Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Unal, A.
1986-01-01
Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.
Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phases II-IV Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns
Simms, D. A.; Hand, M. M.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.
1999-08-19
The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines. To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic stall regimes. Much of the effort in the earlier phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phases II-IV of the experiment is contained in this report.
Low Speed Unsteady Aerodynamics Soumitra Banerjee*
Patil, Mayuresh
Low Speed Unsteady Aerodynamics Soumitra Banerjee* Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061 Unsteady aerodynamics is the study of fluid flow, where the flow field changes with time. The unsteadiness is significant in many aerodynamic applications; few examples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.
2000-01-01
As computational fluid dynamics methods mature, code development is rapidly transitioning from prediction of steady flowfields to unsteady flows. This change in emphasis offers a number of new challenges to the research community, not the least of which is obtaining detailed, accurate unsteady experimental data with which to evaluate new methods. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been actively measuring unsteady pressure distributions for nearly 40 years. Over the last 20 years, these measurements have focused on developing high-quality datasets for use in code evaluation. This paper provides a sample of unsteady pressure measurements obtained by LaRC and available for government, university, and industry researchers to evaluate new and existing unsteady aerodynamic analysis methods. A number of cases are highlighted and discussed with attention focused on the unique character of the individual datasets and their perceived usefulness for code evaluation. Ongoing LaRC research in this area is also presented.
Fundamentals of Modern Unsteady Aerodynamics
Nagurka, Mark L.
Fundamentals of Modern Unsteady Aerodynamics U. Gulcat Springer, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121 Heidelberg, Germany. 2010. 341pp. £117. ISBN 978-3-642-14760-9. T his book is meant as a graduate textbook for aerospace engineers. The first five chapters are on the classical topics whereas the penultimate chapter
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
Turbine blade unsteady aerodynamic loading and heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, David Alan
Stator indexing to minimize the unsteady aerodynamic loading of closely spaced airfoil rows in turbomachinery is a new technique for the passive control of flow-induced vibrations. This technique, along with the effects of steady blade loading, were studied by means of experiments performed in a two-stage low-speed research turbine. With the second vane row fixed, the inlet vane row was indexed to six positions over one vane-pitch cycle for a range of stage loadings. The aerodynamic forcing function to the first-stage rotor was measured in the rotating reference frame, with the resulting rotor blade unsteady aerodynamic response quantified by rotor blades instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers. Reductions in the unsteady lift magnitude were achieved at all turbine operating conditions, with attenuation ranging from 37% to 74% of the maximum unsteady lift. Additionally, in complementary experiments, the effects of stator indexing and steady blade loading on the unsteady heat transfer of the first- and second-stage rotors was studied for the design and highest blade loading conditions using platinum-film heat gages. The attenuation of unsteady heat transfer coefficient was blade-loading dependent and location dependent along the chord and span, ranging 10% to 90% of maximum. Due to the high degree of location dependence of attenuation, stator indexing is therefore best suited to minimize unsteady heat transfer in local hot spots of the blade rather than the blade as a whole.
Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.
2003-01-01
The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.
Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, A. V.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.
Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Kenneth C.; Kielb, Robert E.; Thomas, Jeffrey P.
This textbook is a collection of technical papers that were presented at the 10th International Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics, and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines held September 8-11, 2003 at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. The papers represent the latest in state of the art research in the areas of aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, computational methods, experimental testing related to flow instabilities, flutter, forced response, multistage, and rotor-stator effects for turbomachinery.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.
Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics-implications for testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Gary T.; Tobak, Murray
1988-01-01
The various forms of bifurcations that can occur between steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate the various ways in which bifurcations may intervene to influence the outcome of dynamics tests involving unsteady aerodynamics. The presence of bifurcation phenomena in such tests must be taken into consideration to ensure the proper interpretation of results, and some recommendations are made to that end.
Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1994-01-01
A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.
Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Ryan Jantzen
Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Maneuvers Ryan Jantzen and Kunihiko Taira Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL Kenneth Granlund and Michael V. Ol§ U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH We report on the development of an aerodynamic force model for a flat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1973-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamics of the 040A orbiter have been explored experimentally. The results substantiate earlier predictions of the unsteady flow boundaries for a 60 deg swept delta wing at zero yaw and with no controls deflected. The test revealed a previously unknown region of discontinuous yaw characteristics at transonic speeds. Oilflow results indicate that this is the result of a coupling between wing and fuselage flows via the separated region forward of the deflected elevon. In fact, the large leeward elevon deflections are shown to produce a multitude of nonlinear stability effects which sometimes involve hysteresis. Predictions of the unsteady flow boundaries are made for the current orbiter. They should carry a good degree of confidence due to the present substantiation of previous predictions for the 040A. It is proposed that the present experiments be extended to the current configuration to define control-induced effects. Every effort should be made to account for Reynolds number, roughness, and possible hot-wall effects on any future experiments.
Role of computational fluid dynamics in unsteady aerodynamics for aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Goorjian, Peter M.
1989-01-01
In the last two decades there have been extensive developments in computational unsteady transonic aerodynamics. Such developments are essential since the transonic regime plays an important role in the design of modern aircraft. Therefore, there has been a large effort to develop computational tools with which to accurately perform flutter analysis at transonic speeds. In the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), unsteady transonic aerodynamics are characterized by the feature of modeling the motion of shock waves over aerodynamic bodies, such as wings. This modeling requires the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. Most advanced codes such as XTRAN3S use the transonic small perturbation equation. Currently, XTRAN3S is being used for generic research in unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of almost full aircraft configurations. Use of Euler/Navier Stokes equations for simple typical sections has just begun. A brief history of the development of CFD for aeroelastic applications is summarized. The development of unsteady transonic aerodynamics and aeroelasticity are also summarized.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Agile Flight at Low Reynolds Numbers
Rowley, Clarence W.
of a two-dimensional flat plate airfoil in motion at low Reynolds number, Re = 100, and in a wind tunnelUnsteady Aerodynamic Models for Agile Flight at Low Reynolds Numbers Steven L. Brunton maneuvers at low Reynolds number. Model performance is as- sessed on the basis of accuracy across a range
Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.
Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Meilin
The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating the flow fields around a series of plunging NACA symmetric airfoils with thickness ratio ranging from 4.0% to 20.0% of the airfoil chord length. The contribution of viscous force to flapping propulsion is accessed and it is found that viscous force becomes thrust producing, instead of drag producing, and plays a non-negligible role in thrust generation for thin airfoils. This is closely related to the variations of the dynamics of the unsteady vortex structures around the plunging airfoils. As nature flyers use complex wing kinematics in flapping flight, kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performance with different airfoil thicknesses are numerically studied by using a series of NACA symmetric airfoils. It is found that the combined plunging and pitching motion can outperform the pure plunging or pitching motion by sophisticatedly adjusting the airfoil gestures during the oscillation stroke. The thin airfoil better manipulates leading edge vortices (LEVs) than the thick airfoil (NACA0030) does in studied cases, and there exists an optimal thickness for large thrust generation with reasonable propulsive efficiency. With the present kinematics and dynamic parameters, relatively low reduced frequency is conducive for thrust production and propulsive efficiency for all tested airfoil thicknesses. In order to obtain the optimal kinematics parameters of flapping flight, a kinematics optimization is then performed. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is coupled with a second-order SD Navier-Stokes solver to search for the optimal kinematics of a certain airfoil undergoing a combined plunging and pitching motion. Then a high-order SD scheme is used to verify the optimization results and reveal the detailed vortex structures associated with the optimal kinematics of the flapping flight. It is found that for the case with maximum propulsive efficiency, there exists no leading edge separation during most of the oscillation cycle. In order to provide constructive suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carrie
A semianalytical technique for sensitivity analysis of unsteady aerodynamic computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Durbha V.; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.
1988-01-01
A semianalytical approach is developed for the sensitivity analysis of linear unsteady aerodynamic loads. The semianalytical approach is easier to implement than the analytical approach. It is also computationally less expensive than the finite difference approach when used with panel methods, which require a large number of panels. The semianalytical approach is applied to an isolated airfoil in a 2-D flow and rotating propfan blades in 3-D flow. Sensitivity coefficients with respect to non-shape-dependent variables are shown for some cases. It is expected that the semianalytical approach will be useful in aeroelastic design procedures particularly when mistuning is present, and that it is potentially useful for shape sensitivity analysis of linear unsteady aerodynamics.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [of thin wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.
1977-01-01
A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics during wing flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saitoh, Kenichi; Tamayama, Masato; Yoshimoto, Norio; Ueda, Tetsuhiko
2012-09-01
Unsteady pressure distributions of a two-dimensional super-critical wing while it was fluttering were measured in the transonic flow regime. The results were compared with those by the Navier-Stokes code which includes wind-tunnel wall effects. Although there were discrepancies between the experimental results and the analytical model for the pressure phase delay distribution, no disagreements were observed for the pitching first harmonics provided that there was no large flow separation. In the tests, the flutter was forced to be suppressed soon after its onset before it reached a limit cycle oscillation (LCO) where the amplitude of the pitching angle was supposed to be over 2 degrees.
Rotor unsteady aerodynamics research of a small-scale coaxial helicopter in hovering state
Guanfeng Xu; Ming Chen
2010-01-01
Based on the engineering reality, a calculation model of the rotor unsteady aerodynamics of a small coaxial helicopter in hovering state had been set up. An airfoil unsteady aerodynamic model was established by introducing a set of Leishman-Beddoes semi-empirical indicial response formulas; the aerodynamic interaction between upper and lower rotors of the coaxial helicopter was set up by bringing an
Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.; Suhs, Norman E.
1989-01-01
A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.
Transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic calculations about airfoils and wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, Peter M.; Guruswamy, Guru P.
1987-01-01
Research in the area of computational unsteady transonic flows about airfoils and wings, including aeroelastic effects was surveyed. In the last decade, there were extensive developments in computational methods in response to the need for computer codes with which to study fundamental aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems in the critical transonic regime. For example, large commercial aircraft cruise most effectively in the transonic flight regime and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a new tool, which can be used in combination with test facilities to reduce the costs, time, and risks of aircraft development.
Computational, unsteady transonic aerodynamics and aeroelasticity about airfoils and wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, Peter M.; Guruswamy, Guru P.
1987-01-01
Research in the area of computational, unsteady transonic flows about airfoils and wings, including aeroelastic effects is reviewed. In the last decade, there have been extensive developments in computational methods in response to the need for computer codes with which to study fundamental aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems in the critical transonic regime. For example, large commercial aircraft cruise most effectively in the transonic flight regime and computational fluid dynamics (CDF) provides a new tool, which can be used in combination with test facilities to reduce the costs, time, and risks of aircraft development.
Transonic adaptive flutter suppression using approximate unsteady time domain aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-Gi; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Livne, Eli
1991-01-01
A digital adaptive controller is applied to the active flutter suppression problem of a wing under time varying flight conditions in subsonic and transonic flow. Linear quadratic controller gain at each time step is obtained using an iterative Riccati solver. The digital adaptive optimal controller is robust with respect to the unknown external loads. Flutter and divergence instabilities are simultaneously suppressed using a trailing-edge control surface and displacement sensing. A new transonic unsteady aerodynamic approximation methodology is developed which enables one to carry out the rapid calculation required for transonic aeroservoelastic applications. This approximation is based on a combination of unsteady subsonic aerodynamics combined with a transonic correction procedure. Aeroservoelastic transient time response is obtained using Roger's approximation, state transition matrices and an iterative time marching algorithm. The aeroservoelastic system in the time domain is modeled using a deterministic ARMA model together with a parameter estimator. Transonic flutter boundaries of a wing structure are computed, in the time domain, using an estimated aeroelastic system matrix and are in good agreement with experimental data for the low transonic Mach number range.
An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.
2013-12-01
An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.
Nelson, Robert C.
2003-01-01
Progress in Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 185248 The unsteady aerodynamics of slender wings nonlinearities and flow field time lags. The aerodynamic and the vortical flow structure over simple delta wings of leading-edge vortices and their influence on delta wing aerodynamics for stationary models is presented
Wang, Z. Jane
2013-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 053021 (2013) Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.
2008-01-01
Over the past three years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated design, development, and testing of a new human-rated space exploration system under the Constellation Program. Initial designs within the Constellation Program are scheduled to replace the present Space Shuttle, which is slated for retirement within the next three years. The development of vehicles for the Constellation system has encountered several unsteady aerodynamics challenges that have bearing on more traditional unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. This paper focuses on the synergy between the present NASA challenges and the ongoing challenges that have historically been the subject of research and method development. There are specific similarities in the flows required to be analyzed for the space exploration problems and those required for some of the more nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems encountered on aircraft. The aggressive schedule, significant technical challenge, and high-priority status of the exploration system development is forcing engineers to implement existing tools and techniques in a design and application environment that is significantly stretching the capability of their methods. While these methods afford the users with the ability to rapidly turn around designs and analyses, their aggressive implementation comes at a price. The relative immaturity of the techniques for specific flow problems and the inexperience with their broad application to them, particularly on manned spacecraft flight system, has resulted in the implementation of an extensive wind tunnel and flight test program to reduce uncertainty and improve the experience base in the application of these methods. This provides a unique opportunity for unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic method developers to test and evaluate new analysis techniques on problems with high potential for acquisition of test and even flight data against which they can be evaluated. However, researchers may be required to alter the geometries typically used in their analyses, the types of flows analyzed, and even the techniques by which computational tools are verified and validated. This paper discusses these issues and provides some perspective on the potential for new and innovative approaches to the development of methods to attack problems in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1975-01-01
A general formulation is presented for the analysis of steady and unsteady, subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics for complex aircraft configurations. The theoretical formulation, the numerical procedure, the description of the program SOUSSA (steady, oscillatory and unsteady, subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics) and numerical results are included. In particular, generalized forces for fully unsteady (complex frequency) aerodynamics for a wing-body configuration, AGARD wing-tail interference in both subsonic and supersonic flows as well as flutter analysis results are included. The theoretical formulation is based upon an integral equation, which includes completely arbitrary motion. Steady and oscillatory aerodynamic flows are considered. Here small-amplitude, fully transient response in the time domain is considered. This yields the aerodynamic transfer function (Laplace transform of the fully unsteady operator) for frequency domain analysis. This is particularly convenient for the linear systems analysis of the whole aircraft.
Unstructured-grid methods development for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.; Lee, Elizabeth M.; Kleb, William L.; Rausch, Russ D.
1991-01-01
The current status of unstructured grid methods development in the Unsteady Aerodynamics Branch at NASA-Langley is described. These methods are being developed for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses. The flow solvers are highlighted which were developed for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations and selected results are given which show various features of the capability. The results demonstrate 2-D and 3-D applications for both steady and unsteady flows. Comparisons are also made with solutions obtained using a structured grid code and with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the unstructured grid methodology. These comparisons show good agreement which thus verifies the accuracy.
An unsteady helicopter rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan
1990-01-01
A computational method has been developed to treat the unsteady aerodynamic interaction between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage. Two existing codes, a lifting line-prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis, were modified and coupled to allow prediction of unsteady fuselage pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique was developed to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Also coupled into the method were optional blade dynamics or rigid blade performance analyses to set the rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake and fuselage geometry on the computational results. Solutions were computed for an ellipsoidal fuselage and a four bladed rotor at several advance ratios, using both the classical helix and the generalized distorted wake model. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and the induced velocities and bound circulation at the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries was demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. Initial computations were made to simulate the geometry of an experimental rotor-fuselage interaction study performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1976-01-01
An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries was performed. The results show that the experimentally observed pulsating flow on spiked bodies and in forward facing cavities can be described by the developed simple mathematical model of the phenomenon. Static experimental data is used as a basis for determination of the oscillatory frequency of spike-induced flow pulsations. The agreement between predicted and measured reduced frequencies is generally very good. The spiked-body mathematical model is extended to describe the pulsations observed in forward facing cavities and it is shown that not only the frequency but also the pressure time history can be described with the accuracy needed to predict the experimentally observed time average effects. This implies that it should be possible to determine analytically the impact of the flow pulsation on the structural integrity of the nozzles for the jettisoned empty SRM-shells.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.
1976-01-01
Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.
Fast-Running Aeroelastic Code Based on Unsteady Linearized Aerodynamic Solver Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, T., Jr.
2003-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing aeroelastic analyses for turbomachines for use by NASA and industry. An aeroelastic analysis consists of a structural dynamic model, an unsteady aerodynamic model, and a procedure to couple the two models. The structural models are well developed. Hence, most of the development for the aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines has involved adapting and using unsteady aerodynamic models. Two methods are used in developing unsteady aerodynamic analysis procedures for the flutter and forced response of turbomachines: (1) the time domain method and (2) the frequency domain method. Codes based on time domain methods require considerable computational time and, hence, cannot be used during the design process. Frequency domain methods eliminate the time dependence by assuming harmonic motion and, hence, require less computational time. Early frequency domain analyses methods neglected the important physics of steady loading on the analyses for simplicity. A fast-running unsteady aerodynamic code, LINFLUX, which includes steady loading and is based on the frequency domain method, has been modified for flutter and response calculations. LINFLUX, solves unsteady linearized Euler equations for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blades, starting from a steady nonlinear aerodynamic solution. First, we obtained a steady aerodynamic solution for a given flow condition using the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic code TURBO. A blade vibration analysis was done to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating blades, and an interface code was used to convert the steady aerodynamic solution to a form required by LINFLUX. A preprocessor was used to interpolate the mode shapes from the structural dynamic mesh onto the computational dynamics mesh. Then, we used LINFLUX to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic forces for a given mode, frequency, and phase angle. A postprocessor read these unsteady pressures and calculated the generalized aerodynamic forces, eigenvalues, and response amplitudes. The eigenvalues determine the flutter frequency and damping. As a test case, the flutter of a helical fan was calculated with LINFLUX and compared with calculations from TURBO-AE, a nonlinear time domain code, and from ASTROP2, a code based on linear unsteady aerodynamics.
1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 2009-1299 Unsteady Aerodynamics and Wing of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms such as wake capture, leading-edge vortex, WeisFogh "clap aerodynamics are of particular interests in this study. Simulations have shown that the vortex topologies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangwani, S. T.
1985-01-01
A reliable rotor aeroelastic analysis operational that correctly predicts the vibration levels for a helicopter is utilized to test various unsteady aerodynamics models with the objective of improving the correlation between test and theory. This analysis called Rotor Aeroelastic Vibration (RAVIB) computer program is based on a frequency domain forced response analysis which utilizes the transfer matrix techniques to model helicopter/rotor dynamic systems of varying degrees of complexity. The results for the AH-1G helicopter rotor were compared with the flight test data during high speed operation and they indicated a reasonably good correlation for the beamwise and chordwise blade bending moments, but for torsional moments the correlation was poor. As a result, a new aerodynamics model based on unstalled synthesized data derived from the large amplitude oscillating airfoil experiments was developed and tested.
Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.
2009-01-01
Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.
Application of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis to standard cascade configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Usab, W. J., Jr.
1986-01-01
A linearized potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of nonuniform steady flow phenomena on the linearized unsteady aerodynamic response to prescribed blade motions, has been applied to five cascade configurations. These include the first, fifth, eighth and ninth standard configurations proposed as a result of the Second International Symposium on Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines and a NASA Lewis flutter cascade. Selected results from this study, including comparisons between analytical predictions and the experimental measurements submitted for three of the foregoing configurations, are described. The correlation between theory and experiment for the first standard configuration (a compressor cascade operating at low Mach number and frequency) is quite good. Moreover, the predictions and measurements for the NASA Lewis cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils show good qualitative agreement. However, wide discrepancies exist between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements for the fifth standard configuration (a subsonic transonic fan tip cascade). These can be partially attributed to conditions being imposed in the experiment which differ from those commonly used in unsteady aerodynamic analyses.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics and aeroelastic calculations at low-supersonic freestreams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Goorjian, Peter M.
1988-01-01
A computational procedure is presented to simulate transonic unsteady flows and corresponding aeroelasticity of wings at low-supersonic freestreams. The flow is modeled by using the transonic small-perturbation theory. The structural equations of motions are modeled using modal equations of motion directly coupled with aerodynamics. Supersonic freestreams are simulated by properly accounting for the boundary conditions based on pressure waves along the flow characteristics in streamwise planes. The flow equations are solved using the time-accurate, alternating-direction implicit finite-difference scheme. The coupled aeroelastic equations of motion are solved by an integration procedure based on the time-accurate, linear-acceleration method. The flow modeling is verified by comparing calculations with experiments for both steady and unsteady flows at supersonic freestreams. The unsteady computations are made for oscillating wings. Comparisons of computed results with experiments show good agreement. Aeroelastic responses are computed for a rectangular wing at Mach numbers ranging from subtransonic to upper-transonic (supersonic) freestreams. The extension of the transonic dip into the upper transonic regime is illustrated.
Robinson, M. C.; Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Schreck, S. J.
1999-04-05
Surface pressure data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's ''Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment'' were analyzed to characterize the impact of three-dimensionality, unsteadiness, and flow separation effects observed to occur on downwind horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). Surface pressure and strain gage data were collected from two rectangular planform blades with S809 airfoil cross-sections, one flat and one twisted. Both blades were characterized by the maximum leading edge suction pressure and by the azimuth, velocity, and yaw at which it occurred. The occurrence of dynamic stall at all but the inboard station (30% span) shows good quantitative agreement with the theoretical limits on inflow velocity and yaw that should yield dynamic stall events. A full three-dimensional characterization of the surface pressure topographies combined with flow visualization data from surface mounted tufts offer key insights into the three-dimensional processes involved in the unsteady separation process and may help to explain the discrepancies observed with force measurements at 30% span. The results suggest that quasi-static separation and dynamic stall analysis methods relying on purely two-dimensional flow characterizations may not be capable of simulating the complex three-dimensional flows observed with these data.
Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav
2011-01-01
Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on the Flight Characteristics of an F-16XL Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Zhongjun; Lan, C. Edward; Brandon, Jay M.
2000-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic models based on windtunnel forced oscillation test data and analyzed with a fuzzy logic algorithm arc incorporated into an F-16XL flight simulation code. The reduced frequency needed in the unsteady models is numerically calculated by using a limited prior time history of state variables in a least-square sense. Numerical examples arc presented to show the accuracy of the calculated reduced frequency. Oscillatory control inputs are employed to demonstrate the differences in the flight characteristics based on unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic models. Application of the unsteady aerodynamic models is also presented and the results are compared with one set of F16XIL longitudinal maneuver flight data. It is shown that the main differences in dynamic response are in the lateral-directional characteristics, with the quasi-steady model being more stable than the flight vehicle, while the unsteady model being more unstable. Similar conclusions can also be made in a simulated rapid sideslipping roll. To improve unsteady aerodynamic modeling, it is recommended to acquire test data with coupled motions in pitch, roll and yaw.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Static Airfoils in Reverse Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya
2013-11-01
Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted on two-dimensional blunt and sharp trailing edge airfoils held at static angles of attack in reverse flow for three Reynolds numbers. The current work is aimed at advancing the understanding of fully developed reverse flow for high-speed helicopter applications, and evaluates the potential for blunt trailing edge airfoils to mitigate unsteady rotor blade airloads in this flow regime. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements at post-stall angles of attack have revealed the evolution of a trailing edge vortex formed by the roll-up of vorticity generated in a separated shear layer. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to the flow field measurements to improve the identification and tracking of dominant flow structures. Unsteady force balance measurements have captured non-structural vibrations with frequency content which correlates well with that of the temporal coefficients for the first two POD spatial modes. These vibrations vary in frequency with angle of attack and are shown to be linked with trailing edge vortex shedding. The findings presented here give fundamental insight towards the development of efficient rotor blades for high-speed helicopters.
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.
Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F
2015-02-28
A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Kensuke
A new analysis tool, an unsteady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model, for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) in yawed flow is presented, and its convergence and low cost computational performance are demonstrated. In earlier work, a steady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model was developed with a view to improving simulation results obtained by participants of the NASA Ames blind comparison workshop, following the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment. The hybrid method was shown to better predict rotor torque and power over the range of wind speeds, from fully attached to separated flows. A decade has passed since the workshop was held and three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analyses have become available using super computers. In the first chapter, recent results of unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes computations are reviewed as standard references of what is currently possible and are contrasted with results of the Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model in steady flow. In Chapter 2, the computational method for the unsteady Hybrid model is detailed. The grid generation procedure, using ICEM CFD, is presented in Chapter 3. Steady and unsteady analysis results for the NREL Phase IV rotor and for a modified "swept NREL rotor" are presented in Chapter 4-Chapter 7.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petot, D.; Loiseau, H.
1982-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.
Unsteady Aerodynamic and Dynamic Analysis of the Meridian UAS in a Rolling-Yawing Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lykins, Ryan
The nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic effects of operating the Meridian unmanned aerial system (UAS) in crosswinds and at high angular rates is investigated in this work. The Meridian UAS is a large autonomous aircraft, with a V-tail configuration, operated in Polar Regions for the purpose of remotely measuring ice sheet thickness. The inherent nonlinear coupling produced by the V-tail, along with the strong atmospheric disturbances, has made classical model identification methods inadequate for proper model development. As such, a powerful tool known as Fuzzy Logic Modeling (FLM) was implemented to generate time-dependent, nonlinear, and unsteady aerodynamic models using flight test data collected in Greenland in 2011. Prior to performing FLM, compatibility analysis is performed on the data, for the purpose of systematic bias removal and airflow angle estimation. As one of the advantages of FLM is the ability to model unsteady aerodynamics, the reduced frequency for both longitudinal and lateral-directional motions is determined from the unbiased data, using Theodorsen's theory of unsteadiness, which serves as an input parameter in modeling. These models have been used in this work to identify pilot induced oscillations, unsteady coupling motions, unsteady motion due to the slipstream and cross wind interaction, and destabilizing motions and orientations. This work also assesses the accuracy of preliminary aircraft dynamic models developed using engineering level software, and addresses the autopilot Extended Kalman Filter state estimations.
Numerical Study of Steady and Unsteady Canard-Wing-Body Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eugene, L. Tu
1996-01-01
The use of canards in advanced aircraft for control and improved aerodynamic performance is a topic of continued interest and research. In addition to providing maneuver control and trim, the influence of canards on wing aerodynamics can often result in increased maximum lift and decreased trim drag. In many canard-configured aircraft, the main benefits of canards are realized during maneuver or other dynamic conditions. Therefore, the detailed study and understanding of canards requires the accurate prediction of the non-linear unsteady aerodynamics of such configurations. For close-coupled canards, the unsteady aerodynamic performance associated with the canard-wing interaction is of particular interest. The presence of a canard in close proximity to the wing results in a highly coupled canard-wing aerodynamic flowfield which can include downwash/upwash effects, vortex-vortex interactions and vortex-surface interactions. For unsteady conditions, these complexities of the canard-wing flowfield are further increased. The development and integration of advanced computational technologies provide for the time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulations of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flox,fields. Simulation, are performed for non-linear flight regimes at transonic Mach numbers and for a wide range of angles of attack. For the static configurations, the effects of canard positioning and fixed deflection angles on aerodynamic performance and canard-wing vortex interaction are considered. For non-static configurations, the analyses of the canard-wing body flowfield includes the unsteady aerodynamics associated with pitch-up ramp and pitch oscillatory motions of the entire geometry. The unsteady flowfield associated with moving canards which are typically used as primary control surfaces are considered as well. The steady and unsteady effects of the canard on surface pressure integrated forces and moments, and canard-wing vortex interaction are presented in detail including the effects of the canard on the static and dynamic stability characteristics. The current study provides an understanding of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flowfield. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the canard on aerodynamic performance as well as the detailed flow physics of the canard-wing flowfield interactions. The computational tools developed to accurately predict the time-accurate flowfield of moving canards provides for the capability of coupled fluids-controls simulations desired in the detailed design and analysis of advanced aircraft.
Hugoniot Experiments with unsteady waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratandunono, Dayne
2015-06-01
Recent development of transparent shock wave standard materials, such as quartz, enables continuous tracking of shock waves using optical velocimetry, thus providing information on shock wave steadiness and pressure perturbations in the target. From a first order perturbation analysis, we develop a set of analytical formulas that connect the pressure perturbations at the drive surface to the shock velocity perturbations observed in measurements. With targets that incorporate a calibrated transparent witness material, such as quartz, and with the analytical formulas describing the perturbation response, it is possible to determine the sound speed and Gruneisen coefficient of an unknown sample by using evolution of the non-steady perturbations as a probe. These formulas are used to improve the accuracy of traditional shock wave impedance match Hugoniot experiments of opaque samples driven with non-steady waves. The method is well suited for use in laser-based Hugoniot experiments where the shock waves can be unsteady, with fluctuations and/or accelerating or decelerating trends. We apply this technique to recent laser-based Hugoniot measurements and the results are presented.
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Gurka, Roi
2013-01-01
Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight. PMID:24278243
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J.; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi
2013-01-01
Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight. PMID:24278243
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capece, Vincent R.; Platzer, Max F.
2003-01-01
A major challenge in the design and development of turbomachine airfoils for gas turbine engines is high cycle fatigue failures due to flutter and aerodynamically induced forced vibrations. In order to predict the aeroelastic response of gas turbine airfoils early in the design phase, accurate unsteady aerodynamic models are required. However, accurate predictions of flutter and forced vibration stress at all operating conditions have remained elusive. The overall objectives of this research program are to develop a transition model suitable for unsteady separated flow and quantify the effects of transition on airfoil steady and unsteady aerodynamics for attached and separated flow using this model. Furthermore, the capability of current state-of-the-art unsteady aerodynamic models to predict the oscillating airfoil response of compressor airfoils over a range of realistic reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and loading levels will be evaluated through correlation with benchmark data. This comprehensive evaluation will assess the assumptions used in unsteady aerodynamic models. The results of this evaluation can be used to direct improvement of current models and the development of future models. The transition modeling effort will also make strides in improving predictions of steady flow performance of fan and compressor blades at off-design conditions. This report summarizes the progress and results obtained in the first year of this program. These include: installation and verification of the operation of the parallel version of TURBO; the grid generation and initiation of steady flow simulations of the NASA/Pratt&Whitney airfoil at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg.; and the investigation of the prediction of laminar separation bubbles on a NACA 0012 airfoil.
Unsteady aerodynamic interaction effects on turbomachinery blade life and performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.
1992-01-01
This paper is an attempt to address the impact of a class of unsteady flows on the life and performance of turbomachinery blading. These class of flows to be investigated are those whose characteristic frequency is an integral multiple of rotor shaft speed. Analysis of data recorded downstream of a compressor and turbine rotor will reveal that this class of flows can be highly three-dimensional and may lead to the generation of secondary flows within downstream blading. By explicitly accounting for these unsteady flows in the design of turbomachinery blading for multistage applications, it may be possible to bring about gains in performance and blade life.
Transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic calculations about airfoils and wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, Peter M.; Guruswamy, Guru P.
1988-01-01
Recent advances in the numerical simulation of unsteady transonic flow around airfoils and wings are surveyed, with an emphasis on the treatment of aeroelastic effects. The fundamental physical principles involved are discussed, and the numerical implementation of the methods is considered. Typical results are presented in extensive graphs and diagrams and briefly characterized, with reference to experimental data.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Design on Unstructured Meshes with Sliding Interfaces
Alonso, Juan J.
for unsteady problems with surfaces in relative motion. Nomenclature V ariable Definition c Airfoil chord Static pressure p1 Freestream pressure t Time variable to Initial time tf Final time ~ux Local velocity at a point in a moving domain (mesh velocity) ~v Flow velocity vector v1 Freestream velocity ~x Position
A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.
1985-01-01
A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.
Identification of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic integro-differential systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, N. K.; Iliff, K. W.
1985-01-01
The problem of estimating integro-differential models based on test or simulation data is dealt with. The identification techniques proposed for estimating parameters in models described by differential equations need to be considerably extended to deal with the integral terms. Conditions under which the integral terms may be approximated by algebraic values are discussed. The integro-differential models discussed are related to indicial models proposed by aerodynamicists to describe unsteady flow.
Unsteady subsonic and supersonic potential aerodynamics for complex configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.; Tseng, K.
1977-01-01
A recently developed general theory for unsteady compressible potential fluid dynamics for complex-configuration aircraft is reviewed. The method is based on a combination of the following techniques: Green's function method (to transform the differential equation into an integral differential-delay equation), finite element method (to transform the equation into a set of differential-delay equations in time), and the Laplace transform method (to transform the differential-delay equations into algebraic equations).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1995-01-01
Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.
State-space model identification and feedback control of unsteady aerodynamic forces
Brunton, Steven L; Rowley, Clarence W
2014-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic models are necessary to accurately simulate forces and develop feedback controllers for wings in agile motion; however, these models are often high dimensional or incompatible with modern control techniques. Recently, reduced-order unsteady aerodynamic models have been developed for a pitching and plunging airfoil by linearizing the discretized Navier-Stokes equation with lift-force output. In this work, we extend these reduced-order models to include multiple inputs (pitch, plunge, and surge) and explicit parameterization by the pitch-axis location, inspired by Theodorsen's model. Next, we investigate the na\\"{\\i}ve application of system identification techniques to input--output data and the resulting pitfalls, such as unstable or inaccurate models. Finally, robust feedback controllers are constructed based on these low-dimensional state-space models for simulations of a rigid flat plate at Reynolds number 100. Various controllers are implemented for models linearized at base angles of ...
Application of the ASP3D Computer Program to Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2006-01-01
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.; Tseng, K.
1978-01-01
The Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady Oscillatory and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed. The Green's function method is applied to the fully unsteady potential equation yielding an integro-differential-delay equation. This equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time using the finite element method. The Laplace transform is used to yield a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. The matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces is obtained by premultiplying and postmultiplying the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash by the generalized coordinates. The program SOUSSA is compared with existing numerical results. Results indicate that the program is not only general, flexible, and easy to use, but also accurate and fast.
Aerodynamic properties of a wing performing unsteady rotational motions at low Reynolds number
S. L. Lan; M. Sun
2001-01-01
Summary The aerodynamic forces and flow structures of a wing of relatively small aspect ratio in some unsteady rotational motions at low Reynolds number (Re=100) are studied by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. These motions include a wing in constant-speed rotation after a fast start, wing accelerating and decelerating from one rotational speed to another, and wing rapidly pitching-up in
Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion: A prototype method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.
1989-01-01
A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three- dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.
Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.
1987-01-01
The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral-equations and finite-difference method for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite-difference solution of the transonic small-perturbation equation, the integral-equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.
Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.
1987-01-01
The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral equations and finite difference methods for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite difference solution of the transonic small perturbation equation, the integral equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peele, E. L.; Adams, W. M., Jr.
1979-01-01
A computer program, ISAC, is described which calculates the stability and response of a flexible airplane equipped with active controls. The equations of motion relative to a fixed inertial coordinate system are formulated in terms of the airplane's rigid body motion and its unrestrained normal vibration modes. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived from a doublet lattice lifting surface theory. The theoretical basis for the program is briefly explained together with a description of input data and output results.
