the flow hydrograph peak and the sediment hydrograph peak because large size sand dunes lasted for a short period in the falling limb of the flow hydrograph. The temporal lag was found to be about equal to 6-15% of the flow hydrograph duration. Owing to the temporal lag, the total bedload yield in the rising period was less than that in the falling period. Furthermore, the measured total bedload yield in the unsteady flow experiments was larger than the predicted value, which was estimated by using the results obtained from the equivalent steady flow experiment. The peak bedload transport rate for unsteady flow conditions was also larger than the predicted value. The ratios of the measured to the predicted quantities mentioned above were found to be constant values for different shapes of hydrographs. It is, therefore, expected that the analytical results of sediment transport from equivalent steady flow can be a good reference for sediment transport under unsteady flow conditions.

  3. Unsteady near-critical flows in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Polezhaev, V I; Gorbunov, A A; Soboleva, E B

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents analysis of the different time scales associated with unsteady fluid flow phenomena near the thermodynamical critical point and that are typical for experiments carried out in microgravity. A focus of the paper is modeling the initial stage of convection under low and zero gravity on the basis of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible gas with the Van der Waals state equation. We also consider a thermoacoustic problem on the basis of three-dimensional linearized equations for an isentropic inviscid gas near the critical point in zero gravity. We compare the heat transfer due to unsteady convection and the piston effect in an enclosure with side heating in zero and low gravity with pure conductivity. PMID:15644362

  4. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  5. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 9th, Baltimore, MD, Sept. 23-25, 1991, Technical Papers. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on aplied aerodynamics encompasses computational fluid dynamics, drag prediction/analysis, experimental aerodynamics, high angles of attack, rotor/propeller aerodynamics, super/hypersonic aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, vortex physics, high-speed civil-transport aeroacoustics, and airfoil/wing aerodynamics. Specific issues addressed include high-speed civil-transport air-breathing propulsion, generic hypersonic inlet-module analysis, an investigation on spoiler effects, high-alpha vehicle dynamics, space-station resource node flow-field analysis, a numerical simulation of sabot discard aerodynamics, and vortex control using pneumatic blowing. Also addressed are Navier-Stokes solutions for the F/A-18 Wing-LEX fuselage, tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions, an investigation of rotor wake interactions with a body in low-speed forward flight, and multigrid calculations of 3D viscous cascade flows.

  6. Recent developments in the Green's function method. [for aerodynamics computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, K.; Puglise, J. A.; Morino, L.

    1977-01-01

    A recent computational development on the Green's function method (the method used in the computer program SOUSSA: Steady, Oscillatory and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) is presented. A scheme consisting of combined numerical (Gaussian quadrature) and analytical procedures for the evaluation of the source and doublet integrals used in the program is presented. This combination results in 80 to 90% reduction in computer time.

  7. AIAA-2000-1448 On the Importance of Aerodynamic and Structural

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    and von Flotow.1 The complete aircraft was modeled using a few modes of vibration, including rigid induced by large deflections. Patil et al.3 have looked at the effect of struc- tural geometric-planar) aerodynamic theory based on a general, nonlinear, unsteady, vortex lat- tice method. A linear structural

  8. The Aerodynamics of Deforming Wings at Low Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Albert

    Flapping flight has gained much attention in the past decade driven by the desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and the desire to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Advancing our current understanding of unsteady aerodynamics is an essential component in the development of micro-air vehicles (MAV) intended to utilize flight mechanics akin to insect flight. Thus the efforts undertaken that of bio-mimicry. The complexities of insect wing motion are dissected and simplified to more tractable problems to elucidate the fundamentals of unsteady aerodynamics in biologically inspired kinematics. The MAV's fruition would satisfy long established needs in both the military and civilian sectors. Although recent studies have provided great insight into the lift generating mechanisms of flapping wings the deflection response of such wings remains poorly understood. This dissertation numerically and experimentally investigates the aerodynamic performance of passively and actively deflected wings in hover and rotary kinematics. Flexibility is distilled to discrete lines of flexion which acknowledging major flexion lines in insect wings to be the primary avenue for deformation. Of primary concern is the development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a high circulation region of low pressure above the wing to which much of the wing's lift generation is attributed. Two-dimensional simulations of wings with chord-wise flexibility in a freestream reveal a lift generating mechanism unavailable to rigid wings with origins in vortical symmetry breaking. The inclusion of flexibility in translating wings accelerated from rest revealed the formation time of the initial LEV was very weakly dependent on the flexible stiffness of the wing, maintaining a universal time scale of four to five chords of travel before shedding. The frequency of oscillatory shedding of the leading and trailing-edge vortices that develops after the initial vortex shedding was shown to be responsive to flexibility satisfying an inverse proportionality to stiffness. In hover, an effective pitch angle can be defined in a flexible wing that accounts for deflection which shifts results toward trend lines of rigid wings. Three-dimensional simulations examining the effects of two distinct deformation modes undergoing prescribed deformation associated with root and tip deflection demonstrated a greater aerodynamic response to tip deflection in hover. Efficiency gains in flexion wings over rigid wing counterpart were shown to be dependent on Reynolds number with efficiency in both modes increasing with increased Reynolds number. Additionally, while the leading-edge vortex axis proved insensitive to deformation, the shape and orientation of the LEV core is modified. Experiments on three-dimensional dynamically-scaled fruit fly wings with passive deformation operating in the bursting limit Reynolds number regime revealed enhanced leading-edge vortex bursting with tip deflection promoting greater LEV core flow deceleration in stroke. Experimental studies on rotary wings highlights a universal formation time of the leading-edge vortex independent of Reynolds number, acceleration profile and aspect ratio. Efforts to replicate LEV bursting phenomena of higher aspect ratio wings in a unity aspect ratio wing such that LEV growth is no limited by span but by the LEV traversing the chord revealed a flow regime of oscillatory lift generation reminiscent of behavior exhibited in translating wings that also maintains magnitude peak to peak.

  9. Integrated modeling of insect flight: From morphology, kinematics to aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao

    2009-02-01

    An integrated and rigorous model for the simulation of insect flapping flight is addressed. The method is very versatile, easily integrating the modeling of realistic wing-body morphology, realistic flapping-wing and body kinematics, and unsteady aerodynamics in insect flight. A morphological model is built based on an effective differential geometric method for reconstructing geometry of and a specific grid generator for the wings and body; and a kinematic model is constructed capable to mimic the realistic wing-body kinematics of flapping flight. A fortified FVM-based NS solver for dynamically moving multi-blocked, overset-grid systems is developed and verified to be self-consistent by a variety of benchmark tests; and evaluation of flapping energetics is established on inertial and aerodynamic forces, torques and powers. Validation of this integrated insect dynamic flight simulator is achieved by comparisons of aerodynamic force-production with measurements in terms of the time-varying and mean lift and drag forces. Results for three typical insect hovering flights (hawkmoth, honeybee and fruitfly) over a wide rang of Reynolds numbers from O(10 2) to O(10 4) demonstrate its feasibility in accurately modeling and quantitatively evaluating the unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms in insect flapping flight.

  10. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ? 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

  11. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2010-11-01

    Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.

  12. Status and prospects of computational fluid dynamics for unsteady transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.; Kutler, P.; Bridgman, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Applications of computational aerodynamics to aeronautical research, design, and analysis have increased rapidly over the past decade, and these applications offer significant benefits to aeroelasticians. The past developments are traced by means of a number of specific examples, and the trends are projected over the next several years. The crucial factors that limit the present capabilities for unsteady analyses are identified; they include computer speed and memory, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, turbulence modeling, vortex modeling, data processing, and coupling of the aerodynamic and structural dynamic analyses. The prospects for overcoming these limitations are presented, and many improvements appear to be readily attainable. If so, a complete and reliable numerical simulation of the unsteady, transonic viscous flow around a realistic fighter aircraft configuration could become possible within the next decade. The possibilities of using artificial intelligence concepts to hasten the achievement of this goal are also discussed.

  13. Status and prospects of computational fluid dynamics for unsteady transonic viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.; Kutler, P.; Bridgeman, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of computational aerodynamics to aeronautical research, design, and analysis have increased rapidly over the past decade, and these applications offer significant benefits to aeroelasticians. The past developments are traced by means of a number of specific examples, and the trends are projected over the next several years. The crucial factors that limit the present capabilities for unsteady analyses are identified; they include computer speed and memory, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, turbulence modeling, vortex modeling, data processing, and coupling of the aerodynamic and structural dynamic analyses. The prospects for overcoming these limitations are presented, and many improvements appear to be readily attainable. If so, a complete and reliable numerical simulation of the unsteady, transonic viscous flow around a realistic fighter aircraft configuration could become possible within the next decade. The possibilities of using artificial intelligence concepts to hasten the achievement of this goal are also discussed.

  14. Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. III - Frequency dependence and indicial response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Hui and Tobak applied the complete unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory to the study of dynamic stability of oscillating aerofoils and bodies in revolution. The present article extends the results to general frequencies that may be applicable to flutter analysis. The results are likewise applied to the indicial response fluctuations in unsteady flow at very high Mach numbers. The study shows that for a group of body shapes in Newtonian flow (including the cone and wedge), the aerodynamic response to a step change in angle of attack or pitching velocity contains an initial-instant impulse followed by a rapid adjustment to the new steady-flow conditions. The impulse component is in effect an apparent mass term analogous to that which occurs initially in the aerodynamic indicial response at the zero Mach number limit.

  15. Unsteady Adjoint Approach for Design Optimization of Flapping Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Byung Joon; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the work for optimizing the propulsive efficiency of flapping airfoils, i.e., improving the thrust under constraining aerodynamic work during the flapping flights by changing their shape and trajectory of motion with the unsteady discrete adjoint approach. For unsteady problems, it is essential to properly resolving time scales of motion under consideration and it must be compatible with the objective sought after. We include both the instantaneous and time-averaged (periodic) formulations in this study. For the design optimization with shape parameters or motion parameters, the time-averaged objective function is found to be more useful, while the instantaneous one is more suitable for flow control. The instantaneous objective function is operationally straightforward. On the other hand, the time-averaged objective function requires additional steps in the adjoint approach; the unsteady discrete adjoint equations for a periodic flow must be reformulated and the corresponding system of equations solved iteratively. We compare the design results from shape and trajectory optimizations and investigate the physical relevance of design variables to the flapping motion at on- and off-design conditions.

  16. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

    2000-01-01

    Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

  17. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  18. Unsteady adjoint of pressure loss for a fundamental transonic turbine vane

    E-print Network

    Talnikar, Chaitanya; Laskowski, Gregory M

    2015-01-01

    High fidelity simulations, e.g., large eddy simulation are often needed for accurately predicting pressure losses due to wake mixing in turbomachinery applications. An unsteady adjoint of such high fidelity simulations is useful for design optimization in these aerodynamic applications. In this paper we present unsteady adjoint solutions using a large eddy simulation model for a vane from VKI using aerothermal objectives. The unsteady adjoint method is effective in capturing the gradient for a short time interval aerothermal objective, whereas the method provides diverging gradients for long time-averaged thermal objectives. As the boundary layer on the suction side near the trailing edge of the vane is turbulent, it poses a challenge for the adjoint solver. The chaotic dynamics cause the adjoint solution to diverge exponentially from the trailing edge region when solved backwards in time. This results in the corruption of the sensitivities obtained from the adjoint solutions. An energy analysis of the unstea...

  19. Recent advances in simulating unsteady flow phenomena brought about by passage of shock waves in a linear turbine cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Collie, J.C.; Moses, H.L.; Schetz, J.A. ); Gregory, B.A. . Turbine Aero and Cooling Technology)

    1993-10-01

    High-pressure-ratio turbines have flows dominated by shock structures that pass downstream into the next blade row in an unsteady fashion. Recent numerical results have indicated that these unsteady shocks may significantly affect the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of turbine blading. High cost and limited accessibility of turbine rotating equipment severely restrict the quantitative evaluation of the unsteady flow field in that environment. Recently published results of the Virginia Tech transonic cascade facility indicate high integrity in simulation of the steady state flow phenomena. The facility has recently been modified to study the unsteady effects of passing shock waves. Shock waves are generated by a shotgun blast upstream of the blade row. Shadowgraph photos and high-response pressure data are compared to previously published experimental and numerically predicted results. Plots are included that indicate large fluctuations in estimated blade lift and cascade loss.

  20. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform

    E-print Network

    Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2014-01-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

  1. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10th, Palo Alto, CA, June 22-24, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1 AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.

  2. An experimental study of airfoil-spoiler aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Karamcheti, K.

    1985-01-01

    The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.

  3. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  4. System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

  5. The acoustics and unsteady wall pressure of a circulation control airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Jonathan C.

    A Circulation Control (CC) airfoil uses a wall jet exiting onto a rounded trailing edge to generate lift via the Coanda effect. The aerodynamics of the CC airfoil have been studied extensively. The acoustics of the airfoil are, however, much less understood. The primary goal of the present work was to study the radiated sound and unsteady surface pressures of a CC airfoil. The focus of this work can be divided up into three main categories: characterizing the unsteady surface pressures, characterizing the radiated sound, and understanding the acoustics from surface pressures. The present work is the first to present the unsteady surface pressures from the trailing edge cylinder of a circulation control airfoil. The auto-spectral density of the unsteady surface pressures at various locations around the trailing edge are presented over a wide range of the jets momentum coefficient. Coherence of pressure and length scales were computed and presented. Single microphone measurements were made at a range of angles for a fixed observer distance in the far field. Spectra are presented for select angles to show the directivity of the airfoil's radiated sound. Predictions of the acoustics were made from unsteady surface pressures via Howe's curvature noise model and a modified Curle's analogy. A summary of the current understanding of the acoustics from a CC airfoil is given along with suggestions for future work.

  6. Spatial Characteristics of the Unsteady Differential Pressures on 16 percent F/A-18 Vertical Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Ashley, Holt

    1998-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.

  7. The influence of the parameters of motion of an aerodynamic model on the accuracy of damping moment determination in a ballistic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobashev, S. V.; Podlaskin, A. B.; Popov, P. A.; Sakharov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of the amplitude of oscillations and initial velocity of a model on the error of determination of the aerodynamic damping moment has been studied by a method based on solving the inverse ballistic problem. Confidence intervals of the damping moment determined for various model parameters and the variance of linear coordinates are compared using the algorithm of identification of the aerodynamic characteristics of objects. An approach to estimation of the accuracy of obtained information during the planning of ballistic investigations is demonstrated.

  8. Unsteady flow in oscillating turbine cascades. Part 2: Computational study

    SciTech Connect

    He, L.

    1998-04-01

    Unsteady flow around a linear oscillating turbine cascade has been experimentally and computationally studied, aimed at understanding the bubble type of flow separation and examining the predictive ability of a computational method. It was also intended to check the validity of the linear assumption under an unsteady viscous flow condition. Part 2 of the paper presents a computational study of the experimental turbine cascade that was discussed in Part 1. Numerical calculations were carried out for this case using an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver. The Baldwin-Lomax mixing length model was adopted for turbulence closure. The boundary layers on blade surfaces were either assumed to be fully turbulent or transitional with the unsteady transition subject to a quasi-steady laminar separation bubble model. The comparison between the computations and the experiment was generally quite satisfactory, except in the regions with the flow separation. It was shown that the behavior of the short bubble on the suction surface could be reasonably accounted for by using the quasi-steady bubble transition model. The calculation also showed that there was a more apparent mesh dependence of the results in the regions of flow separation. Two different kinds of numerical test were carried out to check the linearity of the unsteady flow and therefore the validity of the influence coefficient method. First, calculations using the same configurations as in the experiment were performed with different oscillating amplitudes. Second, calculations were performed with a tuned cascade model and the results were compared with those using the influence coefficient method. The present work showed that the nonlinear effect was quite small, even though for the most severe case in which the separated flow region covered about 60% of blade pressure surface with a large movement of the reattachment point. It seemed to suggest that the linear assumption about the unsteady flow behavior should be adequately acceptable for situations with bubble-type flow separation similar to the present case.

  9. Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.

  10. APPLIED AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics is an applied science to learn

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    APPLIED AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics is an applied science to learn: · External flow: the prediction. - Aerodynamic heating of space vehicle, reentry of the space shuttle. · Internal flow: determine flow moving generator. - Exhaust nozzles and thrust of propulsion Aerodynamics(W1_1_1) #12;Definition of Fluid

  11. Introduction to AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics is an applied science to learn

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Introduction to AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics is an applied science to learn: · External flow: the prediction of forces and moments on, and heat transfer to, bodies moving through a fluid. - Aerodynamic, submarines, torpedoes, swimmers. - Aerodynamic heating of space vehicle, reentry of the space shuttle

  12. Aerodynamic applications of infrared thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.

    1989-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel experiments were conducted as part of a systematic study for evaluation of infrared thermography as a viable non-intrusive thermal measurement technique for aerodynamic applications. The experiments consisted of obtaining steady-state surface temperature and convective heat transfer rates for a uniformly heated cylinder in transverse flow with a Reynolds number range of 46,000 to 250,000. The calculated convective heat transfer rates were in general agreement with classical data. Furthermore, IR thermography provided valuable real-time fluid dynamic information such as visualization of flow separation, transition and vortices.

  13. A finite-difference approximate-factorization algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A time-accurate approximate-factorization (AF) algorithm is described for solution of the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm consists of a time-linearization procedure coupled with a subiteration technique. The algorithm is the basis for the Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance (CAP-TSD) computer code, which was developed for the analysis of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of realistic aircraft configurations. The paper describes details on the governing flow equations and boundary conditions, with an emphasis on documenting the finite-difference formulas of the AF algorithm.

  14. Application of Reduced Order Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix for Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed, built, and tested at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The results from the full order model and the approximate reduced order model are analyzed and compared.

  15. Effects of leading and trailing edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil/vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Sankar, L. N.; Tadghighi, H.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical procedure based on the unsteady 2D full potential equation is presently used to simulate the effects of leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil-vortex interactions. Attention is given to unsteady flap-motion effects, which alleviate those interactions at sub- and supercritical onset flows. For subcritical interactions, the results obtained indicate that trailing-edge flaps can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil; for supercritical interactions, a leading- rather than trailing-edge flap must be used to alleviate the interaction.

  16. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  17. Inviscid analysis of unsteady blade tip flow correlation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. M.; Maskew, B.

