Unsteady Aerodynamic Validation Experiences From the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heeg, Jennifer; Chawlowski, Pawel
2014-01-01
The AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW) was held in April 2012, bringing together communities of aeroelasticians, computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists. The extended objective was to assess the state of the art in computational aeroelastic methods as practical tools for the prediction of static and dynamic aeroelastic phenomena. As a step in this process, workshop participants analyzed unsteady aerodynamic and weakly-coupled aeroelastic cases. Forced oscillation and unforced system experiments and computations have been compared for three configurations. This paper emphasizes interpretation of the experimental data, computational results and their comparisons from the perspective of validation of unsteady system predictions. The issues examined in detail are variability introduced by input choices for the computations, post-processing, and static aeroelastic modeling. The final issue addressed is interpreting unsteady information that is present in experimental data that is assumed to be steady, and the resulting consequences on the comparison data sets.
Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Unal, A.
1987-01-01
Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accommodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.
Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Unal, A.
1986-01-01
Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.
Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase V: Test Configuration and Available Data Campaigns
Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.
2001-08-30
The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating-blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models, which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic-stall regimes. Much of the effort in the first phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phase V of the experiment is contained in this report.
Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format
Hand, M. M.
1999-07-19
A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement.
Progress in computational unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obayashi, Shigeru
1993-01-01
After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteady aerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.
2000-01-01
As computational fluid dynamics methods mature, code development is rapidly transitioning from prediction of steady flowfields to unsteady flows. This change in emphasis offers a number of new challenges to the research community, not the least of which is obtaining detailed, accurate unsteady experimental data with which to evaluate new methods. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been actively measuring unsteady pressure distributions for nearly 40 years. Over the last 20 years, these measurements have focused on developing high-quality datasets for use in code evaluation. This paper provides a sample of unsteady pressure measurements obtained by LaRC and available for government, university, and industry researchers to evaluate new and existing unsteady aerodynamic analysis methods. A number of cases are highlighted and discussed with attention focused on the unique character of the individual datasets and their perceived usefulness for code evaluation. Ongoing LaRC research in this area is also presented.
Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.; Schreck, S.; Larwood, S. M.
2001-12-01
The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamics experiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. Jane
2000-03-01
The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.
Simms, D.; Schreck, S.; Hand, M.; Fingersh, L.J.
2001-06-22
Currently, wind turbine designers rely on safety factors to compensate for the effects of unknown loads acting on the turbine structure. This results in components that are overdesigned because precise load levels and load paths are unknown. To advance wind turbine technology, the forces acting on the turbine structure must be accurately characterized because these forces translate directly into loads imparted to the wind turbine structure and resulting power production. Once these forces are more accurately characterized, we will better understand load paths and can therefore optimize turbine structures. To address this problem, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE), which was a test of an extensively instrumented wind turbine in the giant NASA-Ames 24.4-m (80 feet) by 36.6-m (120 feet) wind tunnel. To maximize the benefits from testing, NREL formed a Science Panel of advisers comprised of wind turbine aerodynamics and modeling experts throughout the world. NREL used the Science Panel's guidance to specify the conditions and configurations under which the turbine was operated in the wind tunnel. The panel also helped define test priorities and objectives that would be effective for wind turbine modeling tool development and validation.
Turbine blade unsteady aerodynamic loading and heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, David Alan
Stator indexing to minimize the unsteady aerodynamic loading of closely spaced airfoil rows in turbomachinery is a new technique for the passive control of flow-induced vibrations. This technique, along with the effects of steady blade loading, were studied by means of experiments performed in a two-stage low-speed research turbine. With the second vane row fixed, the inlet vane row was indexed to six positions over one vane-pitch cycle for a range of stage loadings. The aerodynamic forcing function to the first-stage rotor was measured in the rotating reference frame, with the resulting rotor blade unsteady aerodynamic response quantified by rotor blades instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers. Reductions in the unsteady lift magnitude were achieved at all turbine operating conditions, with attenuation ranging from 37% to 74% of the maximum unsteady lift. Additionally, in complementary experiments, the effects of stator indexing and steady blade loading on the unsteady heat transfer of the first- and second-stage rotors was studied for the design and highest blade loading conditions using platinum-film heat gages. The attenuation of unsteady heat transfer coefficient was blade-loading dependent and location dependent along the chord and span, ranging 10% to 90% of maximum. Due to the high degree of location dependence of attenuation, stator indexing is therefore best suited to minimize unsteady heat transfer in local hot spots of the blade rather than the blade as a whole.
Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.
2003-01-01
The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Khanh Q.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
This report documents the results of the numerical simulations of unsteady aerodynamic models. The results focus on numerical accuracy and efficiency, and the robustness of the numerical methods. The aerodynamic models includes the classical Wagner and Kussner functions and the Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model. The simulations includes the numerical approximations of the Duhamel's integrals using both indicial (step) and impulse responses, the numerical integrations of the state-space models, and the exact solutions. The report also presents the conversion among different model representations.
Unsteady aerodynamics and gust response in compressors and turbines
Manwaring, S.R.; Wisler, D.C. . GE Aircraft Engines)
1993-10-01
A comprehensive series of experiments and analyses was performed on compressor and turbine blading to evaluate the ability of current, practical, engineering/analysis models to predict unsteady aerodynamic loading of modern gas turbine blading. This is part of an ongoing effort to improve methods for preventing blading failure. The experiments were conducted in low-speed research facilities capable of simulating the relevant aerodynamic features of turbomachinery. Unsteady loading on compressor and turbine blading was generated by upstream wakes and, additionally for compressors, by a rotating inlet distortion. Fast-response hot-wire anemometry and pressure transducers embedded in the airfoil surfaces were used to determine the aerodynamic gusts and resulting unsteady pressure responses acting on the airfoils. This is the first time that gust response measurements for turbines have been reported in the literature. Several different analyses were used to predict the unsteady component of the blade loading: (1) a classical flat-plate analysis, (2) a two-dimensional linearized flow analysis with a frozen gust model, (3) a two-dimensional linearized flow analysis with a distorted gust model, (4) a two-dimensional linearized Euler analysis, and (5) a two-dimensional nonlinear Euler analysis. Also for the first time, a detailed comparison of these analyses methods is made and the importance of properly accounting for both vortical and potential disturbances is demonstrated. The predictions are compared with experiment and their abilities assessed to help guide designers in using these prediction schemes.
Rotor blade unsteady aerodynamic gust response to inlet guide vane wakes
Manwaring, S.R.; Fleetner, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-01-01
A series of experiments is performed in an extensively instrumented axial flow research compressor to investigate the fundamental flow physics of wake-generated periodic rotor blade row unsteady aerodynamics at realistic values of the reduced frequency. Unique unsteady data are obtained that describe the fundamental unsteady aerodynamic gust interaction phenomena on the first-stage rotor blades of a research axial flow compressor generated by the wakes from the inlet guide vanes. In these experiments, the effects of steady blade aerodynamic loading and the aerodynamic forcing function, including both the transverse and chordwise gust components, and the amplitude of the gusts, are investigated and quantified.
Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. E.
1991-01-01
A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2011-01-01
Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin is caused by an undamping of the aerodynamics in one of the lower frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic lineloads derived from steady rigid computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic (CAE) analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping. This paper will present a method of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteady aerodynamics. The enhanced formulation uses unsteady CFD to compute the response of selected lower frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle lineloads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteady aerodynamic lineload response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping and mass matrices. The results of the enhanced quasi-static aeroelastic stability analysis are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady CAE analysis and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteady aerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady CAE analysis.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.
Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics-implications for testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Gary T.; Tobak, Murray
1988-01-01
The various forms of bifurcations that can occur between steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate the various ways in which bifurcations may intervene to influence the outcome of dynamics tests involving unsteady aerodynamics. The presence of bifurcation phenomena in such tests must be taken into consideration to ensure the proper interpretation of results, and some recommendations are made to that end.
CFD methods development considerations for unsteady aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1992-01-01
The development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods for unsteady aerodynamic analysis is described. Special emphasis is placed on considerations that are required for application of the methods to unsteady aerodynamic flow problems. Two broad categories of topics are presented to illustrate the major points. Although primary application of these CFD methods is to relatively low frequency oscillatory phenomena such as flutter, the ideas that are presented may be of value to developers of computational aeroacoustic methods for predicting high frequency acoustics.
Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1994-01-01
A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.
Application of neural networks to unsteady aerodynamic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faller, William E.; Schreck, Scott J.; Luttges, Marvin W.
1994-01-01
The problem under consideration in this viewgraph presentation is to understand, predict, and control the fluid mechanics of dynamic maneuvers, unsteady boundary layers, and vortex dominated flows. One solution is the application of neural networks demonstrating closed-loop control. Neural networks offer unique opportunities: simplify modeling of three dimensional, vortex dominated, unsteady separated flow fields; are effective means for controlling unsteady aerodynamics; and address integration of sensors, controllers, and time lags into adaptive control systems.
A linear aerodynamic analysis for unsteady transonic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.
1984-01-01
A potential flow analysis to predict unsteady airloads produced by the vibrations of turbomachinery blades operating at transonic Mach numbers is presented. The unsteady aerodynamic model includes the effects of blade geometry, finite mean pressure variation across the blade row, high frequency blade motion, and shock motion within the framework of a linearized, frequency domain formulation. The unsteady equations are solved implicit, least squares, finite difference approximation which is applicable on arbitrary grids. A numerical solution for the entire unsteady field is determined by matching a solution determined on a rectilinear type cascade mesh, which covers an extended blade passage region, to a solution determined on a detailed polar type local mesh, which covers and extends well beyond the supersonic region(s) adjacent to a blade surface. Cascades of double circular arc and flat plate blades demonstrate the unsteady analysis, and partially illustrate the effects of blade geometry, inlet Mach number, blade vibration frequency and shock motion on unsteady response.
Algorithmic Enhancements for Unsteady Aerodynamics and Combustion Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkateswaran, Sankaran; Olsen, Michael (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Research in the FY01 focused on the analysis and development of enhanced algorithms for unsteady aerodynamics and chemically reacting flowfields. The research was performed in support of NASA Ames' efforts to improve the capabilities of the in-house computational fluid dynamics code, OVERFLOW. Specifically, the research was focused on the four areas: (1) investigation of stagnation region effects; (2) unsteady preconditioning dual-time procedures; (3) dissipation formulation for combustion; and (4) time-stepping methods for combustion.
The influence of unsteady aerodynamics on hingeless rotor ground resonance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W.
1981-01-01
Calculations of the model frequency and damping for a hingeless rotor on a gimballed support in hover are compared with measured results for two configurations (differing in blade flap stiffness). Good correlation is obtaned when an inflow dynamics model is used to account for the influence of the unsteady aerodynamics. The effect of the unsteady aerodynamics is significant for this rotor system. The inflow dynamics model introduces additional states corresponding to perturbations of the wake-induced velocity at the rotor disk. The calculations confirm the experimental observation that the inflow mode introduced by these additional states is measurable for one configuration but not for the other.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 percent in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady aerodynamic model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -0.14 percent.
Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven L.
This work develops low-order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing in response to agile maneuvers at low Reynolds number. Model performance is assessed on the basis of accuracy across a range of parameters and frequencies as well as of computational efficiency and compatibility with existing control techniques and flight dynamic models. The result is a flexible modeling procedure that yields accurate, low-dimensional, state-space models. The modeling procedures are developed and tested on direct numerical simulations of a two-dimensional flat plate airfoil in motion at low Reynolds number, Re=100, and in a wind tunnel experiment at the Illinois Institute of Technology involving a NACA 0006 airfoil pitching and plunging at Reynolds number Re=65,000. In both instances, low-order models are obtained that accurately capture the unsteady aerodynamic forces at all frequencies. These cases demonstrate the utility of the modeling procedure developed in this thesis for obtaining accurate models for different geometries and Reynolds numbers. Linear reduced-order models are constructed from either the indicial response (step response) or realistic input/output maneuvers using a flexible modeling procedure. The method is based on identifying stability derivatives and modeling the remaining dynamics with the eigensystem realization algorithm. A hierarchy of models is developed, based on linearizing the flow at various operating conditions. These models are shown to be accurate and efficient for plunging, pitching about various points, and combined pitch and plunge maneuvers, at various angle of attack and Reynolds number. Models are compared against the classical unsteady aerodynamic models of Wagner and Theodorsen over a large range of Strouhal number and reduced frequency for a baseline comparison. Additionally, state-space representations are developed for Wagner's and Theodorsen's models, making them compatible with modern control-system analysis. A number of computational tools are developed throughout this work. Highly unsteady maneuvers are visualized using finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields, which highlight separated flows and wake structures. A new fast method of computing these fields is presented. In addition, we generalize the immersed boundary projection method computations to use a moving base flow, which allows for the simulation of complex geometries undergoing large motions with up to an order of magnitude speed-up. The methods developed in this thesis provide a systematic approach to identify unsteady aerodynamic models from analytical, numerical, or experimental data. The resulting models are shown to be reduced-order models of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations that are expressed in state-space form, and they are, therefore, both efficient and accurate. The specific form of the model, which separates added-mass forces, quasi-steady lift, and transient forces, guarantees that the resulting models are accurate over the entire range of frequencies. Finally, the models are low-dimensional linear systems of ordinary differential equations, so that they are compatible with existing flight dynamic models as well as a wealth of modern control techniques.
Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-Gi
2011-01-01
A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 % in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -.14 %.
CHSSI Software for Geometrically Complex Unsteady Aerodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William M.; Meakin, Robert L.; Potsdam, Mark A.
2001-01-01
A comprehensive package of scalable overset grid CFD software is reviewed. The software facilitates accurate simulation of complete aircraft aerodynamics, including viscous effects, unsteadiness, and relative motion between component parts. The software significantly lowers the manpower and computer costs normally associated with such efforts. The software is discussed in terms of current capabilities and planned future enhancements.
Effects of unsteady aerodynamics on rotor aeroelastic stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunz, D. L.
1977-01-01
The effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the stability characteristics of helicopter rotor blades were studied. A simple physical model of each blade was used together with Theodorsen, Loewy, and quasi-steady aerodynamics to derive the equations of motion. The stability analysis comparing the effects of using each of the three theories revealed some significant differences between the Loewy and Theodorsen results. These included increases and decreases in lead-lag damping, localized around integer lead-lag frequencies. It was also shown that the standard method of multi-blade coordinates must be modified for use in conjunction with Loewy aerodynamics.
Review of unsteady transonic aerodynamics: Theory and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bendiksen, Oddvar O.
2011-02-01
Unsteady transonic flow theory is reviewed and classical results from the nonlinear asymptotic theory are combined with new results from computational fluid dynamics. The emphasis is on applications to the field of aeroelasticity and on clarifying the limitations of linearized theories in problems involving mixed subsonic-supersonic flows. The inherent differences between nonlinear transonic aerodynamics and linear subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics are considered from a theoretical and computational standpoint, and the practical implications of these differences in formulating suitable aerodynamic models for aeroelastic stability calculations are discussed. Transonic similarity principles are reviewed and their relevance in understanding flutter, divergence, and control reversal phenomena of transonic aircraft is illustrated through practical examples.
Unsteady Cascade Aerodynamic Response Using a Multiphysics Simulation Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, C.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Spyropoulos, E.
2000-01-01
The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena, in the present case being between fluids and structures. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains resulting from blade motions. Unsteady pressures are calculated for a cascade designated as the tenth standard, and undergoing plunging and pitching oscillations. The predicted unsteady pressures are compared with those obtained from an unsteady Euler co-de refer-red in the literature. The Spectrum(TM) code predictions showed good correlation for the cases considered.
Unsteady aerodynamics of fluttering and tumbling plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, A.; Pesavento, U.; Wang, Z. Jane
2005-10-01
We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 10(3) , which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements with direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equation. Using inviscid theory as a guide, we decompose the fluid forces into contributions due to acceleration, translation, and rotation of the plate. For both fluttering and tumbling we find that the fluid circulation is dominated by a rotational term proportional to the angular velocity of the plate, as opposed to the translational velocity for a glider with fixed angle of attack. We find that the torque on a freely falling plate is small, i.e. the torque is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the torque on a glider with fixed angle of attack. Based on these results we revise the existing ODE models of freely falling plates. We get access to different kinds of dynamics by exploring the phase diagram spanned by the Reynolds number, the dimensionless moment of inertia, and the thickness-to-width ratio. In agreement with previous experiments, we find fluttering, tumbling, and apparently chaotic motion. We further investigate the dependence on initial conditions and find brief transients followed by periodic fluttering described by simple harmonics and tumbling with a pronounced period-two structure. Near the cusp-like turning points, the plates elevate, a feature which would be absent if the lift depended on the translational velocity alone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Herbert J.
1987-01-01
The body surface-panel method SOUSSA is applied to calculate steady and unsteady lift and pitching moment coefficients on a thin fighter-type wing model with and without a tip-mounted missile. Comparisons are presented with experimental results and with PANAIR and PANAIR-related calculations for Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.9. In general the SOUSSA program, the experiments, and the PANAIR (and related) programs give lift and pitching-moment results which agree at least fairly well, except for the unsteady clean-wing experimental moment and the unsteady moment on the wing tip body calculated by a PANAIR-predecessor program at a Mach number of 0.8.
Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Meilin
The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating the flow fields around a series of plunging NACA symmetric airfoils with thickness ratio ranging from 4.0% to 20.0% of the airfoil chord length. The contribution of viscous force to flapping propulsion is accessed and it is found that viscous force becomes thrust producing, instead of drag producing, and plays a non-negligible role in thrust generation for thin airfoils. This is closely related to the variations of the dynamics of the unsteady vortex structures around the plunging airfoils. As nature flyers use complex wing kinematics in flapping flight, kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performance with different airfoil thicknesses are numerically studied by using a series of NACA symmetric airfoils. It is found that the combined plunging and pitching motion can outperform the pure plunging or pitching motion by sophisticatedly adjusting the airfoil gestures during the oscillation stroke. The thin airfoil better manipulates leading edge vortices (LEVs) than the thick airfoil (NACA0030) does in studied cases, and there exists an optimal thickness for large thrust generation with reasonable propulsive efficiency. With the present kinematics and dynamic parameters, relatively low reduced frequency is conducive for thrust production and propulsive efficiency for all tested airfoil thicknesses. In order to obtain the optimal kinematics parameters of flapping flight, a kinematics optimization is then performed. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is coupled with a second-order SD Navier-Stokes solver to search for the optimal kinematics of a certain airfoil undergoing a combined plunging and pitching motion. Then a high-order SD scheme is used to verify the optimization results and reveal the detailed vortex structures associated with the optimal kinematics of the flapping flight. It is found that for the case with maximum propulsive efficiency, there exists no leading edge separation during most of the oscillation cycle. In order to provide constructive suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carrie
Simms, D.; Schreck, S.; Hand, M.; Fingersh, L.; Cotrell, J.; Pierce, K.; Robinson, M.
2000-08-28
Currently, the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) research turbine is scheduled to enter the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel in early 2000. To prepare for this 3-week test, a Science Panel meeting was convened at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 1998. During this meeting, the Science Panel and representatives from the wind energy community provided numerous detailed recommendations regarding test activities and priorities. The Unsteady Aerodynamics team of the NWTC condensed this guidance and drafted a detailed test plan. This test plan represents an attempt to balance diverse recommendations received from the Science Panel meeting, while taking into account multiple constraints imposed by the UAE research turbine, the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel, and other sources. The NREL-NASA Ames wind tunnel tests will primarily be focused on obtaining rotating blade pressure data. NREL has been making these types of measurements since 1987 and has considerable experience in doing so. The purpose of this wind tunnel test is to acquire accurate quantitative aerodynamic and structural measurements, on a wind turbine that is geometrically and dynamically representative of full-scale machines, in an environment free from pronounced inflow anomalies. These data will be exploited to develop and validate enhanced engineering models for designing and analyzing advanced wind energy machines.
Aerodynamic analysis of HAWTs operating in unsteady conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Christian; SmaÃ¯li, Arezki; Leclerc, Christophe
2001-01-01
This article presents a numerical method for predicting unsteady aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). In this method the flow field is described by the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The rotor and tower are idealized respectively as actuator disc and flat plate permeable surfaces on which external normal surficial forces are balanced by fluid pressure discontinuities. The external forces exerted by the rotor and tower on the flow are prescribed according to blade element theory. Dynamic behaviour of the rotor aerodynamic characteristics is simulated using either the Gormont or the Beddoes-Leishman model. The resulting mathematical formulation is solved using a control volume finite element method. The fully implicit scheme is used for time discretization. In general, the proposed method has demonstrated its capability to adequately represent the field data. It has been demonstrated that the accuracy of the predicted results depends primarily on the dynamic stall model as well as on the turbulence model employed.
Linear/nonlinear behavior in unsteady transonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowell, E. H.; Williams, M. H.; Bland, S. R.
1981-01-01
The accurate calculation of the aerodynamic forces in unsteady transonic flow requires the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The aeroelastician, on the other hand, seeks to treat his problems (flutter, for example) by means of linear equations whenever possible. He may do this, even when the underlying flow is nonlinear, if the perturbation forces are linear over some (perhaps small) range of unsteady amplitude of motion. This paper assesses the range of parameters over which linear behavior occurs. In particular calculations are made for an NACA 64A006 airfoil oscillating in pitch over a range of amplitudes, frequencies, and Mach numbers. The primary aerodynamic method used is the well known LTRAN2 code of Ballhaus and Goorjian that provides a finite-difference solution to the low frequency, small disturbance, two-dimensional potential flow equation. Comparisons are made with linear subsonic theory, local linearization, and, for steady flow, with the full potential equation code of Bauer, Garabedian, and Korn.
High performance parallelized implicit Euler solver for the analysis of unsteady aerodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borel, C.; Bredif, M.
Simulation of transient flows is more and more useful for industrial applications in aeronautics. For instance, the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients can be of great importance in order to predict the behavior of flying bodies: this is in particular the case for missiles which are spun around their longitudinal axis. It is also well known that the experimental tools used to evaluate the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics present a certain number of limitations: complexity of the experiments, limited degree of accuracy, high costs and delays. In this context, the Computational Aerodynamics Department of Matra Defense has been developing a software library called AEROLOG for the prediction of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of tactical missiles using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The aim of this paper is as follows: (1) Detailed presentation of the numerical method, with particular emphasis on the high performances in terms of computational time achieved thanks to the use of an implicit scheme combined with a domain decomposition of structured mesh well suited for vector and parallel implementation, and (2) Analysis of 2-D and 3-D unsteady numerical simulations corresponding to academic and industrial cases, showing the accuracy of the method together with its range of applications.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Behavior Measured in Hovering Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bousman, William G.; Kufeld, Robert M.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
A highly-instrumented UH-60A aircraft was tested at NASA-Ames Research Center from August 1993 to February 1994 obtaining an extensive data base for level flight, maneuvers, acoustics (both with respect to ground microphone arrays and inflight microphones), and flight dynamics. A majority of the data obtained are now in an electronic data base, however, only a small fraction of the data have been examined. The proposed paper will examine the issue of hovering steadiness in more detail. In particular, a single set of data obtained during ground acoustic testing may provide considerable insight as the wind speeds were measured at a hover height of 250 feet and the aircraft was positioned in 15 deg. steps in heading from 0 to 180 deg. Also, hover housekeeping data were obtained for many of the 31 flights and these will also allow a characterization of the unsteadiness. The variation in section lift will be examined in terms of the induced flow angle variation and this will be related to possible physical explanations.
Unsteady aerodynamics of an oscillating cascade in a compressible flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Boldman, Donald R.; Fleeter, Sanford
1987-01-01
Fundamental experiments were performed in the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade Facility to investigate and quantify the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade of biconvex airfoils executing torsion-mode oscillations at realistic reduced frequencies. Flush-mounted, high-response miniature pressure transducers were used to measure the unsteady airfoil surface pressures. The pressures were measured for three interblade phase angles at two inlet Mach numbers, 0.65 and 0.80, and two incidence angles, 0 and 7 deg. The time-variant pressures were analyzed by means of discrete Fourier transform techniques, and these unique data were then compared with predictions from a linearized unsteady cascade model. The experimental results indicate that the interblade phase angle had a major effect on the chordwise distributions of the airfoil surface unsteady pressure, and that reduced frequency, incidence angle, and Mach number had a somewhat less significant effect.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Interaction between Two Bodies at Hypersonic Speed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Keiichi; Hanai, Katsuhisa; Mori, Koichi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki
This paper presents experimental results of unsteady aerodynamic interactions including Shock/Shock Interaction (SSI) and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI) between two bodies at hypersonic speed. These interactions can be seen in space vehicles consisting of multi-bodies, such as a TSTO, or at a scramjet engine inlet. The present study considers the effect of a flat plate below the SSI where a boundary-layer is developed on the plate surface. More specifically, the interacted flow for a combination of a flat plate (FP) and a hemi-circular cylinder (HCC) is examined at a hypersonic speed (Mâˆž=8.1) the distributions of surface pressure and heat transfer rate are measured. To obtain various SSI patterns, the clearance between two bodies (FP and HCC) is changed. Results show that unsteadiness at the SSI point causes a feedback loop between the two bodies; a jet flow impinges on the FP, the effect of which propagates upstream where the jet impinges on the FP, and the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic loads reach their maxima. Finally, we found that the feedback loop can be destroyed by installing a fence on the FP to reduce unsteadiness of flow field.
System Identification and POD Method Applied to Unsteady Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Deman; Kholodar, Denis; Juang, Jer-Nan; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The representation of unsteady aerodynamic flow fields in terms of global aerodynamic modes has proven to be a useful method for reducing the size of the aerodynamic model over those representations that use local variables at discrete grid points in the flow field. Eigenmodes and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes have been used for this purpose with good effect. This suggests that system identification models may also be used to represent the aerodynamic flow field. Implicit in the use of a systems identification technique is the notion that a relative small state space model can be useful in describing a dynamical system. The POD model is first used to show that indeed a reduced order model can be obtained from a much larger numerical aerodynamical model (the vortex lattice method is used for illustrative purposes) and the results from the POD and the system identification methods are then compared. For the example considered, the two methods are shown to give comparable results in terms of accuracy and reduced model size. The advantages and limitations of each approach are briefly discussed. Both appear promising and complementary in their characteristics.
Prediction of Unsteady Aerodynamic Coefficients at High Angles of Attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pamadi, Bandu N.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Brandon, Jay M.
2001-01-01
The nonlinear indicial response method is used to model the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients in the low speed longitudinal oscillatory wind tunnel test data of the 0.1 scale model of the F-16XL aircraft. Exponential functions are used to approximate the deficiency function in the indicial response. Using one set of oscillatory wind tunnel data and parameter identification method, the unknown parameters in the exponential functions are estimated. The genetic algorithm is used as a least square minimizing algorithm. The assumed model structures and parameter estimates are validated by comparing the predictions with other sets of available oscillatory wind tunnel test data.
An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.
2013-12-01
An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1975-01-01
The program SUSSA ACTS, steady and unsteady subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics for aerospace complex transportation system, is presented. Fully unsteady aerodynamics is discussed first, followed by developments on normal wash, pressure distribution, generalized forces, supersonic formulation, numerical results, geometry preprocessor, the user manual, control surfaces, and first order formulation. The ILSWAR program was also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.
1985-01-01
Research on arbitrary motion unsteady aerodynamics, emphasizing applications to rotary wing aeroelastic problems, is reviewed. Generalization of Greenberg's theory and its application to hingeless rotor aeroelastic stability; a technique for formulating finite state approximations to unsteady aerodynamic theories, suitable for fixed and rotary-wing applications, and its application to generalize Loewy's theory; comparison of fixed wing and rotary wing indicial response functions; influence of arbitrary motion aerodynamics, as represented by dynamic inflow on a helicopter in ground resonance; and comparison of dynamic inflow with arbitrary motion unsteady airfoil aerodynamics are covered.
Aerodynamic coefficients in generalized unsteady thin airfoil theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, M. H.
1980-01-01
Two cases are considered: (1) rigid body motion of an airfoil-flap combination consisting of vertical translation of given amplitude, rotation of given amplitude about a specified axis, and rotation of given amplitude of the control surface alone about its hinge; the upwash for this problem is defined mathematically; and (2) sinusoidal gust of given amplitude and wave number, for which the upwash is defined mathematically. Simple universal formulas are presented for the most important aerodynamic coefficients in unsteady thin airfoil theory. The lift and moment induced by a generalized gust are evaluated explicitly in terms of the gust wavelength. Similarly, in the control surface problem, the lift, moment, and hinge moments are given as explicit algebraic functions of hinge location. These results can be used together with any of the standard numerical inversion routines for the elementary loads (pitch and heave).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.
2008-01-01
Over the past three years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated design, development, and testing of a new human-rated space exploration system under the Constellation Program. Initial designs within the Constellation Program are scheduled to replace the present Space Shuttle, which is slated for retirement within the next three years. The development of vehicles for the Constellation system has encountered several unsteady aerodynamics challenges that have bearing on more traditional unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. This paper focuses on the synergy between the present NASA challenges and the ongoing challenges that have historically been the subject of research and method development. There are specific similarities in the flows required to be analyzed for the space exploration problems and those required for some of the more nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems encountered on aircraft. The aggressive schedule, significant technical challenge, and high-priority status of the exploration system development is forcing engineers to implement existing tools and techniques in a design and application environment that is significantly stretching the capability of their methods. While these methods afford the users with the ability to rapidly turn around designs and analyses, their aggressive implementation comes at a price. The relative immaturity of the techniques for specific flow problems and the inexperience with their broad application to them, particularly on manned spacecraft flight system, has resulted in the implementation of an extensive wind tunnel and flight test program to reduce uncertainty and improve the experience base in the application of these methods. This provides a unique opportunity for unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic method developers to test and evaluate new analysis techniques on problems with high potential for acquisition of test and even flight data against which they can be evaluated. However, researchers may be required to alter the geometries typically used in their analyses, the types of flows analyzed, and even the techniques by which computational tools are verified and validated. This paper discusses these issues and provides some perspective on the potential for new and innovative approaches to the development of methods to attack problems in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1975-01-01
A general formulation is presented for the analysis of steady and unsteady, subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics for complex aircraft configurations. The theoretical formulation, the numerical procedure, the description of the program SOUSSA (steady, oscillatory and unsteady, subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics) and numerical results are included. In particular, generalized forces for fully unsteady (complex frequency) aerodynamics for a wing-body configuration, AGARD wing-tail interference in both subsonic and supersonic flows as well as flutter analysis results are included. The theoretical formulation is based upon an integral equation, which includes completely arbitrary motion. Steady and oscillatory aerodynamic flows are considered. Here small-amplitude, fully transient response in the time domain is considered. This yields the aerodynamic transfer function (Laplace transform of the fully unsteady operator) for frequency domain analysis. This is particularly convenient for the linear systems analysis of the whole aircraft.
Finite state modelling of unsteady aerodynamics and its application to a rotor dynamic problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1985-01-01
The paper presents a method for formulating finite state unsteady aerodynamic models in the time domain from frequency domain unsteady aerodynamics. The method is based on recognizing that the lift deficiency function represents an aerodynamic transfer function and utilizes the Bode plot technique, used in control systems engineering, to construct approximation to the lift deficiency function. Indicial response functions for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications are obtained, using these finite state unsteady aerodynamic models. It is shown that the rotary wing indicial response function is oscillatory and thus it is fundamentally different when compared to the fixed wing indicial response function which is nonoscillatory. Certain aspects of the finite state aerodynamic model are demonstrated by applying it to the flapping dynamics of an articulated helicopter rotor blade. The influence of unsteady aerodynamics on the damping characteristics of the rotor is examined. The same problem is also treated by using a different unsteady aerodynamic model, namely dynamic inflow. Based on a comparison of the results obtained with these two unsteady aerodynamic models, useful conclusions are drawn regarding some fundamental features of these theories.
Unstructured-grid methods development for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.; Lee, Elizabeth M.; Kleb, William L.; Rausch, Russ D.
1991-01-01
The current status of unstructured grid methods development in the Unsteady Aerodynamics Branch at NASA-Langley is described. These methods are being developed for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses. The flow solvers are highlighted which were developed for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations and selected results are given which show various features of the capability. The results demonstrate 2-D and 3-D applications for both steady and unsteady flows. Comparisons are also made with solutions obtained using a structured grid code and with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the unstructured grid methodology. These comparisons show good agreement which thus verifies the accuracy.
Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
2007-01-01
A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.
Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
2008-01-01
A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.
1976-01-01
Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.
Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response: Part 1--Forcing functions
Henderson, G.H.; Fleeter, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-10-01
The fundamental gust modeling assumption is investigated by means of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady periodic flow field is generated by rotating rows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades. In this paper, the measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory vortical gust requirements, with the resulting unsteady gust response of a downstream stator cascade correlated with linear theory predictions in an accompanying paper. The perforated-plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. In contrast, the airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory vortical gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading conditions, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. Thus, these unique data clearly show that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, are not able to be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.
Fast-Running Aeroelastic Code Based on Unsteady Linearized Aerodynamic Solver Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, T., Jr.
2003-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing aeroelastic analyses for turbomachines for use by NASA and industry. An aeroelastic analysis consists of a structural dynamic model, an unsteady aerodynamic model, and a procedure to couple the two models. The structural models are well developed. Hence, most of the development for the aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines has involved adapting and using unsteady aerodynamic models. Two methods are used in developing unsteady aerodynamic analysis procedures for the flutter and forced response of turbomachines: (1) the time domain method and (2) the frequency domain method. Codes based on time domain methods require considerable computational time and, hence, cannot be used during the design process. Frequency domain methods eliminate the time dependence by assuming harmonic motion and, hence, require less computational time. Early frequency domain analyses methods neglected the important physics of steady loading on the analyses for simplicity. A fast-running unsteady aerodynamic code, LINFLUX, which includes steady loading and is based on the frequency domain method, has been modified for flutter and response calculations. LINFLUX, solves unsteady linearized Euler equations for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blades, starting from a steady nonlinear aerodynamic solution. First, we obtained a steady aerodynamic solution for a given flow condition using the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic code TURBO. A blade vibration analysis was done to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating blades, and an interface code was used to convert the steady aerodynamic solution to a form required by LINFLUX. A preprocessor was used to interpolate the mode shapes from the structural dynamic mesh onto the computational dynamics mesh. Then, we used LINFLUX to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic forces for a given mode, frequency, and phase angle. A postprocessor read these unsteady pressures and calculated the generalized aerodynamic forces, eigenvalues, and response amplitudes. The eigenvalues determine the flutter frequency and damping. As a test case, the flutter of a helical fan was calculated with LINFLUX and compared with calculations from TURBO-AE, a nonlinear time domain code, and from ASTROP2, a code based on linear unsteady aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangwani, S. T.