Influence of transition on steady and unsteady wind-turbine airfoil aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paterson, Eric; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James
2011-11-01
Laminar-flow airfoils for large stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines are designed to achieve a restrained maximum lift coefficient and a broad laminar low- drag bucket under steady flow conditions and at specific Reynolds numbers. Blind- comparisons of the 2000 NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment showed large discrepancies and illustrated the need for improved physics modeling. We have studied the S809 airfoil under static and dynamic (ramp-up, ramp-down, and oscillatory) conditions, using the four-equation transition model of Langtry and Menter (2009), which has been implemented as a library accessible by an OpenFOAM RANS solver. Model validation is performed using surface-pressure and lift/drag data from U. Glasgow (2009) and OSU (1995) wind tunnel experiments. Performance of the transition model is assessed by analyzing integrated performance metrics, as well as detailed surface pressure and pressure gradient, wall-shear stress, and boundary-layer profiles and separation points. Demonstration of model performance in the light- and deep-stall regimes of dynamic stall is an important step in reducing uncertainties in full 3D simulations of turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer. Supported by NSF Grant 0933647.
Improving the Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance of Transonic Turbines using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.; Huber, Frank W.
1999-01-01
A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The procedure yielded a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the advantages of including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.
Physically weighted approximations of unsteady aerodynamic forces using the minimum-state method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpel, Mordechay; Hoadley, Sherwood Tiffany
1991-01-01
The Minimum-State Method for rational approximation of unsteady aerodynamic force coefficient matrices, modified to allow physical weighting of the tabulated aerodynamic data, is presented. The approximation formula and the associated time-domain, state-space, open-loop equations of motion are given, and the numerical procedure for calculating the approximation matrices, with weighted data and with various equality constraints are described. Two data weighting options are presented. The first weighting is for normalizing the aerodynamic data to maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second weighting is one in which each tabulated coefficient, at each reduced frequency value, is weighted according to the effect of an incremental error of this coefficient on aeroelastic characteristics of the system. This weighting yields a better fit of the more important terms, at the expense of less important ones. The resulting approximate yields a relatively low number of aerodynamic lag states in the subsequent state-space model. The formulation forms the basis of the MIST computer program which is written in FORTRAN for use on the MicroVAX computer and interfaces with NASA's Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) computer program. The program structure, capabilities and interfaces are outlined in the appendices, and a numerical example which utilizes Rockwell's Active Flexible Wing (AFW) model is given and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1974-01-01
The computer program SUSSA ACTS (Steady and Unsteady, Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics for Complex Transportation Systems) are presented in the final version. The numerical formulation and the description of the program and numerical results are included. In particular, generalized forces for fully unsteady (complex frequency) aerodynamics for a wing-body configuration, in both subsonic and supersonic flows, are discussed. The mathematical analysis includes completely arbitrary motion. The numerical implementation was limited to steady and oscillatory flows. A more general aerodynamic formulation in the form of a fully transient response for time-domain analysis and the aerodynamic transfer function (Laplace transform of the fully unsteady operator) for frequency-domain analysis is outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guofeng
Large-amplitude forced oscillation data for an F-18 configuration are analyzed with two modeling methods: Fourier functional analysis to form the indicial integrals, and a generalized dynamic aerodynamic model for stability and control analysis. The indicial integral is first applied to calculate the pitch damping parameter for comparison with the conventional forced oscillation test. It is shown that the reduced frequency affects the damping much more strongly than the test amplitude. Using the indicial integral models in a flight simulation code for an F-18 configuration, it is found that the configuration with unsteady aerodynamics becomes unstable in pitch if the pitch rate is high, in contrast to the quasi-steady configuration which depends mainly on the instantaneous angle of attack. In a pitch-up maneuver in the post-stall regime the configuration with unsteady aerodynamics can stay at a high pitch attitude and angle of attack without losing altitude for a much longer duration than the quasi-steady model. However, the speed will decrease faster because of higher drag. The newly developed generalized dynamic aerodynamic model is of the nonlinear algebraic form with the coefficients being determined from a set of large amplitude oscillatory experimental data by using least-square fitting. The resulting model coefficients are functions of the reduced frequency and amplitude. The new aerodynamic models have been verified with data in harmonic oscillation with a smaller amplitude and in constant pitch-rate motions. The new algebraic models are especially useful in stability and control analysis, and are used in bifurcation analysis and control studies for the same F-18 HARV configuration. The results show significant differences in the equilibrium surfaces and dynamic stability. It is also shown that control gains developed with the conventional quasi-steady aerodynamic data may not be adequate when the effect of unsteady aerodynamics is significant. A numerical longitudinal pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) prediction method is developed. This method is based on modeling the PIO phenomena as limit cycle oscillations and the pilot action as feedback control. Not only the PIO susceptibility but also the PIO severity can be predicted by using the proposed method.
A New Compendium of Unsteady Aerodynamic Test Cases for CFD: Summary of AVT WG-003 Activities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruiz-Calavera, Luis P.; Bennett, Robert; Fox, John H.; Galbraith, Robert W.; Geurts, Evert; Henshaw, Micahel J. deC.; Huang, XingZhong; Kaynes, Ian W.; Loeser, Thomas; Naudin, Pierre; Tamayama, Masato
1999-01-01
With the continuous progress in hardware and numerical schemes, Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics (CUA), that is, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to unsteady flowfields, is slowly finding its way as a useful and reliable tool (turbulence and transition modeling permitting) in the aircraft, helicopter, engine and missile design and development process. Before a specific code may be used with confidence it is essential to validate its capability to describe the physics of the flow correctly, or at least to the level of approximation required, for which purpose a comparison with accurate experimental data is needed. Unsteady wind tunnel testing is difficult and expensive; two factors which dramatically limit the number of organizations with the capability and/or resources to perform it. Thus, unsteady experimental data is scarce, often classified and scattered in diverse documents. Additionally, access to the reports does not necessarily assure access to the data itself. The collaborative effort described in this paper was conceived with the aim of collecting into a single easily accessible document as much quality data as possible. The idea is not new. In the early 80's NATO's AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Structures and Material Panel (SMP) produced AGARD Report No. 702 "Compendium of Unsteady Aerodynamic Measurements", which has found and continues to find extensive use within the CUA Community. In 1995 AGARD's Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) decided to update and expand the former database with new geometries and physical phenomena, and launched Working Group WG-22 on "Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamic Codes". Shortly afterwards AGARD was reorganized as the RTO (Research and Technology Organization) and the WG was renamed as AVT (Applied Vehicle Technolology) WG-003. Contributions were received from AEDC, BAe, DLR, DERA, Glasgow University, IAR, NAL, NASA, NLR, and ONERA. The final publication with the results of the exercise is expected in the second part of 1999. The aim of the present paper is to announce and present the new database to the Aeroelasticity community. It is also intended to identify, together with one of the groups of end users it targets, deficiencies in the compendium that should be addressed by means of new wind tunnel tests or by obtaining access to additionally existing data.
Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.
Validation of DYSTOOL for unsteady aerodynamic modeling of 2D airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, A.; Gomez-Iradi, S.; Munduate, X.
2014-06-01
From the point of view of wind turbine modeling, an important group of tools is based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory using 2D aerodynamic calculations on the blade elements. Due to the importance of this sectional computation of the blades, the National Renewable Wind Energy Center of Spain (CENER) developed DYSTOOL, an aerodynamic code for 2D airfoil modeling based on the Beddoes-Leishman model. The main focus here is related to the model parameters, whose values depend on the airfoil or the operating conditions. In this work, the values of the parameters are adjusted using available experimental or CFD data. The present document is mainly related to the validation of the results of DYSTOOL for 2D airfoils. The results of the computations have been compared with unsteady experimental data of the S809 and NACA0015 profiles. Some of the cases have also been modeled using the CFD code WMB (Wind Multi Block), within the framework of a collaboration with ACCIONA Windpower. The validation has been performed using pitch oscillations with different reduced frequencies, Reynolds numbers, amplitudes and mean angles of attack. The results have shown a good agreement using the methodology of adjustment for the value of the parameters. DYSTOOL have demonstrated to be a promising tool for 2D airfoil unsteady aerodynamic modeling.
Development of an unsteady aerodynamic analysis for finite-deflection subsonic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.
1981-01-01
An unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, was developed to predict aerodynamic forces and moments associated with free vibration or flutter phenomena in the fan, compressor, or turbine stages of modern jet engines. Based on the assumption of small amplitude blade motions, the unsteady flow is governed by linear equations with variable coefficients which depend on the underlying steady low. These equations were approximated using difference expressions determined from an implicit least squares development and applicable on arbitrary grids. The resulting linear system of algebraic equations is block tridiagonal, which permits an efficient, direct (i.e., noniterative) solution. The solution procedure was extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges at incidence relative to the inlet flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Seki, Seita; Ideno, Kazunori; Galal, Ahmed Mohamed
2005-09-01
It is desired to increase the rotational speed of the core engine of the turbofan so as to get the best efficiency for the next leap of engine technology. The conventional mechanism in which the front fan is directly connected to the output shaft of a core engine, have a limit of increasing the spool speed, because the fan diameter is very large. The authors have proposed a new driving system in which the front fan is driven through the aerodynamic torque converter. The front fan can work at the best performance at slower speed while the core engine runs more efficiently at higher speed. Continuously, this paper discusses the response of the front fan in the unsteady operation of the core engine, accompanying with the internal flow. The system has the acceptable responsibility in the unsteady operation which is very important for the aircrafts.
Hugoniot experiments with unsteady waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratanduono, D. E.; Munro, D. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.
2014-07-01
Recent development of transparent shock wave standard materials, such as quartz, enables continuous tracking of shock waves using optical velocimetry, providing information on shock wave steadiness and pressure perturbations in the target. From a first order perturbation analysis, we develop a set of analytical formulas that connect the pressure perturbations at the drive surface to the shock velocity perturbations observed in measurements. With targets that incorporate a calibrated transparent witness material, such as quartz, and with the analytical formulas describing the perturbation response, it is possible to determine the sound speed and Grüneisen coefficient of an unknown sample by using evolution of the non-steady perturbations as a probe. These formulas can also be used to improve the accuracy of traditional shock wave impedance match Hugoniot experiments of opaque samples driven with non-steady waves.
Stochastic model for aerodynamic force dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow
Luhur, Muhammad Ramzan; Kühn, Martin; Wächter, Matthias
2015-01-01
The paper presents a stochastic approach to estimate the aerodynamic forces with local dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow. This is done by integrating a stochastic model of lift and drag dynamics for an airfoil into the aerodynamic simulation software AeroDyn. The model is added as an alternative to the static table lookup approach in blade element momentum (BEM) wake model used by AeroDyn. The stochastic forces are obtained for a rotor blade element using full field turbulence simulated wind data input and compared with the classical BEM and dynamic stall models for identical conditions. The comparison shows that the stochastic model generates additional extended dynamic response in terms of local force fluctuations. Further, the comparison of statistics between the classical BEM, dynamic stall and stochastic models' results in terms of their increment probability density functions gives consistent results.
The vertical-axis wind turbine - Unsteady aerodynamic forces on a Darrieus rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chezlepretre, B.
1980-11-01
Unsteady aerodynamic forces on a Darrieus wind turbine can give rise to fatigue cracking and vibrations in the rotor blades. The present paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of aerodynamic forces during blade rotation. Measurements of pressure differences between homologous points on either side of the rotor were obtained for a two-bladed Darrieus wind turbine with NACA 0012 profiles operating at speeds up to 600 rotations/min. Pressure fluctuation spectra and normal aerodynamic forces were then computed for various rotor tip speed/wind speed ratios. Calculations were also performed in terms of a quasi-steady multitude model of the flow traversing the upstream and downstream sections of the wind turbine treated separately. Good agreement between predicted and observed values of peak pressure and the development of aerodynamic forces on the upstream side is obtained, while less good agreement is obtained on the downstream side, due to uncertainties associated with the operation of this side in the wake of the upstream side. Results also demonstrate that the centripetal forces exceed the centrifugal forces by a factor of 2 to 3, and the presence of nonnegligible levels of harmonic vibrations.
Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Taylor, Zachary J; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Gurka, Roi
2013-01-01
Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpel, M.
1994-01-01
Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques of aeroservoelastic systems require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear, time-invariant state-space form. In order to account for unsteady aerodynamics, rational function approximations must be obtained to represent them in the first order equations of the state-space formulation. A computer program, MIST, has been developed which determines minimum-state approximations of the coefficient matrices of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. The Minimum-State Method facilitates the design of lower-order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena such as the outboard-wing acceleration response to gust velocity. Engineers using this program will be able to calculate minimum-state rational approximations of the generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces. Using the Minimum-State formulation of the state-space equations, they will be able to obtain state-space models with good open-loop characteristics while reducing the number of aerodynamic equations by an order of magnitude more than traditional approaches. These low-order state-space mathematical models are good for design and simulation of aeroservoelastic systems. The computer program, MIST, accepts tabular values of the generalized aerodynamic forces over a set of reduced frequencies. It then determines approximations to these tabular data in the LaPlace domain using rational functions. MIST provides the capability to select the denominator coefficients in the rational approximations, to selectably constrain the approximations without increasing the problem size, and to determine and emphasize critical frequency ranges in determining the approximations. MIST has been written to allow two types data weighting options. The first weighting is a traditional normalization of the aerodynamic data to the maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second allows weighting the importance of different tabular values in determining the approximations based upon physical characteristics of the system. Specifically, the physical weighting capability is such that each tabulated aerodynamic coefficient, at each reduced frequency value, is weighted according to the effect of an incremental error of this coefficient on aeroelastic characteristics of the system. In both cases, the resulting approximations yield a relatively low number of aerodynamic lag states in the subsequent state-space model. MIST is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. It requires approximately 1Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for this package is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX FILES-11 format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. MIST was developed in 1991. DEC VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. FORTRAN 77 is a registered trademark of Lahey Computer Systems, Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1988-01-01
The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.
Unsteady aerodynamic force generation by a model fruit fly wing in flapping motion.
Sun, Mao; Tang, Jian
2002-01-01
A computational fluid-dynamic analysis was conducted to study the unsteady aerodynamics of a model fruit fly wing. The wing performs an idealized flapping motion that emulates the wing motion of a fruit fly in normal hovering flight. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. The solution provides the flow and pressure fields, from which the aerodynamic forces and vorticity wake structure are obtained. Insights into the unsteady aerodynamic force generation process are gained from the force and flow-structure information. Considerable lift can be produced when the majority of the wing rotation is conducted near the end of a stroke or wing rotation precedes stroke reversal (rotation advanced), and the mean lift coefficient can be more than twice the quasi-steady value. Three mechanisms are responsible for the large lift: the rapid acceleration of the wing at the beginning of a stroke, the absence of stall during the stroke and the fast pitching-up rotation of the wing near the end of the stroke. When half the wing rotation is conducted near the end of a stroke and half at the beginning of the next stroke (symmetrical rotation), the lift at the beginning and near the end of a stroke becomes smaller because the effects of the first and third mechanisms above are reduced. The mean lift coefficient is smaller than that of the rotation-advanced case, but is still 80 % larger than the quasi-steady value. When the majority of the rotation is delayed until the beginning of the next stroke (rotation delayed), the lift at the beginning and near the end of a stroke becomes very small or even negative because the effect of the first mechanism above is cancelled and the third mechanism does not apply in this case. The mean lift coefficient is much smaller than in the other two cases. PMID:11818412
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, R. M.
1972-01-01
The method of integral relations is applied in a one-strip approximation to the perturbation equations governing small motions of an inclined, sharp-edged, flat surface about the mean supersonic steady flow. Algebraic expressions for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics are obtained and a set of ordinary differential equations are obtained for general oscillatory motion. Results are presented for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics and for the variation of the unsteady forces with frequency. The method gives accurate results for the aerodynamic forces at low reduced frequency which are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, for cases in which the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly with frequency, the results are qualitatively correct, but of limited accuracy. Calculations indicate that for a range of inclination angles near shock detachment such that the flow in the shock layer is low supersonic, the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly both with inclination angle and with reduced frequency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, John K.; Erwin, Dan
2004-01-01
An experimental influence coefficient technique was used to obtain unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients and, consequently, unsteady pressures for a cascade of symmetric airfoils oscillating in pitch about mid-chord. Stagger angles of 0 deg and 10 deg were investigated for a cascade with a gap-to-chord ratio of 0.417 operating at an axial Mach number of 1.9, resulting in a supersonic leading-edge locus. Reduced frequencies ranged from 0.056 to 0.2. The influence coefficients obtained determine the unsteady pressures for any interblade phase angle. The unsteady pressures were compared with those predicted by several algorithms for interblade phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg.
Unsteady Analysis of Separated Aerodynamic Flows Using an Unstructured Multigrid Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelaez, Juan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Kandil, Osama
2001-01-01
An implicit method for the computation of unsteady flows on unstructured grids is presented. The resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved at each time step using an agglomeration multigrid procedure. The method allows for arbitrarily large time steps and is efficient in terms of computational effort and storage. Validation of the code using a one-equation turbulence model is performed for the well-known case of flow over a cylinder. A Detached Eddy Simulation model is also implemented and its performance compared to the one equation Spalart-Allmaras Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model. Validation cases using DES and RANS include flow over a sphere and flow over a NACA 0012 wing including massive stall regimes. The project was driven by the ultimate goal of computing separated flows of aerodynamic interest, such as massive stall or flows over complex non-streamlined geometries.
The effects of unsteady aerodynamics on single and clustered parachute systems
Waye, D.E.; Johnson, D.W.
1989-01-01
A study was performed to evaluate the performance of equivalent drag area single parachute systems and cluster parachute systems during the early inflation and initial deceleration phase. Analytical work showed that the cluster system could exhibit better performance during this unsteady aerodynamic phase due to a significant decrease in the apparent mass of air influenced by the parachutes. Two test programs have been performed in support of these assumptions. The first compared systems with parachute drag areas of approximately 750 ft/sup 2/ and a payload of 2400 lbs. The cluster system exhibited increased performance and less susceptibility to parachute collapse due to wake recontact. The second series compared systems with parachute drag areas of approximately 260 ft/sup 2/ with a payload of 800 lbs. The advantages of the cluster system were less apparent but performance was moderately improved. 4 refs., 7 figs.
UNAERO: A package of FORTRAN subroutines for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the time domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, H. J.
1985-01-01
This report serves as an instruction and maintenance manual for a collection of CDC CYBER FORTRAN IV subroutines for approximating the unsteady aerodynamic forces in the time domain. The result is a set of constant-coefficient first-order differential equations that approximate the dynamics of the vehicle. Provisions are included for adjusting the number of modes used for calculating the approximations so that an accurate approximation is generated. The number of data points at different values of reduced frequency can also be varied to adjust the accuracy of the approximation over the reduced-frequency range. The denominator coefficients of the approximation may be calculated by means of a gradient method or a least-squares approximation technique. Both the approximation methods use weights on the residual error. A new set of system equations, at a different dynamic pressure, can be generated without the approximations being recalculated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Edwards, John W.
2004-01-01
The motivation behind the inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic effects in the computation of stability and control (S&C) derivatives will be discussed as they pertain to aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analysis. This topic will be addressed in the context of two applications, the first being the estimation of S&C derivatives for a cable-mounted aeroservoelastic wind tunnel model tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The second application will be the prediction of the nonlinear aeroservoelastic phenomenon known as Residual Pitch Oscillation (RPO) on the B-2 Bomber. Techniques and strategies used in these applications to compute S&C derivatives and perform flight simulations will be reviewed, and computational results will be presented.
Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1990-01-01
The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.
Modeling of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav
1999-01-01
Aerodynamic equations for the longitudinal motion of an aircraft with a horizontal tail were developed. In this development emphasis was given on obtaining model structure suitable for model identification from experimental data. The resulting aerodynamic models included unsteady effects in the form of linear indicial functions. These functions represented responses in the lift on the wing and tail alone, and interference between those two lifting surfaces. The effect of the wing on the tail was formulated for two different expressions concerning the downwash angle at the tail. The first expression used the Cowley-Glauert approximation known-as "lag-in-downwash," the second took into account growth of the wing circulation and delay in the development of the lift on the tail. Both approaches were demonstrated in two examples using the geometry of a fighter aircraft and a large transport. It was shown that the differences in the two downwash formulations would increase for an aircraft with long tail arm performing low-speed, rapid maneuvers.
Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackeret, J
1925-01-01
This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Queijo, M. J.; Wells, W. R.; Keskar, D. A.
1979-01-01
A simple vortex system, used to model unsteady aerodynamic effects into the rigid body longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft, is described. The equations are used in the development of a parameter extraction algorithm. Use of the two parameter-estimation modes, one including and the other omitting unsteady aerodynamic modeling, is discussed as a means of estimating some acceleration derivatives. Computer generated data and flight data, used to demonstrate the use of the parameter-extraction algorithm are studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, A. M., Jr.
1973-01-01
A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using combined subsonic and supersonic linear theory as a means for solving unsteady transonic flow problems in an economical and yet realistic manner. With some modification, existing linear theory methods are combined into a single program and a simple algorithm is derived for determining interference between lifting surface elements of different Mach number. The method is applied to a wide variety of problems for which measured unsteady pressure distributions and Mach number distributions are available. By comparing theory and experiment, the transonic method solutions show a significant improvement over uniform flow solutions. It is concluded that with these refinements the method will provide a means for performing realistic transonic flutter and dynamic response analyses at costs which are compatible with current linear theory based solutions.
Time-accurate unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic calculations for wings using Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.
1988-01-01
A time-accurate approach to simultaneously solve the Euler flow equations and modal structural equations of motion is presented for computing aeroelastic responses of wings. The Euler flow eauations are solved by a time-accurate finite difference scheme with dynamic grids. The coupled aeroelastic equations of motion are solved using the linear acceleration method. The aeroelastic configuration adaptive dynamic grids are time accurately generated using the aeroelastically deformed shape of the wing. The unsteady flow calculations are validated wih experiment, both for a semi-infinite wing and a wall-mounted cantilever rectangular wings. Aeroelastic responses are computed for a rectangular wing using the modal data generated by the finite-element method. The robustness of the present approach in computing unsteady flows and aeroelastic responses that are beyond the capability of earlier approaches using the potential equations are demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mabey, D. G.; Chambers, J. R.
1986-01-01
From May 6 to 9, 1985, the Fluid Dynamics Panel and Flight Mechanics Panel of AGARD jointly arranged a Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics-Fundamentals and Applications to Aircraft Dynamics at the Stadthall, Goettingen, West Germany. This Symposium was organized by an international program committee chaired by Dr. K. J. Orlik-Ruckemann of the Fluid Dynamics Panel. The program consisted of five sessions grouped in two parts: (1) Fundamentals of Unsteady Aerodynamics; and (2) Applications to Aircraft Dynamics. The 35 papers presented at the 4 day meeting are published in AGARD CP 386 and listed in the Appendix. As the papers are already available and cover a very wide field, the evaluators have offered brief comments on every paper, followed by an overall evaluation of the meeting, together with some general conclusions and recommendations.
Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics of the F/A-18E at Conditions Promoting Abrupt Wing Stall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Byrd, James E.
2003-01-01
A transonic wind tunnel test of an 8% F/A-18E model was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel (16-Ft TT) to investigate the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) characteristics of this aircraft. During this test, both steady and unsteady measurements of balance loads, wing surface pressures, wing root bending moments, and outer wing accelerations were performed. The test was conducted with a wide range of model configurations and test conditions in an attempt to reproduce behavior indicative of the AWS phenomenon experienced on full-scale aircraft during flight tests. This paper focuses on the analysis of the unsteady data acquired during this test. Though the test apparatus was designed to be effectively rigid. model motions due to sting and balance flexibility were observed during the testing, particularly when the model was operating in the AWS flight regime. Correlation between observed aerodynamic frequencies and model structural frequencies are analyzed and presented. Significant shock motion and separated flow is observed as the aircraft pitches through the AWS region. A shock tracking strategy has been formulated to observe this phenomenon. Using this technique, the range of shock motion is readily determined as the aircraft encounters AWS conditions. Spectral analysis of the shock motion shows the frequencies at which the shock oscillates in the AWS region, and probability density function analysis of the shock location shows the propensity of the shock to take on a bi-stable and even tri-stable character in the AWS flight regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, John K.; Erwin, Dan
2005-01-01
Experimental data were obtained to help validate analytical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to compute unsteady cascade aerodynamics in a supersonicaxial- flow regime. Results from two analytical codes and one CFD code were compared with experimental data. One analytical code did not account for airfoil thickness or camber; another, using piston theory (piston code), accounted for thickness and camber upstream of the first shockwave/airfoil impingement locations. The Euler CFD code accounted fully for airfoil shape.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.
1979-01-01
Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.
Introduction of the ASP3D Computer Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2005-01-01
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.
Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The combined experiment
Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.
1994-08-01
Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by such machines. The analysis showed that inflow conditions were extremely variable and that these inflows yielded three different operational regimes. Each regime produces very different aerodynamic loading conditions that must be tolerated by the turbine. The two conditions not predicted from wind tunnel data are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1997-01-01
The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.
Identification of an unsteady aerodynamic model up to high angle of attack regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yigang
1997-12-01
The harmonic oscillatory tests for a fighter aircraft configuration using the Dynamic Plunge-Pitch-Roll (DyPPiR) model mount at Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel are described and analyzed. The corresponding data reduction methods are developed on the basis of multirate digital signal processing techniques. Since the model is sting-mounted to the support system of DyPPiR, the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is first used to identify the frequencies of the elastic modes of sting. Then the sampling rate conversion systems are built up in digital domain to resample the data at a lower rate without introducing distortions to the signals of interest. Finally linear-phase Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are designed by Remez exchange algorithm to extract the aerodynamic characteristics responses to the programmed motions from the resampled measurements. These data reduction procedures are also illustrated through examples. The results obtained from the harmonic oscillatory tests are then illustrated and the associated flow mechanisms are discussed. Since no significant hysteresis loops are observed for the lift and the drag coefficients for the current angle of attack range and the tested reduced frequencies, the dynamic lags of separated and vortex flow effects are small in the current oscillatory tests. However, large hysteresis loops are observed for pitch moment coefficient in the current tests. This observation suggests that at current flow conditions, pitch moment has large pitch rate dotalpha dependencies. Then the nondimensional maximum pitch rate \\ qsb{max} is introduced to characterize these harmonic oscillatory motions. It is found that at current flow conditions, all the hysteresis loops of pitch moment coefficient with same \\ qsb{max} are tangential to one another at both top and bottom of the loops, implying approximately same maximum offset of these loops from static values. Several cases are also illustrated. Based on the results obtained and those from references, a state-space model is developed to describe the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics up to the high angle of attack regime. A nondimensional coordinate is introduced as the state variable describing the flow separation or vortex burst. First-order differential equation is used to govern the dynamics of flow separation or vortex bursting through this state variable. To be valid for general configurations, Taylor series expansions in terms of the input variables are used in the determination of aerodynamic characteristics, resembling the current approach of the stability derivatives. However, these derivatives are longer constant. They are dependent on the state variable of flow separation or vortex burst. In this way, the changes in stability derivatives with the angle of attack are included dynamically. The performance of the model is then validated by the wind-tunnel measurements of an NACA 0015 airfoil, a 70sp° delta wing and, finally two F-18 aircraft configurations. The results obtained show that within the framework of the proposed model, it is possible to obtain good agreement with different unsteady wind tunnel data in high angle-of-attack regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carta, F. O.
1982-01-01
Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.
Advanced Small Perturbation Potential Flow Theory for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2005-01-01
An advanced small perturbation (ASP) potential flow theory has been developed to improve upon the classical transonic small perturbation (TSP) theories that have been used in various computer codes. These computer codes are typically used for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The codes exploit the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP theory was developed methodically by first determining the essential elements required to produce full-potential-like solutions with a small perturbation approach on the requisite Cartesian grid. This level of accuracy required a higher-order streamwise mass flux and a mass conserving surface boundary condition. The ASP theory was further developed by determining the essential elements required to produce results that agreed well with Euler solutions. This level of accuracy required mass conserving entropy and vorticity effects, and second-order terms in the trailing wake boundary condition. Finally, an integral boundary layer procedure, applicable to both attached and shock-induced separated flows, was incorporated for viscous effects. The resulting ASP potential flow theory, including entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects, is shown to be mathematically more appropriate and computationally more accurate than the classical TSP theories. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data. The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which also is briefly described with representative results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vepa, R.
1976-01-01
The general behavior of unsteady airloads in the frequency domain is explained. Based on this, a systematic procedure is described whereby the airloads, produced by completely arbitrary, small, time-dependent motions of a thin lifting surface in an airstream, can be predicted. This scheme employs as raw materials any of the unsteady linearized theories that have been mechanized for simple harmonic oscillations. Each desired aerodynamic transfer function is approximated by means of an appropriate Pade approximant, that is, a rational function of finite degree polynomials in the Laplace transform variable. Although these approximations have many uses, they are proving especially valuable in the design of automatic control systems intended to modify aeroelastic behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali
2009-01-01
Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Hall, Kenneth C.; Ayer, Timothy C.
1991-01-01
Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of turbomachinery blading. Emphasis is being placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, flow driven by small-amplitude unsteady excitations in which viscous effects are concentrated in thin layers are being considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations, lead to a better understanding of the relevent physics, and they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications. Under the present phase (Task 3), the effort was focused on providing inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic unsteady cascade flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, P. W.
1980-01-01
The characteristics and capabilities of the two tunnels, that relate to studies in the fields of aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics are discussed. Scaling considerations for aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics testing in the two facilities are reviewed, and some of the special features (or lack thereof) of the Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and the National Transonic Facility (NTF) that will weigh heavily in any decisions conducting a given study in the two tunnels are discussed. For illustrative purposes a fighter and a transport airplane are scaled for tests in the NTF and in the TDT, and the resulting model characteristics are compared. The NTF was designed specifically to meet the need for higher Reynolds number capability for flow simulation in aerodynamic performance testing of aircraft designs. However, the NTF can be a valuable tool for evaluating the severity of Reynolds number effects in the areas of dynamic aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics. On the other hand, the TDT was constructed specifically for studies and tests in the field of aeroelasticity. Except for tests requiring the Reynolds number capability of NTF, the TDT will remain the primary facility for tests of dynamic aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Linear Cascade of Airfoils in Separated Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capece, Vincent R.; Ford, Christopher; Bone, Christopher; Li, Rui
2004-01-01
The overall objective of this research program was to investigate methods to modify the leading edge separation region, which could lead to an improvement in aeroelastic stability of advanced airfoil designs. The airfoil section used is representative of current low aspect ratio fan blade tip sections. The experimental potion of this study investigated separated zone boundary layer from removal through suction slots. Suction applied to a cavity in the vicinity of the separation onset point was found to be the most effective location. The computational study looked into the influence of front camber on flutter stability. To assess the influence of the change in airfoil shape on stability the work-per-cycle was evaluated for torsion mode oscillations. It was shown that the front camberline shape can be an important factor for stabilizing the predicted work-per-cycle and reducing the predicted extent of the separation zone. In addition, data analysis procedures are discussed for reducing data acquired in experiments that involve periodic unsteady data. This work was conducted in support of experiments being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Flutter Cascade. The spectral block averaging method is presented. This method is shown to be able to account for variations in airfoil oscillation frequency that can occur in experiments that force oscillate the airfoils to simulate flutter.
Estimation of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination From Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav
2006-01-01
This paper presents an initial step toward model identification from wind tunnel data for an airliner configuration. Two approaches to modeling a transport configuration are considered and applied to both steady and large-amplitude forced-oscillation wind tunnel data taken over a wide range of angles of attack. Only limited conclusions could be drawn from this initial data set. Although model estimated time histories of normal force and pitching moment agree reasonably well with the corresponding measured values, model damping parameters did not, for some cases, have values consistent with small amplitude oscillatory data. In addition, large parameter standard errors implied poor information content for model structure determination and parameter estimation. Further investigation of the modeling problem for more general aerodynamic models is recommended with close attention to experiment design for obtaining parameters with high accuracy.
Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
2014-01-01
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
2014-08-13
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paine, A. A.
1972-01-01
The computer program written in support of the problem to determine aerodynamic influence coefficients on parallel interfering wings is described. The information is geared to the programmer. It is sufficient to describe the program logic and the required peripheral storage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paine, A. A.
1972-01-01
The input data required to execute the computer program AIC/INT (aerodynamic influence coefficients with interference) are presented. The purpose of the computer program is to generate aerodynamic forces for a pair of plane and interfering nearly parallel, non-coplanar wings at supersonic Mach numbers. A finite element technique has been employed. Planforms are described by triangular elements and diaphragm regions are generated automatically.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayatana; Martin, Fred W.; Sutliff, Daniel L.
2008-01-01
At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heller, H. H.; Clemente, A. R.
1974-01-01
A program is presented to determine the flow-induced unsteady aerodynamic loads on space-shuttle orbiter configurations in the early reentry phase. Experiments on 8 degree half-angle cone/flat-base configurations were conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 6 and 15 and Reynolds numbers corresponding to shuttle reentry. Data are available at free-stream Mach-numbers of 0.67, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 15, and 22. It is shown that empirical expressions could be developed for the Mach-number dependence of the overall fluctuation pressure under an attached turbulent boundary layer and under a separated base-flow region.
Program user's manual for an unsteady helicopter rotor-fuselage aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.
1988-01-01
The Rotor-Fuselage Analysis is a method of calculating the aerodynamic reaction between a helicopter rotor and fuselage. This manual describes the structure and operation of the computer programs that make up the Rotor-Fuselage Analysis, programs which prepare the input and programs which display the output.
Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines
Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.
1994-08-01
Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1980-01-01
Recent developments of the Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed and summarized. Applying the Green's function method to the fully unsteady (transient) potential equation yields an integro-differential-delay equation. With spatial discretization by the finite-element method, this equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time. Time solution by Laplace transform yields a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. Premultiplying and postmultiplying by the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash to the generalized coordinates one obtains the matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces. The frequency and mode-shape dependence of this matrix makes the program SOUSSA useful for multiple frequency and repeated mode-shape evaluations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.
1987-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, W. H.
1985-01-01
Bifurcation theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single-degree-of-freedom. The requisite moment of the aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion is shown to be representable in a form equivalent to the response to finite amplitude oscillations. It is shown how this information can be deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the bifurcation parameter is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable or unstable. For the pitching motion of flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed and for oscillation of flaps at transonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either the exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.
Unsteady supersonic aerodynamic theory for interfering surfaces by the method of potential gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, W. P.; Arppa, K.