    1985-01-01

    Two computer programs, VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H, were used for computing the unsteady subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrarily shaped wings oscillating in pitch. Program VSAERO-TS is a time-stepping analysis capable of treating large amplitude motions while program VSAERO-H uses harmonic wake and small amplitude assumptions. A comparison between the computed (VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H) and DFVLR test results for chordwise pressure distributions for rectangular, swept, taper and ogee blade tips is presented in this report. A wide range of angles of attack (mean) from 0 to 12 deg and reduced frequencies of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 are covered in this report. Also, the comparison includes several spanwise stations.

  18. Viscous effect on airfoils for unsteady transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The viscous effect on aerodynamic performance of an arbitrary airfoil executing low frequency maneuvers during transonic flight was investigated. The small disturbance code, LTRAN2, was modified by using a conventional integral method, BLAYER, for the boundary layer and an empirical relation, viscous wedge, for simulating the suddenly thickened boundary layer behind the shock. Before the shock, only the boundary layer displacement thickness was evaluated. After the shock, the empirical wedge thickness was superimposed on the boundary layer thickness along the surface as well as in the wake region. The pressure coefficients were calculated for both steady and unsteady states. The viscous solution takes fewer iterations to obtain the converged steady state solution. Comparisons made with experimental data and the inviscid solution show that the viscous solution agrees better with the experimental data with about the same (or slightly less) amount of computational time.

  19. Unsteady Lift Response and Energy Extraction in Gusting Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeesoon; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with streamwise (surging) and transverse (plunging) oscillating motions are studied to understand the dynamic response to gusts and the potential for energy extraction. We focus on 2D thin airfoils at low sub- and super-critical Reynolds number so that the role of wake instability can be isolated. Simulations are performed in a large parameter space of angle of attack, reduced frequency, and oscillation amplitude. At low angle of attack, the magnitude and phase of the fluctuating lift are in reasonable agreement with classical theory at all reduced frequencies. In this case, the quasi-steady force is modified by contributions from shed vorticity at the trailing edge and added-mass at high reduced frequency. At high angle of attack, the fluctuating forces are found to be enhanced or attenuated by a leading-edge vortex, depending on the reduced frequency. Resonance with the wake instability is also investigated.

  20. Investigation of unsteady flow in axial turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Tomáš; N?mec, Martin

    2012-04-01

    The never ending process to increase the efficiency of turbine stages introduced an idea to create an axial turbine stage test rig as part of closed loop transonic wind tunnel at Vyzkumny a zkusebni letecky ustav (VZLU). Studying of unsteady flow field behaviours in turbine stages is nowadays essential in the development process. Therefore, the test rig was designed with focusing on possibility of detailed studying of unsteady flow fields in turbine stages. New methodologies and new instrumentations were developed at VZLU and successfully integrated to gain valuable information from experiments with turbine stages. Two different turbine stages were tested during the facility introduction process. The measurement of these two models demonstrated how flexible the test rig is. One of them was an enlarged model of small gas turbine stage. The other was scaled-down model of stage of intermediate-pressure steam turbine. The external characteristics of both models were acquired during experiments as well as the detailed unsteady flow field measurement. Turbine stages were tested in various regimes in order to check the capabilities of the facility, methodology and instrumentation together. The paper presents results of unsteady flow field investigation in the enlarged turbine stage with unshrouded rotor. The interaction of structures developed in a stator with the rotor flow field is depicted and the influence of turbine load on evolution of secondary flows in rotor is analysed.

  1. Experimental evaluation of a flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Han, Jae-Hung

    2008-03-01

    In the preliminary design phase of the bio-inspired flapping-wing MAV (micro air vehicle), it is necessary to predict the aerodynamic forces around the flapping-wing under flapping-wing motion at cruising flight. In this study, the efficient quasi-steady flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV application is explained and it is experimentally verified. The flapping-wing motion is decoupled to the plunging and pitching motion, and the plunging-pitching motion generator with load cell assembly is developed. The compensation of inertial forces from the measured lift and thrust is studied to measure the pure aerodynamic loads on the flapping-wing. Advanced ratio is introduced to evaluate the unsteadiness of the flow and to make an application range of flapping-wing aerodynamic model.

  2. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  3. A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.

  4. WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    1 WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES J. J. Miau*1 were carried out to study the aerodynamic performance of three vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs-stream turbulence intensity, at two tip speed ratios. Keywords: wind-tunnel experiment, VAWT, aerodynamic

  5. The effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on turbomachinery flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Kivanc; Kielb, Robert E.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on the flutter characteristics of turbomachinery blades is investigated. Specifically, the present method is used to study the effect of leading edge blending in loaded and unloaded rotors. The unsteady aerodynamic response of the blades to self-excited vibrations is modeled using a harmonic balance method, which allows one to model the entire wheel using complex periodic boundary conditions and a computational grid spanning a single sector (symmetry group). This reduces the computational and memory requirements dramatically compared to similar time-accurate analyses. It is shown that alternate blending degrades the stability of a loaded rotor whereas it improves the stability of an unloaded rotor. On the other hand, when blends are spaced five blades apart their effect is less pronounced.

  6. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.

    1983-09-01

    The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

  7. Investigation of the unsteady pressure distribution on the blade of an axial flow fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A major source of the noise generated by high bypass ratio aircraft fan engines is the unsteady pressures (forces and moments) acting on the fan blades. These unsteady pressures are the result of the interaction of the blades with the wakes of upstream blade rows, inlet flow distortions, and inlet turbulence. An experimental system was developed which will permit the measurement of the unsteady pressure distributions; a series of experiments were conducted to investigate these effects, and the results are compared with predictions from existing theoretical analyses.

  8. MODELING STRATEGIES FOR UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOWS IN THE LOWER PLENUM OF THE VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2006-09-01

    Validation simulations are presented for turbulent flow in a staggered tube bank, geometry similar to that in the lower plenum of a block very high temperature reactor. Steady 2D RANS predictions are compared to unsteady 2D RANS results and experiment. The unsteady calculations account for the fact that nonturbulent fluctuations (due to vortex-shedding) are present in the flow. The unsteady computations are shown to predict the mean variables and the total shear stress quite well. Previous workers have presented results that indicated that 3D simulations were necessary to obtain reasonable results. Best practices are based on requirements for the ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering.

  9. The predicted effect of aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of motion together with the unsteady aerodynamic loading. The effect of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.

  10. Numerical simulation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena induced by passing manoeuvres

    E-print Network

    Uystepruyst, David

    2015-01-01

    Several three-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations of the passing generic vehicles (Ahmed bodies) are presented. The relative motion of vehicles was obtained using a combination of deforming and sliding computational grids. The vehicle studied is an Ahmed body with an angle of the rear end slanted surface of $30^{\\circ}$. Several different relative velocities and transversal distances between vehicles were studied. The aerodynamic influence of the passage on the overtaken vehicle was studied. The results of the simulations were found to agree well with the existing experimental data. Numerical results were used to explain effects of the overtaking manoeuvre on the main aerodynamic coefficients.

  11. An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi

    2011-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 < Str < 0.4 used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.

  12. Physics of Forced Unsteady Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Lawrence W. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in April 1990. This workshop was jointly organized by NASA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Army Research Office (ARO), and was directed toward improved understanding of the physical processes that cause unsteady separation to occur. The proceedings contain the written contributions for the workshop, and include selected viewgraphs used in the various presentations.

  13. On the Physics of Flow Separation Along a Low Pressure Turbine Blade Under Unsteady Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schobeiri, Meinhard T.; Ozturk, Burak; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed at Texas A&M Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory using a large-scale unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. To account for a high flow deflection of LPT-cascades at design and off-design operating points, the entire wake generator and test section unit including the traversing system is designed to allow a precise angle adjustment of the cascade relative to the incoming flow. This is done by a hydraulic platform, which simultaneously lifts and rotates the wake generator and test section unit. The unit is then attached to the tunnel exit nozzle with an angular accuracy of better than 0.05 , which is measured electronically. Utilizing a Reynolds number of 110,000 based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, one steady and two different unsteady inlet flowconditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities and turbulence intensities are investigated using hot-wire anemometry. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re=50,000, 75,000, 100,000, and 125,000 at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extent of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms contribute to understanding the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow. Several physical mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Calculation of steady and unsteady pressures on wings at supersonic speeds with a transonic small disturbance code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Bland, Samuel R.; Batina, John T.; Gibbons, Michael D.; Mabey, Dennis G.

    1987-01-01

    A transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelasticity code has been developed for application to realistic aircraft configurations. The new code is called CAP-TSD which is an acronym for Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance. The CAP-TSD code uses a time-accurate approximate factorization algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation that is efficient for solution of steady and unsteady transonic flow problems including supersonic freestream flows. The new code can treat complete aircraft geometries with multiple lifting surfaces and bodies. Applications to wings in supersonic freestream flow are presented. Comparisons with selected exact solutions from linear theory are presented showing generally favorable results. Calculations for both steady and oscillatory cases for the F-5 and RAE tailplane models are compared with experimental data and also show good overall agreement. Selected steady calculations are further compared with a steady flow Euler code.

  15. Separated flow over bodies of revolution using an unsteady discrete-vorticity cross wake. Part 2: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The computer was used to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separated regions and wake vortex patterns are determined. The computer program developed to perform the numerical calculations is described.

  16. Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer

    The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the significant quieting of modern engines, airframe noise now competes with engine noise. Optimal control techniques for unsteady flows are needed in order to be able to reduce airframe-generated noise. In this thesis, a general framework is formulated to calculate the gradient of a cost function in a nonlinear unsteady flow environment via the discrete adjoint method. The unsteady optimization algorithm developed in this work utilizes a Newton-Krylov approach since the gradient-based optimizer uses the quasi-Newton method BFGS, Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear flow problem, GMRES is used to solve the resulting linear problem inexactly, and last but not least the linear adjoint problem is solved using Bi-CGSTAB. The flow is governed by the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized using structured grids and a finite difference approach. The effectiveness of the unsteady optimization algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to several problems of interest including shocktubes, pulses in converging-diverging nozzles, rotating cylinders, transonic buffeting, and an unsteady trailing-edge flow. In order to address radiated far-field noise, an acoustic wave propagation program based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation is implemented and validated. The general framework is then used to derive the adjoint equations for a novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm in order to be able to optimize the shape of airfoils based on their calculated far-field pressure fluctuations. Validation and application results for this novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm show that it is possible to optimize the shape of an airfoil in an unsteady flow environment to minimize its radiated far-field noise while maintaining good aerodynamic performance.

  17. Model Structures and Algorithms for Identification of Aerodynamic Models for Flight Dynamics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.

  18. An integrated study of structures, aerodynamics and controls on the forward swept wing X-29A and the oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.

  19. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  20. Tactical missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J. (editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.

  1. Nonlinear Aerodynamics of Bodies in Coning Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, Lewis B.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical method for computing the nonlinear inviscid flowfield surrounding a body performing coning motion is described. The method permits accurate computation of the aerodynamic moment due to one of the four motions characterizing an arbitrary nonplanar motion. Results of computations for a slender circular cone in coning motion are presented, and show good agreement with experiment for angles of attack up to twice the cone half-angle. The computational results display significant departure of the side moment from the linear theory value with increasing angle of attack, but agree well with experimental measurements. This indicates that the initial nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamic moment is determined primarily by the inviscid flow.

  2. Computational analysis of high resolution unsteady airloads for rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C.-M. Gordon; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    The study of helicopter aerodynamic loading for acoustics applications requires the application of efficient yet accurate simulations of the velocity field induced by the rotor's vortex wake. This report summarizes work to date on the development of such an analysis, which builds on the Constant Vorticity Contour (CVC) free wake model, previously implemented for the study of vibratory loading in the RotorCRAFT computer code. The present effort has focused on implementation of an airload reconstruction approach that computes high resolution airload solutions of rotor/rotor-wake interactions required for acoustics computations. Supplementary efforts on the development of improved vortex core modeling, unsteady aerodynamic effects, higher spatial resolution of rotor loading, and fast vortex wake implementations have substantially enhanced the capabilities of the resulting software, denoted RotorCRAFT/AA (AeroAcoustics). Results of validation calculations using recently acquired model rotor data show that by employing airload reconstruction it is possible to apply the CVC wake analysis with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustics applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to that required by direct calculations. Promising correlation with this body of airload and noise data has been obtained for a variety of rotor configurations and operating conditions.

  3. Methodology of Blade Unsteady Pressure Measurement in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Capece, V. R.; Jett, T. A.; Senyitko, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    In this report the methodology adopted to measure unsteady pressures on blade surfaces in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade under conditions of simulated blade flutter is described. The previous work done in this cascade reported that the oscillating cascade produced waves, which for some interblade phase angles reflected off the wind tunnel walls back into the cascade, interfered with the cascade unsteady aerodynamics, and contaminated the acquired data. To alleviate the problems with data contamination due to the back wall interference, a method of influence coefficients was selected for the future unsteady work in this cascade. In this approach only one blade in the cascade is oscillated at a time. The majority of the report is concerned with the experimental technique used and the experimental data generated in the facility. The report presents a list of all test conditions for the small amplitude of blade oscillations, and shows examples of some of the results achieved. The report does not discuss data analysis procedures like ensemble averaging, frequency analysis, and unsteady blade loading diagrams reconstructed using the influence coefficient method. Finally, the report presents the lessons learned from this phase of the experimental effort, and suggests the improvements and directions of the experimental work for tests to be carried out for large oscillation amplitudes.

  4. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model. Part 2; Unsteady Surface Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Danny H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present unsteady surface pressure measurements for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model. This high-fidelity model is being used to perform detailed studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear, flap components, and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aerodynamic segment of the tests, conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, was completed in November 2010. To discern the characteristics of the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the prominent noise sources, unsteady sensors were installed on the inboard and outboard flap edges, and on the main gear wheels, struts, and door. Various configurations were tested, including flap deflections of 0?, 20?, and 39?, with and without the main landing gear. The majority of unsteady surface pressure measurements were acquired for the nominal landing configuration where the main gear was deployed and the flap was deflected 39?. To assess the Mach number variation of the surface pressure amplitudes, measurements were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Comparison of the unsteady surface pressures with the main gear on and off shows significant interaction between the gear wake and the inboard flap edge, resulting in higher amplitude fluctuations when the gear is present.

  5. The Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.

  6. A collection of flow visualization techniques used in the Aerodynamic Research Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on unsteady aerodynamic flows is discussed. Complex flow fields that involve separations, vortex interactions, and transonic flow effects were investigated. Flow visualization techniques are used to obtain a global picture of the flow phenomena before detailed quantitative studies are undertaken. A wide variety of methods are used to visualize fluid flow and a sampling of these methods is presented. It is emphasized that the visualization technique is a thorough quantitative analysis and subsequent physical understanding of these flow fields.

  7. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  8. Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

    E-print Network

    Courtney, Elya R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by the experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The experiments reported here also demonstrate a decrease in aerodynamic drag near Sg = 1.23 +/- 0.02. It is hypothesized that this decrease in drag over a narrow band of Sg values is due to a rapid damping of coning motions (precession and nutation). Observation of this drag decrease at a consistent value of Sg demonstrates the relati...

  9. Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.

  10. APPLIED AERODYNAMICS I) Course goals

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    APPLIED AERODYNAMICS I) Course goals II) Textbook & Reference III) Course outline IV) Homework) Course goals #12;Textbook Anderson, J D Jr., "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics" 5th edition, McGraw-Hill Book/2003. #12;Course Outlines PART I: Fundamental Principle ·Introduction to Aerodynamics · Fundamental

  11. AIAA 20033498 Viscous Aerodynamic Shape

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    AIAA 2003­3498 Viscous Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Wings including Planform Variables Kasidit Aerodynamics Conference Orlando, Florida/June 23­26, 2003 For permission to copy or republish, contact­4344 #12;VISCOUS AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF WINGS INCLUDING PLANFORM VARIABLES Kasidit Leoviriyakit

  12. Control of flow separation and mixing by aerodynamic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Edward J.; Abbott, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent research in the control of shear flows using unsteady aerodynamic excitation conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. The program is of a fundamental nature, concentrating on the physics of the unsteady aerodynamic processes. This field of research is a fairly new development with great promise in the areas of enhanced mixing and flow separation control. Enhanced mixing research includes influence of core turbulence, forced pairing of coherent structures, and saturation of mixing enhancement. Separation flow control studies included are for a two-dimensional diffuser, conical diffusers, and single airfoils. Ultimate applications include aircraft engine inlet flow control at high angle of attack, wide angle diffusers, highly loaded airfoils as in turbomachinery, and ejector/suppressor nozzles for the supersonic transport. An argument involving the Coanda Effect is made that all of the above mentioned application areas really only involve forms of shear layer mixing enhancement. The program also includes the development of practical excitation devices which might be used in aircraft applications.

  13. Ray traces through unsteady jet turbulence

    E-print Network

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    Ray traces through unsteady jet turbulence J. B. Freund1 and T. G. Fleischman2 1Theoretical, ray paths traced through the mean flow are compared with those traced through the actual time evolving' 84 Ray traces through unsteady jet turbulence #12;Unfortunately, since (2) is nonlinear it must

  14. AIAA 20010529 Unsteady Flow Investigations in an

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    -averaged and unsteady flow physics present. The TFLO three-dimensional, multi-block, massively parallel turbomachinery computer systems to simulate the flow field in turbomachinery with fewer assumptions and simplifications of the unsteady and time- averaged flows in turbomachinery and to subsequent improvements in turbomachinery design

  15. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  16. Evaluation of Turbulence Models for Unsteady Flows of an Oscillating Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, G. R.; Ekaterinaris, J. A.; McCroskey, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    Unsteady flowfields of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil are calculated using an implicit, finite-difference, Navier Stokes numerical scheme. Five widely used turbulence models are used with the numerical scheme to assess the accuracy and suitability of the models for simulating the retreating blade stall of helicopter rotor in forward flight. Three unsteady flow conditions corresponding to an essentially attached flow, light-stall, and deep-stall cases of an oscillating NACA 0015 wing experiment were chosen as test cases for computations. Results of unsteady airloads hysteresis curves, harmonics of unsteady pressures, and instantaneous flowfield patterns are presented. Some effects of grid density, time-step size, and numerical dissipation on the unsteady solutions relevant to the evaluation of turbulence models are examined. Comparison of unsteady airloads with experimental data show that all models tested are deficient in some sense and no single model predicts airloads consistently and in agreement with experiment for the three flow regimes. The chief findings are that the simple algebraic model based on the renormalization group theory (RNG) offers some improvement over the Baldwin Lomax model in all flow regimes with nearly same computational cost. The one-equation models provide significant improvement over the algebraic and the half-equation models but have their own limitations. The Baldwin-Barth model overpredicts separation and underpredicts reattachment. In contrast, the Spalart-Allmaras model underpredicts separation and overpredicts reattachment.