1985-01-01
A reliable rotor aeroelastic analysis operational that correctly predicts the vibration levels for a helicopter is utilized to test various unsteady aerodynamics models with the objective of improving the correlation between test and theory. This analysis called Rotor Aeroelastic Vibration (RAVIB) computer program is based on a frequency domain forced response analysis which utilizes the transfer matrix techniques to model helicopter/rotor dynamic systems of varying degrees of complexity. The results for the AH-1G helicopter rotor were compared with the flight test data during high speed operation and they indicated a reasonably good correlation for the beamwise and chordwise blade bending moments, but for torsional moments the correlation was poor. As a result, a new aerodynamics model based on unstalled synthesized data derived from the large amplitude oscillating airfoil experiments was developed and tested.
Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.
2009-01-01
Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.
Application of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis to standard cascade configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Usab, W. J., Jr.
1986-01-01
A linearized potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of nonuniform steady flow phenomena on the linearized unsteady aerodynamic response to prescribed blade motions, has been applied to five cascade configurations. These include the first, fifth, eighth and ninth standard configurations proposed as a result of the Second International Symposium on Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines and a NASA Lewis flutter cascade. Selected results from this study, including comparisons between analytical predictions and the experimental measurements submitted for three of the foregoing configurations, are described. The correlation between theory and experiment for the first standard configuration (a compressor cascade operating at low Mach number and frequency) is quite good. Moreover, the predictions and measurements for the NASA Lewis cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils show good qualitative agreement. However, wide discrepancies exist between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements for the fifth standard configuration (a subsonic transonic fan tip cascade). These can be partially attributed to conditions being imposed in the experiment which differ from those commonly used in unsteady aerodynamic analyses.
Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Models from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick; Klein, Vladislav
2011-01-01
Demanding aerodynamic modelling requirements for military and civilian aircraft have motivated researchers to improve computational and experimental techniques and to pursue closer collaboration in these areas. Model identification and validation techniques are key components for this research. This paper presents mathematical model structures and identification techniques that have been used successfully to model more general aerodynamic behaviours in single-degree-of-freedom dynamic testing. Model parameters, characterizing aerodynamic properties, are estimated using linear and nonlinear regression methods in both time and frequency domains. Steps in identification including model structure determination, parameter estimation, and model validation, are addressed in this paper with examples using data from one-degree-of-freedom dynamic wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments. These techniques offer a methodology for expanding the utility of computational methods in application to flight dynamics, stability, and control problems. Since flight test is not always an option for early model validation, time history comparisons are commonly made between computational and experimental results and model adequacy is inferred by corroborating results. An extension is offered to this conventional approach where more general model parameter estimates and their standard errors are compared.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Static Airfoils in Reverse Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya
2013-11-01
Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted on two-dimensional blunt and sharp trailing edge airfoils held at static angles of attack in reverse flow for three Reynolds numbers. The current work is aimed at advancing the understanding of fully developed reverse flow for high-speed helicopter applications, and evaluates the potential for blunt trailing edge airfoils to mitigate unsteady rotor blade airloads in this flow regime. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements at post-stall angles of attack have revealed the evolution of a trailing edge vortex formed by the roll-up of vorticity generated in a separated shear layer. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to the flow field measurements to improve the identification and tracking of dominant flow structures. Unsteady force balance measurements have captured non-structural vibrations with frequency content which correlates well with that of the temporal coefficients for the first two POD spatial modes. These vibrations vary in frequency with angle of attack and are shown to be linked with trailing edge vortex shedding. The findings presented here give fundamental insight towards the development of efficient rotor blades for high-speed helicopters.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Models for Turbomachinery Aeroelastic and Aeroacoustic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Ayer, Timothy C.
1995-01-01
Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows of axial-flow turbomachines. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of the blading. The emphasis has been placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, high Reynolds number flows driven by small amplitude unsteady excitations have been considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations and lead to a better understanding of the relevant flow physics. In addition, they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for use in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies. Under the present effort, inviscid interaction and linearized inviscid unsteady flow models have been formulated, and inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic steady and unsteady cascade flows have been developed. In this report, we describe the linearized inviscid unsteady analysis, LINFLO, the steady inviscid/viscid interaction analysis, SFLOW-IVI, and the unsteady viscous layer analysis, UNSVIS. These analyses are demonstrated via application to unsteady flows through compressor and turbine cascades that are excited by prescribed vortical and acoustic excitations and by prescribed blade vibrations. Recommendations are also given for the future research needed for extending and improving the foregoing asymptotic analyses, and to meet the goal of providing efficient inviscid/viscid interaction capabilities for subsonic and transonic unsteady cascade flows.
Henderson, G.H.; Fleeter, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-10-01
The fundamental gust modeling assumption is investigated by means of series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady periodic flow field is generated by rotating rows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chord wise pressure response of a downstream low-solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristic of a linear-theory vortical gust, as was the case for the perforated-plate wake generators, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. In contrast, when the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory vortical gust characteristics, i.e., for the airfoil wake generators, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic responses of the downstream stators were much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. Thus, this investigation has quantitatively shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
1993-01-01
A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions
Xu, B. F.; Wang, T. G.; Yuan, Y.; Cao, J. F.
2015-01-01
A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859
Unsteady aerodynamic analysis for offshore floating wind turbines under different wind conditions.
Xu, B F; Wang, T G; Yuan, Y; Cao, J F
2015-02-28
A free-vortex wake (FVW) model is developed in this paper to analyse the unsteady aerodynamic performance of offshore floating wind turbines. A time-marching algorithm of third-order accuracy is applied in the FVW model. Owing to the complex floating platform motions, the blade inflow conditions and the positions of initial points of vortex filaments, which are different from the fixed wind turbine, are modified in the implemented model. A three-dimensional rotational effect model and a dynamic stall model are coupled into the FVW model to improve the aerodynamic performance prediction in the unsteady conditions. The effects of floating platform motions in the simulation model are validated by comparison between calculation and experiment for a small-scale rigid test wind turbine coupled with a floating tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic inflow effect carried by the FVW method itself is confirmed and the results agree well with the experimental data of a pitching transient on another test turbine. Also, the flapping moment at the blade root in yaw on the same test turbine is calculated and compares well with the experimental data. Then, the aerodynamic performance is simulated in a yawed condition of steady wind and in an unyawed condition of turbulent wind, respectively, for a large-scale wind turbine coupled with the floating TLP motions, demonstrating obvious differences in rotor performance and blade loading from the fixed wind turbine. The non-dimensional magnitudes of loading changes due to the floating platform motions decrease from the blade root to the blade tip. PMID:25583859
Transonic aerodynamic design experience
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, E.
1989-01-01
Advancements have occurred in transonic numerical simulation that place aerodynamic performance design into a relatively well developed status. Efficient broad band operating characteristics can be reliably developed at the conceptual design level. Recent aeroelastic and separated flow simulation results indicate that systematic consideration of an increased range of design problems appears promising. This emerging capability addresses static and dynamic structural/aerodynamic coupling and nonlinearities associated with viscous dominated flows.
Faller, W E; Schreck, S J
1995-01-01
The capability to control unsteady separated flow fields could dramatically enhance aircraft agility. To enable control, however, real-time prediction of these flow fields over a broad parameter range must be realized. The present work describes real-time predictions of three-dimensional unsteady separated flow fields and aerodynamic coefficients using neural networks. Unsteady surface-pressure readings were obtained from an airfoil pitched at a constant rate through the static stall angle. All data sets were comprised of 15 simultaneously acquired pressure records and one pitch angle record. Five such records and the associated pitch angle histories were used to train the neural network using a time-series algorithm. Post-training, the input to the network was the pitch angle (alpha), the angular velocity (dalpha/dt), and the initial 15 recorded surface pressures at time (t (0)). Subsequently, the time (t+Deltat) network predictions, for each of the surface pressures, were fed back as the input to the network throughout the pitch history. The results indicated that the neural network accurately predicted the unsteady separated flow fields as well as the aerodynamic coefficients to within 5% of the experimental data. Consistent results were obtained both for the training set as well as for generalization to both other constant pitch rates and to sinusoidal pitch motions. The results clearly indicated that the neural-network model could predict the unsteady surface-pressure distributions and aerodynamic coefficients based solely on angle of attack information. The capability for real-time prediction of both unsteady separated flow fields and aerodynamic coefficients across a wide range of parameters in turn provides a critical step towards the development of control systems targeted at exploiting unsteady aerodynamics for aircraft manoeuvrability enhancement. PMID:18263439
Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.
1990-01-01
A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.
Unsteady Aerodynamic and Dynamic Analysis of the Meridian UAS in a Rolling-Yawing Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lykins, Ryan
The nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic effects of operating the Meridian unmanned aerial system (UAS) in crosswinds and at high angular rates is investigated in this work. The Meridian UAS is a large autonomous aircraft, with a V-tail configuration, operated in Polar Regions for the purpose of remotely measuring ice sheet thickness. The inherent nonlinear coupling produced by the V-tail, along with the strong atmospheric disturbances, has made classical model identification methods inadequate for proper model development. As such, a powerful tool known as Fuzzy Logic Modeling (FLM) was implemented to generate time-dependent, nonlinear, and unsteady aerodynamic models using flight test data collected in Greenland in 2011. Prior to performing FLM, compatibility analysis is performed on the data, for the purpose of systematic bias removal and airflow angle estimation. As one of the advantages of FLM is the ability to model unsteady aerodynamics, the reduced frequency for both longitudinal and lateral-directional motions is determined from the unbiased data, using Theodorsen's theory of unsteadiness, which serves as an input parameter in modeling. These models have been used in this work to identify pilot induced oscillations, unsteady coupling motions, unsteady motion due to the slipstream and cross wind interaction, and destabilizing motions and orientations. This work also assesses the accuracy of preliminary aircraft dynamic models developed using engineering level software, and addresses the autopilot Extended Kalman Filter state estimations.
Numerical Study of Steady and Unsteady Canard-Wing-Body Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eugene, L. Tu
1996-01-01
The use of canards in advanced aircraft for control and improved aerodynamic performance is a topic of continued interest and research. In addition to providing maneuver control and trim, the influence of canards on wing aerodynamics can often result in increased maximum lift and decreased trim drag. In many canard-configured aircraft, the main benefits of canards are realized during maneuver or other dynamic conditions. Therefore, the detailed study and understanding of canards requires the accurate prediction of the non-linear unsteady aerodynamics of such configurations. For close-coupled canards, the unsteady aerodynamic performance associated with the canard-wing interaction is of particular interest. The presence of a canard in close proximity to the wing results in a highly coupled canard-wing aerodynamic flowfield which can include downwash/upwash effects, vortex-vortex interactions and vortex-surface interactions. For unsteady conditions, these complexities of the canard-wing flowfield are further increased. The development and integration of advanced computational technologies provide for the time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulations of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flox,fields. Simulation, are performed for non-linear flight regimes at transonic Mach numbers and for a wide range of angles of attack. For the static configurations, the effects of canard positioning and fixed deflection angles on aerodynamic performance and canard-wing vortex interaction are considered. For non-static configurations, the analyses of the canard-wing body flowfield includes the unsteady aerodynamics associated with pitch-up ramp and pitch oscillatory motions of the entire geometry. The unsteady flowfield associated with moving canards which are typically used as primary control surfaces are considered as well. The steady and unsteady effects of the canard on surface pressure integrated forces and moments, and canard-wing vortex interaction are presented in detail including the effects of the canard on the static and dynamic stability characteristics. The current study provides an understanding of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flowfield. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the canard on aerodynamic performance as well as the detailed flow physics of the canard-wing flowfield interactions. The computational tools developed to accurately predict the time-accurate flowfield of moving canards provides for the capability of coupled fluids-controls simulations desired in the detailed design and analysis of advanced aircraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petot, D.; Loiseau, H.
1982-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav
2003-01-01
A basic problem in flight dynamics is the mathematical formulation of the aerodynamic model for aircraft. This study is part of an ongoing effort at NASA Langley to develop a more general formulation of the aerodynamic model for aircraft that includes nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and to develop appropriate test techniques that facilitate identification of these models. A methodology for modeling and testing using wide-band inputs to estimate the unsteady form of the aircraft aerodynamic model was developed previously but advanced test facilities were not available at that time to allow complete validation of the methodology. The new model formulation retained the conventional static and rotary dynamic terms but replaced conventional acceleration terms with more general indicial functions. In this study advanced testing techniques were utilized to validate the new methodology for modeling. Results of static, conventional forced oscillation, wide-band forced oscillation, oscillatory coning, and ramp tests are presented.
Unsteady aerodynamic loads on slender cones at free-stream Mach numbers from 0 to 22.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heller, H. H.; Clemente, A. R.
1973-01-01
Results of an experimental study to determine the flow-induced unsteady aerodynamic loads on slender cones at very high Mach numbers. Experiments on 8-deg half-angle-cone/flat-base configurations were conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 6 and 15 and Reynolds numbers corresponding to shuttle reentry conditions. The flow facilities used were the H-3 Hypersonic Facility (Mach 6) and the Longshot Free Piston Tunnel (Mach 15) of the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Rhode-St.-Genese, Belgium. With these test results and pertinent results from other research efforts, data were available at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.67, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 15, and 22, so that empirical expressions could be developed for the Mach number dependence (1) of the overall fluctuating pressure under an attached turbulence boundary layer and (2) of the overall fluctuating base pressure.
Rotor-generated unsteady aerodynamic interactions in a 1Â½ stage compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papalia, John J.
Because High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) remains the predominant surprise failure mode in gas turbine engines, HCF avoidance design systems are utilized to identify possible failures early in the engine development process. A key requirement of these analyses is accurate determination of the aerodynamic forcing function and corresponding airfoil unsteady response. The current study expands the limited experimental database of blade row interactions necessary for calibration of predictive HCF analyses, with transonic axial-flow compressors of particular interest due to the presence of rotor leading edge shocks. The majority of HCF failures in aircraft engines occur at off-design operating conditions. Therefore, experiments focused on rotor-IGV interactions at off-design are conducted in the Purdue Transonic Research Compressor. The rotor-generated IGV unsteady aerodynamics are quantified when the IGV reset angle causes the vane trailing edge to be nearly aligned with the rotor leading edge shocks. A significant vane response to the impulsive static pressure perturbation associated with a shock is evident in the point measurements at 90% span, with details of this complex interaction revealed in the corresponding time-variant vane-to-vane flow field data. Industry wide implementation of Controlled Diffusion Airfoils (CDA) in modern compressors motivated an investigation of upstream propagating CDA rotor-generated forcing functions. Whole field velocity measurements in the reconfigured Purdue Transonic Research Compressor along the design speedline reveal steady loading had a considerable effect on the rotor shock structure. A detached rotor leading edge shock exists at low loading, with an attached leading edge and mid-chord suction surface normal shock present at nominal loading. These CDA forcing functions are 3--4 times smaller than those generated by the baseline NACA 65 rotor at their respective operating points. However, the IGV unsteady aerodynamic response to the CDA forcing functions remains significant. The intra-vane transport of NACA 65 and CDA rotor wakes is also observed within the time-variant passage velocity data. In general, the wake width and decay rate increase with rotor speed and compressor steady loading respectively.
Estimation of Aircraft Unsteady Aerodynamic Parameters from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav
2001-01-01
Improved aerodynamic mathematical models, for use in aircraft simulation or flight control design, are required when representing nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics. A key limitation of conventional aerodynamic models is the inability to map frequency and amplitude dependent data into the equations of motion directly. In an effort to obtain a more general formulation of the aerodynamic model, researchers have been led to a parallel requirement for more general testing methods. Testing for a more comprehensive model can lead to a very time consuming number of tests especially if traditional single frequency harmonic testing is attempted. This paper presents an alternative to traditional single frequency forced-oscillation testing by utilizing Schroeder sweeps to efficiently obtain the frequency response of the unsteady aerodynamic model. Schroeder inputs provide signals with a flat power spectrum over a specified frequency band. For comparison, experimental results using the traditional single-frequency inputs are also considered. A method for data analysis to determine an adequate unsteady aerodynamic model is presented. Discussion of associated issues that arise during this type of analysis and comparison of results using traditional single frequency analysis are provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.
1985-01-01
This paper presents in a unified manner recent research on arbitrary motion unsteady aerodynamics with an emphasis on applications to a number of rotary wing aeroelastic problems. The term arbitrary motion is used to denote growing or decaying oscillations with a certain frequency. The specific topics treated in this paper are: (1) generalization of Greenberg's theory and its application to hingeless rotor aeroelastic stability; (2) description of a new technique for formulating finite state approximations to unsteady aerodynamic theories, which are suitable for both fixed-wing and rotary-wing applications, and its application to generalize Loewy's theory; (3) comparison of fixed wing and rotary-wing indicial response functions; (4) influence of a arbitrary motion aerodynamics, as represented by dynamic inflow on a helicopter in ground resonance and (5) comparison of dynamic inflow with arbitrary motion unsteady airfoil aerodynamics. From the discussion of these topics a number of useful conclusions on the fundamental nature of arbitrary motion aerodynamics and its role in rotary-wing aeroelasticity are obtained.
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J.; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi
2013-01-01
Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight. PMID:24278243
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capece, Vincent R.; Platzer, Max F.
2003-01-01
A major challenge in the design and development of turbomachine airfoils for gas turbine engines is high cycle fatigue failures due to flutter and aerodynamically induced forced vibrations. In order to predict the aeroelastic response of gas turbine airfoils early in the design phase, accurate unsteady aerodynamic models are required. However, accurate predictions of flutter and forced vibration stress at all operating conditions have remained elusive. The overall objectives of this research program are to develop a transition model suitable for unsteady separated flow and quantify the effects of transition on airfoil steady and unsteady aerodynamics for attached and separated flow using this model. Furthermore, the capability of current state-of-the-art unsteady aerodynamic models to predict the oscillating airfoil response of compressor airfoils over a range of realistic reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and loading levels will be evaluated through correlation with benchmark data. This comprehensive evaluation will assess the assumptions used in unsteady aerodynamic models. The results of this evaluation can be used to direct improvement of current models and the development of future models. The transition modeling effort will also make strides in improving predictions of steady flow performance of fan and compressor blades at off-design conditions. This report summarizes the progress and results obtained in the first year of this program. These include: installation and verification of the operation of the parallel version of TURBO; the grid generation and initiation of steady flow simulations of the NASA/Pratt&Whitney airfoil at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg.; and the investigation of the prediction of laminar separation bubbles on a NACA 0012 airfoil.
An exploratory study of finite difference grids for transonic unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidel, D. A.; Bennett, R. M.; Whitlow, W., Jr.
1982-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic forces are calculated by the XTRAN2L finite difference program which solves the complete two dimensional unsteady transonic small perturbation equation. The unsteady forces are obtained using a pulse transfer function technique which assumes the flow field behaves in a locally linear fashion about a mean condition. Forces are calculated for a linear flat plate using the default grids from the LTRAN2-NLR, LTRAN2-HI, and XTRAN3S programs. The forces are compared to the exact theoretical values for flat plate, and grid generated boundary and internal numerical reflections are observed to cause significant errors in the unsteady airloads. Grids are presented that alleviate the reflections while reducing computational time up to fifty-three percent and program size up to twenty-eight percent. Forces are presented for a six percent thick parabolic arc airfoil which demonstrate that the transform technique may be successfully applied to nonlinear transonic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidel, D. A.; Sandford, M. C.; Eckstrom, C. V.
1985-01-01
Transonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic data were measured on a large elastic wing in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The wing had a supercritical airfoil shape and a leading-edge sweepback of 28.8 deg. The wing was heavily instrumented to measure both static and dynamic pressures and deflections. A hydraulically driven outboard control surface was oscillated to generate unsteady airloads on the wing. Representative results from the wind tunnel tests are presented and discussed, and the unexpected occurrence of an unusual dynamic wing instability, which was sensitive to angle of attack, is reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1975-01-01
A general theory for study, oscillatory or fully unsteady potential compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, one obtains a set of differential-delay equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative which is expressed in terms of the generalized coordinates of the structure. For oscillatory flow, the motion consists of sinusoidal oscillations around a steady, subsonic or supersonic flow. For fully unsteady flow, the motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed for time t or = 0 and of small perturbations around the steady state for time t 0.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling of a jet transport using flight-data-recorder data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Chih-Chin
To assess the effect of the unsteady aerodynamics on a jet transport that crashed upon executing an unsuccessful go-around operation, a fuzzy logic modeling technique is proposed to estimate the aerodynamic models using a set of data recorded by the digital flight data recorder. The longitudinal aerodynamic models are assumed to be functions of the angle of attack, time rate of angle of attack, pitch rate, reduced frequency, sideslip, elevator deflection, stabilizer deflection, flap deflection and Mach number. The lateral-directional aerodynamic models are set up to be functions of the angle of attack, sideslip angle, roll angle, roll rate, yaw rate, lateral reduced frequency, aileron deflection, rudder deflection, and Mach number. Among these parameters, the reduced frequency, sideslip, pitch rate, roll rate, and yaw rate are derived from the recorded data. The Euler angles, accelerations along three axes, and other recorded flight data are first bias-analyzed by satisfying the kinematic relations to account for the measurement errors and noise. The force and moment coefficients are also calculated by satisfying the flight dynamic equations. The bias-adjusted data are then used to establish the general dynamic aerodynamic models using a fuzzy-logic algorithm with internal functions. The identified fuzzy logic aerodynamic models are then employed to predict the stability and control derivatives along the flight path or in other flight conditions. The results show that low longitudinal control effectiveness and unstable pitch damping are possible at high flap angles and moderate angles of attack. Finally, the identified aerodynamic models are integrated into a real-time flight simulation routine running on a PC. The simulation flight scenarios can be recorded by the simulation routine for later replay and plotting. It is demonstrated that the unsteady aerodynamic models in fuzzy logic form has the potential to be used on a real flight simulator. More daily flight data collection and analysis are recommended for the future study to make the unsteady aerodynamic model complete. It is also recommended to apply the proposed technique to rapidly establish the dynamic aerodynamic models for other jet transports involved in flight accidents for engineering analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.
1990-01-01
Progress in the development of computational methods for steady and unsteady aerodynamics has perennially paced advancements in aeroelastic analysis and design capabilities. Since these capabilities are of growing importance in the analysis and design of high-performance aircraft, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of appropriate aerodynamic methodology. The contributions to those efforts from the integral-equations research program at the NASA Langley Research Center is reviewed. Specifically, the current scope, progress, and plans for research and development for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed, and example applications are shown in order to highlight the generality, versatility, and attractive features of this methodology.
Application of the ASP3D Computer Program to Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2006-01-01
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.
Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic State-Space Models from CFD-Based Pulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Raveh, Daniella E.
2001-01-01
A method for computing discrete-time state-space models of linearized unsteady aerodynamic behavior directly from aeroelastic CFD codes is presented. The method involves the treatment of CFD-based pulse responses as Markov parameters for use in a system identification /realization algorithm. Results are presented for the AGARD 445.6 Aeroelastic Wing with four aeroelastic modes at a Mach number of 0.96 using the EZNSS Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver with aeroelastic capability. The System/Observer/Controller Identification Toolbox (SOCIT) algorithm, based on the Ho-Kalman realization algorithm, is used to generate 15th- and 32nd-order discrete-time state-space models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of the wing over the entire frequency range of interest.
Estimating unsteady aerodynamic forces on a cascade in a three-dimensional turbulence field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, T.; Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
An analytical method has been developed to estimate the unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteady aerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1995-01-01
Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Malone, John B.
1992-01-01
The current status of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity is reviewed. The key features of challenging aeroelastic applications are discussed in terms of the flowfield state: low-angle high speed flows and high-angle vortex-dominated flows. The critical role played by viscous effects in determining aeroelastic stability for conditions of incipient flow separation is stressed. The need for a variety of flow modeling tools, from linear formulations to implementations of the Navier-Stokes equations, is emphasized. Estimates of computer run times for flutter calculations using several computational methods are given. Applications of these methods for unsteady aerodynamic and transonic flutter calculations for airfoils, wings, and configurations are summarized. Finally, recommendations are made concerning future research directions.
Investigation of pump hydraulic noise by unsteady aerodynamic measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godefroi, B.; Tourret, J.; Bertinier, M.; Pluviose, M.
An experimental method is developed to further understand the physical mechanisms of acoustic wave generation in centrifugal flow turbine engines. This method measures the complete unsteady pressure field throughout the engine and its variations with rotor position or airflow. Time pressure signals are obtained synchronously by using a large number of fixed and rotating transducers. These time signal values are then formed into a grid pattern to obtain a complete picture of instantaneous pressure from inlet to exhaust. With films developed from successive photos, the influence of various flow parameters can be seen along with the generation of acoustic waves at the exhaust. The details of probe installation and measuring techniques are described along with grid and photo interpretations.
Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.
1987-01-01
The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral equations and finite difference methods for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite difference solution of the transonic small perturbation equation, the integral equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.
Development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.
1987-01-01
The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteady aerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral-equations and finite-difference method for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite-difference solution of the transonic small-perturbation equation, the integral-equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peele, E. L.; Adams, W. M., Jr.
1979-01-01
A computer program, ISAC, is described which calculates the stability and response of a flexible airplane equipped with active controls. The equations of motion relative to a fixed inertial coordinate system are formulated in terms of the airplane's rigid body motion and its unrestrained normal vibration modes. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived from a doublet lattice lifting surface theory. The theoretical basis for the program is briefly explained together with a description of input data and output results.
Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion: A prototype method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.
1989-01-01
A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three- dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.
Accurate numerical evaluation of modified Struve functions occurring in unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desmarais, R. N.
1979-01-01
A method is developed for computing the modified Struve functions that occur in unsteady aerodynamics. The method uses a rational approximation supplemented by an asymptotic series for large argument. Simple recursive formulas for generating the coefficients are derived. The method is capable of generating results of arbitrary accuracy. It can also be used for complex argument and order. For greater computing speed, a method is presented that uses the rational and asymptotic approximations to generate Chebyshev coefficients.
Improving the Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance of Transonic Turbines using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.; Huber, Frank W.
1999-01-01
A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The procedure yielded a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the advantages of including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.
Neural Net-Based Redesign of Transonic Turbines for Improved Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.; Rai, Man Mohan; Huber, Frank W.
1998-01-01
A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology (RSM) and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The optimization procedure yields a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. The computed results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the tremendous advantages that can be gained by including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.
Theoretical study on two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of unsteady wings.
Azuma, Akira; Okamoto, Masato
2005-05-01
A simple computing method based on a potential theory is developed for two-dimensional steady and unsteady deflected wings. This method of theoretical analysis is essentially related to thin and angular airfoils. Thus, the method is very simple but is effective to forecast aerodynamic forces for deflected or angular airfoils with a small camber operating in high Reynolds number flow, specifically in unsteady motion. The suction force acting on the leading edge of steady airfoils is theoretically obtained by using the Blasius formula. By Polhamus's leading edge suction analogy, the suction force is considered to be directed upward in partially separated flow for real thin airfoil with sharp leading edge. The theory can also be applied to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of thin airfoils operating on low Reynolds number flow under some degree of approximation. This is very useful for the unsteady aerodynamic analysis because the Navier-Stokes equation can be solved by neither analytical nor numerical method for the thin and angular airfoils, which are common in the insect wing. PMID:15721036
Influence of transition on steady and unsteady wind-turbine airfoil aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paterson, Eric; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James
2011-11-01
Laminar-flow airfoils for large stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines are designed to achieve a restrained maximum lift coefficient and a broad laminar low- drag bucket under steady flow conditions and at specific Reynolds numbers. Blind- comparisons of the 2000 NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment showed large discrepancies and illustrated the need for improved physics modeling. We have studied the S809 airfoil under static and dynamic (ramp-up, ramp-down, and oscillatory) conditions, using the four-equation transition model of Langtry and Menter (2009), which has been implemented as a library accessible by an OpenFOAM RANS solver. Model validation is performed using surface-pressure and lift/drag data from U. Glasgow (2009) and OSU (1995) wind tunnel experiments. Performance of the transition model is assessed by analyzing integrated performance metrics, as well as detailed surface pressure and pressure gradient, wall-shear stress, and boundary-layer profiles and separation points. Demonstration of model performance in the light- and deep-stall regimes of dynamic stall is an important step in reducing uncertainties in full 3D simulations of turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer. Supported by NSF Grant 0933647.
Unsteady rotor aerodynamics using a vortex panel method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crispin, Y.
1982-01-01
The problem of the potential incompressible flow about a helicopter rotor blade is solved using an unsteady vortex-panel method where the mutual interaction between the blade and the distorting free wake is taken into account. The present method alleviates the need to rely upon measured-wake geometries or p5escribed-wake models in order to calculate the airloads. A computer program has been developed which is capable of predicting the geometry of the time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) wake and the instantaneous loadings for a single blade in hover, climb, and forward flight. The solution is obtained by using a time-accurate step-by-step procedure. The complex-wake geometry at any time is presented graphically with a computer graphics system. Calculated results are compared with published data for a rotor blade in both hover and forward flight. The code has also been applied to the study of the effect of changing blade tip geometry.
Unsteady Aerodynamics on a Pitching Plunging Flat Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, Adam; Ukeiley, Lawrence
2010-11-01
Biology has shown that natural fliers utilize unsteady flow mechanisms to enhance their lift characteristics in low Reynolds number flight regimes. This study will investigate the interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEVs) and tip vortices over a low aspect ratio flat plate being subjected to a pitch-plunge kinematic motion. Previous studies have shown the creation of stable vortices off the leading edge at the three quarter span location between times 0.25 and 0.50 in the kinematic motion. This study furthers previous knowledge by mapping the flow field around these vortex cores. This will allow for an understanding into the interaction of the LEV with tip vortices and how the LEVs convect downstream. Specifically we look to validate the interactions between these vortex systems leading to enhanced lift as has been demonstrated in very low Reynolds number numerical simulations. A combination of two dimensional and stereo Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is used to measure the flow field around the flat plate at various spanwise and chordwise locations. The PIV measurements are triggered by the dynamic motion rig allowing for phase averaging at key locations throughout the motion cycle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1990-01-01
Improved algorithm for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements were developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. A description of the Euler solvers is presented along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Modeling in Roll for the NASA Generic Transport Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Frink, Neal T.
2012-01-01
Reducing the impact of loss-of-control conditions on commercial transport aircraft is a primary goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. One aspect in developing the supporting technologies is to improve the aerodynamic models that represent these adverse conditions. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. In this paper, a more general mathematical model is proposed for the subscale NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) that covers both low and high angles of attack. Particular attention is devoted to the stall region where full-scale transports have demonstrated a tendency for roll instability. The complete aerodynamic model was estimated from dynamic wind-tunnel data. Advanced computational methods are used to improve understanding and visualize the flow physics within the region where roll instability is a factor.
Physically weighted approximations of unsteady aerodynamic forces using the minimum-state method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpel, Mordechay; Hoadley, Sherwood Tiffany
1991-01-01
The Minimum-State Method for rational approximation of unsteady aerodynamic force coefficient matrices, modified to allow physical weighting of the tabulated aerodynamic data, is presented. The approximation formula and the associated time-domain, state-space, open-loop equations of motion are given, and the numerical procedure for calculating the approximation matrices, with weighted data and with various equality constraints are described. Two data weighting options are presented. The first weighting is for normalizing the aerodynamic data to maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second weighting is one in which each tabulated coefficient, at each reduced frequency value, is weighted according to the effect of an incremental error of this coefficient on aeroelastic characteristics of the system. This weighting yields a better fit of the more important terms, at the expense of less important ones. The resulting approximate yields a relatively low number of aerodynamic lag states in the subsequent state-space model. The formulation forms the basis of the MIST computer program which is written in FORTRAN for use on the MicroVAX computer and interfaces with NASA's Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) computer program. The program structure, capabilities and interfaces are outlined in the appendices, and a numerical example which utilizes Rockwell's Active Flexible Wing (AFW) model is given and discussed.
A General Theory of Unsteady Compressible Potential Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1974-01-01
The general theory of potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green function method, an integral representation for the potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. Under small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point, P, in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface, sigma, of the body. Hence, if the point P approaches the surface of the body, the representation reduces to an integro-differential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative (which is known from the boundary conditions) on the surface sigma. For the important practical case of small harmonic oscillation around a rest position, the equation reduces to a two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation of second-type. It is shown that this equation reduces properly to the lifting surface theories as well as other classical mathematical formulas. The question of uniqueness is examined and it is shown that, for thin wings, the operator becomes singular as the thickness approaches zero. This fact may yield numerical problems for very thin wings.
A New Compendium of Unsteady Aerodynamic Test Cases for CFD: Summary of AVT WG-003 Activities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruiz-Calavera, Luis P.; Bennett, Robert; Fox, John H.; Galbraith, Robert W.; Geurts, Evert; Henshaw, Micahel J. deC.; Huang, XingZhong; Kaynes, Ian W.; Loeser, Thomas; Naudin, Pierre; Tamayama, Masato
1999-01-01
With the continuous progress in hardware and numerical schemes, Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics (CUA), that is, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to unsteady flowfields, is slowly finding its way as a useful and reliable tool (turbulence and transition modeling permitting) in the aircraft, helicopter, engine and missile design and development process. Before a specific code may be used with confidence it is essential to validate its capability to describe the physics of the flow correctly, or at least to the level of approximation required, for which purpose a comparison with accurate experimental data is needed. Unsteady wind tunnel testing is difficult and expensive; two factors which dramatically limit the number of organizations with the capability and/or resources to perform it. Thus, unsteady experimental data is scarce, often classified and scattered in diverse documents. Additionally, access to the reports does not necessarily assure access to the data itself. The collaborative effort described in this paper was conceived with the aim of collecting into a single easily accessible document as much quality data as possible. The idea is not new. In the early 80's NATO's AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Structures and Material Panel (SMP) produced AGARD Report No. 702 "Compendium of Unsteady Aerodynamic Measurements", which has found and continues to find extensive use within the CUA Community. In 1995 AGARD's Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) decided to update and expand the former database with new geometries and physical phenomena, and launched Working Group WG-22 on "Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamic Codes". Shortly afterwards AGARD was reorganized as the RTO (Research and Technology Organization) and the WG was renamed as AVT (Applied Vehicle Technolology) WG-003. Contributions were received from AEDC, BAe, DLR, DERA, Glasgow University, IAR, NAL, NASA, NLR, and ONERA. The final publication with the results of the exercise is expected in the second part of 1999. The aim of the present paper is to announce and present the new database to the Aeroelasticity community. It is also intended to identify, together with one of the groups of end users it targets, deficiencies in the compendium that should be addressed by means of new wind tunnel tests or by obtaining access to additionally existing data.