1977-01-01
A generalized solution of the hyperbolic wave equation was further developed to relate the velocity components at a field point to the potential gradient distribution in the dependence domain. Singular integrals were evaluated in closed form, with numerical integration methods for more complex but analytic functions. Idealization of the lifting surfaces by trapezoidal elements with two sides parallel to the streamlines is computationally efficient. Streamwise integrals were performed analytically, and spanwise integrals were neccessary only on element leading and trailing sides. All integrands vanish on the Mach cone. Pressure distribution on a double delta wing and generalized aerodynamic coefficients for three AGARD planforms were calculated and compared with available results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoreyshi, Mehdi; Jirásek, Adam; Cummings, Russell M.
2014-11-01
Recent advances and challenges in the generation of reduced order aerodynamic models using computational fluid dynamics are presented. The models reviewed are those that can be used for aircraft stability and control analysis and include linear and nonlinear indicial response methods, Volterra theory, radial basis functions, and a surrogate-based recurrence framework. The challenges associated with identification of unknowns for each of the reduced order methods are addressed. A range of test cases, from airfoils to full aircraft, have been used to evaluate and validate the reduced order methods. The motions have different amplitudes and reduced frequencies and could start from different flight conditions including those in the transonic speed range. Overall, these reduced order models help to produce accurate predictions for a wide range of motions, but with the advantage that model predictions require orders of magnitude less time to evaluate once the model is created.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Forces on a Slender Body of Revolution in Supersonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, Reuben; Packard, Barbara B.
1961-01-01
Linearized slender-body theory is applied to the computation of aerodynamic forces on an oscillating, or deforming, body in supersonic flow. The undeformed body is a body of revolution and the deformed body is represented by movement of a line through the centers of the cross sections which are assumed to remain circular. The time dependence is based on sinusoidal motion. For a body of vanishing thickness the slender-body theory yields the apparent mass approximation as it is obtained for incompressible crossflow around a cylinder. Both linearized slender-body theory and the apparent mass approximation are used to calculate the pitching-moment coefficients on a rigid slender body with a parabolic arc nose cone, and these coefficients are compared with some experimental results.
A Cartesian grid method for simulation of the unsteady aerodynamics of microscale flapping flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emblemsvag, Jo-Einar
Recent improvements in MEMS technology is making it possible to develop microscale mechanical devices capable of operating in gases and liquids at low Reynolds number. In the current work a method has been developed to be able to simulate the operation of such devices computationally. The method imposes arbitrary solid/fluid boundaries on Cartesian grids, thus avoiding complexities with body-fitted grid methods. This thesis explains the numerical approximations used for solving the governing equations, the discretization of the equations, and the implementation of the immersed fluid/solid boundary conditions. The method is validated by comparing computed results of flows over an infinitely thin plate, a cylinder, and a sphere, and it is found that the method predicts both steady and unsteady flows with sufficient accuracy. The method performs similarly whether the solid objects translates through the grid or remains fixed in the grid with an imposed flow field. The method was then used to compute the fluid dynamics and force generation of a microscale flapping cantilever beam propulsion device. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow features were explored, and the investigation showed that the cantilever produces thrust and can therefore potentially be used as a simple propulsion mechanism. Finally, the method was used to simulate an idealized model of fruit fly wing in hovering flight. The computed flow fields and force dynamics compared well with an equivalent experimental model, although some discrepancies were found due to a thicker wing being used in the computations for numerical reasons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1976-01-01
An exploratory analysis has been made of the aeroelastic stability of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration, with the objective of defining critical flow phenomena with adverse aeroelastic effects and developing simple analytic means of describing the time-dependent flow-interference effects so that they can be incorporated into a computer program to predict the aeroelastic stability of all free-free modes of the shuttle launch configuration. Three critical flow phenomana have been identified: (1) discontinuous jump of orbiter wing shock, (2) inlet flow between orbiter and booster, and (3) H.O. tank base flow. All involve highly nonlinear and often discontinuous aerodynamics which cause limit cycle oscillations of certain critical modes. Given the appropriate static data, the dynamic effects of the wing shock jump and the HO tank bulbous base effect can be analyzed using the developed quasi-steady techniques. However, further analytic and experimental efforts are required before the dynamic effects of the inlet flow phenomenon can be predicted for the shuttle launch configuration.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Testing Using the Dynamic Plunge Pitch and Roll Model Mount
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lutze, Frederick H.; Fan, Yigang
1999-01-01
A final report on the DyPPiR tests that were run are presented. Essentially it consists of two parts, a description of the data reduction techniques and the results. The data reduction techniques include three methods that were considered: 1) signal processing of wind on - wind off data; 2) using wind on data in conjunction with accelerometer measurements; and 3) using a dynamic model of the sting to predict the sting oscillations and determining the aerodynamic inputs using an optimization process. After trying all three, we ended up using method 1, mainly because of its simplicity and our confidence in its accuracy. The results section consists of time history plots of the input variables (angle of attack, roll angle, and/or plunge position) and the corresponding time histories of the output variables, C(sub L), C(sub D), C(sub m), C(sub l), C(sub m), C(sub n). Also included are some phase plots of one or more of the output variable vs. an input variable. Typically of interest are pitch moment coefficient vs. angle of attack for an oscillatory motion where the hysteresis loops can be observed. These plots are useful to determine the "more interesting" cases. Samples of the data as it appears on the disk are presented at the end of the report. The last maneuver, a rolling pull up, is indicative of the unique capabilities of the DyPPiR, allowing combinations of motions to be exercised at the same time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.
1975-01-01
A digital computer program has been developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge or trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges have been extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation by collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accommodated.
Synthesized airfoil data method for prediction of dynamic stall and unsteady airloads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangwani, S. T.
1983-01-01
A detailed analysis of dynamic stall experiments has led to a set of relatively compact analytical expressions, called synthesized unsteady airfoil data, which accurately describe in the time-domain the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of stalled airfoils. An analytical research program was conducted to expand and improve this synthesized unsteady airfoil data method using additional available sets of unsteady airfoil data. The primary objectives were to reduce these data to synthesized form for use in rotor airload prediction analyses and to generalize the results. Unsteady drag data were synthesized which provided the basis for successful expansion of the formulation to include computation of the unsteady pressure drag of airfoils and rotor blades. Also, an improved prediction model for airfoil flow reattachment was incorporated in the method. Application of this improved unsteady aerodynamics model has resulted in an improved correlation between analytic predictions and measured full scale helicopter blade loads and stress data.
Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research
Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P
1994-11-01
The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.
Unsteady Extinction Behavior of Counterflow Diffusion Flames: Experiments and Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoro, Vito; Linan, Amable; Gomez, Alessandro
1999-11-01
The interaction of a single vortex in gaseous methanol counterflow diffusion flames was studied. The dimension of the vortices was chosen to minimize curvature effects. Formaldehyde induced fluorescence was used as a complementary marker of the flame, phase-locked LDV was used to measure the instantaneous strain rate on the flame centerline. Under vortex excitation, localized wrinkling in the vicinity of the centerline was observed, that, for sufficiently strong vortices, yielded local extinction, with the development of a ``hole" in the middle of the flame. We observed that the strain rate required for the unsteady extinction resulted to be much higher than the ``quasi-steady" counterpart. A phenomenological explanation will be presented based on the characteristic time scales of the problem. Moreover, a simplified mathematical model will be used to quantify the effects of unsteady strain rates on diffusion flames.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carta, F. O.
1981-01-01
Tests were conducted a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blade along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The tests were conducted for all 96 combinations 2 mean camberline incidence angles 2 pitching amplitudes 3 reduced frequencies and 8 interblade phase angles. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Data obtained during the test program, reproduced from the printout of the data reduction program are complied. A further description of the contents of this report is found in the text that follows.
Effect of Transition Aerodynamics on Aeroassist Flight Experiment Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minier, Elizabeth A.; Suit, William T.
1988-01-01
Various transition methods are used here to study the viscous effects encountered in low density, hypersonic flight, through the transition from free molecular to continuum flow. Methods utilizing Viking data, Shuttle Orbiter data, a Potter number parameter, and a Shock Reynolds number were implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Simulations of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) using open loop guidance were used to assess the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. A bank angle was found for each transition method that would result in a 200 nautical-mile apogee. Once this was done, the open loop guidance was replaced by the proposed guidance algorithm for the AFE. Simulations were again conducted using that guidance and the different transitions for comparison. For the gains used, the guidance system showed some sensitivity in apogee altitude to the transition method assumed, but the guidance was able to successfully complete the mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villegas Vaquero, Arturo
Aerodynamic unsteady forces in stationary and rotating wings are analyzed in this dissertation by using a combination of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. Recent progress in experimental measurements has demonstrated the use of TR-PIV to calculate forces by applying the integral conservation of momentum equation in its different forms. However, a more accurate and robust method is needed for unsteady forces calculations. With this in mind, a modified pressure Poisson method is developed and applied in this work, showing its superior behavior compared to other methodologies described in the past. The independence of the calculated forces shows the robustness and stability of the method. Whereas force calculations have been recently considered, the role of flow structures in force fluctuations has not been revealed yet and it is the main focus of this study. To elucidate these relations, a hybrid PIV-POD analysis is applied to reconstruct the velocity field from the most energetic modes of the flow. A model describing the vortex-force relations is proposed in terms of lift and drag variations during the vortex shedding process. A spectral analysis of the calculated forces suggests symmetric periodic lift, drag and circulation variations at the shedding frequency. Moreover, lift, drag and circulation signals are in phase, which supports lift-circulation proportionality. However, non-symmetric drag fluctuations are found at double the shedding frequency within a shedding cycle. For instance, when a positive or negative circulation vortex detaches, different values in the maximum and minimum drag are obtained. The data and physical relations obtained in this work such as main frequencies, vortex-force fluctuations and behavior of reduced-order models can aid in the development of CFD applications at low Re. The methodology described can be applied to any moving or stationary wing at different Reynolds numbers and angles of attack which would provide additional data for numerical codes. Furthermore, accurate measurements of unsteady forces allow determining narrower and more precise safety margins. Moreover, these measurements could be of application in flow control since forces are related to flow features simultaneously.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.
1979-01-01
The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.
1995-01-01
The first objective of the program is to introduce the meritorious counterflow methodology in microgravity in order to quantify the steady and unsteady characteristics of weakly-burning premixed and diffusion flames for a wide variety of conditions including elevated pressures. Subsequently, through detailed modeling and comparisons with the experimental data, to provide physical insight into the elementary mechanisms controlling the flame response. The configuration offers good control over the parameters of interest and can be modelled closely. The knowledge which will be gained from the counterflow flames will be subsequently used to analyze near-limit phenomena related to other configurations by conducting detailed numerical simulations including multidimensional ones. Among the problems to be analyzed are the downward and upward propagation of near-limit flames in tubes and phenomena observed in spherical and cylindrical geometries.
Modeling of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Flows in Multistage Machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Kenneth C.; Pratt, Edmund T., Jr.
2003-01-01
Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and/or industrial experience is that many of the current unsteady aerodynamic theories model a single blade row in an infinitely long duct, ignoring potentially important multistage effects. However, unsteady flows are made up of acoustic, vortical, and entropic waves. These waves provide a mechanism for the rotors and stators of multistage machines to communicate with one another. In other words, wave behavior makes unsteady flows fundamentally a multistage (and three-dimensional) phenomenon. In this research program, we have has as goals (1) the development of computationally efficient computer models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of blade rows embedded in a multistage machine (these models will ultimately be capable of analyzing three-dimensional viscous transonic flows), and (2) the use of these computer codes to study a number of important multistage phenomena.
Modeling of Unsteady Three-dimensional Flows in Multistage Machines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Kenneth C.; Pratt, Edmund T., Jr.; Kurkov, Anatole (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and/or industrial experience is that many of the current unsteady aerodynamic theories model a single blade row in an infinitely long duct, ignoring potentially important multistage effects. However, unsteady flows are made up of acoustic, vortical, and entropic waves. These waves provide a mechanism for the rotors and stators of multistage machines to communicate with one another. In other words, wave behavior makes unsteady flows fundamentally a multistage (and three-dimensional) phenomenon. In this research program, we have has as goals (1) the development of computationally efficient computer models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of blade rows embedded in a multistage machine (these models will ultimately be capable of analyzing three-dimensional viscous transonic flows), and (2) the use of these computer codes to study a number of important multistage phenomena.
Unsteady separation experiments on 2-D airfoils, 3-D wings, and model helicopter rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Carta, Franklin O.
1992-01-01
Information on unsteady separation and dynamic stall is being obtained from two experimental programs that have been underway at United Technologies Research Center since 1984. The first program is designed to obtain detailed surface pressure and boundary layer condition information during high amplitude pitching oscillations of a large (17.3 in. chord) model wing in a wind tunnel. The second program involves the construction and testing of a pressure-instrumented model helicopter rotor. This presentation describes some of the results of these experiments, and in particular compares the detailed dynamic stall inception information obtained from the oscillating wing with the unsteady separation and reverse flow results measured on the retreating blade side of the model rotor during wind tunnel testing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landron, Claude; Hennet, Louis; Coutures, Jean-Pierre; Jenkins, Tudor; Alétru, Chantal; Greaves, Neville; Soper, Alan; Derbyshire, Gareth
2000-04-01
Conventional radiative furnaces require sample containment that encourages contamination at elevated temperatures and generally need windows which restrict the entrance and exit solid angles required for diffraction and scattering measurements. We describe a contactless windowless furnace based on aerodynamic levitation and laser heating which has been designed for high temperature neutron scattering experiments. Data from initial experiments are reported for crystalline and amorphous oxides at temperatures up to 1900 °C, using the spallation neutron source ISIS together with our laser-heated aerodynamic levitator. Accurate reproduction of thermal expansion coefficients and radial distribution functions have been obtained, demonstrating the utility of aerodynamic levitation methods for neutron scattering methods.
Collins, Dannie L.; Flynn, Kathleen M.
1978-01-01
The measured hydraulic data collected in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility located at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center, near Bay St. Louis, Miss., are summarized for a series of experiments designed to study steady and unsteady flow over uniform grass roughness. All experiments were conducted during the 1973 and 1974 test seasons. Tables of measured ground-surface elevations, water-surface elevations, and point velocities are included for all experiments. A total of 19 steady flow experiments and 7 unsteady flow experiments for varying grass heights are included. The tabulated point velocities and water-surface elevations for the unsteady flow experiments were selected to represent the general changes in the flow variables as the flood wave passed through the facility but do not include all collected data. However, all data that were collected have been stored on computer disk storage and may be retrieved using the listing programs and memory locations. (Woodard-USGS)
Inverse problems and optimal experiment design in unsteady heat transfer processes identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Artyukhin, Eugene A.
1991-01-01
Experimental-computational methods for estimating characteristics of unsteady heat transfer processes are analyzed. The methods are based on the principles of distributed parameter system identification. The theoretical basis of such methods is the numerical solution of nonlinear ill-posed inverse heat transfer problems and optimal experiment design problems. Numerical techniques for solving problems are briefly reviewed. The results of the practical application of identification methods are demonstrated when estimating effective thermophysical characteristics of composite materials and thermal contact resistance in two-layer systems.
HiMAT aerodynamic design and flight test experience
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matheny, N. W.; Panageas, G. N.
1981-01-01
Consideration is given to the design phase of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology program. Design objectives are examined, noting full-scale design and the remotely piloted research vehicle. Attention is given to subsonic, transonic, and supersonic design. Design results are discussed with reference to aerodynamic efficiency, aeroelastic tailoring, and the flight test program.
Unsteady aerodynamic forces on small-scale wings: experiments, simulations and models
Colonius, Tim
to dynamic stall in the presence of large gusts and rapid maneuvers. Dynamic stall occurs when the effective of Technology, Chicago, IL, 60616 The goal of this work is to develop low order dynamical systems models is shown to reproduce the lift on a flat plate at a static angle of attack above the stall angle. DNS
Collins, Dannie L.; Flynn, Kathleen M.
1979-01-01
This report summarizes and makes available to other investigators the measured hydraulic data collected during a series of experiments designed to study the effect of patterned bed roughness on steady and unsteady open-channel flow. The patterned effect of the roughness was obtained by clear-cut mowing of designated areas of an otherwise fairly dense coverage of coastal Bermuda grass approximately 250 mm high. All experiments were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility during the period of October 7 through December 12, 1974. Data from 18 steady flow experiments and 10 unsteady flow experiments are summarized. Measured data included are ground-surface elevations, grass heights and densities, water-surface elevations and point velocities for all experiments. Additional tables of water-surface elevations and measured point velocities are included for the clear-cut areas for most experiments. One complete set of average water-surface elevations and one complete set of measured point velocities are tabulated for each steady flow experiment. Time series data, on a 2-minute time interval, are tabulated for both water-surface elevations and point velocities for each unsteady flow experiment. All data collected, including individual records of water-surface elevations for the steady flow experiments, have been stored on computer disk storage and can be retrieved using the computer programs listed in the attachment to this report. (Kosco-USGS)
Panoramic diagnostics of surface temperatures and heat fluxes in an aerodynamic experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkova, G. M.; Kovrizhina, V. N.
2010-12-01
The principles of visualization and measurement of surface temperatures and heat fluxes by the method of liquid-crystal tomography in an aerophysical experiment are described. The properties of polymeric liquid-crystal, heat-sensitive coatings and application of them in subsonic and hypersonic facilities for investigating the structure of a near-wall flow and aerodynamic heating are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carta, F. O.
1981-01-01
Computer data are provided for tests conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge.
Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Knowledge Based Airfoil Aerodynamic aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. The approach employs the unsteady CFD flow simulations in the near on analyzing the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of an airfoil and examining the sensitivities
A High Altitude-Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Flight Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Don; Krake, Keith; Hamory, Phil; Drela, Mark; Lee, Seunghee (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
A sailplane is currently being developed at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to support a high altitude flight experiment. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the performance characteristics of an airfoil at altitudes between 100,000 and 70,000 feet at Mach numbers between 0.65 and 0.5. The airfoil lift and drag are measured from pilot and static pressures. The location of the separation bubble and vortex shedding are measured from a hot film strip. The details of the flight experiment are presented. A comparison of several estimates of the airfoil performance is also presented. The airfoil, APEX-16, was designed by Drela (MIT) with his MSES code. A two dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis has been performed by Tatineni and Zhong (UCLA) and another at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The role these analysis served to define the experiment is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radwan, S. F.; Rockwell, D. O.; Johnson, S. H.
1982-01-01
Existing interpretations of the trailing edge condition, addressing both theoretical and experimental works in steady, as well as unsteady flows are critically reviewed. The work of Kutta and Joukowski on the trailing edge condition in steady flow is reviewed. It is shown that for most practical airfoils and blades (as in the case of most turbomachine blades), this condition is violated due to rounded trailing edges and high frequency effects, the flow dynamics in the trailing edge region being dominated by viscous forces; therefore, any meaningful modelling must include viscous effects. The question of to what extent the trailing edge condition affects acoustic radiation from the edge is raised; it is found that violation of the trailing edge condition leads to significant sound diffraction at the tailing edge, which is related to the problem of noise generation. Finally, various trailing edge conditions in unsteady flow are discussed, with emphasis on high reduced frequencies.
Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data
Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.
1994-08-01
Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.
The Modern Design of Experiments for Configuration Aerodynamics: A Case Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeLoach, Richard
2006-01-01
The effects of slowly varying and persisting covariate effects on the accuracy and precision of experimental result is reviewed, as is the rationale for run-order randomization as a quality assurance tactic employed in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) to defend against such effects. Considerable analytical complexity is introduced by restrictions on randomization in configuration aerodynamics tests because they involve hard-to-change configuration variables that cannot be randomized conveniently. Tradeoffs are examined between quality and productivity associated with varying degrees of rigor in accounting for such randomization restrictions. Certain characteristics of a configuration aerodynamics test are considered that may justify a relaxed accounting for randomization restrictions to achieve a significant reduction in analytical complexity with a comparably negligible adverse impact on the validity of the experimental results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1994-01-01
A two dimensional linear aeroacoustic theory for rotor/stator interaction with unsteady coupling was derived and explored in Volume 1 of this report. Computer program CUP2D has been written in FORTRAN embodying the theoretical equations. This volume (Volume 2) describes the structure of the code, installation and running, preparation of the input file, and interpretation of the output. A sample case is provided with printouts of the input and output. The source code is included with comments linking it closely to the theoretical equations in Volume 1.
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-01-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-03-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowe, W. S.; Redman, M. C.; Ehlers, F. E.; Sebastian, J. D.
1975-01-01
A theoretical analysis and computer program was developed for the prediction of unsteady lifting surface loadings caused by motions of leading edge and trailing edge control surfaces having sealed gaps. The final form of the downwash integral equation was formulated by isolating the singularities from the nonsingular terms and using a preferred solution process to remove and evaluate the downwash discontinuities in a systematic manner. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental pressure data are made for several control surface configurations. The comparisons indicate that reasonably accurate theoretical pressure distributions and generalized forces may be obtained for a wide variety of control surface configurations. Spanwise symmetry or antisymmetry of motion, and up to six control surfaces on each half span can be accommodated.
Recent "Ground Testing" Experiences in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zell, Peter; Stich, Phil; Sverdrup, Jacobs; George, M. W. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The large test sections of the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) wind tunnels provide ideal controlled wind environments to test ground-based objects and vehicles. Though this facility was designed and provisioned primarily for aeronautical testing requirements, several experiments have been designed to utilize existing model mount structures to support "non-flying" systems. This presentation will discuss some of the ground-based testing capabilities of the facility and provide examples of groundbased tests conducted in the facility to date. It will also address some future work envisioned and solicit input from the SATA membership on ways to improve the service that NASA makes available to customers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1994-01-01
Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY FLOW
Patil, Mayuresh
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY FLOW William Walker Virginia Polytechnic to obtain unsteady aerodynamic data from a two dimensional wing, and analyzing the pressure variations with time over the wing surface. The data was gathered by using electronic pressure transducers
ATRAN3S: An unsteady transonic code for clean wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, G. P.; Goorjian, P. M.; Merritt, F. J.
1985-01-01
The development and applications of the unsteady transonic code ATRAN3S for clean wings are discussed. Explanations of the unsteady, transonic small-disturbance aerodynamic equations that are used and their solution procedures are discussed. A detailed user's guide, along with input and output for a sample case, is given.
Unsteady fluid-structure interactions of membrane airfoils at low Reynolds numbers
P. Rojratsirikul; Z. Wang; I. Gursul
2010-01-01
Membrane wings are used both in nature and small aircraft as lifting surfaces. Separated flows are common at low Reynolds numbers and are the main sources of unsteadiness. Yet, the unsteady aspects of the fluid-structure interactions of membrane airfoils are largely unknown. An experimental study of unsteady aerodynamics of two-dimensional membrane airfoils at low Reynolds numbers has been conducted. Measurements
Unsteady transonic flow in cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1984-01-01
There is a need for methods to predict the unsteady air loads associated with flutter of turbomachinery blading at transonic speeds. The results of such an analysis in which the steady relative flow approaching a cascade of thin airfoils is assumed to be transonic, irrotational, and isentropic is presented. The blades in the cascade are allowed to undergo a small amplitude harmonic oscillation which generates a small unsteady flow superimposed on the existing steady flow. The blades are assumed to oscillate with a prescribed motion of constant amplitude and interblade phase angle. The equations of motion are obtained by linearizing about a uniform flow the inviscid nonheat conducting continuity and momentum equations. The resulting equations are solved by employing the Weiner Hopf technique. The solution yields the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the cascade at Mach number equal to 1. Making use of an unsteady transonic similarity law, these results are compared with the results obtained from linear unsteady subsonic and supersonic cascade theories. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, solidity, stagger angle, and position of pitching axis on the flutter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oeztuerk, B; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.
2005-01-01
The paper experimentally and theoretically studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and aerodynamic characteristics on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds number of 110,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). For one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, intermittency behaviors were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The current investigation attempts to extend the intermittency unsteady boundary layer transition model developed in previously to the LPT cases, where separation occurs on the suction surface at a low Reynolds number. The results of the unsteady boundary layer measurements and the intermittency analysis were presented in the ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms. The analysis of the boundary layer experimental data with the flow separation, confirms the universal character of the relative intermittency function which is described by a Gausssian function.
Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, Kiran
Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It is hypothesized, and verified with experimental and computational data, that LEV formation always occurs at the same critical value of LESP irrespective of motion kinematics. Further, the applicability of the LESP criterion in influencing the occurrence of LEV formation is demonstrated. To model the growth and convection of leading-edge vortices, the unsteady thin-airfoil theory is augmented with discrete-vortex shedding from the leading edge. The LESP criterion is used to predict and modulate the shedding of leading-edge vorticity. Comparisons with experiments and CFD for test-cases with different airfoils, Reynolds numbers and motion kinematics, show that the method performs remarkably well in predicting force coefficients and flowfields for unsteady flows. The use of a single empirical parameter - the critical LESP value, allows the determination of onset, growth and termination of leading-edge vortex shedding. In the final part of the research, the discrete-vortex model is extended to flows where the freestream velocity is varying or small in comparison with motion velocity. With this extension, the method is made applicable to a larger set of 2D flows such as perching and hovering maneuvers, gusts, and sinusoidally varying freestream. Abstractions of perching and hovering are designed as test cases and used to validate the low-order model's performance in highly-unsteady, vortex-dominated flows. Alongside development of the low-order methodology, several features of unsteady flows are studied and analyzed with the aid of CFD and experiments. While remaining computationally inexpensive and retaining the essential flow-physics, the method is seen to be successful in prediction of both force coefficients and flow histories.
A reduced order model of unsteady flows in turbomachinery
Hall, K.C.; Florea, R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Lanzkron, P.J. [Raytheon Co., Marlborough, MA (United States)
1995-07-01
A novel technique for computing unsteady flows about turbomachinery cascades is presented. Starting with a frequency domain CFD description of unsteady aerodynamic flows, the authors form a large, sparse, generalized, non-Hermititan eigenvalue problem that describes the natural modes and frequencies of fluid motion about the cascade. They compute the dominant left and right eigenmodes and corresponding eigenfrequencies using a Lanczos algorithm. Then, using just a few of the resulting eigenmodes, they construct a reduced order model of the unsteady flow field. With this model, one can rapidly and accurately predict the unsteady aerodynamic loads acting on the cascade over a wide range of reduced frequencies and arbitrary modes of vibration. Moreover, the eigenmode information provides insights into the physics of unsteady flows. Finally they note that the form of the reduced order model is well suited for use in active control of aeroelastic and aeroacoustic phenomena.
An aerodynamic model for one and two degree of freedom wing rock of slender delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, John
1993-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.
Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obayashi, Shigeru
1994-01-01
Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations, the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At ARC a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft, and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to enhance ENSAERO in both algorithm and geometric capabilities. During the last five years, the algorithms of the code have been enhanced extensively by using high-resolution upwind algorithms and efficient implicit solvers. The zonal capability of the code has been extended from a one-to-one grid interface to a mismatching unsteady zonal interface. The geometric capability of the code has been extended from a single oscillating wing case to a full-span wing-body configuration with oscillating control surfaces. Each time a new capability was added, a proper validation case was simulated, and the capability of the code was demonstrated.
Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.
2004-01-01
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.
2004-01-01
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in real-time, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real-time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
Computational unsteady aerodynamics for lifting surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.
1988-01-01
Two dimensional problems are solved using numerical techniques. Navier-Stokes equations are studied both in the vorticity-stream function formulation which appears to be the optimal choice for two dimensional problems, using a storage approach, and in the velocity pressure formulation which minimizes the number of unknowns in three dimensional problems. Analysis shows that compact centered conservative second order schemes for the vorticity equation are the most robust for high Reynolds number flows. Serious difficulties remain in the choice of turbulent models, to keep reasonable CPU efficiency.
Unsteady airloads on rotary wings in subsonic, compressible flow
Schatzle, Paul Russell
1976-01-01
with the steady load distribution, i. e. , dC W. The unsteady aero- dynamic derivatives are then calculated based on this converged wake geometry. 27 Input Rotor G~ ome try II Flight Conditions Compute Estimate For CT Based On Blade Element Theory.... and Jones, W. P. , "Application to Rotary Wings of a Simplified Aerodynamic Lifting Surface Theory for Unsteady Compres- sible Flow, " Proceedings of the AHS/NASA-Ames Specialist's Meeting on Rotorcraft Dynamics, February 1974. Jenny, D. S. , Olson, J. R...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curry, Robert E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.
1989-01-01
A flight experiment was conducted to evaluate a pressure measurement system which uses pneumatic tubing and remotely located electronically scanned pressure transducer modules for in-flight unsteady aerodynamic studies. A parametric study of tubing length and diameter on the attenuation and lag of the measured signals was conducted. The hardware was found to operate satisfactorily at rates of up to 500 samples/sec per port in flight. The signal attenuation and lag due to tubing were shown to increase with tubing length, decrease with tubing diameter, and increase with altitude over the ranges tested. Measurable signal levels were obtained for even the longest tubing length tested, 4 ft, at frequencies up to 100 Hz. This instrumentation system approach provides a practical means of conducting detailed unsteady pressure surveys in flight.
Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun
2011-01-01
A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.
Numerical calculations of two dimensional, unsteady transonic flows with circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.
1974-01-01
The feasibility of obtaining two-dimensional, unsteady transonic aerodynamic data by numerically integrating the Euler equations is investigated. An explicit, third-order-accurate, noncentered, finite-difference scheme is used to compute unsteady flows about airfoils. Solutions for lifting and nonlifting airfoils are presented and compared with subsonic linear theory. The applicability and efficiency of the numerical indicial function method are outlined. Numerically computed subsonic and transonic oscillatory aerodynamic coefficients are presented and compared with those obtained from subsonic linear theory and transonic wind-tunnel data.
Hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bein, T.; Friedmann, P.; Zhong, X.; Nydick, I.
1993-01-01
The general equations describing the nonlinear fluttering oscillations of shallow, curved, heated orthotropic panels have been derived. The formulation takes into account the location of the panel on the surface of a generic hypersonic vehicle, when calculating the aerodynamic loads. It is also shown that third order piston theory produces unsteady aerodynamic loading which is in close agreement with that based upon direct solution of the Euler equations. Results, for simply supported panels, are obtained using Galerkin's method combined with direct numerical integration in time to compute stable limit cycle amplitudes. These results illustrate the sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior to the unsteady aerodynamic assumptions, temperature, orthotropicity and flow orientation.
Some remarks on the design of transonic tunnels with low levels of flow unsteadiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mabey, D. G.
1976-01-01
The principal sources of flow unsteadiness in the circuit of a transonic wind tunnel are presented. Care must be taken to avoid flow separations, acoustic resonances and large scale turbulence. Some problems discussed are the elimination of diffuser separations, the aerodynamic design of coolers and the unsteadiness generated in ventilated working sections.
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow Around Forward Flight Helicopter with Coaxial Rotors
Heyong XU; Zhengyin YE
2011-01-01
Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations are numerically solved to simulate the unsteady flows around forward flight helicopter with coaxial rotors based on unstructured dynamic overset grids. The performances of the two coaxial rotors both become worse because of the aerodynamic interaction between them, and the influence of the top rotor on the bottom rotor is greater than that of the bottom
Development of a linearized unsteady Euler analysis for turbomachinery blade rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Kousen, Kenneth A.
1995-01-01
A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for axial-flow turbomachinery blading is described in this report. The linearization is based on the Euler equations of fluid motion and is motivated by the need for an efficient aerodynamic analysis that can be used in predicting the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of blade rows. The field equations and surface conditions required for inviscid, nonlinear and linearized, unsteady aerodynamic analyses of three-dimensional flow through a single, blade row operating within a cylindrical duct, are derived. An existing numerical algorithm for determining time-accurate solutions of the nonlinear unsteady flow problem is described, and a numerical model, based upon this nonlinear flow solver, is formulated for the first-harmonic linear unsteady problem. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a first-harmonic unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. At present this code applies only to two-dimensional flows, but an extension to three-dimensions is planned as future work. The three-dimensional aerodynamic and numerical formulations are described in this report. Numerical results for two-dimensional unsteady cascade flows, excited by prescribed blade motions and prescribed aerodynamic disturbances at inlet and exit, are also provided to illustrate the present capabilities of the LINFLUX analysis.
Unsteady fluid–structure interactions of membrane airfoils at low Reynolds numbers
P. Rojratsirikul; Z. Wang; I. Gursul
2009-01-01
Membrane wings are used both in nature and small aircraft as lifting surfaces. Separated flows are common at low Reynolds\\u000a numbers and are the main sources of unsteadiness. Yet, the unsteady aspects of the fluid–structure interactions of membrane\\u000a airfoils are largely unknown. An experimental study of unsteady aerodynamics of two-dimensional membrane airfoils at low Reynolds\\u000a numbers has been conducted. Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
St.hilaire, A. O.; Carta, F. O.; Fink, M. R.; Jepson, W. D.
1979-01-01
Aerodynamic experiments were performed on an oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil utilizing a tunnel-spanning wing in both unswept and 30 degree swept configurations. The airfoil was tested in steady state and in oscillatory pitch about the quarter chord. The unsteady aerodynamic loading was measured using pressure transducers along the chord. Numerical integrations of the unsteady pressure transducer responses were used to compute the normal force, chord force, and moment components of the induced loading. The effects of sweep on the induced aerodynamic load response was examined. For the range of parameters tested, it was found that sweeping the airfoil tends to delay the onset of dynamic stall. Sweeping was also found to reduce the magnitude of the unsteady load variation about the mean response. It was determined that at mean incidence angles greater than 9 degrees, sweep tends to reduce the stability margin of the NACA 0012 airfoil; however, for all cases tested, the airfoil was found to be stable in pure pitch. Turbulent eddies were found to convect downstream above the upper surface and generate forward-moving acoustic waves at the trailing edge which move upstream along the lower surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen
1999-01-01
Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.
Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. I - Unsteady flow concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1988-01-01
Advanced military aircraft 'supermaneuverability' requirements entail the sustained operation of airfoils at stalled flow conditions. The present work addresses the effects of separated flow on vehicle dynamics; an analytic method is presented which employs static experimental data to predict the separated flow effect on incompressible unsteady aerodynamics. The key parameters in the analytic relationship between steady and nonsteady aerodynamics are the time-lag before a change of flow conditions can affect the separation-induced aerodynamic loads, the accelerated flow effect, and the moving wall effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, T. J. (editor)
1985-01-01
Topics of interest in the design, flow modeling and visualization, and turbulence and flow separation effects for low Reynolds number (Re) airfoils are discussed. Design methods are presented for Re from 50,000-500,000, including a viscous-inviscid coupling method and by using a constrained pitching moment. The effects of pressure gradients, unsteady viscous aerodynamics and separation bubbles are investigated, with particular note made of factors which most influence the size and location of separation bubbles and control their effects. Attention is also given to experimentation with low Re airfoils and to numerical models of symmetry breaking and lift hysteresis from separation. Both steady and unsteady flow experiments are reviewed, with the trials having been held in wind tunnels and the free atmosphere. The topics discussed are of interest to designers of RPVs, high altitude aircraft, sailplanes, ultralights and wind turbines.