  17. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le?niewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  18. New Acoustic and Aerodynamic Phenomena due to Non-Uniform Rotation of Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YIN, J. P.; AHMED, S. R.; DOBRZYNSKI, W.

    1999-08-01

    A study is reported of the influence of non-uniform rotation—which is inherent to piston engine driven propellers—on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of multi-blade propellers by numerical simulation. The combination of aerodynamic predictions with a 3-D unsteady free wake panel method and aeroacoustic predictions based on Farassat's Formulation 1A of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to achieve this goal. The numerical results show that non-uniform rotation has a significant influence on propeller aerodynamics and can lead to an increase in the generated noise. In case of a mismatch between the periodicity of the non-uniformity and the basic blade passage frequency, additional harmonics (“subharmonics”) are generated. For a periodicity coincidence, the effects are masked due to an overlapping of the frequencies. The level of such subharmonics may be high enough to increase the overall A-weighted noise. The azimuthal directivity of the of the propeller noise remains no longer axisymmetric, and changes to a wave-like harmonic variation. The number of undulations per revolution depends on the order of the non-uniformity and is not related to the number of propeller blades. The polar directivity pattern also changes substantially from that known for uniform rotation. A frequency domain analysis of the unsteady pressure distribution shows that the subharmonics perceived at a space-fixed location are not due to an aerodynamic or acoustic interaction but rather the consequence of a motion geometry or Doppler effect.

  19. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  20. Scale effect on unsteady cloud cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dular, M.; Khlifa, I.; Fuzier, S.; Adama Maiga, M.; Coutier-Delgosha, O.

    2012-11-01

    No experiment was conducted, yet, to investigate the scale effects on the dynamics of developed cavitating flow with periodical cloud shedding. The present study was motivated by the unclear results obtained from the experiments in a Venturi-type section that was scaled down 10 times for the purpose of measurements by ultra-fast X-ray imaging (Coutier-Delgosha et al. 2009). Cavitation in the original size scale section (Stutz and Reboud in Exp Fluids 23:191-198, 1997, Exp Fluids 29:545-552 2000) always displays unsteady cloud separation. However, when the geometry was scaled down, the cavitation became quasi steady although some oscillations still existed. To investigate this phenomenon more in detail, experiments were conducted in six geometrically similar Venturi test sections where either width or height or both were scaled. Various types of instabilities are obtained, from simple oscillations of the sheet cavity length to large vapor cloud shedding when the size of the test section is increased. It confirms that small scale has a significant influence on cavitation. Especially the height of the test section plays a major role in the dynamics of the re-entrant jet that drives the periodical shedding observed at large scale. Results suggest that the sheet cavity becomes stabile when the section is scaled down to a certain point because re-entrant jet cannot fully develop.

  1. Unsteady Full Annulus Simulations of a Transonic Axial Compressor Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Gregory P.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Two recent research endeavors in turbomachinery at NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on compression system stall inception and compression system aerothermodynamic performance. Physical experiment and computational research are ongoing in support of these research objectives. TURBO, an unsteady, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code commissioned and developed by NASA, has been utilized, enhanced, and validated in support of these endeavors. In the research which follows, TURBO is shown to accurately capture compression system flow range-from choke to stall inception-and also to accurately calculate fundamental aerothermodynamic performance parameters. Rigorous full-annulus calculations are performed to validate TURBO s ability to simulate the unstable, unsteady, chaotic stall inception process; as part of these efforts, full-annulus calculations are also performed at a condition approaching choke to further document TURBO s capabilities to compute aerothermodynamic performance data and support a NASA code assessment effort.

  2. Unsteady transonic potential flow over a flexible fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A flexible fuselage capability has been developed and implemented within version 1.2 of the CAP-TSD code. The capability required adding time dependent terms to the fuselage surface boundary conditions and the fuselage surface pressure coefficient. The new capability will allow modeling the effect of a flexible fuselage on the aeroelastic stability of complex configurations. To assess the flexible fuselage capability several steady and unsteady calculations have been performed for slender fuselages with circular cross-sections. Steady surface pressures are compared with experiment at transonic flight conditions. Unsteady cross-sectional lift is compared with other analytical results at a low subsonic speed and a transonic case has been computed. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the flexible fuselage modifications.

  3. Conservation-form equations of unsteady open-channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, C.; Baltzer, R.A.; Schaffranek, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The unsteady open-channel flow equations are typically expressed in a variety of forms due to the imposition of differing assumptions, use of varied dependent variables, and inclusion of different source/sink terms. Questions often arise as to whether a particular equation set is expressed in a form consistent with the conservation-law definition. The concept of conservation form is developed to clarify the meaning mathematically. Six sets of unsteady-flow equations typically used in engineering practice are presented and their conservation properties are identified and discussed. Results of the theoretical development and analysis of the equations are substantiated in a set of numerical experiments conducted using alternate equation forms. Findings of these analytical and numerical efforts demonstrate that the choice of dependent variable is the fundamental factor determining the nature of the conservation properties of any particular equation form.

  4. Steady and Unsteady Flow Effects of Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment in a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2011-01-01

    The current paper reports on an investigation of steady and unsteady flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment in a transonic compressor rotor. Circumferential grooves casing treatment is used mainly to increase stall margin in axial compressors with a relatively small decrease in aerodynamic efficiency. It is widely believed that flow mechanisms of circumferential grooves casing treatment near stall conditions are not yet well understood even though this treatment has been used widely in real engines. Numerical analysis based on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) has been the primary tool used to understand flow mechanism for circumferential grooves casing treatment. Although steady RANS explains some flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment, it does not calculate all the measured changes in the compressor characteristics. Therefore, design optimization of circumferential grooves with steady RANS has not been very successful. As a compressor operates toward the stall condition, the flow field becomes transient. Major sources of self-generated flow unsteadiness are shock oscillation and interaction between the passage shock and the tip leakage vortex. In the present paper, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is applied to study the effects of circumferential grooves in a transonic compressor. The results from URANS are compared with the results from RANS and measured data. The current investigation shows that there are significant unsteady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment. For the currently investigated rotor, the unsteady effects are of the same magnitude as the steady effects in terms of extending the compressor stall margin.

  5. Compendium of NASA Langley reports on hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabo, Frances E.; Cary, Aubrey M.; Lawson, Shirley W.

    1987-01-01

    Reference is made to papers published by the Langley Research Center in various areas of hypersonic aerodynamics for the period 1950 to 1986. The research work was performed either in-house by the Center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. Abstracts have been included with the references when available. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Aerodynamic Measurements - Single Shapes; (2) Aerodynamic Measurements - Configurations; (3) Aero-Heating; (4) Configuration Studies; (5) Propulsion Integration Experiment; (6) Propulsion Integration - Study; (7) Analysis Methods; (8) Test Techniques; and (9) Airframe Active Cooling Systems.

  6. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  7. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  8. Methodology for simulation of unsteady flows to determine the time-dependent interference between stationary and moving boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Kamakhya Prasad

    1995-01-01

    A new methodology is developed to simulate unsteady flows about prescribed and aerodynamically determined moving boundary problems. The method couples the fluid dynamics and rigid-body dynamics equations to capture the time-dependent interference between stationary and moving boundaries. The unsteady, compressible, inviscid (Euler) equations are solved on dynamic, unstructured grids by an explicit, finite-volume, upwind method. For efficiency, the grid adaptation is performed within a window around the moving object. The Eulerian equations of the rigid-body dynamics are solved by a Runge-Kutta method in a non-inertial frame of reference. The two-dimensional flow solver is validated by computing the flow past a sinusoidally-pitching airfoil and comparing these results with the experimental data. The overall methodology is used for two two-dimensional examples: the flow past an airfoil which is performing a three-degrees-of-freedom motion in a transonic freestream, and the free-fall of a store after separation from a wing-section. Then the unstructured mesh methodology is extended to three-dimensions to simulate unsteady flow past bodies in relative motion, where the trajectory is determined from the instantaneous aerodynamics. The flow solver and the adaptation scheme in three dimensions are validated by simulating the transonic, unsteady flow around a wing undergoing a forced, periodic, pitching motion, and comparing the results with the experimental data. To validate the trajectory code, the six-degrees-of-freedom motion of a store separating from a wing was computed using the experimentally determined force and moment fields, then comparing with an independently generated trajectory. Finally, the overall methodology was demonstrated by simulating the unsteady flowfield and the trajectory of a store dropped from a wing. The methodology, its computational cost notwithstanding, has proven to be accurate, automated, easy for dynamic gridding, and relatively efficient for the required man-hours.

  9. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  10. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  11. Blocked Grid Technologies as Applied to Aerodynamic Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopfer, Goetz; Tu, Eugene; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the blocked grid methodology are discussed using results from ENSAERO, CNS, and CNS-FV. The first two codes are based on finite differences and the last on cell-centered finite volume formulation. Techniques that enhance the utility of the blocked (or patched) grid methodology are described. These techniques include mesh discontinuous zonal interfaces, sliding zonal interfaces, fast search procedures, and virtual zones. All of these methods are designed with two goals; namely extend the use of patched grids to unsteady aerodynamics, e.g. oscillating control flaps, and provide the user more flexibility in the grid topologies available for gridding complex aerodynamic configurations. For example, the use of virtual zones allows the user the choice of using one grid topology for surface grids, and another for the volume grids. This additional flexibility has a large impact in the amount of calendar time required to block and grid a complex aerodynamic configuration. Several examples are shown demonstrating the new features. Other issues involving grid generation are also discussed. In particular the existing problems of defining grid quality measures which are relevant are also described.

  12. Unified Aeroacoustics Analysis for High Speed Turboprop Aerodynamics and Noise. Volume 1; Development of Theory for Blade Loading, Wakes, and Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.

  13. Aerodynamic database development of the ESA intermediate experimental vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe; Marino, Giuliano; Rufolo, Giuseppe C.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the aerodynamic database development of the Intermediate Experiment Vehicle. The aerodynamic analysis, carried out for the whole flight scenario, relies on computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel test, and engineering-based design data generated during the project phases, from rarefied flow conditions, to hypersonic continuum flow up to reach subsonic speeds regime. Therefore, the vehicle aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections foreseen for the vehicle nominal re-entry. In particular, the databasing activities are developed in the light of build-up approach. This means that all aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are provided by means of a linear summation over certain number of incremental contributions such as, for example, effect of sideslip angle, aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, etc. Each force and moment coefficient is treated separately and appropriate equation is provided, in which all the pertinent contributions for obtaining the total coefficient for any selected flight conditions appear. To this aim, all the available numerical and experimental aerodynamic data are gathered in order to explicit the functional dependencies from each aerodynamic model addend through polynomial expressions obtained with the least squares method. These polynomials are function of the primary variable that drives the phenomenon whereas secondary dependencies are introduced directly into its unknown coefficients which are determined by means of best-fitting algorithms.

  14. Aerodynamic measurements concerned with a turret model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out in the 14 by 14 ft Ames transonic wind tunnel on a turret model. The aerodynamic parameters measured were steady and unsteady pressures (static and total fluid pressures), local mean velocities, and local mean densities at selected locations along the optical beam path for the azimuth look angles of 90, 120, and 150 degrees from the turret. The test stream Mach numbers considered are 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75, and the Reynolds number per meter is in the range of 10 million. The results indicate that severe optical degradation can be expected at aft look azimuth, angles, this degradation in optical performance increases as the azimuth angle is increased. The ratio of rms static pressure to the local mean static pressure peaks in the range of 0.07 to 0.12 and the ratio of rms total pressure to the local mean total pressure peaks in the range of 0.02 to 0.04. These values depend on the Mach number and the aft look azimuth angle. The scale lengths obtained from correlation considerations are also presented.

  15. Aerodynamic loading distribution effects on the overall performance of ultra-high-lift LP turbine cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000aerodynamic performance of the blade cascades in terms of profile and secondary losses and the understanding of the effects of loading distribution and Zweifel number on secondary flows. When operating under unsteady inflow, contrarily to the steady case, the mid-loaded cascade has been found to be characterized by the lowest profile and secondary losses, making it the most attractive solution for the design of blades working in real conditions where unsteady inflow effects are present.

  16. Evaluation of unsteady pressure fields and forces in rotating airfoils from time-resolved PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, A.; Diez, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    The instantaneous pressure fields and aerodynamic loads are obtained for rotating airfoils from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. These allowed evaluating the contribution from the local acceleration (unsteady acceleration) to the instantaneous forces. Traditionally, this term has been neglected for wind turbines with quasi-steady flows, but results show that it is a dominant term in the wake where high temporal variations in the flow field are present due to vortex shedding. Briefly, time-resolved particle image velocimetry TR-PIV measurements are used to calculate flow velocity fields and corresponding spatial and temporal derivatives. These derivatives are then used in the Poisson equation to solve for the pressure field and later used in the integral momentum equation to solve for the instantaneous forces. The robustness of the measurements is analyzed by calculating the PIV uncertainty and the independence of the calculated forces. The experimental mean aerodynamic forces are compared with theoretical predictions from the blade element momentum theory showing good agreement. The instantaneous pressure field showed dependence with time in the wake due to vortex shedding. The contribution to the instantaneous forces from each term in the integral momentum equation is evaluated. The analysis shows that the larger contributions to the normal force coefficient are from the unsteady and the pressure terms, and the larger contribution to the tangential force coefficient is from the convective term.

  17. Unsteady propeller hydrodynamics by Dirk H. Renick.

    E-print Network

    Renick, Dirk Hampton, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    One of the main problem affecting modern propulsor design engineers is the ability to quantitatively predict unsteady propeller forces for modern, multi-blade row, ducted propulsors operating in highly contracting flowfields. ...

  18. Simulation Of Unsteady, Inviscid, Rotational, Transonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damodaran, Murali

    1992-01-01

    Report describes numerical simulation of two-dimensional, unsteady, inviscid rotational, transonic flow about rigid airfoil in such motions as pitching or plunging oscillations. Study demonstrates potential utility of computation in analyses of aeroelasticity of airfoils.

  19. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  20. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  1. The investigation of parachute fabric permeability under an unsteady pressure differential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondeau, Nichole C.

    An apparatus for assessing permeability of textiles subjected to time-varying pressure differentials is presented. A Computer Numerically Controlled Piston Permeability Apparatus (CNC-PPA) that can control the volume flow rate through a fabric has been designed and built. This test device has been developed in an effort to improve the understanding and design choices for aerodynamic decelerators. Preliminary results for a low permeability fabric (PIA-C-44378, Type IV) under both steady and unsteady loads are presented. The results from this investigation do indicate a small effect of unsteady pressure differential on the fabric permeability. The fabric permeability is slightly higher than the static permeability when the pressure differential is increasing with respect to time and the opposite is true when the pressure differential is decreasing. This change in permeability is more pronounced as the pressure is higher and the pressure changes more rapidly with respect to time, suggesting dynamic permeability likely affects highly unsteady phenomena such as parachute opening.

  2. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  3. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  4. Benefits of unsteady swimming near a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Dewey, Peter; Moored, Keith; Smits, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    The benefits of flying and swimming near the ground have been well-documented for fixed-wing vehicles, and have led to `wing-in-ground' craft (WIG) with higher efficiencies than their conventional counterparts. Here it is examined whether unsteady propulsion techniques experience these same enhancements. Experimental particle image velocimetry was conducted in the wake of a rigid pitching panel and a flexible triangular fin, both actuated at several distances from a fixed wall. In both cases, an increase in momentum flux behind the trailing edge was observed, suggesting thrust amplification is present. A finite core vortex array model was developed to model the wake behind these propulsors. Mirror image vortex cores were placed across the wall to satisfy the zero flux boundary condition, and the effects of viscosity were estimated by assuming a slowly expanding Gaussian distribution of vorticity around each core. The model offers insight into the origins of the momentum amplification due to the presence of the wall. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  5. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 8th, Portland, OR, Aug. 20-22, 1990, Technical Papers. Parts 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in CFD methods and their validation, vortices and vortical flows, STOL/VSTOL aerodynamics, boundary layer transition and separation, wing airfoil aerodynamics, laminar flow, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, CFD for wing airfoil and nacelle applications, wind tunnel testing, flight testing, missile aerodynamics, unsteady flow, configuration aerodynamics, and multiple body/interference flows. Attention is given to the numerical simulation of vortical flows over close-coupled canard-wing configuration, propulsive lift augmentation by side fences, road-vehicle aerodynamics, a shock-capturing method for multidimensional flow, transition-detection studies in a cryogenic environment, a three-dimensional Euler analysis of ducted propfan flowfields, multiple vortex and shock interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds, and a Navier-Stokes simulation of waverider flowfields. Also discussed are the induced drag of crescent-shaped wings, the preliminary design aerodynamics of missile inlets, finite wing lift prediction at high angles-of-attack, optimal supersonic/hypersonic bodies, and adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional Euler equations.

  6. Ground/Flight Correlation of Aerodynamic Loads with Structural Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Davis, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Ground and flight tests provide a basis and methodology for in-flight characterization of the aerodynamic and structural performance through the monitoring of the fluid-structure interaction. The NF-15B flight tests of the Intelligent Flight Control System program provided a unique opportunity to test the correlation of aerodynamic loads with points of flow attaching and detaching from the surface, which are also known as flow bifurcation points, as observed in a previous wind tunnel test performed at the U.S. Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado). Moreover, flight tests, along with the subsequent unsteady aerodynamic tests in the NASA Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), provide a basis using surface flow sensors as means of assessing the aeroelastic performance of flight vehicles. For the flight tests, the NF-15B tail was instrumented with hot-film sensors and strain gages for measuring root-bending strains. This data were gathered via selected sideslip maneuvers performed at level flight and subsonic speeds. The aerodynamic loads generated by the sideslip maneuver resulted in a structural response, which were then compared with the hot-film sensor signals. The hot-film sensor signals near the stagnation region were found to be highly correlated with the root-bending strains. For the TDT tests, a flexible wing section developed under the U.S. Air Force Research Lab SensorCraft program was instrumented with strain gages, accelerometers, and hot-film sensors at two span stations. The TDT tests confirmed the correlation between flow bifurcation points and the wing structural response to tunnel-generated gusts. Furthermore, as the wings structural modes were excited by the gusts, a gradual phase change between the flow bifurcation point and the structural mode occurred during a resonant condition.