Bifurcations In Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Gary T.; Tobak, Murray
1992-01-01
Report discusses various types of bifurcations occurring between steady and unsteady aerodynamic flows. Provides examples to illustrate ways bifurcations influence results of experiments. Recommends experimenters take bifurcation phenomena into account in interpretation of measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pototzky, Anthony S.
2008-01-01
A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of motion (EOM) is formed. A technique of recasting the matrix-polynomial form of the flutter EOM into a first order form is also presented that can be used to determine the eigenvalues near the origin and everywhere on the complex plane. An aeroservoelastic (ASE) EOM have been generalized to include the gust terms on the right-hand side. The reasons for developing the new matrix polynomial approach are also presented, which are the following: first, the "workhorse" methods such as the NASTRAN flutter analysis lack the capability to consistently find roots near the origin, along the real axis or accurately find roots farther away from the imaginary axis of the complex plane; and, second, the existing s-plane methods, such as the Roger s s-plane approximation method as implemented in ISAC, do not always give suitable fits of some tabular data of the unsteady aerodynamics. A method available in MATLAB is introduced that will accurately fit generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients in a tabular data form into the coefficients of a matrix polynomial form. The root-locus results from the NASTRAN pknl flutter analysis, the ISAC-Roger's s-plane method and the present matrix polynomial method are presented and compared for accuracy and for the number and locations of roots.
Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.
Validation of DYSTOOL for unsteady aerodynamic modeling of 2D airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GonzÃ¡lez, A.; Gomez-Iradi, S.; Munduate, X.
2014-06-01
From the point of view of wind turbine modeling, an important group of tools is based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory using 2D aerodynamic calculations on the blade elements. Due to the importance of this sectional computation of the blades, the National Renewable Wind Energy Center of Spain (CENER) developed DYSTOOL, an aerodynamic code for 2D airfoil modeling based on the Beddoes-Leishman model. The main focus here is related to the model parameters, whose values depend on the airfoil or the operating conditions. In this work, the values of the parameters are adjusted using available experimental or CFD data. The present document is mainly related to the validation of the results of DYSTOOL for 2D airfoils. The results of the computations have been compared with unsteady experimental data of the S809 and NACA0015 profiles. Some of the cases have also been modeled using the CFD code WMB (Wind Multi Block), within the framework of a collaboration with ACCIONA Windpower. The validation has been performed using pitch oscillations with different reduced frequencies, Reynolds numbers, amplitudes and mean angles of attack. The results have shown a good agreement using the methodology of adjustment for the value of the parameters. DYSTOOL have demonstrated to be a promising tool for 2D airfoil unsteady aerodynamic modeling.
Development of a steady potential solver for use with linearized, unsteady aerodynamic analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, Daniel; Verdon, Joseph M.
1991-01-01
A full potential steady flow solver (SFLOW) developed explicitly for use with an inviscid unsteady aerodynamic analysis (LINFLO) is described. The steady solver uses the nonconservative form of the nonlinear potential flow equations together with an implicit, least squares, finite difference approximation to solve for the steady flow field. The difference equations were developed on a composite mesh which consists of a C grid embedded in a rectilinear (H grid) cascade mesh. The composite mesh is capable of resolving blade to blade and far field phenomena on the H grid, while accurately resolving local phenomena on the C grid. The resulting system of algebraic equations is arranged in matrix form using a sparse matrix package and solved by Newton's method. Steady and unsteady results are presented for two cascade configurations: a high speed compressor and a turbine with high exit Mach number.
Development of an unsteady aerodynamic analysis for finite-deflection subsonic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.
1981-01-01
An unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, was developed to predict aerodynamic forces and moments associated with free vibration or flutter phenomena in the fan, compressor, or turbine stages of modern jet engines. Based on the assumption of small amplitude blade motions, the unsteady flow is governed by linear equations with variable coefficients which depend on the underlying steady low. These equations were approximated using difference expressions determined from an implicit least squares development and applicable on arbitrary grids. The resulting linear system of algebraic equations is block tridiagonal, which permits an efficient, direct (i.e., noniterative) solution. The solution procedure was extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges at incidence relative to the inlet flow.
Characterization and Control of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Wind Turbine Aerofoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naughton, J.; Strike, J.; Hind, M.; Babbitt, A.; Magstadt, A.; Nikoueeyan, P.; Davidson, P.; Shareman, J.
2014-06-01
An experimental capability developed for testing two-dimensional aerofoils while dynamically pitching is discussed. Key to the approach are a dynamic pitch system, the rapid prototyping of aerofoils, inexpensive time-resolved pressure measurements, the ability to capture flow-field structure, and the ability to add compliance to the system. In addition to describing the system components, examples of typical results for characterization and control studies are given. Use of the data is also demonstrated through comparison of the results from a simulation with those from an experiment under the same conditions. Future uses of this experimental capability are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Karpel, Mordechay
1989-01-01
Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques for aeroelastic applications require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear time-invariant state-space form. Unsteady aerodynamics forces have to be approximated as rational functions of the Laplace variable in order to put them in this framework. For the minimum-state method, the number of denominator roots in the rational approximation. Results are shown of applying various approximation enhancements (including optimization, frequency dependent weighting of the tabular data, and constraint selection) with the minimum-state formulation to the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model. The results demonstrate that good models can be developed which have an order of magnitude fewer augmenting aerodynamic equations more than traditional approaches. This reduction facilitates the design of lower order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1988-01-01
The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.
Ramamurti, Ravi; Sandberg, William C
2007-03-01
Three-dimensional unsteady computations of the flow past a fruit fly Drosophila under hovering and free flight conditions are computed. The kinematics of the wings and the body of the fruit fly are prescribed from experimental observations. The computed unsteady lift and thrust forces are validated with experimental results and are in excellent agreement. The unsteady aerodynamic origin of the time-varying yaw moment is identified. The differences in the kinematics between the right and the left wings show that subtle change in the stroke angle and deviation angle can result in the yaw moment for the turning maneuver. The computed yaw moment reaches a peak value at the beginning of the maneuver and remains positive throughout the remainder of the maneuver. The origin of the yaw moment is investigated by computing the center of pressures on each wing and the individual moment arms. This investigation leads to the conclusion that it is the forward force and a component of the lift force that combine to produce the turning moment while the side force alone produces the restoring torque during the maneuver. The vorticity shed from the wing's leading edge and the tips show a loop like structure that during stroke reversals pinches off into Lambda-like structures that have not been previously observed in the wakes of flapping fliers. PMID:17297147
Numerical simulation of the unsteady aerodynamic interaction of two plane airfoil cascades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleksandrov, V. G.; Osipov, A. A.
2006-06-01
A method for the calculation of unsteady aerodynamic interaction of two plane airfoil cascades that are in relative motion in a subsonic flow of ideal gas is developed. This interaction provides a two-dimensional approximation of the flow in a stage of an axial turbomachine. The method is based on the reduction of the problem to the calculation of the unsteady flow in a single interblade passage of each of the cascades. The calculation uses generalized space-time periodicity relations corresponding to the unsteady process of interest. The calculation is based on the direct numerical integration of the non-stationary gas dynamics equations with the use of the finite difference Godunov-Kolgan-Rodionov scheme of the second approximation order with respect to time and space. The calculation procedure includes the determination of the acoustic fields that are generated by the stage in the incident flow and in the flow behind it. The results of the calculations that illustrate the accuracy of the numerical solution and the capabilities of the method are presented.
Unsteady aerodynamic force generation by a model fruit fly wing in flapping motion.
Sun, Mao; Tang, Jian
2002-01-01
A computational fluid-dynamic analysis was conducted to study the unsteady aerodynamics of a model fruit fly wing. The wing performs an idealized flapping motion that emulates the wing motion of a fruit fly in normal hovering flight. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. The solution provides the flow and pressure fields, from which the aerodynamic forces and vorticity wake structure are obtained. Insights into the unsteady aerodynamic force generation process are gained from the force and flow-structure information. Considerable lift can be produced when the majority of the wing rotation is conducted near the end of a stroke or wing rotation precedes stroke reversal (rotation advanced), and the mean lift coefficient can be more than twice the quasi-steady value. Three mechanisms are responsible for the large lift: the rapid acceleration of the wing at the beginning of a stroke, the absence of stall during the stroke and the fast pitching-up rotation of the wing near the end of the stroke. When half the wing rotation is conducted near the end of a stroke and half at the beginning of the next stroke (symmetrical rotation), the lift at the beginning and near the end of a stroke becomes smaller because the effects of the first and third mechanisms above are reduced. The mean lift coefficient is smaller than that of the rotation-advanced case, but is still 80 % larger than the quasi-steady value. When the majority of the rotation is delayed until the beginning of the next stroke (rotation delayed), the lift at the beginning and near the end of a stroke becomes very small or even negative because the effect of the first mechanism above is cancelled and the third mechanism does not apply in this case. The mean lift coefficient is much smaller than in the other two cases. PMID:11818412
UNAERO: A package of FORTRAN subroutines for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the time domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, H. J.
1985-01-01
This report serves as an instruction and maintenance manual for a collection of CDC CYBER FORTRAN IV subroutines for approximating the unsteady aerodynamic forces in the time domain. The result is a set of constant-coefficient first-order differential equations that approximate the dynamics of the vehicle. Provisions are included for adjusting the number of modes used for calculating the approximations so that an accurate approximation is generated. The number of data points at different values of reduced frequency can also be varied to adjust the accuracy of the approximation over the reduced-frequency range. The denominator coefficients of the approximation may be calculated by means of a gradient method or a least-squares approximation technique. Both the approximation methods use weights on the residual error. A new set of system equations, at a different dynamic pressure, can be generated without the approximations being recalculated.
Unsteady aerodynamic models for separated flow past a flat plate at Re=100
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven; Rowley, Clarence
2011-11-01
This work develops reduced-order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a small wing in response to agile maneuvers and gusts. Models are based on direct numerical simulations performed using the immersed boundary projection method for a flat plate at Reynolds number 100. In particular, we investigate models linearized at various angles of attack, up to the Hopf bifurcation, which occurs around ?crit =28° . A main result is that we present a flexible, low-order representation that includes viscous separated effects as well as added-mass effects, and may be seen as a linearization of a physically motivated nonlinear dynamical system. The performance of models below the Hopf bifurcation are investigated in the frequency domain as well as on large amplitude, rapid pitch maneuvers in the time domain. Additionally, we investigate models and flow field structures in the fully nonlinear vortex shedding regime using force, vorticity, and finite-time Lyapunov exponent field measurements.
The effects of unsteady aerodynamics on single and clustered parachute systems
Waye, D.E.; Johnson, D.W.
1989-01-01
A study was performed to evaluate the performance of equivalent drag area single parachute systems and cluster parachute systems during the early inflation and initial deceleration phase. Analytical work showed that the cluster system could exhibit better performance during this unsteady aerodynamic phase due to a significant decrease in the apparent mass of air influenced by the parachutes. Two test programs have been performed in support of these assumptions. The first compared systems with parachute drag areas of approximately 750 ft/sup 2/ and a payload of 2400 lbs. The cluster system exhibited increased performance and less susceptibility to parachute collapse due to wake recontact. The second series compared systems with parachute drag areas of approximately 260 ft/sup 2/ with a payload of 800 lbs. The advantages of the cluster system were less apparent but performance was moderately improved. 4 refs., 7 figs.
Unsteady Analysis of Separated Aerodynamic Flows Using an Unstructured Multigrid Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelaez, Juan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Kandil, Osama
2001-01-01
An implicit method for the computation of unsteady flows on unstructured grids is presented. The resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved at each time step using an agglomeration multigrid procedure. The method allows for arbitrarily large time steps and is efficient in terms of computational effort and storage. Validation of the code using a one-equation turbulence model is performed for the well-known case of flow over a cylinder. A Detached Eddy Simulation model is also implemented and its performance compared to the one equation Spalart-Allmaras Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model. Validation cases using DES and RANS include flow over a sphere and flow over a NACA 0012 wing including massive stall regimes. The project was driven by the ultimate goal of computing separated flows of aerodynamic interest, such as massive stall or flows over complex non-streamlined geometries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, R. M.
1972-01-01
The method of integral relations is applied in a one-strip approximation to the perturbation equations governing small motions of an inclined, sharp-edged, flat surface about the mean supersonic steady flow. Algebraic expressions for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics are obtained and a set of ordinary differential equations are obtained for general oscillatory motion. Results are presented for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics and for the variation of the unsteady forces with frequency. The method gives accurate results for the aerodynamic forces at low reduced frequency which are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, for cases in which the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly with frequency, the results are qualitatively correct, but of limited accuracy. Calculations indicate that for a range of inclination angles near shock detachment such that the flow in the shock layer is low supersonic, the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly both with inclination angle and with reduced frequency.
Low dimensional state-space representations for classical unsteady aerodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunton, Steven L.; Rowley, Clarence W.
2010-11-01
This work develops reduced order models for the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a small wing in response to agile maneuvers and gusts. In particular, the classical unsteady models of Wagner and Theodorsen are cast into a low-dimensional state-space framework. Low order state-space models are more computationally efficient than the classical formulations, and are well suited for modification with nonlinear dynamics and the application of control techniques. Reduced order models are obtained using the eigensystem realization algorithm on force data from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a pitching or plunging 2D flat plate at Reynolds numbers between 100 and 1000. Models are tested on rapid pitch and plunge maneuvers with a range of effective angle-of-attack. We evaluate the performance of the models based on agreement with results from DNS, in particular, the ability to reproduce lift forces over a range of pitching and plunging frequencies. Bode plots of the reduced order models, Wagner's and Theodorsen's methods, and DNS provide a concise assessment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, John K.; Erwin, Dan
2004-01-01
An experimental influence coefficient technique was used to obtain unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients and, consequently, unsteady pressures for a cascade of symmetric airfoils oscillating in pitch about mid-chord. Stagger angles of 0 deg and 10 deg were investigated for a cascade with a gap-to-chord ratio of 0.417 operating at an axial Mach number of 1.9, resulting in a supersonic leading-edge locus. Reduced frequencies ranged from 0.056 to 0.2. The influence coefficients obtained determine the unsteady pressures for any interblade phase angle. The unsteady pressures were compared with those predicted by several algorithms for interblade phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg.
Modeling of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav
1999-01-01
Aerodynamic equations for the longitudinal motion of an aircraft with a horizontal tail were developed. In this development emphasis was given on obtaining model structure suitable for model identification from experimental data. The resulting aerodynamic models included unsteady effects in the form of linear indicial functions. These functions represented responses in the lift on the wing and tail alone, and interference between those two lifting surfaces. The effect of the wing on the tail was formulated for two different expressions concerning the downwash angle at the tail. The first expression used the Cowley-Glauert approximation known-as "lag-in-downwash," the second took into account growth of the wing circulation and delay in the development of the lift on the tail. Both approaches were demonstrated in two examples using the geometry of a fighter aircraft and a large transport. It was shown that the differences in the two downwash formulations would increase for an aircraft with long tail arm performing low-speed, rapid maneuvers.
Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics of the F/A-18E at Conditions Promoting Abrupt Wing Stall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Byrd, James E.
2003-01-01
A transonic wind tunnel test of an 8% F/A-18E model was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel (16-Ft TT) to investigate the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) characteristics of this aircraft. During this test, both steady and unsteady measurements of balance loads, wing surface pressures, wing root bending moments, and outer wing accelerations were performed. The test was conducted with a wide range of model configurations and test conditions in an attempt to reproduce behavior indicative of the AWS phenomenon experienced on full-scale aircraft during flight tests. This paper focuses on the analysis of the unsteady data acquired during this test. Though the test apparatus was designed to be effectively rigid. model motions due to sting and balance flexibility were observed during the testing, particularly when the model was operating in the AWS flight regime. Correlation between observed aerodynamic frequencies and model structural frequencies are analyzed and presented. Significant shock motion and separated flow is observed as the aircraft pitches through the AWS region. A shock tracking strategy has been formulated to observe this phenomenon. Using this technique, the range of shock motion is readily determined as the aircraft encounters AWS conditions. Spectral analysis of the shock motion shows the frequencies at which the shock oscillates in the AWS region, and probability density function analysis of the shock location shows the propensity of the shock to take on a bi-stable and even tri-stable character in the AWS flight regime.
Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackeret, J
1925-01-01
This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.
1979-01-01
Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, John K.; Erwin, Dan
2005-01-01
Experimental data were obtained to help validate analytical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to compute unsteady cascade aerodynamics in a supersonicaxial- flow regime. Results from two analytical codes and one CFD code were compared with experimental data. One analytical code did not account for airfoil thickness or camber; another, using piston theory (piston code), accounted for thickness and camber upstream of the first shockwave/airfoil impingement locations. The Euler CFD code accounted fully for airfoil shape.
Introduction of the ASP3D Computer Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2005-01-01
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.
Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1990-01-01
The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.
A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.
Identification of an unsteady aerodynamic model up to high angle of attack regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yigang
1997-12-01
The harmonic oscillatory tests for a fighter aircraft configuration using the Dynamic Plunge-Pitch-Roll (DyPPiR) model mount at Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel are described and analyzed. The corresponding data reduction methods are developed on the basis of multirate digital signal processing techniques. Since the model is sting-mounted to the support system of DyPPiR, the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is first used to identify the frequencies of the elastic modes of sting. Then the sampling rate conversion systems are built up in digital domain to resample the data at a lower rate without introducing distortions to the signals of interest. Finally linear-phase Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are designed by Remez exchange algorithm to extract the aerodynamic characteristics responses to the programmed motions from the resampled measurements. These data reduction procedures are also illustrated through examples. The results obtained from the harmonic oscillatory tests are then illustrated and the associated flow mechanisms are discussed. Since no significant hysteresis loops are observed for the lift and the drag coefficients for the current angle of attack range and the tested reduced frequencies, the dynamic lags of separated and vortex flow effects are small in the current oscillatory tests. However, large hysteresis loops are observed for pitch moment coefficient in the current tests. This observation suggests that at current flow conditions, pitch moment has large pitch rate dotalpha dependencies. Then the nondimensional maximum pitch rate \\ qsb{max} is introduced to characterize these harmonic oscillatory motions. It is found that at current flow conditions, all the hysteresis loops of pitch moment coefficient with same \\ qsb{max} are tangential to one another at both top and bottom of the loops, implying approximately same maximum offset of these loops from static values. Several cases are also illustrated. Based on the results obtained and those from references, a state-space model is developed to describe the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics up to the high angle of attack regime. A nondimensional coordinate is introduced as the state variable describing the flow separation or vortex burst. First-order differential equation is used to govern the dynamics of flow separation or vortex bursting through this state variable. To be valid for general configurations, Taylor series expansions in terms of the input variables are used in the determination of aerodynamic characteristics, resembling the current approach of the stability derivatives. However, these derivatives are longer constant. They are dependent on the state variable of flow separation or vortex burst. In this way, the changes in stability derivatives with the angle of attack are included dynamically. The performance of the model is then validated by the wind-tunnel measurements of an NACA 0015 airfoil, a 70sp° delta wing and, finally two F-18 aircraft configurations. The results obtained show that within the framework of the proposed model, it is possible to obtain good agreement with different unsteady wind tunnel data in high angle-of-attack regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1997-01-01
The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.
Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The combined experiment
Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.
1994-08-01
Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by such machines. The analysis showed that inflow conditions were extremely variable and that these inflows yielded three different operational regimes. Each regime produces very different aerodynamic loading conditions that must be tolerated by the turbine. The two conditions not predicted from wind tunnel data are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators.
Advanced Small Perturbation Potential Flow Theory for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2005-01-01
An advanced small perturbation (ASP) potential flow theory has been developed to improve upon the classical transonic small perturbation (TSP) theories that have been used in various computer codes. These computer codes are typically used for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The codes exploit the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP theory was developed methodically by first determining the essential elements required to produce full-potential-like solutions with a small perturbation approach on the requisite Cartesian grid. This level of accuracy required a higher-order streamwise mass flux and a mass conserving surface boundary condition. The ASP theory was further developed by determining the essential elements required to produce results that agreed well with Euler solutions. This level of accuracy required mass conserving entropy and vorticity effects, and second-order terms in the trailing wake boundary condition. Finally, an integral boundary layer procedure, applicable to both attached and shock-induced separated flows, was incorporated for viscous effects. The resulting ASP potential flow theory, including entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects, is shown to be mathematically more appropriate and computationally more accurate than the classical TSP theories. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data. The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which also is briefly described with representative results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiralaei, M. R.; Alighanbari, H.; Hashemi, S. M.
2010-08-01
The growing applications of low Reynolds number (LRN) operating vehicles impose the need for accurate LRN flow solutions. These applications usually involve complex unsteady phenomena, which depend on the kinematics of the vehicle such as pitching, plunging, and flapping of a wing. The objective of the present study is to address the issues related to LRN aerodynamics of a harmonically pitching NACA0012 airfoil. To this end, the influence of unsteady parameters, namely, amplitude of oscillation, d, reduced frequency, k, and Reynolds number, Re, on the aerodynamic performance of the model is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations discretized based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The resulting instantaneous lift coefficients are compared with analytical data from Theodorsen’s method. The simulation results reveal that d, k, and Re are of great importance in the aerodynamic performance of the system, as they affect the maximum lift coefficients, hysteresis loops, strength, and number of the generated vortices within the harmonic motion, and the extent of the so-called figure-of-eight phenomenon region. Thus, achieving the optimum lift coefficients demands a careful selection of these parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carta, F. O.
1982-01-01
Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.
1985-01-01
The aeromechanical stability of a helicopter in ground resonance was analyzed, by incorporating five different aerodynamic models in the coupled rotor/fuselage analysis. The sensitivity of the results to changes in aerodynamic modelling was carefully examined. The theoretical results were compared with experimental data and useful conclusions are drawn regarding the role of aerodynamic modeling on this aeromechanical stability problem. The aerodynamic model which provided the best all around correlation with the experimental data was identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petrarca, J. R.; Harrison, B. A.; Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.
1979-01-01
A digital computer program was developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge and trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges were extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation of collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accomodated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali
2009-01-01
Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanada, T.; Namba, M.
1996-08-01
The double linearization concept is applied to a rotating annular cascade model operating at supersonic axial velocity. It is assumed that each blade vibrates with infinitesimal displacement amplitude under small but non-zero mean loading. Vibration modes normal and parallel to the blade chord are considered. Numerical results indicate that the mean loading effects play a crucial role on the aerodynamic instability of the blade motion. The bending motion can be unstable due to the presence of mean loading. Both the steady performance and the flutter boundary are highly sensitive to the blade camber. The bending motion instability is substantially influenced also by the chordwise component of the blade motion. Some numerical results compared with strip theory prediction demonstrate significant three-dimensional effects on the unsteady aerodynamic force under non-zero mean loading.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Hall, Kenneth C.; Ayer, Timothy C.
1991-01-01
Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of turbomachinery blading. Emphasis is being placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, flow driven by small-amplitude unsteady excitations in which viscous effects are concentrated in thin layers are being considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations, lead to a better understanding of the relevent physics, and they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications. Under the present phase (Task 3), the effort was focused on providing inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic unsteady cascade flows.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Linear Cascade of Airfoils in Separated Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capece, Vincent R.; Ford, Christopher; Bone, Christopher; Li, Rui
2004-01-01
The overall objective of this research program was to investigate methods to modify the leading edge separation region, which could lead to an improvement in aeroelastic stability of advanced airfoil designs. The airfoil section used is representative of current low aspect ratio fan blade tip sections. The experimental potion of this study investigated separated zone boundary layer from removal through suction slots. Suction applied to a cavity in the vicinity of the separation onset point was found to be the most effective location. The computational study looked into the influence of front camber on flutter stability. To assess the influence of the change in airfoil shape on stability the work-per-cycle was evaluated for torsion mode oscillations. It was shown that the front camberline shape can be an important factor for stabilizing the predicted work-per-cycle and reducing the predicted extent of the separation zone. In addition, data analysis procedures are discussed for reducing data acquired in experiments that involve periodic unsteady data. This work was conducted in support of experiments being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Flutter Cascade. The spectral block averaging method is presented. This method is shown to be able to account for variations in airfoil oscillation frequency that can occur in experiments that force oscillate the airfoils to simulate flutter.
Estimation of Longitudinal Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-Tail Combination From Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav
2006-01-01
This paper presents an initial step toward model identification from wind tunnel data for an airliner configuration. Two approaches to modeling a transport configuration are considered and applied to both steady and large-amplitude forced-oscillation wind tunnel data taken over a wide range of angles of attack. Only limited conclusions could be drawn from this initial data set. Although model estimated time histories of normal force and pitching moment agree reasonably well with the corresponding measured values, model damping parameters did not, for some cases, have values consistent with small amplitude oscillatory data. In addition, large parameter standard errors implied poor information content for model structure determination and parameter estimation. Further investigation of the modeling problem for more general aerodynamic models is recommended with close attention to experiment design for obtaining parameters with high accuracy.
Application of two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic to a free-tip rotor response analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, L.; Kumagai, H.
1985-01-01
The free-tip rotor utilizes a rotor blade tip which is structurally decoupled from the blade inboard section. The tip is free to pitch about its own pitch axis to respond to the local flow angularity changes. The tip also experiences the heaving motion due to the flapping of the rotor blade. For an airfoil in any pitching and heaving motion which can be expanded into a Fourier series, the lift and moment calculated by Theodoren's theory is simply the linear combination of the lift and moment calculated for each harmonic. These lift and moment are then used to determine the response of the free-tip rotor. A parametric study is performed to determine the effect of mechanical damping, mechanical spring, sweep, friction, and a constant control moment on the free-tip rotor response characteristics and the resulting azimuthal lift distributions. The results showed that the free-tip has the capability to suppress the oscillatory lift distribution around the azimuth and to eliminate a significant negative life peak on the advancing tip. This result agrees with the result of the previous analysis based on the steady aerodynamics.
Deck, SÃ©bastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
2014-08-13
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
Deck, SÃ©bastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
2014-01-01
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engineâ€“airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewer, Edwin B.
1989-01-01
The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayatana; Martin, Fred W.; Sutliff, Daniel L.
2008-01-01
At the wake of the Columbia (STS-107) accident it was decided to remove the Protuberance Aerodynamic Load (PAL) Ramp that was originally intended to protect various protuberances outside of the Space Shuttle External Tank from high buffet load induced by cross-flows at transonic speed. In order to establish the buffet load without the PAL ramp, a wind tunnel test was conducted where segments of the protuberances were instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers; and power-spectra of sectional lift and drag forces at various span-wise locations between two adjacent support brackets were measured under different cross flow angles, Mach number and other conditions. Additionally, frequency-dependent spatial correlations between the sectional forces were also established. The sectional forces were then adjusted by the correlation length to establish span-averaged spectra of normal and lateral forces that can be suitably "added" to various other unsteady forces encountered by the protuberance. This paper describes the methodology used for calculating the correlation-adjusted power spectrum of the buffet load. A second part of the paper describes wind-tunnel results on the difference in the buffet load on the protuberances with and without the PAL ramp. In general when the ramp height is the same as that of the protuberance height, such as that found on the liquid Oxygen part of the tank, the ramp is found to cause significant reduction of the unsteady aerodynamic load. However, on the liquid Hydrogen part of the tank, where the Oxygen feed-line is far larger in diameter than the height of the PAL ramp, little protection is found to be available to all but the Cable Tray.
Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane
2013-05-01
Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card. PMID:23767634
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane
2013-05-01
Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.
Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.
1993-01-01
Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, D. D.; Kao, Y. F.; Fung, K. Y.
1989-01-01
A transonic equivalent strip (TES) method was further developed for unsteady flow computations of arbitrary wing planforms. The TES method consists of two consecutive correction steps to a given nonlinear code such as LTRAN2; namely, the chordwise mean flow correction and the spanwise phase correction. The computation procedure requires direct pressure input from other computed or measured data. Otherwise, it does not require airfoil shape or grid generation for given planforms. To validate the computed results, four swept wings of various aspect ratios, including those with control surfaces, are selected as computational examples. Overall trends in unsteady pressures are established with those obtained by XTRAN3S codes, Isogai's full potential code and measured data by NLR and RAE. In comparison with these methods, the TES has achieved considerable saving in computer time and reasonable accuracy which suggests immediate industrial applications.
Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rausch, Russ D.; Batina, John T.; Yang, Henry T. Y.
1993-01-01
Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rausch, Russ D.; Batina, John T.; Yang, Henry T. Y.
1991-01-01
Spatial adaption procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaption procedures were developed and implemented within a two-dimensional unstructured-grid upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in a high gradient region or the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational costs. A detailed description is given of the enrichment and coarsening procedures and comparisons with alternative results and experimental data are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady transonic results, obtained using spatial adaption for the NACA 0012 airfoil, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that the shock waves are very sharply captured. The results were obtained with a computational savings of a factor of approximately fifty-three for a steady case and as much as twenty-five for the unsteady cases.
Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhruv, Akash V.
Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed over the upper and lower surfaces of a standard airfoil, proves to be an effective alternative to standard control surfaces by increasing the flight capability of bird-scale UAVs. The results obtained for this wing design under various flight and flap configurations provide insight into its aerodynamic behavior, which enhance the maneuverability and controllability. The overall method acts as an important tool to create an aerodynamic database to develop a distributed control system for autonomous operation of the multi-flap morphing wing, supporting the use of viscous-inviscid methods as a tool in rapid aerodynamic analysis.
Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.
1994-08-01
Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation's energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Curran, J.; Padfield, G. D.; Owen, I.
2011-04-01
This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer' to which we have given the name AirDyn. The AirDyn has been designed, in particular, to measure the effect of a ship airwake on a helicopter translating over the ship's landing deck. The AirDyn, which has been implemented in a water tunnel, in preference to a wind tunnel, senses the integrated effect of a turbulent airwake on the helicopter, and the resulting unsteady forces and moments are an indication of the workload the pilot would need to exert to counteract these effects in a real helicopter. Binocular sensing elements and semiconductor strain gauges have been adopted to achieve high sensitivity and relatively high stiffness. The compact strain gauge balance is fitted into the helicopter fuselage, and protective coatings and a flexible bellows are used to seal the balance and protect it from the water. The coefficient matrix of the AirDyn has been obtained by static calibrations, while impulse excitation tests have confirmed that its frequency response is suitable for the measurements of unsteady loads. The application of the instrument is illustrated by using it to quantify the effect that a bulky ship mast has on the airwake and thus on a helicopter as it lands onto a simplified ship in a scaled 50 knot headwind.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.
1980-01-01
A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic translational model flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.52 and a setting angle of 0.90 rad. Unique graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistic high reduced frequency level of 0.15. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time steady and time unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.
1987-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
Unsteady computational simulation for active aerodynamic control of a horizontal axis wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobonea, A.
2012-09-01
The ability to manipulate a flow field to improve efficiency or performance is one of the leading areas of research of many scientists and engineers in fluid mechanics. Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack has been the focus of a number of investigations for many years. The objective of these investigations is to improve the wind turbines aerodynamic performance and increase their operational range by inducing complete or partial flow reattachment. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D wind turbine airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, W. H.
1985-01-01
Bifurcation theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single-degree-of-freedom. The requisite moment of the aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion is shown to be representable in a form equivalent to the response to finite amplitude oscillations. It is shown how this information can be deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the bifurcation parameter is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable or unstable. For the pitching motion of flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed and for oscillation of flaps at transonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either the exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.
Unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a translating rigid wing at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Peter; Manar, Field; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael V.; Jones, Anya R.
2015-12-01
Rectilinearly surging wings are investigated under several different velocity profiles and incidence angles. The primary wing studied here was an aspect ratio 4 rectangular flat plate. Studies on acceleration distance, ranging from 0.125c to 6c, and incidence angles 5Â°-45Â° were performed to obtain a better understanding of the force and moment histories during an extended surge motion over several chord-lengths of travel. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry were performed to show the flow structures responsible for variations in force and moment coefficients. It was determined that the formation and subsequent shedding of a leading edge vortex correspond to oscillations in force coefficients for wings at high angle of attack. Comparing unsteady lift results to static force measurements, it was determined that for cases with large flow separation, even after 14 chords traveled at a constant velocity, the unsteady forces do not converge to the fully developed values. Forces were then broken up into circulatory and non-circulatory components to identify individual contributors to lift. Although it was observed that the "fast" and "slow" cases produced nearly identical vortex trajectories, circulation measurements confirmed that the faster acceleration case generates more vorticity in the form of a tighter, more coherent vortex and produces significantly more circulation than the slower acceleration case, which is consistent with the difference in force production.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heller, H. H.; Clemente, A. R.
1974-01-01
A program is presented to determine the flow-induced unsteady aerodynamic loads on space-shuttle orbiter configurations in the early reentry phase. Experiments on 8 degree half-angle cone/flat-base configurations were conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 6 and 15 and Reynolds numbers corresponding to shuttle reentry. Data are available at free-stream Mach-numbers of 0.67, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 15, and 22. It is shown that empirical expressions could be developed for the Mach-number dependence of the overall fluctuation pressure under an attached turbulent boundary layer and under a separated base-flow region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.
1995-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1980-01-01
Recent developments of the Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed and summarized. Applying the Green's function method to the fully unsteady (transient) potential equation yields an integro-differential-delay equation. With spatial discretization by the finite-element method, this equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time. Time solution by Laplace transform yields a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. Premultiplying and postmultiplying by the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash to the generalized coordinates one obtains the matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces. The frequency and mode-shape dependence of this matrix makes the program SOUSSA useful for multiple frequency and repeated mode-shape evaluations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1996-01-01
A nonlinear least squares algorithm for aircraft parameter estimation from flight data was developed. The postulated model for the analysis represented longitudinal, short period motion of an aircraft. The corresponding aerodynamic model equations included indicial functions (unsteady terms) and conventional stability and control derivatives. The indicial functions were modeled as simple exponential functions. The estimation procedure was applied in five examples. Four of the examples used simulated and flight data from small amplitude maneuvers to the F-18 HARV and X-31A aircraft. In the fifth example a rapid, large amplitude maneuver of the X-31 drop model was analyzed. From data analysis of small amplitude maneuvers ft was found that the model with conventional stability and control derivatives was adequate. Also, parameter estimation from a rapid, large amplitude maneuver did not reveal any noticeable presence of unsteady aerodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.
1980-01-01
A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic torsional flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.17 and a setting angle of 1.07 rad. Graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistically high reduced frequency level of 0.44. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time-steady and time-unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated. The effects of reduced solidity and decreased setting angle on the flow field were also evaluated.
Unsteady supersonic aerodynamic theory for interfering surfaces by the method of potential gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, W. P.; Arppa, K.