International collaborative research in wind turbine rotor aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simms, D. A.; Butterfield, C. P.
1993-12-01
Five organizations from four countries are collaborating to conduct detailed wind turbine aerodynamic test programs. Fullscale atmospheric testing will be conducted on turbines configured to measure aerodynamic forces on rotating airfoils. The purpose of these test programs is to come to a better understanding of the steady and unsteady aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine rotors, and provide information needed to build accurate aerodynamic models for design codes. Stall, dynamic inflow, yaw conditions, and tower effects all contribute to unknown aerodynamic responses. These unknown responses make it extremely difficult to produce cost-effective wind turbine designs. Turbines behave unexpectedly, experiencing power surges and higher fatigue loads than predicted. In order to evolve state-of-the-art wind turbine designs, these aerodynamic effects must be quantified and understood. This paper describes a coordinated international research effort that is underway to accelerate this key research area, and help develop a more thorough understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miserentino, R.; Dixon, S. C.
1972-01-01
The vibration and buckling characteristics of a series of 140 deg ring-supported conical shells have been investigated experimentally and analytically. Experimental results were obtained from 14 conical shells, each attached to a solid nose cap at the small end. The large (base) end was either free or attached to a solid ring of rectangular cross section. The size of the solid base rings of rectangular cross section was systematically varied to provide a wide range of edge restraint. Shell buckling was induced by aerodynamic loading at a Mach number of 3; the vibration data were obtained prior to the wind tunnel tests. The experimental vibration data indicated that the size of the base rings had a pronounced effect on the magnitude of the frequencies and on the frequency spectrum. For vibration modes having less than two circumferential waves, the frequencies descreased with increasing ring size; whereas, for modes with several circumferential waves, the frequencies initially increased rapidly with ring size and then became relatively insensitive to further increases in ring size. This latter behavior was similar to the trend exhibited by the variation of buckling pressure with ring size. The experimental results were in excellent qualitative agreement with theoretical results and indicated that current shell-of-revolution analyses are adequate for predicting the vibration and buckling behavior of ring-supported shells, at least for the simple isotropic shells considered in this investigation.
Comparison of aerodynamic theory and experiment for jet-flap wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gainer, T. G.; Yip, L. P.; Vogler, R. P.
1976-01-01
Aerodynamic theory predictions made for a jet flapped wing were compared with experimental data obtained in a fairly extensive series of tests in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. The tests were made on a straight, rectangular wing and investigated two types of jet flap concepts: a pure jet flap with high jet deflection and a wing with blowing at the knee of a plain trailing edge flap. The tests investigated full and partial span blowing for wing aspect ratios of 8.0 and 5.5 and momentum coefficients from 0 to about 4. The total lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients predicted by the theory were in excellent agreement with experimental values for the pure jet flap, even with the high jet deflection. The pressure coefficients on the wing, and hence the circulation lift coefficients, were underpredicted, however, because of the linearizing assumptions of the planar theory. The lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients, as well as pressure coefficients, were underpredicted for the wing with blowing over the flap because of the failure of the theory to account for the interaction effect of the high velocity jet passing over the flap.
Unsteady heat transfer and direct comparison to steady-state measurements in a rotor-wake experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, J. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Lagraff, J. E.; Morehouse, K. A.
1986-01-01
Circumferentially local and time-resolved heat transfer measurements were obtained for a circular cylinder in crossflow located downstream of a rotating spoked wheel wake generator in a steady flow tunnel. The unsteady heat transfer effects were obtained by developing an extension of a thin film gauge technique employed to date exclusively in short-duration facilities. The time-average thin film results and conventional steady-state heat transfer measurements were compared. Time-averaged wake-induced stagnation heat transfer enhancement levels above the nowake case were about 10% for the four cylinder Reynolds numbers. This enhancement level was nearly independent of bar passing frequency and was related directly to the time integral of the heat transfer spikes observed at the bar passing frequency. It is observed that the wake-induced heat transfer spikes have peak magnitudes averaging 30 to 40% above the interwake heat transfer level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
Assessment of the derivative-moment transformation method for unsteady-load estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbian, Ali; Rival, David E.
2012-08-01
It is often difficult, if not impossible, to measure the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces on a moving body. For this reason, a classical control-volume technique is typically applied to extract the unsteady forces. However, measuring the acceleration term within the volume of interest using particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be limited by optical access, reflections, as well as shadows. Therefore, in this study, an alternative approach, termed the derivative-moment transformation (DMT) method, is introduced and tested on a synthetic data set produced using numerical simulations. The test case involves the unsteady loading of a flat plate in a two-dimensional, laminar periodic gust. The results suggest that the DMT method can accurately predict the acceleration term so long as appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions are maintained. The major deficiency, which is more dominant for the direction of drag, was found to be the determination of pressure and unsteady terms in the wake. The effect of control-volume size was investigated, suggesting that larger domains work best by minimizing the associated error in the determination of the pressure field. When decreasing the control-volume size, wake vortices, which produce high gradients across the control surfaces, are found to substantially increase the level of error. On the other hand, it was shown that for large control volumes, and with realistic spatial resolution, the accuracy of the DMT method would also suffer. Therefore, a delicate compromise is required when selecting control-volume size in future experiments.
Impact of Periodic Unsteadiness on Performance and Heat Load in Axial Flow Turbomachines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Om P.; Stetson, Gary M.; Daniels, William A,; Greitzer, Edward M.; Blair, Michael F.; Dring, Robert P.
1997-01-01
Results of an analytical and experimental investigation, directed at the understanding of the impact of periodic unsteadiness on the time-averaged flows in axial flow turbomachines, are presented. Analysis of available experimental data, from a large-scale rotating rig (LSRR) (low speed rig), shows that in the time-averaged axisymmetric equations the magnitude of the terms representing the effect of periodic unsteadiness (deterministic stresses) are as large or larger than those due to random unsteadiness (turbulence). Numerical experiments, conducted to highlight physical mechanisms associated with the migration of combustor generated hot-streaks in turbine rotors, indicated that the effect can be simulated by accounting for deterministic stress like terms in the time-averaged mass and energy conservation equations. The experimental portion of this program shows that the aerodynamic loss for the second stator in a 1-1/2 stage turbine are influenced by the axial spacing between the second stator leading edge and the rotor trailing edge. However, the axial spacing has little impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These performance changes are believed to be associated with the change in deterministic stress at the inlet to the second stator. Data were also acquired to quantify the impact of indexing the first stator relative to the second stator. For the range of parameters examined, this effect was found to be of the same order as the effect of axial spacing.
An unsteady rotor/fuselage interaction method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egolf, T. Alan; Lorber, Peter F.
1987-01-01
An analytical method has been developed to treat unsteady helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage interaction aerodynamics. An existing lifting line/prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were modified to predict vibratory fuselage airloads. The analyses were coupled through the induced flow velocities of the rotor and wake on the fuselage and the fuselage on the rotor. A prescribed displacement technique was used to distort the rotor wake about the fuselage. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of wake and body geometry on the computed airloads. Predicted and measured mean and unsteady pressures on a cylindrical body in the wake of a two-bladed rotor were compared. Initial results show good qualitative agreement.
New Flutter Analysis Technique for CFD-based Unsteady Aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Jutte, Christine V.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a flutter analysis technique for the transonic flight regime. The technique uses an iterative approach to determine the critical dynamic pressure for a given mach number. Unlike other CFD-based flutter analysis methods, each iteration solves for the critical dynamic pressure and uses this value in subsequent iterations until the value converges. This process reduces the iterations required to determine the critical dynamic pressure. To improve the accuracy of the analysis, the technique employs a known structural model, leaving only the aerodynamic model as the unknown. The aerodynamic model is estimated using unsteady aeroelastic CFD analysis combined with a parameter estimation routine. The technique executes as follows. The known structural model is represented as a finite element model. Modal analysis determines the frequencies and mode shapes for the structural model. At a given mach number and dynamic pressure, the unsteady CFD analysis is performed. The output time history of the surface pressure is converted to a nodal aerodynamic force vector. The forces are then normalized by the given dynamic pressure. A multi-input multi-output parameter estimation software, ERA, estimates the aerodynamic model through the use of time histories of nodal aerodynamic forces and structural deformations. The critical dynamic pressure is then calculated using the known structural model and the estimated aerodynamic model. This output is used as the dynamic pressure in subsequent iterations until the critical dynamic pressure is determined. This technique is demonstrated on the Aerostructures Test Wing-2 model at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center.
König, C S; Clark, C; Mokhtarzadeh-Dehghan, M R
1999-01-01
Prior to this study, a clinical prototype of a sac-type ventricular assist device (VAD) was investigated experimentally, using both flow visualisation and Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), in order to optimise its geometry. As poor optical access precluded the experimental investigation of the flow in some areas of the prototype VAD, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used in the present work. Flow patterns during one full pumping cycle were investigated in a simplified model of the VAD. The numerical solutions were compared with experimental results from an identical physical model. The model consists of the hemispherical cylinder and two attached tubes for the inflow and outflow. Instead of a diaphragm in the clinical device, which deforms non-uniformly during pumping, a piston with a matching hemispherical crown was used. A finite volume method was employed to solve the governing equations for the three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar flow of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid. The general flow features were predicted very well by the simulation, with some differences in the details of the flow structures. This allows the conclusion that CFD can be used to facilitate improvement of the design of the clinical device. The comparison of one-component velocity time histories at selected points showed that the predicted velocities were approximately 20-50% lower than those measured by LDA. Such underprediction would lead to erroneous results for particle residence times and may result in an underestimation of wall shear stresses. PMID:10220137
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
Development of a Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis with Application to Wake/Blade-Row Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Chuang, H. Andrew
1999-01-01
A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The mathematical models needed to describe nonlinear and linearized, inviscid, unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented in this report. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to far-field eigen analyses, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into the three-dimensional unsteady flow code, LINFLUX. This code is applied herein to predict unsteady subsonic flows driven by wake or vortical excitations. The intent is to validate the LINFLUX analysis via numerical results for simple benchmark unsteady flows and to demonstrate this analysis via application to a realistic wake/blade-row interaction. Detailed numerical results for a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade and a fan exit guide vane indicate that LINFLUX is becoming a reliable and useful unsteady aerodynamic prediction capability that can be applied, in the future, to assess the three-dimensional flow physics important to blade-row, aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses.
Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines
Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.
2000-04-01
The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.
A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.
1996-01-01
A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic response characteristics of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. In addition, a numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flow, which is based upon an existing nonlinear, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis, is described. These aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into an unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. A preliminary version of the LINFLUX code is applied herein to selected, benchmark three-dimensional, subsonic, unsteady flows, to illustrate its current capabilities and to uncover existing problems and deficiencies. The numerical results indicate that good progress has been made toward developing a reliable and useful three-dimensional prediction capability. However, some problems, associated with the implementation of an unsteady displacement field and numerical errors near solid boundaries, still exist. Also, accurate far-field conditions must be incorporated into the FINFLUX analysis, so that this analysis can be applied to unsteady flows driven be external aerodynamic excitations.
Shock unsteadiness creation and propagation: experimental analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benay, R.; Alaphilippe, M.; Severac, N.
2012-09-01
The possibility of creating unsteady distortions of the tip shock by waves emitted from an aircraft is assessed experimentally. The model chosen is a cylindrical fore body equipped with a spike. This configuration is known for generating an important level of unsteadiness around the spike in supersonic regime. The wind tunnel Mach number is equal to 2. The experiments show that waves emitted from this source propagate along the tip shock and interact with it. It is then assessed that this interaction produces a periodic distortion of the shock that propagates to the external flow. Unsteady pressure sensors, high speed schlieren films, hot wire probing and laser Doppler velocimetry are used as complementary experimental means. The final result is a coherent representation of the complex mechanism of wave propagation that has been evidenced. The principle of creating unsteady shock deformation by onboard equipments could be examined as a possibly promising method of sonic boom control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falk, Eric Andrew
Aerodynamic forcing experiments were performed within the single-stage axial compressor of an AlliedSignal F109 turbofan engine. Unsteady velocity was measured both forward and aft of the F109 fan at several locations, with unsteady surface pressure also measured along sixteen, transducer-instrumented stator vanes. Three fan RPM were considered, with time-resolution of the unsteady data obtained through a photoelectric sensor coupled to the fan rotation. The velocity data collected forward of the fan exhibited evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances in the engine inlet flow, where these disturbances were potential in nature, emanating from the fan, and traveling acoustically in a helical pattern. The disturbance peak-to-peak unsteady amplitudes, in the swirl direction, reached nearly 50% of the mean-axial velocity at the fan face, dropping to 2--5% at one blade chord upstream. Such large velocity fluctuations may be important in terms of component high-cycle-fatigue, particularly in closely spaced, axial compressor stages. Aft of the fan, the average unsteady velocity waveforms measured across five azimuthal locations demonstrated characteristics indicative of a strong vortical and potential disturbance interaction, where the interacting disturbances had the same forcing frequency, but different amplitudes and propagation speeds. Further reduction of the fan-aft velocity data also produced evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances. These disturbances were found to be potential in nature and emanating from the F109 stator vanes; thus creating a cumulative, unsteady aerodynamic field upstream of the stators comprised of multiple interacting disturbances. The amplitudes of the stator-induced disturbances were on the order of 20--40% of the measured, downstream-propagating vortical wake amplitudes. Finally, results from stator-vane surface-pressure measurements compared favorably in both magnitude and phase to similar results collected in previous cascade experiments. Phase information from these pressure data suggested a strong vortical and potential disturbance interaction across the vanes. Evidence of compressor vortical and potential disturbance interactions may be important; as such interactions could lead to unpredicted high-cycle-fatigue failure of compressor structural components.
Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
2000-01-01
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.
Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
1999-01-01
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.
Progressive Aerodynamic Model Identification From Dynamic Water Tunnel Test of the F-16XL Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Szyba, Nathan M.
2004-01-01
Development of a general aerodynamic model that is adequate for predicting the forces and moments in the nonlinear and unsteady portions of the flight envelope has not been accomplished to a satisfactory degree. Predicting aerodynamic response during arbitrary motion of an aircraft over the complete flight envelope requires further development of the mathematical model and the associated methods for ground-based testing in order to allow identification of the model. In this study, a general nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic model is presented, followed by a summary of a linear modeling methodology that includes test and identification methods, and then a progressive series of steps suggesting a roadmap to develop a general nonlinear methodology that defines modeling, testing, and identification methods. Initial steps of the general methodology were applied to static and oscillatory test data to identify rolling-moment coefficient. Static measurements uncovered complicated dependencies of the aerodynamic coefficient on angle of attack and sideslip in the stall region making it difficult to find a simple analytical expression for the measurement data. In order to assess the effect of sideslip on the damping and unsteady terms, oscillatory tests in roll were conducted at different values of an initial offset in sideslip. Candidate runs for analyses were selected where higher order harmonics were required for the model and where in-phase and out-of-phase components varied with frequency. From these results it was found that only data in the angle-of-attack range of 35 degrees to 37.5 degrees met these requirements. From the limited results it was observed that the identified models fit the data well and both the damping-in-roll and the unsteady term gain are decreasing with increasing sideslip and motion amplitude. Limited similarity between parameter values in the nonlinear model and the linear model suggest that identifiability of parameters in both terms may be a problem. However, the proposed methodology can still be used with careful experiment design and carefully selected values of angle of attack, sideslip, amplitude, and frequency of the oscillatory data.
Unsteady Transonics of a Wing With Tip Store
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Goorjian, Peter M.; Tu, Eugene L.
1986-01-01
The presence of tip stores influences both the aerodynamic and aeroelastic performances of wings. Such effects are more pronounced in the transonic regime. In this study, a theoretical method is developed, for the first time, to compute unsteady transonics of oscillating wings with tip stores. The method is based on the small-disturbance aerodynamic equations or motion from the potential-flow theory. To validate the method, subsonic and transonic aerodynamic computations are made for a wing of low aspect ratio, and they are compared with the available experimental data. The comparisons are favorable. The strong effects of the tip store on the transonic aerodynamics on the wing are also illustrated. The method developed in this study can be used for transonic aeroelastic computations of wings with tip stores.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sambamurthi, Jay; Warmbrod, John; Seaford, Mark
1989-01-01
An engineering methodology has been developed to predict the convective heating and pressure environments to the base surfaces of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle during its earth aeropass. Data obtained from prior flight vehicles, wind tunnel tests, CFD analysis of AFE, and simple one-dimensional isentropic flow expansion relationships along with standard aeroheating methods were employed. With the exception of one corner, the AFE base surfaces are immersed in separated flow and are, therefore, exposed to heating and pressure that are small compared to the front face of the aerobrake.
Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1993-01-01
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.
1985-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.
2013-12-01
The influence of an oscillating aileron and trailing edge device on the unsteady aerodynamics of a blended wing body (BWB) aircraft configuration with high-fidelity time-accurate Euler simulations has been investigated. Steady results show an unequally-distributed lift distribution in spanwise direction with a particularly severe shock at cruise conditions on the outboard wing. Unsteady oscillations of the outboardlocated aileron are able to influence the local and global aerodynamics. The oscillation of the trailing edge device designed to be at trailing edge of the aileron does not show any great effect on neither local nor global aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1993-01-01
Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations for interfering lifting surface configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, J. T.
1985-01-01
Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for aerodynamically interfering lifting surface configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S (Version 1.5) unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of an additional lifting surface. The research was conducted as a first-step toward developing the capability to treat a complete flight vehicle. Grid generation procedures for swept tapered interfering lifting surface applications of XTRAN3S are described. Transonic calculations are presented for wing-tail and canard-wing configurations for several values of mean angle of attack. The effects of aerodynamic interference on transonic steady pressure distributions and steady and oscillatory spanwise lift distributions are demonstrated. Results due to wing, tail, or canard pitching motions are presented and discussed in detail.
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.
Unsteady transition measurements on a pitching three-dimensional wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Carta, Franklin O.
1992-01-01
Boundary layer transition measurements were made during an experimental study of the aerodynamics of a rectangular wing undergoing unsteady pitching motions. The wing was tested at chordwise Mach numbers between 0.2 and 0.6, at sweep angles of 0, 15, and 30 deg, and for steady state, sinusoidal, and constant pitch rate motions. The model was scaled to represent a full size helicopter rotor blade, with chord Reynolds numbers between 2 and 6 x 10(exp 6). Sixteen surface hot-film gages were located along three spanwise stations: 0.08, 0.27, and 0.70 chords from the wing tip. Qualitative heat transfer information was obtained to identify the unsteady motion of the point of transition to turbulence. In combination with simultaneous measurements of the unsteady surface pressure distributions, the results illustrate the effects of compressibility, sweep, pitch rate, and proximity to the wing tip on the transition and relaminarization locations.
Simulations of the Unsteady Flow through the Fastrac Supersonic Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.
1999-01-01
Analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RI.V)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.
Simulations of the unsteady flow through the Fastrac Supersonic Turbine
Griffin, L.W.; Dorney, D.J.
2000-04-01
Analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.
A coupled mode analysis of unsteady multistage flows in turbomachinery
Silkowski, P.D.; Hall, K.C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
1998-07-01
A computational method is presented for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a vibrating blade row that is part of a multistage turbomachine. Most current unsteady aerodynamic theories model a single blade row isolated in an infinitely long duct. This assumption neglects the potentially important influence of neighboring blade rows. The present coupled mode analysis is an elegant and computationally efficient method for modeling neighboring blade row effects. Using this approach, the coupling between blade rows is modeled using a subset of the so-called spinning modes, i.e., pressure, vorticity, and entropy waves, which propagate between the blade rows. The blade rows themselves are represented by reflection and transmission coefficients. These coefficients describe how spinning modes interact with, and are scattered by, a given blade row. The coefficients can be calculated using any standard isolated blade row model; here the authors use a linearized full potential flow model together with rapid distortion theory to account for incident vortical gusts. The isolated blade row reflection and transmission coefficients, interrow coupling relationships, and appropriate boundary conditions are all assembled into a small sparse linear system of equations that describes the unsteady multistage flow. A number of numerical examples are presented to validate the method and to demonstrate the profound influence of neighboring blade rows on the aerodynamic damping of a cascade of vibrating airfoils.
A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of axial-flow turbo-machinery blading.The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to a far-field eigenanalysis, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a three-dimensional linearized unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. This code has been applied to selected, benchmark, unsteady, subsonic flows to establish its accuracy and to demonstrate its current capabilities. The unsteady flows considered, have been chosen to allow convenient comparisons between the LINFLUX results and those of well-known, two-dimensional, unsteady flow codes. Detailed numerical results for a helical fan and a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade indicate that important progress has been made towards the development of a reliable and useful, three-dimensional, prediction capability that can be used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies.
Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.
Tucker, Paul G
2007-10-15
The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used. PMID:17519203
Reduction of Unsteady STATOR-ROTOR Interaction Using Trailing Edge Blowing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LEITCH, THOMAS A.; SAUNDERS, C. A.; NG, W. F.
2000-08-01
An aeroacoustic investigation was performed to assess the effects of adding mass flow at the trailing edges of stators upstream of an aircraft engine simulator. By using trailing edge blowing to minimize the shed wakes of the stators, the flow into the rotor was made more uniform, hence reducing the unsteady stator-rotor interaction. In these experiments, a reduced number of stators (four) was used in a 1/14 scale model inlet which was coupled to a 4·1in (10·4 cm) turbofan engine simulator. Steady state measurements of the aerodynamic flow field and acoustic far field were made in order to evaluate the aeroacoustic performance at three simulator speeds: 30k, 50k, and 70kr.p.m. The lowest test speed (30k r.p.m.) showed a noise reduction as large as 8·9dB in the blade passing tone. At 50k and 70kr.p.m., the reduction in blade passing tone was 5·5 and 2·6dB respectively. In addition, trailing edge blowing reduced the overall sound pressure level in every case. Aerodynamic measurements showed that fan face distortion was significantly reduced due to trailing edge blowing. The addition of trailing edge blowing from the four upstream stators did not change the operating point of the fan, and the mass flow added by the blowing was less than 1% of the fan mass flow rate. The results of these experiments clearly demonstrate that blowing from the trailing edges of the stators is effective in reducing unsteady stator-rotor interaction and the subsequent forward radiated noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lifu; Jin, Yingzi; Li, Yi; Jin, Yuzhen; Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Li
2013-08-01
To improve the aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan, in this paper the design of a small axial flow fan with splitter blades is studied. The RNG k-? turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm were applied to the steady simulation calculation of the flow field, and its result was used as the initial field of the large eddy simulation to calculate the unsteady pressure field. The FW-H noise model was adopted to predict aerodynamic noise in the six monitoring points. Fast Fourier transform algorithm was applied to process the pressure signal. Experiment of noise testing was done to further investigate the aerodynamic noise of fans. And then the results obtained from the numerical simulation and experiment were described and analyzed. The results show that the static characteristics of small axial fan with splitter blades are similar with the prototype fan, and the static characteristics are improved within a certain range of flux. The power spectral density at the six monitoring points of small axial flow fan with splitter blades have decreased to some extent. The experimental results show sound pressure level of new fan has reduced in most frequency bands by comparing with prototype fan. The research results will provide a proof for parameter optimization and noise prediction of small axial flow fans with high performance.
Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.
Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A
2011-12-01
MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s?¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10? or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs. PMID:22126793
Computational aerodynamics and supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.
1984-01-01
Some of the progress in computational aerodynamics over the last decade is reviewed. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans are described.
Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.
Measurements of Unsteady Wake Interference Between Tandem Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Cahterine B.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2006-01-01
A multi-phase, experimental study in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center has provided new insight into the unsteady flow interaction around cylinders in tandem arrangement. Phase 1 of the study characterized the mean and unsteady near-field flow around two cylinders of equal diameter using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire anemometry. These measurements were performed at a Reynolds number of 1.66 x 10(exp 5), based on cylinder diameter, and spacing-to-diameter ratios, L/D, of 1.435 and 3.7. The current phase, Phase 2, augments this dataset by characterizing the surface flow on the same configurations using steady and unsteady pressure measurements and surface flow visualization. Transition strips were applied to the front cylinder during both phases to produce a turbulent boundary layer upstream of the flow separation. For these flow conditions and L/D ratios, surface pressures on both the front and rear cylinders show the effects of L/D on flow symmetry, pressure recovery, and the location of flow separation and attachment. Mean streamlines and instantaneous vorticity obtained from the PIV data are used to explain the flow structure in the gap and near-wake regions and its relationship to the unsteady surface pressures. The combination of off-body and surface measurements provides a comprehensive dataset to develop and validate computational techniques for predicting the unsteady flow field at higher Reynolds numbers.
Aerodynamic modeling of an aircraft in atmospheric turbulence and correlation to hazard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuever, Robert A.
Improving aviation safety has become a focal point of present aeronautics research. Quantifying and predicting the hazards of flight into atmospheric turbulence is one area of interest. The present research investigates and extends the use of aerodynamic modeling techniques to better enhance the representation of nonlinear, unsteady effects in a turbulence encounter. The focus of the research is on flight dynamic, versus structural loads, aspects. Flight data from an intentional atmospheric turbulence penetration was used along with fuzzy logic techniques to develop and enhance longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic coefficient models. These models indicated the presence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic effects, including lateral-directional coupling into the longitudinal axis. Effective mass and damping were proposed as one means to correlate loads-induced hazards to the aerodynamic response of the aircraft, which were compared with results from an actual passenger flight. The results suggest that the cause of fast plunging motion may be shock-induced stall in largely static motion, i.e., low reduced frequency, whereas in oscillatory motion with higher reduced frequencies, dynamic stall may inhibit fast plunging motion. Therefore, some form of hazard index may relate to the magnitude of effective damping in plunging motion, or alternatively to the measure of unsteadiness in the aerodynamics of the encounter. A control strategy for countering a rapid plunge may benefit from means to artificially drive unsteady aerodynamic effects.
Comparisons of several aerodynamic methods for application to dynamic loads analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroll, R. I.; Miller, R. D.
1976-01-01
The results of a study are presented in which the applicability at subsonic speeds of several aerodynamic methods for predicting dynamic gust loads on aircraft, including active control systems, was examined and compared. These aerodynamic methods varied from steady state to an advanced unsteady aerodynamic formulation. Brief descriptions of the structural and aerodynamic representations and of the motion and load equations are presented. Comparisons of numerical results achieved using the various aerodynamic methods are shown in detail. From these results, aerodynamic representations for dynamic gust analyses are identified. It was concluded that several aerodynamic methods are satisfactory for dynamic gust analyses of configurations having either controls fixed or active control systems that primarily affect the low frequency rigid body aircraft response.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
0000-00-00
This web page describes current research about insect flight dynamics. It focuses on the work of biologist R. McNeill Alexander of the University of Leeds, whose research team has built large-scale models of insects to test their flight aerodynamics in wind tunnels. At the bottom of the page is a small (160 x 120) QuickTime video of a Morpho butterfly (Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with detailed views of its wing scales. It is an excerpt from the Alien Empire miniseries of the Public Broadcasting Service's Nature series. The video requires QuickTime and may not be accessible to those with older or slow computers. The link to the "enhanced multimedia video clip" did not work at the time of this review.
Piezo-electric foils as a means of sensing unsteady surface forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitsche, W.; Mirow, P.; Szodruch, J.
1989-11-01
The experimental determination of steady and unsteady surface forces is an elementary problem in experimental fluid dynamics, e.g., in experimental aerodynamics. Up to now, unsteady forces such as pressure or shear fluctuations have been detected by means of special plug-in probes (e.g., miniature pressure transducers). An alternative and attractive technique of monitoring unsteady surface forces has become possible through the development of piezoelectric foils. With this novel type of sensor, which simply can be glued onto a surface, the piezoelectric effect of polarized plastic foils is used to register time-dependent pressure or shear loads. First of all, the paper concentrates on the fundamentals of this new measuring technique. Furthermore, some practical applications in experimental aerodynamics are outlined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, J. L.
1974-01-01
An approximate solution is reported for the unsteady aerodynamic response of an infinite swept wing encountering a vertical oblique gust in a compressible stream. The approximate expressions are of closed form and do not require excessive computer storage or computation time, and further, they are in good agreement with the results of exact theory. This analysis is used to predict the unsteady aerodynamic response of a helicopter rotor blade encountering the trailing vortex from a previous blade. Significant effects of three dimensionality and compressibility are evident in the results obtained. In addition, an approximate solution for the unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with the pitching or plunging motion of a two dimensional airfoil in a subsonic stream is presented. The mathematical form of this solution approaches the incompressible solution as the Mach number vanishes, the linear transonic solution as the Mach number approaches one, and the solution predicted by piston theory as the reduced frequency becomes large.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.
1990-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.
1991-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
Rolling with the flow: bumblebees flying in unsteady wakes.
Ravi, Sridhar; Crall, James D; Fisher, Alex; Combes, Stacey A
2013-11-15
Our understanding of how variable wind in natural environments affects flying insects is limited because most studies of insect flight are conducted in either smooth flow or still air conditions. Here, we investigate the effects of structured, unsteady flow (the von Karman vortex street behind a cylinder) on the flight performance of bumblebees (Bombus impatiens). Bumblebees are 'all-weather' foragers and thus frequently experience variable aerial conditions, ranging from fully mixed, turbulent flow to unsteady, structured vortices near objects such as branches and stems. We examined how bumblebee flight performance differs in unsteady versus smooth flow, as well as how the orientation of unsteady flow structures affects their flight performance, by filming bumblebees flying in a wind tunnel under various flow conditions. The three-dimensional flight trajectories and orientations of bumblebees were quantified in each of three flow conditions: (1) smooth flow, (2) the unsteady wake of a vertical cylinder (inducing strong lateral disturbances) and (3) the unsteady wake of a horizontal cylinder (inducing strong vertical disturbances). In both unsteady conditions, bumblebees attenuated the disturbances induced by the wind quite effectively, but still experienced significant translational and rotational fluctuations as compared with flight in smooth flow. Bees appeared to be most sensitive to disturbance along the lateral axis, displaying large lateral accelerations, translations and rolling motions in response to both unsteady flow conditions, regardless of orientation. Bees also displayed the greatest agility around the roll axis, initiating voluntary casting maneuvers and correcting for lateral disturbances mainly through roll in all flow conditions. Both unsteady flow conditions reduced the upstream flight speed of bees, suggesting an increased cost of flight in unsteady flow, with potential implications for foraging patterns and colony energetics in natural, variable wind environments. PMID:24031057
Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.
2012-11-01
The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.
Development of an engineering level prediction method for high angle of attack aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reisenthel, Patrick H.; Rodman, Laura C.; Nixon, David
1993-01-01
The present work is concerned with predicting the unsteady flow considered to be the cause of the structural failure of twin vertical tail aircraft. An engineering tool has been produced for high angle of attack aerodynamics using the simplest physical models. The main innovation behind this work is its emphasis on the modeling of two key aspects of the dominant physics associated with high angle-of-attack airflows, namely unsteady separation and vortex breakdown.
Flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1989-01-01
The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.
An unsteady helicopter rotor: Fuselage interaction analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan
1988-01-01
A computational method was developed to treat unsteady aerodynamic interactions between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage and between the main and tail rotors. An existing lifting line prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were coupled and modified to predict unsteady fuselage surface pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique is used to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Either a rigid blade or an aeroelastic blade analysis may be used to establish rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake fuselage geometry on the computation. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and on the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries is demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with fuselage surface pressure measurements at several locations. No experimental data was available to validate the primary product of the analysis: the vibratory airloads on the entire fuselage. A main rotor-tail rotor interaction analysis is also described, along with some hover and forward flight.
Forced response analysis of an aerodynamically detuned supersonic turbomachine rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1985-01-01
The effect of aerodynamic detuning on the supersonic flow induced forced response behavior of a turbomachine blade row is analyzed using an aeroelastic model. The rotor is modeled as a flat plate airfoil cascade representing an unwrapped rotor annulus; the aerodynamic detuning is achieved by alternating the circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The total unsteady aerodynamic loading on the blading, due to the convection of the transverse gust past the airfoil cascade as well as that resulting from the motion of the cascade, is developed in terms of influence coefficients. The model developed here is then used to analyze the effect of aerodynamic detuning on the flow induced forced response behavior of a twelve-bladed rotor with Verdon's Cascade B flow geometry.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations for wing-fuselage configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, J. T.
1986-01-01
Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for wing-fuselage configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of a fuselage. Details of the XTRAN3S fuselage modeling are discussed in the context of the small-disturbance equation. Transonic calculations are presented for three wing-fuselage configurations with leading edge sweep angles ranging from 0 deg to 46.76 deg. Simple bending and torsion modal oscillations of the wing are calculated. Sectional lift and moment coefficients for the wing-alone and wing-fuselage cases are compared and the effects of fuselage aerodynamic interference on the unsteady wing loading are revealed. Tabulated generalized aerodynamic forces used in flutter analyses, indicate small changes in the real in-phase component and as much as a 30% change in the imaginary component when the fuselage is included in the calculation. These changes result in a 2 to 5% increase in total magnitude and a several degree increase in phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Lee-Sang; Cha, Bong-Jun; Cho, Jin-Soo
The counter-rotating axial flow fan shows that the complex flow characteristics with three-dimensional, viscous, and unsteady flow fields. For the understanding of the entire core flow in counter-rotating axial flow fan, it is necessary to investigate the three-dimensional unsteady flow field between the rotors. This information is also essential for the improvement of the aerodynamic characteristics, the reduction of the aerodynamic noise level and vibration characteristics of the counter-rotating axial flow fan. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to present the periodic characteristics of the blade passage flow, the wake and the tip vortex, which are utilized for the blade design data for the improvement of the aerodynamic characteristics, the reduction of the aerodynamic noise level and vibration characteristics of the counter-rotating axial flow fan. In this paper, the three-dimensional unsteady flow by the rotor-rotor interaction of the CRF were investigated at the design point(peak efficiency operating point). Unsteady flow fields in the CRF are measured at the cross-sectional planes of the upstream, between and downstream of each rotor using the 45° inclined hot-wire probe. The stationary hot-wire technique used the 45° inclined hot-wire probe, which rotates successively with 120 degrees increments about its own axis. And, the sampling data of unsteady flow fields were phase-locked averaged to remove the random components.
Subsonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads on missiles and aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
Steady lifting flows over highly swept delta wings at large incidence were studied. After an exhaustive literature review, development of a vortex-lattice method was attempted. To demonstrate the feasibility of using such a method, an existing code was modified. A system of vortex lines to simulate the leading-edge wake was added. The coefficients predicted by the modified code were in good agreement with experimental data.
Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity 1987, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bland, Samuel R. (compiler)
1989-01-01
This two part document contains copies of the text and figures for the papers presented at the symposium held at NASA Langley on 20 to 22 May, 1987. The papers are grouped in five subject areas. The areas covered by this part includes the following: Methods for vortex and viscous flows; Aeroelastic applications, and Experimental results and cascade flows.
Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlig, Daniel V.
Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight envelope.
Unsteady turbulent buoyant plumes
Woodhouse, Mark J; Hogg, Andrew J
2015-01-01
We model the unsteady evolution of turbulent buoyant plumes following temporal changes to the source conditions. The integral model is derived from radial integration of the governing equations expressing the conservation of mass, axial momentum and buoyancy. The non-uniform radial profiles of the axial velocity and density deficit in the plume are explicitly described by shape factors in the integral equations; the commonly-assumed top-hat profiles lead to shape factors equal to unity. The resultant model is hyperbolic when the momentum shape factor, determined from the radial profile of the mean axial velocity, differs from unity. The solutions of the model when source conditions are maintained at constant values retain the form of the well-established steady plume solutions. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a momentum shape factor that differs from unity leads to a well-posed integral model. Therefore, our model does not exhibit the mathematical pathologies that appear in previously proposed unsteady i...
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent boundary layers under unsteady pressure gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bromby, William; You, Donghyun
2011-11-01
Direct numerical simulations are performed to improve the understanding of unsteady separation processes of turbulent boundary layers characterizing the performance and efficiency of many aerodynamic applications such as helicopter rotor blades, wind turbine blades, pitching and flapping airfoils and wings, and rotating turbomachines. A time varying blowing-suction velocity distribution is imposed along the upper boundary to introduce unsteady adverse pressure gradients to the turbulent boundary layer. The distinct characteristics of turbulent boundary layers under unsteady adverse pressure gradients including unsteady boundary-layer detachment and reattachment, and production and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and vorticity, are revealed by a systematic comparison with steady attached/separated turbulent boundary layers. Supported by the Army Research Office Grant W911NF1010348. Done...processed 2146 records...17:52:29 Beginning APS data extraction...17:52:30
Synthesized airfoil data method for prediction of dynamic stall and unsteady airloads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangwani, S. T.
1984-01-01
The synthesized unsteady airfoil data method, which accurately describes the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of stalled airfoils in the time domain, is expanded and improved. Nine sets of unsteady drag data are synthesized, providing a basis for the successful expansion of the method to include the computation of unsteady pressure drag of airfoils and rotor blades. An improved prediction model for airfoil flow reattachment is incorporated into the method. Application of the model results in a better correlation of analytic predictions with measured full-scale helicopter blade loads and stress data. The results show that it is feasible to generalize the empirical parameters embedded in the method over a range of angles of attack, Mach number, airfoil shape, and sweep angle.
Hucho, W.H.
1987-01-01
This introduction to aerodynamic aspects of motor vehicle design will be of use both to vehicle designers and students of automobile engineering. Content covers vehicle systems, ventilation and aerodynamic design to reduce drag and increase stability of cars, commercial vehicles and PSVs. Topics considered include automobile aerodynamics; some fundamentals of fluid mechanics; performance of cars and light vans; aerodynamic drag of passenger cars; driving stability in sidewinds; operation, safety and comfort; high-performance vehicle aerodynamics; commercial vehicles; engine cooling systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning of motor vehicles; wind tunnels for automobile aerodynamics; measuring and testing techniques; and numerical methods for computation of flow around road vehicles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, P. A.; Anderson, E. C.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.
1984-01-01
An overview is presented of the entire procedure developed for the aerodynamic design of the contoured wind tunnel liner for the NASA supercritical, laminar flow control (LFC), swept wing experiment. This numerical design procedure is based upon the simple idea of streamlining and incorporates several transonic and boundary layer analysis codes. The liner, presently installed in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, is about 54 ft long and extends from within the existing contraction cone, through the test section, and into the diffuser. LFC model testing has begun and preliminary results indicate that the liner is performing as intended. The liner design results presented in this paper, however, are examples of the calculated requirements and the hardware implementation of them.
Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M., E.
1974-01-01
An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Lockard, David P.
2009-01-01
Recent experience in the application of an optimized, second-order, backward-difference (BDF2OPT) temporal scheme is reported. The primary focus of the work is on obtaining accurate solutions of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations over long periods of time for aerodynamic problems of interest. The baseline flow solver under consideration uses a particular BDF2OPT temporal scheme with a dual-time-stepping algorithm for advancing the flow solutions in time. Numerical difficulties are encountered with this scheme when the flow code is run for a large number of time steps, a behavior not seen with the standard second-order, backward-difference, temporal scheme. Based on a stability analysis, slight modifications to the BDF2OPT scheme are suggested. The performance and accuracy of this modified scheme is assessed by comparing the computational results with other numerical schemes and experimental data.
Response of Metal Core Piezoelectric Fibers to Unsteady Airflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, J. H.; Ji, H. L.; Zhu, K. J.; Park, M. J.
In the previous study, possible applications of metal core piezoelectric fibers with a diameter of 200 to 250 µm as bionic airflow sensors mimicking the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets have been proposed. This study aims to investigate the dynamic responses of the metal core piezoelectric fibers to unsteady airflow. The metal core piezoelectric fiber is half coated on the outer surface and is used in the bending mode. Wind tunnel tests were carried out and the output voltage of the fiber under the excitation of the unsteady aerodynamic force during flow acceleration and deceleration was measured when the wind tunnel was suddenly closed or opened by a shutter. The relationship between the maximum voltage and the steady-state velocity and that between the voltage and the acceleration of flow were also obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
Jameson, Antony
Chapter 11 Aerodynamics Antony Jameson Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA 1 Focus Multidimensional Domains 359 6 Time-stepping Schemes 365 7 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization 379 8 Related Chapters 400 Acknowledgment 400 References 400 1 FOCUS AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.1 Classical aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
1990-01-01
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centin, Kiris C.; Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
The objective of the current effort is two-fold: 1) to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine; and 2) to provide high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis capability to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicle. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to involve liquid propulsion system, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the turbopump components is an important task. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flow are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. Unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available, at least, for real-world engineering applications. Present effort is an attempt to provide this capability so that developers of the vehicle will be able to extract such information as transient flow phenomena for start up, impact of non-uniform inflow, system vibration and impact on the structure. Those quantities are not readily available from simplified design tools. In this presentation, the progress being made toward complete turbo-pump simulation capability for a liquid rocket engine is reported. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbopump, which contains 106 zones with 34.5 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented.
Calculation and Correlation of the Unsteady Flowfield in a High Pressure Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mehmed, Oral
2002-01-01
Forced vibrations in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail due to high-cycle fatigue. Such forced response problems will become more pronounced in newer engines with higher pressure ratios and smaller axial gap between blade rows. An accurate numerical prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics phenomena that cause resonant forced vibrations is increasingly important to designers. Validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to model the unsteady aerodynamic excitations is necessary before these codes can be used with confidence. Recently published benchmark data, including unsteady pressures and vibratory strains, for a high-pressure turbine stage makes such code validation possible. In the present work, a three dimensional, unsteady, multi blade-row, Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes code is applied to a turbine stage that was recently tested in a short duration test facility. Two configurations with three operating conditions corresponding to modes 2, 3, and 4 crossings on the Campbell diagram are analyzed. Unsteady pressures on the rotor surface are compared with data.
Borazjani, Iman
2015-10-01
Unsteady aquatic locomotion is not an exception, but rather how animals often swim. It includes fast-starts (C-start or S-start), escape maneuvers, turns, acceleration/deceleration, and even during steady locomotion the swimming speed fluctuates, i.e., there is unsteadiness. Here, a review of the recent work on unsteady aquatic locomotion with emphasis on numerical simulations is presented. The review is started by an overview of different theoretical and numerical methods that have been used for unsteady swimming, and then the insights provided by these methods on (1) unsteadiness in straight-line swimming and (2) unsteady fast-starts and turns are discussed. The swimming speed's unsteady fluctuations during straight-line swimming are typically less than 3% of the average swimming speed, but recent simulations show that body shape affects fluctuations more than does body kinematics, i.e., changing the shape of the body generates larger fluctuations than does changing its kinematics. For fast-starts, recent simulations show that the best motion to maximize the distance traveled from rest are similar to the experimentally observed C-start maneuvers. Furthermore, another set of simulations, which are validated against measurements of flow in experiments with live fish, investigate the role of fins during the C-start. The simulations showed that most of the force is generated by the body of the fish (not by fins) during the first stage of the C-start when the fish bends itself into the C-shape. However, in the second stage, when it rapidly bends out of the C-shape, more than 70% of the instantaneous hydrodynamic force is produced by the tail. The effect of dorsal and anal fins was less than 5% of the instantaneous force in both stages, except for a short period of time (2 ms) just before the second stage. Therefore, the active control and the erection of the anal/dorsal fins might be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch during the C-start. At the end, the needed future developments in the computational front and their possible applications on investigating stability during unsteady locomotion are discussed. PMID:25888943
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.
2009-01-01
The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.
1988-01-01
Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janetzke, David C.; Murthy, Durbha V.
1991-01-01
Aeroelastic analysis is multi-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic capability on a distributed memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a 3-D unsteady aerodynamic model and a parallel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent were demonstrated using 32 processors. The effect of subtask ordering, problem size, and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed memory system.
The multi-domain method for computation of the aerodynamics of a parachute crossing the far
Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
The multi-domain method for computation of the aerodynamics of a parachute crossing the far wake Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University ± MS 321, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA Received-domain method (MDM) for computation of unsteady ¯ow past a cargo aircraft and around a parachute crossing
The Aerodynamics of Deforming Wings at Low Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medina, Albert
Flapping flight has gained much attention in the past decade driven by the desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and the desire to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Advancing our current understanding of unsteady aerodynamics is an essential component in the development of micro-air vehicles (MAV) intended to utilize flight mechanics akin to insect flight. Thus the efforts undertaken that of bio-mimicry. The complexities of insect wing motion are dissected and simplified to more tractable problems to elucidate the fundamentals of unsteady aerodynamics in biologically inspired kinematics. The MAV's fruition would satisfy long established needs in both the military and civilian sectors. Although recent studies have provided great insight into the lift generating mechanisms of flapping wings the deflection response of such wings remains poorly understood. This dissertation numerically and experimentally investigates the aerodynamic performance of passively and actively deflected wings in hover and rotary kinematics. Flexibility is distilled to discrete lines of flexion which acknowledging major flexion lines in insect wings to be the primary avenue for deformation. Of primary concern is the development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a high circulation region of low pressure above the wing to which much of the wing's lift generation is attributed. Two-dimensional simulations of wings with chord-wise flexibility in a freestream reveal a lift generating mechanism unavailable to rigid wings with origins in vortical symmetry breaking. The inclusion of flexibility in translating wings accelerated from rest revealed the formation time of the initial LEV was very weakly dependent on the flexible stiffness of the wing, maintaining a universal time scale of four to five chords of travel before shedding. The frequency of oscillatory shedding of the leading and trailing-edge vortices that develops after the initial vortex shedding was shown to be responsive to flexibility satisfying an inverse proportionality to stiffness. In hover, an effective pitch angle can be defined in a flexible wing that accounts for deflection which shifts results toward trend lines of rigid wings. Three-dimensional simulations examining the effects of two distinct deformation modes undergoing prescribed deformation associated with root and tip deflection demonstrated a greater aerodynamic response to tip deflection in hover. Efficiency gains in flexion wings over rigid wing counterpart were shown to be dependent on Reynolds number with efficiency in both modes increasing with increased Reynolds number. Additionally, while the leading-edge vortex axis proved insensitive to deformation, the shape and orientation of the LEV core is modified. Experiments on three-dimensional dynamically-scaled fruit fly wings with passive deformation operating in the bursting limit Reynolds number regime revealed enhanced leading-edge vortex bursting with tip deflection promoting greater LEV core flow deceleration in stroke. Experimental studies on rotary wings highlights a universal formation time of the leading-edge vortex independent of Reynolds number, acceleration profile and aspect ratio. Efforts to replicate LEV bursting phenomena of higher aspect ratio wings in a unity aspect ratio wing such that LEV growth is no limited by span but by the LEV traversing the chord revealed a flow regime of oscillatory lift generation reminiscent of behavior exhibited in translating wings that also maintains magnitude peak to peak.
Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings
Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.
2010-01-01
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ? 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394
Unsteady fluid-structure interactions of membrane airfoils at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojratsirikul, P.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.
2009-05-01
Membrane wings are used both in nature and small aircraft as lifting surfaces. Separated flows are common at low Reynolds numbers and are the main sources of unsteadiness. Yet, the unsteady aspects of the fluid-structure interactions of membrane airfoils are largely unknown. An experimental study of unsteady aerodynamics of two-dimensional membrane airfoils at low Reynolds numbers has been conducted. Measurements of membrane shape with a high-speed camera were complemented with the simultaneous measurements of unsteady velocity field with a high frame-rate particle image velocimetry system and flow visualization. Vibrations of the membrane and mode shapes were investigated as a function of angle of attack and free stream velocity. While the mean membrane shape is not very sensitive to angle of attack, the amplitude and mode of the vibrations of the membrane depend on the relative location and the magnitude of the unsteadiness of the separated shear layer. The results indicate strong coupling of unsteady flow with the membrane oscillations. There is evidence of coupling of membrane oscillations with the vortex shedding in the wake, in particular, for the post-stall incidences. Comparison of rigid (but cambered) and flexible membrane airfoils shows that the flexibility might delay the stall. Hence this is a potential passive flow control method using flexibility in nature and engineering applications.
Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.
2000-01-01
Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.
Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinier, Jeremy T
2012-01-01
When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.
Membrane wing aerodynamics for micro air vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Yongsheng; Shyy, Wei; Viieru, Dragos; Zhang, Baoning
2003-10-01
The aerodynamic performance of a wing deteriorates considerably as the Reynolds number decreases from 10 6 to 10 4. In particular, flow separation can result in substantial change in effective airfoil shape and cause reduced aerodynamic performance. Lately, there has been growing interest in developing suitable techniques for sustained and robust flight of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with a wingspan of 15 cm or smaller, flight speed around 10 m/ s, and a corresponding Reynolds number of 10 4-10 5. This paper reviews the aerodynamics of membrane and corresponding rigid wings under the MAV flight conditions. The membrane wing is observed to yield desirable characteristics in delaying stall as well as adapting to the unsteady flight environment, which is intrinsic to the designated flight speed. Flow structures associated with the low Reynolds number and low aspect ratio wing, such as pressure distribution, separation bubble and tip vortex are reviewed. Structural dynamics in response to the surrounding flow field is presented to highlight the multiple time-scale phenomena. Based on the computational capabilities for treating moving boundary problems, wing shape optimization can be conducted in automated manners. To enhance the lift, the effect of endplates is evaluated. The proper orthogonal decomposition method is also discussed as an economic tool to describe the flow structure around a wing and to facilitate flow and vehicle control.
Spray unsteadiness in coaxial airblast atomizers
Hardalupas, Y.; Tsai, R.F.; Whitelaw, J.H.
1996-12-31
Experiments have been performed with two coaxial atomizers, the first with an annular stream of air surrounding a central jet of water and the second a commercial airblast atomizer with air swirl. They quantify the deterministic unsteadiness of the droplet flow caused by the break-up process in terms of the mean and temporal fluctuations of the droplet surface area and provide links between atomizing air and liquid flow conditions and the amplitude of the droplet flow unsteadiness with distance from the nozzle exit. Time dependent measurements of droplet surface area in the spray were obtained by image processing of high speed photographs to detect the temporal fluctuations of the attenuation of the incident light and by a Mie scattering technique to detect the intensity of the light scattered by droplets illuminated by a laser sheet. Mie scattering was preferred, because of improved measurement accuracy and lower cost. The spray unsteadiness due to the break-up process was quantified in terms of the spectrum of the energy of the fluctuations of the droplet surface area within a frequency range associated with the break-up process. With the coaxial atomizer. the energy of the deterministic unsteadiness varied between 50% and 65% of the total energy of the spectrum and remained in the droplet flow at least up to 150 liquid jet diameters downstream of the break-up region and its energy increased with the reduction of the air or liquid flowrates, although higher energy was correlated with faster attenuation with the downstream distance from the exit plane, caused by the redistribution of droplets by the gas flow turbulence.
Experimental investigation on aerodynamic performance of a flapping wing vehicle in forward flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazaheri, K.; Ebrahimi, A.
2011-05-01
The aerodynamic performance of a flexible membrane flapping wing has been investigated here. For this purpose, a flapping-wing system and an experimental set-up were designed to measure the unsteady aerodynamic forces of the flapping wing motion. A one-component force balance was set up to record the temporal variations of aerodynamic forces. The flapping wing was studied in a large low-speed wind tunnel. The lift and thrust of this mechanism were measured for different flapping frequencies, angles of attack and for various wind tunnel velocities. Results indicate that the thrust increases with the flapping frequency. An increase in the wind tunnel speed and flow angle of attack leads to reduction in the thrust value and increases the lift component. The aerodynamic and performance parameters were nondimensionalized. Appropriate models were introduced which show its aerodynamic performance and may be used in the design process and also optimization of the flapping wing.
Aerodynamic damping of blade flap motions at high angles of attack
Hansen, A.C.
1995-08-01
The YawDyn computer code is used to calculate the aerodynamic damping for a typical teetering rotor configuration. The code has been modified to calculate the net work done by aerodynamic forces in one complete rotor revolution. All cases were run for a teetering rotor similar to the ESI-80 with a specified teeter angle motion in order to isolate the aerodynamic effects from the inertial and gravitational loads. Effects of nonlinear static stall, dynamic stall, dynamic inflow, and delayed static stall due to rotation are analyzed separately and in combinations to explain the stability of flap motions in high winds. Contributions of the various steady and unsteady aerodynamic effects are presented for two airfoils: the LS(1) and the NREL Thin Airfoil Family (S805A, S806, S807). Teeter stability is compared for a blade with 10 deg of linear twist and a blade with optimum aerodynamic twist.
Aerodynamic damping of blade flap motions at high angles of attack
Hansen, A.C.
1995-09-01
The YawDyn computer code is used to calculate the aerodynamic damping for a typical teetering rotor configuration. The code has been modified to calculate the net work done by aerodynamic forces in one complete rotor revolution. All cases were run for a teetering rotor similar to the ESI-80 with a specified teeter angle motion in order to isolate the aerodynamic effects from the inertial and gravitational loads. Effects of nonlinear static stall, dynamic stall, dynamic inflow, and delayed static stall due to rotation stability of flap motions in high winds. Contributions of the various steady and unsteady aerodynamic effects are presented for two airfoils: the LS(1) and the NREL Thin Airfoil Family (S805A, S806, S807). Teeter stability is compared for a blade with 10{degree} of linear twist and a blade with optimum aerodynamic twist.
A verification of unsteady Navier-Stokes solutions around oscillating airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamichi, J.
1986-01-01
A finite difference solution code for the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations was combined with a moving-grid system. The thin layer Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence model are solved in a time-accurate manner in order to study the unsteady aerodynamics around airfoils undergoing small amplitude pitching or heaving motions in the transonic regime. The accuracy of the solutions obtained by the use of the present moving-grid technqiue is investigated. The effects of the minimum grid size and the integrating time-step size on the solutions are also checked. Some of the solutions obtained by the present method are compared with experimental results. It is demonstrated that the unsteady aerodynamics around oscillating airfoils can be predicted fairly well by the present code for cases in which the dynamic angle of attack or displacement is small.
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform
Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers
2014-01-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...
Unsteady reconnection in MHD models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapenta, Giovanni
2009-11-01
Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible [1]. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: (i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfv'en time, and (ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed-circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and force their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux. We further investigate the presence of unsteady reconnection regimes in the RSX experiment in Los Alamos [2]. Work in collaboration with: Intrator TP, Sun X, Dorf L and Furno I. [4pt] [1] Lapenta, G., Self-Feeding Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection on Macroscopic Scales, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 235001 (2008)[0pt] [2] Intrator TP, Sun X, Dorf L, Lapenta G and Furno I, Experimental onset threshold and magnetic pressure pileup for 3D reconnection, Nature-Physics, 5, 521 - 526 (2009)
Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.
2003-01-01
An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.
The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.
Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H
2005-06-01
Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight costs. PMID:15939772
An experimental study of airfoil-spoiler aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclachlan, B. G.; Karamcheti, K.
1985-01-01
The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.
Not Available
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunke, Michael A.; Zhou, Mingyu; Zeng, Xubin; Andreas, Edgar L.
2006-09-01
The presence of sea ice fundamentally changes the energy and momentum exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Arctic. Thus an accurate representation of the surface turbulent fluxes in climate models is a necessity. An intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms that calculate surface turbulent fluxes in four climate and numerical weather prediction models is undertaken using data from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) field experiment, which occurred on the ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas north of Alaska from October 1997 to October 1998. Algorithm deficiencies include the consistently higher wind stresses produced by the Arctic Regional Climate System Model (ARCSYM) algorithm; the lower sensible heat fluxes under stable conditions by the algorithms in ARCSYM, the National Center for Environmental Prediction's Global Forecasting System model, and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model; and the lower wind stresses by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate System Model (CCSM) algorithm under stable conditions. Unlike the constants used in most of the four model algorithms, the roughness lengths for momentum can be fitted by an exponential function with parameters that account for the seasonality in the roughness length. The roughness lengths for heat, zot, can be considered a constant (e.g., that used in CCSM, 0.5 mm), similar to what was found by Andreas et al. (2004). When these roughness lengths were implemented into the CCSM and ECMWF algorithms, they produced slightly better wind stresses and sensible heat fluxes most of the time.
Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.
1980-01-01
A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobashev, S. V.; Podlaskin, A. B.; Popov, P. A.; Sakharov, V. A.
2015-08-01
The influence of the amplitude of oscillations and initial velocity of a model on the error of determination of the aerodynamic damping moment has been studied by a method based on solving the inverse ballistic problem. Confidence intervals of the damping moment determined for various model parameters and the variance of linear coordinates are compared using the algorithm of identification of the aerodynamic characteristics of objects. An approach to estimation of the accuracy of obtained information during the planning of ballistic investigations is demonstrated.
Flow Fields Over Unsteady Three Dimensional Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.
2013-12-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239?m) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for sediment entrainment and sediment transport dynamics during bed form adjustment. Finally, the flow predictions enable a reassessment of the drag caused by the superimposed bed forms generated by unsteady flow.
Aerodynamic applications of infrared thermography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.
1989-01-01
A series of wind tunnel experiments were conducted as part of a systematic study for evaluation of infrared thermography as a viable non-intrusive thermal measurement technique for aerodynamic applications. The experiments consisted of obtaining steady-state surface temperature and convective heat transfer rates for a uniformly heated cylinder in transverse flow with a Reynolds number range of 46,000 to 250,000. The calculated convective heat transfer rates were in general agreement with classical data. Furthermore, IR thermography provided valuable real-time fluid dynamic information such as visualization of flow separation, transition and vortices.
Unsteady swimming of small organisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyan; Ardekani, Arezoo
2012-11-01
Small planktonic organisms ubiquitously display unsteady or impulsive motion to attack a prey or escape a predator in natural environments. Despite this, the role of unsteady hydrodynamic forces such as history and added mass forces on the low Reynolds number propulsion of small organisms is poorly understood. In this paper, we derive the fundamental equation of motion for an organism swimming by the means of surface distortion in a nonuniform flow at a low Reynolds number regime. We show that the history and added mass forces, that where traditionally neglected in the literature for small swimming organisms, cannot be neglected as the Stokes number increases above unity. For example, these unsteady inertial forces are of the same order as quasi-steady Stokes forces for Paramecium. Finally, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. This work is supported by NSF grant CBET-1066545.
Spatial Characteristics of the Unsteady Differential Pressures on 16 percent F/A-18 Vertical Tails
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moses, Robert W.; Ashley, Holt
1998-01-01
Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1992-01-01
A time-accurate approximate-factorization (AF) algorithm is described for solution of the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm consists of a time-linearization procedure coupled with a subiteration technique. The algorithm is the basis for the Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance (CAP-TSD) computer code, which was developed for the analysis of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of realistic aircraft configurations. The paper describes details on the governing flow equations and boundary conditions, with an emphasis on documenting the finite-difference formulas of the AF algorithm.
Effects of leading and trailing edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil/vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, Ahmed A.; Sankar, L. N.; Tadghighi, H.
1991-01-01
A numerical procedure based on the unsteady 2D full potential equation is presently used to simulate the effects of leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil-vortex interactions. Attention is given to unsteady flap-motion effects, which alleviate those interactions at sub- and supercritical onset flows. For subcritical interactions, the results obtained indicate that trailing-edge flaps can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil; for supercritical interactions, a leading- rather than trailing-edge flap must be used to alleviate the interaction.
Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.
Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab
2013-02-01
Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200
Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay
2013-08-01
A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.
Mechanisms of flow control with the unsteady bleed technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, D. R.; Acharya, M.; Bernhardt, J.
1992-01-01
The unsteady bleed technique (a.k.a. internal acoustic forcing) has been shown to be an effective method for control of separation on low Reynolds number airfoils, blunt-end cylinders aligned axially with the flow, cylinders aligned perpendicular to the flow, and forebody geometries at high angles of attack. In many of these investigations, the mechanism for the control has been attributed to enhancement of the shear layer (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability by the unsteady component of the forcing. However, this is not the only possible mechanism, nor may it be the dominant mechanism under some conditions. In this work it is demonstrated that at least two other mechanisms for flow control are present, and depending on the location and the amplitude of the forcing, these may have significant impact on the flow behavior. Experiments were conducted on a right-circular cylinder with a single unsteady bleed slot aligned along the axis of the cylinder. The effects of forcing frequency, forcing amplitude, and slot location on the azimuthal pressure distribution were studied. The results suggest that a strong vortical structure forms near the unsteady bleed slot when the slot location is upstream of the boundary layer separation point. The structure is unsteady, since it is created by the unsteady forcing. The 'vortex' generates a sizeable pressure spike (C(sub p) = -3.0) in the time-averaged pressure field immediately downstream of the slot. In addition to the pressure spike, the boundary layer separation location moves farther downstream when the forcing is activated. Delay of the separation is believed to be a result of enhancing the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. When forcing is applied in a quiescent wind tunnel, a weak low-pressure region forms near the slot that is purely the result of the second-order streaming effect.
The effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on turbomachinery flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekici, Kivanc; Kielb, Robert E.; Hall, Kenneth C.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on the flutter characteristics of turbomachinery blades is investigated. Specifically, the present method is used to study the effect of leading edge blending in loaded and unloaded rotors. The unsteady aerodynamic response of the blades to self-excited vibrations is modeled using a harmonic balance method, which allows one to model the entire wheel using complex periodic boundary conditions and a computational grid spanning a single sector (symmetry group). This reduces the computational and memory requirements dramatically compared to similar time-accurate analyses. It is shown that alternate blending degrades the stability of a loaded rotor whereas it improves the stability of an unloaded rotor. On the other hand, when blends are spaced five blades apart their effect is less pronounced.
Viscous effect on airfoils for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. C.
1982-01-01
The viscous effect on aerodynamic performance of an arbitrary airfoil executing low frequency maneuvers during transonic flight was investigated. The small disturbance code, LTRAN2, was modified by using a conventional integral method, BLAYER, for the boundary layer and an empirical relation, viscous wedge, for simulating the suddenly thickened boundary layer behind the shock. Before the shock, only the boundary layer displacement thickness was evaluated. After the shock, the empirical wedge thickness was superimposed on the boundary layer thickness along the surface as well as in the wake region. The pressure coefficients were calculated for both steady and unsteady states. The viscous solution takes fewer iterations to obtain the converged steady state solution. Comparisons made with experimental data and the inviscid solution show that the viscous solution agrees better with the experimental data with about the same (or slightly less) amount of computational time.
Unsteady Lift Response and Energy Extraction in Gusting Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jeesoon; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David
2012-11-01
The unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with streamwise (surging) and transverse (plunging) oscillating motions are studied to understand the dynamic response to gusts and the potential for energy extraction. We focus on 2D thin airfoils at low sub- and super-critical Reynolds number so that the role of wake instability can be isolated. Simulations are performed in a large parameter space of angle of attack, reduced frequency, and oscillation amplitude. At low angle of attack, the magnitude and phase of the fluctuating lift are in reasonable agreement with classical theory at all reduced frequencies. In this case, the quasi-steady force is modified by contributions from shed vorticity at the trailing edge and added-mass at high reduced frequency. At high angle of attack, the fluctuating forces are found to be enhanced or attenuated by a leading-edge vortex, depending on the reduced frequency. Resonance with the wake instability is also investigated.
The basic aerodynamics of floatation
Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.
1983-09-01
The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.
Airfoil aerodynamics in icing conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bragg, M. B.; Gregorek, G. M.; Lee, J. D.
1986-01-01
Methods of analyzing and experimentally measuring the effect of ice accretion on airfoil sections are presented. Empirical and analytical methods for predicting airfoil performance degradation due to ice are discussed. Ice simulation techniques for aerodynamic testing are presented and compared to data with actual ice accretions. The results show that simulation techniques to imitate the effect of ice on airfoil performance work well in most cases. Comparisons between predicted and measured airfoil performance with ice accretions are presented. For rime ice cases, the predictions compared well with experiments; but for glaze ice, a need for improved methods are seen.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mugler, John P., Jr.
1960-01-01
An iteration method is presented by which the detailed aerodynamic loading and twist characteristics of a flexible wing with known elastic properties may be calculated. The method is applicable at Mach numbers approaching 1.0 as well as at subsonic Mach numbers. Calculations were made for a wing-body combination; the wing was swept back 45 deg and had an aspect ratio of 4. Comparisons were made with experimental results at Mach numbers from.0.80 to 0.98.
A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.
Aerodynamics of compliant membrane wings as related to bat and other mammalian flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Arnold; Breuer, Kenneth
2007-11-01
The wings of mammalian flyers and gliders, such as bats or flying squirrels, are characterized by a compliant skin membrane stretched over a thin skeletal support structure. These unique wing structures lead to aeroelastic behavior that is quite distinct from that observed in birds or insects. We present experimental results on the aerodynamic and fluid mechanical behavior of model compliant wings fabricated using both isotropic and anisotropic membrane materials. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are measured simultaneously with time-resolved PIV of the surrounding flow field, illustrating the relationship between the two and the role of vortex shedding on the overall behavior.
Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.
2005-01-01
This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.
Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period January 15, 2004 through April 15, 2004
Leonard, A; Chatelain, P; Heineck, J; Browand, F; Mehta, R; Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B; Brown, J; DeChant, L; Rubel, M; Ross, J; Hammache, M; Pointer, D; Roy, C; Hassan, B; Arcas, D; Hsu, T; Payne, J; Walker, S; Castellucci, P; McCallen, R
2004-04-13
Listed are summaries of the activities and accomplishments during this second-quarter reporting period for each of the consortium participants. The following are some highlights for this reporting period: (1) Experiments and computations guide conceptual designs for reduction of drag due to tractor-trailer gap flow (splitter plate), trailer underbody (wedges), and base drag (base-flap add-ons). (2) Steady and unsteady RANS simulations for the GTS geometry are being finalized for development of clear modeling guidelines with RANS. (3) Full geometry and tunnel simulations on the GCM geometry are underway. (4) CRADA with PACCAR is supporting computational parametric study to determine predictive need to include wind tunnel geometry as limits of computational domain. (5) Road and track test options are being investigated. All is ready for field testing of base-flaps at Crows Landing in California in collaboration with Partners in Advanced Transportation Highways (PATH). In addition, MAKA of Canada is providing the device and Wabash is providing a new trailer. (6) Apparatus to investigate tire splash and spray has been designed and is under construction. Michelin has offered tires with customized threads for this study. (7) Vortex methods have improved techniques for the treatment of vorticity near surfaces and spinning geometries like rotating tires. (8) Wind tunnel experiments on model rail cars demonstrate that empty coal cars exhibit substantial aerodynamic drag compared to full coal cars, indicating that significant fuel savings could be obtained by reducing the drag of empty coal cars. (9) Papers are being prepared for an exclusive conference session on the Heavy Vehicle DOE Aerodynamic Drag Project at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference in Portland, Oregon, June 28-July 1, 2004.
The aerodynamical instability of circular profiles systems
Vjacheslav I. Vanko
2005-01-01
The Ljapunov's instability condition of equilibrium states for arbitrary profiles in an air flow, is used for investigations of instability of circular profiles systems. The hypothesis about the additivity of aerodynamical characteristics has been formulated for special systems of bad-streamlined profiles. This hypothesis was examined by experiments in a wind tunnel of Zhoukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamical Institute. The calculation method of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.
1987-01-01
The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.
An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi
2011-08-01
An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 < Str < 0.4 used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.
Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.
Sun Mao; Hossein Hamdani
2001-01-01
The aerodynamic force and flow structure of NACA 0012 airfoil performing an unsteady motion at low Reynolds number (Re=100) are calculated by solving Navier-Stokes equations. The motion consists of three parts: the first translation, rotation\\u000a and the second translation in the direction opposite to the first. The rotation and the second translation in this motion\\u000a are expected to represent the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.
1974-01-01
A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The computer was used to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separated regions and wake vortex patterns are determined. The computer program developed to perform the numerical calculations is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.
1974-01-01
A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The technique employed is the use of the computer to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the required two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separation regions and wake vortex patterns are determined.
A collection of flow visualization techniques used in the Aerodynamic Research Branch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Theoretical and experimental research on unsteady aerodynamic flows is discussed. Complex flow fields that involve separations, vortex interactions, and transonic flow effects were investigated. Flow visualization techniques are used to obtain a global picture of the flow phenomena before detailed quantitative studies are undertaken. A wide variety of methods are used to visualize fluid flow and a sampling of these methods is presented. It is emphasized that the visualization technique is a thorough quantitative analysis and subsequent physical understanding of these flow fields.
Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability
Courtney, Elya R
2013-01-01
This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by the experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The experiments reported here also demonstrate a decrease in aerodynamic drag near Sg = 1.23 +/- 0.02. It is hypothesized that this decrease in drag over a narrow band of Sg values is due to a rapid damping of coning motions (precession and nutation). Observation of this drag decrease at a consistent value of Sg demonstrates the relati...
Dynamic stall and aerodynamic damping
Rasmussen, F.; Petersen, J.T.; Madsen, H.A.
1999-08-01
A dynamic stall model is used to analyze and reproduce open air blade section measurements as well as wind tunnel measurements. The dynamic stall model takes variations in both angle of attack and flow velocity into account. The paper gives a brief description of the dynamic stall model and presents results from analyses of dynamic stall measurements for a variety of experiments with different airfoils in wind tunnel and on operating rotors. The wind tunnel experiments comprises pitching as well as plunging motion of the airfoils. The dynamic stall model is applied for derivation of aerodynamic damping characteristics for cyclic motion of the airfoils in flapwise and edgewise direction combined with pitching. The investigation reveals that the airfoil dynamic stall characteristics depend on the airfoil shape, and the type of motion (pitch, plunge). The aerodynamic damping characteristics, and thus the sensitivity to stall induced vibrations, depend highly on the relative motion of the airfoil in flapwise and edgewise direction, and on a possibly coupled pitch variation, which is determined by the structural characteristics of the blade.