  7. Effect of Geometric Uncertainties on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Benedikt; Schmitt, Henning; Seume, Jörg R.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore wind turbines operate in a complex unsteady flow environment which causes unsteady aerodynamic loads. The unsteady flow environment is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, geometry variations and material imperfections also cause uncertainties in the design process. Probabilistic design methods consider these uncertainties in order to reach acceptable reliability and safety levels for offshore wind turbines. Variations of the rotor blade geometry influence the aerodynamic loads which also affect the reliability of other wind turbine components. Therefore, the present paper is dealing with geometric uncertainties of the rotor blades. These can arise from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear of the blades. First, the effect of geometry variations of wind turbine airfoils on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated using a Latin hypercube sampling. Then, the resulting effects on the performance and the blade loads of an offshore wind turbine are analyzed. The variations of the airfoil geometry lead to a significant scatter of the lift and drag coefficients which also affects the damage-equivalent flapwise bending moments. In contrast to that, the effects on the power and the annual energy production are almost negligible with regard to the assumptions made.

  8. AIAA 20030185 Aerodynamically Controlled Expansion

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    AIAA 2003­0185 Aerodynamically Controlled Expansion Nozzle for STOVL Aircraft D.A. Terrier Lockheed Controlled Expansion Nozzle for STOVL Aircraft Douglas A. Terrier* Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort An aerodynamically controlled expansion propulsion nozzle that improves hover thrust performance by 2.5 percent

  9. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  10. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  11. Research trends in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Glassman, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Brief description of some of the recent trends in turbine aerodynamics research. Areas covered include cooled turbine aerodynamics, high work-factor turbines, pneumatic variable geometry, and computer analysis. Most of this research is shown to have been directed primarily toward allowing the turbine to accept efficiently higher inlet temperatures and blade loading.

  12. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOAR\\CR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This document is the final report describing the theoretical basis and analytical results from the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR Program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  13. Optimal unsteady convection over a duty cycle for arbitrary unsteady flow under dynamic thermal load

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    systems Pulsating flow Transient Optimal frequency APEEM a b s t r a c t Developing next generation- cles (EV), and emerging fuel cell vehicles (FCV) [1,2] and green power systems (wind, solar, tidal) [3Optimal unsteady convection over a duty cycle for arbitrary unsteady flow under dynamic thermal

  14. Unsteady thermocapillary migration of bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Loren H.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    1988-01-01

    Upon the introduction of a gas bubble into a liquid possessing a uniform thermal gradient, an unsteady thermo-capillary flow begins. Ultimately, the bubble attains a constant velocity. This theoretical analysis focuses upon the transient period for a bubble in a microgravity environment and is restricted to situations wherein the flow is sufficiently slow such that inertial terms in the Navier-Stokes equation and convective terms in the energy equation may be safely neglected (i.e., both Reynolds and Marangoni numbers are small). The resulting linear equations were solved analytically in the Laplace domain with the Prandtl number of the liquid as a parameter; inversion was accomplished numerically using a standard IMSL routine. In the asymptotic long-time limit, the theory agrees with the steady-state theory of Young, Goldstein, and Block. The theory predicts that more than 90 percent of the terminal steady velocity is achieved when the smallest dimensionless time, i.e., the one based upon the largest time scale-viscous or thermal-equals unity.

  15. Jamming, Friction and Unsteady Rheology

    E-print Network

    Mark O. Robbins

    1999-12-17

    The connection between friction and jamming in granular media, molecular glasses, and complex fluids is explored. The paper first reviews the way friction is measured, the types of results that are observed, and what is known about the geometry of contacts between macroscopic surfaces. Then simple models for the origin of static friction are described. These are unable to explain the universal observation of static friction between macroscopic objects. The effects of surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity are discussed, and shown to yield exponentially weak static friction in our three dimensional world. In contrast, jamming of the "third bodies" that are present between most surfaces is shown to produce static friction that is consistent with macroscopic measurements. Experimental and simulation studies of jamming of molecularly thin fluid films are described and compared to studies of bulk glass transitions. The paper concludes by considering the unsteady stick-slip motion that often arises when systems become unjammed by sufficiently large stress. Different types of stick-slip motion are identified, and some of its origins are explored.

  16. Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.

  17. Aerodynamic design manual for tactical weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L. A.; Devan, L.; Moore, F. G.; McMillan, D.

    1981-07-01

    The Naval Surface Weapons Center Aeroprediction Code has been extensively applied to the prediction of static and dynamic aerodynamics of missile configurations. Major extensions have recently been made to the Code, extending its capability to 0 less than or equal to M (infinity) less than or equal to 8 and 0 degrees less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 180 degrees and improving the transonic and dynamic derivative predictions. The theoretical basis for the Code is reviewed. The Code is evaluated through comparisons of computational examples with experiment for body alone, body-tail, and body-tail-canard configurations. The speed and accuracy of the Code is ideal for use in preliminary design. Representative design charts (generated by the use of the Code) for both the static and dynamic aerodynamic coefficients of a wide variety of configuration components are included. The charts will aid the designer in making preliminary design estimates or for data comparisons.

  18. Modeling Unsteady Cavitation and Dynamic Loads in Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald; Dash, Sanford M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes representations of effects of unsteady cavitation and associated dynamic loads has been developed to increase the accuracy of simulations of the performances of turbopumps. Although the model was originally intended to serve as a means of analyzing preliminary designs of turbopumps that supply cryogenic propellant liquids to rocket engines, the model could also be applied to turbopumping of other liquids: this can be considered to have been already demonstrated, in that the validation of the model was performed by comparing results of simulations performed by use of the model with results of sub-scale experiments in water. The need for this or a similar model arises as follows: Cavitation instabilities in a turbopump are generated as inlet pressure drops and vapor cavities grow on inducer blades, eventually becoming unsteady. The unsteady vapor cavities lead to rotation cavitation, in which the cavities detach from the blades and become part of a fluid mass that rotates relative to the inducer, thereby generating a fluctuating load. Other instabilities (e.g., surge instabilities) can couple with cavitation instabilities, thereby compounding the deleterious effects of unsteadiness on other components of the fluid-handling system of which the turbopump is a part and thereby, further, adversely affecting the mechanical integrity and safety of the system. Therefore, an ability to predict cavitation- instability-induced dynamic pressure loads on the blades, the shaft, and other pump parts would be valuable in helping to quantify safe margins of inducer operation and in contributing to understanding of design compromises. Prior CFD models do not afford this ability. Heretofore, the primary parameter used in quantifying cavitation performance of a turbopump inducer has been the critical suction specific speed at which head breakdown occurs. This parameter is a mean quantity calculated on the basis of assumed steady-state operation of the inducer; it does not account for dynamic pressure loads associated with unsteady flow caused by instabilities. Because cavitation instabilities occur well before mean breakdown in inducers, engineers have, until now, found it necessary to use conservative factors of safety when analyzing the results of numerical simulations of flows in turbopumps.

  19. Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat

    1990-01-01

    The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.

  20. Definition of the unsteady vortex flow over a wing/body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, S. G.; Debry, B.; Lenakos, J.; Caplin, J.; Komerath, N. M.

    1991-01-01

    A problem of current interest in computational aerodynamics is the prediction of unsteady vortex flows over aircraft at high angles of attack. A six-month experimental effort was conducted at the John H. Harper Wind Tunnel to acquire qualitative and quantitative information on the unsteady vortex flow over a generic wing-body configuration at high angles of attack. A double-delta flat-plate wing with beveled edges was combined with a slender sharp-nosed body-of-revolution fuselage to form the generic configuration. This configuration produces a strong attached leading edge vortex on the wing, as well as sharply-peaked flow velocity spectra above the wing. While it thus produces flows with several well-defined features of current interest, the model was designed for efficiency of representation in computational codes. A moderate number of surface pressure ports and two unsteady pressure sensors were used to study the pressure distribution over the wing and body surface at high angles of attack; the unsteady pressure sensing did not succeed because of inadequate signal-to-noise ratio. A pulsed copper vapor laser sheet was used to visualize the vortex flow over the model, and vortex trajectories, burst locations, mutual induction of vortex systems from the forebody, strake, and wing, were quantified. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to quantify all 3 components of the time-average velocity in 3 data planes perpendicular to the freestream direction. Statistics of the instantaneous velocity were used to study intermittency and fluctuation intensity. Hot-film anemometry was used to study the fluctuation energy content in the velocity field, and the spectra of these fluctuations. In addition, a successful attempt was made to measure velocity spectra, component by component, using laser velocimetry, and these were compared with spectra measured by hot-film anemometry at several locations.

  1. An asymptotic unsteady lifting-line theory with energetics and optimum motion of thrust-producing lifting surfaces. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    A low frequency unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a harmonically oscillating wing of large aspect ratio. The wing is assumed to be chordwise rigid but completely flexible in the span direction. The theory is developed by use of the method of matched asymptotic expansions which reduces the problem from a singular integral equation to quadrature. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. The influence of reduced frequency, aspect ratio, planform shape, and mode of oscillation on wing aerodynamics is demonstrated through numerical examples. Compared with lifting-surface theory, computation time is reduced significantly. Using the present theory, the energetic quantities associated with the propulsive performance of a finite wing oscillating in combined pitch and heave are obtained in closed form. Numerical examples are presented for an elliptic wing.

  2. Non-linear unsteady wing theory, part 1. Quasi two-dimensional behavior: Airfoils and slender wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccune, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    The initial phases of a study of the large-amplitude unsteady aerodynamics of wings in severe maneuver are reported. The research centers on vortex flows, their initiation at wing surfaces, their subsequent convection, and interaction dynamically with wings and control surfaces. The focus is on 2D and quasi-2D aspects of the problem and features the development of an exact nonlinear unsteady airfoil theory as well as an approach to the crossflow problem for slender wing applications including leading-edge separation. The effective use of interactive on-line computing in quantifying and visualizing the nonsteady effects of severe maneuver is demonstrated. Interactive computational work is now possible, in which a maneuver can be initiated and its effects observed and analyzed immediately.

  3. Efficient Helicopter Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Predictions on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, Andrew M.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents parallel implementations of two codes used in a combined CFD/Kirchhoff methodology to predict the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics properties of helicopters. The rotorcraft Navier-Stokes code, TURNS, computes the aerodynamic flowfield near the helicopter blades and the Kirchhoff acoustics code computes the noise in the far field, using the TURNS solution as input. The overall parallel strategy adds MPI message passing calls to the existing serial codes to allow for communication between processors. As a result, the total code modifications required for parallel execution are relatively small. The biggest bottleneck in running the TURNS code in parallel comes from the LU-SGS algorithm that solves the implicit system of equations. We use a new hybrid domain decomposition implementation of LU-SGS to obtain good parallel performance on the SP-2. TURNS demonstrates excellent parallel speedups for quasi-steady and unsteady three-dimensional calculations of a helicopter blade in forward flight. The execution rate attained by the code on 114 processors is six times faster than the same cases run on one processor of the Cray C-90. The parallel Kirchhoff code also shows excellent parallel speedups and fast execution rates. As a performance demonstration, unsteady acoustic pressures are computed at 1886 far-field observer locations for a sample acoustics problem. The calculation requires over two hundred hours of CPU time on one C-90 processor but takes only a few hours on 80 processors of the SP2. The resultant far-field acoustic field is analyzed with state of-the-art audio and video rendering of the propagating acoustic signals.

  4. Unsteady incompressible flow analysis using C-type grid with a curved branch cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Kuan-Chieh

    2000-08-01

    For an unsteady viscous flow simulation on a two-dimensional body at high angle of attack, the calculation of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the body is influenced not only by the unsteady separated flow near the body but also by the unsteady wake behind the body. To resolve the wake flow behind the trailing edge, an orthogonal C-grid topology with a curved branch cut aligned with the inviscid stagnation streamline is generated using a conformal mapping technique. This permits the desired grid clustering in the wake region and leads to better flow results in that region. The conformal mapping technique also provides analytical Jacobian metrics for the coordinate transformation and an inviscid solution which is useful in initiating the viscous flow of the impulsively started motion. The use of analytical metric coefficients facilitates the direct determination of part of the coefficients in the governing equations without introducing numerical errors. The unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized orthogonal coordinates are solved using a vorticity-stream function formulation. The analysis also requires coupling of flow circulation in the far field. As a result, the vorticity-stream function formulation introduced in the present study contains the spatially elliptic equation for the disturbance stream function coupled with the temporally parabolic vorticity transport equation. An efficient direct Block-Gaussian Elimination (BGE) technique is used to solve the stream function Poisson problem subject to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The vorticity transport equation is solved using the Alternating Direct Implicit (ADI) method. In addition, the Jacobian at the grid points along the curved branch cut is multi-valued and the metric coefficients are found to be discontinuous across the branch cut. Hence, a special finite element interpolation is implemented in the governing equations at those points in order to overcome this discontinuity. To achieve the objective stated above, the unsteady flow over a stationary NACA 0015 airfoil at various angles of attack is selected in the present study.

  5. Current Issues in Unsteady Turbomachinery Flows (Images)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Among the numerous causes for unsteadiness in turbo machinery flows are turbulence and flow environment, wakes from stationary and rotating vanes, boundary layer separation, boundary layer/shear layer instabilities, presence of shock waves and deliberate unsteadiness for flow control purposes. These unsteady phenomena may lead to flow-structure interactions such as flutter and forced vibration as well as system instabilities such as stall and surge. A major issue of unsteadiness relates to the fact that a fundamental understanding of unsteady flow physics is lacking and requires continued attention. Accurate simulations and sufficient high fidelity experimental data are not available. The Glenn Research Center plan for Engine Component Flow Physics Modeling is part of the NASA 21st Century Aircraft Program. The main components of the plan include Low Pressure Turbine National Combustor Code. The goals, technical output and benefits/impacts of each element are described in the presentation. The specific areas selected for discussion in this presentation are blade wake interactions, flow control, and combustor exit turbulence and modeling.

  6. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  7. Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

    2014-02-01

    From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

  8. Spring 2009 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xi

    Spring 2009 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound Instructor Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound #12;Spring 2009 ME706 Acoustics and Aerodynamic Sound · independently study. Durand, W. F. 1934. (editor) Aerodynamic Theory, 6 volumes. See especially volumes II and III. Second

  9. Unsteady penetration of a target by a liquid jet

    PubMed Central

    Uth, Tobias; Deshpande, Vikram S.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that ceramic armor experiences an unsteady penetration response: an impacting projectile may erode on the surface of a ceramic target without substantial penetration for a significant amount of time and then suddenly start to penetrate the target. Although known for more than four decades, this phenomenon, commonly referred to as dwell, remains largely unexplained. Here, we use scaled analog experiments with a low-speed water jet and a soft, translucent target material to investigate dwell. The transient target response, in terms of depth of penetration and impact force, is captured using a high-speed camera in combination with a piezoelectric force sensor. We observe the phenomenon of dwell using a soft (noncracking) target material. The results show that the penetration rate increases when the flow of the impacting water jet is reversed due to the deformation of the jet–target interface––this reversal is also associated with an increase in the force exerted by the jet on the target. Creep penetration experiments with a constant indentation force did not show an increase in the penetration rate, confirming that flow reversal is the cause of the unsteady penetration rate. Our results suggest that dwell can occur in a ductile noncracking target due to flow reversal. This phenomenon of flow reversal is rather widespread and present in a wide range of impact situations, including water-jet cutting, needleless injection, and deposit removal via a fluid jet. PMID:24277818

  10. Modeling the Aerodynamic Lift Produced by Oscillating Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    E-print Network

    Khalid, Muhammad Saif Ullah

    2015-01-01

    For present study, setting Strouhal Number (St) as control parameter, numerical simulations for flow past oscillating NACA-0012 airfoil at 1,000 Reynolds Numbers (Re) are performed. Temporal profiles of unsteady forces; lift and thrust, and their spectral analysis clearly indicate the solution to be a period-1 attractor for low Strouhal numbers. This study reveals that aerodynamic forces produced by plunging airfoil are independent of initial kinematic conditions of airfoil that proves the existence of limit cycle. Frequencies present in the oscillating lift force are composed of fundamental (fs), even and odd harmonics (3fs) at higher Strouhal numbers. Using numerical simulations, shedding frequencies (f_s) were observed to be nearly equal to the excitation frequencies in all the cases. Unsteady lift force generated due to the plunging airfoil is modeled by modified van der Pol oscillator. Using method of multiple scales and spectral analysis of steady-state CFD solutions, frequencies and damping terms in th...

  11. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  12. Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. Part 2: Bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow past oscillating bodies of revolution at very high Mach numbers is completed by adding a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. Exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and the stability derivatives are obtained in closed form and are applicable to bodies of revolution that have arbitrary shapes, arbitrary thicknesses, and either sharp or blunt noses. The centrifugal force correction arising from the curved trajectories followed by the fluid particles in unsteady flow cannot be neglected even for the case of a circular cone. With this correction, the present theory is in excellent agreement with experimental results for sharp cones and for cones with small nose bluntness; gives poor agreement with the results of experiments in air for bodies with moderate or large nose bluntness. The pitching motions of slender power-law bodies of revulution are shown to be always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory.

  13. Experimental investigation of the effect of chordwise flexibility on the aerodynamics of flapping wings in hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, K.; Ebrahimi, A.

    2010-05-01

    Ornithopters or mechanical birds produce aerodynamic lift and thrust through the flapping motion of their wings. Here, we use an experimental apparatus to investigate the effects of a wing's twisting stiffness on the generated thrust force and the power required at different flapping frequencies. A flapping wing system and an experimental set-up were designed to measure the unsteady aerodynamic and inertial forces, power usage and angular speed of the flapping wing motion. A data acquisition system was set-up to record important data with the appropriate sampling frequency. The aerodynamic performance of the vehicle under hovering (i.e., no wind) conditions was investigated. The lift and thrust that were produced were measured for different flapping frequencies and for various wings with different chordwise flexibilities. The results show the manner in which the elastic deformation and inertial flapping forces affect the dynamical behavior of the wing. It is shown that the generalization of the actuator disk theory is, at most, only valid for rigid wings, and for flexible wings, the power P varies by a power of about 1.0 of the thrust T. This aerodynamic information can also be used as benchmark data for unsteady flow solvers.