1977-01-01
A generalized solution of the hyperbolic wave equation was further developed to relate the velocity components at a field point to the potential gradient distribution in the dependence domain. Singular integrals were evaluated in closed form, with numerical integration methods for more complex but analytic functions. Idealization of the lifting surfaces by trapezoidal elements with two sides parallel to the streamlines is computationally efficient. Streamwise integrals were performed analytically, and spanwise integrals were neccessary only on element leading and trailing sides. All integrands vanish on the Mach cone. Pressure distribution on a double delta wing and generalized aerodynamic coefficients for three AGARD planforms were calculated and compared with available results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.
1996-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.
2003-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Testing Using the Dynamic Plunge Pitch and Roll Model Mount
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lutze, Frederick H.; Fan, Yigang
1999-01-01
A final report on the DyPPiR tests that were run are presented. Essentially it consists of two parts, a description of the data reduction techniques and the results. The data reduction techniques include three methods that were considered: 1) signal processing of wind on - wind off data; 2) using wind on data in conjunction with accelerometer measurements; and 3) using a dynamic model of the sting to predict the sting oscillations and determining the aerodynamic inputs using an optimization process. After trying all three, we ended up using method 1, mainly because of its simplicity and our confidence in its accuracy. The results section consists of time history plots of the input variables (angle of attack, roll angle, and/or plunge position) and the corresponding time histories of the output variables, C(sub L), C(sub D), C(sub m), C(sub l), C(sub m), C(sub n). Also included are some phase plots of one or more of the output variable vs. an input variable. Typically of interest are pitch moment coefficient vs. angle of attack for an oscillatory motion where the hysteresis loops can be observed. These plots are useful to determine the "more interesting" cases. Samples of the data as it appears on the disk are presented at the end of the report. The last maneuver, a rolling pull up, is indicative of the unique capabilities of the DyPPiR, allowing combinations of motions to be exercised at the same time.
Flexible Launch Vehicle Stability Analysis Using Steady and Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2012-01-01
Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin can be caused by the aerodynamic undamping one of the lower-frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic line loads derived from steady rigid aerodynamics. However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers, where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping.Amethod of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteady aerodynamics is developed that uses unsteady computational fluid dynamics to compute the response of selected lower-frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle line loads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteady aerodynamic line-load response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping, and mass matrices. The results are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady computational aeroelasticity and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteady aerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady computational aeroelastic results.
Experiments on an unsteady, three-dimensional separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henk, R. W.; Reynolds, W. C.; Reed, H. L.
1992-01-01
Unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation occurs in a variety of technical situations including turbomachinery and low-speed aircraft. An experimental program at Stanford in unsteady, three-dimensional, pressure-driven laminar separation has investigated the structure and time-scaling of these flows; of particular interest is the development, washout, and control of flow separation. Results reveal that a two-dimensional, laminar boundary layer passes through several stages on its way to a quasi-steady three-dimensional separation. The quasi-steady state of the separation embodies a complex, unsteady, vortical structure.
An implicit and stiffly stable finite element CFD algorithm for unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Iannelli, G. S.
1989-01-01
A stable and accurate finite element CFD algorithm for hyperbolic/incompletely parabolic conservation law systems is described and verified. It combines a Taylor weak statement FEM, an optimal implicit Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm, and a matrix tensor product approximate factorization linear algebra procedure. The results of computational experiments show that the developed algorithm is robust.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.
1975-01-01
A digital computer program has been developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge or trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges have been extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation by collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accommodated.
Experimental investigation of transonic oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1989-01-01
Fundamental experiments are performed in the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade Facility to investigate the subsonic and transonic aerodynamics of cascaded airfoils executing torsion mode oscillations at realistic values of reduced frequency. In particular, an unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is developed and utilized. In this technique, only one airfoil in the cascade is oscillated at a time, with the resulting airfoil surface unsteady pressure distribution measured on one dynamically instrumented reference airfoil. The unsteady aerodynamics of an equivalent cascade with all airfoils oscillating at any specified interblade phase angle are then determined through a vector summation of these data. These influence coefficient determined oscillating cascade data were correlated with: (1) data obtained in this cascade with all airfoils oscillating at several interblade phase angle values; and (2) predictions from a classical linearized unsteady cascade model.
Synthesized airfoil data method for prediction of dynamic stall and unsteady airloads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangwani, S. T.
1983-01-01
A detailed analysis of dynamic stall experiments has led to a set of relatively compact analytical expressions, called synthesized unsteady airfoil data, which accurately describe in the time-domain the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of stalled airfoils. An analytical research program was conducted to expand and improve this synthesized unsteady airfoil data method using additional available sets of unsteady airfoil data. The primary objectives were to reduce these data to synthesized form for use in rotor airload prediction analyses and to generalize the results. Unsteady drag data were synthesized which provided the basis for successful expansion of the formulation to include computation of the unsteady pressure drag of airfoils and rotor blades. Also, an improved prediction model for airfoil flow reattachment was incorporated in the method. Application of this improved unsteady aerodynamics model has resulted in an improved correlation between analytic predictions and measured full scale helicopter blade loads and stress data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowe, W. S.; Petrarca, J. R.
1980-01-01
Changes to be made that provide increased accuracy and increased user flexibility in prediction of unsteady loadings caused by control surface motions are described. Analysis flexibility is increased by reducing the restrictions on the location of the downwash stations relative to the leading edge and the edges of the control surface boundaries. Analysis accuracy is increased in predicting unsteady loading for high Mach number analysis conditions through use of additional chordwise downwash stations. User guideline are presented to enlarge analysis capabilities of unusual wing control surface configurations. Comparative results indicate that the revised procedures provide accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reductions of 40 to 75 percent in computer usage cost required by previous versions of this program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, C. J.; Mueller, T. J.
The design and calibration of a unique thin unsteady pressure sensor for use on small-scale marine propellers is presented. The Polyvinylidene Fluoride film-based sensor incorporates a miniature interface circuit suitable for use where space is a premium. Sensitivity of the sensor is comparable to high-quality microphones. Calibration is performed using an acoustic source and an industry-standard microphone. Evaluation of the sensor's performance is presented for white noise unsteady pressure input. Results show excellent agreement between sensor-measured pressures and standard microphone-measured pressures.
Predicting Unsteady Aeroelastic Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strganac, Thomas W.; Mook, Dean T.
1990-01-01
New method for predicting subsonic flutter, static deflections, and aeroelastic divergence developed. Unsteady aerodynamic loads determined by unsteady-vortex-lattice method. Accounts for aspect ratio and angle of attack. Equations for motion of wing and flow field solved iteratively and simultaneously. Used to predict transient responses to initial disturbances, and to predict steady-state static and oscillatory responses. Potential application for research in such unsteady structural/flow interactions as those in windmills, turbines, and compressors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carta, F. O.
1981-01-01
Tests were conducted a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blade along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The tests were conducted for all 96 combinations 2 mean camberline incidence angles 2 pitching amplitudes 3 reduced frequencies and 8 interblade phase angles. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Data obtained during the test program, reproduced from the printout of the data reduction program are complied. A further description of the contents of this report is found in the text that follows.
Standardization of computational experiments in unsteady turbulent boundary-layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1977-01-01
Numerical experiments are proposed as standard cases to be computed by all who plan to analyze unsteady turbulent boundary layer behavior. In this way, differences between the results obtained by various methods can be compared in a completely defined environment. The test cases range in difficulty from time relaxation study of the steady flow on a flat plate to the analysis of unsteady reversed flow. Initial and boundary conditions are fully defined for each case and representative outputs are presented. It is recommended that tabulated samples of computations of these test cases be published in a compendium of results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.
2012-01-01
The design-point and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion of a variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) was assessed using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analyses with mixing-planes and sector-periodic, unsteady RANS analyses. The VSPT provides one means by which to effect the nearly 50 percent main-rotor speed change required for the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) application. The change in VSPT shaft-speed during the LCTR mission results in blade-row incidence angle changes of as high as 55 . Negative incidence levels of this magnitude at takeoff operation give rise to a vortical flow structure in the pressure-side cove of a high-turn rotor that transports low-momentum flow toward the casing endwall. The intent of the effort was to assess the impact of unsteadiness of blade-row interaction on the time-mean flow and, specifically, to identify potential departure from the predicted trend of efficiency with shaft-speed change of meanline and 3-D RANS/mixing-plane analyses used for design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villegas Vaquero, Arturo
Aerodynamic unsteady forces in stationary and rotating wings are analyzed in this dissertation by using a combination of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) techniques. Recent progress in experimental measurements has demonstrated the use of TR-PIV to calculate forces by applying the integral conservation of momentum equation in its different forms. However, a more accurate and robust method is needed for unsteady forces calculations. With this in mind, a modified pressure Poisson method is developed and applied in this work, showing its superior behavior compared to other methodologies described in the past. The independence of the calculated forces shows the robustness and stability of the method. Whereas force calculations have been recently considered, the role of flow structures in force fluctuations has not been revealed yet and it is the main focus of this study. To elucidate these relations, a hybrid PIV-POD analysis is applied to reconstruct the velocity field from the most energetic modes of the flow. A model describing the vortex-force relations is proposed in terms of lift and drag variations during the vortex shedding process. A spectral analysis of the calculated forces suggests symmetric periodic lift, drag and circulation variations at the shedding frequency. Moreover, lift, drag and circulation signals are in phase, which supports lift-circulation proportionality. However, non-symmetric drag fluctuations are found at double the shedding frequency within a shedding cycle. For instance, when a positive or negative circulation vortex detaches, different values in the maximum and minimum drag are obtained. The data and physical relations obtained in this work such as main frequencies, vortex-force fluctuations and behavior of reduced-order models can aid in the development of CFD applications at low Re. The methodology described can be applied to any moving or stationary wing at different Reynolds numbers and angles of attack which would provide additional data for numerical codes. Furthermore, accurate measurements of unsteady forces allow determining narrower and more precise safety margins. Moreover, these measurements could be of application in flow control since forces are related to flow features simultaneously.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.
1995-01-01
The first objective of the program is to introduce the meritorious counterflow methodology in microgravity in order to quantify the steady and unsteady characteristics of weakly-burning premixed and diffusion flames for a wide variety of conditions including elevated pressures. Subsequently, through detailed modeling and comparisons with the experimental data, to provide physical insight into the elementary mechanisms controlling the flame response. The configuration offers good control over the parameters of interest and can be modelled closely. The knowledge which will be gained from the counterflow flames will be subsequently used to analyze near-limit phenomena related to other configurations by conducting detailed numerical simulations including multidimensional ones. Among the problems to be analyzed are the downward and upward propagation of near-limit flames in tubes and phenomena observed in spherical and cylindrical geometries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.
1979-01-01
The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the planetary atmosphere experiments test entry probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sammonds, R. I.; Kruse, R. L.
1975-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of the Planetary Atmosphere Experiments Test entry probe were determined experimentally in ballistic range tests over a wide range of Mach and Reynolds numbers, and were compared with full-scale flight results. The ground facility data agreed with the full-scale data within 2 to 3% in drag coefficient, and within 5 to 10% in static stability, at the higher Mach numbers. Comparisons of the flight data with conventional wind-tunnel data indicated a significant disagreement in drag coefficient in the transonic speed range suggestive of important sting or wall interference effects. Variations in drag coefficient with Mach number were very small hypersonically, but variations with Reynolds number were of the order of 15% at a free-stream Mach number of 13 over the Reynolds number range from 10,000 to 1,000,000. Variations in the lift and static-stability curves with Mach number and Reynolds number were also defined.
Effect of Transition Aerodynamics on Aeroassist Flight Experiment Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minier, Elizabeth A.; Suit, William T.
1988-01-01
Various transition methods are used here to study the viscous effects encountered in low density, hypersonic flight, through the transition from free molecular to continuum flow. Methods utilizing Viking data, Shuttle Orbiter data, a Potter number parameter, and a Shock Reynolds number were implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Simulations of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) using open loop guidance were used to assess the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. A bank angle was found for each transition method that would result in a 200 nautical-mile apogee. Once this was done, the open loop guidance was replaced by the proposed guidance algorithm for the AFE. Simulations were again conducted using that guidance and the different transitions for comparison. For the gains used, the guidance system showed some sensitivity in apogee altitude to the transition method assumed, but the guidance was able to successfully complete the mission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, Jay M.; Shah, Gautam H.
1990-01-01
The effects of harmonic or constant-rate-ramp pitching motions (giving angles of attack from 0 to 75 deg) on the aerodynamic performance of a fighter-aircraft model with highly swept leading-edge extensions are investigated experimentally in the NASA Langley 12-ft low-speed wind tunnel. The model configuration and experimental setup are described, and the results of force and moment measurements and flow visualizations are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Large force overshoots and hysteresis are observed and attributed to lags in vortical-flow development and breakup. The motion variables have a strong influence on the persistence of dynamic effects, which are found to affect pitch-rate capability more than flight-path turning performance.
Unsteady separation experiments on 2-D airfoils, 3-D wings, and model helicopter rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Carta, Franklin O.
1992-01-01
Information on unsteady separation and dynamic stall is being obtained from two experimental programs that have been underway at United Technologies Research Center since 1984. The first program is designed to obtain detailed surface pressure and boundary layer condition information during high amplitude pitching oscillations of a large (17.3 in. chord) model wing in a wind tunnel. The second program involves the construction and testing of a pressure-instrumented model helicopter rotor. This presentation describes some of the results of these experiments, and in particular compares the detailed dynamic stall inception information obtained from the oscillating wing with the unsteady separation and reverse flow results measured on the retreating blade side of the model rotor during wind tunnel testing.
Collins, Dannie L.; Flynn, Kathleen M.
1978-01-01
The measured hydraulic data collected in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility located at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center, near Bay St. Louis, Miss., are summarized for a series of experiments designed to study steady and unsteady flow over uniform grass roughness. All experiments were conducted during the 1973 and 1974 test seasons. Tables of measured ground-surface elevations, water-surface elevations, and point velocities are included for all experiments. A total of 19 steady flow experiments and 7 unsteady flow experiments for varying grass heights are included. The tabulated point velocities and water-surface elevations for the unsteady flow experiments were selected to represent the general changes in the flow variables as the flood wave passed through the facility but do not include all collected data. However, all data that were collected have been stored on computer disk storage and may be retrieved using the listing programs and memory locations. (Woodard-USGS)
Inverse problems and optimal experiment design in unsteady heat transfer processes identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Artyukhin, Eugene A.
1991-01-01
Experimental-computational methods for estimating characteristics of unsteady heat transfer processes are analyzed. The methods are based on the principles of distributed parameter system identification. The theoretical basis of such methods is the numerical solution of nonlinear ill-posed inverse heat transfer problems and optimal experiment design problems. Numerical techniques for solving problems are briefly reviewed. The results of the practical application of identification methods are demonstrated when estimating effective thermophysical characteristics of composite materials and thermal contact resistance in two-layer systems.
Aerodynamic calculations related to tethered sub-satellite experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, J. Leith; Rockaway, J. Kent
1991-01-01
The results are presented of four aerodynamic studies that were in support of a broader, preliminary inquiry concerning the potential use of downward-deployed tethered sub-satellites for in-flight aerothermodynamic research. There are a multitude of questions regarding the general tethered satellite concept and the present report addresses only a few of these. A method for estimating drag and local surface pressure and shear on orbiting or re-entereing bodies is described, and examples based on the planned TSS-2 (Tethered Satellite System) are given. The problem of pressure measurement are explored, taking into account thermal transpiration, lag time, and the disturbed flow field created by the satellite body. The performance of an aerodynamic stabilizer, a ring-tail design, is calculated and its influence on satellite motion is illustrated. A method for optimizing future satellite shapes for desired aerodynamic properties is transitional rarefied flow with given geometric constraints is proposed and examples are shown.
HiMAT aerodynamic design and flight test experience
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matheny, N. W.; Panageas, G. N.
1981-01-01
Consideration is given to the design phase of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology program. Design objectives are examined, noting full-scale design and the remotely piloted research vehicle. Attention is given to subsonic, transonic, and supersonic design. Design results are discussed with reference to aerodynamic efficiency, aeroelastic tailoring, and the flight test program.
Aerodynamic Design of Road Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, D. W.
1985-01-01
Guidebook discusses design of road vehicles to reduce aerodynamic drag. Book presents strategy for integrating aerodynamic design into vehicle design. Book written for readers lacking experience in aerodynamics.
Interaction of unsteady separated flow over multi-bodies moving relatively in the same flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Sheng; Zheng, Xin-qian; Hou, An-ping; Lu, Ya-jun
2005-12-01
Unsteady separated flow is one of research frontiers in current aerodynamic. Great accomplishments have been acquired; however, most studies are on single body in a stream, such as studies on unsteady separated flows over airfoils. There are typical cases in the nature and engineering applications, in which several interacting bodies with relative motions are within the same flow field. These interacting unsteady separated flow fields not only are closely related to the phenomena of noise and flutter induced by flows, but also have strong influences on aerodynamic performances. With axial flow compressors as background, the present paper carried out studies on 'interaction of unsteady separated flow over multi-bodies moving relatively in the same flow field'. Experiment investigations carried out in the stationary annular cascade wind tunnel and the single-stage low-speed axial flow compressor experimental facility as well as relevant CFD simulations demonstrate that under properly organized interactions between all unsteady components, the time-space structure of unsteady separated flow field can be remarkably improved and the time-averaged aerodynamic performances be significantly enhanced accordingly. The maximum reduction of the loss coefficient reached 27.4% and 76.5% in the stationary annular cascade wind tunnel and the CFD simulation for single-stage axial flow compressor, respectively.
Collins, Dannie L.; Flynn, Kathleen M.
1979-01-01
This report summarizes and makes available to other investigators the measured hydraulic data collected during a series of experiments designed to study the effect of patterned bed roughness on steady and unsteady open-channel flow. The patterned effect of the roughness was obtained by clear-cut mowing of designated areas of an otherwise fairly dense coverage of coastal Bermuda grass approximately 250 mm high. All experiments were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility during the period of October 7 through December 12, 1974. Data from 18 steady flow experiments and 10 unsteady flow experiments are summarized. Measured data included are ground-surface elevations, grass heights and densities, water-surface elevations and point velocities for all experiments. Additional tables of water-surface elevations and measured point velocities are included for the clear-cut areas for most experiments. One complete set of average water-surface elevations and one complete set of measured point velocities are tabulated for each steady flow experiment. Time series data, on a 2-minute time interval, are tabulated for both water-surface elevations and point velocities for each unsteady flow experiment. All data collected, including individual records of water-surface elevations for the steady flow experiments, have been stored on computer disk storage and can be retrieved using the computer programs listed in the attachment to this report. (Kosco-USGS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carta, F. O.
1981-01-01
Computer data are provided for tests conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge.
The effects of unsteady on-road flow conditions on cabin noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oettle, Nicholas Richard
On-road, a vehicle experiences unsteady flow conditions due to turbulence in the natural wind, moving through the unsteady wakes of other road vehicles and travelling through the stationary wakes generated by roadside obstacles. There is increasing concern about potential differences between steady flow conditions that are typically used for development and the transient conditions that occur on-road. This work considers whether steady techniques are able to predict the unsteady results measured on-road, the impact of this unsteadiness on the noise perceived in the cabin and whether minor changes made to the geometry of the vehicle could affect this. Both external aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were taken using a full-size vehicle combined with measurements of the noise inside the cabin. Data collection took place on-road under a range of wind conditions to accurately measure the response of the vehicle to oncoming flow unsteadiness, with steady-state measurements taking place in full-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnels.. Overall it was demonstrated that, using a variety of temporal and spectral approaches, steady techniques were able to predict unsteady on-road results well enough to assess cabin noise by correctly taking into account the varying on-road flow conditions. Aerodynamic admittance values remained less than unity in the sideglass region of the vehicle, with the exception of the the region nearest the A-pillar. The reducing unsteady energy at frequencies greater than 10 Hz, combined with the corresponding roll-off in admittance, implies that unsteady frequencies below 10 Hz affect the vehicle most, where the response remains quasi-steady. Quasi-steady cabin noise simulations allowed a subjective assessment of the predicted unsteady cabin noise, where the impact of cabin noise modulations were quantified and found to be important to perception. Minor geometry changes affected the sensitivity of cabin noise to changes in yaw angle, altering modulation and therefore having an important impact on the unsteady wind noise perceived on-road..
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radwan, S. F.; Rockwell, D. O.; Johnson, S. H.
1982-01-01
Existing interpretations of the trailing edge condition, addressing both theoretical and experimental works in steady, as well as unsteady flows are critically reviewed. The work of Kutta and Joukowski on the trailing edge condition in steady flow is reviewed. It is shown that for most practical airfoils and blades (as in the case of most turbomachine blades), this condition is violated due to rounded trailing edges and high frequency effects, the flow dynamics in the trailing edge region being dominated by viscous forces; therefore, any meaningful modelling must include viscous effects. The question of to what extent the trailing edge condition affects acoustic radiation from the edge is raised; it is found that violation of the trailing edge condition leads to significant sound diffraction at the tailing edge, which is related to the problem of noise generation. Finally, various trailing edge conditions in unsteady flow are discussed, with emphasis on high reduced frequencies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1994-01-01
A two dimensional linear aeroacoustic theory for rotor/stator interaction with unsteady coupling was derived and explored in Volume 1 of this report. Computer program CUP2D has been written in FORTRAN embodying the theoretical equations. This volume (Volume 2) describes the structure of the code, installation and running, preparation of the input file, and interpretation of the output. A sample case is provided with printouts of the input and output. The source code is included with comments linking it closely to the theoretical equations in Volume 1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, William L.
1989-01-01
Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.
Yaste, David M; Salari, Kambiz; Hammache, Mustapha; Browand, Fred; Pointer, W. David; Ortega, Jason M.; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Satran, D.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Chatalain, Philippe; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Hsu, Tsu-Ya; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.
2004-06-01
At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.
Experiments on the External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kester, Douglas A.; Settles, Gary S.
1998-11-01
In our previous work (APS/DFD97, Ii1), flow visualization was used to observe canine olfactory airflows for the first time. We have since observed two general types of such flows: high-frequency ("short") sniffing during close inspection of an object and low-frequency ("long") sniffing of more distant objects. In both cases the inspiratory airflow pattern is essentially an inviscid sink flow. However, a comparison of the two types of olfaction shows that the dog has some directional control over the twin turbulent jets generated from its nostrils during expiration. During close inspection of a scent source from directly above, the canine nostrils direct the expired air rearward, so that it does not impinge upon the object. However, when "scanning" the vicinity of a scent source on the ground, the motion of the dog's nose can aim its expiratory jets directly at the source. If particulates are present, they are then readily entrained and can be subsequently inspired. No significant distinction was observed between pet animals and a trained explosive detection dog regarding this behavior. High-speed video records of these experiments will be shown. (Research supported by DARPA.)
The Modern Design of Experiments for Configuration Aerodynamics: A Case Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeLoach, Richard
2006-01-01
The effects of slowly varying and persisting covariate effects on the accuracy and precision of experimental result is reviewed, as is the rationale for run-order randomization as a quality assurance tactic employed in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) to defend against such effects. Considerable analytical complexity is introduced by restrictions on randomization in configuration aerodynamics tests because they involve hard-to-change configuration variables that cannot be randomized conveniently. Tradeoffs are examined between quality and productivity associated with varying degrees of rigor in accounting for such randomization restrictions. Certain characteristics of a configuration aerodynamics test are considered that may justify a relaxed accounting for randomization restrictions to achieve a significant reduction in analytical complexity with a comparably negligible adverse impact on the validity of the experimental results.
Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data
Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.
1994-08-01
Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1994-01-01
Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.
Aerodynamic Database Development for the Hyper-X Airframe Integrated Scramjet Propulsion Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelund, Walter C.; Holland, Scott D.; Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Bittner, Robert D.
2000-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the activities associated with the aerodynamic database which is being developed in support of NASA's Hyper-X scramjet flight experiments. Three flight tests are planned as part of the Hyper-X program. Each will utilize a small, nonrecoverable research vehicle with an airframe integrated scramjet propulsion engine. The research vehicles will be individually rocket boosted to the scramjet engine test points at Mach 7 and Mach 10. The research vehicles will then separate from the first stage booster vehicle and the scramjet engine test will be conducted prior to the terminal decent phase of the flight. An overview is provided of the activities associated with the development of the Hyper-X aerodynamic database, including wind tunnel test activities and parallel CFD analysis efforts for all phases of the Hyper-X flight tests. A brief summary of the Hyper-X research vehicle aerodynamic characteristics is provided, including the direct and indirect effects of the airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system operation on the basic airframe stability and control characteristics. Brief comments on the planned post flight data analysis efforts are also included.
Wang, Z Jane; Birch, James M; Dickinson, Michael H
2004-01-01
We compare computational, experimental and quasi-steady forces in a generic hovering wing undergoing sinusoidal motion along a horizontal stroke plane. In particular, we investigate unsteady effects and compare two-dimensional (2D) computations and three-dimensional (3D) experiments in several qualitatively different kinematic patterns. In all cases, the computed drag compares well with the experiments. The computed lift agrees in the cases in which the sinusoidal changes in angle of attack are symmetrical or advanced with respect to stroke positions, but lags behind the measured 3D lift in the delayed case. In the range of amplitudes studied here, 3-5 chords, the force coefficients have a weak dependence on stroke amplitude. As expected, the forces are sensitive to the phase between stroke angle and angle of attack, a result that can be explained by the orientation of the wing at reversal. This dependence on amplitude and phase suggests a simple maneuver strategy that could be used by a flapping wing device. In all cases the unsteady forces quickly reach an almost periodic state with continuous flapping. The fluid forces are dominated by the pressure contribution. The force component directly proportional to the linear acceleration is smaller by a factor proportional to the ratio of wing thickness and stroke amplitude; its net contribution is zero in hovering. The ratio of wing inertia and fluid force is proportional to the product of the ratio of wing and fluid density and the ratio of wing thickness and stroke amplitude; it is negligible in the robotic wing experiment, but need not be in insect flight. To identify unsteady effects associated with wing acceleration, and coupling between rotation and translation, as well as wake capture, we examine the difference between the unsteady forces and the estimates based on translational velocities, and compare them against the estimate of the coupling between rotation and translation, which have simple analytic forms for sinusoidal motions. The agreement and disagreement between the computed forces and experiments offer further insight into when the 3D effects are important. A main difference between a 3D revolving wing and a 2D translating wing is the absence of vortex shedding by a revolving wing over a distance much longer than the typical stroke length of insects. No doubt such a difference in shedding dynamics is responsible in part for the differences in steady state force coefficients measured in 2D and 3D. On the other hand, it is unclear whether such differences would have a significant effect on transient force coefficients before the onset of shedding. While the 2D steady state force coefficients underpredict 3D forces, the transient 2D forces measured prior to shedding are much closer to the 3D forces. In the cases studied here, the chord is moving between 3 to 5 chords, typical of hovering insect stroke length, and the flow does not appear to separate during each stroke in the cases of advanced and symmetrical rotation. In these cases, the wing reverses before the leading edge vortex would have time to separate even in 2D. This suggests that the time scale for flow separation in these strokes is dictated by the flapping frequency, which is dimensionally independent. In such cases, the 2D unsteady forces turn out to be good approximations of 3D experiments. PMID:14691093
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-03-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-01-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navierâ€“Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
Recent "Ground Testing" Experiences in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zell, Peter; Stich, Phil; Sverdrup, Jacobs; George, M. W. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The large test sections of the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) wind tunnels provide ideal controlled wind environments to test ground-based objects and vehicles. Though this facility was designed and provisioned primarily for aeronautical testing requirements, several experiments have been designed to utilize existing model mount structures to support "non-flying" systems. This presentation will discuss some of the ground-based testing capabilities of the facility and provide examples of groundbased tests conducted in the facility to date. It will also address some future work envisioned and solicit input from the SATA membership on ways to improve the service that NASA makes available to customers.
SHEFEX II - Aerodynamic Re-Entry Controlled Sharp Edge Flight Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longo, J. M. A.; Turner, J.; Weihs, H.
2009-01-01
In this paper the basic goals and architecture of the SHEFEX II mission is presented. Also launched by a two staged sounding rocket system SHEFEX II is a consequent next step in technology test and demonstration. Considering all experience and collected flight data obtained during the SHEFEX I Mission, the test vehicle has been re-designed and extended by an active control system, which allows active aerodynamic control during the re-entry phase. Thus, ceramic based aerodynamic control elements like rudders, ailerons and flaps, mechanical actuators and an automatic electronic control unit has been implemented. Special focus is taken on improved GNC Elements. In addition, some other experiments including an actively cooled thermal protection element, advanced sensor equipment, high temperature antenna inserts etc. are part of the SHEFEX II experimental payload. A final 2 stage configuration has been selected considering Brazilian solid rocket boosters derived from the S 40 family. During the experiment phase a maximum entry velocity of Mach around 10 is expected for 50 seconds. Considering these flight conditions, the heat loads are not representative for a RLV re-entry, however, it allows to investigate the principal behaviour of such a facetted ceramic TPS, a sharp leading edge at the canards and fins and all associated gas flow effects and their structural response.
The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Robert T
1940-01-01
Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.
DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag through joint experiments and computations.
Salari, Kambiz; Browand, Fred; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Pointer, W. David; Taylor, Lafayette; Pankajakshan, Ramesh; Whitfield, David; Plocher, Dennis; Ortega, Jason M.; Merzel, Tai; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Radovich, Charles; Eastwood, Craig; Paschkewitz, John; Castellucci, Paul; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.
2005-08-01
Class 8 tractor-trailers are responsible for 11-12% of the total US consumption of petroleum. Overcoming aero drag represents 65% of energy expenditure at highway speeds. Most of the drag results from pressure differences and reducing highway speeds is very effective. The goal is to reduce aerodynamic drag by 25% which would translate to 12% improved fuel economy or 4,200 million gal/year. Objectives are: (1) In support of DOE's mission, provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag; (2) To shorten and improve design process, establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information; (3) Demonstrate new drag-reduction techniques; and (4) Get devices on the road. Some accomplishments are: (1) Concepts developed/tested that exceeded 25% drag reduction goal; (2) Insight and guidelines for drag reduction provided to industry through computations and experiments; (3) Joined with industry in getting devices on the road and providing design concepts through virtual modeling and testing; and (4) International recognition achieved through open documentation and database.
ATRAN3S: An unsteady transonic code for clean wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, G. P.; Goorjian, P. M.; Merritt, F. J.
1985-01-01
The development and applications of the unsteady transonic code ATRAN3S for clean wings are discussed. Explanations of the unsteady, transonic small-disturbance aerodynamic equations that are used and their solution procedures are discussed. A detailed user's guide, along with input and output for a sample case, is given.
Unsteady transonic flow in cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1984-01-01
There is a need for methods to predict the unsteady air loads associated with flutter of turbomachinery blading at transonic speeds. The results of such an analysis in which the steady relative flow approaching a cascade of thin airfoils is assumed to be transonic, irrotational, and isentropic is presented. The blades in the cascade are allowed to undergo a small amplitude harmonic oscillation which generates a small unsteady flow superimposed on the existing steady flow. The blades are assumed to oscillate with a prescribed motion of constant amplitude and interblade phase angle. The equations of motion are obtained by linearizing about a uniform flow the inviscid nonheat conducting continuity and momentum equations. The resulting equations are solved by employing the Weiner Hopf technique. The solution yields the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the cascade at Mach number equal to 1. Making use of an unsteady transonic similarity law, these results are compared with the results obtained from linear unsteady subsonic and supersonic cascade theories. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, solidity, stagger angle, and position of pitching axis on the flutter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jernigan, S. R.; Fahmy, Y.; Buckner, G. D.
2009-01-01
This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jernigan, S. R.; Fahmy, Y.; Buckner, G. D.
2009-01-01
This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a referenceâ€¦
Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, Kiran
Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It is hypothesized, and verified with experimental and computational data, that LEV formation always occurs at the same critical value of LESP irrespective of motion kinematics. Further, the applicability of the LESP criterion in influencing the occurrence of LEV formation is demonstrated. To model the growth and convection of leading-edge vortices, the unsteady thin-airfoil theory is augmented with discrete-vortex shedding from the leading edge. The LESP criterion is used to predict and modulate the shedding of leading-edge vorticity. Comparisons with experiments and CFD for test-cases with different airfoils, Reynolds numbers and motion kinematics, show that the method performs remarkably well in predicting force coefficients and flowfields for unsteady flows. The use of a single empirical parameter - the critical LESP value, allows the determination of onset, growth and termination of leading-edge vortex shedding. In the final part of the research, the discrete-vortex model is extended to flows where the freestream velocity is varying or small in comparison with motion velocity. With this extension, the method is made applicable to a larger set of 2D flows such as perching and hovering maneuvers, gusts, and sinusoidally varying freestream. Abstractions of perching and hovering are designed as test cases and used to validate the low-order model's performance in highly-unsteady, vortex-dominated flows. Alongside development of the low-order methodology, several features of unsteady flows are studied and analyzed with the aid of CFD and experiments. While remaining computationally inexpensive and retaining the essential flow-physics, the method is seen to be successful in prediction of both force coefficients and flow histories.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oeztuerk, B; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.
2005-01-01
The paper experimentally and theoretically studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and aerodynamic characteristics on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds number of 110,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). For one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, intermittency behaviors were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The current investigation attempts to extend the intermittency unsteady boundary layer transition model developed in previously to the LPT cases, where separation occurs on the suction surface at a low Reynolds number. The results of the unsteady boundary layer measurements and the intermittency analysis were presented in the ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms. The analysis of the boundary layer experimental data with the flow separation, confirms the universal character of the relative intermittency function which is described by a Gausssian function.
Computational unsteady aerodynamics for lifting surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.
1988-01-01
Two dimensional problems are solved using numerical techniques. Navier-Stokes equations are studied both in the vorticity-stream function formulation which appears to be the optimal choice for two dimensional problems, using a storage approach, and in the velocity pressure formulation which minimizes the number of unknowns in three dimensional problems. Analysis shows that compact centered conservative second order schemes for the vorticity equation are the most robust for high Reynolds number flows. Serious difficulties remain in the choice of turbulent models, to keep reasonable CPU efficiency.
Numerical solutions for unsteady subsonic vortical flows around loaded cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, J.; Atassi, H. M.
1992-01-01
A frequency domain linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for three-dimensional unsteady vortical flows around a cascade of loaded airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion of the impinging vortical disturbances by the mean flow. The entire unsteady flow field is calculated in response to upstream three-dimensional harmonic disturbances. Numerical results are presented for two standard cascade configurations representing turbine and compressor bladings for a reduced frequency range from 0.1 to 5. Results show that the upstream gust conditions and blade sweep strongly affect the unsteady blade response.
Dynamic control of aerodynamic forces on a moving platform using active flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzozowski, Daniel P.