Physics of Forced Unsteady Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, Lawrence W. (editor)
1992-01-01
This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in April 1990. This workshop was jointly organized by NASA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Army Research Office (ARO), and was directed toward improved understanding of the physical processes that cause unsteady separation to occur. The proceedings contain the written contributions for the workshop, and include selected viewgraphs used in the various presentations.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Multistage Turbomachinery Flows in Support of Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.
1999-01-01
This paper summarizes the state of 3D CFD based models of the time average flow field within axial flow multistage turbomachines. Emphasis is placed on models which are compatible with the industrial design environment and those models which offer the potential of providing credible results at both design and off-design operating conditions. The need to develop models which are free of aerodynamic input from semi-empirical design systems is stressed. The accuracy of such models is shown to be dependent upon their ability to account for the unsteady flow environment in multistage turbomachinery. The relevant flow physics associated with some of the unsteady flow processes present in axial flow multistage machinery are presented along with procedures which can be used to account for them in 3D CFD simulations. Sample results are presented for both axial flow compressors and axial flow turbines which help to illustrate the enhanced predictive capabilities afforded by including these procedures in 3D CFD simulations. Finally, suggestions are given for future work on the development of time average flow models.
Computational aerodynamics and design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.
1982-01-01
The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348
Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, Ellwood
1985-01-01
The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.
Unsteady Stored Heat Behavior in Building Frame of Reinforced Concrete Structure Type Cold Storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Tomohiro; Murakami, Yuji; Uchikawa, Motoyuki
The time variation of temperature in the reinforced concrete frame with an internal insulation or with an external insulation and the unsteady stored heat behavior, which results from the thermal mass of the concrete frame, have been investigated. The experiments with the concrete models and the measurements of the heat flux through the practical cold storage were performed. The experimental results under the unsteady condition showed great difference of the stored heat behavior between the internal insulation type and the external type. In addition, it was shown that the external insulation frame was useful for heat storage. The simulation method with two dimentional unsteady FEM was introduced for easily analyzing the stored heat behavior problems of the practical cold storages, which had various specifications in design. The calculated results of the heat flux and temperature in the concrete frame agreed with the experiments approximately. From these results, the suggestions for the design of the insulation wall under the unsteady condition were given.
Computational analysis of high resolution unsteady airloads for rotor aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C.-M. Gordon; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.
1994-01-01
The study of helicopter aerodynamic loading for acoustics applications requires the application of efficient yet accurate simulations of the velocity field induced by the rotor's vortex wake. This report summarizes work to date on the development of such an analysis, which builds on the Constant Vorticity Contour (CVC) free wake model, previously implemented for the study of vibratory loading in the RotorCRAFT computer code. The present effort has focused on implementation of an airload reconstruction approach that computes high resolution airload solutions of rotor/rotor-wake interactions required for acoustics computations. Supplementary efforts on the development of improved vortex core modeling, unsteady aerodynamic effects, higher spatial resolution of rotor loading, and fast vortex wake implementations have substantially enhanced the capabilities of the resulting software, denoted RotorCRAFT/AA (AeroAcoustics). Results of validation calculations using recently acquired model rotor data show that by employing airload reconstruction it is possible to apply the CVC wake analysis with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustics applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to that required by direct calculations. Promising correlation with this body of airload and noise data has been obtained for a variety of rotor configurations and operating conditions.
Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cozzolongo, J. V.
1984-01-01
The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.
APPLIED AERODYNAMICS I) Course goals
Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"
APPLIED AERODYNAMICS I) Course goals II) Textbook & Reference III) Course outline IV) Homework) Course goals #12;Textbook Anderson, J D Jr., "Fundamentals of Aerodynamics" 5th edition, McGraw-Hill Book/2003. #12;Course Outlines PART I: Fundamental Principle ·Introduction to Aerodynamics · Fundamental
AIAA 20033498 Viscous Aerodynamic Shape
Jameson, Antony
AIAA 20033498 Viscous Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Wings including Planform Variables Kasidit Aerodynamics Conference Orlando, Florida/June 2326, 2003 For permission to copy or republish, contact4344 #12;VISCOUS AERODYNAMIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF WINGS INCLUDING PLANFORM VARIABLES Kasidit Leoviriyakit
Methodology of Blade Unsteady Pressure Measurement in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Capece, V. R.; Jett, T. A.; Senyitko, R. G.
2002-01-01
In this report the methodology adopted to measure unsteady pressures on blade surfaces in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade under conditions of simulated blade flutter is described. The previous work done in this cascade reported that the oscillating cascade produced waves, which for some interblade phase angles reflected off the wind tunnel walls back into the cascade, interfered with the cascade unsteady aerodynamics, and contaminated the acquired data. To alleviate the problems with data contamination due to the back wall interference, a method of influence coefficients was selected for the future unsteady work in this cascade. In this approach only one blade in the cascade is oscillated at a time. The majority of the report is concerned with the experimental technique used and the experimental data generated in the facility. The report presents a list of all test conditions for the small amplitude of blade oscillations, and shows examples of some of the results achieved. The report does not discuss data analysis procedures like ensemble averaging, frequency analysis, and unsteady blade loading diagrams reconstructed using the influence coefficient method. Finally, the report presents the lessons learned from this phase of the experimental effort, and suggests the improvements and directions of the experimental work for tests to be carried out for large oscillation amplitudes.
Preliminary results of unsteady blade surface pressure measurements for the SR-3 propeller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heidelberg, L. J.; Clark, B. J.
1986-01-01
Unsteady blade surface pressures were measured on an advanced, highly swept propeller known as SR-3. These measurements were obtained because the unsteady aerodynamics of these highly loaded transonic blades is important to noise generation and aeroelastic response. Specifically, the response to periodic angle-of-attack change was measured for both two- and eight-bladed configurations over a range of flight Mach numbers from 0.4 to 0.85. The periodic angle-of-attack change was obtained by placing the propeller axis at angles up to 4 deg to the flow. Most of the results are presented in terms of the unsteady pressure coefficient variation with Mach number. Both cascade and Mach number effects were largest on the suction surface near the leading edge. The results of a three-dimensional Euler code applied in a quasi-steady fashion were compared to measured data at the reduced frequency of 0.1 and showed relatively poor agreement. Pressure waveforms are shown that suggest shock phenomena may play an important part in the unsteady pressure response at some blade locations.
Control of flow separation and mixing by aerodynamic excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Edward J.; Abbott, John M.
1990-01-01
The recent research in the control of shear flows using unsteady aerodynamic excitation conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. The program is of a fundamental nature, concentrating on the physics of the unsteady aerodynamic processes. This field of research is a fairly new development with great promise in the areas of enhanced mixing and flow separation control. Enhanced mixing research includes influence of core turbulence, forced pairing of coherent structures, and saturation of mixing enhancement. Separation flow control studies included are for a two-dimensional diffuser, conical diffusers, and single airfoils. Ultimate applications include aircraft engine inlet flow control at high angle of attack, wide angle diffusers, highly loaded airfoils as in turbomachinery, and ejector/suppressor nozzles for the supersonic transport. An argument involving the Coanda Effect is made that all of the above mentioned application areas really only involve forms of shear layer mixing enhancement. The program also includes the development of practical excitation devices which might be used in aircraft applications.
Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.
1988-01-01
This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.
Unsteady transonic flow simulation on a full-span-wing-body configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Goorjian, Peter M.
1987-01-01
The presence of a body influences both the aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance of wings. Such effects are more pronounced in the transonic regime. To accurately account for the effect of the body, particularly when the wings are experiencing asymmetric modal motions, it is necessary to model the full configuration in the nonlinear transonic regime. In this study, full-span-wing-body configurations are simulated for the first time by a theoretical method that uses the unsteady potential equations based on the small-disturbance theory. The body geometry is modeled exactly as the physical shape, instead of as a rectangular box, which has been done in the past. Steady pressure computations for wing-body configurations compare well with the available experimental data. Unsteady pressure computations when the wings are oscillating in asymmetric modes show significant influence of the body.
An analysis of blade vortex interaction aerodynamics and acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, D. J.
1985-01-01
The impulsive noise associated with helicopter flight due to Blade-Vortex Interaction, sometimes called blade slap is analyzed especially for the case of a close encounter of the blade-tip vortex with a following blade. Three parts of the phenomena are considered: the tip-vortex structure generated by the rotating blade, the unsteady pressure produced on the following blade during the interaction, and the acoustic radiation due to the unsteady pressure field. To simplify the problem, the analysis was confined to the situation where the vortex is aligned parallel to the blade span in which case the maximum acoustic pressure results. Acoustic radiation due to the interaction is analyzed in space-fixed coordinates and in the time domain with the unsteady pressure on the blade surface as the source of chordwise compact, but spanwise non-compact radiation. Maximum acoustic pressure is related to the vortex core size and Reynolds number which are in turn functions of the blade-tip aerodynamic parameters. Finally noise reduction and performance are considered.
Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.
2007-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.
Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le?niewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.
2014-08-01
Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.
Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1994-01-01
A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.
Unsteady Katabatic Winds on Mountain Slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernando, H. J. S.; Princevac, M.; Hunt, J. C. R.
2003-04-01
UNSTEADY KATABATIC WINDS ON MOUNTAIN SLOPES H.J.S. Fernando (1), M. Princevac (1) and J.C.R. Hunt (2) (1) Arizona State University, Tempe, (2) University College, London j.fernando@asu.edu Theoretical and field studies were carried out on velocity and temperature fields of an unsteady nighttime atmospheric boundary layer on sloping surfaces. Field data were collected during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) conducted in the Salt Lake basin, Utah. Nighttime data from two slope sites, with measurements taken using six tethersonde systems and three sonic anemometers placed at a various representative locations along the slope, were used in the analysis. This analysis concerned simple katabatic flows as well as the interaction between (evening) down-slope flows on lower (elevation) gentle slopes and those originating at adjoining higher (elevation) steep mountain slopes. Katabatic winds that form on the steep slope overrun those on the lower slope, thus dominating the micrometeorology at the bottom of the valley. Yet, the flow and temperature on higher slopes are independent of those in the lower valley, given that katabatic flows on steeper slopes are generally supercritical and do not transmit flow information upstream. By employing assumptions on the flow structure and using parameterizations for pertinent processes, an expression was derived for the layer-averaged katabatic flow velocity. Using energy arguments to calculate the growth rate of the katabatic-layer thickness, a new expression for the flow depth was derived. Extensive comparisons between theoretical results and field observations were made, allowing cross-fertilization between theoretical developments, eduction of flow physics and interpretation of field data. Unsteady effects pertinent to katabatic flows were also considered, following Fleagle’s approach, and it is shown theoretically and using observations that the down-slope flow pulsates with a period inversely proportional to the background stratification and the slope angle. In concurrence with the theoretical analysis, the down-slope flow was found to pulsate with a longer period on a gentle slope (70 to 130 minutes) and a shorter period on a steeper slope (20 to 50 minutes).
Unsteady three-dimensional simulation of VTOL upwash fountain turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Robert E.; Nixon, David
1987-01-01
Numerical simulations of a planar turbulent wall jet and a planar VTOL upwash fountain were performed. These are three dimensional simulations which resolve large scale unsteady motions in the flows. The wall jet simulation shows good agreement with experimental data and is presented to verify the simulation methodology. Simulation of the upwash fountain predicts elevated shear stress and a half velocity width spreading rate of 33% which agrees well with experiment. Turbulence mechanisms which contribute to the enhanced spreading rate are examined.
Counterflow Diffusion Flames with Unsteady Strain Rates
H. G. IM; J. K. BECHTOLD; C. K. LAW
1995-01-01
The counterflow diffusion flame subject to time-varying strain rates is studied analytically in order to assess the effect that unsteadiness caused by turbulent flows might have on laminar flamelets. The characteristic unsteady time considered is of the same order as the characteristic flame time, which is represented by the reciprocal of the strain rate, such that the flame structure consists
AIAA 20010529 Unsteady Flow Investigations in an
Jameson, Antony
-averaged and unsteady flow physics present. The TFLO three-dimensional, multi-block, massively parallel turbomachinery computer systems to simulate the flow field in turbomachinery with fewer assumptions and simplifications of the unsteady and time- averaged flows in turbomachinery and to subsequent improvements in turbomachinery design
Unsteady Turbomachinery Computations Using Massively Parallel Platforms
Alonso, Juan J.
Unsteady Turbomachinery Computations Using Massively Parallel Platforms Edwin van der Weide with the inherently unsteady nature of turbomachinery flows, due to the motion of the rotors, this means formula, 3Un - 4Un-1 + Un-2 2t = Res(Un ), (1) Research Associate, Department of Aeronautics
Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao
2015-03-01
We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.
Space Shuttle flutter as affected by wing-body aerodynamic interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.; Shyprykevich, P.; Hess, R. W.
1974-01-01
In the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch transonic blowdown wind-tunnel, flutter speeds were measured on 1/80-th scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete Space Shuttle, and intermediate component combinations. Using the doublet lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Aerodynamic interaction was found by test and analysis to raise the flutter speed in some configurations while lowering it in others. Although at Mach number less than 0.7, predicted speeds correlated to within 6% of those measured, rapid deterioration of the agreement occurred at higher subsonic Mach numbers, especially on the more complicated configurations. Additional analysis showed that aerodynamic forces arising from body flexibility potentially can have a large effect on flutter speed, but that the current shuttle design is not so affected.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1985-01-01
The effects of alternate-blade structural detuning and adjacent-blade alternate-circumferential-spacing aerodynamic detuning on the supersonic unstalled torsional flutter stability of a turbomachine rotor are investigated analytically. An unsteady aerodynamic model employing influence coefficients is constructed for the case of a flat-plate-airfoil cascade in torsion-mode harmonic oscillation in a supersonic inviscid isentropic adiabatic irrotational perfect-gas inlet flow with a subsonic leading-edge locus. The influence coefficients and equations of motion are derived; the model is verified by applying it to the 12-blade cascade-B flow geometry studied by Verdon and McCune (1975); and the results are presented graphically. It is found that the rotor can be stabilized over the entire reduced frequency range by applying a combination of structural and aerodynamic detuning as the passive flutter-control mechanism.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janetzke, D. C.; Murthy, D. V.
1991-01-01
Aeroelastic analysis is mult-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic analysis capability on a distributed-memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic model and a panel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent are demonstrated using 32 processors. The effects of subtask ordering, problem size and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared-memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed-memory system.
Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
1999-01-01
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2011-01-01
The current paper reports on an investigation of steady and unsteady flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment in a transonic compressor rotor. Circumferential grooves casing treatment is used mainly to increase stall margin in axial compressors with a relatively small decrease in aerodynamic efficiency. It is widely believed that flow mechanisms of circumferential grooves casing treatment near stall conditions are not yet well understood even though this treatment has been used widely in real engines. Numerical analysis based on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) has been the primary tool used to understand flow mechanism for circumferential grooves casing treatment. Although steady RANS explains some flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment, it does not calculate all the measured changes in the compressor characteristics. Therefore, design optimization of circumferential grooves with steady RANS has not been very successful. As a compressor operates toward the stall condition, the flow field becomes transient. Major sources of self-generated flow unsteadiness are shock oscillation and interaction between the passage shock and the tip leakage vortex. In the present paper, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is applied to study the effects of circumferential grooves in a transonic compressor. The results from URANS are compared with the results from RANS and measured data. The current investigation shows that there are significant unsteady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment. For the currently investigated rotor, the unsteady effects are of the same magnitude as the steady effects in terms of extending the compressor stall margin.
Unsteady Full Annulus Simulations of a Transonic Axial Compressor Stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, Gregory P.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2009-01-01
Two recent research endeavors in turbomachinery at NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on compression system stall inception and compression system aerothermodynamic performance. Physical experiment and computational research are ongoing in support of these research objectives. TURBO, an unsteady, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code commissioned and developed by NASA, has been utilized, enhanced, and validated in support of these endeavors. In the research which follows, TURBO is shown to accurately capture compression system flow range-from choke to stall inception-and also to accurately calculate fundamental aerothermodynamic performance parameters. Rigorous full-annulus calculations are performed to validate TURBO s ability to simulate the unstable, unsteady, chaotic stall inception process; as part of these efforts, full-annulus calculations are also performed at a condition approaching choke to further document TURBO s capabilities to compute aerothermodynamic performance data and support a NASA code assessment effort.
Conservation-form equations of unsteady open-channel flow
Lai, C.; Baltzer, R.A.; Schaffranek, R.W.
2002-01-01
The unsteady open-channel flow equations are typically expressed in a variety of forms due to the imposition of differing assumptions, use of varied dependent variables, and inclusion of different source/sink terms. Questions often arise as to whether a particular equation set is expressed in a form consistent with the conservation-law definition. The concept of conservation form is developed to clarify the meaning mathematically. Six sets of unsteady-flow equations typically used in engineering practice are presented and their conservation properties are identified and discussed. Results of the theoretical development and analysis of the equations are substantiated in a set of numerical experiments conducted using alternate equation forms. Findings of these analytical and numerical efforts demonstrate that the choice of dependent variable is the fundamental factor determining the nature of the conservation properties of any particular equation form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.
1991-01-01
A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.
Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.
1996-01-01
The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.
2014-02-01
The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000
Aerospace Engineering Pickup Truck AerodynamicsPickup Truck Aerodynamics
Al-Garni, Abdullah M.
1 Aerospace Engineering 1 Pickup Truck AerodynamicsPickup Truck Aerodynamics A PIV StudyA PIV Study A. Al-Garni & L.P. Bernal Aerospace Engineering University of Michigan 30 April 2002 Aerospace small geometry modifications. Aerospace Engineering 3 OutlineOutline · Flow facility and Pickup Truck
Unsteady pulsing of cylinder wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, D. R.; Amato, C. W.
An overview of recent progress in modeling the behavior of low Reynolds number cylinder wakes is presented. The discussion examines ways in which unsteady forcing has been used to test hypotheses and to control the behavior of the wake. In addition to the review a new method of reducing the wake momentum defect using pulsating jets is demonstrated for flow around a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 370. The line of pulsating jets is embedded in the trailing generator of the cylinder. There is no net mass added by the pulsating jets on an average over the cycle, but there is net momentum addition to the flow by the second-order streaming effect. The jets are most effective in modifying the wake when pulsating at twice the Karman shedding frequency. The streaming flow generated by the pulsation suppresses the Karman vortex street and reduces the momentum defect.
Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics
Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick
2004-10-17
Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.
Stability characteristics of a periodically unsteady mixing layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajj, Muhammad R.
1997-02-01
In nature, in many technological applications and in some laboratory experiments, the basic state of shear flows can be time-varying. The effects of such variations on the stability characteristics of these flows are not well understood. In previous work, Miksad et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 123, 1 (1982)] and Hajj et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 256, 385 (1992)], it has been shown that low-frequency components, generated by nonlinear difference interactions, play an important role in the redistribution of energy among spectral components. In particular, phase modulation was found to be the most effective mechanism in energy transfer to the sidebands of unstable modes. In this work, the effects of small-amplitude low-frequency mean flow unsteadiness on the stability of a plane mixing layer are determined. By extending earlier analytical arguments, it is shown that periodicity in the mean flow causes modulations of the most unstable modes. The analysis is then verified experimentally by comparing levels of amplitude and phase modulations in mixing layers with steady and unsteady basic flows. The results show that small-amplitude low-frequency unsteadiness results in enhanced modulations of the fundamental mode. These modulations cause variations in the growth rates of the unstable modes and energy redistribution among them.
Non-equilibrium and unsteady fluid degassing during slow decompression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammer, Julia E.; Manga, Michael; Cashman, Katharine V.
Decompression experiments were performed on corn syrup-water solutions in order to investigate the effect of viscosity on processes of vesiculation and degassing at low to moderate degrees of volatile supersaturation. Repeat experiments demonstrated similar long term vesiculation behavior at moderate decompression rates despite highly variable initial nucleation styles. Results suggest that magmas may not necessarily achieve chemical equilibrium by vapor exsolution and may require viscosity-dependent critical supersaturations in order to vesiculate. Vesiculation also increased the ambient pressure and decreased supersaturations, resulting in unsteady degassing.
Unsteady wind loads for TMT: replacing parametric models with CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacMartin, Douglas G.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2014-08-01
Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure result in image jitter and higher-order image degradation due to M1 segment motion. Advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allow unsteady simulations of the flow around realistic telescope geometry, in order to compute the unsteady forces due to wind turbulence. These simulations can then be used to understand the characteristics of the wind loads. Previous estimates used a parametric model based on a number of assumptions about the wind characteristics, such as a von Karman spectrum and frozen-flow turbulence across M1, and relied on CFD only to estimate parameters such as mean wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy. Using the CFD-computed forces avoids the need for assumptions regarding the flow. We discuss here both the loads on the telescope that lead to image jitter, and the spatially-varying force distribution across the primary mirror, using simulations with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) geometry. The amplitude, temporal spectrum, and spatial distribution of wind disturbances are all estimated; these are then used to compute the resulting image motion and degradation. There are several key differences relative to our earlier parametric model. First, the TMT enclosure provides sufficient wind reduction at the top end (near M2) to render the larger cross-sectional structural areas further inside the enclosure (including M1) significant in determining the overall image jitter. Second, the temporal spectrum is not von Karman as the turbulence is not fully developed; this applies both in predicting image jitter and M1 segment motion. And third, for loads on M1, the spatial characteristics are not consistent with propagating a frozen-flow turbulence screen across the mirror: Frozen flow would result in a relationship between temporal frequency content and spatial frequency content that does not hold in the CFD predictions. Incorporating the new estimates of wind load characteristics into TMT response predictions leads to revised estimates of the response of TMT to wind turbulence, and validates the aerodynamic design of the enclosure.
Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.
1983-01-01
The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maita, M.
1980-06-01
The problem of aerodynamic noise generated by fluctuating entropy, the case when there exists unsteady heat diffusion due to temperature inhomogeneities in the noise source, is formulated in terms of fluctuating pressure by representing the non-Gaussian, non-linear processes using Stochastic Wiener-Hermite Expansions. The acoustic-analogical type wave equation derived by Howe et. al. could be deduced by approximating the formulated equations of the Gaussian-part. Simple model problems were discussed to illustrate the theory.
Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.
1982-01-01
Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.
Unsteady propeller hydrodynamics by Dirk H. Renick.
Renick, Dirk Hampton, 1970-
2001-01-01
One of the main problem affecting modern propulsor design engineers is the ability to quantitatively predict unsteady propeller forces for modern, multi-blade row, ducted propulsors operating in highly contracting flowfields. ...
Ground/Flight Correlation of Aerodynamic Loads with Structural Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Davis, Mark C.
2009-01-01
Ground and flight tests provide a basis and methodology for in-flight characterization of the aerodynamic and structural performance through the monitoring of the fluid-structure interaction. The NF-15B flight tests of the Intelligent Flight Control System program provided a unique opportunity to test the correlation of aerodynamic loads with points of flow attaching and detaching from the surface, which are also known as flow bifurcation points, as observed in a previous wind tunnel test performed at the U.S. Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado). Moreover, flight tests, along with the subsequent unsteady aerodynamic tests in the NASA Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), provide a basis using surface flow sensors as means of assessing the aeroelastic performance of flight vehicles. For the flight tests, the NF-15B tail was instrumented with hot-film sensors and strain gages for measuring root-bending strains. This data were gathered via selected sideslip maneuvers performed at level flight and subsonic speeds. The aerodynamic loads generated by the sideslip maneuver resulted in a structural response, which were then compared with the hot-film sensor signals. The hot-film sensor signals near the stagnation region were found to be highly correlated with the root-bending strains. For the TDT tests, a flexible wing section developed under the U.S. Air Force Research Lab SensorCraft program was instrumented with strain gages, accelerometers, and hot-film sensors at two span stations. The TDT tests confirmed the correlation between flow bifurcation points and the wing structural response to tunnel-generated gusts. Furthermore, as the wings structural modes were excited by the gusts, a gradual phase change between the flow bifurcation point and the structural mode occurred during a resonant condition.
Effect of Geometric Uncertainties on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ernst, Benedikt; Schmitt, Henning; Seume, Jörg R.
2014-12-01
Offshore wind turbines operate in a complex unsteady flow environment which causes unsteady aerodynamic loads. The unsteady flow environment is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, geometry variations and material imperfections also cause uncertainties in the design process. Probabilistic design methods consider these uncertainties in order to reach acceptable reliability and safety levels for offshore wind turbines. Variations of the rotor blade geometry influence the aerodynamic loads which also affect the reliability of other wind turbine components. Therefore, the present paper is dealing with geometric uncertainties of the rotor blades. These can arise from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear of the blades. First, the effect of geometry variations of wind turbine airfoils on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated using a Latin hypercube sampling. Then, the resulting effects on the performance and the blade loads of an offshore wind turbine are analyzed. The variations of the airfoil geometry lead to a significant scatter of the lift and drag coefficients which also affects the damage-equivalent flapwise bending moments. In contrast to that, the effects on the power and the annual energy production are almost negligible with regard to the assumptions made.
Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Low-Reynolds-Number Flows Over the APEX Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatineni, Mahidhar; Zhong, Xiao-Lin
1998-01-01
Laminar and transitional separation bubbles are an important feature of low-Reynolds-number flows over airfoils. The separation bubbles are unsteady and have a significant impact on the aerodynamic properties of the airfoils. In this paper unsteady low-Reynolds-number separated flows over the APEX airfoil are calculated using a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical results show the presence of unsteady separation bubbles in the flowfield. An analysis of the numerical results shows that flowfield disturbances are amplified significantly in the separation bubble, leading to periodic vortex shedding. A linear stability analysis of the separated boundary layer is performed and the results show that the dominant wavenumber and frequency in the numerical simulations agree with the most unstable wavenumber and frequency from the linear stability analysis. The numerical results also show the growth and interaction of disturbance waves in the separation bubble. For transonic flows over the APEX airfoil, the calculations show that the presence of shocks causes significant changes in the separation location and consequently, the overall flowfield.
The investigation of parachute fabric permeability under an unsteady pressure differential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rondeau, Nichole C.
An apparatus for assessing permeability of textiles subjected to time-varying pressure differentials is presented. A Computer Numerically Controlled Piston Permeability Apparatus (CNC-PPA) that can control the volume flow rate through a fabric has been designed and built. This test device has been developed in an effort to improve the understanding and design choices for aerodynamic decelerators. Preliminary results for a low permeability fabric (PIA-C-44378, Type IV) under both steady and unsteady loads are presented. The results from this investigation do indicate a small effect of unsteady pressure differential on the fabric permeability. The fabric permeability is slightly higher than the static permeability when the pressure differential is increasing with respect to time and the opposite is true when the pressure differential is decreasing. This change in permeability is more pronounced as the pressure is higher and the pressure changes more rapidly with respect to time, suggesting dynamic permeability likely affects highly unsteady phenomena such as parachute opening.
Soot formation in unsteady counterflow diffusion flames
A. Cuoci; A. Frassoldati; T. Faravelli; E. Ranzi
2009-01-01
The formation of pollutant species in turbulent diffusion flames is strongly affected by the coupling between the highly non-linear chemical kinetics with three-dimensional, unsteady hydrodynamics. It is necessary to better understand this interdependency of transport and kinetic mechanisms, in order to accurately predict non-equilibrium effects in the numerical modeling of pollutant formation (especially PAH and soot). Unsteady counterflow diffusion flames
Measurement of unsteady pressures in rotating systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kienappel, K.
1978-01-01
The principles of the experimental determination of unsteady periodic pressure distributions in rotating systems are reported. An indirect method is discussed, and the effects of the centrifugal force and the transmission behavior of the pressure measurement circuit were outlined. The required correction procedures are described and experimentally implemented in a test bench. Results show that the indirect method is suited to the measurement of unsteady nonharmonic pressure distributions in rotating systems.
Caetano, J V; Percin, M; Oudheusden, B W van; Remes, B; Wagter, C de; Croon, G C H E de; Visser, C C de
2015-01-01
An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289
Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan
2010-08-26
This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports. PMID:20488446
Aerodynamic interactions with turbulent jet exhaust plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilmoth, R. G.
1982-01-01
The importance of aerodynamic interactions associated with external flow-field effects on turbulent jet exhaust plume structure is discussed. A viscous/inviscid prediction technique is presented which combines the overlaid mixing and inviscid plume components of the JANNAF Standardized Plume Flow-Field (SPF) model with inviscid external flow and boundary-layer analyses for treating nozzle afterbodies at subsonic/transonic speeds. Validation of the technique via comparisons between predictions and experiment for cold-air jet plumes is presented. Predicted spatial temperature distributions for hot, nonafterburning plumes are presented and compared to results obtained from more simplified prediction techniques in order to assess the importance of the aerodynamic interactions associated with external boundary layers and pressure gradients. It is demonstrated that these interactions play a significant role in determining the near-field turbulent mixing and inviscid plume shock structure. The implication of these results to plume radiation predictions is discussed.
Aerodynamics of Seeing on Large Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, William C.
1988-01-01
Efforts were undertaken to obtain a set of data that examined the level of turbulence and the scale sizes in the shear layer existing over the fence quieted cavity on the NASA-Ames Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). These data were to be taken during the present study and compared with data taken from previous wind tunnel experiments, for which both aerodynamic and direct optical measurements were made. The data obtained during the present study were presented and discussed in light of their impact on the quality of optical images, that is, seeing through the shear layer. In addition, scaling relationships were presented that allow optical data obtained in one aerodynamic environment to be estimated for another one at perhaps different Mach numbers, scale sizes, or aircraft configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOAR\\CR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This document is the final report describing the theoretical basis and analytical results from the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR Program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.
AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 7th, Seattle, WA, July 31-Aug. 2, 1989, Technical Papers
Not Available
1989-01-01
The present conference discusses the comparative aerodynamic behavior of half-span and full-span delta wings, TRANAIR applications to engine/airframe integration, a zonal approach to V/STOL vehicle aerodynamics, an aerodynamic analysis of segmented aircraft configurations in high-speed flight, unstructured grid generation and FEM flow solvers, surface grid generation for flowfields using B-spline surfaces, the use of chimera in supersonic viscous calculations for the F-15, and hypersonic vehicle forebody design studies. Also discussed are the aerothermodynamics of projectiles at hypersonic speeds, flow visualization of wing-rock motion in delta wings, vortex interaction over delta wings at high alpha, the analysis and design of dual-rotation propellers, unsteady pressure loads from plunging airfoils, the effects of riblets on the wake of an airfoil, inverse airfoil design with Navier-Stokes methods, flight testing for a 155-mm base-burn projectile, experimental results on rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interactions, the high-alpha aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and elliptic wings, and the effects of free vortices on lifting surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawes, W. N.
1995-04-01
The aim of this paper is to help advance our understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, unsteady flow associated with the interaction of a splittered centrifugal impeller and its vaned diffuser. A time-resolved simulation is presented of the Krain stage performed using a time-accurate, three-dimensional, unstructured mesh, solution-adaptive Navier-Stokes solver. The predicted flowfield, compared with experiment where available, displays a complex, unsteady interaction, especially in the neighborhood of the diffuser entry zone, which experiences large periodic flow unsteadiness. Downstream of the throat, although the magnitude of this unsteadiness diminishes rapidly, the flow has a highly distorted three-dimensional character. The loss levels in the diffuser are then investigated to try and determine how time-mean loss levels compare with the levels expected from 'equivalent' steady flow analysis performed by using the circumferentially averaged exit flow from the impeller as inlet to the diffuser. It is concluded that little loss could be attributed directly to unsteady effects but rather that the principal cause of the rather high loss levels observed in the diffuser is the strong spanwise distortion in swirl angle at inlet, which initiates a strong hub/corner stall.
Dawes, W.N. [Whittle Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1995-04-01
The aim of this paper is to help advance one`s understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, unsteady flow associated with the interaction of a splittered centrifugal impeller and its vaned diffuser. A time-resolved simulation is presented of the Krain stage performed using a time-accurate, three-dimensional, unstructured mesh, solution-adaptive Navier-Stokes solver. The predicted flowfield, compared with experiment where available, displays a complex, unsteady interaction, especially in the neighborhood of the diffuser entry zone, which experiences large periodic flow unsteadiness. Downstream of the throat, although the magnitude of this unsteadiness diminishes rapidly, the flow has a highly distorted three-dimensional character. The loss levels in the diffuser are then investigated to try and determine how time-mean loss levels compare with the levels expected from equivalent steady flow analysis performed by using the circumferentially averaged exit flow from the impeller as inlet to the diffuser. It is concluded that little loss could be attributed directly to unsteady effects but rather that the principal cause of the rather high loss levels observed in the diffuser is the strong spanwise distortion in swirl angle at inlet, which initiates a strong hub/corner stall.
Modeling the unsteady forces on a finite-length circular cylinder in cross-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capone, Dean Edward
Semi-empirical models, for unsteady lift, drag, and axial forces, are developed to predict the spectral features of the unsteady forces on a finite-length, right circular cylinder in cross-flow. In general, the models consist of two parts; the spatial variation of rms wall pressure on the cylinder, and correlation the lengths, or areas, which describe the spatial extent of the correlation of the unsteady pressures. Experiments were conducted in a low noise wind tunnel to measure the statistics of the unsteady wall pressures on a model cylinder. The results from the measurements are incorporated into the theoretical models, and predictions are made for the spectral characteristics of the theoretical lift, drag, and axial forces. The rms wall pressures on the cylindrical surface are found to have the largest amplitude near the endcap and in the rearward portion of the cylinder. The high levels in these locations are attributed to the separated flow region over the endcap. The circumferential and axial lengthscales decrease exponentially with Strouhal number. Both lengthscales exhibit maxima near the Strouhal shedding frequency of St = 0.21. The rms wall pressures on the endcap are the highest at radial positions of 90 and 120° from the forward stagnation point. The wall pressure power spectra measured on the endcap are found to exhibit a significantly different spectral character than those measured on the cylindrical surface of the body. The energy in the endcap wall pressure power spectra is distributed much more uniformly over Strouhal number. The respective lengthscales measured on the endcap decay more slowly than those on the cylindrical surface. This is due to a greater abundance of low frequency, large scale, motions in the endcap flow field. The unsteady lift and drag predictions using the models developed in this work agree well with previously measured unsteady force data measured on gradient hyrdophones exposed to flow. The unsteady lift is found to be greater than the unsteady drag by 1-4 dB. Below St = 0.8 the unsteady lift and drag are found to be the dominant force on the cylinder, while above St = 0.8 the unsteady axial force dominate.
Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat
1990-01-01
The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.