  14. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  15. Aerodynamics at the Particle Level

    E-print Network

    Charles A. Crummer

    2012-09-23

    This paper is intended to clarify some of the rather well-known aerodynamic phenomena. It is also intended to pique the interest of the layman as well as the professional. All aerodynamic forces on a surface are caused by collisions of fluid particles with the surface. While the standard approach to fluid dynamics, which is founded on the fluid approximation, is effective in providing a means of calculating various behavior and properties, it begs the question of causality. The determination of the causes of many of the most important aerodynamic effects requires a microscopic examination of the fluid and of the surface with which it interacts. The Kutta-Joukowski theorem is investigated from first physical principles. It is noted that the circulation does not arise as a physical phenomenon. Various aerodynamic devices are discussed, e.g. rocket engine exhaust diffuser and the perfume atomizer.

  16. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  17. Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

    E-print Network

    Elya R. Courtney; Michael W. Courtney

    2014-10-16

    This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The relationship between Sg and drag may be used to test the applicability of existing gyroscopic stability formulas for given bullet designs and to evaluate the accuracy of alternate formulas in cases where the existing stability formulas are not as accurate. The most definitive test of formulas predicting stability will always be observation of whether bullets tumble under given conditions. However, observations of drag changes provide valuable supplemental information because they suggest changes in stability as conditions change. Use of a continuous variable (drag) rather than a binary variable (tumbling) allows insight into stability over a range of conditions where the binary variable does not change.

  18. Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.

  19. Explanation and discovery in aerodynamics

    E-print Network

    Gordon McCabe

    2005-12-22

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and clarify the explanations commonly cited for the aerodynamic lift generated by a wing, and to then analyse, as a case study of engineering discovery, the aerodynamic revolutions which have taken place within Formula 1 in the past 40 years. The paper begins with an introduction that provides a succinct summary of the mathematics of fluid mechanics.

  20. Tactical missile aerodynamics - General topics. Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics. Vol. 141

    SciTech Connect

    Hemsch, M.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The present volume discusses the development history of tactical missile airframes, aerodynamic considerations for autopilot design, a systematic method for tactical missile design, the character and reduction of missile observability by radar, the visualization of high angle-of-attack flow phenomena, and the behavior of low aspect ratio wings at high angles of attack. Also discussed are airbreathing missile inlets, 'waverider' missile configurations, bodies with noncircular cross-sections and bank-to-turn missiles, asymmetric flow separation and vortex shedding on bodies-of-revolution, unsteady missile flows, swept shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions, pylon carriage and separation of stores, and internal stores carriage and separation.

  1. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares and mixed estimation methods. At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  2. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  3. Simulation of vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by a point-vortex method

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was made to simulate vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by the point-vortex method. Attention was divided into three different aspects: a nascent vortex-shedding algorithm, numerical demonstration of the point-vortex method, and the calculation of some example of aerodynamic interesting flows, which include two major categories: unsteady flow about a flat plate at a fixed angle of attack with and without a leading edge flap, and the transient, vortical cross flow produced by a slender delta wing. Evolution of the vortex traces, streamlines, surface pressure, and forces are studied. Flow features based on data obtained by different point-vortex shedding rates and different integration time steps and schemes are found to be consistent with each other on length and time scales comparable to as well as considerably smaller than those of the global flow.

  4. Supersonic unstalled flutter. [aerodynamic loading of thin airfoils induced by cascade motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.; Hartmann, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Flutter analyses were developed to predict the onset of supersonic unstalled flutter of a cascade of two-dimensional airfoils. The first of these analyzes the onset of supersonic flutter at low levels of aerodynamic loading (i.e., backpressure), while the second examines the occurrence of supersonic flutter at moderate levels of aerodynamic loading. Both of these analyses are based on the linearized unsteady inviscid equations of gas dynamics to model the flow field surrounding the cascade. These analyses are utilized in a parametric study to show the effects of cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and backpressure on the onset of single and multi degree of freedom unstalled supersonic flutter. Several of the results are correlated against experimental qualitative observation to validate the models.

  5. Progress in Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses unsteady flow simulations for a turbopump intended for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The simulation process makes use of computational grids and parallel processing. The architecture of the parallel computers used is discussed, as is the scripting of turbopump simulations.

  6. Waves on unsteady currents Merrick C. Haller

    E-print Network

    Haller, Merrick

    Waves on unsteady currents Merrick C. Haller School of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon 2007; published online 3 December 2007 Models for surface gravity wave propagation in the presence of currents often assume the current field to be quasi-stationary, which implies that the absolute wave

  7. Spreading rate of an unsteady turbulent jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouros, H.; Medina, R.; Johari, H.

    1993-08-01

    The spreading rate and penetration length of a nonharmonic unsteady jet were investigated using flow visualization methods. Results are presented and discussed. The visual measurement are closely related to the concentration field which is of interest in turbulent mixing problems. Results are compared with those obtained for pulsed jets.

  8. Numerical simulations of interactions among aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preidikman, Sergio

    A robust technique for performing numerical simulations of nonlinear unsteady aeroelastic behavior is developed. The technique is applied to long-span bridges and the wing of a modern business jet. The heart of the procedure is combining the aerodynamic and structural models. The aerodynamic model is a general unsteady vortex-lattice method. The structural model for the bridges is a rigid roadbed supported by linear and torsional springs. For the aircraft wing, the structural model is a cantilever beam with rigid masses attached at various positions along the span; it was generated with the NASTRAN program. The structure, flowing air, and control devices are considered to be the elements of a single dynamic system. All the governing equations are integrated simultaneously and interactively in the time domain; a predictor-corrector method was adapted to perform this integration. For long-span bridges, the simulation predicts the onset of flutter accurately, and the numerical results strongly suggest that an actively controlled wing attached below the roadbed can easily suppress the wind-excited oscillations. The governing equations for a proposed passive system were developed. The wing structure is modelled with finite elements. The deflections are expressed as an expansion in terms of the free-vibration modes. The time-dependent coefficients are the generalized coordinates of the entire dynamic system. The concept of virtual work was extended to develop a method to transfer the aerodynamic loads to the structural nodes. Depending on the speed of the aircraft, the numerical results show damped responses to initial disturbances (although there are no viscous terms in either the aerodynamic or structural model), merging of modal frequencies, the development of limit-cycle oscillations, and the occurrence of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation leading to motion on a torus.

  9. Effects of Shrouded Stator Cavity Flows on Multistage Axial Compressor Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellborn, Steven R.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a low-speed multistage axial-flow compressor to assess the effects of shrouded stator cavity flows on aerodynamic performance. Five configurations, which involved changes in seal-tooth leakage rates and/or elimination of the shrouded stator cavities, were tested. Data collected enabled differences in overall individual stage and the third stage blade element performance parameters to be compared. The results show conclusively that seal-tooth leakage ran have a large impact on compressor aerodynamic performance while the presence of the shrouded stator cavities alone seemed to have little influence. Overall performance data revealed that for every 1% increase in the seal-tooth clearance to blade-height ratio the pressure rise dropped up to 3% while efficiency was reduced by 1 to 1.5 points. These observed efficiency penalty slopes are comparable to those commonly reported for rotor and cantilevered stator tip clearance variations. Therefore, it appears that in order to correctly predict overall performance it is equally important to account for the effects of seal-tooth leakage as it is to include the influence of tip clearance flows. Third stage blade element performance data suggested that the performance degradation observed when leakage was increased was brought about in two distinct ways. First, increasing seal-tooth leakage directly spoiled the near hub performance of the stator row in which leakage occurred. Second, the altered stator exit now conditions caused by increased leakage impaired the performance of the next downstream stage by decreasing the work input of the downstream rotor and increasing total pressure loss of the downstream stator. These trends caused downstream stages to progressively perform worse. Other measurements were acquired to determine spatial and temporal flow field variations within the up-and-downstream shrouded stator cavities. Flow within the cavities involved low momentum fluid traveling primarily in the circumferential direction at about 40% of the hub wheel speed. Measurements indicated that the flow within both cavities was much more complex than first envisioned. A vortical flow structure in the meridional plane, similar to a driven cavity, existed within the upstream cavity Furthermore, other spatial and temporal variations in Row properties existed. the most prominent being caused by the upstream potential influence of the downstream blade. This influence caused the fluid within cavities near the leading edges of either stator blades in space or rotor blades in time to be driven radially inward relative to fluid near blade mid-pitch. This influence also produced large unsteady velocity fluctuations in the downstream cavity because of the passing of the downstream rotor blade.

  10. On the uncertainty quantification of the unsteady aerodynamics of 2D free falling plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorzi, N.; Pereira, J. M. C.; Pereira, J. C. F.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct a statistical analysis of the effects of the fillet radii on the dynamics of the falling plate using the nonintrusive spectral projection (NISP) method. The free fall of two-dimensional cards immersed in a fluid was studied using a deterministic and stochastic numerical approach. The motion is characterized by the fluid-body interaction described by coupling the Navier-Stokes and rigid body dynamic equations. The model's predictions have been validated using both experimental and numerical data available in the literature. In the stochastic simulations, the fillet radius of the plate was considered a random variable characterized by a uniform probability density function introducing, in this way, some uncertainties in the plate's trajectory. To take into account the uncertainties, we employed the NISP method based on polynomial chaos expansion. The analysis was focused on finding the ensemble mean trajectory and error bar for a confidence interval of 95 % for both tumbling and fluttering regimes.

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 053021 (2013) Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling parallelograms in coupled

    E-print Network

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2013-01-01

    of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate [4]. Unlike maple samaras, tulip seeds autogyrate while tumbling along their spanwise direction [5, the nut is at the end of the wing whereas in the case of a tulip seed, the mass distribution is relatively

  12. An Unsteady Continuous Adjoint Approach for Aerodynamic Design on Dynamic Meshes

    E-print Network

    Alonso, Juan J.

    velocity vector ¯¯ Second order tensor of viscous stresses, ¯¯ = µ1 tot ¯¯ = µ1 tot[ v + vT - 2 3 ¯¯I( · v)] µ1 tot Total viscosity as a sum of dynamic and turbulent components, µ1 tot = µdyn + µtur µ2 tot Effective thermal conductivity, µ2 tot = µdyn P rd + µtur P rt Flow domain boundary Vector of adjoint

  13. The Current Status of Unsteady CFD Approaches for Aerodynamic Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Singer, Bart A.; Yamaleev, Nail; Vatsa, Veer N.; Viken, Sally A.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the current status of time dependent algorithms is presented. Special attention is given to algorithms used to predict fluid actuator flows, as well as other active and passive flow control devices. Capabilities for the next decade are predicted, and principal impediments to the progress of time-dependent algorithms are identified.

  14. Parametric Reduced-Order Models for Probabilistic Analysis of Unsteady Aerodynamic Applications

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    simulation results at a fraction of the computational cost. Nomenclature A = Jacobian matrix Ar = Reduced-scale systems that result, for example, from discretization of partial differential equations (PDEs). We present input­output mapping. For example, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method of snapshots [1] has

  15. Unsteady Aerodynamic and Dynamic Analysis of the Meridian UAS in a Rolling-Yawing Motion

    E-print Network

    Lykins, Ryan

    2014-05-31

    .............................................................---- B ....................................................................... Body Frame ..............................................................---- C ........................................................... Coulomb Friction Function.... Riley, KS grass airfield, with no fairings and an unpainted airframe. This initial flight indicated that the aircraft could fly in the draggiest configuration possible, serving as a proof of concept for the experimental system. In September 2009...

  16. Comparisons Between Unsteady Aerodynamic Events in a Gas Turbine Generator and an Identical Compressor Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, A. Karl

    1996-01-01

    Extensive testing done on a T55-L-712 turboshaft engine compressor in a compressor test rig is being followed by engine tests in progress as part of the Army Non-Recoverable Stall Program. Goals include a greater understanding of the gas turbine engine start cycle and compressor/engine operation in the regions 'beyond' the normal compressor stall line (rotating stall/surge). Rig steady state instrumentation consisted of 497 steady state pressure sensors and 153 temperature sensors. Engine instrumentation was placed in similar radial/axial locations and consists of 122 steady state pressure sensors and 65 temperature sensors. High response rig instrumentation consisted of 34 wall static pressure transducers. Rig and engine high response pressure transducers were located in the same axial/radial/circumferential locations in front of the first three stages. Additional engine high response instrumentation was placed in mach probes in front of the engine and on the compressor hub. This instrumentation allows for the generation of detailed stage characteristics, overall compressor mapping, and detailed analysis of dynamic compressor events.

  17. The oblique-wing research aircraft: A test bed for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of oblique wings have been the subject of numerous theoretical studies, wind tunnel tests, low speed flight models, and finally a low speed manned demonstrator, the AD-1. The specific objectives of the OWRA program are: (1) to establish the necessary technology base required to translate theoretical and experimental results into practical mission oriented designs; (2) to design, fabricate and flight test an oblique wing aircraft throughout a realistic flight envelope, and (3) to develop and validate design and analysis tools for asymmetric aircraft configurations. The preliminary design phase of the project is complete and has resulted in a wing configuration for which construction is ready to be initiated.

  18. Discrete Adjoint-Based Design for Unsteady Turbulent Flows On Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    A discrete adjoint-based design methodology for unsteady turbulent flows on three-dimensional dynamic overset unstructured grids is formulated, implemented, and verified. The methodology supports both compressible and incompressible flows and is amenable to massively parallel computing environments. The approach provides a general framework for performing highly efficient and discretely consistent sensitivity analysis for problems involving arbitrary combinations of overset unstructured grids which may be static, undergoing rigid or deforming motions, or any combination thereof. General parent-child motions are also accommodated, and the accuracy of the implementation is established using an independent verification based on a complex-variable approach. The methodology is used to demonstrate aerodynamic optimizations of a wind turbine geometry, a biologically-inspired flapping wing, and a complex helicopter configuration subject to trimming constraints. The objective function for each problem is successfully reduced and all specified constraints are satisfied.

  19. The effect of circumferential aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.

  20. Effects of kinematics on aerodynamic periodicity for a periodically plunging airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianghao; Wang, Dou; Zhang, Yanlai

    2015-12-01

    In conventional Micro-Air-Vehicle design inspired by insects, the periodical motion of flapping airfoil usually leads to generation of a periodical aerodynamic force. However, recent studies indicate that time courses of aerodynamic force and flow structure of a flapping airfoil may be non-periodical even though the airfoil undergoes a periodical motion. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics analysis is employed to investigate the effects of some dimensionless variables, such as Reynolds number, plunging amplitude, advance ratio, and angle of attack, on the periodicity of the flow around a flapping airfoil. The governing equations in an inertial frame of reference are solved to obtain unsteady flow structure and aerodynamic behaviors of the airfoil. It is found in the results that the periodicity of the flow and aerodynamics is greatly dependent on Reynolds number and plunging amplitude. Under given conditions, the product of these two variables may be utilized as a criterion parameter to judge whether the time course of the flow is periodical or not. In addition, a new mechanism that accounts for the non-periodical flow is revealed to explain the flow of airfoil with pre-stall angle of attack.

  1. Aerial locomotion in flies and robots: kinematic control and aerodynamics of oscillating wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2004-07-01

    Flight in flies results from a feedback cascade in which the animal converts mechanical power produced by the flight musculature into aerodynamic forces. A major goal of flight research is to understand the functional significance of the various components in this cascade ranging from the generation of the neural code, the control of muscle mechanical power output, wing kinematics and unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. Here, I attempted to draw a broad outline on fluid dynamic mechanisms found in flapping insect wings such as leading edge vorticity, rotational circulation and wake capture momentum transfer, as well as on the constraints of flight force control by the neuromuscular system of the fruit fly Drosophila. This system-level perspective on muscle control and aerodynamic mechanisms is thought to be a fundamental bridge in any attempt to link the function and performance of the various flight components with their particular role for wing motion and aerodynamic control in the behaving animal. Eventually, this research might facilitate the development of man-made biomimetic autonomous micro air vehicles using flapping wing motion for propulsion that are currently under construction by engineers. PMID:18089042

  2. Experimental investigation of unsteady tornadic wind loads on structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jischke, M.C.; Moslehi, F.

    1984-06-01

    Ward's tornado simulator was used to model the effects of a tornado-like vortex on a cylindrical model structure. The cylindrical model, intended to represent a containment building of a nuclear reactor, is a circular cylinder 17 cm in height and 11.4 cm in diameter with a hemispherical roof. The experiment was conducted at swirl angles of 0/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/. Pressure coefficients were measured at different locations on the model for steady and unsteady cases, corresponding to situations where the relative velocity between the vortex and model is zero and nonzero. Results are presented in the forms of sectional pressure coefficient profiles, and sectional force coefficients. Pressure profiles show that there are significant differences between the steady and unsteady results. Translation of the model through the simulator produces a more symmetric pressure distribution, and also results in a more substantial pressure drop on the model. It is observed that in a flow with swirl angle of 45/sup 0/, translation causes a significant increase in the horizontal sectional force coefficient. Outside of the core region, translation causes an increase in the axial sectional force coefficient. The formation of very low pressure regions over the top section of the structure leads to very strong axial force coefficients. This may cause the failure to first appear on the roof, and then propagate throughout the structure and cause total failure. 38 references, 15 figures.

  3. Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.

  4. A Modern Compressible Flow Laboratory Experience for Undergraduates

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    measurements course is then followed consecutively by an aero-structures and an aerodynamics laboratory will have taken an incompressible aerodynamics course. They will be enrolled in the compressible aerodynamics course concurrently with the aerodynamics laboratory. Thus, a compressible laboratory experience

  5. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  6. A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-01-01

    A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).

  7. Aerodynamics Of Missiles: Present And Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    Paper reviews variety of topics in aerodynamics of missiles. Describes recent developments and suggests areas in which future research fruitful. Emphasis on stability and control of tactical missiles. Aerodynamic problems discussed in general terms without reference to particular missiles.