The unsteady interaction between trailing edge aerodynamic flow control and airfoil motion in pitch and plunge is investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a two degree-of-freedom traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the trailing edge of the airfoil using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The effect of the unsteady motion on the model-embedded flow control is assessed in both trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection maneuvers. The time-varying aerodynamic lift and pitching moment are estimated from a PIV wake survey using a reduced order model based on classical unsteady aerodynamic theory. These measurements suggest that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within 2--3 convective time scales, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.
Aerodynamic Interaction Effects of a Helicopter Rotor and Fuselage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyd, David D., Jr.
1999-01-01
A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.
Unsteady vortex dynamics for finite-aspect-ratio pitching wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jantzen, Ryan; Taira, Kunihiko; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael
2013-11-01
We examine the vortex dynamics around low-aspect-ratio pitching wings and the corresponding unsteady aerodynamic loading using direct numerical simulations with the immersed boundary projection method. Finite-aspect-ratio wings of two and four with rectangular planforms are considered to pitch about the leading edge, from an angle of attack of ? = 0 to 45°, over a range of reduced frequencies for a Reynolds number of 300. These parameters are chosen to uncover the influence of fast and slow wing motion on the formation of the wake vortices. We also study the relationship between the vortex dynamics and the unsteady forces exerted on the pitching wing emphasizing the influence from the leading-edge and tip vortices. Companion water tunnel experiments are performed with fluorescent dye visualization and direct force measurements at a Reynolds number of 20 , 000 , which highlight qualitative similarities between the flow fields despite the large difference in Reynolds numbers. The insights obtained from the numerical and experimental results are used as a foundation for the development of closed-form models to predict aerodynamic forces for wings undergoing large-amplitude maneuvers representative of flapping wing kinematics and wings in gusty operating conditions. Work supported by the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cassell, Alan M.
2013-01-01
The testing of 3- and 6-meter diameter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test articles was completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40 ft x 80 ft Wind Tunnel test section. Both models were stacked tori, constructed as 60 degree half-angle sphere cones. The 3-meter HIAD was tested in two configurations. The first 3-meter configuration utilized an instrumented flexible aerodynamic skin covering the inflatable aeroshell surface, while the second configuration employed a flight-like flexible thermal protection system. The 6-meter HIAD was tested in two structural configurations (with and without an aft-mounted stiffening torus near the shoulder), both utilizing an instrumented aerodynamic skin.
Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obayashi, Shigeru
1994-01-01
Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations, the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At ARC a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft, and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to enhance ENSAERO in both algorithm and geometric capabilities. During the last five years, the algorithms of the code have been enhanced extensively by using high-resolution upwind algorithms and efficient implicit solvers. The zonal capability of the code has been extended from a one-to-one grid interface to a mismatching unsteady zonal interface. The geometric capability of the code has been extended from a single oscillating wing case to a full-span wing-body configuration with oscillating control surfaces. Each time a new capability was added, a proper validation case was simulated, and the capability of the code was demonstrated.
Vanyó, József; Vincze, Miklós; Jánosi, Imre M; Tél, Tamás
2014-07-01
We study the chaotic motion of a small rigid sphere, lighter than the fluid in a three-dimensional vortex of finite height. Based on the results of Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements, a sequence of models is set up. The time-independent model is a generalization of the Burgers vortex. In this case, there are two types of attractors for the particle: a fixed point on the vortex axis and a limit cycle around the vortex axis. Time dependence might combine these regular attractors into a single chaotic attractor, however its robustness is much weaker than what the experiments suggest. To construct an aperiodically time-dependent advection dynamics in a simple way, Gaussian noise is added to the particle velocity in the numerical simulation. With an appropriate choice of the noise properties, mimicking the effect of local turbulence, a reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed particle statistics is found. PMID:25122364
Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.
2004-01-01
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in real-time, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real-time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.
2004-01-01
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
An aerodynamic model for one and two degree of freedom wing rock of slender delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, John
1993-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Thomas, J. L.
1987-01-01
Computational methods for unsteady transonic flows are surveyed with emphasis on prediction. Computational difficulty is discussed with respect to type of unsteady flow; attached, mixed (attached/separated) and separated. Significant early computations of shock motions, aileron buzz and periodic oscillations are discussed. The maturation of computational methods towards the capability of treating complete vehicles with reasonable computational resources is noted and a survey of recent comparisons with experimental results is compiled. The importance of mixed attached and separated flow modeling for aeroelastic analysis is discussed, and recent calculations of periodic aerodynamic oscillations for an 18 percent thick circular arc airfoil are given.
Wavelet diagnostics of the flow control of unsteady separation on a 2D Wind Turbine Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Zhe; Lewalle, Jacques; Wang, Guannan; Glauser, Mark
2013-11-01
We investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of a 2D wind turbine airfoil. Unsteadiness was associated with the wake of a cylinder upstream of the airfoil. The experiments were conducted in both the baseline case, and with active closed-loop control on the suction surface of the airfoil. The data consisted of surface pressure time series. Continuous wavelet analysis gave the phase, band-pass filtered signals and envelope of harmonics of the fundamental shedding frequency. Coherence of pairs of signals was also used to map the flow characteristics. For the baseline and controlled case, we will report on the relation between phase of the leading edge fluctuations, unsteady flow separation and lift and drag coefficients. Our goal is to develop a more effective controller. The experiment was funded by DoE through University of Minnesota Wind Energy Consortium. Thanks for the support from the MAE department of Syracuse University.
Investigation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena associated with passing manoeuvres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noger, C.; Regardin, C.; Széchényi, E.
2005-11-01
Passing manoeuvres and crosswind can have significant effects on the stability of road vehicles. The transient aerodynamics, which interacts with suspension, steering geometry and driver reaction is not well understood. When two vehicles overtake or cross, they mutually influence the flow field around each other, and under certain conditions, can generate severe gust loads that act as additional forces on both vehicles. The transient forces acting on them are a function of the longitudinal and transverse spacings and of the relative velocity between the two vehicles. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted in one of the automotive wind tunnels of the Institut Aérotechnique of Saint-Cyr l’École to simulate the transient overtaking process between two models of a simple generic automobile shape. The tests were designed to study the effects of various parameters such as the longitudinal and transverse spacing, the relative velocity and the crosswind on the aerodynamic forces and moments generated on the overtaken and overtaking vehicles. Test results characterize the transient aerodynamic side force as well as the yawing moment coefficients in terms of these parameters. Measurements of the drag force coefficient as well as the static pressure distribution around the overtaken vehicle complete the understanding. The main results indicate the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken vehicle to be velocity independent within the limit of the test parameters, while unsteady aerodynamic effects appear in the case of an overtaking vehicle. The mutual interference effects between the vehicles vary as a linear function of the transverse spacing and the crosswind does not really generate any new unsteady behaviour.
Compensations during Unsteady Locomotion.
Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L
2014-12-01
Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body and of joints, quasi-stiffness models are useful for describing adjustments to the functioning of legs and joints during maneuvers. However, alterations to the mechanics of legs and joints often are distinct for different phases of the step cycle or for specific joints. For example, negotiating steps involves independent changes of leg stiffness during compression and thrust phases of stance. Unsteady locomotion also involves parameters that are not part of the simplest reduced-parameter models of locomotion (e.g., the spring-loaded inverted pendulum) such as moments of the hip joint. Extensive coupling among translational and rotational parameters must be taken into account to stabilize locomotion or maneuver. For example, maneuvers with morphological perturbations (increased rotational inertial turns) involve changes to several aspects of movement, including the initial conditions of rotation and ground-reaction forces. Coupled changes to several parameters may be employed to control maneuvers on a trial-by-trial basis. Compensating for increased rotational inertia of the body during turns is facilitated by the opposing effects of several mechanical and behavioral parameters. However, the specific rules used by animals to control translation and rotation of the body to maintain stability or maneuver have not been fully characterized. We initiated direct-perturbation experiments to investigate the strategies used by humans to maintain stability following center-of-mass (COM) perturbations. When walking, humans showed more resistance to medio-lateral perturbations (lower COM displacement). However, when running, humans could recover from the point of maximum COM displacement faster than when walking. Consequently, the total time necessary for recovery was not significantly different between walking and running. Future experiments will determine the mechanisms used for compensations during unsteady locomotion at the behavioral, joint, and muscle levels. Using reduced-parameter models will allow common experimental and analytical frameworks for the study of both stability and maneuverability and the determination of general control strategies for unsteady locomotion. PMID:24948138
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaojing
2015-11-01
Saltation is an important process on Mars, as it contributes to dust raising, bedform dynamics, and aeolian abrasion. Lander measurements and mesoscale meteorological models suggest that winds in the Martian atmosphere rarely exceed the fluid threshold value that is necessary to aerodynamically initiate saltation, a fact in stark contrast to the existence of dunes and ripples on the planet, many of which are in an active state of migration. In an attempt to reconcile these observations, we perform an unsteady simulation with a simple turbulence model to calculate the saltation transport rate. Sinusoidal wind variations are imposed on the saltation layer. The numerical simulations verify that gusty transport is one of the main manifestations of Martian sediment transport events. A formula for the saltation transport rate is reported, Qm âˆ¼(uâˆ— -uâˆ—it) p , where uâˆ— and uâˆ—it are the friction velocity and impact threshold friction velocity. The power p varies in the range of 0.7-1.8 on Mars and âˆ¼1.5 on Earth, depending on the period and amplitude of the gusty inflow wind. Our results show that the law of Martian and terrestrial transport rate are not universal, and hence one should be cautious when trying to extrapolate existing terrestrial results to Mars.
Research on unsteady transonic flow theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Revell, J. D.
1973-01-01
A two-dimensional theory is considered for the unsteady flow disturbances caused by aeroelastic deformations of a thick wing at high subsonic freestream Mach numbers, having a single, internally embedded supercritical (locally supersonic) steady flow region adjacent to the low pressure side of the wing. The theory develops a matrix of unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients (AICs) suitable as a strip theory for aeroelastic analysis of large aspect ratio thick wings of moderate sweep, typical of a wide class of current and future aircraft. The theory derives the linearized unsteady flow solutions separately for both the subcritical and supercritical regions. These solutions are coupled together to give the requisite (wing pressure-downwash) AICs by the intermediate step of defining flow disturbances on the sonic line, and at the shock wave; these intermediate quantities are then algebraically eliminated by expressing them in terms of the wing surface downwash.
Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.
1983-01-01
Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.
Numerical calculations of two dimensional, unsteady transonic flows with circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.
1974-01-01
The feasibility of obtaining two-dimensional, unsteady transonic aerodynamic data by numerically integrating the Euler equations is investigated. An explicit, third-order-accurate, noncentered, finite-difference scheme is used to compute unsteady flows about airfoils. Solutions for lifting and nonlifting airfoils are presented and compared with subsonic linear theory. The applicability and efficiency of the numerical indicial function method are outlined. Numerically computed subsonic and transonic oscillatory aerodynamic coefficients are presented and compared with those obtained from subsonic linear theory and transonic wind-tunnel data.
Unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid-body motion. [UFLO5
Chang, I C
1981-03-01
With the aim of developing a fast and accurate computer code for predicting the aerodynamic forces needed for a flutter analysis, some basic concepts in computational transonics are reviewed. The unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid body motion is adequately described by the potential flow equation as long as the boundary layer remains attached. The two dimensional unsteady transonic potential flow equation in quasilinear form with first order radiation boundary conditions is solved by an alternating direction implicit scheme in an airfoil attached sheared parabolic coordinate system. Numerical experiments show that the scheme is very stable and is able to resolve the higher nonlinear transonic effects for filter analysis within the context of an inviscid theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curry, Robert E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.
1989-01-01
A flight experiment was conducted to evaluate a pressure measurement system which uses pneumatic tubing and remotely located electronically scanned pressure transducer modules for in-flight unsteady aerodynamic studies. A parametric study of tubing length and diameter on the attenuation and lag of the measured signals was conducted. The hardware was found to operate satisfactorily at rates of up to 500 samples/sec per port in flight. The signal attenuation and lag due to tubing were shown to increase with tubing length, decrease with tubing diameter, and increase with altitude over the ranges tested. Measurable signal levels were obtained for even the longest tubing length tested, 4 ft, at frequencies up to 100 Hz. This instrumentation system approach provides a practical means of conducting detailed unsteady pressure surveys in flight.
Development of a nonlinear unsteady transonic flow theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.
1973-01-01
A nonlinear, unsteady, small-disturbance theory capable of predicting inviscid transonic flows about aerodynamic configurations undergoing both rigid body and elastic oscillations was developed. The theory is based on the concept of dividing the flow into steady and unsteady components and then solving, by method of local linearization, the coupled differential equation for unsteady surface pressure distribution. The equations, valid at all frequencies, were derived for two-dimensional flows, numerical results, were obtained for two classses of airfoils and two types of oscillatory motions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weltner, Klaus
1990-01-01
Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)
Some remarks on the design of transonic tunnels with low levels of flow unsteadiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mabey, D. G.
1976-01-01
The principal sources of flow unsteadiness in the circuit of a transonic wind tunnel are presented. Care must be taken to avoid flow separations, acoustic resonances and large scale turbulence. Some problems discussed are the elimination of diffuser separations, the aerodynamic design of coolers and the unsteadiness generated in ventilated working sections.
Unsteady transonic viscous-inviscid interaction using Euler and boundary-layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Whitfield, Dave
1989-01-01
The Euler code is used extensively for computation of transonic unsteady aerodynamics. The boundary layer code solves the 3-D, compressible, unsteady, mean flow kinetic energy integral boundary layer equations in the direct mode. Inviscid-viscous coupling is handled using porosity boundary conditions. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the Euler and boundary layer equations for investigating unsteady viscous-inviscid interaction is examined.
Development of a linearized unsteady Euler analysis for turbomachinery blade rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Kousen, Kenneth A.
1995-01-01
A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for axial-flow turbomachinery blading is described in this report. The linearization is based on the Euler equations of fluid motion and is motivated by the need for an efficient aerodynamic analysis that can be used in predicting the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of blade rows. The field equations and surface conditions required for inviscid, nonlinear and linearized, unsteady aerodynamic analyses of three-dimensional flow through a single, blade row operating within a cylindrical duct, are derived. An existing numerical algorithm for determining time-accurate solutions of the nonlinear unsteady flow problem is described, and a numerical model, based upon this nonlinear flow solver, is formulated for the first-harmonic linear unsteady problem. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a first-harmonic unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. At present this code applies only to two-dimensional flows, but an extension to three-dimensions is planned as future work. The three-dimensional aerodynamic and numerical formulations are described in this report. Numerical results for two-dimensional unsteady cascade flows, excited by prescribed blade motions and prescribed aerodynamic disturbances at inlet and exit, are also provided to illustrate the present capabilities of the LINFLUX analysis.
Experimental characterization of high speed centrifugal compressor aerodynamic forcing functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallier, Kirk
The most common and costly unexpected post-development gas turbine engine reliability issue is blade failure due to High Cycle Fatigue (HCF). HCF in centrifugal compressors is a coupled nonlinear fluid-structure problem for which understanding of the phenomenological root causes is incomplete. The complex physics of this problem provides significant challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. Furthermore, the available literature fails to address the flow field associated with the diffuser potential field, a primary cause of forced impeller vibration. Because of the serious nature of HCF, the inadequacy of current design approaches to predict HCF, and the fundamental lack of benchmark experiments to advance the design practices, there exists a need to build a database of information specific to the nature of the diffuser generated forcing function as a foundation for understanding flow induced blade vibratory failure. The specific aim of this research is to address the fundamental nature of the unsteady aerodynamic interaction phenomena inherent in high-speed centrifugal compressors wherein the impeller exit flow field is dynamically modulated by the vaned diffuser potential field or shock structure. The understanding of this unsteady aerodynamic interaction is fundamental to characterizing the impeller forcing function. Unsteady static pressure measurement at several radial and circumferential locations in the vaneless space offer a depiction of pressure field radial decay, circumferential variation and temporal fluctuation. These pressure measurements are coupled with high density, full field measurement of the velocity field within the diffuser vaneless space at multiple spanwise positions. The velocity field and unsteady pressure field are shown to be intimately linked. A strong momentum gradient exiting the impeller is shown to extend well across the vaneless space and interact with the diffuser vane leading edge. The deterministic unsteady pressure field is found to be dominated by the blade-vane interaction. HCF concerns are illuminated by persistent pressure waves extending radially across the vaneless space and impacting the impeller pressure surface. Finally, the average impeller exit flow field is found to present a highly unsteady velocity field to the downstream vane row, challenging the common design assumption of a rapid mixing model for diffuser design.
Aerodynamics Via Acoustics: Application of Acoustic Formulas for Aerodynamic Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.
1986-01-01
Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.
Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. I - Unsteady flow concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1988-01-01
Advanced military aircraft 'supermaneuverability' requirements entail the sustained operation of airfoils at stalled flow conditions. The present work addresses the effects of separated flow on vehicle dynamics; an analytic method is presented which employs static experimental data to predict the separated flow effect on incompressible unsteady aerodynamics. The key parameters in the analytic relationship between steady and nonsteady aerodynamics are the time-lag before a change of flow conditions can affect the separation-induced aerodynamic loads, the accelerated flow effect, and the moving wall effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, R. E.
1981-01-01
Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, R. E.
1981-05-01
Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen
1999-01-01
Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.
Modern helicopter rotor aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conlisk, A. T.
2001-07-01
The helicopter rotor wake is among the most complex fluid dynamic structures being three dimensional and in many cases unsteady. The wake begins at the blade(s) where the flow can be transonic near the blade tip and undergo compressible dynamic stall. Farther down in the wake, the flow is essentially incompressible. Moreover, the rotor blades undergo complex unsteady motions because of the necessity to balance moments; they are elastic as well. In this paper, the fundamental aeromechanics of the wake and the flow on the blade is discussed and the primary methods of analysis, computation, and experiment employed to uncover the physics of the rotor wake are described.
Three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations solutions on dynamic grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belk, D. M.; Janus, J. M.; Whitfield, D. L.
1985-01-01
A method is presented for solving the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations on dynamic grids based on flux vector splitting. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used for handling arbitrary geometries. The discretized equations are solved using an explicit upwind second-order predictor corrector scheme that is stable for a CFL of 2. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used for unsteady impermeable surfaces and for the far-field boundary. Dynamic-grid results are presented for an oscillating air-foil and for a store separating from a reflection plate. For the cases considered of stores separating from a reflection plate, the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the store are significantly different from forces obtained by steady-state aerodynamics with the body inclination angle changed to account for plunge velocity.
Aerodynamics of biplane and tandem wings at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, R.; Cleaver, D. J.; Gursul, I.
2015-06-01
Experiments were performed to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of two-wing configurations at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The wing models were rectangular flat plates with a semi-aspect ratio of two. The stagger between the wings was varied from ? X/c = 0 to 1.5; the gap was varied from ? Y/c = 0 to 2 and ? Y/c = -1.5 to 1.5 for biplane and tandem configurations, respectively, with the decalage angle fixed at 0°. Lift, drag, aerodynamic efficiency and power efficiency ratios show that for small incidence angles, performance compared with the single wing is degraded. However, for single-wing post-stall angles of attack, lift performance improves and stall is delayed significantly for many configurations with nonzero gap, i.e., ? Y/c ? 0. For a fixed angle of attack, there are optimal gaps between the wings for which total lift becomes maximum. Particle image velocimetry measurements show that performance improvement relies heavily on the strength of the inter-wing flow and the interaction of the separated shear layers from the leading edge and trailing edge of the leading wing with the trailing wing. Unsteady forces are found to intensify for certain two-wing configurations. A switching between the stalled and unstalled states for the trailing wing as well as a switching between the merged and distinct wakes is shown to have high flow unsteadiness and large lift fluctuations.
Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.
1995-03-01
Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walberg, G. D.; Jones, J. J.; Olstad, W. B.; Sutton, K.; Moss, J. N.; Powell, R. W.
1976-01-01
A survey of the effects of mass loss, shape change and real-gas aerodynamics on a Jovian atmospheric reconstruction experiment is carried out. Techniques used to reconstruct atmospheric profiles from entry probe measurements are discussed and some of the parameters which affect their accuracy are identified. Trajectory analyses and real-gas, radiatively-coupled flow field analyses (which include the effects of mass loss and shape change) are carried out for several candidate probe configurations. From these analyses, uncertainties in the atmospheric reconstruction procedure are estimated. Finally, the prospects for reducing these uncertainties by optimizing probe configuration and by instrumentation of the probe heat shield to measure actual shape change are considered.
Comparison of aerodynamic theory and experiment for jet-flap wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gainer, T. G.; Yip, L. P.; Vogler, R. P.
1976-01-01
Aerodynamic theory predictions made for a jet flapped wing were compared with experimental data obtained in a fairly extensive series of tests in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. The tests were made on a straight, rectangular wing and investigated two types of jet flap concepts: a pure jet flap with high jet deflection and a wing with blowing at the knee of a plain trailing edge flap. The tests investigated full and partial span blowing for wing aspect ratios of 8.0 and 5.5 and momentum coefficients from 0 to about 4. The total lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients predicted by the theory were in excellent agreement with experimental values for the pure jet flap, even with the high jet deflection. The pressure coefficients on the wing, and hence the circulation lift coefficients, were underpredicted, however, because of the linearizing assumptions of the planar theory. The lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients, as well as pressure coefficients, were underpredicted for the wing with blowing over the flap because of the failure of the theory to account for the interaction effect of the high velocity jet passing over the flap.
An unsteady lifting surface theory for ducted fan blades
Chi, R.M. . Dept. of Propulsion and Flight Systems)
1993-01-01
A frequency domain lifting surface theory is developed to predict the unsteady aerodynamic pressure loads on oscillating blades of a ducted subsonic fan. The steady baseline flow as observed in the rotating frame of reference is the helical flow dictated by the forward flight speed and the rotational speed of the fan. The unsteady perturbation flow, which is assumed to be potential, is determined by solving an integral equation that relates the unknown jump in perturbation velocity potential across the lifting surface to the upwash velocity distribution prescribed by the vibratory motion of the blade. Examples of unsteady pressure distributions are given to illustrate the differences between the three-dimensional lifting surface analysis and the classical two-dimensional strip analysis. The effects of blade axial bending, bowing (i.e., circumferential bending), and sweeping on the unsteady pressure load are also discussed.
Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R
1953-01-01
Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.
Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.
2015-01-01
While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoenenberger, Mark; VanNorman, John; Rhode, Matthew; Paulson, John
2013-01-01
On August 5 , 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry capsule successfully entered Mars' atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater. The capsule used a reaction control system (RCS) consisting of four pairs of hydrazine thrusters to fly a guided entry. The RCS provided bank control to fly along a flight path commanded by an onboard computer and also damped unwanted rates due to atmospheric disturbances and any dynamic instabilities of the capsule. A preliminary assessment of the MSL's flight data from entry showed that the capsule flew much as predicted. This paper will describe how the MSL aerodynamics team used engineering analyses, computational codes and wind tunnel testing in concert to develop the RCS system and certify it for flight. Over the course of MSL's development, the RCS configuration underwent a number of design iterations to accommodate mechanical constraints, aeroheating concerns and excessive aero/RCS interactions. A brief overview of the MSL RCS configuration design evolution is provided. Then, a brief description is presented of how the computational predictions of RCS jet interactions were validated. The primary work to certify that the RCS interactions were acceptable for flight was centered on validating computational predictions at hypersonic speeds. A comparison of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to wind tunnel force and moment data gathered in the NASA Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel was the lynch pin to validating the CFD codes used to predict aero/RCS interactions. Using the CFD predictions and experimental data, an interaction model was developed for Monte Carlo analyses using 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation. The interaction model used in the flight simulation is presented.
Direct use of linear time-domain aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis: Aerodynamic model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods, J. A.; Gilbert, Michael G.
1990-01-01
The work presented here is the first part of a continuing effort to expand existing capabilities in aeroelasticity by developing the methodology which is necessary to utilize unsteady time-domain aerodynamics directly in aeroservoelastic design and analysis. The ultimate objective is to define a fully integrated state-space model of an aeroelastic vehicle's aerodynamics, structure and controls which may be used to efficiently determine the vehicle's aeroservoelastic stability. Here, the current status of developing a state-space model for linear or near-linear time-domain indicial aerodynamic forces is presented.
Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.
1994-08-01
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
New Flutter Analysis Technique for CFD-based Unsteady Aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Jutte, Christine V.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a flutter analysis technique for the transonic flight regime. The technique uses an iterative approach to determine the critical dynamic pressure for a given mach number. Unlike other CFD-based flutter analysis methods, each iteration solves for the critical dynamic pressure and uses this value in subsequent iterations until the value converges. This process reduces the iterations required to determine the critical dynamic pressure. To improve the accuracy of the analysis, the technique employs a known structural model, leaving only the aerodynamic model as the unknown. The aerodynamic model is estimated using unsteady aeroelastic CFD analysis combined with a parameter estimation routine. The technique executes as follows. The known structural model is represented as a finite element model. Modal analysis determines the frequencies and mode shapes for the structural model. At a given mach number and dynamic pressure, the unsteady CFD analysis is performed. The output time history of the surface pressure is converted to a nodal aerodynamic force vector. The forces are then normalized by the given dynamic pressure. A multi-input multi-output parameter estimation software, ERA, estimates the aerodynamic model through the use of time histories of nodal aerodynamic forces and structural deformations. The critical dynamic pressure is then calculated using the known structural model and the estimated aerodynamic model. This output is used as the dynamic pressure in subsequent iterations until the critical dynamic pressure is determined. This technique is demonstrated on the Aerostructures Test Wing-2 model at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center.
Impact of Periodic Unsteadiness on Performance and Heat Load in Axial Flow Turbomachines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Om P.; Stetson, Gary M.; Daniels, William A,; Greitzer, Edward M.; Blair, Michael F.; Dring, Robert P.
1997-01-01
Results of an analytical and experimental investigation, directed at the understanding of the impact of periodic unsteadiness on the time-averaged flows in axial flow turbomachines, are presented. Analysis of available experimental data, from a large-scale rotating rig (LSRR) (low speed rig), shows that in the time-averaged axisymmetric equations the magnitude of the terms representing the effect of periodic unsteadiness (deterministic stresses) are as large or larger than those due to random unsteadiness (turbulence). Numerical experiments, conducted to highlight physical mechanisms associated with the migration of combustor generated hot-streaks in turbine rotors, indicated that the effect can be simulated by accounting for deterministic stress like terms in the time-averaged mass and energy conservation equations. The experimental portion of this program shows that the aerodynamic loss for the second stator in a 1-1/2 stage turbine are influenced by the axial spacing between the second stator leading edge and the rotor trailing edge. However, the axial spacing has little impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These performance changes are believed to be associated with the change in deterministic stress at the inlet to the second stator. Data were also acquired to quantify the impact of indexing the first stator relative to the second stator. For the range of parameters examined, this effect was found to be of the same order as the effect of axial spacing.
Assessment of the derivative-moment transformation method for unsteady-load estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbian, Ali; Rival, David E.
2012-08-01
It is often difficult, if not impossible, to measure the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces on a moving body. For this reason, a classical control-volume technique is typically applied to extract the unsteady forces. However, measuring the acceleration term within the volume of interest using particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be limited by optical access, reflections, as well as shadows. Therefore, in this study, an alternative approach, termed the derivative-moment transformation (DMT) method, is introduced and tested on a synthetic data set produced using numerical simulations. The test case involves the unsteady loading of a flat plate in a two-dimensional, laminar periodic gust. The results suggest that the DMT method can accurately predict the acceleration term so long as appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions are maintained. The major deficiency, which is more dominant for the direction of drag, was found to be the determination of pressure and unsteady terms in the wake. The effect of control-volume size was investigated, suggesting that larger domains work best by minimizing the associated error in the determination of the pressure field. When decreasing the control-volume size, wake vortices, which produce high gradients across the control surfaces, are found to substantially increase the level of error. On the other hand, it was shown that for large control volumes, and with realistic spatial resolution, the accuracy of the DMT method would also suffer. Therefore, a delicate compromise is required when selecting control-volume size in future experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, T. J. (Editor)
1985-01-01
Topics of interest in the design, flow modeling and visualization, and turbulence and flow separation effects for low Reynolds number (Re) airfoils are discussed. Design methods are presented for Re from 50,000-500,000, including a viscous-inviscid coupling method and by using a constrained pitching moment. The effects of pressure gradients, unsteady viscous aerodynamics and separation bubbles are investigated, with particular note made of factors which most influence the size and location of separation bubbles and control their effects. Attention is also given to experimentation with low Re airfoils and to numerical models of symmetry breaking and lift hysteresis from separation. Both steady and unsteady flow experiments are reviewed, with the trials having been held in wind tunnels and the free atmosphere. The topics discussed are of interest to designers of RPVs, high altitude aircraft, sailplanes, ultralights and wind turbines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, R. D.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
Development of a Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis with Application to Wake/Blade-Row Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Chuang, H. Andrew
1999-01-01
A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The mathematical models needed to describe nonlinear and linearized, inviscid, unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented in this report. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to far-field eigen analyses, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into the three-dimensional unsteady flow code, LINFLUX. This code is applied herein to predict unsteady subsonic flows driven by wake or vortical excitations. The intent is to validate the LINFLUX analysis via numerical results for simple benchmark unsteady flows and to demonstrate this analysis via application to a realistic wake/blade-row interaction. Detailed numerical results for a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade and a fan exit guide vane indicate that LINFLUX is becoming a reliable and useful unsteady aerodynamic prediction capability that can be applied, in the future, to assess the three-dimensional flow physics important to blade-row, aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses.
A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.
1996-01-01
A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic response characteristics of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. In addition, a numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flow, which is based upon an existing nonlinear, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis, is described. These aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into an unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. A preliminary version of the LINFLUX code is applied herein to selected, benchmark three-dimensional, subsonic, unsteady flows, to illustrate its current capabilities and to uncover existing problems and deficiencies. The numerical results indicate that good progress has been made toward developing a reliable and useful three-dimensional prediction capability. However, some problems, associated with the implementation of an unsteady displacement field and numerical errors near solid boundaries, still exist. Also, accurate far-field conditions must be incorporated into the FINFLUX analysis, so that this analysis can be applied to unsteady flows driven be external aerodynamic excitations.
Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Insights using Eigenanalysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heeg, Jennifer; Dowell, Earl H.
2004-01-01
This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.
Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
1999-01-01
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.
Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
2000-01-01
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. C., Jr.; Cunningham, H. J.; Desmarais, R. N.; Silva, W. A.; Drobenko, B.
1982-01-01
The SOUSSA (steady, oscillatory, and unsteady subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics) program is the computational implementation of a general potential flow analysis (by the Green's function method) that can generate pressure distributions on complete aircraft having arbitrary shapes, motions and deformations. Some applications of the initial release version of this program to several wings in steady and oscillatory motion, including flutter are presented. The results are validated by comparisons with other calculations and experiments. Experiences in using the program as well as some recent improvements are described.
Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2014-01-01
Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39Âº and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falk, Eric Andrew
Aerodynamic forcing experiments were performed within the single-stage axial compressor of an AlliedSignal F109 turbofan engine. Unsteady velocity was measured both forward and aft of the F109 fan at several locations, with unsteady surface pressure also measured along sixteen, transducer-instrumented stator vanes. Three fan RPM were considered, with time-resolution of the unsteady data obtained through a photoelectric sensor coupled to the fan rotation. The velocity data collected forward of the fan exhibited evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances in the engine inlet flow, where these disturbances were potential in nature, emanating from the fan, and traveling acoustically in a helical pattern. The disturbance peak-to-peak unsteady amplitudes, in the swirl direction, reached nearly 50% of the mean-axial velocity at the fan face, dropping to 2--5% at one blade chord upstream. Such large velocity fluctuations may be important in terms of component high-cycle-fatigue, particularly in closely spaced, axial compressor stages. Aft of the fan, the average unsteady velocity waveforms measured across five azimuthal locations demonstrated characteristics indicative of a strong vortical and potential disturbance interaction, where the interacting disturbances had the same forcing frequency, but different amplitudes and propagation speeds. Further reduction of the fan-aft velocity data also produced evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances. These disturbances were found to be potential in nature and emanating from the F109 stator vanes; thus creating a cumulative, unsteady aerodynamic field upstream of the stators comprised of multiple interacting disturbances. The amplitudes of the stator-induced disturbances were on the order of 20--40% of the measured, downstream-propagating vortical wake amplitudes. Finally, results from stator-vane surface-pressure measurements compared favorably in both magnitude and phase to similar results collected in previous cascade experiments. Phase information from these pressure data suggested a strong vortical and potential disturbance interaction across the vanes. Evidence of compressor vortical and potential disturbance interactions may be important; as such interactions could lead to unpredicted high-cycle-fatigue failure of compressor structural components.
Estimation of Aircraft Nonlinear Unsteady Parameters From Wind Tunnel Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
1998-01-01
Aerodynamic equations were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom large amplitude motion about each of its body axes. The model formulation based on indicial functions separated the resulting aerodynamic forces and moments into static terms, purely rotary terms and unsteady terms. Model identification from experimental data combined stepwise regression and maximum likelihood estimation in a two-stage optimization algorithm that can identify the unsteady term and rotary term if necessary. The identification scheme was applied to oscillatory data in two examples. The model identified from experimental data fit the data well, however, some parameters were estimated with limited accuracy. The resulting model was a good predictor for oscillatory and ramp input data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1993-01-01
Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.
1985-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.
Viscous oscillating cascade aerodynamics and flutter by a locally analytical method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolff, J. M.; Fleeter, S.
1992-05-01
A mathematical model is developed to analyze the viscous aerodynamics of an harmonically oscillating flat plate airfoil cascade in an incompressible laminar flow. The steady flow field is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, with the unsteady viscous flow modeled as a small perturbation to this steady flow. Solutions for both the steady and the unsteady viscous flow fields are then obtained by developing locally analytical solutions. The significant effects of Reynolds number, elastic axis, interblade phase angle and incidence angle on the oscillating cascade unsteady aerodynamics and torsional flutter characteristics are then demonstrated.
Aerodynamic and flowfield hysteresis of slender wing aircraft undergoing large-amplitude motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Robert C.; Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Thompson, Scott A.
1991-01-01
The implication of maneuvers through large angles of incidence is discussed by examining the unsteady aerodynamic loads, surface pressures, vortical position, and breakdown on slender, flat plate delta wings. Two examples of large amplitude unsteady motions are presented. First, the unsteady characteristics of a 70 degree swept delta wing undergoing pitch oscillation from 0 to 60 degrees is examined. Data is presented that shows the relationship between vortex breakdown and the overshoot and undershoot of the aerodynamic loads and surface pressure distribution. The second example examines the leading edge vortical flow over an 80 degree swept wing undergoing a limit cycle roll oscillation commonly called wing rock.
Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard
2011-11-01
The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.
Nonlinear Green's function method for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Morino, L.
1982-01-01
Advantages to employing Green's function in describing unsteady three-dimensional transonic flows are explored. The development of the function for application to linear subsonic and supersonic unsteady aerodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that unique solutions are possible for external flows, with all functional expressions being defined in Prandtl-Glauert space. The development of methods of using the Green's function for transonic flows is traced, noting the necessity of including the effects of significant nonlinear terms. The steady-state problem is considered to demonstrate the shock-capturing ability of the method and the usefulness of the function in the incompressible, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic areas of potential unsteady three-dimensional flows around complex configurations. Computational time is asserted to be an order of magnitude less than with finite difference methods.
Progressive Aerodynamic Model Identification From Dynamic Water Tunnel Test of the F-16XL Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Szyba, Nathan M.
2004-01-01
Development of a general aerodynamic model that is adequate for predicting the forces and moments in the nonlinear and unsteady portions of the flight envelope has not been accomplished to a satisfactory degree. Predicting aerodynamic response during arbitrary motion of an aircraft over the complete flight envelope requires further development of the mathematical model and the associated methods for ground-based testing in order to allow identification of the model. In this study, a general nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic model is presented, followed by a summary of a linear modeling methodology that includes test and identification methods, and then a progressive series of steps suggesting a roadmap to develop a general nonlinear methodology that defines modeling, testing, and identification methods. Initial steps of the general methodology were applied to static and oscillatory test data to identify rolling-moment coefficient. Static measurements uncovered complicated dependencies of the aerodynamic coefficient on angle of attack and sideslip in the stall region making it difficult to find a simple analytical expression for the measurement data. In order to assess the effect of sideslip on the damping and unsteady terms, oscillatory tests in roll were conducted at different values of an initial offset in sideslip. Candidate runs for analyses were selected where higher order harmonics were required for the model and where in-phase and out-of-phase components varied with frequency. From these results it was found that only data in the angle-of-attack range of 35 degrees to 37.5 degrees met these requirements. From the limited results it was observed that the identified models fit the data well and both the damping-in-roll and the unsteady term gain are decreasing with increasing sideslip and motion amplitude. Limited similarity between parameter values in the nonlinear model and the linear model suggest that identifiability of parameters in both terms may be a problem. However, the proposed methodology can still be used with careful experiment design and carefully selected values of angle of attack, sideslip, amplitude, and frequency of the oscillatory data.
Numerical simulations of unsteady flows in turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorney, Daniel Joseph
The performance of axial and centrifugal turbomachines is significantly affected by the presence of unsteady and viscous flow mechanisms. Most contemporary design systems, however, use steady or linearized unsteady inviscid flow analyses to generate new blade shapes. In an effort to increase the understanding of unsteady viscous flows in turbomachinery blade rows, and to determine the limitations of linearized inviscid flow analyses, a two-part investigation was conducted. In the first portion of this investigation, a nonlinear viscous flow analysis was developed for the prediction of unsteady flows in two dimensional axial turbomachinery blade rows. The boundary conditions were formulated to allow the specification of vortical, entropic and acoustic excitations at the inlet, and acoustic excitations at exit, of a cascade. Numerical simulations were performed for flat plate and compressor exit guide vane cascades, and the predicted results were compared with solutions from classical linearized theory and linearized inviscid flow analysis. The unsteady pressure fields predicted with the current analysis showed close agreement with the linearized solutions for low to moderate temporal frequency vortical and acoustic excitations. As the temporal frequency of the excitations was increased, nonlinear effects caused discrepancies to develop between the linearized and Navier-Stokes solution sets. The inclusion of viscosity had a significant impact on the unsteady vorticity field, but only a minimal effect on the unsteady pressure field. In the second part of this investigation, a quasi-three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis was modified and applied to flows in centrifugal turbomachinery blade rows. Inviscid and viscous flow simulations were performed for a centrifugal impeller at three operating conditions. By comparing the predicted and experimental circumferential distributions of the relative frame velocity and flow angle downstream of the impeller, it was hypothesized that in the experiments the end secondary flows energize the impeller suction surface boundary making the local flow behave like an inviscid fluid. The performance curve generated from the viscous calculations showed close agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2015-01-01
Effects of unsteady flow interactions on the aerodynamic performance of a highly-loaded transonic axial compressor are investigated in the present study. The primary focus of the study is to investigate how unsteady flow interactions between blade rows affect the aerodynamic performance of a highly-loaded transonic axial compressor. Recent experimental and numerical studies of current highly-loaded axial compressor performance indicated that predicting calculating the loss generation is very challenging with various analysis tools. In the present study, the effects of generation and transport of shock induced vortices on the compressor performance is investigated in detail.
Simulation of self-induced unsteady motion in the near wake of a Joukowski airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghia, K. N.; Osswald, G. A.; Ghia, U.
1986-01-01
The unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis is shown to be capable of analyzing the massively separated, persistently unsteady flow in the post-stall regime of a Joukowski airfoil for an angle of attack as high as 53 degrees. The analysis has provided the detailed flow structure, showing the complex vortex interaction for this configuration. The aerodynamic coefficients for lift, drag, and moment were calculated. So far only the spatial structure of the vortex interaction was computed. It is now important to potentially use the large-scale vortex interactions, an additional energy source, to improve the aerodynamic performance.
Simulations of the Unsteady Flow through the Fastrac Supersonic Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.
1999-01-01
Analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RI.V)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.
Simulations of the unsteady flow through the Fastrac Supersonic Turbine
Griffin, L.W.; Dorney, D.J.
2000-04-01
Analysis of the unsteady aerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.
Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1993-01-01
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of axial-flow turbo-machinery blading.The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to a far-field eigenanalysis, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a three-dimensional linearized unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. This code has been applied to selected, benchmark, unsteady, subsonic flows to establish its accuracy and to demonstrate its current capabilities. The unsteady flows considered, have been chosen to allow convenient comparisons between the LINFLUX results and those of well-known, two-dimensional, unsteady flow codes. Detailed numerical results for a helical fan and a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade indicate that important progress has been made towards the development of a reliable and useful, three-dimensional, prediction capability that can be used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies.
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle
Prediction of Hyper-X Stage Separation Aerodynamics Using CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, Pieter G.; Wong, Tin-Chee; Dilley, Arthur D.; Pao, Jenn L.
2000-01-01
The NASA X-43 "Hyper-X" hypersonic research vehicle will be boosted to a Mach 7 flight test condition mounted on the nose of an Orbital Sciences Pegasus launch vehicle. The separation of the research vehicle from the Pegasus presents some unique aerodynamic problems, for which computational fluid dynamics has played a role in the analysis. This paper describes the use of several CFD methods for investigating the aerodynamics of the research and launch vehicles in close proximity. Specifically addressed are unsteady effects, aerodynamic database extrapolation, and differences between wind tunnel and flight environments.
Adjoint sensitivity analysis of time averaged quantities for unsteady flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiqi
2011-11-01
Sensitivity analysis is an essential gradient for data assimilation, aerodynamic design, uncertainty quantification and optimal flow control. In particular. the adjoint sensitivity analysis method has been shown to solve very high dimensional optimization problems typically found these applications. This talk focuses on recent developments in extending adjoint sensitivity analysis to unsteady flows. The adjoint equation of unsteady flows must be integrated backwards in time. Each backward time step must use the flow solution at the corresponding time. As a result, the entire time history of the flow solution must be either stored or recalculated. The invention of checkpointing schemes provides an economic solution to this challenge. In particular, the dynamic checkpointing scheme makes this solution more practical for computational fluid dynamics problems. In unsteady flows, the quantities of interest are often long time averages. We demonstrate that sensitivity analysis of these long time averaged quantities poses significant new challenge. A novel windowing scheme is developed to compute correct sensitivity for periodic unsteady flows, such as in laminar vortex shedding. Initial investigation of sensitivity analysis of chaotic unsteady flows, i.e., transitional and turbulent flows, is also discussed. This work is supported by a subcontract of PSAAP program at Stanford awarded to MIT.
Measurements of Unsteady Wake Interference Between Tandem Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Cahterine B.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2006-01-01
A multi-phase, experimental study in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center has provided new insight into the unsteady flow interaction around cylinders in tandem arrangement. Phase 1 of the study characterized the mean and unsteady near-field flow around two cylinders of equal diameter using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire anemometry. These measurements were performed at a Reynolds number of 1.66 x 10(exp 5), based on cylinder diameter, and spacing-to-diameter ratios, L/D, of 1.435 and 3.7. The current phase, Phase 2, augments this dataset by characterizing the surface flow on the same configurations using steady and unsteady pressure measurements and surface flow visualization. Transition strips were applied to the front cylinder during both phases to produce a turbulent boundary layer upstream of the flow separation. For these flow conditions and L/D ratios, surface pressures on both the front and rear cylinders show the effects of L/D on flow symmetry, pressure recovery, and the location of flow separation and attachment. Mean streamlines and instantaneous vorticity obtained from the PIV data are used to explain the flow structure in the gap and near-wake regions and its relationship to the unsteady surface pressures. The combination of off-body and surface measurements provides a comprehensive dataset to develop and validate computational techniques for predicting the unsteady flow field at higher Reynolds numbers.
Reduction of Unsteady STATOR-ROTOR Interaction Using Trailing Edge Blowing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LEITCH, THOMAS A.; SAUNDERS, C. A.; NG, W. F.
2000-08-01
An aeroacoustic investigation was performed to assess the effects of adding mass flow at the trailing edges of stators upstream of an aircraft engine simulator. By using trailing edge blowing to minimize the shed wakes of the stators, the flow into the rotor was made more uniform, hence reducing the unsteady stator-rotor interaction. In these experiments, a reduced number of stators (four) was used in a 1/14 scale model inlet which was coupled to a 4·1in (10·4 cm) turbofan engine simulator. Steady state measurements of the aerodynamic flow field and acoustic far field were made in order to evaluate the aeroacoustic performance at three simulator speeds: 30k, 50k, and 70kr.p.m. The lowest test speed (30k r.p.m.) showed a noise reduction as large as 8·9dB in the blade passing tone. At 50k and 70kr.p.m., the reduction in blade passing tone was 5·5 and 2·6dB respectively. In addition, trailing edge blowing reduced the overall sound pressure level in every case. Aerodynamic measurements showed that fan face distortion was significantly reduced due to trailing edge blowing. The addition of trailing edge blowing from the four upstream stators did not change the operating point of the fan, and the mass flow added by the blowing was less than 1% of the fan mass flow rate. The results of these experiments clearly demonstrate that blowing from the trailing edges of the stators is effective in reducing unsteady stator-rotor interaction and the subsequent forward radiated noise.
Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Chung K.
2000-11-01
The presentation will review recent advances in the understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geometry of stretched, nonequidiffusive, laminar premixed flames, as exemplified by the unsteady propagation of wrinkled flames in nonuniform flow fields. It is first shown that by considering the effects of aerodynamic stretch on the flame structure, and by allowing for mixture nonequidiffusion, the flame responses, especially the flame propagation speed, can be quantitatively as well as qualitatively modified from the idealized planar limit. Subsequently, by treating the flame as a level surface propagating with the stretch-affected flame speed, problems of increasing complexity are presented to illustrate various features of flame propagation. The illustration first treats the flame as a structureless surface propagating into a constant-density combustible with a constant velocity * the laminar flame speed, and demonstrates the phenomena of cusp formation and volumetric burning rate augmentation through flame wrinkling. By using the stretch-affected flame speed, we then describe the phenomena of cusp broadening as well as tip opening of the Bunsen flame. Finally, by allowing for the density jump across the flame surface, a unified dispersion relation is derived for the intrinsic hydrodynamic, body-force, and nonequidiffusive modes of flame
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muffoletto, A. J.
1982-01-01
An aerodynamic computer code, capable of predicting unsteady and C sub m values for an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall, is used to predict the amplitudes and frequencies of a wing undergoing torsional stall flutter. The code, developed at United Technologies Research Corporation (UTRC), is an empirical prediction method designed to yield unsteady values of normal force and moment, given the airfoil's static coefficient characteristics and the unsteady aerodynamic values, alpha, A and B. In this experiment, conducted in the PSU 4' x 5' subsonic wind tunnel, the wing's elastic axis, torsional spring constant and initial angle of attack are varied, and the oscillation amplitudes and frequencies of the wing, while undergoing torsional stall flutter, are recorded. These experimental values show only fair comparisons with the predicted responses. Predictions tend to be good at low velocities and rather poor at higher velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongliang, Yu; Binggang, Tong; Huiyang, Ma
2003-12-01
Numerous studies on the aerodynamics of insect wing flapping were carried out on different approaches of flight investigations, model experiments, and numerical simulations, but the theoretical modeling remains to be explored. In the present paper, an analytic approach is presented to model the flow interactions of wing flapping in air for small insects with the surrounding flow fields being highly unsteady and highly viscous. The model of wing flapping is a 2-D flat plate, which makes plunging and pitching oscillations as well as quick rotations reversing its positions of leading and trailing edges, respectively, during stroke reversals. It contains three simplified aerodynamic assumptions: (i) unsteady potential flow; (ii) discrete vortices shed from both leading and trailing edges of the wing; (iii) Kutta conditions applied at both edges. Then the problem is reduced to the solution of the unsteady Laplace equation, by using distributed singularities, i.e., sources/sinks, and vortices in the field. To validate the present physical model and analytic method proposed via benchmark examples, two elemental motions in wing flapping and a case of whole flapping cycles are analyzed, and the predicted results agree well with available experimental and numerical data. This verifies that the present analytical approach may give qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. Furthermore, the total fluid-dynamic force in the present method can be decomposed into three parts: one due to the added inertial (or mass) effect, the other and the third due to the induction of vortices shed from the leading-and the trailing-edge and their images respectively, and this helps to reveal the flow control mechanisms in insect wing flapping.
Mysak, Erin R.; Starr, David E.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Bluhm, Hendrik
2010-01-15
We discuss a new approach for the measurement of the surfaces of free aerosol particles with diameters from 50 to 1000 nm. Particles in this size range have significant influence on the heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere and affect human health. Interfacing an aerodynamic lens to an ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer permits measurement of the surface chemical composition of unsupported aerosol particles in real time. We discuss the basic considerations for the design of such an instrument, its current limitations and potentials for improvement. Results from a proof-of-principle experiment on silicon oxide particles with average diameters of 270 nm are shown.
Unsteady analysis of rotor blade tip flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskey, B.; Rao, B. M.
1985-01-01
The development of the VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H computer programs for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrarily shaped wings oscillating in pitch is presented. The effect of several wake parameters on chordwise pressure distribution in VSAERO-TS is given and the convergence characteristics of both programs are discussed. In the program, the influence coefficient for each panel is formulated for a planar surface and so a skewed panel is represented by a projected flat quadrilateral lying in the mean plane. Since panels in the extreme roll-up region of the tip vortex are highly skewed the program was modified to treat each highly skewed panel as a pair of triangles. The programs are validated by comparing the chordwise pressure distribution of several blade tip planforms with experimental data. The comparison, for the most part, is good. The triangular panel representation improved the chordwise pressure distribution near the tip region for higher mean angle of attack.
A Numerical Model of Unsteady, Subsonic Aeroelastic Behavior. Ph.D Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strganac, Thomas W.
1987-01-01
A method for predicting unsteady, subsonic aeroelastic responses was developed. The technique accounts for aerodynamic nonlinearities associated with angles of attack, vortex-dominated flow, static deformations, and unsteady behavior. The fluid and the wing together are treated as a single dynamical system, and the equations of motion for the structure and flow field are integrated simultaneously and interactively in the time domain. The method employs an iterative scheme based on a predictor-corrector technique. The aerodynamic loads are computed by the general unsteady vortex-lattice method and are determined simultaneously with the motion of the wing. Because the unsteady vortex-lattice method predicts the wake as part of the solution, the history of the motion is taken into account; hysteresis is predicted. Two models are used to demonstrate the technique: a rigid wing on an elastic support experiencing plunge and pitch about the elastic axis, and an elastic wing rigidly supported at the root chord experiencing spanwise bending and twisting. The method can be readily extended to account for structural nonlinearities and/or substitute aerodynamic load models. The time domain solution coupled with the unsteady vortex-lattice method provides the capability of graphically depicting wing and wake motion.
Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity 1987, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bland, Samuel R. (Compiler)
1989-01-01
This two part document contains copies of the text and figures for the papers presented at the symposium held at NASA Langley on 20 to 22 May, 1987. The papers are grouped in five subject areas. The areas covered by this part includes the following: Methods for vortex and viscous flows; Aeroelastic applications, and Experimental results and cascade flows.
Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity 1987, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bland, Samuel R. (Compiler)
1989-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics methods have been widely accepted for transonic aeroelastic analysis. Previously, calculations with the TSD methods were used for 2-D airfoils, but now the TSD methods are applied to the aeroelastic analysis of the complete aircraft. The Symposium papers are grouped into five subject areas, two of which are covered in this part: (1) Transonic Small Disturbance (TSD) theory for complete aircraft configurations; and (2) Full potential and Euler equation methods.
Unsteady aerodynamic characterization of a military aircraft in vertical gusts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lebozec, A.; Cocquerez, J. L.
1985-01-01
The effects of 2.5-m/sec vertical gusts on the flight characteristics of a 1:8.6 scale model of a Mirage 2000 aircraft in free flight at 35 m/sec over a distance of 30 m are investigated. The wind-tunnel setup and instrumentation are described; the impulse-response and local-coefficient-identification analysis methods applied are discussed in detail; and the modification and calibration of the gust-detection probes are reviewed. The results are presented in graphs, and good general agreement is obtained between model calculations using the two analysis methods and the experimental measurements.
Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.
Dynamics of coherent flow structures of a pulsating unsteady glottal jet in human phonation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neubauer, Juergen; Miraghaie, Reza; Berry, David
2004-11-01
The primary sound source for human voice is oscillation of the vocal folds in the larynx. Phonation is the self-sustained oscillation of the viscoelastic vocal fold tissue driven by the air flow from the lung. It is due to the flow-induced Hopf instability of the biomechanical-aerodynamic system of vocal folds coupled to the aeroacoustic driving air flow. The aim of this study is to provide insight to the aero-acoustic part of the primary sound source of human voice. A physical rubber model of vocal folds with air flow conditions typical for human phonation was used. This model exhibits self-sustained oscillations similar to those in human phonation. The oscillating physical model can be regarded as a dynamic slit-like orifice that discharges a pulsating unsteady jet. A left-right flapping of the glottal jet axis was detected using hotwire anemometer measurements of the unsteady glottal jet. Flow visualization experiments revealed the detachment of the glottal jet from the physical model folds during the accelerating and decelerating phase of the jet pulsation. Roll-up of large-scale vortex rings as well as secondary vortex shedding in the form of Von Karman street due to shear layer instability were found downstream of the physical model.
An unsteady helicopter rotor: Fuselage interaction analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan
1988-01-01
A computational method was developed to treat unsteady aerodynamic interactions between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage and between the main and tail rotors. An existing lifting line prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were coupled and modified to predict unsteady fuselage surface pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique is used to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Either a rigid blade or an aeroelastic blade analysis may be used to establish rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake fuselage geometry on the computation. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and on the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries is demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with fuselage surface pressure measurements at several locations. No experimental data was available to validate the primary product of the analysis: the vibratory airloads on the entire fuselage. A main rotor-tail rotor interaction analysis is also described, along with some hover and forward flight.
Flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1989-01-01
The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.
Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obayashi, Shigeru
1993-01-01
In the last two decades, there have been extensive developments in computational aerodynamics, which constitutes a major part of the general area of computational fluid dynamics. Such developments are essential to advance the understanding of the physics of complex flows, to complement expensive wind-tunnel tests, and to reduce the overall design cost of an aircraft, particularly in the area of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of aircraft, particularly modern aircraft, which tend to be more flexible. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur because of the interaction of the flow with flexible components. For example, an aircraft with highly swept wings may experience vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations. Also, undesirable aeroelastic phenomena due to the presence and movement of shock waves occur in the transonic range. Aeroelastically critical phenomena, such as a low transonic flutter speed, have been known to occur through limited wind-tunnel tests and flight tests. Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At Ames a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this contract is to continue the algorithm enhancements of ENSAERO and to apply the code to complicated geometries. During the last year, the geometric capability of the code was extended to simulate transonic flows, a wing with oscillating control surface. Single-grid and zonal approaches were tested. For the zonal approach, a new interpolation technique was introduced. The key development of the algorithm was an interface treatment between moving zones for a control surface using the virtual-zone concept. The work performed during the period, 1 Apr. 1992 through 31 Mar. 1993 is summarized. Additional details on the various aspects of the study are given in the Appendices.
Rolling with the flow: bumblebees flying in unsteady wakes.
Ravi, Sridhar; Crall, James D; Fisher, Alex; Combes, Stacey A
2013-11-15
Our understanding of how variable wind in natural environments affects flying insects is limited because most studies of insect flight are conducted in either smooth flow or still air conditions. Here, we investigate the effects of structured, unsteady flow (the von Karman vortex street behind a cylinder) on the flight performance of bumblebees (Bombus impatiens). Bumblebees are 'all-weather' foragers and thus frequently experience variable aerial conditions, ranging from fully mixed, turbulent flow to unsteady, structured vortices near objects such as branches and stems. We examined how bumblebee flight performance differs in unsteady versus smooth flow, as well as how the orientation of unsteady flow structures affects their flight performance, by filming bumblebees flying in a wind tunnel under various flow conditions. The three-dimensional flight trajectories and orientations of bumblebees were quantified in each of three flow conditions: (1) smooth flow, (2) the unsteady wake of a vertical cylinder (inducing strong lateral disturbances) and (3) the unsteady wake of a horizontal cylinder (inducing strong vertical disturbances). In both unsteady conditions, bumblebees attenuated the disturbances induced by the wind quite effectively, but still experienced significant translational and rotational fluctuations as compared with flight in smooth flow. Bees appeared to be most sensitive to disturbance along the lateral axis, displaying large lateral accelerations, translations and rolling motions in response to both unsteady flow conditions, regardless of orientation. Bees also displayed the greatest agility around the roll axis, initiating voluntary casting maneuvers and correcting for lateral disturbances mainly through roll in all flow conditions. Both unsteady flow conditions reduced the upstream flight speed of bees, suggesting an increased cost of flight in unsteady flow, with potential implications for foraging patterns and colony energetics in natural, variable wind environments. PMID:24031057
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang
2016-02-01
Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 Î¼s and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20Â° to 27Â° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.Â 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.Â 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No.Â 2015JM1001).
Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.
Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A
2011-12-01
MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s?¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10? or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs. PMID:22126793
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lifu; Jin, Yingzi; Li, Yi; Jin, Yuzhen; Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Li
2013-08-01
To improve the aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan, in this paper the design of a small axial flow fan with splitter blades is studied. The RNG k-É› turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm were applied to the steady simulation calculation of the flow field, and its result was used as the initial field of the large eddy simulation to calculate the unsteady pressure field. The FW-H noise model was adopted to predict aerodynamic noise in the six monitoring points. Fast Fourier transform algorithm was applied to process the pressure signal. Experiment of noise testing was done to further investigate the aerodynamic noise of fans. And then the results obtained from the numerical simulation and experiment were described and analyzed. The results show that the static characteristics of small axial fan with splitter blades are similar with the prototype fan, and the static characteristics are improved within a certain range of flux. The power spectral density at the six monitoring points of small axial flow fan with splitter blades have decreased to some extent. The experimental results show sound pressure level of new fan has reduced in most frequency bands by comparing with prototype fan. The research results will provide a proof for parameter optimization and noise prediction of small axial flow fans with high performance.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations for wing-fuselage configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, J. T.
1986-01-01
Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for wing-fuselage configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of a fuselage. Details of the XTRAN3S fuselage modeling are discussed in the context of the small-disturbance equation. Transonic calculations are presented for three wing-fuselage configurations with leading edge sweep angles ranging from 0 deg to 46.76 deg. Simple bending and torsion modal oscillations of the wing are calculated. Sectional lift and moment coefficients for the wing-alone and wing-fuselage cases are compared and the effects of fuselage aerodynamic interference on the unsteady wing loading are revealed. Tabulated generalized aerodynamic forces used in flutter analyses, indicate small changes in the real in-phase component and as much as a 30% change in the imaginary component when the fuselage is included in the calculation. These changes result in a 2 to 5% increase in total magnitude and a several degree increase in phase.
Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.
2012-11-01
The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padro, J.; Massman, W. J.; Shaw, R. H.; Delany, A.; Oncley, S. P.
1994-12-01
Measurements of dry, deposition velocities ( V d ) of O3 (using the eddy correlation technique) made over a cotton field and senescent grass near Fresno California during July and August 1991 were used to test some dry deposition velocity models. Over the cotton field, the observed maximum daytime V d was about 0.8 cm s-1 and the average nighttime value was about 0.2 cm s-1. Over the grass, daytime values averaged about 0.2 cm s-1 and nighttime values about 0.05 cm s-1. Application of a site-specific model known as ADOM (Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model) over the cotton field generally overestimated the observations except for a few hours in the afternoon when the observations were underestimated The overestimation was attributed to inadequacies in the surface resistance formulation and the underestimation to uncertainties in the aerodynamic formulation. Unlike previous studies which focused on the role of surface resistance, we perform additional tests using a large variety of aerodynamic resistance formulae, in addition to those in ADOM, to determine their influence on the modelled V d of O3 over, cotton. Over grass, ADOM considerably overestimated the observations but showed improvement when other surface resistance formulations were applied.
Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centin, Kiris C.; Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
The objective of the current effort is two-fold: 1) to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine; and 2) to provide high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis capability to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicle. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to involve liquid propulsion system, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the turbopump components is an important task. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flow are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. Unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available, at least, for real-world engineering applications. Present effort is an attempt to provide this capability so that developers of the vehicle will be able to extract such information as transient flow phenomena for start up, impact of non-uniform inflow, system vibration and impact on the structure. Those quantities are not readily available from simplified design tools. In this presentation, the progress being made toward complete turbo-pump simulation capability for a liquid rocket engine is reported. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbopump, which contains 106 zones with 34.5 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented.
Unsteady Velocity Measurements Taken Behind a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub in Forward Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, John D.
1997-01-01
Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.
Aeroelastic control of stability and forced response of supersonic rotors by aerodynamic detuning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, Daniel; Fleeter, Sanford
1987-01-01
Aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row, is a new approach to passive flutter and forced response control. In this paper, a mathematical model for aerodynamic detuning is developed and utilized to demonstrate the aeroelastic stability enhancement due to aerodynamic detuning of supersonic blade rows. In particular, a model is developed to analyze both the torsion mode and the coupled bending-torsion mode unstalled supersonic flutter and torsion mode aerodynamically forced response characteristics of an aerodynamically detuned rotor operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus. As small solidity variations do not have a dominant effect on the steady-state performance of a rotor, the aerodynamic detuning mechanism considered is nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent blades.
Comparisons of several aerodynamic methods for application to dynamic loads analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroll, R. I.; Miller, R. D.
1976-01-01
The results of a study are presented in which the applicability at subsonic speeds of several aerodynamic methods for predicting dynamic gust loads on aircraft, including active control systems, was examined and compared. These aerodynamic methods varied from steady state to an advanced unsteady aerodynamic formulation. Brief descriptions of the structural and aerodynamic representations and of the motion and load equations are presented. Comparisons of numerical results achieved using the various aerodynamic methods are shown in detail. From these results, aerodynamic representations for dynamic gust analyses are identified. It was concluded that several aerodynamic methods are satisfactory for dynamic gust analyses of configurations having either controls fixed or active control systems that primarily affect the low frequency rigid body aircraft response.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.
1990-01-01
A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, J. L.
1974-01-01
An approximate solution is reported for the unsteady aerodynamic response of an infinite swept wing encountering a vertical oblique gust in a compressible stream. The approximate expressions are of closed form and do not require excessive computer storage or computation time, and further, they are in good agreement with the results of exact theory. This analysis is used to predict the unsteady aerodynamic response of a helicopter rotor blade encountering the trailing vortex from a previous blade. Significant effects of three dimensionality and compressibility are evident in the results obtained. In addition, an approximate solution for the unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with the pitching or plunging motion of a two dimensional airfoil in a subsonic stream is presented. The mathematical form of this solution approaches the incompressible solution as the Mach number vanishes, the linear transonic solution as the Mach number approaches one, and the solution predicted by piston theory as the reduced frequency becomes large.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
Smith, T.E. ); Kadambi, J.R. )
1993-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented that accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two-degree-of-freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of (1) airfoil thickness and camber and (2) steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of the steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber, or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.
1990-01-01
An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
Unsteady processes in machines.
Pfeiffer, Friedrich
1994-12-01
Couplings in machines and mechanisms always have play and friction. While under loading, stick-slip phenomena and impact events can take place. Such processes are modeled as multibody systems whose structure is time variant or unsteady. The time-variant number of degrees of freedom is due to stick-slip contacts. The coupling characteristics become unsteady, for instance there exist jumps in the loads, if impacts occur. For establishing a uniform theory for such phenomena we use a Lagrangian approach connecting the additional constraint equations and the equations of motion by Lagrange multipliers, which are proportional to the constraint forces. Stick-slip and impact events are evaluated by indicator functions leading to special numerical algorithms for the search of switching points. Contact problems are formulated as a complementarity problem which can be solved by efficient algorithms. The theory is applied to rattling in gears, impact drilling machines, turbine blade dampers, and a woodpecker toy. In some of these applications, chaos as a result of bifurcations is possible, which results from variations in the parameters. (c) 1994 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12780146
Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stremel, Paul M.
1989-03-01
Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empennage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies was developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interacting vortex wake is represented by an array of discrete vortices which, in turn, are represented by a finite-core model. The evolution of the interacting vortex wake is calculated by Lagrangian techniques. The viscous flow field of the two-dimensional body is calculated on an Eulerian grid. The flow around circular and elliptic cylinders in the absence of an interacting vortex wake was calculated. These results compare very well with other numerical results and with results obtained from experiment and thereby demonstrate the accuracy of the viscous solution. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4 to 1 elliptic cylinder at 45 degree incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000. The results demonstrate the significant variations in the lift and drag on the elliptic cylinder in the presence of the interacting rotor wake.
Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer
Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.
1995-12-31
The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows. Again, to verify and or direct the development of these advanced codes, complete three-dimensional unsteady flow field data are needed.
Aerodynamic performance measurements at moderate Re
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, M.; McArthur, J.; Spedding, G. R.
2004-11-01
There has been renewed interest in the aerodynamics of lifting wings at Reynolds numbers from 10^4 to 10^5, partly due to engineering requirements of small-scale, remotely piloted aircraft, and partly because birds and bats operate in this regime. Even when the wings do not flap or pitch or plunge, the flow over the small aspect ratio wings is likely to be three-dimensional and unsteady. Wind tunnel test results are described where force measurements are combined with DPIV studies. Some problems and principles of such measurement programs will also be discussed.
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines
Zhao, Qiuying; Sheng, Chunhua; Afjeh, Abdollah
2014-01-01
Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5â€‰MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16â€‰RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed,moreÂ Â» including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines.Â«Â less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, P. A.; Anderson, E. C.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.
1984-01-01
An overview is presented of the entire procedure developed for the aerodynamic design of the contoured wind tunnel liner for the NASA supercritical, laminar flow control (LFC), swept wing experiment. This numerical design procedure is based upon the simple idea of streamlining and incorporates several transonic and boundary layer analysis codes. The liner, presently installed in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, is about 54 ft long and extends from within the existing contraction cone, through the test section, and into the diffuser. LFC model testing has begun and preliminary results indicate that the liner is performing as intended. The liner design results presented in this paper, however, are examples of the calculated requirements and the hardware implementation of them.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Lockard, David P.
2009-01-01
Recent experience in the application of an optimized, second-order, backward-difference (BDF2OPT) temporal scheme is reported. The primary focus of the work is on obtaining accurate solutions of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations over long periods of time for aerodynamic problems of interest. The baseline flow solver under consideration uses a particular BDF2OPT temporal scheme with a dual-time-stepping algorithm for advancing the flow solutions in time. Numerical difficulties are encountered with this scheme when the flow code is run for a large number of time steps, a behavior not seen with the standard second-order, backward-difference, temporal scheme. Based on a stability analysis, slight modifications to the BDF2OPT scheme are suggested. The performance and accuracy of this modified scheme is assessed by comparing the computational results with other numerical schemes and experimental data.
Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlig, Daniel V.
Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight envelope.
Borazjani, Iman
2015-10-01
Unsteady aquatic locomotion is not an exception, but rather how animals often swim. It includes fast-starts (C-start or S-start), escape maneuvers, turns, acceleration/deceleration, and even during steady locomotion the swimming speed fluctuates, i.e., there is unsteadiness. Here, a review of the recent work on unsteady aquatic locomotion with emphasis on numerical simulations is presented. The review is started by an overview of different theoretical and numerical methods that have been used for unsteady swimming, and then the insights provided by these methods on (1) unsteadiness in straight-line swimming and (2) unsteady fast-starts and turns are discussed. The swimming speed's unsteady fluctuations during straight-line swimming are typically less than 3% of the average swimming speed, but recent simulations show that body shape affects fluctuations more than does body kinematics, i.e., changing the shape of the body generates larger fluctuations than does changing its kinematics. For fast-starts, recent simulations show that the best motion to maximize the distance traveled from rest are similar to the experimentally observed C-start maneuvers. Furthermore, another set of simulations, which are validated against measurements of flow in experiments with live fish, investigate the role of fins during the C-start. The simulations showed that most of the force is generated by the body of the fish (not by fins) during the first stage of the C-start when the fish bends itself into the C-shape. However, in the second stage, when it rapidly bends out of the C-shape, more than 70% of the instantaneous hydrodynamic force is produced by the tail. The effect of dorsal and anal fins was less than 5% of the instantaneous force in both stages, except for a short period of time (2 ms) just before the second stage. Therefore, the active control and the erection of the anal/dorsal fins might be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch during the C-start. At the end, the needed future developments in the computational front and their possible applications on investigating stability during unsteady locomotion are discussed. PMID:25888943
Unsteady near-critical flows in microgravity.
Polezhaev, V I; Gorbunov, A A; Soboleva, E B
2004-11-01
This paper presents analysis of the different time scales associated with unsteady fluid flow phenomena near the thermodynamical critical point and that are typical for experiments carried out in microgravity. A focus of the paper is modeling the initial stage of convection under low and zero gravity on the basis of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible gas with the Van der Waals state equation. We also consider a thermoacoustic problem on the basis of three-dimensional linearized equations for an isentropic inviscid gas near the critical point in zero gravity. We compare the heat transfer due to unsteady convection and the piston effect in an enclosure with side heating in zero and low gravity with pure conductivity. PMID:15644362
Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M., E.