Efficient Helicopter Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Predictions on Parallel Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wissink, Andrew M.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak
1996-01-01
This paper presents parallel implementations of two codes used in a combined CFD/Kirchhoff methodology to predict the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics properties of helicopters. The rotorcraft Navier-Stokes code, TURNS, computes the aerodynamic flowfield near the helicopter blades and the Kirchhoff acoustics code computes the noise in the far field, using the TURNS solution as input. The overall parallel strategy adds MPI message passing calls to the existing serial codes to allow for communication between processors. As a result, the total code modifications required for parallel execution are relatively small. The biggest bottleneck in running the TURNS code in parallel comes from the LU-SGS algorithm that solves the implicit system of equations. We use a new hybrid domain decomposition implementation of LU-SGS to obtain good parallel performance on the SP-2. TURNS demonstrates excellent parallel speedups for quasi-steady and unsteady three-dimensional calculations of a helicopter blade in forward flight. The execution rate attained by the code on 114 processors is six times faster than the same cases run on one processor of the Cray C-90. The parallel Kirchhoff code also shows excellent parallel speedups and fast execution rates. As a performance demonstration, unsteady acoustic pressures are computed at 1886 far-field observer locations for a sample acoustics problem. The calculation requires over two hundred hours of CPU time on one C-90 processor but takes only a few hours on 80 processors of the SP2. The resultant far-field acoustic field is analyzed with state of-the-art audio and video rendering of the propagating acoustic signals.
An unsteady lifting surface method for single rotation propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Marc H.
1990-01-01
The mathematical formulation of a lifting surface method for evaluating the steady and unsteady loads induced on single rotation propellers by blade vibration and inflow distortion is described. The scheme is based on 3-D linearized compressible aerodynamics and presumes that all disturbances are simple harmonic in time. This approximation leads to a direct linear integral relation between the normal velocity on the blade (which is determined from the blade geometry and motion) and the distribution of pressure difference across the blade. This linear relation is discretized by breaking the blade up into subareas (panels) on which the pressure difference is treated as approximately constant, and constraining the normal velocity at one (control) point on each panel. The piece-wise constant loads can then be determined by Gaussian elimination. The resulting blade loads can be used in performance, stability and forced response predictions for the rotor. Mathematical and numerical aspects of the method are examined. A selection of results obtained from the method is presented. The appendices include various details of the derivation that were felt to be secondary to the main development in Section 1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)
1992-01-01
The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.
Unsteady thermocapillary migration of bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dill, Loren H.; Balasubramaniam, R.
1988-01-01
Upon the introduction of a gas bubble into a liquid possessing a uniform thermal gradient, an unsteady thermo-capillary flow begins. Ultimately, the bubble attains a constant velocity. This theoretical analysis focuses upon the transient period for a bubble in a microgravity environment and is restricted to situations wherein the flow is sufficiently slow such that inertial terms in the Navier-Stokes equation and convective terms in the energy equation may be safely neglected (i.e., both Reynolds and Marangoni numbers are small). The resulting linear equations were solved analytically in the Laplace domain with the Prandtl number of the liquid as a parameter; inversion was accomplished numerically using a standard IMSL routine. In the asymptotic long-time limit, the theory agrees with the steady-state theory of Young, Goldstein, and Block. The theory predicts that more than 90 percent of the terminal steady velocity is achieved when the smallest dimensionless time, i.e., the one based upon the largest time scale-viscous or thermal-equals unity.
Aerodynamics of stretched flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chung-Jen
1998-12-01
This dissertation presents studies of three distinctive problems associated with the aerodynamics of stretched premixed flames. In Part I, the geometry, stability, and stabilization of premixed flames are studied by treating the entire flame as a structure surface, with emphasis on the importance of appropriately accounting for stretch effects on its propagation velocity. The main objective of Part II is to quantify the effect of flame stretch on the bulk flame properties, with the strength of stretch rate ranging from weak to strong until flame extinction. Generalized expressions for the flame response to weak variations of the stretch rates are derived based on an integral analysis. These expressions are then used to correlate the computational results of various stretched flames, yielding laminar flame speed, Markstein length, and flame Lewis number. Subsequently, we extend the integral analysis to strongly-stretched flames. Expressions for the general flame response are again derived, which are nonlinear and degenerate to the linear formulation in the limit of weak stretch. Applying these expressions and the global flame parameters extracted from weakly-stretched flames, the extinction stretch rates are determined analytically. The predicted extinction stretch rates are then compared with the computed results and reasonably good agreement is obtained. Part III of this dissertation investigates the response of detailed flame structure to the aerodynamic stretching. In the first study, the thermal structure of counterflow premixed and diffusion flames are experimentally and computationally determined at various strain rates and pressures. It is shown that for premixed flames the variation of thermal structures is much smaller than that of the strain rate, and that for diffusion flames the flame response is appropriately characterized by the density-weighted strain rate instead of the strain rate alone. In the second study, the dynamics of inwardly-propagating spherical flames is studied computationally. Revealed from the variation of detailed flame structures, it is shown that the extinction of Le $$ 1 flame is due to reactant depletion.
Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.
2014-02-01
From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.
Analysis of steady and unsteady turbine cascade flows by a locally implicit hybrid algorithm
Hwang, C.J.; Liu, J.L. (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics)
1993-10-01
For the two-dimensional steady and unsteady turbine cascade flows, the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations with Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model are solved in the Cartesian coordinate system. A locally implicit hybrid algorithm on mixed meshes is employed, where the convection-dominated part in the flow field is studied by a TVD scheme to obtain high-resolution results on the triangular elements, and the second- and fourth-order dissipative model is introduced on the O-type quadrilateral grid in the viscous-dominated region to minimize the numerical dissipation. When the steady subsonic and transonic turbulent flows are investigated, the distributions of isentropic mach number on the blade surface, exit flow angle, and loss coefficient are obtained. Comparing the present results with the experimental data, the accuracy and reliability of the current approach are confirmed. By giving a moving wake-type total pressure profile at the inlet plane in the rotor-relative frame of reference, the unsteady transonic inviscid and turbulent flows calculations are performed to study the interaction of the upstream wake with a moving blade row. The Mach number contours, perturbation component of the unsteady velocity vectors, shear stress, and pressure distributions on the blade surface are presented. The physical phenomena, which include periodic flow separation on the suction side, bowing, chopping and distortion of incoming wake, negative jet, convection of the vortices and wake segments, and vortex shedding at the trailing edge, are observed. It is concluded that the unsteady aerodynamic behavior is strongly dependent on the wake/shock/boundary layer interactions.
Definition of the unsteady vortex flow over a wing/body configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, S. G.; Debry, B.; Lenakos, J.; Caplin, J.; Komerath, N. M.
1991-01-01
A problem of current interest in computational aerodynamics is the prediction of unsteady vortex flows over aircraft at high angles of attack. A six-month experimental effort was conducted at the John H. Harper Wind Tunnel to acquire qualitative and quantitative information on the unsteady vortex flow over a generic wing-body configuration at high angles of attack. A double-delta flat-plate wing with beveled edges was combined with a slender sharp-nosed body-of-revolution fuselage to form the generic configuration. This configuration produces a strong attached leading edge vortex on the wing, as well as sharply-peaked flow velocity spectra above the wing. While it thus produces flows with several well-defined features of current interest, the model was designed for efficiency of representation in computational codes. A moderate number of surface pressure ports and two unsteady pressure sensors were used to study the pressure distribution over the wing and body surface at high angles of attack; the unsteady pressure sensing did not succeed because of inadequate signal-to-noise ratio. A pulsed copper vapor laser sheet was used to visualize the vortex flow over the model, and vortex trajectories, burst locations, mutual induction of vortex systems from the forebody, strake, and wing, were quantified. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to quantify all 3 components of the time-average velocity in 3 data planes perpendicular to the freestream direction. Statistics of the instantaneous velocity were used to study intermittency and fluctuation intensity. Hot-film anemometry was used to study the fluctuation energy content in the velocity field, and the spectra of these fluctuations. In addition, a successful attempt was made to measure velocity spectra, component by component, using laser velocimetry, and these were compared with spectra measured by hot-film anemometry at several locations.
Non-linear unsteady wing theory, part 1. Quasi two-dimensional behavior: Airfoils and slender wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccune, J. E.
1987-01-01
The initial phases of a study of the large-amplitude unsteady aerodynamics of wings in severe maneuver are reported. The research centers on vortex flows, their initiation at wing surfaces, their subsequent convection, and interaction dynamically with wings and control surfaces. The focus is on 2D and quasi-2D aspects of the problem and features the development of an exact nonlinear unsteady airfoil theory as well as an approach to the crossflow problem for slender wing applications including leading-edge separation. The effective use of interactive on-line computing in quantifying and visualizing the nonsteady effects of severe maneuver is demonstrated. Interactive computational work is now possible, in which a maneuver can be initiated and its effects observed and analyzed immediately.
Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings.
Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Sällström, E; Ukeiley, L; Ifju, P G
2011-03-01
Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings. PMID:21339627
Modeling the Aerodynamic Lift Produced by Oscillating Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
Khalid, Muhammad Saif Ullah
2015-01-01
For present study, setting Strouhal Number (St) as control parameter, numerical simulations for flow past oscillating NACA-0012 airfoil at 1,000 Reynolds Numbers (Re) are performed. Temporal profiles of unsteady forces; lift and thrust, and their spectral analysis clearly indicate the solution to be a period-1 attractor for low Strouhal numbers. This study reveals that aerodynamic forces produced by plunging airfoil are independent of initial kinematic conditions of airfoil that proves the existence of limit cycle. Frequencies present in the oscillating lift force are composed of fundamental (fs), even and odd harmonics (3fs) at higher Strouhal numbers. Using numerical simulations, shedding frequencies (f_s) were observed to be nearly equal to the excitation frequencies in all the cases. Unsteady lift force generated due to the plunging airfoil is modeled by modified van der Pol oscillator. Using method of multiple scales and spectral analysis of steady-state CFD solutions, frequencies and damping terms in th...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazaheri, K.; Ebrahimi, A.
2010-05-01
Ornithopters or mechanical birds produce aerodynamic lift and thrust through the flapping motion of their wings. Here, we use an experimental apparatus to investigate the effects of a wing's twisting stiffness on the generated thrust force and the power required at different flapping frequencies. A flapping wing system and an experimental set-up were designed to measure the unsteady aerodynamic and inertial forces, power usage and angular speed of the flapping wing motion. A data acquisition system was set-up to record important data with the appropriate sampling frequency. The aerodynamic performance of the vehicle under hovering (i.e., no wind) conditions was investigated. The lift and thrust that were produced were measured for different flapping frequencies and for various wings with different chordwise flexibilities. The results show the manner in which the elastic deformation and inertial flapping forces affect the dynamical behavior of the wing. It is shown that the generalization of the actuator disk theory is, at most, only valid for rigid wings, and for flexible wings, the power P varies by a power of about 1.0 of the thrust T. This aerodynamic information can also be used as benchmark data for unsteady flow solvers.
Saltation transport rate in unsteady wind variations.
Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaojing
2014-05-01
Wind flow in the atmospheric boundary layer is usually turbulent. The gusty wind significantly influences the saltation transport which is treated as equilibrium saltation. This study performs one-dimension numerical simulations of unsteady sand saltation to discuss the effects of parameters of periodical wind variations on saltation response and sand transport rate prediction. The results show that unsteady transport rates are larger than steady rates of equivalent mean wind velocity. The ratio of unsteady/steady transport rates increases with the increase of amplitude and frequency. For the average wind velocities much larger than the threshold value, the errors of transport rates predicted by unsteady and steady model are about 10%, while for a wind velocity slightly larger than saltation threshold, the errors will be more than 200%. The sand transport rates are not zero even though the average wind velocity equals (is even smaller than) the threshold value, whereas Q must be zero in the steady model. Finally, an unsteady transport rate prediction formula is proposed which takes mean velocity, fluctuating intensity and period as independent variables. PMID:24853633
Characteristics of aerodynamic sound sources generated by coiled wires in a uniform air-flow
H. Matsumoto; K. Nishida; K. Saitoh
2003-01-01
This study deals experimentally with aerodynamic sounds generated by coiled wires in a uniform air-flow. The coiled wire is a model of the hair dryer's heater. In the experiment, the effects of the coil diameter D, wire diameter d and coil spacing s of the coiled wire on the aerodynamic sound have been clarified. The results of frequency analyses of
Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.
1973-01-01
The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.
Unsteady penetration of a target by a liquid jet.
Uth, Tobias; Deshpande, Vikram S
2013-12-10
It is widely acknowledged that ceramic armor experiences an unsteady penetration response: an impacting projectile may erode on the surface of a ceramic target without substantial penetration for a significant amount of time and then suddenly start to penetrate the target. Although known for more than four decades, this phenomenon, commonly referred to as dwell, remains largely unexplained. Here, we use scaled analog experiments with a low-speed water jet and a soft, translucent target material to investigate dwell. The transient target response, in terms of depth of penetration and impact force, is captured using a high-speed camera in combination with a piezoelectric force sensor. We observe the phenomenon of dwell using a soft (noncracking) target material. The results show that the penetration rate increases when the flow of the impacting water jet is reversed due to the deformation of the jet-target interface--this reversal is also associated with an increase in the force exerted by the jet on the target. Creep penetration experiments with a constant indentation force did not show an increase in the penetration rate, confirming that flow reversal is the cause of the unsteady penetration rate. Our results suggest that dwell can occur in a ductile noncracking target due to flow reversal. This phenomenon of flow reversal is rather widespread and present in a wide range of impact situations, including water-jet cutting, needleless injection, and deposit removal via a fluid jet. PMID:24277818
Unsteady penetration of a target by a liquid jet
Uth, Tobias; Deshpande, Vikram S.
2013-01-01
It is widely acknowledged that ceramic armor experiences an unsteady penetration response: an impacting projectile may erode on the surface of a ceramic target without substantial penetration for a significant amount of time and then suddenly start to penetrate the target. Although known for more than four decades, this phenomenon, commonly referred to as dwell, remains largely unexplained. Here, we use scaled analog experiments with a low-speed water jet and a soft, translucent target material to investigate dwell. The transient target response, in terms of depth of penetration and impact force, is captured using a high-speed camera in combination with a piezoelectric force sensor. We observe the phenomenon of dwell using a soft (noncracking) target material. The results show that the penetration rate increases when the flow of the impacting water jet is reversed due to the deformation of the jet–target interface––this reversal is also associated with an increase in the force exerted by the jet on the target. Creep penetration experiments with a constant indentation force did not show an increase in the penetration rate, confirming that flow reversal is the cause of the unsteady penetration rate. Our results suggest that dwell can occur in a ductile noncracking target due to flow reversal. This phenomenon of flow reversal is rather widespread and present in a wide range of impact situations, including water-jet cutting, needleless injection, and deposit removal via a fluid jet. PMID:24277818
Transonic aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of a variable sweep wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, P. M.; Guruswamy, G. P.; Ide, H.; Miller, G.
1985-01-01
The flow over the B-1 wing is studied computationally, including the aeroelastic response of the wing. Computed results are compared with results from wind tunnel and flight tests for both low-sweep and high-sweep cases, at 25.0 deg. and 67.5 deg., respectively, for selected transonic Mach numbers. The aerodynamic and aeroelastic computations are made by using the transonic unsteady code ATRAN3S. Steady aerodynamic computations compare well with wind tunnel results for the 25.0 deg. sweep case and also for small angles of attack at the 67.5 deg. sweep case. The aeroelastic response results show that the wing is stable at the low sweep angle for the calculation at the Mach number at which there is a shock wave. In the higher sweep case, for the higher angle of attack at which oscillations were observed in the flight and wind tunnel tests, the calculations do not show any shock waves. Their absence lends support to the hypothesis that the observed oscillations are due to the presence of leading edge separation vortices and are not due to shock wave motion as was previously proposed.
The effect of unsteadiness on the time-mean thermal loads in a turbine stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirtley, K. R.; Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1993-01-01
Two steady numerical analysis methods and one unsteady method are used to study the viscous three-dimensional flow in the middle stage of the Pratt & Whitney alternate design Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel turbine. The principal characteristic of this flow is that the secondary flows generated in the rotor blade reconfigure a radial inlet total temperature distortion into one with a pitchwise exit hot streak distortion. Secondary flows in the following vane redistribute the radial variation while unsteadiness causes a segregation of hot and cold flow from the hot streak within the vane. Such redistribution and segregation can lead to unexpected thermal loads and reduced durability. The physical phenomena and the ability of a steady analysis to capture them are investigated by performing a numerical experiment whereby the results of the two steady analysis methods are compared to the time-mean of the unsteady simulation. The flow physics related to the segregation and mixing of total temperature are discussed.
Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. Part 2: Bodies of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.
1981-01-01
Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow past oscillating bodies of revolution at very high Mach numbers is completed by adding a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. Exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and the stability derivatives are obtained in closed form and are applicable to bodies of revolution that have arbitrary shapes, arbitrary thicknesses, and either sharp or blunt noses. The centrifugal force correction arising from the curved trajectories followed by the fluid particles in unsteady flow cannot be neglected even for the case of a circular cone. With this correction, the present theory is in excellent agreement with experimental results for sharp cones and for cones with small nose bluntness; gives poor agreement with the results of experiments in air for bodies with moderate or large nose bluntness. The pitching motions of slender power-law bodies of revulution are shown to be always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory.
Wang, Z. Jane
449 The demonstrated importance of unsteady effects in insect flight has prompted recent thickness and stroke amplitude; it is negligible in the robotic wing experiment, but need not be in insect shedding by a revolving wing over a distance much longer than the typical stroke length of insects
Steady and unsteady flow computation in an elbow dr aft tube with experimental validation
T. C. Vu; C. Devals; Y. Zhang; B. Nennemann; F. Guibault
2010-01-01
Steady state computations are routinely used by design engineers to evaluate and compare losses in hydraulic components. In the case of the draft tube diffuser, however, experiments have shown that while a significant number of operating conditions can adequately be evaluated using steady state computations, a few operating conditions require unsteady simulations to accurately evaluate losses. This paper presents a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piette, Douglas S.; Cazier, Frank W., Jr.
1989-01-01
Present flutter analysis methods do not accurately predict the flutter speeds in the transonic flow region for wings with supercritical airfoils. Aerodynamic programs using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods are being developed, but these programs need to be verified before they can be used with confidence. A wind tunnel test was performed to obtain all types of data necessary for correlating with CFD programs to validate them for use on high aspect ratio wings. The data include steady state and unsteady aerodynamic measurements on a nominal stiffness wing and a wing four times that stiffness. There is data during forced oscillations and during flutter at several angles of attack, Mach numbers, and tunnel densities.
The challenge of unsteady separating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.
1981-01-01
It is noted that the general fluid dynamic problem of unsteady separation at most practical Reynolds numbers remains an unsolved one and that no completely reliable prediction techniques exist at the present time. The modern design engineer must therefore draw from a combination of approximate theories, empirical correlations of data, and finite difference programs based on uncertain physical modeling of turbulence. An attempt is made to describe the basic features of several representative classes of problems for which unsteady effects produce strong or unusual changes in the separation characteristics of the flow. The analysis concerns itself largely with external flow, and emphasis is placed on the physical phenomena involved.
Simulation of vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by a point-vortex method
Jia, Z.
1988-01-01
A numerical study was made to simulate vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by the point-vortex method. Attention was divided into three different aspects: a nascent vortex-shedding algorithm, numerical demonstration of the point-vortex method, and the calculation of some example of aerodynamic interesting flows, which include two major categories: unsteady flow about a flat plate at a fixed angle of attack with and without a leading edge flap, and the transient, vortical cross flow produced by a slender delta wing. Evolution of the vortex traces, streamlines, surface pressure, and forces are studied. Flow features based on data obtained by different point-vortex shedding rates and different integration time steps and schemes are found to be consistent with each other on length and time scales comparable to as well as considerably smaller than those of the global flow.
Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
1998-01-01
A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Young-Chang; Shyy, Wei
2011-10-01
Aerodynamic performance of low-Reynolds number flyers, for a chord-based Reynolds number of 10 5 or below, is sensitive to wind gusts and flow separation. Active flow control offers insight into fluid physics as well as possible improvements in vehicle performance. While facilitating flow control by introducing feedback control and fluidic devices, major challenges of achieving a target aerodynamic performance under unsteady flow conditions lie on the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of the flow system. Therefore, a successful flow control framework requires a viable as well as accessible control scheme and understanding of underlying flow dynamics as key information of the flow system. On the other hand, promising devices have been developed recently to facilitate flow control in this flow regime. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator is such an example; it does not have moving parts and provides fast impact on the flow field locally. In this paper, recent feedback flow control studies, especially those focusing on unsteady low-Reynolds number aerodynamics, are reviewed. As an example of an effective flow control framework, it is demonstrated that aerodynamic lift of a high angle-of-attack wing under fluctuating free-stream conditions can be stabilized using the DBD actuator and an adaptive algorithm based on general input-output models. System nonlinearities and control challenges are discussed by assessing control performance and the variation of the system parameters under various flow and actuation conditions. Other fundamental issues from the flow dynamics view point, such as the lift stabilization mechanism and the influence on drag fluctuation are also explored. Both potentiality and limitation of the linear modeling approach are discussed. In addition, guidelines on system identification and the controller and actuator setups are suggested.
On flow topology changes accompanying aerodynamic bifurcation for aircraft with vented strakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Stephen Price
For the vast majority of cases, a symmetric body in a flow with symmetric boundary conditions will produce symmetric forces and moments. Counterexamples to this rule-of-thumb include flow over a circular cylinder at certain Reynolds numbers and flow over ogive-shaped bodies at high angles of attack. This research focuses on another example of asymmetric moments being produced over a symmetric body---an aircraft with vented shakes at moderate angles of attack. During developmental flight tests of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, abrupt uncommanded rolling motions were observed with the vents on the strake deflected in the open position in approach configuration. This behavior, consistent with an aerodynamic bifurcation, was not expected to occur since it had not been predicted analytically or empirically. Closing the vents on the strake eliminated the uncommanded lateral dynamics. In order to understand the flow topology changes associated with the aerodynamic bifurcation, three wind tunnel experiments were conducted using two F/A-18E wind tunnel models in two low-speed wind tunnels. In addition to measuring the effect of vent deflection on the forces and moments, a wide range of flow visualization techniques were used to characterize the on-body and off-body flow topologies. The vents-open force and moment data show critical states indicative of a subcritical flow bifurcation, the abrupt replacement of an unstable flow topology with a stable one. The flow visualization data show that opening the vents has the effect of lifting the powerful strake vortices off the surface of the wing and inboard toward the fuselage. This creates a separated flow region on the midboard part of the wing that grows as angle of attack is increased. At the critical state, the separated region affects the flow on the outboard panel, causing an abrupt loss of lift. This flow topology change may occur asymmetrically due to the unsteady nature of the bifurcation and the interaction of the strake vortices across the plane of symmetry. Recommendations are presented regarding the detection of critical states in the wind tunnel, the suitability of the various flow visualization techniques for studying bifurcation phenomena, and design considerations for future aircraft.
14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445 Section...Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When...significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
A mathematical model developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.
Aerial locomotion in flies and robots: kinematic control and aerodynamics of oscillating wings.
Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf
2004-07-01
Flight in flies results from a feedback cascade in which the animal converts mechanical power produced by the flight musculature into aerodynamic forces. A major goal of flight research is to understand the functional significance of the various components in this cascade ranging from the generation of the neural code, the control of muscle mechanical power output, wing kinematics and unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms. Here, I attempted to draw a broad outline on fluid dynamic mechanisms found in flapping insect wings such as leading edge vorticity, rotational circulation and wake capture momentum transfer, as well as on the constraints of flight force control by the neuromuscular system of the fruit fly Drosophila. This system-level perspective on muscle control and aerodynamic mechanisms is thought to be a fundamental bridge in any attempt to link the function and performance of the various flight components with their particular role for wing motion and aerodynamic control in the behaving animal. Eventually, this research might facilitate the development of man-made biomimetic autonomous micro air vehicles using flapping wing motion for propulsion that are currently under construction by engineers. PMID:18089042
Movable bed roughness in unsteady oscillatory flow
William D. Grant; Ole Secher Madsen
1982-01-01
A model to predict the roughness is unsteady oscillatory flows over movable, noncohesive beds is presented. The roughness over movable beds is shown to be a function of the boundary shear stress rather than a fixed geometrical scale as is the case for fully rough turbulent boundary shear flows over immobile beds. The model partitions the roughness into two distinct
Waves on unsteady currents Merrick C. Haller
Haller, Merrick
Waves on unsteady currents Merrick C. Haller School of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon 2007; published online 3 December 2007 Models for surface gravity wave propagation in the presence of currents often assume the current field to be quasi-stationary, which implies that the absolute wave
Progress in Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan; Williams, Robert
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses unsteady flow simulations for a turbopump intended for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The simulation process makes use of computational grids and parallel processing. The architecture of the parallel computers used is discussed, as is the scripting of turbopump simulations.
Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, W. H.
1988-01-01
A concise mathematical framework is constructed to study the topology of steady 3-D separated flows of an incompressible, or a compressible viscous fluid. Flow separation is defined by the existence of a stream surface which intersects with the body surface. The line of separation is itself a skin-friction line. Flow separation is classified as being either regular or singular, depending respectively on whether the line of separation contains only a finite number of singular points or is a singular line of the skin-friction field. The special cases of 2-D and axisymmetric flow separation are shown to be of singular type. In regular separation it is shown that a line of separation originates from a saddle point of separation of the skin-friction field and ends at nodal points of separation. Unsteady flow separation is defined relative to a coordinate system fixed to the body surface. It is shown that separation of an unsteady 3-D incompressible viscous flow at time t, when viewed from such a frame of reference, is topologically the same as that of the fictitious steady flow obtained by freezing the unsteady flow at the instant t. Examples are given showing effects of various forms of flow unsteadiness on flow separation.
Anisotropic Delaunay Mesh Adaptation for Unsteady Simulations
Frey, Pascal
Anisotropic Delaunay Mesh Adaptation for Unsteady Simulations C. Dobrzynski1 and P. Frey2,3 1 IMB Modelamiento Matem´atico, Santiago, Chile Summary. Anisotropic mesh adaptation is a key feature in many capturing or tracking problems. In this paper, we describe a local mesh adaptation method based
On the uncertainty quantification of the unsteady aerodynamics of 2D free falling plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zorzi, N.; Pereira, J. M. C.; Pereira, J. C. F.
2015-08-01
The aim of this paper is to conduct a statistical analysis of the effects of the fillet radii on the dynamics of the falling plate using the nonintrusive spectral projection (NISP) method. The free fall of two-dimensional cards immersed in a fluid was studied using a deterministic and stochastic numerical approach. The motion is characterized by the fluid-body interaction described by coupling the Navier-Stokes and rigid body dynamic equations. The model's predictions have been validated using both experimental and numerical data available in the literature. In the stochastic simulations, the fillet radius of the plate was considered a random variable characterized by a uniform probability density function introducing, in this way, some uncertainties in the plate's trajectory. To take into account the uncertainties, we employed the NISP method based on polynomial chaos expansion. The analysis was focused on finding the ensemble mean trajectory and error bar for a confidence interval of 95 % for both tumbling and fluttering regimes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruo, S. Y.
1974-01-01
A computer program has been developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in the transonic potential flow over an oscillating wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic-box program of Rodemich and Andrew, and accounts for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness by application of the local linearization concept. A brief description of each subroutine is given, and the method of input is shown in detail. A sample problem as well as a complete listing of the computer program are presented.
An Unsteady Continuous Adjoint Approach for Aerodynamic Design on Dynamic Meshes
Alonso, Juan J.
and three dimensions for pitching airfoil and wing test cases. Nomenclature V ariable Definition c Airfoil variable to Initial time tf Final time u Velocity of a moving domain (mesh velocity) v Flow velocity vector v Freestream velocity Ac Jacobian of the convective flux with respect to U Avk Jacobian
Progress in unstructured-grid methods development for unsteady aerodynamic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1992-01-01
The development of unstructured-grid methods for the solution of the equations of fluid flow and what was learned over the course of the research are summarized. The focus of the discussion is on the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations including spatial discretizations, temporal discretizations, and boundary conditions. An example calculation with an implicit upwind method using a CFL number of infinity is presented for the Boeing 747 aircraft. The results were obtained in less than one hour CPU time on a Cray-2 computer, thus, demonstrating the speed and robustness of the capability. Additional calculations for the ONERA M6 wing demonstrate the accuracy of the method through the good agreement between calculated results and experimental data for a standard transonic flow case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taneja, Jayant Kumar
Electricity is an indispensable commodity to modern society, yet it is delivered via a grid architecture that remains largely unchanged over the past century. A host of factors are conspiring to topple this dated yet venerated design: developments in renewable electricity generation technology, policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and advances in information technology for managing energy systems. Modern electric grids are emerging as complex distributed systems in which a portfolio of power generation resources, often incorporating fluctuating renewable resources such as wind and solar, must be managed dynamically to meet uncontrolled, time-varying demand. Uncertainty in both supply and demand makes control of modern electric grids fundamentally more challenging, and growing portfolios of renewables exacerbate the challenge. We study three electricity grids: the state of California, the province of Ontario, and the country of Germany. To understand the effects of increasing renewables, we develop a methodology to scale renewables penetration. Analyzing these grids yields key insights about rigid limits to renewables penetration and their implications in meeting long-term emissions targets. We argue that to achieve deep penetration of renewables, the operational model of the grid must be inverted, changing the paradigm from load-following supplies to supply-following loads. To alleviate the challenge of supply-demand matching on deeply renewable grids, we first examine well-known techniques, including altering management of existing supply resources, employing utility-scale energy storage, targeting energy efficiency improvements, and exercising basic demand-side management. Then, we create several instantiations of supply-following loads -- including refrigerators, heating and cooling systems, and laptop computers -- by employing a combination of sensor networks, advanced control techniques, and enhanced energy storage. We examine the capacity of each load for supply-following and study the behaviors of populations of these loads, assessing their potential at various levels of deployment throughout the California electricity grid. Using combinations of supply-following strategies, we can reduce peak natural gas generation by 19% on a model of the California grid with 60% renewables. We then assess remaining variability on this deeply renewable grid incorporating supply-following loads, characterizing additional capabilities needed to ensure supply-demand matching in future sustainable electricity grids.
Modeling the Unsteady Lift and Drag on a Finite-Length Circular Cylinder in Cross-Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capone, D. E.; Lauchle, G. C.
2000-08-01
Semi-empirical models for unsteady lift and drag are developed to predict the spectral features of the unsteady forces on a finite-length, right circular cylinder in cross-flow. In general, the models consist of two parts; the spatial variation of r.m.s wall pressure on the cylinder, and the correlation lengths which describe the spatial extent of the correlation of the unsteady wall pressures. Experiments were conducted in a low noise wind tunnel as a function of cylinder diameter Reynolds number (19 200
Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, James C.
2011-01-01
The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.
Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications
Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia (United States)
2006-12-01
Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force.
New technology in turbine aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.
1972-01-01
Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.
The Use of Steady and Unsteady Detonation Waves for Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Detonation wave enhanced supersonic combustors such as the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize detonation waves to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion. The benefits of wave combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which require less cooling and generate lower internal drag. These features allow air-breathing operation at higher Mach numbers than the diffusive burning scramjet delaying the need for rocket engine augmentation. A comprehensive vehicle synthesis code has predicted the aerodynamic characteristics and structural size and weight of a typical single-stage-to-orbit vehicle using an ODWE. Other studies have focused on the use of unsteady or pulsed detonation waves. For low speed applications, pulsed detonation engines (PDE) have advantages in low weight and higher efficiency than turbojets. At hypersonic speeds, the pulsed detonations can be used in conjunction with a scramjet type engine to enhance mixing and provide thrust augmentation.
Computation of unsteady viscous flow around a locally flexible airfoil at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-zhong; Lei, Peng-fei; Xu, Min
2014-04-01
A numerical method for fluid-structure interaction is presented for the analysis of unsteady viscous flow over a locally flexible airfoil. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by ALE-CBS algorithm, coupling with a structural solver with large deformation. Following the validation of the method, a numerical example for the flight of micro-air vehicles at low Reynolds number is chosen for the computation. The coupling effect of flexible structure with different elastic stiffness on aerodynamic performance is demonstrated. A noticeable camber effect is induced by the deflection of the structure as the elastic stiffness of the structure goes smaller. Moreover, when the vibrating frequencies of the structure with smaller elastic stiffness have a close correlation with the shedding frequencies, the positive impact of the vibration of local flexible surface on the lift of the airfoil is highlighted, which results from the formation of the coherent vortices.
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design for Unsteady Turbulent Flows On Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris
2012-01-01
A discrete adjoint-based design methodology for unsteady turbulent flows on three-dimensional dynamic overset unstructured grids is formulated, implemented, and verified. The methodology supports both compressible and incompressible flows and is amenable to massively parallel computing environments. The approach provides a general framework for performing highly efficient and discretely consistent sensitivity analysis for problems involving arbitrary combinations of overset unstructured grids which may be static, undergoing rigid or deforming motions, or any combination thereof. General parent-child motions are also accommodated, and the accuracy of the implementation is established using an independent verification based on a complex-variable approach. The methodology is used to demonstrate aerodynamic optimizations of a wind turbine geometry, a biologically-inspired flapping wing, and a complex helicopter configuration subject to trimming constraints. The objective function for each problem is successfully reduced and all specified constraints are satisfied.
Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.
Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.
Time resolved velocity measurements of unsteady systems using spiral imaging.
Tayler, Alexander B; Holland, Daniel J; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F
2011-07-01
Spiral imaging has been assessed as a tool for the measurement of spatially and temporally resolved velocity information for unsteady flow systems. Using experiments and simulated acquisitions, we have quantified the flow artefacts associated with spiral imaging. In particular, we found that despite the adverse effect of in-plane flow on the point spread function, for many physical systems the extent of blurring associated with spiral imaging is marginal because flows represented by high spatial Fourier coefficients, which would be those most affected by the distortion of the point spread function, exist at the physical boundaries of the flow and are therefore associated with much smaller velocities than are characteristic of the bulk flow. The necessity for a flow imaging technique which is robust to the accrual of velocity proportionate phase during imaging was demonstrated in an experimental comparison of spiral imaging and echo-planar imaging (EPI) applied to turbulent flow in a pipe. While the measurements acquired using EPI accrued substantial velocity proportionate phase, those acquired using spiral imaging were not significantly affected. High temporal velocity measurements using spiral imaging were demonstrated on turbulent flow in a pipe (image acquisition time 5.4 ms; 91 frames per second), which enabled the transient behaviour of wall instabilities to be captured. Additionally, the technique was applied to a multiphase flow system, where the wakes behind single rising bubbles were characterised. Spiral imaging thus seems an auspicious basis for the measurement of velocity fields for unsteady flow systems. PMID:21514194
Shock wave unsteadiness in an over-expanded nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Britton; Lele, Sanjiva
2012-11-01
A suite of Large-Eddy Simulations has recently elucidated the unsteadiness of a shock wave in an over-expanded planar nozzle. The simulations model the nozzle used by Johnson and Papamoschou (Phys. Fluids 22, 2010), who found that the exhaust jet was destabilized by the shock wave oscillations. Shock wave unsteadiness has been observed in several experiments with similar nozzle geometries. The mechanism which drives the instability is a feedback loop between the nozzle exit and the shock wave. The shock boundary layer interaction causes flow separation and reversal, which then causes an obstruction at the exit of the nozzle. The obstruction is seen as a change in the effective exit area, which in turn causes the shock to readjust its position. When the shock moves, the nature of the shock induced separation changes and the cycle repeats, never becoming stationary. Parametric variation of the nozzle geometry and pressure ratio demonstrate that the instability has a dependence on the Mach number and Reynolds number. A reduced order model (ROM) which is based on the proposed mechanism and the LES data is developed. Preliminary results indicate that the ROM predicts the frequency of the instability to within 10% when compared to the LES data.