  8. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Interaction Between an Ultra-Compact Inlet and a Transonic Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Rabe, Douglas; Scribben, Angie

    2015-01-01

    In the study presented, unsteady flow interaction between an ultra-compact inlet and a transonic fan stage is investigated. Future combat aircraft engines require ultra-compact inlet ducts as part of an integrated, advanced propulsion system to improve air vehicle capability and effectiveness to meet future mission needs. The main purpose of the current study is to advance the understanding of the flow interaction between a modern ultra-compact inlet and a transonic fan for future design applications. Many experimental/ analytical studies have been reported on the aerodynamics of compact inlets in aircraft engines. On the other hand, very few studies have been reported on the effects of flow distortion from these inlets on the performance of the following fan/compressor stages. The primary goal of the study presented is to investigate how flow interaction between an ultra-compact inlet and a transonic compressor influence the operating margin of the compressor. Both Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches are used to calculate the unsteady flow field, and the numerical results are used to study the flow interaction. The present study indicates that stall inception of the following compressor stage is affected directly based on how the distortion pattern evolves before it interacts with the fan/compressor face. For the present compressor, the stall initiates at the tip section with clean inlet flow and distortion pattern away from the casing itself seems to have limited impacts on the stall inception of the compressor. A counter-rotating swirl, which is generated due to flow separation inside the s-shaped compact duct, generates an increased flow angle near the blade tip. This increased flow angle near the rotor tip due to the secondary flow from the counter-rotating vortices is the primary reason for the reduced compressor stall margin.

  9. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 2: Unsteady ducted propfan analysis computer program users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-dependent three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems at angle of attack. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes (ADPAC). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC developed under Task 2 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Ducted Propfan Analysis. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. A time-accurate implicit residual smoothing operator was utilized for unsteady flow predictions. For unducted propfans, a single H-type grid was used to discretize each blade passage of the complete propeller. For ducted propfans, a coupled system of five grid blocks utilizing an embedded C-grid about the cowl leading edge was used to discretize each blade passage. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algorithm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were compared with experimental data for both ducted and unducted propfan flows. The solution scheme demonstrated efficiency and accuracy comparable with other schemes of this class.

  10. A Study on Turbine Unsteady Flow via PIV and Hotwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Su, Ming

    2007-06-01

    Unsteady wake represents blade pneumatic load and affects turbine characteristic greatly, while secondary flow loss is the main part of turbine endwall loss. The appearance, attenuation of unsteady wake and their interaction with downstream secondary flow have significant effect on turbine design and characteristic. Experiment measurement and numerical simulation are adopted to study secondary flow and wake. Upstream rotating blade can be replaced by cylinder with the same wake velocity and stagnant pressure loss. In experiment, two inlet velocities are taken to study the effect of inlet flux on blade characteristic. At the same time, upstream cylinders move quarter of circumferential pitch discretely and the influence of upstream cylinder wake to downstream blade is researched. Afterwards, two hollow boards are used to cover part of blade height to show tip and bottom secondary vortexes alternation under different relative blade height. First, the system integrating method of hotwire measurement is developed with a rotating slanted hotwire in order to measure three-dimensions flow field at blade outlet. The procedure for solving the mean velocity vector involving the least-squares technique can be accomplished via the LSQNONLIN optimization function of Matlab. Then the whole velocity field of horizontal-flow and perpendicular plane has been measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Finally, numerical calculation is carried out. The result shows coincidence between experiment and calculation. It is found that outlet secondary flow is obvious and severe at higher inlet velocity and smallest relative blade height. When the upstream rotor wake impinges upon the leading edge of the down stream stator, the corresponding stage efficiency will be higher, when the upstream wake is transferred into the mid passage of the downstream stator, the corresponding stage efficiency will be lower. As a result, the optimal blade circumferential layout is an effective way to increase turbine pneumatic efficiency. The numerical calculation shows that pressure pulse intensity on pressure side weakens rapidly along blade profile, while pressure pulse intensity on suction side weakens along profile first and then strengthen due to unsteady separation on trail edge.

  11. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  12. Computational aerodynamics - The next generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.; Richardson, Pamela F.

    1991-01-01

    Continued advances in the various elements that comprise the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are promoting a radically different approach to the aerodynamic design and analysis of aerospace vehicles and systems. The elements of CFD generally include numerical algorithm development, transition and turbulence modeling, surface modeling, and grid generation, scientific visualization and validation methodologies. This paper discusses the research progress and prospects for the future in each of these elements within NASA's CFD and Experimental Validation Program. The applicability of computational methods for the purposes of understanding complex flow phenomena, exploring aerodynamic concepts, and providing vehicle-design input is also addressed.

  13. Visualization of unsteady computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A brief summary of the computer environment used for calculating three dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) results is presented. This environment requires a super computer as well as massively parallel processors (MPP's) and clusters of workstations acting as a single MPP (by concurrently working on the same task) provide the required computational bandwidth for CFD calculations of transient problems. The cluster of reduced instruction set computers (RISC) is a recent advent based on the low cost and high performance that workstation vendors provide. The cluster, with the proper software can act as a multiple instruction/multiple data (MIMD) machine. A new set of software tools is being designed specifically to address visualizing 3D unsteady CFD results in these environments. Three user's manuals for the parallel version of Visual3, pV3, revision 1.00 make up the bulk of this report.

  14. Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2005-06-21

    The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings. PMID:15808868

  15. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2?×?10(5) (drag coefficient, C d ???0.12), ~2.8?×?10(5) (C d ???0.13), ~3.3?×?10(5) (C d ???0.13), and ~2.4?×?10(5) (C d ???0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces. PMID:23705104

  16. Toward Practical Aerodynamic Design Through Numerical Optimization

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    Toward Practical Aerodynamic Design Through Numerical Optimization David W. Zingg, and Laura6, Canada A Newton-Krylov algorithm for aerodynamic optimization is applied to the multipoint design aerodynamic design. I. Introduction Beginning with the work of Hicks et al.1 and Hicks and Henne,2 numerical

  17. AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC MODELS FOR AEROELASTIC CONTROL OF TURBOMACHINES K.E. Willcox, J of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 22091 #12; LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC order aerodynamic model is developed for aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines. The proper or­ thogonal

  18. On Aerodynamic Design Through Multipoint Numerical Optimization

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    On Aerodynamic Design Through Multipoint Numerical Optimization Howard P. Buckley, and David WT6, Canada A multipoint optimization approach is used to solve aerodynamic design problems en integral as an objective function is demonstrated to improve aerodynamic performance over a range of on

  19. SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS Antony Jameson Department of Mechanical into two broad categories. First there is the objective of providing reliable aerodynamic predictions of this paper is devoted to the use of computational methods for aerodynamic prediction. This is a comparatively

  20. Conformal Mapping in Wing Aerodynamics Thomas Johnson

    E-print Network

    Morrow, James A.

    Conformal Mapping in Wing Aerodynamics Thomas Johnson June 4, 2013 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 the first complete treatment of conformal mapping in aerodynamics. Near the beginning of the twentieth and aerodynamics. The purpose of this exposition is to give the reader an elementary intro- duction to the use

  1. Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of Dynamics and Control of Aircraft and simulation of aircraft, yet other aerodynamics models exist that can provide more accurate results for certain simulations without a large increase in computational time. In this paper, sev- eral aerodynamics

  2. AERODYNAMICS(II) -Perfect Fluid Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    AERODYNAMICS(II) - Perfect Fluid Dynamics I) Course goals II) Textbook & Reference III) Course This course will attempt to offer the fundamental areas of aerodynamics that can be used to guide the design;Textbook Anderson, J D Jr., "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics" 5th edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company. #12

  3. CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics

    E-print Network

    Dumas, Laurent

    Chapter 1 CFD-based Optimization for Automotive Aerodynamics Laurent Dumas Abstract The car drag- ments. An overview of the main characteristics of automotive aerodynamics and a detailed presentation.dumas@upmc.fr) 1 #12;2 Laurent Dumas 1.1 Introducing Automotive Aerodynamics 1.1.1 A Major Concern for Car

  4. Airfoil Optimization Using Practical Aerodynamic Design Requirements

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    Airfoil Optimization Using Practical Aerodynamic Design Requirements Howard P. Buckley, Beckett Y., Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6, Canada Practical aerodynamic design problems must balance the goal the aerodynamic constraints imposed at the off-design operating conditions to be treated explicitly. Both methods

  5. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  6. Courant number and unsteady flow computation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1993-01-01

    The Courant number C, the key to unsteady flow computation, is a ratio of physical wave velocity, ??, to computational signal-transmission velocity, ??, i.e., C = ??/??. In this way, it uniquely relates a physical quantity to a mathematical quantity. Because most unsteady open-channel flows are describable by a set of n characteristic equations along n characteristic paths, each represented by velocity ??i, i = 1,2,....,n, there exist as many as n components for the numerator of C. To develop a numerical model, a numerical integration must be made on each characteristic curve from an earlier point to a later point on the curve. Different numerical methods are available in unsteady flow computation due to the different paths along which the numerical integration is actually performed. For the denominator of C, the ?? defined as ?? = ?? 0 = ??x/??t has been customarily used; thus, the Courant number has the familiar form of C?? = ??/??0. This form will be referred to as ???common Courant number??? in this paper. The commonly used numerical criteria C?? for stability, neutral stability and instability, are imprecise or not universal in the sense that r0 does not always reflect the true maximum computational data-transmission speed of the scheme at hand, i.e., Ctau is no indication for the Courant constraint. In view of this , a new Courant number, called the ???natural Courant number???, Cn, that truly reflects the Courant constraint, has been defined. However, considering the numerous advantages inherent in the traditional C??, a useful and meaningful composite Courant number, denoted by C??* has been formulated from C??. It is hoped that the new aspects of the Courant number discussed herein afford the hydraulician a broader perspective, consistent criteria, and unified guidelines, with which to model various unsteady flows.

  7. Model tests on unsteady rotor wake effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Crews, S. T.

    1973-01-01

    A qualitative model of unsteady asymmetric wake effects is considered, taking into account a progressing blade flapping mode in which each blade flaps in a rotating frame of reference. The rotor model used for the tests is two bladed. The experimental data are compared with an analytical flapping response. It is found that the steady wake effects are largest at zero advance ratio and low collective pitch. The effects remain significant at higher advance ratios and collective pitch settings.

  8. Turbulence Model Study for Unsteady Cavitating Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decaix, Jean; Goncalvès, Eric

    2010-09-01

    A compressible, multiphase, one-fluid RANS solver was developed to study cavitating flows. The interaction between turbulence and two-phase structures is complex and not well known. This constitutes a critical point to accurately simulate unsteady behaviours of cavity sheets. In the present study, different transport-equation turbulence models are investigated. Numerical results are given for a Venturi geometry and comparisons are made with experimental data.

  9. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1993-08-01

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts, is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ORCHID.

  10. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Verdon, C. P.

    1993-11-01

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code orchid.

  11. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Verdon, C. P.

    1993-08-01

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ORCHID.

  12. Stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, R.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P. )

    1993-11-08

    The linear stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts is carried out for a semi-infinite uniform medium. For a laser accelerated target, it is shown that a properly selected modulation of the laser intensity can lead to the dynamic stabilization or growth-rate reduction of a large portion of the unstable spectrum. The theory is in qualitative agreement with the numerical results obtained by using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ORCHID.

  13. Simulation of unsteady cavitation with a two-equation turbulence model including compressibility effects*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutier-Delgosha, O.; Fortes-Patella, R.; Reboud, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Unsteady effects associated with cavitation were investigated by numerical simulations in three configurations. The simplest one was a Venturi-type section in which the cavitation sheet oscillates periodically with vapour cloud shedding. The second one was a hydrofoil whose unsteady cavitating behaviour depends on the angle of attack, and the most complex one was a cascade of three hydrofoils. In this last configuration, in addition to the unsteadiness associated with each cavity, a coupling between the three channels was also observed. These cavitating flows were simulated by 2D computations. Resolution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was based on a finite-volume discretization associated with a pressure correction algorithm. Cavitation was simulated by using a barotropic vapour/liquid state law that links the fluid density evolution to the pressure variations. As standard k e RNG or k ? turbulence models were found to be weakly efficient to simulate unsteady cavitation, influence of the compressibility of the two-phase medium on turbulence was considered. Both k e RNG and k ? turbulence models, including corrections of these compressibility effects, were applied and results obtained were consistent with experiments: in the three configurations, the oscillation frequencies, the cavity length, the void ratio and the velocity fields obtained by numerical simulation were in reliable agreement with the available experimental data.

  14. CAMRAD - A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYTICAL MODEL OF ROTORCRAFT AERODYNAMICS AND DYNAMICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics, CAMRAD, program is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a consistent combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The CAMRAD analysis can be applied to articulated, hingeless, gimballed, and teetering rotors with an arbitrary number of blades. The rotor degrees of freedom included are blade/flap bending, rigid pitch and elastic torsion, and optionally gimbal or teeter motion. General two-rotor aircrafts can be modeled. Single main-rotor and tandem helicopter and sideby-side tilting proprotor aircraft configurations can be considered. The case of a rotor or helicopter in a wind tunnel can also be modeled. The aircraft degrees of freedom included are the six rigid body motion, elastic airframe motions, and the rotor/engine speed perturbations. CAMRAD calculates the load and motion of helicopters and airframes in two stages. First the trim solution is obtained; then the flutter, flight dynamics, and/or transient behavior can be calculated. The trim operating conditions considered include level flight, steady climb or descent, and steady turns. The analysis of the rotor includes nonlinear inertial and aerodynamic models, applicable to large blade angles and a high inflow ratio, The rotor aerodynamic model is based on two-dimensional steady airfoil characteristics with corrections for three-dimensional and unsteady flow effects, including a dynamic stall model. In the flutter analysis, the matrices are constructed that describe the linear differential equations of motion, and the equations are analyzed. In the flight dynamics analysis, the stability derivatives are calculated and the matrices are constructed that describe the linear differential equations of motion. These equations are analyzed. In the transient analysis, the rigid body equations of motion are numerically integrated, for a prescribed transient gust or control input. The CAMRAD program product is available by license for a period of ten years to domestic U.S. licensees. The licensed program product includes the CAMRAD source code, command procedures, sample applications, and one set of supporting documentation. Copies of the documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. CAMRAD is written in FORTRAN 77 for the DEC VAX under VMS 4.6 with a recommended core memory of 4.04 megabytes. The DISSPLA package is necessary for graphical output. CAMRAD was developed in 1980.

  15. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis. Computer program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Adamczyk, John J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Arnone, Andrea; Swanson, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOACR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  16. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  17. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  18. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  19. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

  20. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  1. Semianalytic modeling of aerodynamic shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.; Adams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Equations for the semianalytic representation of a class of surfaces that vary smoothly in cross-sectional shape are presented. Some methods of fitting together and superimposing such surfaces are described. A brief discussion is also included of the application of the theory in various contexts such as computerized lofting of aerodynamic surfaces and grid generation.

  2. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  3. Sting-free Unsteady Flowfield, Base Pressure and Force Measurements on Axisymmetric Bluff-Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Hideo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kunimasu, Tetsuya

    2006-11-01

    To avoid interference of model support, flowfields as well as aerodynamic force and base pressure on blunt short cylinders in axial flow were measured at Re=100,000 with the JAXA 60cm magnetic suspension and balance system. The fineness ratio ranged from 1.27 to 1.79. A digital telemeter system was developed for the base pressure measurement, and the velocity field was obtained using a PIV system. Vortices along separating shear layer and shear layer flappings with or without reattachment on the wall were observed. Downstream the cylinder in the azimuthal plane, PIV snapshots showed large-scale motion of longitudinal vortices. These instantaneous flowfields presented excellent axisymmetry when they were ensemble-averaged. Mean base pressure agreed with the drag variation at different fineness ratios. The present magnetic suspension and balance system allowed evaluation of low frequency unsteady aerodynamic force vector from feedback current to the coils and the detected small model movement. Base pressure fluctuations were compared with the drag fluctuations and discussed in light of overall flowfield phenomena.

  4. Report of the Panel on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Richard G.; Bushnell, Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Progress in aerodynamics over the past 50 years has been evidenced by the development of increasingly sophisticated and efficient flight vehicles throughout the flight spectrum. Advances have generally arisen in an evolutionary manner from experience gained in wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and improvements in analytical and computational capabilities. As a result of this evolutionary development, both military and commercial vehicles operate at a relatively high efficiency level. This observation plus the fact that airplanes have not changed appreciably in outward appearance over recent years has led some skeptics to conclude incorrectly that aerodynamics is a mature technology, with little to be gained from further developments in the field. It is of interest to note that progress in aerodynamics has occurred without a thorough understanding of the fundamental physics of flow, turbulence, vortex dynamics, and separated flow, for example. The present understanding of transition, turbulence, and boundary layer separation is actually very limited. However, these fundamental flow phenomena provide the key to reducing the viscous drag of aircraft. Drag reduction provides the greatest potential for increased flight efficiency from the standpoint of both saving energy and maximizing performance. Recent advances have led to innovative concepts for reducing turbulent friction drag by modifying the turbulent structure within the boundary layer. Further advances in this basic area should lead to methods for reducing skin friction drag significantly. The current challenges for military aircraft open entirely new fields of investigation for the aerodynamicist. The ability through very high speed information processing technology to totally integrate the flight and propulsion controls can permit an aircraft to fly with "complete abandon," avoiding departure, buffet, and other undesirable characteristics. To utilize these new control concepts, complex aerodynamic phenomena will have to be understood, predicted, and controlled. Current requirements for military aircraft include configuration optimization through a widened envelope from subsonic to supersonic and from low to high angles of attack. This task is further complicated by requirements for control of observables. These challenging new designs do not have the luxury of a large experimental data base from which to optimize for various parameter combinations. Consequently, there exists a strong need for better techniques, both experimental and computational, to permit design optimization in a complete sense.

  5. Unsteady model for standing-wave thermoacoustic engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2010-07-01

    A simplified dynamical system is developed in this paper for unsteady regimes of standing-wave thermoacoustic engines. A lumped thermal capacity model is applied for thermal analysis, including thermoacoustically induced heat transfer. At a critical value of a temperature gradient in the engine stack, the fundamental acoustic mode is excited in the engine resonator. Simulation results demonstrate a possibility of different start-up processes in the engine brought in contact with a high-temperature source. High-amplitude acoustic bursts coupled with thermal cycles may appear initially; and a stable limit-cycle regime is established after several cycles. With sufficiently large nonlinear losses present in the system, a monotonic increase of acoustic oscillations is demonstrated. Similar results have been observed in experiments.