1974-01-01
An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.
Application of Hybrid Method for Aerodynamic Noise Prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, L.; Song, W. P.
2011-09-01
A hybrid prediction method for aerodynamic noise is performed using high order accuracy method in this paper. The method combines a two-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes(URANS) solver with the acoustic analogy method using Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds). Tandem cylinders are chosen to validate the prediction method. The computations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 based on the cylinder diameter. Both the aerodynamic and acoustic results show good agreement with the experimental data, showing a successful application of the hybrid prediction method using two-dimensional URANS simulation.
Calculation and Correlation of the Unsteady Flowfield in a High Pressure Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mehmed, Oral
2002-01-01
Forced vibrations in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail due to high-cycle fatigue. Such forced response problems will become more pronounced in newer engines with higher pressure ratios and smaller axial gap between blade rows. An accurate numerical prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics phenomena that cause resonant forced vibrations is increasingly important to designers. Validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to model the unsteady aerodynamic excitations is necessary before these codes can be used with confidence. Recently published benchmark data, including unsteady pressures and vibratory strains, for a high-pressure turbine stage makes such code validation possible. In the present work, a three dimensional, unsteady, multi blade-row, Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes code is applied to a turbine stage that was recently tested in a short duration test facility. Two configurations with three operating conditions corresponding to modes 2, 3, and 4 crossings on the Campbell diagram are analyzed. Unsteady pressures on the rotor surface are compared with data.
Unsteady Flowfield in a High-Pressure Turbine Modeled by TURBO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Mehmed, Oral
2003-01-01
Forced response, or resonant vibrations, in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail because of the large vibratory blade stresses and subsequent high-cycle fatigue. Forced-response vibrations occur when turbomachinery blades are subjected to periodic excitation at a frequency close to their natural frequency. Rotor blades in a turbine are constantly subjected to periodic excitations when they pass through the spatially nonuniform flowfield created by upstream vanes. Accurate numerical prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics phenomena that cause forced-response vibrations can lead to an improved understanding of the problem and offer potential approaches to reduce or eliminate specific forced-response problems. The objective of the current work was to validate an unsteady aerodynamics code (named TURBO) for the modeling of the unsteady blade row interactions that can cause forced response vibrations. The three-dimensional, unsteady, multi-blade-row, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code named TURBO was used to model a high-pressure turbine stage for which benchmark data were recently acquired under a NASA contract by researchers at the Ohio State University. The test article was an initial design for a high-pressure turbine stage that experienced forced-response vibrations which were eliminated by increasing the axial gap. The data, acquired in a short duration or shock tunnel test facility, included unsteady blade surface pressures and vibratory strains.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward
1990-01-01
Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim
1992-01-01
The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade
Huyer, S. )
1993-04-01
The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.
Unsteady Simulation of the Viscous Flow About a V-22 Rotor and Wing in Hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.
1996-01-01
Results of an unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes simulation of a 0.658-scale V-22 rotor and wing configuration in hover are presented. All geometric components of the flapped-wing and rotor test rig, including rotor blades, are accurately modeled. Rotor motion and rotor/airframe interference effects are simulated directly using moving body overset grid methods. Tiltrotor hover aerodynamics are visualized via unsteady particle trace images. Wing download predictive ability is demonstrated. Simulation results are compared with experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
1990-01-01
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.
2009-07-01
This issue of Measurement Science and Technology contains a special feature section with selected papers from the EWA International workshop on Advanced Measurement Techniques in Aerodynamics, which was held at the Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 31 March-1 April 2008. The workshop was funded by the European Windtunnel Association (EWA, www.eu-ewa.aero), which is an EU-funded network established in 2004 under the European Sixth Framework Programme with the goal of integrating and standardizing the different capabilities of European wind tunnels and related flow measurement techniques. The workshop was organized with the objective of stimulating discussion among leading European universities, research institutes and industry in the field of advanced aerodynamics measurement techniques, in order to provide a transfer of new ideas from upstream research centres to wind tunnel operators and industrial users. Non-intrusive flow diagnostic techniques nowadays offer renewed capabilities for industrial wind-tunnel applications. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) plays a leading role for particular applications (unsteady and complex flows, rotorcraft aerodynamics, turbulent separated flows) and can provide solutions that cannot be achieved with conventional techniques (e.g. in the analysis of vortex flows). This formed the main motivation to revise the state-of-the-art of PIV along with other non-intrusive optical techniques such as PSP, DGV and BOS. The two-day workshop contained sessions dedicated to several specific topics: rotorcraft aerodynamics applications; state-of-the-art of high-speed PIV and configurations for time-resolved measurements; three-dimensional PIV; non-intrusive load characterization by PSP and PIV. The main conclusion emerging from the closing discussion was that the new capabilities offered by time-resolved PIV are of great scientific and industrial interest for application to unsteady flows and in particular to the determination of unsteady aerodynamic forces and loads. We believe that this workshop provided a useful framework facilitating the transfer of new ideas from developer to the user communities. At the same time the workshop provided the upstream research community with important feedback about the areas of relevance for industrial aerodynamics.
Methodology for matching experimental and computational aerodynamic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieseman, Carol D.
1988-01-01
Correction factor methodologies have been developed which use steady experimental or analytical pressure or force data to correct steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations. Three methods of calculating correction factors have been developed to match steady surface pressure distributions, to match airfoil section forces and moments. Data for a rectangular supercritical wing that was previously tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel have been used to determine correction factors to match surface pressure distributions for a range of Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.
2009-01-01
The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.
Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong
2012-09-01
How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael; Bernal, Luis
2013-11-01
Direct force measurements and qualitative flow visualization were used to compare flowfield evolution vs. lift and drag for a nominally 2D rigid flat plate executing smoothed linear pitch ramp maneuvers in a water tunnel. Non-dimensional pitch rate was varied from 0.01 to 0.5, incidence angle from 0 to 90 degrees, and pitch pivot point from the leading to the trailing edge. For low pitch rates, the main unsteady effect is delay of stall beyond the steady incidence angle. Shifting the time-base to account for different pivot points leads to collapse of both lift/drag history and flowfield history. For higher rates, a leading edge vortex forms; its history also depends on pitch pivot point, but linear shift in time-base is not successful in collapsing lift/drag history. Instead, a phenomenological algebraic relation, valid at the higher pitch-rates, accounts for lift and drag for different rates and pivot points, through at least 45 degree incidence angle.
Unsteady reconnection in MHD models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapenta, Giovanni
2009-11-01
Within a MHD approach we find magnetic reconnection to progress in two entirely different ways. The first is well known: the laminar Sweet-Parker process. But a second, completely different and chaotic reconnection process is possible [1]. This regime has properties of immediate practical relevance: (i) it is much faster, developing on scales of the order of the Alfv'en time, and (ii) the areas of reconnection become distributed chaotically over a macroscopic region. The onset of the faster process is the formation of closed-circulation patterns where the jets going out of the reconnection regions turn around and force their way back in, carrying along copious amounts of magnetic flux. We further investigate the presence of unsteady reconnection regimes in the RSX experiment in Los Alamos [2]. Work in collaboration with: Intrator TP, Sun X, Dorf L and Furno I. [4pt] [1] Lapenta, G., Self-Feeding Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection on Macroscopic Scales, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 235001 (2008)[0pt] [2] Intrator TP, Sun X, Dorf L, Lapenta G and Furno I, Experimental onset threshold and magnetic pressure pileup for 3D reconnection, Nature-Physics, 5, 521 - 526 (2009)
Unsteady Adjoint Approach for Design Optimization of Flapping Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Byung Joon; Liou, Meng-Sing
2012-01-01
This paper describes the work for optimizing the propulsive efficiency of flapping airfoils, i.e., improving the thrust under constraining aerodynamic work during the flapping flights by changing their shape and trajectory of motion with the unsteady discrete adjoint approach. For unsteady problems, it is essential to properly resolving time scales of motion under consideration and it must be compatible with the objective sought after. We include both the instantaneous and time-averaged (periodic) formulations in this study. For the design optimization with shape parameters or motion parameters, the time-averaged objective function is found to be more useful, while the instantaneous one is more suitable for flow control. The instantaneous objective function is operationally straightforward. On the other hand, the time-averaged objective function requires additional steps in the adjoint approach; the unsteady discrete adjoint equations for a periodic flow must be reformulated and the corresponding system of equations solved iteratively. We compare the design results from shape and trajectory optimizations and investigate the physical relevance of design variables to the flapping motion at on- and off-design conditions.
Not Available
1991-01-01
The present conference on aplied aerodynamics encompasses computational fluid dynamics, drag prediction/analysis, experimental aerodynamics, high angles of attack, rotor/propeller aerodynamics, super/hypersonic aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, vortex physics, high-speed civil-transport aeroacoustics, and airfoil/wing aerodynamics. Specific issues addressed include high-speed civil-transport air-breathing propulsion, generic hypersonic inlet-module analysis, an investigation on spoiler effects, high-alpha vehicle dynamics, space-station resource node flow-field analysis, a numerical simulation of sabot discard aerodynamics, and vortex control using pneumatic blowing. Also addressed are Navier-Stokes solutions for the F/A-18 Wing-LEX fuselage, tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions, an investigation of rotor wake interactions with a body in low-speed forward flight, and multigrid calculations of 3D viscous cascade flows.
Status and prospects of computational fluid dynamics for unsteady transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.; Kutler, P.; Bridgman, J. C.
1985-01-01
Applications of computational aerodynamics to aeronautical research, design, and analysis have increased rapidly over the past decade, and these applications offer significant benefits to aeroelasticians. The past developments are traced by means of a number of specific examples, and the trends are projected over the next several years. The crucial factors that limit the present capabilities for unsteady analyses are identified; they include computer speed and memory, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, turbulence modeling, vortex modeling, data processing, and coupling of the aerodynamic and structural dynamic analyses. The prospects for overcoming these limitations are presented, and many improvements appear to be readily attainable. If so, a complete and reliable numerical simulation of the unsteady, transonic viscous flow around a realistic fighter aircraft configuration could become possible within the next decade. The possibilities of using artificial intelligence concepts to hasten the achievement of this goal are also discussed.
Status and prospects of computational fluid dynamics for unsteady transonic viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.; Kutler, P.; Bridgeman, J. O.
1984-01-01
Applications of computational aerodynamics to aeronautical research, design, and analysis have increased rapidly over the past decade, and these applications offer significant benefits to aeroelasticians. The past developments are traced by means of a number of specific examples, and the trends are projected over the next several years. The crucial factors that limit the present capabilities for unsteady analyses are identified; they include computer speed and memory, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, turbulence modeling, vortex modeling, data processing, and coupling of the aerodynamic and structural dynamic analyses. The prospects for overcoming these limitations are presented, and many improvements appear to be readily attainable. If so, a complete and reliable numerical simulation of the unsteady, transonic viscous flow around a realistic fighter aircraft configuration could become possible within the next decade. The possibilities of using artificial intelligence concepts to hasten the achievement of this goal are also discussed.
Recent developments in the Green's function method. [for aerodynamics computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, K.; Puglise, J. A.; Morino, L.
1977-01-01
A recent computational development on the Green's function method (the method used in the computer program SOUSSA: Steady, Oscillatory and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) is presented. A scheme consisting of combined numerical (Gaussian quadrature) and analytical procedures for the evaluation of the source and doublet integrals used in the program is presented. This combination results in 80 to 90% reduction in computer time.
The Aerodynamics of Deforming Wings at Low Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medina, Albert
Flapping flight has gained much attention in the past decade driven by the desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and the desire to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Advancing our current understanding of unsteady aerodynamics is an essential component in the development of micro-air vehicles (MAV) intended to utilize flight mechanics akin to insect flight. Thus the efforts undertaken that of bio-mimicry. The complexities of insect wing motion are dissected and simplified to more tractable problems to elucidate the fundamentals of unsteady aerodynamics in biologically inspired kinematics. The MAV's fruition would satisfy long established needs in both the military and civilian sectors. Although recent studies have provided great insight into the lift generating mechanisms of flapping wings the deflection response of such wings remains poorly understood. This dissertation numerically and experimentally investigates the aerodynamic performance of passively and actively deflected wings in hover and rotary kinematics. Flexibility is distilled to discrete lines of flexion which acknowledging major flexion lines in insect wings to be the primary avenue for deformation. Of primary concern is the development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a high circulation region of low pressure above the wing to which much of the wing's lift generation is attributed. Two-dimensional simulations of wings with chord-wise flexibility in a freestream reveal a lift generating mechanism unavailable to rigid wings with origins in vortical symmetry breaking. The inclusion of flexibility in translating wings accelerated from rest revealed the formation time of the initial LEV was very weakly dependent on the flexible stiffness of the wing, maintaining a universal time scale of four to five chords of travel before shedding. The frequency of oscillatory shedding of the leading and trailing-edge vortices that develops after the initial vortex shedding was shown to be responsive to flexibility satisfying an inverse proportionality to stiffness. In hover, an effective pitch angle can be defined in a flexible wing that accounts for deflection which shifts results toward trend lines of rigid wings. Three-dimensional simulations examining the effects of two distinct deformation modes undergoing prescribed deformation associated with root and tip deflection demonstrated a greater aerodynamic response to tip deflection in hover. Efficiency gains in flexion wings over rigid wing counterpart were shown to be dependent on Reynolds number with efficiency in both modes increasing with increased Reynolds number. Additionally, while the leading-edge vortex axis proved insensitive to deformation, the shape and orientation of the LEV core is modified. Experiments on three-dimensional dynamically-scaled fruit fly wings with passive deformation operating in the bursting limit Reynolds number regime revealed enhanced leading-edge vortex bursting with tip deflection promoting greater LEV core flow deceleration in stroke. Experimental studies on rotary wings highlights a universal formation time of the leading-edge vortex independent of Reynolds number, acceleration profile and aspect ratio. Efforts to replicate LEV bursting phenomena of higher aspect ratio wings in a unity aspect ratio wing such that LEV growth is no limited by span but by the LEV traversing the chord revealed a flow regime of oscillatory lift generation reminiscent of behavior exhibited in translating wings that also maintains magnitude peak to peak.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janetzke, David C.; Murthy, Durbha V.
1991-01-01
Aeroelastic analysis is multi-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic capability on a distributed memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a 3-D unsteady aerodynamic model and a parallel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent were demonstrated using 32 processors. The effect of subtask ordering, problem size, and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed memory system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrino, Marco; Bigoni, Fabio; Simoni, Daniele; Giovannini, Matteo; Marconcini, Michele; Pacciani, Roberto; Bertini, Francesco
2016-02-01
The aerodynamic performance of a high-load low-pressure turbine blade cascade has been analyzed for three different distributed surface roughness levels (Ra) for steady and unsteady inflows. Results from CFD simulations and experiments are presented for two different Reynolds numbers (300000 and 70000 representative of take-off and cruise conditions, respectively) in order to evaluate the roughness effects for two typical operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics has been used to support and interpret experimental results, analyzing in detail the flow field on the blade surface and evaluating the non-dimensional local roughness parameters, further contributing to understand how and where roughness have some influence on the aerodynamic performance of the blade. The total pressure distributions in the wake region have been measured by means of a five-hole miniaturized pressure probe for the different flow conditions, allowing the evaluation of profile losses and of their dependence on the surface finish, as well as a direct comparison with the simulations. Results reported in the paper clearly highlight that only at the highest Reynolds number tested (Re=300000) surface roughness have some influence on the blade performance, both for steady and unsteady incoming flows. In this flow condition profile losses grow as the surface roughness increases, while no appreciable variations have been found at the lowest Reynolds number. The boundary layer evolution and the wake structure have shown that this trend is due to a thickening of the suction side boundary layer associated to an anticipation of transition process. On the other side, no effects have been observed on the pressure side boundary layer.
On the application of a linearized unsteady potential-flow analysis to fan-tip cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usab, W. J., Jr.; Verdon, J. M.
1986-01-01
A linearized potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of nonuniform steady flow phenomena on the unsteady response to prescribed blade motions, has been applied to five two-dimensional cascade configurations. These include a flat-plate cascade and three cascades which are representative of the tip sections of current fan designs. Here the blades are closely spaced, highly staggered, and operate at low mean incidence. The fifth configuration is a NASA Lewis cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils for which experimental measurements are available. Numerical solutions are presented that clearly illustrate the effects and importance of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the linearized unsteady response at high subsonic inlet Mach number and high blade-vibrational frequency. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is shown between the analytical predictions and experimental measurements for the cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils. Finally, recommendations on the research needed to extend the range of application of linearized unsteady aerodynamic analyses are provided.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Aerospace Vehicle During a Subsonic Pitch-Over Maneuver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleb, William L.
1996-01-01
Time-dependent CFD has been used to predict aerospace vehicle aerodynamics during a subsonic rotation maneuver. The inviscid 3D3U code is employed to solve the 3-D unsteady flow field using an unstructured grid of tetrahedra. As this application represents a challenge to time-dependent CFD, observations concerning spatial and temporal resolution are included. It is shown that even for a benign rotation rate, unsteady aerodynamic effects are significant during the maneuver. Possibly more significant, however, the rotation maneuver creates ow asymmetries leading to yawing moment, rolling moment, and side force which are not present in the quasi-steady case. A series of steady solutions at discrete points in the maneuver are also computed for comparison with wind tunnel measurements and as a means of quantifying unsteady effects.
Unsteady swimming of small organisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyan; Ardekani, Arezoo
2012-11-01
Small planktonic organisms ubiquitously display unsteady or impulsive motion to attack a prey or escape a predator in natural environments. Despite this, the role of unsteady hydrodynamic forces such as history and added mass forces on the low Reynolds number propulsion of small organisms is poorly understood. In this paper, we derive the fundamental equation of motion for an organism swimming by the means of surface distortion in a nonuniform flow at a low Reynolds number regime. We show that the history and added mass forces, that where traditionally neglected in the literature for small swimming organisms, cannot be neglected as the Stokes number increases above unity. For example, these unsteady inertial forces are of the same order as quasi-steady Stokes forces for Paramecium. Finally, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. This work is supported by NSF grant CBET-1066545.
Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2010-11-01
Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, R. E.
1980-05-01
The aerodynamics of wind turbines is reviewed starting with effects of lift and drag on translating devices and proceeding through the performance aerodynamics of the horizontal-axis and vertical-axis machines currently in service. Horizontal-axis rotor aerodynamics is outlined and the performance limits are presented along with key assumptions and problem areas. The Darrieus rotor multiple streamtube analysis is developed and compared with fixed and free wake analyses for an idealized case.
Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinier, Jeremy T
2012-01-01
When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.
Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.
2000-01-01
Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.
Flow Fields Over Unsteady Three Dimensional Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.
2013-12-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239?m) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for sediment entrainment and sediment transport dynamics during bed form adjustment. Finally, the flow predictions enable a reassessment of the drag caused by the superimposed bed forms generated by unsteady flow.
Unsteady potential flow past a propeller blade section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takallu, M. A.
1990-01-01
An analytical study was conducted to predict the effect of an oscillating stream on the time dependent sectional pressure and lift coefficients of a model propeller blade. The assumption is that as the blade sections encounter a wake, the actual angles of attack vary in a sinusoidal manner through the wake, thus each blade is exposed to an unsteady stream oscillating about a mean value at a certain reduced frequency. On the other hand, an isolated propeller at some angle of attack can experience periodic changes in the value of the flow angle causing unsteady loads on the blades. Such a flow condition requires the inclusion of new expressions in the formulation of the unsteady potential flow around the blade sections. These expressions account for time variation of angle of attack and total shed vortices in the wake of each airfoil section. It was found that the final expressions for the unsteady pressure distribution on each blade section are periodic and that the unsteady circulation and lift coefficients exhibit a hysteresis loop.
Experimental investigation on aerodynamic performance of a flapping wing vehicle in forward flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazaheri, K.; Ebrahimi, A.
2011-05-01
The aerodynamic performance of a flexible membrane flapping wing has been investigated here. For this purpose, a flapping-wing system and an experimental set-up were designed to measure the unsteady aerodynamic forces of the flapping wing motion. A one-component force balance was set up to record the temporal variations of aerodynamic forces. The flapping wing was studied in a large low-speed wind tunnel. The lift and thrust of this mechanism were measured for different flapping frequencies, angles of attack and for various wind tunnel velocities. Results indicate that the thrust increases with the flapping frequency. An increase in the wind tunnel speed and flow angle of attack leads to reduction in the thrust value and increases the lift component. The aerodynamic and performance parameters were nondimensionalized. Appropriate models were introduced which show its aerodynamic performance and may be used in the design process and also optimization of the flapping wing.
Numerical and Experimental Study on Unsteady Shedding of Partial Cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Bin; Luo, Xianwu; Wu, Yulin; Peng, Xiaoxing; Xu, Hongyuan
Periodically unsteady shedding of partial cavity and forming of cavitation cloud have a great influence on hydraulic performances and cavitation erosion for ship propellers and hydro machines. In the present study, the unsteady cavitating flow around a hydrofoil has been calculated by using the single fluid approach with a developed cavitation mass transfer expression based on the vaporization and condensation of the fluid. The numerical simulation depicted the unsteady shedding of partial cavity, such as the process of cavity developing, breaking off and collapsing in the downstream under the steady incoming flow condition. It is noted that good agreement between the numerical results and that of experiment conducted at a cavitation tunnel is achieved. The cavitating flow field indicates that the cavity shedding was mainly caused by the re-entrant jet near cavity trailing edge, which was also clearly recorded by high-speed photographing.
Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.
2003-01-01
An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.
2005-07-01
Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.
The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.
Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H
2005-06-01
Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight costs. PMID:15939772
The acoustics and unsteady wall pressure of a circulation control airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silver, Jonathan C.
A Circulation Control (CC) airfoil uses a wall jet exiting onto a rounded trailing edge to generate lift via the Coanda effect. The aerodynamics of the CC airfoil have been studied extensively. The acoustics of the airfoil are, however, much less understood. The primary goal of the present work was to study the radiated sound and unsteady surface pressures of a CC airfoil. The focus of this work can be divided up into three main categories: characterizing the unsteady surface pressures, characterizing the radiated sound, and understanding the acoustics from surface pressures. The present work is the first to present the unsteady surface pressures from the trailing edge cylinder of a circulation control airfoil. The auto-spectral density of the unsteady surface pressures at various locations around the trailing edge are presented over a wide range of the jets momentum coefficient. Coherence of pressure and length scales were computed and presented. Single microphone measurements were made at a range of angles for a fixed observer distance in the far field. Spectra are presented for select angles to show the directivity of the airfoil's radiated sound. Predictions of the acoustics were made from unsteady surface pressures via Howe's curvature noise model and a modified Curle's analogy. A summary of the current understanding of the acoustics from a CC airfoil is given along with suggestions for future work.
Spatial Characteristics of the Unsteady Differential Pressures on 16 percent F/A-18 Vertical Tails
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moses, Robert W.; Ashley, Holt
1998-01-01
Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.
An experimental study of airfoil-spoiler aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclachlan, B. G.; Karamcheti, K.
1985-01-01
The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dinyavari, M. A. H.; Friedmann, P. P.
1985-01-01
The primary objective of this paper is to illustrate the influence of finite-state arbitrary-motion time-domain aerodynamics on rotor blade aeroelastic stability in hover and forward flight. The essential ingredients of the generalized Greenberg type time-domain unsteady aerodynamics are presented and incorporated in a coupled nonlinear flap-lag analysis. Aeroelastic stability boundaries for both hover and forward flight are obtained using both arbitrary-motion time-domain aerodynamics and quasi-steady aerodynamics. The sensitivity of flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries to time-domain arbitrary-motion unsteady aerodynamics is evaluated by comparing the two sets of results for various blade configurations and flight conditions.
Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.
1980-01-01
A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.
Not Available
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.
Mechanisms of flow control with the unsteady bleed technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, D. R.; Acharya, M.; Bernhardt, J.
1992-01-01
The unsteady bleed technique (a.k.a. internal acoustic forcing) has been shown to be an effective method for control of separation on low Reynolds number airfoils, blunt-end cylinders aligned axially with the flow, cylinders aligned perpendicular to the flow, and forebody geometries at high angles of attack. In many of these investigations, the mechanism for the control has been attributed to enhancement of the shear layer (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability by the unsteady component of the forcing. However, this is not the only possible mechanism, nor may it be the dominant mechanism under some conditions. In this work it is demonstrated that at least two other mechanisms for flow control are present, and depending on the location and the amplitude of the forcing, these may have significant impact on the flow behavior. Experiments were conducted on a right-circular cylinder with a single unsteady bleed slot aligned along the axis of the cylinder. The effects of forcing frequency, forcing amplitude, and slot location on the azimuthal pressure distribution were studied. The results suggest that a strong vortical structure forms near the unsteady bleed slot when the slot location is upstream of the boundary layer separation point. The structure is unsteady, since it is created by the unsteady forcing. The 'vortex' generates a sizeable pressure spike (C(sub p) = -3.0) in the time-averaged pressure field immediately downstream of the slot. In addition to the pressure spike, the boundary layer separation location moves farther downstream when the forcing is activated. Delay of the separation is believed to be a result of enhancing the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. When forcing is applied in a quiescent wind tunnel, a weak low-pressure region forms near the slot that is purely the result of the second-order streaming effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1992-01-01
A time-accurate approximate-factorization (AF) algorithm is described for solution of the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm consists of a time-linearization procedure coupled with a subiteration technique. The algorithm is the basis for the Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance (CAP-TSD) computer code, which was developed for the analysis of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of realistic aircraft configurations. The paper describes details on the governing flow equations and boundary conditions, with an emphasis on documenting the finite-difference formulas of the AF algorithm.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
Aerodynamic applications of infrared thermography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.
1989-01-01
A series of wind tunnel experiments were conducted as part of a systematic study for evaluation of infrared thermography as a viable non-intrusive thermal measurement technique for aerodynamic applications. The experiments consisted of obtaining steady-state surface temperature and convective heat transfer rates for a uniformly heated cylinder in transverse flow with a Reynolds number range of 46,000 to 250,000. The calculated convective heat transfer rates were in general agreement with classical data. Furthermore, IR thermography provided valuable real-time fluid dynamic information such as visualization of flow separation, transition and vortices.
Unsteady Lift Response and Energy Extraction in Gusting Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jeesoon; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David
2012-11-01
The unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with streamwise (surging) and transverse (plunging) oscillating motions are studied to understand the dynamic response to gusts and the potential for energy extraction. We focus on 2D thin airfoils at low sub- and super-critical Reynolds number so that the role of wake instability can be isolated. Simulations are performed in a large parameter space of angle of attack, reduced frequency, and oscillation amplitude. At low angle of attack, the magnitude and phase of the fluctuating lift are in reasonable agreement with classical theory at all reduced frequencies. In this case, the quasi-steady force is modified by contributions from shed vorticity at the trailing edge and added-mass at high reduced frequency. At high angle of attack, the fluctuating forces are found to be enhanced or attenuated by a leading-edge vortex, depending on the reduced frequency. Resonance with the wake instability is also investigated.
Inviscid analysis of unsteady blade tip flow correlation studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, B. M.; Maskew, B.
1985-01-01
Two computer programs, VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H, were used for computing the unsteady subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrarily shaped wings oscillating in pitch. Program VSAERO-TS is a time-stepping analysis capable of treating large amplitude motions while program VSAERO-H uses harmonic wake and small amplitude assumptions. A comparison between the computed (VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H) and DFVLR test results for chordwise pressure distributions for rectangular, swept, taper and ogee blade tips is presented in this report. A wide range of angles of attack (mean) from 0 to 12 deg and reduced frequencies of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 are covered in this report. Also, the comparison includes several spanwise stations.
Unsteady flow and dynamic response analyses for helicopter rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.
1979-01-01
Research is presented on helicopter rotor blade vibration and on two and three dimensional analyses of unsteady incompressible viscous flow past oscillating helicopter rotor blades. A summary is presented of the two international research collaborations which resulted from the NASA project: the collaboration under the auspices of NATO between the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of Brussels, Belgium and the Aerodynamics Research Establishment in Goettingen, West Germany, and the collaboration under the auspices of the National Science Foundation between UWM and the University of Hamburg and the Ship Research Establishment in Hamburg, West Germany. A summary is given of the benefits from the NASA project to UWM, the College of Engineering and Applied Science, and the participants on the project.
Turbine stage aerodynamics and heat transfer prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, Lisa W.; Mcconnaughey, H. V.
1989-01-01
A numerical study of the aerodynamic and thermal environment associated with axial turbine stages is presented. Computations were performed using a modification of the unsteady NASA Ames viscous code, ROTOR1, and an improved version of the NASA Lewis steady inviscid cascade system MERIDL-TSONIC coupled with boundary layer codes BLAYER and STAN5. Two different turbine stages were analyzed: the first stage of the United Technologies Research Center Large Scale Rotating Rig (LSRR) and the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump turbine. The time-averaged airfoil midspan pressure and heat transfer profiles were predicted for numerous thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic wall, prescribed surface temperature, and prescribed heat flux. Computed solutions are compared with each other and with experimental data in the case of the LSRR calculations. Modified ROTOR1 predictions of unsteady pressure envelopes and instantaneous contour plots are also presented for the SSME geometry. Relative merits of the two computational approaches are discussed.
Rothe, P.H.
1985-01-01
This book presents the papers given at a conference on fluid flow and hydraulics. Topics considered at the conference included a numerical study of pressure transients in a borehole due to pipe movement, laminar fluid transients in conduits of unconventional shape, water hammer analysis needs in nuclear power plant design, modeling blockage in unsteady slurry flow in conduits, and check valve slamming in a BWR feedwater system following a postulated pipe break.
Physics of Forced Unsteady Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, Lawrence W. (Editor)
1992-01-01
This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in April 1990. This workshop was jointly organized by NASA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and the Army Research Office (ARO), and was directed toward improved understanding of the physical processes that cause unsteady separation to occur. The proceedings contain the written contributions for the workshop, and include selected viewgraphs used in the various presentations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2009-01-01
Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed, built, and tested at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The results from the full order model and the approximate reduced order model are analyzed and compared.
A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, Raymond H.
1992-01-01
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay
2013-08-01
A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.
The effects of wind and posture on the aerodynamic performance during the flight stage of skiing.
Chen, Zhifeng; Fang, Haisheng
2011-09-01
Numerical simulation is conducted to evaluate the wind and posture effects on the aerodynamic performance of a skier during the flight stage. Both steady and unsteady models are applied on a 2D geometry. Using the Fluent code, the fundamental equations of fluid flow are solved simultaneously. In particular we focus on the influence of wind speed and direction on aerodynamic forces with several different postures of the skier in steady modeling. For a chosen case, the unsteady models are used to predict the transient characteristics of streamline distributions and aerodynamic forces. It is found that the skier's postures, wind speed, and direction play a significant role. The wind condition affects the pressure force (the form drag) on the skier and makes it a resistance or thrust regarding wind directions. The optimized posture with a minimization of resistance under a facing wind is determined as a moving-forward body of the skier. The unsteady modeling reveals that the wake around the skier and aerodynamic forces are strongly dependent on time. This initial study not only provides a qualitative and theoretical basis for the athletes to understand the effects of wind and postures, and then to optimize their postures according to the wind condition during the flight stage of skiing, but also builds the foundation for the systematic study of skiing process with more advanced CFD models in the future. PMID:22010736
Effects of leading and trailing edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil/vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, Ahmed A.; Sankar, L. N.; Tadghighi, H.
1991-01-01
A numerical procedure based on the unsteady 2D full potential equation is presently used to simulate the effects of leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil-vortex interactions. Attention is given to unsteady flap-motion effects, which alleviate those interactions at sub- and supercritical onset flows. For subcritical interactions, the results obtained indicate that trailing-edge flaps can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil; for supercritical interactions, a leading- rather than trailing-edge flap must be used to alleviate the interaction.
Numerical modeling of wind turbine aerodynamic noise in the time domain.
Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Soogab
2013-02-01
Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200
MODELING STRATEGIES FOR UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOWS IN THE LOWER PLENUM OF THE VHTR
Richard W. Johnson
2006-09-01
Validation simulations are presented for turbulent flow in a staggered tube bank, geometry similar to that in the lower plenum of a block very high temperature reactor. Steady 2D RANS predictions are compared to unsteady 2D RANS results and experiment. The unsteady calculations account for the fact that nonturbulent fluctuations (due to vortex-shedding) are present in the flow. The unsteady computations are shown to predict the mean variables and the total shear stress quite well. Previous workers have presented results that indicated that 3D simulations were necessary to obtain reasonable results. Best practices are based on requirements for the ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering.
Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.
1992-01-01
Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.
Experimental evaluation of a flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Han, Jae-Hung
2008-03-01
In the preliminary design phase of the bio-inspired flapping-wing MAV (micro air vehicle), it is necessary to predict the aerodynamic forces around the flapping-wing under flapping-wing motion at cruising flight. In this study, the efficient quasi-steady flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV application is explained and it is experimentally verified. The flapping-wing motion is decoupled to the plunging and pitching motion, and the plunging-pitching motion generator with load cell assembly is developed. The compensation of inertial forces from the measured lift and thrust is studied to measure the pure aerodynamic loads on the flapping-wing. Advanced ratio is introduced to evaluate the unsteadiness of the flow and to make an application range of flapping-wing aerodynamic model.
Computational analysis of high resolution unsteady airloads for rotor aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C.-M. Gordon; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.
1994-01-01
The study of helicopter aerodynamic loading for acoustics applications requires the application of efficient yet accurate simulations of the velocity field induced by the rotor's vortex wake. This report summarizes work to date on the development of such an analysis, which builds on the Constant Vorticity Contour (CVC) free wake model, previously implemented for the study of vibratory loading in the RotorCRAFT computer code. The present effort has focused on implementation of an airload reconstruction approach that computes high resolution airload solutions of rotor/rotor-wake interactions required for acoustics computations. Supplementary efforts on the development of improved vortex core modeling, unsteady aerodynamic effects, higher spatial resolution of rotor loading, and fast vortex wake implementations have substantially enhanced the capabilities of the resulting software, denoted RotorCRAFT/AA (AeroAcoustics). Results of validation calculations using recently acquired model rotor data show that by employing airload reconstruction it is possible to apply the CVC wake analysis with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustics applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to that required by direct calculations. Promising correlation with this body of airload and noise data has been obtained for a variety of rotor configurations and operating conditions.
The basic aerodynamics of floatation
Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.
1983-09-01
The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.
On the Physics of Flow Separation Along a Low Pressure Turbine Blade Under Unsteady Flow Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schobeiri, Meinhard T.; Ozturk, Burak; Ashpis, David E.