APPLIED AERODYNAMICS Aerodynamics is an applied science to learn
Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"
generator. - Exhaust nozzles and thrust of propulsion Aerodynamics(W1_1_1) #12;Definition of Fluid.81 kN/m3 Ch 1-1 #12;Concept of Continuum ? · Depending on the type of information desired rather than
Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, Sharon H. (compiler)
1986-01-01
The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.
Toward Practical Aerodynamic Design Through Numerical Optimization
Zingg, David W.
Toward Practical Aerodynamic Design Through Numerical Optimization David W. Zingg, and Laura6, Canada A Newton-Krylov algorithm for aerodynamic optimization is applied to the multipoint design aerodynamic design. I. Introduction Beginning with the work of Hicks et al.1 and Hicks and Henne,2 numerical
AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC
Peraire, Jaime
AIAA 99--1467 LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC MODELS FOR AEROELASTIC CONTROL OF TURBOMACHINES K.E. Willcox, J of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 22091 #12; LOW ORDER AERODYNAMIC order aerodynamic model is developed for aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines. The proper or thogonal
Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of
Peraire, Jaime
Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of Dynamics and Control of Aircraft and simulation of aircraft, yet other aerodynamics models exist that can provide more accurate results for certain simulations without a large increase in computational time. In this paper, sev- eral aerodynamics
On Aerodynamic Design Through Multipoint Numerical Optimization
Zingg, David W.
On Aerodynamic Design Through Multipoint Numerical Optimization Howard P. Buckley, and David WT6, Canada A multipoint optimization approach is used to solve aerodynamic design problems en integral as an objective function is demonstrated to improve aerodynamic performance over a range of on
Airfoil Optimization Using Practical Aerodynamic Design Requirements
Zingg, David W.
Airfoil Optimization Using Practical Aerodynamic Design Requirements Howard P. Buckley, Beckett Y., Toronto, Ontario, M3H 5T6, Canada Practical aerodynamic design problems must balance the goal the aerodynamic constraints imposed at the off-design operating conditions to be treated explicitly. Both methods
Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.
Sachs, Gottfried
2005-06-21
The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings. PMID:15808868
Unsteady Interaction between a High-Pressure Turbine and a Counter-Rotating Low-Pressure Turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felten, Frederic; Laskowski, Gregory
2006-11-01
In an effort to strengthen our knowledge, understanding and prediction capabilities of unsteady turbine aerodynamics in multi-stage turbomachinery, an in-depth numerical analysis of a single stage High-Pressure Turbine (HPT) followed by a counter-rotating Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) is performed via unsteady CFD using a parallel version of the RANS flow solver MSU-Turbo. Results from two numerical simulations are presented. Two HPT rotor design are being compared to each other and to available experimental data. The computational domains consist of the 1^st HPT rotor blade, the 1^st LPT nozzle, and the 1^st counter-rotating LPT rotor. In order to respect the circumferential blade count and the corresponding spatial periodicity, a 1/18^th of annulus is used for each blade row. Particular attention is given to the aerodynamic loss mechanism in the inter-turbine space. The inquiry focuses on the HPT rotor tail shock waves and their interaction with the LPT reflected shock. In addition, the investigation is extended to show how far downstream the interaction loss transfers to LPT components. Finally, an attempt is made to answer the following questions: 1)-Is the interaction loss reflected by time-averaged performance parameters? 2)- Is it carried by periodic waveforms? Or 3)- Is it represented by an increase of turbulence level?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Bettner, James L.
1991-01-01
The primary objective was the development of a time dependent 3-D Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems at angle of attack. The resulting computer codes are referred to as Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes (ADPAC). A computer program user's manual is presented for the ADPAC. Aerodynamic calculations were based on a four stage Runge-Kutta time marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. A time accurate implicit residual smoothing operator was used for unsteady flow predictions. For unducted propfans, a single H-type grid was used to discretize each blade passage of the complete propeller. For ducted propfans, a coupled system of five grid blocks utilizing an embedded C grid about the cowl leading edge was used to discretize each blade passage. Grid systems were generated by a combined algebraic/elliptic algorithm developed specifically for ducted propfans. Numerical calculations were compared with experimental data for both ducted and unducted flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonini, C.; Persico, G.; Rowe, A. L.
2008-12-01
Among the measurement and control systems of gas turbine engines, a recent new issue is the possibility of performing unsteady pressure measurements to detect flow anomalies in an engine or to evaluate loads on aerodynamic surfaces. A possible answer to this demand could be extending the use of well known and widely used transmission line systems, which have been applied so far to steady monitoring, to unsteady measurements thanks to proper dynamic modeling and compensation. Despite the huge number of models existing in the literature, a novel method has been developed, which is at the same time easy-to-handle, flexible and capable of reproducing the actual physics of the problem. Furthermore, the new model is able to deal with arbitrary complex networks of lines and cavities, and thus its applicability is not limited to series-connected systems. The main objectives of this paper are to show the derivation of the model, its validation against experimental tests and example of its applicability.
Unsteady pressure measurements on a biconvex airfoil in a transonic oscillating cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, L. M.; Boldman, D. R.; Buggele, A. E.; Buffum, D. H.
1985-01-01
Flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers were installed on the center airfoil of a transonic oscillating cascade to measure the unsteady aerodynamic response as nine airfroils were simultaneously driven to provide 1.2 deg of pitching motion about the midchord. Initial tests were performed at an incidence and angle of 0 deg and A Mach number of 0.65 in order to obtain results in a shock-free compressible flowfield. Subsequent tests were performed at an incidence angle of 7 deg and Mach number of 0.8 in order to observe the surface pressures with an oscillating shock near the leading edge of the airfoil. Results are presented for interblade phase angles of 90 and -90 deg and at blade oscillatory frequencies of 200 and 500 Hz (semi-chord reduced frequencies up to about 0.5 at a Mach number of 0.8). Results from the zero-incidence cascade are compared with a classical unsteady flat-plate analysis. Flow visualization results depicting the shock motion on the airfoils in the high-incidence cascade are discussed. The airfoil pressure data are tabulated.
Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan
2004-01-01
A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.
A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.
1987-01-01
A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).
New technology in turbine aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.
1972-01-01
A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.
Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denny, Mark
2009-01-01
Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…
TIMEINTEGRATION METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS
Stanford University
on the computer." & % #12;' $ Food Chain Joukowsky, Prandtl, Schlichting, Theodorsen the design will do Engineers Issigonis (Mini) Engineers who design the product People who decide what product to make (Henry Ford, Bill flow & % #12;' $ Aerodynamic Flow computations AIRPLANE DENSITY from 0.6250 to 1.1000 AIRPLANE CP from
Aerodynamics of a Dimpled Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz
2010-11-01
Automobiles consume approximately two billion barrels of fuel each year throughout the United States. A significant portion of this fuel is used to overcome aerodynamic drag at highway speeds. As a result, even small improvements made to the aerodynamics of automobiles can result in sizeable fuel savings. Since the shape of a vehicle is often dictated by design, economics, and function, aerodynamic improvements by means of obvious body streamlining are not always possible. However, minor modifications can be made to the vehicle, such as changing the behavior of the boundary layer to delay flow separation or installing small components either to reduce underbody flow or to mitigate induced drag. In this study, we examine the effect that dimples have upon the aerodynamics of a simplified vehicle. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed on a full-scale Ahmed body at a Reynolds number of 9.5e6 based upon the vehicle length. The dimples, which have a uniform diameter of 0.1 m and a dimple depth-to-diameter ratio of 0.14, are distributed across the vehicle surface. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the dimples modify both the recirculation zone and the strength and location of the counter-rotating vortex pair in the vehicle wake. Although an increase in base pressure can occur for a dimpled configuration, the net drag change is sensitive to both the number and placement of the dimples on the vehicle body.
AIAA 982538 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
Stanford University
J. C. Vassberg¶ Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Long Beach, CA 90846 This paper reviewsAIAA 982538 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Techniques Based On Control Theory Antony Jameson. C. Vassberg Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Long Beach, CA 90846 29th AIAA Fluid Dynamics
AIAA 20030185 Aerodynamically Controlled Expansion
Texas at Arlington, University of
An aerodynamically controlled expansion propulsion nozzle that improves hover thrust performance by 2.5 percent in a short take off and vertical landing aircraft was developed. The nozzle concept em- ploys a stepC gross thrust coefficient F thrust fL flap length = 41 cm m mass flux NPR nozzle pressure ratio STOVL
Nostril Aerodynamics of Scenting Animals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Settles, G. S.
1997-11-01
Dogs and other scenting animals detect airborne odors with extraordinary sensitivity. Aerodynamic sampling plays a key role, but the literature on olfaction contains little on the external aerodynamics thereof. To shed some light on this, the airflows generated by a scenting dog were visualized using the schlieren technique. It was seen that the dog stops panting in order to scent, since panting produces a turbulent jet which disturbs scent-bearing air currents. Inspiratory airflow enters the nostrils from straight ahead, while expiration is directed to the sides of the nose and downward, as was found elsewhere in the case of rats and rabbits. The musculature and geometry of the dog's nose thus modulates the airflow during scenting. The aerodynamics of a nostril which must act reversibly as both inlet and outlet is briefly discussed. The eventual practical goal of this preliminary work is to achieve a level of understanding of the aerodynamics of canine olfaction sufficient for the design of a mimicking device. (Research supported by the DARPA Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Neutralization Program.)
Aerodynamic calculation of unmanned aircraft
Marcin Figat; Tomasz Goetzendorf-Grabowski; Zdobys?aw Goraj
2005-01-01
Purpose – To provide an effective numerical method for analysis and design of aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles basing on commercial package VSAERO. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Calculation was made by VSAERO package, which is based on a classical panel method enhanced on boundary layer method. Paper explains how to use efficiently VSAERO package, which utilizes advanced CAD techniques, in modern
Report of the Panel on Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradley, Richard G.; Bushnell, Dennis
1984-01-01
Progress in aerodynamics over the past 50 years has been evidenced by the development of increasingly sophisticated and efficient flight vehicles throughout the flight spectrum. Advances have generally arisen in an evolutionary manner from experience gained in wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and improvements in analytical and computational capabilities. As a result of this evolutionary development, both military and commercial vehicles operate at a relatively high efficiency level. This observation plus the fact that airplanes have not changed appreciably in outward appearance over recent years has led some skeptics to conclude incorrectly that aerodynamics is a mature technology, with little to be gained from further developments in the field. It is of interest to note that progress in aerodynamics has occurred without a thorough understanding of the fundamental physics of flow, turbulence, vortex dynamics, and separated flow, for example. The present understanding of transition, turbulence, and boundary layer separation is actually very limited. However, these fundamental flow phenomena provide the key to reducing the viscous drag of aircraft. Drag reduction provides the greatest potential for increased flight efficiency from the standpoint of both saving energy and maximizing performance. Recent advances have led to innovative concepts for reducing turbulent friction drag by modifying the turbulent structure within the boundary layer. Further advances in this basic area should lead to methods for reducing skin friction drag significantly. The current challenges for military aircraft open entirely new fields of investigation for the aerodynamicist. The ability through very high speed information processing technology to totally integrate the flight and propulsion controls can permit an aircraft to fly with "complete abandon," avoiding departure, buffet, and other undesirable characteristics. To utilize these new control concepts, complex aerodynamic phenomena will have to be understood, predicted, and controlled. Current requirements for military aircraft include configuration optimization through a widened envelope from subsonic to supersonic and from low to high angles of attack. This task is further complicated by requirements for control of observables. These challenging new designs do not have the luxury of a large experimental data base from which to optimize for various parameter combinations. Consequently, there exists a strong need for better techniques, both experimental and computational, to permit design optimization in a complete sense.
Unsteady Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atreya, Arvind; Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.
2001-01-01
The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and (mu-g) flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one-dimensional; (ii) The spherical diffusion flame completely encloses the soot which is formed on the fuel rich side of the reaction zone. This increases the importance of flame radiation because now both soot and gaseous combustion products co-exist inside the high temperature spherical diffusion flame. (iii) For small fuel injection velocities, as is usually the case for a pyrolyzing solid, the diffusion flame in mu-g around the solid naturally develops spherical symmetry. Thus, spherical diffusion flames are of interest to fires in mu-g and identifying conditions that lead to radiation-induced extinction is important for spacecraft fire safety.
Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications
Griffin, D.A.
1997-04-01
This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.
Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolff, T.; Ernst, B.; Seume, J. R.
2014-06-01
The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated.
Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.
1986-01-01
An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.
The effects of unsteady hydrodynamics on soot formation in a counterflow diffusion flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggen-Decroix, Michele Elaine
Currently, there is an increased interest in reducing soot emissions from combustors, because environmental regulations are requiring dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. Most practical, large scale combustion processes rely on turbulent diffusion flames. These same combustors, which bum hydrocarbon fuels, are also well known for their high soot emissions. The study of chemical processes, such as soot formation, in a turbulent diffusion flame is complicated by the unsteady multi-dimensional flowfield, complex hydrocarbon chemistry, and the interaction between the flowfield and chemistry. Flamelet theory simplifies the analysis of a turbulent diffusion flames by treating the flame as an ensemble of strained, laminar, one dimensional flamelets which can be described by two variables. Counterflow diffusion flames exhibit many characteristics of flamelets. Currently, researchers assume flamelets respond in a quasi-steady manner to the unsteady strain rates in the real turbulent diffusion flame. However, this assumption has not been verified by experiments. This research involved a series of experiments designed to investigate a flamelet's response to unsteady strain rates by quantitatively measuring soot concentrations in an oscillating propane-air counterflow diffusion flame using the non-intrusive laser induced incandescence (LII) technique. These spatially and temporally resolved measurements were made as a function of initial steady strain rate, forcing frequency, and forcing amplitude of the strain rate fluctuation. Also, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the unsteady strain rate imposed on the flame. The results of this study showed that low frequency oscillations always increased the maximum soot concentration. At high initial strain rates, the soot formation process became insensitive to the strain rate fluctuation. At low initial strain rates, the maximum soot concentration was reduced by up to 90% with high frequency high amplitude fluctuations. These measurements provide important insight into the response of flamelets and the soot formation process to unsteady strain rates.
Unsteady loads due to propulsive lift configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morton, J. B.; Haviland, J. K.; Catalano, G. D.; Herling, W. W.
1975-01-01
The flow of a jet over an airfoil representative of upper surface blowing was studied using laser techniques. Experimental techniques were developed for the investigation of unsteady pressures behind a cold model jet. Construction of a 1/4 scale model of the 'Beach' test configuration was completed along with construction of a portable detector. The portable detector is used in conjunction with a laser to measure jet flows during tests on the 'Beach' facility. The detector incorporates both optical and electronic components.
Courant number and unsteady flow computation
Lai, Chintu
1993-01-01
The Courant number C, the key to unsteady flow computation, is a ratio of physical wave velocity, ??, to computational signal-transmission velocity, ??, i.e., C = ??/??. In this way, it uniquely relates a physical quantity to a mathematical quantity. Because most unsteady open-channel flows are describable by a set of n characteristic equations along n characteristic paths, each represented by velocity ??i, i = 1,2,....,n, there exist as many as n components for the numerator of C. To develop a numerical model, a numerical integration must be made on each characteristic curve from an earlier point to a later point on the curve. Different numerical methods are available in unsteady flow computation due to the different paths along which the numerical integration is actually performed. For the denominator of C, the ?? defined as ?? = ?? 0 = ??x/??t has been customarily used; thus, the Courant number has the familiar form of C?? = ??/??0. This form will be referred to as ???common Courant number??? in this paper. The commonly used numerical criteria C?? for stability, neutral stability and instability, are imprecise or not universal in the sense that r0 does not always reflect the true maximum computational data-transmission speed of the scheme at hand, i.e., Ctau is no indication for the Courant constraint. In view of this , a new Courant number, called the ???natural Courant number???, Cn, that truly reflects the Courant constraint, has been defined. However, considering the numerous advantages inherent in the traditional C??, a useful and meaningful composite Courant number, denoted by C??* has been formulated from C??. It is hoped that the new aspects of the Courant number discussed herein afford the hydraulician a broader perspective, consistent criteria, and unified guidelines, with which to model various unsteady flows.
A nonlinear theory for unsteady flexible wing
Theodore Y. Wu
This paper extends the previous studies by Wu (2001-2006)(1)-(3) to continue developing a fully nonlinear theory for evaluation of unsteady flow generated by a two-dimensional flexible lifting surface moving in arbitrary manner through an incompressible and inviscid fluid for modeling bird\\/insect flight and fish swimming. The original physical concept founded by Theodore von Karman and William R. Sears (1938)(4) in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Adamczyk, John J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Arnone, Andrea; Swanson, Charles
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOACR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.
Acoustic field in unsteady moving media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Maestrello, L.; Ting, L.
1995-01-01
In the interaction of an acoustic field with a moving airframe the authors encounter a canonical initial value problem for an acoustic field induced by an unsteady source distribution, q(t,x) with q equivalent to 0 for t less than or equal to 0, in a medium moving with a uniform unsteady velocity U(t)i in the coordinate system x fixed on the airframe. Signals issued from a source point S in the domain of dependence D of an observation point P at time t will arrive at point P more than once corresponding to different retarded times, Tau in the interval (0, t). The number of arrivals is called the multiplicity of the point S. The multiplicity equals 1 if the velocity U remains subsonic and can be greater when U becomes supersonic. For an unsteady uniform flow U(t)i, rules are formulated for defining the smallest number of I subdomains V(sub i) of D with the union of V(sub i) equal to D. Each subdomain has multiplicity 1 and a formula for the corresponding retarded time. The number of subdomains V(sub i) with nonempty intersection is the multiplicity m of the intersection. The multiplicity is at most I. Examples demonstrating these rules are presented for media at accelerating and/or decelerating supersonic speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Seung-Hee; Bae, Jae-Sung; Rho, Jin-Ho
2014-07-01
The discontinuous contour of a wing with conventional flaps diminishes the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. A wing with a continuous contour does not experience extreme flow stream fluctuations during flight, and consequently has good aerodynamic characteristics. In this study, a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators is proposed, designed and fabricated, and its aerodynamic characteristics are investigated using aerodynamic analyses and wind tunnel tests. The ribs of the morphing flap are designed and fabricated with multiple elements joined together in a way that allows relative rotations of adjacent elements and forms a smooth contour of the morphing flap. The aerodynamic analyses of this multiple-element morphing-flap wing are performed using XFLR pro; its aerodynamic performance is compared with that of a mechanical-flap wing, and is measured through wind-tunnel tests.
Some experiences with active control of aeroelastic response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.
1981-01-01
Flight and wind tunnel tests were conducted and multidiscipline computer programs were developed as part of investigations of active control technology conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Unsteady aerodynamics approximation, optimal control theory, optimal controller design, and the Delta wing and DC-10 models are described. The drones for aerodynamics and structural testing (DAST program) for evaluating procedures for aerodynamic loads prediction and the design of active control systems on wings with significant aeroelastic effects is described as well as the DAST model used in the wind tunnel tests.
NONHOMOGENEOUS TERMS IN THE UNSTEADY FLOW EQUATIONS: MODELING ASPECTS.
Lai, Chintu; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, Robert A.
1987-01-01
A study is in progress to identify the relative significance, effects, and benefits attributable to the use of one-dimensional, unsteady, open-channel, flow-simulation models employing a variety of nonhomogeneous terms in their equation formulations. Nonhomogeneous terms being analyzed include those representing bed slope, frictional resistance, nonprismatic channel geometry, lateral flow, and (surface) wind stress. After an initial theoretical discussion, the results of a set of numerical experiments are presented that demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships and intercomparisons achieved by neglect or improper treatment of important nonhomogeneous terms. Preliminary results of this study are discussed and presented in this paper, both in the form of qualitative considerations and quantitative tabular findings. These results are expected to yield a definitive set of guidelines and suggestions useful to model engineers.
Quasi-steady turbulence modeling of unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mankbadi, Reda R.; Mobark, Amin
1991-01-01
This article describes the results of numerical simulations of oscillating wall-bounded developing flows. The full phase-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved. The application of quasi-steady turbulence modeling to unsteady flows is demonstrated using an unsteady version of the k-epsilon model. The effects of unsteadiness on the mean flow and turbulence are studied. Critical evaluation of the applicability of the quasi-steady approach to turbulence modeling is presented. Suggestions are given for the future efforts in turbulence modeling of unsteady flows.
Unsteady separation characteristics of airfoils operating under dynamic stall conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geissler, Wolfgang; Carr, Lawrence W.; Cebeci, Tuncer
1986-01-01
Unsteady viscous/inviscid interaction phenomena are investigated for airfoils operating under dynamic stall conditions, using coupling procedures between a time-dependent inviscid panel method and two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer codes. Two strategies are pursued: a coupling of the inviscid panel method with the boundary layer code, and a strong coupling of the inviscid panel method with the boundary layer code. Attention is given to the main features of the unsteady time-marching panel method and boundary layer codes, as well as to numerical stability and the phenomenon of unsteady separation.
NON-LINEAR FREQUENCY DOMAIN BASED OPTIMUM SHAPE DESIGN FOR UNSTEADY
Jameson, Antony
blades and cooling fans operate in unsteady flow and are constantly subjected to unsteady loads the unsteady effects that contribute to flutter, buffeting, poor gust and acoustic response, and dynamic stall
A Study on Reduction of Aerodynamic Heating by Opposing Jet in Supersonic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Kentaro; Aso, Shigeru
An experimental study on reduction of aerodynamic heating due to opposing jet in supersonic flow has been conducted. Experiments are conducted by using a conventional blowdown type wind tunnel. A hemisphere model is installed into supersonic free stream of Mach number of 4 and coolant gas is injected through a sonic nozzle at the top of the model. Significant decrease of surface heat flux distribution is observed and opposing jet is proved to be quite effective on the reduction of aerodynamic heating at the nose region of the blunt body. The effect of total pressure ratio of opposing jet to the free stream on the reduction of aerodynamic heating is also investigated.
Analysis of aerodynamic pendulum oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selyutskiy, Yury D.
2012-11-01
Oscillations of an aerodynamic pendulum about the "along the flow" equilibrium are studied. The attached oscillator model is used in order to simulate the internal dynamics of the airflow. Stability criteria are found and stability domains in plane of are constructed for different values of parameters. Influence of damping is studied. It is shown that damping depending on airspeed allows describing experimentally registered phenomenon of flutter occurrence in a certain range of airspeeds.
Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.
1993-01-01
Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.
Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spearman, M. Leroy
2006-01-01
Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.
Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance
Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke
2008-08-01
Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.
Aerodynamic interference effects on tilting proprotor aircraft. [using the Green function method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soohoo, P.; Morino, L.; Noll, R. B.; Ham, N. D.
1977-01-01
The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unsteady rotor aerodynamics, attention was directed to steady state aerodynamics, which was achieved by replacing the rotor with the actuator disk approximation. The use of an actuator disk analysis introduced a mathematical singularity into the formulation; this problem was studied and resolved. The pressure distribution, lift, and pitching moment were obtained for an XV-15 wing-fuselage-tail rotor configuration at various flight conditions. For the flight configurations explored, the effects of the rotor wake interference on the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft yielded a reduction in the total lift and an increase in the nose-down pitching moment. This method provides an analytical capability that is simple to apply and can be used to investigate fuselage-tail rotor wake interference as well as to explore other rotor design problem areas.
Human-body exergy balance calculation under un-steady state conditions
Kayo Tokunaga; Masanori Shukuya
2011-01-01
We investigated the rationality and accuracy of human-body exergy balance calculation under un-steady state conditions for our immediate thermal environment changing due to a series of behaviour such as walking outdoors and coming into a mechanically air-conditioned space. We set up an experiment that the subjects stayed in two rooms, one with natural ventilation and the other with mechanical air-conditioning.
Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, David B.
2012-01-01
An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Erdman, W.; Sun, M.
1985-01-01
The results of experimental and analytical studies on an isolated lifting rotor in ground effect at low advance ratios are discussed. The experiments show that the favorable effect of ground proximity in hover disappears rapidly with small increases in advance ratio. Two flow regimes occur, a recirculation of the rotor wake is present at the low end of the advance ratio range investigated and a ground vortex is formed as advance ratio increases, causing irregular changes in the hub moments with advance ratio. Experimental results also show that translational acceleration has a significant effect on the ground effect of a lifting rotor. Hot wire measurements of the flow field under the ratio in ground effect are also presented. The experimental data are analyzed to determine effective values of the inflow in ground effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.
1975-01-01
The effects on flutter of the aerodynamic interaction between the space shuttle bodies and wing, 1/80th-scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete shuttle and intermediate component combinations were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch Transonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Using the double lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Using calculated complete vehicle modes, flutter speed trends were computed for the full scale vehicle at an altitude of 15,200 meters and a Mach number of 0.6. Consistent with findings of the model studies, analysis shows the shuttle to have the same flutter speed as an isolated cantilevered wing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, S. H.; Adams, W. M., Jr.
1984-01-01
A technique which employs both linear and nonlinear methods in a multilevel optimization structure to best approximate generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces for arbitrary motion is described. Optimum selection of free parameters is made in a rational function approximation of the aerodynamic forces in the Laplace domain such that a best fit is obtained, in a least squares sense, to tabular data for purely oscillatory motion. The multilevel structure and the corresponding formulation of the objective models are presented which separate the reduction of the fit error into linear and nonlinear problems, thus enabling the use of linear methods where practical. Certain equality and inequality constraints that may be imposed are identified; a brief description of the nongradient, nonlinear optimizer which is used is given; and results which illustrate application of the method are presented.
Numerical Simulation of Surface Melting Due to Aerodynamic Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinjo, Junji; Kubota, Hirotoshi
This paper presents a numerical study on surface melting pattern formation due to aerodynamic heating. When aerodynamic heating is severe enough to melt the surface of a flying body, the interaction between the melted layer and the external flow creates surface patterns. The present study succeeds in reproducing surface melting patterns, and results show the same trend as predicted by theory and experiment. The instability mechanism is mainly governed by surface friction and surface pressure fluctuations. These two factors act as driving forces on the surface. The surface pattern formation is characterized by the amplification factor and the wavelength factor. The results show the same trend as the experiments and the validity of the present analysis has been demonstrated.
Measurement techniques for unsteady flows in turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieverding, C. H.; Arts, T.; Dénos, R.; Brouckaert, J.-F.
The growing interest for unsteady flows in turbomachines over the last two decades has led to an intensive development of fast response measurement techniques, capable of resolving with high frequency phenomena related to inlet distortion, rotating stall and blade row interference effects with blade passing frequencies ranging from 3 to 30kHz. This development was favoured by major advances in sensor technology and data acquisition systems. The paper reviews the progress in fast response measurement techniques for high speed turbomachinery and application with emphasis on fast response pressure and temperature probes and blade surface sensors including pressure, heat transfer and shear stress determination.
Unsteady Pressure Measurements in a Pickup Truck Model
Al-Garni, Abdullah M.
Unsteady Pressure Measurements in a Pickup Truck Model Abdullah M. Al-Garni and Luis P. Bernal of an experimental investigation to determine the mean and unsteady pressure field on a pickup truck are reported using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Mean pressure on the pickup truck cabin, bed and tailgate
Computational aerodynamics applications to transport aircraft design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henne, P. A.
1983-01-01
Examples are cited in assessing the effect that computational aerodynamics has had on the design of transport aircraft. The application of computational potential flow methods to wing design and to high-lift system design is discussed. The benefits offered by computational aerodynamics in reducing design cost, time, and risk are shown to be substantial.These aerodynamic methods have proved to be particularly effective in exposing inferior or poor aerodynamic designs. Particular attention is given to wing design, where the results have been dramatic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Luk, Daniel F.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2010-01-01
Unsteady three-dimensional RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as experiment. A low Reynolds number k- turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the periodic direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Multhopp, H.
1942-01-01
The present report deals with a number of problems, particularly with the interaction of the fuselage with the wing and tail, on the basis of simple calculating method's derived from greatly idealized concepts. For the fuselage alone it affords, in variance with potential theory, a certain frictional lift in yawed flow, which, similar to the lift of a wing of small aspect ratio, is no longer linearly related to the angle of attack. Nevertheless there exists for this frictional lift something like a neutral stability point the position of which on oblong fuselages appears to be associated with the lift increase of the fuselage in proximity to the zero lift, according to the present experiments. The Pitching moments of the fuselage can be determined with comparatively great reliability so far as the flow conditions in the neighborhood of the axis of the fuselage can be approximated if the fuselage were absent, which, in general, is not very difficult. For the unstable contribution of the fuselage to the static longitudinal stability of the airplane it affords comparatively simple formulas, the evaluation of which offers little difficulty. On the engine nacelles there is, in addition a very substantial wing moment contribution induced by the nonuniform distribution of the transverse displacement flow of the nacelle along the wing chord; this also can be represented by a simple formula. A check on a large number of dissimilar aircraft types regarding the unstable fuselage and nacelle moments disclosed an agreement with the wind-tunnel tests, which should be sufficient for practical requirements. The errors remained throughout within the scope of instrumental accuracy.
Assessment of aerodynamic and dynamic models in a comprehensive analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
The history, status, and lessons of a comprehensive analysis for rotorcraft are reviewed. The development, features, and capabilities of the analysis are summarized, including the aerodynamic and dynamic models that were used. Examples of correlation of the computational results with experimental data are given, extensions of the analysis for research in several topics of helicopter technology are discussed, and the experiences of outside users are summarized. Finally, the required capabilities and approach for the next comprehensive analysis are described.
Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.
2001-01-01
This paper describes a videogram metric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.
Progress and challenges in modeling turbulent aerodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.
1990-01-01
Progress in modeling external aerodynamic flows achieved by using computations and experiments designed to guide turbulence modeling is presented. The computational procedures emphasize utilization of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and various statistical modeling approaches. Developments for including the influence of compressibility are provided; they point up some of the complexities involved in modeling high-speed flows. Examples of complementary studies that provide the status, limitations, and future challenges of modeling for transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flows are given.
An unsteady laminar flamelet model for non-premixed combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuenot, Benedicte; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Poinsot, Thierry
2000-03-01
While it is widely recognized that unsteady effects are important in turbulent diffusion flames, few simple models take unsteadiness into account. We show that this can be done with a laminar flamelet model based on steady strained flamelet libraries. In this approach, unsteady effects are included in an `equivalent' strain rate calculated from the strain rate history. This full unsteady laminar flamelet assumption (FULFA) model is tested in a counterflow diffusion flame subjected to an oscillating or pulsed strain rate. Comparisons between the FULFA model and the numerical simulations show good agreement. An extinction diagram is also proposed for the prediction of extinction conditions of unsteady counterflow flames, and good agreement is obtained between predicted and computed extinction points.
Swept-Wing Ice Accretion Characterization and Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Riley, James T.; Villedieu, Philippe; Moens, Frederic; Bragg, Michael B.
2013-01-01
NASA, FAA, ONERA, the University of Illinois and Boeing have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large-scale, three-dimensional swept wings. The overall goal is to improve the fidelity of experimental and computational simulation methods for swept-wing ice accretion formation and resulting aerodynamic effect. A seven-phase research effort has been designed that incorporates ice-accretion and aerodynamic experiments and computational simulations. As the baseline, full-scale, swept-wing-reference geometry, this research will utilize the 65 percent scale Common Research Model configuration. Ice-accretion testing will be conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for three hybrid swept-wing models representing the 20, 64 and 83 percent semispan stations of the baseline-reference wing. Threedimensional measurement techniques are being developed and validated to document the experimental ice-accretion geometries. Artificial ice shapes of varying geometric fidelity will be developed for aerodynamic testing over a large Reynolds number range in the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel and in a smaller-scale atmospheric wind tunnel. Concurrent research will be conducted to explore and further develop the use of computational simulation tools for ice accretion and aerodynamics on swept wings. The combined results of this research effort will result in an improved understanding of the ice formation and aerodynamic effects on swept wings. The purpose of this paper is to describe this research effort in more detail and report on the current results and status to date.
Swept-Wing Ice Accretion Characterization and Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Riley, James T.; Villedieu, Philippe; Moens, Frederic; Bragg, Michael B.
2013-01-01
NASA, FAA, ONERA, the University of Illinois and Boeing have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large-scale, three-dimensional swept wings. The overall goal is to improve the fidelity of experimental and computational simulation methods for swept-wing ice accretion formation and resulting aerodynamic effect. A seven-phase research effort has been designed that incorporates ice-accretion and aerodynamic experiments and computational simulations. As the baseline, full-scale, swept-wing-reference geometry, this research will utilize the 65% scale Common Research Model configuration. Ice-accretion testing will be conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for three hybrid swept-wing models representing the 20%, 64% and 83% semispan stations of the baseline-reference wing. Three-dimensional measurement techniques are being developed and validated to document the experimental ice-accretion geometries. Artificial ice shapes of varying geometric fidelity will be developed for aerodynamic testing over a large Reynolds number range in the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel and in a smaller-scale atmospheric wind tunnel. Concurrent research will be conducted to explore and further develop the use of computational simulation tools for ice accretion and aerodynamics on swept wings. The combined results of this research effort will result in an improved understanding of the ice formation and aerodynamic effects on swept wings. The purpose of this paper is to describe this research effort in more detail and report on the current results and status to date. 1
AERODYNAMIC AND ELECTROMECHANICAL DESIGN, MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF
Kochersberger, Kevin
of the aerodynamic and electromechanical systems that are necessary for a practical implementationAERODYNAMIC AND ELECTROMECHANICAL DESIGN, MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PIEZOCOMPOSITE AIRFOILS, Macro-Fiber Composite, Unimorph, Bimorph © Onur Bilgen, 2010 #12;AERODYNAMIC AND ELECTROMECHANICAL
Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry
Dumas, Laurent
Hybrid method for aerodynamic shape optimization in automotive industry Freedeerique Muyl April 2003; accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract An aerodynamic shape optimization tool for complex industrial reasons, concerns car manufacturers. Consequently, the improvement of the aerodynamics of car shapes, more
Aeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities
Kareem, Ahsan
Aeroelastic Analysis of Bridges: Effects of Turbulence and Aerodynamic Nonlinearities Xinzhong Chen for capturing the emerging concerns in bridge aerodynamics introduced by aerodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence effects. These issues may become critical for bridges with increasing spans and