  6. Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

  7. AIAA 2002-5436 OPTIMAL CONTROL OF UNSTEADY

    E-print Network

    Jameson, Antony

    wing aircrafts, helicopter rotors and turbomachinery blades are constantly subjected to un- steady- licopter rotors and turbomachinery by reducing the unsteady effects that contribute towards flutter, buf

  8. Some experiences with active control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.

    1981-01-01

    Flight and wind tunnel tests were conducted and multidiscipline computer programs were developed as part of investigations of active control technology conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Unsteady aerodynamics approximation, optimal control theory, optimal controller design, and the Delta wing and DC-10 models are described. The drones for aerodynamics and structural testing (DAST program) for evaluating procedures for aerodynamic loads prediction and the design of active control systems on wings with significant aeroelastic effects is described as well as the DAST model used in the wind tunnel tests.

  9. Experimental investigation of separation and transition processes on a high-lift low-pressure turbine profile under steady and unsteady inflow at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Francesca; Simoni, Daniele; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro; Bertini, F.

    2010-02-01

    The effects induced by the presence of incoming wakes on the boundary layer developing over a high-lift low-pressure turbine profile have been investigated in a linear cascade at mid-span. The tested Reynolds number is 70000, typical of the cruise operating condition. The results of the investigations performed under steady and unsteady inflow conditions are analyzed. The unsteady investigations have been performed at the reduced frequency of f +=0.62, representative of the real engine operating condition. Profile aerodynamic loadings as well as boundary layer velocity profiles have been measured to survey the separation and transition processes. Spectral analysis has been also performed to better understand the phenomena associated with the transition process under steady inflow. For the unsteady case, a phase-locked ensemble averaging technique has been employed to reconstruct the time-resolved boundary layer velocity distributions from the hot-wire instantaneous signal output. The ensemble-averaging technique allowed a detailed analysis of the effects induced by incoming wakes-boundary layer interaction in separation suppression. Time-resolved results are presented in terms of mean velocity and unresolved unsteadiness time-space plots.

  10. Aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2006-04-15

    The aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine after the end of compression is investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone. To study the effect of reaction chamber configuration on the resulting aerodynamics and temperature field, experiments are conducted and compared using a creviced piston and a flat piston under varying conditions. Results show that the flat piston design leads to significant mixing of the cold vortex with the hot core region, which causes alternate hot and cold regions inside the combustion chamber. At higher pressures, the effect of the vortex is reduced. The creviced piston head configuration is demonstrated to result in drastic reduction of the effect of the vortex. Experimental conditions are also simulated using the Star-CD computational fluid dynamics package. Computed results closely match with experimental observation. Numerical results indicate that with a flat piston design, gas velocity after compression is very high and the core region shrinks quickly due to rapid entrainment of cold gases. Whereas, for a creviced piston head design, gas velocity after compression is significantly lower and the core region remains unaffected for a long duration. As a consequence, for the flat piston, adiabatic core assumption can significantly overpredict the maximum temperature after the end of compression. For the creviced piston, the adiabatic core assumption is found to be valid even up to 100 ms after compression. This work therefore experimentally and numerically substantiates the importance of piston head design for achieving a homogeneous core region inside a rapid compression machine. (author)

  11. Measurements With a Split-Fiber Probe in Complex Unsteady Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2004-01-01

    A split-fiber probe was used to acquire unsteady data in a research compressor. A calibration method was devised for a split-fiber probe, and a new algorithm was developed to decompose split-fiber probe signals into velocity magnitude and direction. The algorithm is based on the minimum value of a merit function that is built over the entire range of flow velocities for which the probe was calibrated. The split-fiber probe performance and signal decomposition was first verified in a free-jet facility by comparing the data from three thermo-anemometric probes, namely a single-wire, a single-fiber, and the split-fiber probe. All three probes performed extremely well as far as the velocity magnitude was concerned. However, there are differences in the peak values of measured velocity unsteadiness in the jet shear layer. The single-wire probe indicates the highest unsteadiness level, followed closely by the split-fiber probe. The single-fiber probe indicates a noticeably lower level of velocity unsteadiness. Experiments in the NASA Low Speed Axial Compressor facility revealed similar results. The mean velocities agreed well, and differences in the velocity unsteadiness are similar to the case of a free jet. A reason for these discrepancies is in the different frequency response characteristics of probes used. It follows that the single-fiber probe has the slowest frequency response. In summary, the split-fiber probe worked reliably during the entire program. The acquired data averaged in time followed closely data acquired by conventional pneumatic probes.

  12. An Aileron Flutter Experiment and Analysis Using Semi-Span Model for the Small Supersonic Experimental Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Kenichi; Tamayama, Masato; Kikuchi, Takao; Machida, Shigeru; Nakamichi, Jiro

    This paper reports a wind-tunnel experiment and analysis that have been conducted under the National Experimental Airplane for Supersonic Transports (NEXST-1) project of JAXA. In order to perform the flight experiment, the design of the vehicle was examined from the stand point of aeroelasticity. The aileron buzz as well as flutter was of much concern for its aileron system on the main wing. Therefore, both wind-tunnel test and analysis were carried out by using a semi-span model with fuselage. Although the buzz was not observed in the test, damping responses of the aileron rotation mode were obtained. Critical damping was observed in supersonic flow, that meant a buzz could occur in ``region C'' of Lambourne's classification. Linear unsteady aerodynamic analysis is applicable to this type of buzz and the characteristics of the buzz of the model is discussed.

  13. Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2012-01-01

    An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.

  14. Measuring unsteady pressure on rotating compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Miniature semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers mounted in several arrangements were studied. Both surface mountings and recessed flush mountings were tested. Test parameters included mounting arrangement, blade material, temperature, local strain in the acceleration normal to the transducer diaphragm, centripetal acceleration, and pressure. Test results show no failures of transducers or mountings and indicate an uncertainty of unsteady pressure measurement of approximately + or - 6 percent + 0.1 kPa for a typical application. Two configurations were used on a rotating fan flutter program. Examples of transducer data and correction factors are presented.

  15. An upwind approach to unsteady flowfield simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical method to determine unsteady solutions of the laminar, perfect gas Navier-Stokes equations has been developed. The structured finite-volume, approximately factored implicit scheme uses Newton subiterations to obtain the spatially and temporally second-order accurate time history of the interaction of blast-waves with stationary targets. The inviscid flux is evaluated using either of two upwind techniques, while the viscous terms are computed by central differencing. Comparisons of numerical, analytical, and experimental results are made in two and three dimensions. The results show accurate wave speed resolution and nonoscillatory discontinuity capturing.

  16. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  17. A computational analysis of the aerodynamic and aeromechanical behavior of the purdue multistage compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monk, David James Winchester

    Compressor design programs are becoming more reliant on computational tools to predict and optimize aerodynamic and aeromechanical behavior within a compressor. Recent trends in compressor development continue to push for more efficient, lighter weight, and higher performance machines. To meet these demands, designers must better understand the complex nature of the inherently unsteady flow physics inside of a compressor. As physical testing can be costly and time prohibitive, CFD and other computational tools have become the workhorse during design programs. The objectives of this research were to investigate the aerodynamic and aeromechanical behavior of the Purdue multistage compressor, as well as analyze novel concepts for reducing rotor resonant responses in compressors. Advanced computational tools were utilized to allow an in-depth analysis of the flow physics and structural characteristics of the Purdue compressor, and complement to existing experimental datasets. To analyze the aerodynamic behavior of the compressor a Rolls-Royce CFD code, developed specifically for multistage turbomachinery flows, was utilized. Steady-state computations were performed using the RANS solver on a single-passage mesh. Facility specific boundary conditions were applied to the model, increasing the model fidelity and overall accuracy of the predictions. Detailed investigations into the overall compressor performance, stage performance, and individual blade row performance were completed. Additionally, separation patterns on stator vanes at different loading conditions were investigated by plotting pathlines near the stator suction surfaces. Stator cavity leakage flows were determined to influence the size and extent of stator hub separations. In addition to the aerodynamic analysis, a Rolls-Royce aeroelastic CFD solver was utilized to predict the forced response behavior of Rotor 2, operating at the 1T mode crossing of the Campbell Diagram. This computational tool couples aerodynamic predictions with structural models to determine maximum Rotor 2 vibration amplitudes excited by both vortical and potential disturbances. A multi-bladerow, full-annulus unsteady simulation was performed to capture the aerodynamic forcing functions and understand the influence of bladerow interactions on these flow disturbances. The strength and frequency content of the S1 vortical field and S2 potential field were examined to quantify the aerodynamic forces exciting resonant vibrations. Detailed comparisons were made to experimental datasets acquired on the Purdue compressor which characterize the forced response behavior at the 1T mode crossing. Lastly, stator asymmetry was examined as a means of reducing forced response vibration amplitudes. For this study, a new Stator 1 ring was designed with a reduced vane count, creating the ability to isolate the relative contribution of the S1 wakes on R2 vibrational amplitudes. A second Stator 1 ring was then designed with asymmetric vane spacing such that two stator half-sectors of different vane counts were joined together to form a full stator ring. By joining two stator half-sectors with different vane counts, the energy of the wakes is spread into additional frequencies, thereby reducing the overall amplitudes. The aeroelastic CFD solver was again used to perform steady-state and unsteady simulations, capturing the effect of the stator asymmetry on resonant vibrational amplitudes. The resulting blade deflection amplitudes are presented and discussed in detail.

  18. Unsteady Pressure Measurements in a Pickup Truck Model

    E-print Network

    Al-Garni, Abdullah M.

    Unsteady Pressure Measurements in a Pickup Truck Model Abdullah M. Al-Garni and Luis P. Bernal of an experimental investigation to determine the mean and unsteady pressure field on a pickup truck are reported using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Mean pressure on the pickup truck cabin, bed and tailgate

  19. Finite difference methods for the solution of unsteady potential flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caradonna, F. X.

    1982-01-01

    Various problems which are confronted in the development of an unsteady finite difference potential code are reviewed mainly in the context of what is done for a typical small disturbance and full potential method. The issues discussed include choice of equations, linearization and conservation, differencing schemes, and algorithm development. A number of applications, including unsteady three dimensional rotor calculations, are demonstrated.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Decelerating Flows Yongmann M. Chung

    E-print Network

    Chung, Yongmann M.

    , the interaction between the large-scale unsteady motions and the small- scale turbulence is not well understood applied in many engineering applications where large-scale unsteady (mean flow) motions are frequently.M.Chung@warwick.ac.uk SUMMARY Direct numerical simulations are performed for a turbulent flow subjected to a sudden change

  1. Analysis of aerodynamic pendulum oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.

    2012-11-01

    Oscillations of an aerodynamic pendulum about the "along the flow" equilibrium are studied. The attached oscillator model is used in order to simulate the internal dynamics of the airflow. Stability criteria are found and stability domains in plane of are constructed for different values of parameters. Influence of damping is studied. It is shown that damping depending on airspeed allows describing experimentally registered phenomenon of flutter occurrence in a certain range of airspeeds.

  2. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  3. Orion Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Free Molecular to Continuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; Greene, Francis A.; Boyles, Katie A.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed for the Orion Crew Module, previously known as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Command Module, to characterize its aerodynamics during the high altitude portion of its reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, that is, from free molecular to continuum hypersonic conditions. The focus is on flow conditions similar to those that the Orion Crew Module would experience during a return from the International Space Station. The bulk of the calculations are performed with two direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes, and these data are anchored with results from both free molecular and Navier-Stokes calculations. Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction, that is, for free molecular to continuum conditions (Knudsen numbers of 111 to 0.0003). Also included are aerodynamic data as a function of angle of attack for different levels of rarefaction and results that demonstrate the aerodynamic sensitivity of the Orion CM to a range of reentry velocities (7.6 to 15 km/s).

  4. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  5. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  6. Three-Dimensional Unsteady Simulation of a Modern High Pressure Turbine Stage Using Phase Lag Periodicity: Analysis of Flow and Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Luk, Daniel F.; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Unsteady three-dimensional RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as experiment. A low Reynolds number k- turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the periodic direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.

  7. Effects of Wing Platform on the Aerodynamic Performance of Finite-Span Flapping Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui

    2010-11-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of finite-span flapping wings. A three-dimensional high-order Navier-Stokes compressible flow solver was developed using the spectral difference method and dynamic grids. An AUSM^+-up Riemann solver was implemented to simulate the unsteady low Mach number flows over finite-span flapping wings with explicit third order Runge-Kutta time integration. The studied finite-span flapping wings, which include a rectangular flapping wing, an elliptic flapping wing and a bio-inspired flapping wing, have the same wing span, aspect ratio of the platform and the characteristics of the flapping motion (i.e., sinusoidal trajectory of the flapping wing tip, Strouhal number and reduced frequency). In the present study, the Strouhul number (Str) of the finite-span flapping wings was selected to be well within the optimal range usually used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes (i.e., 0.2 < Str < 0.4). The effects of the wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of the finite-span flapping wings were elucidated in the terms of the evolutions and dynamic interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEV) and the wing tip vortices as well as the resultant aerodynamic forces (both lift and thrust) generated by the flapping wings.

  8. Aerodynamic interference effects on tilting proprotor aircraft. [using the Green function method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soohoo, P.; Morino, L.; Noll, R. B.; Ham, N. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unsteady rotor aerodynamics, attention was directed to steady state aerodynamics, which was achieved by replacing the rotor with the actuator disk approximation. The use of an actuator disk analysis introduced a mathematical singularity into the formulation; this problem was studied and resolved. The pressure distribution, lift, and pitching moment were obtained for an XV-15 wing-fuselage-tail rotor configuration at various flight conditions. For the flight configurations explored, the effects of the rotor wake interference on the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft yielded a reduction in the total lift and an increase in the nose-down pitching moment. This method provides an analytical capability that is simple to apply and can be used to investigate fuselage-tail rotor wake interference as well as to explore other rotor design problem areas.

  9. Subsonic aerodynamic and flutter characteristics of several wings calculated by the SOUSSA P1.1 panel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. C., Jr.; Cunningham, H. J.; Desmarais, R. N.; Silva, W. A.; Drobenko, B.

    1982-01-01

    Several applications of the steady, oscillatory, and unsteady subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics (SOUSSA) computer program to wings with steady and oscillatory motion, including flutter, are discussed. The program employs a generalized Green's function to the full, time-dependent potential-flow equation to obtain an integral equation for the velocity potential at any point in a flow, even points on a body or whole bodies in a flow. Aerodynamic calculations are provided for two rectangular wings, a clipped-tip delta wing, and two swept wings with and without a fuselage. The number and distribution of the finite element panels are varied in order to demonstrate the convergence of the results. The results are shown to be close to those of lifting-surface theory, and further applications with bodies having deformities, arbitrary shapes, motions, and deformations are indicated.

  10. Unsteady Cavity Induced Vibrations of Flexible Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Chae, Eun Jung; Young, Yin Lu

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic interplay between elastic foil deformation and unsteady sheet/cloud cavitation. Recently, there is increasing interest in the use of light and flexible materials in marine propulsion devices and controlled surfaces, which can deform/vibrate due to un-intentional overload when operating in off-design conditions, or due to intentional passive/active controlled response of the hydrofoil. Numerical studies are conducted by applying a new hybrid coupling approach to efficiently and stably couple a URANS solver with a simplified structural model of the cantilevered, rectangular foil represented by a two degree-of-freedom system. The numerical model is first validated with experimental measurements of a rigid and a plastic NACA 66 hydrofoil. Next, numerical results are shown for plastic NACA 66 hydrofoil with varying mass and stiffness in turbulent subcavitating and cavitating flows. The influence of varying mass and stiffness on the cavitation patterns, vorticity contours and flow streamlines, bending and twisting deformation, and hydrodynamic load coefficients are presented. In particular, results are shown for un-locked and locked-in response due to unsteady sheet/cloud cavitation induced vibration.

  11. Unsteady Flow in Stenotic Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Devi Williamson, Shobha; Berger, Stanley A.; Saloner, David

    2003-11-01

    Recent studies show that many heart attacks and strokes occur from sudden rupture of partially occluding atherosclerotic plaque rather than total vessel occlusion. Our goal is to understand how the mechanical forces induced by blood flow on specific plaque deposits makes them vulnerable to rupture. Models of severely stenotic carotid bifurcations are created from MR images and grids generated for the flow domains. The three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in finite-volume form are solved numerically using physiological boundary conditions. During systole a high velocity jet forms at the stenotic throat in one of the branches, and a long recirculation zone is observed downstream of the plaque. During diastole the flow is more stagnant. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady with chaotic streamlines. Whereas flow in healthy arteries is laminar, irregular geometries and sharp changes in vessel diameter of a severely stenotic artery significantly disrupt the flow, with consequences for shear and normal wall stresses at the wall, and important implications for plaque stability. Supported by NIH Grant HL61823

  12. Hydrodynamic interaction of two unsteady squirmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Giacche, Davide

    2010-11-01

    The study of pair-wise interactions between swimming microorganisms is fundamental to the understanding of the rheological and transport properties of semi-dilute suspensions. In this study, the hydrodynamic interaction of two ciliated microorganisms is investigated numerically using a boundary-element method. The microorganisms are modeled as spherical squirmers that swim by time-dependent surface deformations. The results show that the inclusion of the unsteady terms in the ciliary propulsion model has a large impact on the trajectories of the interacting cells, and causes a significant change in scattering angles with potential important consequences on the diffusion properties of semi- dilute suspensions. Furthermore, the analysis of the shear stress acting on the surface of the microorganisms revealed that the duration and the intensity of the near-field interaction are significantly modified by the presence of unsteadiness. This observation may account for the hydrodynamic nature of randomness in some biological reactions, and supersedes the distinction between intrinsic randomness and hydrodynamic interactions, adding a further element to the understanding and modeling of interacting microorganisms.

  13. The dynamics of unsteady detonation in ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq D; Powers, Joseph M

    2008-01-01

    An ultra-fine, sub-micron discrete grid is used to capture the unsteady dynamics of a one-dimensional detonation in an inviscid O - O{sub 2} - O{sub 3} mixture. The ultra-fine grid is necessary to capture the length scales revealed by a complementary analysis of the steady detonation wave structure. For the unsteady calculations, shock-fitting coupled with a high order spatio-temporal discretization scheme combine to render numerical corruption negligible. As a result, mathematically verified solutions for a mixture initially of all O{sub 3} at one atmosphere and 298.15 K have been obtained; the solutions are converging at a rate much faster than the sub-first order convergence rate of all shock-capturing schemes. Additionally, the model has been validated against limited experimental data. Transient calculations show that strongly overdriven waves are stable and moderately overdriven waves unstable. New limit cycle behavior is revealed, and the first high resolution bifurcation diagram for etonation with detailed kinetics is found.

  14. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  15. Dry deposition onto aerodynamic surfaces and vegetation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.L.; Davidson, C.

    1989-02-17

    Carnegie-Mellon University measured dry deposition of aerosols and nitric acid gas to aerodynamic surrogate surfaces in three sets of field experiments. The first field study was during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) in June and July 1988. The second set was during the extension of SCAQS in August and September. Both these sets of measurements were conducted at the Bernard Biological Station and at Claremont McKenna College in Claremont, CA. The third experiment involved sampling at Emerald Lake in Sequoia National Park. The first field study included measurements of deposition of Waxleaf Privet, Canary Island Pine, and Japanese Privet. All three studies used Teflon plates and nylon filters set into an aerodynamic surface to measure particle and gas deposition.

  16. Unsteady mixed flows in non uniform closed water pipes: a Full Kinetic Appraoch

    E-print Network

    Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    We recall the \\PFS} model constructed for the modeling of unsteady mixed flows in closed water pipes where transition points between the free surface and pressurized flow are treated as a free boundary associated to a discontinuity of the gradient of pressure. Then we present a numerical kinetic scheme for the computations of unsteady mixed flows in closed water pipes. This kinetic method that we call FKA for "Full Kinetic Approach" is an easy and mathematically elegant way to deal with multiple transition points when the changes of state between free surface and pressurized flow occur. We use two approaches namely the "ghost waves approach" and the "Full Kinetic Approach" to treat these transition points. We show that this kinetic numerical scheme has the following properties: it is wet area conservative, under a CFL condition it preserves the wet area positive, it treats "naturally" the drying and flooding area and most of all it preserves every stationary flow. Finally numerical experiment versus laborator...

  17. Assessment of aerodynamic and dynamic models in a comprehensive analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    The history, status, and lessons of a comprehensive analysis for rotorcraft are reviewed. The development, features, and capabilities of the analysis are summarized, including the aerodynamic and dynamic models that were used. Examples of correlation of the computational results with experimental data are given, extensions of the analysis for research in several topics of helicopter technology are discussed, and the experiences of outside users are summarized. Finally, the required capabilities and approach for the next comprehensive analysis are described.

  18. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.

  19. Swept-Wing Ice Accretion Characterization and Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Riley, James T.; Villedieu, Philippe; Moens, Frederic; Bragg, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA, FAA, ONERA, the University of Illinois and Boeing have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large-scale, three-dimensional swept wings. The overall goal is to improve the fidelity of experimental and computational simulation methods for swept-wing ice accretion formation and resulting aerodynamic effect. A seven-phase research effort has been designed that incorporates ice-accretion and aerodynamic experiments and computational simulations. As the baseline, full-scale, swept-wing-reference geometry, this research will utilize the 65 percent scale Common Research Model configuration. Ice-accretion testing will be conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for three hybrid swept-wing models representing the 20, 64 and 83 percent semispan stations of the baseline-reference wing. Threedimensional measurement techniques are being developed and validated to document the experimental ice-accretion geometries. Artificial ice shapes of varying geometric fidelity will be developed for aerodynamic testing over a large Reynolds number range in the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel and in a smaller-scale atmospheric wind tunnel. Concurrent research will be conducted to explore and further develop the use of computational simulation tools for ice accretion and aerodynamics on swept wings. The combined results of this research effort will result in an improved understanding of the ice formation and aerodynamic effects on swept wings. The purpose of this paper is to describe this research effort in more detail and report on the current results and status to date.

  20. Swept-Wing Ice Accretion Characterization and Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Riley, James T.; Villedieu, Philippe; Moens, Frederic; Bragg, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA, FAA, ONERA, the University of Illinois and Boeing have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large-scale, three-dimensional swept wings. The overall goal is to improve the fidelity of experimental and computational simulation methods for swept-wing ice accretion formation and resulting aerodynamic effect. A seven-phase research effort has been designed that incorporates ice-accretion and aerodynamic experiments and computational simulations. As the baseline, full-scale, swept-wing-reference geometry, this research will utilize the 65% scale Common Research Model configuration. Ice-accretion testing will be conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for three hybrid swept-wing models representing the 20%, 64% and 83% semispan stations of the baseline-reference wing. Three-dimensional measurement techniques are being developed and validated to document the experimental ice-accretion geometries. Artificial ice shapes of varying geometric fidelity will be developed for aerodynamic testing over a large Reynolds number range in the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel and in a smaller-scale atmospheric wind tunnel. Concurrent research will be conducted to explore and further develop the use of computational simulation tools for ice accretion and aerodynamics on swept wings. The combined results of this research effort will result in an improved understanding of the ice formation and aerodynamic effects on swept wings. The purpose of this paper is to describe this research effort in more detail and report on the current results and status to date. 1

  1. Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry

    E-print Network

    Dumas, Laurent

    Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry Freedeerique Muyl April 2003; accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract An aerodynamic shape optimization tool for complex industrial reasons, concerns car manufacturers. Consequently, the improvement of the aerodynamics of car shapes, more

  2. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics Vladimir V. Riabov

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics Vladimir V. Riabov Department of Mathematics, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific. Keywords: DSMC method, aerodynamic coefficients, hypersonic flows, similarity parameters, torus, spinning

  3. AERODYNAMIC AND ELECTROMECHANICAL DESIGN, MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF

    E-print Network

    Kochersberger, Kevin

    AERODYNAMIC AND ELECTROMECHANICAL DESIGN, MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PIEZOCOMPOSITE AIRFOILS, Macro-Fiber Composite, Unimorph, Bimorph © Onur Bilgen, 2010 #12;AERODYNAMIC AND ELECTROMECHANICAL actuated aerodynamic surfaces, is found in operating a relatively compliant, thin structure (desirable

  4. THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH LATE TRIASSIC KUEHNEOSAURIDAE by KOEN STEIN* , COLIN PALMER been limited. Here, we provide a thorough aerodynamic analysis of both genera of British kuehneosaur words: Kuehneosauridae, Diapsida, Late Triassic, glid- ing, aerodynamics. The Kuehneosauridae

  5. Aeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    , analyti- cal approaches have been widely used in the design of many bridges. Conventional analyticalAeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities Xinzhong Chen for capturing the emerging concerns in bridge aerodynamics introduced by aerodynamic nonlinearities

  6. A study on aerodynamics and mechanisms of elementary morphing models for flapping wing in bat forward flight

    E-print Network

    Zi-Wu, Guan

    2014-01-01

    The large active wing deformation is a significant way to generate high aerodynamic forces required in bat flapping flight. Besides the twisting, the elementary morphing models of a bat wing are proposed, such as wing-bending in the spanwise direction, wing-cambering in the chordwise direction, and wing area-changing. A plate of aspect ratio 3 is used to model a bat wing and a three dimensional unsteady panel method is applied to predict the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the cambering model has a great positive influence on the lift, followed by area-changing model and then the bending model. The further study indicates that the vortex control is a main mechanism to produce high aerodynamic forces, and the mechanisms for the aerodynamic force enhancement are the asymmetry of the cambered wing and the amplifier effects of wing area-changing and wing bending. The lift and thrust are mainly generated during the downstroke and almost negligible forces during the upstroke by the integrated morphing model-wi...

  7. Parallel Simulation of Unsteady Turbulent Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh

    1996-01-01

    Time-accurate simulation of turbulent flames in high Reynolds number flows is a challenging task since both fluid dynamics and combustion must be modeled accurately. To numerically simulate this phenomenon, very large computer resources (both time and memory) are required. Although current vector supercomputers are capable of providing adequate resources for simulations of this nature, the high cost and their limited availability, makes practical use of such machines less than satisfactory. At the same time, the explicit time integration algorithms used in unsteady flow simulations often possess a very high degree of parallelism, making them very amenable to efficient implementation on large-scale parallel computers. Under these circumstances, distributed memory parallel computers offer an excellent near-term solution for greatly increased computational speed and memory, at a cost that may render the unsteady simulations of the type discussed above more feasible and affordable.This paper discusses the study of unsteady turbulent flames using a simulation algorithm that is capable of retaining high parallel efficiency on distributed memory parallel architectures. Numerical studies are carried out using large-eddy simulation (LES). In LES, the scales larger than the grid are computed using a time- and space-accurate scheme, while the unresolved small scales are modeled using eddy viscosity based subgrid models. This is acceptable for the moment/energy closure since the small scales primarily provide a dissipative mechanism for the energy transferred from the large scales. However, for combustion to occur, the species must first undergo mixing at the small scales and then come into molecular contact. Therefore, global models cannot be used. Recently, a new model for turbulent combustion was developed, in which the combustion is modeled, within the subgrid (small-scales) using a methodology that simulates the mixing and the molecular transport and the chemical kinetics within each LES grid cell. Finite-rate kinetics can be included without any closure and this approach actually provides a means to predict the turbulent rates and the turbulent flame speed. The subgrid combustion model requires resolution of the local time scales associated with small-scale mixing, molecular diffusion and chemical kinetics and, therefore, within each grid cell, a significant amount of computations must be carried out before the large-scale (LES resolved) effects are incorporated. Therefore, this approach is uniquely suited for parallel processing and has been implemented on various systems such as: Intel Paragon, IBM SP-2, Cray T3D and SGI Power Challenge (PC) using the system independent Message Passing Interface (MPI) compiler. In this paper, timing data on these machines is reported along with some characteristic results.

  8. Unsteady, Transonic Flow Around Delta Wings Undergoing Coupled and Natural Modes Response: A Multidisciplinary Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Margaret Anne

    1996-01-01

    The unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Euler equations of rigid-body dynamics are sequentially solved to simulate and analyze the aerodynamic response of a high angle of attack delta wing undergoing oscillatory motion. The governing equations of fluid flow and dynamics of the multidisciplinary problem are solved using a time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier- Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme and a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme, respectively. The primary model under consideration consists of a 65 deg swept, sharp-edged, cropped delta wing of zero thickness at 20 deg angle of attack. In a freestream of Mach 0.85 and Reynolds number of 3.23 x 10(exp 6), the flow over the upper surface of the wing develops a complex shock system which interacts with the leading-edge primary vortices producing vortex breakdown. The effect of the oscillatory motion of the wing on the vortex breakdown and overall aerodynamic response is detailed to provide insight to the complicated physics associated with unsteady flows and the phenomenon of wing rock. Forced sinusoidal single and coupled mode rolling and pitching motion is presented for the wing in a transonic freestream. The Reynolds number, frequency of oscillation, and the phase angle are varied. Comparison between the single and coupled mode forced rolling and pitching oscillation cases illustrate the effects of coupling the motion. This investigation shows that even when coupled, forced rolling oscillation at a reduced frequency of 2(pi) eliminates the vortex breakdown which results in an increase in lift. The coupling effect for in phase forced oscillations show that the lift coefficient of the pitching-alone case and the rolling-moment coefficient of the rolling-alone case dominate the resulting response. However, with a phase lead in the pitching motion, the coupled motion results in a non-periodic response of the rolling moment. The second class of problems involve releasing the wing in roll to respond to the flowfield. Two models of sharp-edged delta wings, the previous 65 deg swept model and an 80 deg swept, sharp-edged delta wing, are used to observe the aerodynamic response of a wing free to roll in a transonic and subsonic freestream, respectively. These cases demonstrate damped oscillations, self-sustained limit cycle oscillations, and divergent rolling oscillations. Ultimately, an active control model using a mass injection system was applied on the surface of the wing to suppress the self-sustained limit cycle oscillation known as wing rock. Comparisons with experimental investigations complete this study, validating the analysis and illustrating the complex details afforded by computational investigations.

  9. Inner workings of aerodynamic sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, A.R.; Szucs, P.N.; Crall, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    The recent trend in using aerodynamic sweep to improve the performance of transonic blading has been one of the more significant technological evolutions for compression components in turbomachinery. This paper reports on the experimental and analytical assessment of the pay-off derived from both aft and forward sweep technology with respect to aerodynamic performance and stability. The single-stage experimental investigation includes two aft-swept rotors with varying degree and type of aerodynamic sweep and one swept forward rotor. On a back-to-back test basis, the results are compared with an unswept rotor with excellent performance and adequate stall margin. Although designed to satisfy identical design speed requirements as the unswept rotor, the experimental results reveal significant variations in efficiency and stall margin with the swept rotors. At design speed, all the swept rotors demonstrated a peak stage efficiency level that was equal to that of the unswept rotor. However, the forward-swept rotor achieved the highest rotor-alone peak efficiency. At the same time, the forward-swept rotor demonstrated a significant improvement in stall margin relative to the already satisfactory level achieved by the unswept rotor. Increasing the level of aft sweep adversely affected the stall margin. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis was used to assist in the interpretation of the data. The reduced shock/boundary layer interaction, resulting from reduced axial flow diffusion and less accumulation of centrifuged blade surface boundary layer at the tip, was identified as the prime contributor to the enhanced performance with forward sweep. The impact of tip clearance on the performance and stability for one of the aft-swept rotors was also assessed.

  10. Transonic aerodynamics; Transonic Perspective Symposium, Moffett Field, CA, February 18-20, 1981, Technical Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D.

    1982-01-01

    After an historical account of the development of transonic aerodynamics before 1940 and in the period 1945-1975, attention is given to the design for cruise performance efficiency of commercial transport aircraft, with emphasis on transonic wing design, the practical aerodynamic problems of military aircraft, with emphasis on store carriage and separation, experimental testing in transonic wind tunnels capable of Reynolds number simulation and aerodynamic flow visualization, and such mathematical techniques as potential equation methods for flow prediction and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations of transonic flows. Also considered are transonic design using computational aerodynamics, the application of computation methods to transonic wing design, computational experience with advanced tactical aircraft, the evaluation of full potential flow methods, and the application of a shock-turbulent boundary layer interaction theory to transonic flowfield analysis.

  11. Unsteady Transonic Small Disturbance theory with strong shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerlick, G. D.; Nixon, D.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Transonic Small Disturbance (TSD) theory is modified to yield steady and unsteady solutions in the case of strong shock waves (where the local Mach number ahead of the shock exceeds 1.3). The modification consists of an additional adjustable nonlinear term which allows the exact Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump relation to be satisfied at all times. The modified TSD theory is applied to steady and unsteady oscillatory transonic flows, and yields results which are in good agreement with solutions of the unsteady Euler equations, and which compare favorably with solutions of the full potential equation when shock waves are weak.

  12. The dynamics of unsteady detonation with diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq Dennis; Romick, Christopher; Powers, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Here we consider an unsteady detonation with diffusion included. This introduces an interaction between the reaction length scales and diffusion length scales. Detailed kinetics introduce multiple length scales as shown though the spatial eigenvalue analysis of hydrogen-oxygen system; the smallest length scale is {approx} 10{sup 7} m and the largest {approx} 10{sup -2} m; away from equilibrium, the breadth can be larger. In this paper, we consider a simpler set of model equations, similar to the inviscid reactive compressible fluid equations, but include diffusion (in the form of thermal/energy, momentum, and mass diffusion). We will seek to reveal how the complex dynamics already discovered in one-step systems in the inviscid limit changes with the addition of diffusion.

  13. Some unsteady fluid forces on pump impellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskovish, R. S.; Brennen, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Special analyses of all the forces and moments acting on a typical centrifugal pump impeller/volute combination are presented. These exhibit shaft frequencies, blade passing frequencies, and beat frequencies associated with a whirl motion imposed on the shaft in order to measure rotordynamic forces. Among other features the unsteady thrust was found to contain a surprisingly large blade passing harmonic. While previous studies have explored the magnitudes of the steady fluid-induced radial forces and the fluid-induced rotordynamic forces for this typical centrifugal pump impeller/volute combination, this paper presents information on the steady bending moments and rotordynamic moments due to the fluid flow. These imply certain axial locations for the lines of action of the radial and rotordynamic forces. Data on the lines of action are presented and allow inferences on the sources of the forces.

  14. Vortex identification and tracking in unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berson, Arganthaël; Michard, Marc; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    The present Note deals with the identification and tracking of vortices in a time-resolved unsteady flow. The approach is based on the combination of two existing post-processing tools that are Galilean invariant functions: feature flow field f and vortex identification algorithm ?. An analytical development shows that the joint use of ? and the streamlines of f allows to identify and track the location of the center of a vortex core with a non-zero convection velocity. We discuss the applicability of this procedure to actual flows for which the assumptions of the analytical approach may not be strictly valid. The procedure is validated using PIV measurements performed in an oscillating flow in a model of thermoacoustic refrigerator. This method proves to be efficient for the automated analysis of convection processes when large numbers of vortices are involved. To cite this article: A. Berson et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  15. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  16. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  17. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

  18. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

  19. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 3: Application of theory for blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the predictions with data from tests at NASA-Lewis. Steady aerodyanmic performance, unsteady blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing and boundary layer shielding are examined.

  20. Effects of rainfall on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Xu, Zhengyu

    2014-11-01

    Rainfall has been considered as an important meteorological factor to threat aircraft flight safety. Adverse effects of rainfall on aircraft aerodynamics have been a constantly hot subject in meteorological aviation community for decades. This paper presents a systematic and comprehensive overview of the effects of rainfall on aircraft aerodynamics. The overview includes an introduction of rain-induced aviation accidents, a list of the hazards of rainfall to aircraft, the natural characteristics of rain, the existing rain research techniques, some aerodynamic considerations for rainfall simulation and the current state-of-the-art research achievements in the field of effects of rainfall on aircraft aerodynamics. Raindrop impingement, splashback and flow of the formed water film upon lifting surfaces effectively degrade aircraft aerodynamic performance, leading to severe aviation accidents. The previous lessons learned should be disseminated and accepted by later generations to avoid aviation accidents due to flight in heavy rain.