2003-01-01
The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed at Texas A&M Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory using a large-scale unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. To account for a high flow deflection of LPT-cascades at design and off-design operating points, the entire wake generator and test section unit including the traversing system is designed to allow a precise angle adjustment of the cascade relative to the incoming flow. This is done by a hydraulic platform, which simultaneously lifts and rotates the wake generator and test section unit. The unit is then attached to the tunnel exit nozzle with an angular accuracy of better than 0.05 , which is measured electronically. Utilizing a Reynolds number of 110,000 based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, one steady and two different unsteady inlet flowconditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities and turbulence intensities are investigated using hot-wire anemometry. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re=50,000, 75,000, 100,000, and 125,000 at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extent of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms contribute to understanding the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow. Several physical mechanisms are discussed.
On the Physics of Flow Separation Along a Low Pressure Turbine Blade Under Unsteady Flow Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schobeiri, Meinhard T.; Ozturk, Burak; Ashpis, David E.
2005-01-01
The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed at Texas A&M Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory using a large-scale unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. To account for a high flow deflection of LPT-cascades at design and off-design operating points, the entire wake generator and test section unit including the traversing system is designed to allow a precise angle adjustment of the cascade relative to the incoming flow. This is done by a hydraulic platform, which simultaneously lifts and rotates the wake generator and test section unit. The unit is then attached to the tunnel exit nozzle with an angular accuracy of better than 0.05 , which is measured electronically. Utilizing a Reynolds number of 110,000 based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities and turbulence intensities are investigated using hot-wire anemometry. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re=50,000, 75,000, 100,000, and 125,000 at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extent of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms contribute to understanding the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow. Several physical mechanisms are discussed.
Inlet Flow Distortion and Unsteady Blade Response in a Transonic Axial-Compressor Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rabe, D. C.; Williams, C.; Hah, C.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the unsteady blade surface pressures on the first-stage rotor blades of a two-stage transonic axial flow compressor experiencing inlet flow distortion. This study was conducted to demonstrate the ability of a full annulus unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes numerical technique to predict unsteady pressures on the rotor blades operating in a distorted inflow. A total pressure distortion produced by a variable mesh screen mounted near the inlet was used to excite the unsteady blade loading on the rotor. On-blade pressure transducers were used to measure the unsteady blade surface pressure. These pressures and the resulting transient load on the rotor blades were compared to the numerical prediction. It is important to develop numerical techniques to predict these transient loads to better understand the response of compressor blades to forcing functions. With this enhanced understanding and ability to predict these transient forces, more robust compressors can be developed. In the study, a high definition of the inlet flow distortion was achieved by rotating the distortion screens. In this manner the inlet flow distortion and the distortion at the first stage stator leading edge were measured at approximately every 0.7 degrees. This full annulus high definition of the inlet flow distortion was used as the inlet boundary condition for the numerical technique. The experimental measurements and numerical analyses are highly complementary in this study. Detailed comparisons between the measurements and the numerical analyses indicate that the current numerical procedure calculates the unsteady aerodynamic pressure on the blade surfaces reasonably well. Further, the agreement of the measured and predicted rotor exit flow distortion at the first stage stator leading edge provides verification of the numerical technique.
The effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on turbomachinery flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekici, Kivanc; Kielb, Robert E.; Hall, Kenneth C.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on the flutter characteristics of turbomachinery blades is investigated. Specifically, the present method is used to study the effect of leading edge blending in loaded and unloaded rotors. The unsteady aerodynamic response of the blades to self-excited vibrations is modeled using a harmonic balance method, which allows one to model the entire wheel using complex periodic boundary conditions and a computational grid spanning a single sector (symmetry group). This reduces the computational and memory requirements dramatically compared to similar time-accurate analyses. It is shown that alternate blending degrades the stability of a loaded rotor whereas it improves the stability of an unloaded rotor. On the other hand, when blends are spaced five blades apart their effect is less pronounced.
Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer
The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the significant quieting of modern engines, airframe noise now competes with engine noise. Optimal control techniques for unsteady flows are needed in order to be able to reduce airframe-generated noise. In this thesis, a general framework is formulated to calculate the gradient of a cost function in a nonlinear unsteady flow environment via the discrete adjoint method. The unsteady optimization algorithm developed in this work utilizes a Newton-Krylov approach since the gradient-based optimizer uses the quasi-Newton method BFGS, Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear flow problem, GMRES is used to solve the resulting linear problem inexactly, and last but not least the linear adjoint problem is solved using Bi-CGSTAB. The flow is governed by the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized using structured grids and a finite difference approach. The effectiveness of the unsteady optimization algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to several problems of interest including shocktubes, pulses in converging-diverging nozzles, rotating cylinders, transonic buffeting, and an unsteady trailing-edge flow. In order to address radiated far-field noise, an acoustic wave propagation program based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation is implemented and validated. The general framework is then used to derive the adjoint equations for a novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm in order to be able to optimize the shape of airfoils based on their calculated far-field pressure fluctuations. Validation and application results for this novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm show that it is possible to optimize the shape of an airfoil in an unsteady flow environment to minimize its radiated far-field noise while maintaining good aerodynamic performance.
Perturbation dynamics in unsteady pipe flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, M.; Ghidaoui, M. S.; Kolyshkin, A. A.
This paper deals with perturbed unsteady laminar flows in a pipe. Three types of flows are considered: a flow accelerated from rest; a flow in a pipe generated by the controlled motion of a piston; and a water hammer flow where the transient is generated by the instantaneous closure of a valve. Methods of linear stability theory are used to analyse the behaviour of small perturbations in the flow. Since the base flow is unsteady, the linearized problem is formulated as an initial-value problem. This allows us to consider arbitrary initial conditions and describe both short-time and long-time evolution of the flow. The role of initial conditions on short-time transients is investigated. It is shown that the phenomenon of transient growth is not associated with a certain type of initial conditions. Perturbation dynamics is also studied for long times. In addition, optimal perturbations, i.e. initial perturbations that maximize the energy growth, are determined for all three types of flow discussed. Despite the fact that these optimal perturbations, most probably, will not occur in practice, they do provide an upper bound for energy growth and can be used as a point of reference. Results of numerical simulation are compared with previous experimental data. The comparison with data for accelerated flows shows that the instability cannot be explained by long-time asymptotics. In particular, the method of normal modes applied with the quasi-steady assumption will fail to predict the flow instability. In contrast, the transient growth mechanism may be used to explain transition since experimental transition time is found to be in the interval where the energy of perturbation experiences substantial growth. Instability of rapidly decelerated flows is found to be associated with asymptotic growth mechanism. Energy growth of perturbations is used in an attempt to explain previous experimental results. Numerical results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental features such as the wavelength of the most unstable mode and the structure of the most unstable disturbance. The validity of the quasi-steady assumption for stability studies of unsteady non-periodic laminar flows is discussed.
Unsteady Katabatic Winds on Mountain Slopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernando, H. J. S.; Princevac, M.; Hunt, J. C. R.
2003-04-01
UNSTEADY KATABATIC WINDS ON MOUNTAIN SLOPES H.J.S. Fernando (1), M. Princevac (1) and J.C.R. Hunt (2) (1) Arizona State University, Tempe, (2) University College, London j.fernando@asu.edu Theoretical and field studies were carried out on velocity and temperature fields of an unsteady nighttime atmospheric boundary layer on sloping surfaces. Field data were collected during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) conducted in the Salt Lake basin, Utah. Nighttime data from two slope sites, with measurements taken using six tethersonde systems and three sonic anemometers placed at a various representative locations along the slope, were used in the analysis. This analysis concerned simple katabatic flows as well as the interaction between (evening) down-slope flows on lower (elevation) gentle slopes and those originating at adjoining higher (elevation) steep mountain slopes. Katabatic winds that form on the steep slope overrun those on the lower slope, thus dominating the micrometeorology at the bottom of the valley. Yet, the flow and temperature on higher slopes are independent of those in the lower valley, given that katabatic flows on steeper slopes are generally supercritical and do not transmit flow information upstream. By employing assumptions on the flow structure and using parameterizations for pertinent processes, an expression was derived for the layer-averaged katabatic flow velocity. Using energy arguments to calculate the growth rate of the katabatic-layer thickness, a new expression for the flow depth was derived. Extensive comparisons between theoretical results and field observations were made, allowing cross-fertilization between theoretical developments, eduction of flow physics and interpretation of field data. Unsteady effects pertinent to katabatic flows were also considered, following Fleagleâ€™s approach, and it is shown theoretically and using observations that the down-slope flow pulsates with a period inversely proportional to the background stratification and the slope angle. In concurrence with the theoretical analysis, the down-slope flow was found to pulsate with a longer period on a gentle slope (70 to 130 minutes) and a shorter period on a steeper slope (20 to 50 minutes).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.
1974-01-01
A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The computer was used to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separated regions and wake vortex patterns are determined. The computer program developed to perform the numerical calculations is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.
1974-01-01
A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The technique employed is the use of the computer to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the required two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separation regions and wake vortex patterns are determined.
An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi
2011-08-01
An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 < Str < 0.4 used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.
Unsteady Stored Heat Behavior in Building Frame of Reinforced Concrete Structure Type Cold Storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Tomohiro; Murakami, Yuji; Uchikawa, Motoyuki
The time variation of temperature in the reinforced concrete frame with an internal insulation or with an external insulation and the unsteady stored heat behavior, which results from the thermal mass of the concrete frame, have been investigated. The experiments with the concrete models and the measurements of the heat flux through the practical cold storage were performed. The experimental results under the unsteady condition showed great difference of the stored heat behavior between the internal insulation type and the external type. In addition, it was shown that the external insulation frame was useful for heat storage. The simulation method with two dimentional unsteady FEM was introduced for easily analyzing the stored heat behavior problems of the practical cold storages, which had various specifications in design. The calculated results of the heat flux and temperature in the concrete frame agreed with the experiments approximately. From these results, the suggestions for the design of the insulation wall under the unsteady condition were given.
Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model. Part 2; Unsteady Surface Pressures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Neuhart, Danny H.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present unsteady surface pressure measurements for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model. This high-fidelity model is being used to perform detailed studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear, flap components, and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aerodynamic segment of the tests, conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, was completed in November 2010. To discern the characteristics of the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the prominent noise sources, unsteady sensors were installed on the inboard and outboard flap edges, and on the main gear wheels, struts, and door. Various configurations were tested, including flap deflections of 0?, 20?, and 39?, with and without the main landing gear. The majority of unsteady surface pressure measurements were acquired for the nominal landing configuration where the main gear was deployed and the flap was deflected 39?. To assess the Mach number variation of the surface pressure amplitudes, measurements were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Comparison of the unsteady surface pressures with the main gear on and off shows significant interaction between the gear wake and the inboard flap edge, resulting in higher amplitude fluctuations when the gear is present.
Methodology of Blade Unsteady Pressure Measurement in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Capece, V. R.; Jett, T. A.; Senyitko, R. G.
2002-01-01
In this report the methodology adopted to measure unsteady pressures on blade surfaces in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade under conditions of simulated blade flutter is described. The previous work done in this cascade reported that the oscillating cascade produced waves, which for some interblade phase angles reflected off the wind tunnel walls back into the cascade, interfered with the cascade unsteady aerodynamics, and contaminated the acquired data. To alleviate the problems with data contamination due to the back wall interference, a method of influence coefficients was selected for the future unsteady work in this cascade. In this approach only one blade in the cascade is oscillated at a time. The majority of the report is concerned with the experimental technique used and the experimental data generated in the facility. The report presents a list of all test conditions for the small amplitude of blade oscillations, and shows examples of some of the results achieved. The report does not discuss data analysis procedures like ensemble averaging, frequency analysis, and unsteady blade loading diagrams reconstructed using the influence coefficient method. Finally, the report presents the lessons learned from this phase of the experimental effort, and suggests the improvements and directions of the experimental work for tests to be carried out for large oscillation amplitudes.
The predicted effect of aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
A mathematical model is developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of motion together with the unsteady aerodynamic loading. The effect of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.
Wind Tunnel Measurements and Calculations of Aerodynamic Interactions Between Tiltrotor Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Derby, Michael R.; Wadcock, Alan J.
2002-01-01
Wind tunnel measurements and calculations of the aerodynamic interactions between two tiltrotor aircraft in helicopter mode are presented. The measured results include the roll moment and thrust change on the downwind aircraft, as a function of the upwind aircraft position (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical). Magnitudes and locations of the largest interactions are identified. The calculated interactions generally match the measurements, with discrepancies attributed to the unsteadiness of the wake and aerodynamic forces on the airframe. To interpret the interactions in terms of control and power changes on the aircraft, additional calculations are presented for trimmed aircraft with gimballed rotors.
Application of CFD techniques toward the validation of nonlinear aerodynamic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Katz, J.
1985-01-01
Applications of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the regimes of applicability of nonlinear models describing the unsteady aerodynamic responses to aircraft flight motions are described. The potential advantages of computational methods over experimental methods are discussed and the concepts underlying mathematical modeling are reviewed. The economic and conceptual advantages of the modeling procedure over coupled, simultaneous solutions of the gasdynamic equations and the vehicle's kinematic equations of motion are discussed. The modeling approach, when valid, eliminates the need for costly repetitive computation of flow field solutions. For the test cases considered, the aerodynamic modeling approach is shown to be valid.
Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
Computational aerodynamics and design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.
1982-01-01
The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348
Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward
1989-01-01
Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.
A combined pFFT-multipole tree code, unsteady panel method with vortex particle wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willis, David J.; Peraire, Jaime; White, Jacob K.
2007-03-01
Potential flow solvers for 3-D aerodynamic flows are commonly used in industrial applications. Two main difficulties preventing the even more widespread use of these codes are the limitations on the number of discretization elements and the user expertise and effort required to specify the wake location. In the paper we present an automatic wake generation strategy for a potential flow solver, and accelerate the method using a pFFT-Fast Multipole Tree algorithm. The combined method can be used to simulate both steady and unsteady flows. The steady state solution is achieved by running an unsteady flow simulation until it reaches a steady state. Computation results are given to demonstrate that the method is fast enough to automatically simulate entire heaving and flapping wing crafts in under and hour on a desktop computer.
Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.
1988-01-01
This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.
Nonlinear Aerodynamics of Bodies in Coning Motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, Lewis B.
1972-01-01
A numerical method for computing the nonlinear inviscid flowfield surrounding a body performing coning motion is described. The method permits accurate computation of the aerodynamic moment due to one of the four motions characterizing an arbitrary nonplanar motion. Results of computations for a slender circular cone in coning motion are presented, and show good agreement with experiment for angles of attack up to twice the cone half-angle. The computational results display significant departure of the side moment from the linear theory value with increasing angle of attack, but agree well with experimental measurements. This indicates that the initial nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamic moment is determined primarily by the inviscid flow.
Unsteady three-dimensional simulation of VTOL upwash fountain turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Robert E.; Nixon, David
1987-01-01
Numerical simulations of a planar turbulent wall jet and a planar VTOL upwash fountain were performed. These are three dimensional simulations which resolve large scale unsteady motions in the flows. The wall jet simulation shows good agreement with experimental data and is presented to verify the simulation methodology. Simulation of the upwash fountain predicts elevated shear stress and a half velocity width spreading rate of 33% which agrees well with experiment. Turbulence mechanisms which contribute to the enhanced spreading rate are examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasanth, Ravi K.; Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Mehra, Raman K.
2005-01-01
This paper describes model structures and parameter estimation algorithms suitable for the identification of unsteady aerodynamic models from input-output data. The model structures presented are state space models and include linear time-invariant (LTI) models and linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. They cover a wide range of local and parameter dependent identification problems arising in unsteady aerodynamics and nonlinear flight dynamics. We present a residue algorithm for estimating model parameters from data. The algorithm can incorporate apriori information and is described in detail. The algorithms are evaluated on the F-16XL wind-tunnel test data from NAS Langley Research Center. Results of numerical evaluation are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion major issues and directions for future work.
Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Multistage Turbomachinery Flows in Support of Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.
1999-01-01
This paper summarizes the state of 3D CFD based models of the time average flow field within axial flow multistage turbomachines. Emphasis is placed on models which are compatible with the industrial design environment and those models which offer the potential of providing credible results at both design and off-design operating conditions. The need to develop models which are free of aerodynamic input from semi-empirical design systems is stressed. The accuracy of such models is shown to be dependent upon their ability to account for the unsteady flow environment in multistage turbomachinery. The relevant flow physics associated with some of the unsteady flow processes present in axial flow multistage machinery are presented along with procedures which can be used to account for them in 3D CFD simulations. Sample results are presented for both axial flow compressors and axial flow turbines which help to illustrate the enhanced predictive capabilities afforded by including these procedures in 3D CFD simulations. Finally, suggestions are given for future work on the development of time average flow models.
Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period January 15, 2004 through April 15, 2004
Leonard, A; Chatelain, P; Heineck, J; Browand, F; Mehta, R; Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B; Brown, J; DeChant, L; Rubel, M; Ross, J; Hammache, M; Pointer, D; Roy, C; Hassan, B; Arcas, D; Hsu, T; Payne, J; Walker, S; Castellucci, P; McCallen, R
2004-04-13
Listed are summaries of the activities and accomplishments during this second-quarter reporting period for each of the consortium participants. The following are some highlights for this reporting period: (1) Experiments and computations guide conceptual designs for reduction of drag due to tractor-trailer gap flow (splitter plate), trailer underbody (wedges), and base drag (base-flap add-ons). (2) Steady and unsteady RANS simulations for the GTS geometry are being finalized for development of clear modeling guidelines with RANS. (3) Full geometry and tunnel simulations on the GCM geometry are underway. (4) CRADA with PACCAR is supporting computational parametric study to determine predictive need to include wind tunnel geometry as limits of computational domain. (5) Road and track test options are being investigated. All is ready for field testing of base-flaps at Crows Landing in California in collaboration with Partners in Advanced Transportation Highways (PATH). In addition, MAKA of Canada is providing the device and Wabash is providing a new trailer. (6) Apparatus to investigate tire splash and spray has been designed and is under construction. Michelin has offered tires with customized threads for this study. (7) Vortex methods have improved techniques for the treatment of vorticity near surfaces and spinning geometries like rotating tires. (8) Wind tunnel experiments on model rail cars demonstrate that empty coal cars exhibit substantial aerodynamic drag compared to full coal cars, indicating that significant fuel savings could be obtained by reducing the drag of empty coal cars. (9) Papers are being prepared for an exclusive conference session on the Heavy Vehicle DOE Aerodynamic Drag Project at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference in Portland, Oregon, June 28-July 1, 2004.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.
1987-01-01
The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.
A collection of flow visualization techniques used in the Aerodynamic Research Branch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Theoretical and experimental research on unsteady aerodynamic flows is discussed. Complex flow fields that involve separations, vortex interactions, and transonic flow effects were investigated. Flow visualization techniques are used to obtain a global picture of the flow phenomena before detailed quantitative studies are undertaken. A wide variety of methods are used to visualize fluid flow and a sampling of these methods is presented. It is emphasized that the visualization technique is a thorough quantitative analysis and subsequent physical understanding of these flow fields.
The Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Joseph
2006-01-01
Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.
Aerodynamics Improve Wind Wheel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, V. W.
1982-01-01
Modifications based on aerodynamic concepts would raise efficiency of wind-wheel electric-power generator. Changes smooth airflow, to increase power output, without increasing size of wheel. Significant improvements in efficiency anticipated without any increase in size or number of moving parts and without departing from simplicity of original design.
Scale effect on unsteady cloud cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dular, M.; Khlifa, I.; Fuzier, S.; Adama Maiga, M.; Coutier-Delgosha, O.
2012-11-01
No experiment was conducted, yet, to investigate the scale effects on the dynamics of developed cavitating flow with periodical cloud shedding. The present study was motivated by the unclear results obtained from the experiments in a Venturi-type section that was scaled down 10 times for the purpose of measurements by ultra-fast X-ray imaging (Coutier-Delgosha et al. 2009). Cavitation in the original size scale section (Stutz and Reboud in Exp Fluids 23:191-198, 1997, Exp Fluids 29:545-552 2000) always displays unsteady cloud separation. However, when the geometry was scaled down, the cavitation became quasi steady although some oscillations still existed. To investigate this phenomenon more in detail, experiments were conducted in six geometrically similar Venturi test sections where either width or height or both were scaled. Various types of instabilities are obtained, from simple oscillations of the sheet cavity length to large vapor cloud shedding when the size of the test section is increased. It confirms that small scale has a significant influence on cavitation. Especially the height of the test section plays a major role in the dynamics of the re-entrant jet that drives the periodical shedding observed at large scale. Results suggest that the sheet cavity becomes stabile when the section is scaled down to a certain point because re-entrant jet cannot fully develop.
Evaluation of Turbulence Models for Unsteady Flows of an Oscillating Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, G. R.; Ekaterinaris, J. A.; McCroskey, W. J.
1995-01-01
Unsteady flowfields of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil are calculated using an implicit, finite-difference, Navier Stokes numerical scheme. Five widely used turbulence models are used with the numerical scheme to assess the accuracy and suitability of the models for simulating the retreating blade stall of helicopter rotor in forward flight. Three unsteady flow conditions corresponding to an essentially attached flow, light-stall, and deep-stall cases of an oscillating NACA 0015 wing experiment were chosen as test cases for computations. Results of unsteady airloads hysteresis curves, harmonics of unsteady pressures, and instantaneous flowfield patterns are presented. Some effects of grid density, time-step size, and numerical dissipation on the unsteady solutions relevant to the evaluation of turbulence models are examined. Comparison of unsteady airloads with experimental data show that all models tested are deficient in some sense and no single model predicts airloads consistently and in agreement with experiment for the three flow regimes. The chief findings are that the simple algebraic model based on the renormalization group theory (RNG) offers some improvement over the Baldwin Lomax model in all flow regimes with nearly same computational cost. The one-equation models provide significant improvement over the algebraic and the half-equation models but have their own limitations. The Baldwin-Barth model overpredicts separation and underpredicts reattachment. In contrast, the Spalart-Allmaras model underpredicts separation and overpredicts reattachment.
Unsteady Full Annulus Simulations of a Transonic Axial Compressor Stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, Gregory P.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Chen, Jen-Ping
2009-01-01
Two recent research endeavors in turbomachinery at NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on compression system stall inception and compression system aerothermodynamic performance. Physical experiment and computational research are ongoing in support of these research objectives. TURBO, an unsteady, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code commissioned and developed by NASA, has been utilized, enhanced, and validated in support of these endeavors. In the research which follows, TURBO is shown to accurately capture compression system flow range-from choke to stall inception-and also to accurately calculate fundamental aerothermodynamic performance parameters. Rigorous full-annulus calculations are performed to validate TURBO s ability to simulate the unstable, unsteady, chaotic stall inception process; as part of these efforts, full-annulus calculations are also performed at a condition approaching choke to further document TURBO s capabilities to compute aerothermodynamic performance data and support a NASA code assessment effort.
Unsteady transonic potential flow over a flexible fuselage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibbons, Michael D.
1993-01-01
A flexible fuselage capability has been developed and implemented within version 1.2 of the CAP-TSD code. The capability required adding time dependent terms to the fuselage surface boundary conditions and the fuselage surface pressure coefficient. The new capability will allow modeling the effect of a flexible fuselage on the aeroelastic stability of complex configurations. To assess the flexible fuselage capability several steady and unsteady calculations have been performed for slender fuselages with circular cross-sections. Steady surface pressures are compared with experiment at transonic flight conditions. Unsteady cross-sectional lift is compared with other analytical results at a low subsonic speed and a transonic case has been computed. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the flexible fuselage modifications.
Vortex scale of unsteady separation on a pitching airfoil.
Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro
2002-10-01
The streaklines of unsteady separation on two kinds of pitching airfoils, the NACA65-0910 and a blunt trailing edge airfoil, were studied by dye flow visualization and by the Schlieren method. The latter visualized the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The results of these visualization studies allow a comparison between the dynamic behavior of the streakline of unsteady separation and that of the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The influence of the airfoil configuration on the flow characteristics was also examined. Furthermore, the scale of a discrete vortex forming the recirculation region was investigated. The non-dimensional pitching rate was k = 0.377, the angle of attack alpha(m) = 16 degrees and the pitching amplitude was fixed to A = +/-6 degrees for Re = 4.0 x 10(3) in this experiment. PMID:12495998
Conservation-form equations of unsteady open-channel flow
Lai, C.; Baltzer, R.A.; Schaffranek, R.W.
2002-01-01
The unsteady open-channel flow equations are typically expressed in a variety of forms due to the imposition of differing assumptions, use of varied dependent variables, and inclusion of different source/sink terms. Questions often arise as to whether a particular equation set is expressed in a form consistent with the conservation-law definition. The concept of conservation form is developed to clarify the meaning mathematically. Six sets of unsteady-flow equations typically used in engineering practice are presented and their conservation properties are identified and discussed. Results of the theoretical development and analysis of the equations are substantiated in a set of numerical experiments conducted using alternate equation forms. Findings of these analytical and numerical efforts demonstrate that the choice of dependent variable is the fundamental factor determining the nature of the conservation properties of any particular equation form.
Robustness of de Saint Venant equations for simulating unsteady flows
Baltzer, Robert A.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Lai, Chintu
1995-01-01
Long-wave motion in open channels can be expressed mathematically by the one-dimensional de Saint Venant equations describing conservation of fluid mass and momentum. Numerical simulation models, based on either depth/velocity or water-level/discharge dependent-variable formulations of these equations, are typically used to simulate unsteady open-channel flow. However, the implications and significance of selecting either dependent-variable form - on model development, discretization and numerical solution processes, and ultimately on the range-of-application and simulation utility of resulting models - are not well known. Results obtained from a set of numerical experiments employing two models - one based on depth/velocity and the other on water-level/discharge equation formulations - reveal the sensitivity of the two equation sets to various channel properties and dynamic flow conditions. In particular, the effects of channel gradient, channel width-to-depth ratio, flow-resistance coefficient, and flow unsteadiness are analyzed and discussed.
Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.
2007-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.
Stability limits of unsteady open capillary channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Klatte, J.?Rg; Dreyer, Michael E.
This paper is concerned with steady and unsteady flow rate limitations in open capillary channels under low-gravity conditions. Capillary channels are widely used in Space technology for liquid transportation and positioning, e.g. in fuel tanks and life support systems. The channel observed in this work consists of two parallel plates bounded by free liquid surfaces along the open sides. The capillary forces of the free surfaces prevent leaking of the liquid and gas ingestion into the flow.In the case of steady stable flow the capillary pressure balances the differential pressure between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Increasing the flow rate in small steps causes a decrease of the liquid pressure. A maximum steady flow rate is achieved when the flow rate exceeds a certain limit leading to a collapse of the free surfaces due to the choking effect. In the case of unsteady flow additional dynamic effects take place due to flow rate transition and liquid acceleration. The maximum flow rate is smaller than in the case of steady flow. On the other hand, the choking effect does not necessarily cause surface collapse and stable temporarily choked flow is possible under certain circumstances.To determine the limiting volumetric flow rate and stable flow dynamic properties, a new stability theory for both steady and unsteady flow is introduced. Subcritical and supercritical (choked) flow regimes are defined. Stability criteria are formulated for each flow type. The steady (subcritical) criterion corresponds to the speed index defined by the limiting longitudinal small-amplitude wave speed, similar to the Mach number. The unsteady (supercritical) criterion for choked flow is defined by a new characteristic number, the dynamic index. It is based on pressure balances and reaches unity at the stability limit.The unsteady model based on the Bernoulli equation and the mass balance equation is solved numerically for perfectly wetting incompressible liquids. The unsteady model and the stability theory are verified by comparison to results of a sounding rocket experiment (TEXUS 41) on capillary channel flows launched in December 2005 from ESRANGE in north Sweden. For a clear overview of subcritical, supercritical, and unstable flow, parametric studies and stability diagrams are shown and compared to experimental observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2011-01-01
The current paper reports on an investigation of steady and unsteady flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment in a transonic compressor rotor. Circumferential grooves casing treatment is used mainly to increase stall margin in axial compressors with a relatively small decrease in aerodynamic efficiency. It is widely believed that flow mechanisms of circumferential grooves casing treatment near stall conditions are not yet well understood even though this treatment has been used widely in real engines. Numerical analysis based on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) has been the primary tool used to understand flow mechanism for circumferential grooves casing treatment. Although steady RANS explains some flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment, it does not calculate all the measured changes in the compressor characteristics. Therefore, design optimization of circumferential grooves with steady RANS has not been very successful. As a compressor operates toward the stall condition, the flow field becomes transient. Major sources of self-generated flow unsteadiness are shock oscillation and interaction between the passage shock and the tip leakage vortex. In the present paper, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is applied to study the effects of circumferential grooves in a transonic compressor. The results from URANS are compared with the results from RANS and measured data. The current investigation shows that there are significant unsteady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment. For the currently investigated rotor, the unsteady effects are of the same magnitude as the steady effects in terms of extending the compressor stall margin.
Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1994-01-01
A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.
Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
1999-01-01
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
Simulation Of Unsteady, Inviscid, Rotational, Transonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Damodaran, Murali
1992-01-01
Report describes numerical simulation of two-dimensional, unsteady, inviscid rotational, transonic flow about rigid airfoil in such motions as pitching or plunging oscillations. Study demonstrates potential utility of computation in analyses of aeroelasticity of airfoils.
Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.
1982-01-01
Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.
Unsteady stator response to upstream rotor wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franke, G. F.; Henderson, R. E.
1979-01-01
The results are presented of an investigation of the unsteady pressures generated on a stator due to its interaction with the wakes shed by an upstream rotor. The influence of stator solidity, incidence flow angle and rotor/stator spacing are discussed. The results show that the major influence is due to stator solidity, particularly at large values of incidence angle. Comparisons of the measured data with an existing unsteady cascade analysis show similar trends in the chordwise variation of the predicted and measured unsteady pressure difference across the blades. Comparisons with an isolated airfoil analysis indicate the influence of solidity and unsteady blade-to-blade interaction. All comparisons were conducted for an incompressible flow with a reduced frequency of approximately 5.0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Leontev, E. A.
A general theory is developed for aerodynamic sound generation and its propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the acoustic characteristics of jets are discussed, and a solution is presented to the problem concerning the noise from a section, free rotor, and a rotor located inside a channel. Sound propagation in a channel with flow and selection of soundproofing liners for the channel walls are also discussed.
Aerodynamic sound generated by a wing of complex geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Trevor Howard
2002-09-01
The aerodynamic sound produced by a wing in unsteady flow is computed numerically. A boundary element method is used to calculate both the aerodynamic flow and the sound radiated in an attempt to provide a unified and computationally efficient method. This method is intended to help fill the gap between numerically expensive techniques (e.g., RANS, LES) and analytical methods which are available only for a small subset of the wing geometries of interest. The advances made in the current research are through the incorporation of several previously developed techniques in boundary element and vortex methods and their aggregate application to the present aerodynamic sound problem. The method is capable of modeling general three-dimensional wing geometries with a multiple number of wing elements (e.g., flaps) and with thin shear layer wakes that evolve freely with the unsteady flow. The passage of a vortex filament, which also evolves freely and nonlinearly, can be simulated to study the Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) problem. Validations with two-dimensional analytical solutions for parallel BVI show that the lift spectra are computed to within 1 dB up to nondimensional frequencies (scaled by the freestream velocity and the half-chord length) of about 10 using only 40 panels along a streamwise wing section. The parallel BVI problem was used to investigate the effects of wing geometry. These results show that the high frequency response is significantly reduced for high thickness, camber, sweep, and taper, but is increased for high angle of attack and flap deflection angle. The most important parameters affecting the BVI signal is observed to be the minimum separation distance between the vortex filament and the wing. It is shown that the correct separation distance is only achieved when the vortex is modeled as evolving freely and nonlinearly.
Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao
2015-03-01
We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.
Measurement of unsteady pressures in rotating systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kienappel, K.
1978-01-01
The principles of the experimental determination of unsteady periodic pressure distributions in rotating systems are reported. An indirect method is discussed, and the effects of the centrifugal force and the transmission behavior of the pressure measurement circuit were outlined. The required correction procedures are described and experimentally implemented in a test bench. Results show that the indirect method is suited to the measurement of unsteady nonharmonic pressure distributions in rotating systems.
New Acoustic and Aerodynamic Phenomena due to Non-Uniform Rotation of Propellers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
YIN, J. P.; AHMED, S. R.; DOBRZYNSKI, W.
1999-08-01
A study is reported of the influence of non-uniform rotation—which is inherent to piston engine driven propellers—on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of multi-blade propellers by numerical simulation. The combination of aerodynamic predictions with a 3-D unsteady free wake panel method and aeroacoustic predictions based on Farassat's Formulation 1A of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to achieve this goal. The numerical results show that non-uniform rotation has a significant influence on propeller aerodynamics and can lead to an increase in the generated noise. In case of a mismatch between the periodicity of the non-uniformity and the basic blade passage frequency, additional harmonics (“subharmonics”) are generated. For a periodicity coincidence, the effects are masked due to an overlapping of the frequencies. The level of such subharmonics may be high enough to increase the overall A-weighted noise. The azimuthal directivity of the of the propeller noise remains no longer axisymmetric, and changes to a wave-like harmonic variation. The number of undulations per revolution depends on the order of the non-uniformity and is not related to the number of propeller blades. The polar directivity pattern also changes substantially from that known for uniform rotation. A frequency domain analysis of the unsteady pressure distribution shows that the subharmonics perceived at a space-fixed location are not due to an aerodynamic or acoustic interaction but rather the consequence of a motion geometry or Doppler effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Kamakhya Prasad
1995-01-01
A new methodology is developed to simulate unsteady flows about prescribed and aerodynamically determined moving boundary problems. The method couples the fluid dynamics and rigid-body dynamics equations to capture the time-dependent interference between stationary and moving boundaries. The unsteady, compressible, inviscid (Euler) equations are solved on dynamic, unstructured grids by an explicit, finite-volume, upwind method. For efficiency, the grid adaptation is performed within a window around the moving object. The Eulerian equations of the rigid-body dynamics are solved by a Runge-Kutta method in a non-inertial frame of reference. The two-dimensional flow solver is validated by computing the flow past a sinusoidally-pitching airfoil and comparing these results with the experimental data. The overall methodology is used for two two-dimensional examples: the flow past an airfoil which is performing a three-degrees-of-freedom motion in a transonic freestream, and the free-fall of a store after separation from a wing-section. Then the unstructured mesh methodology is extended to three-dimensions to simulate unsteady flow past bodies in relative motion, where the trajectory is determined from the instantaneous aerodynamics. The flow solver and the adaptation scheme in three dimensions are validated by simulating the transonic, unsteady flow around a wing undergoing a forced, periodic, pitching motion, and comparing the results with the experimental data. To validate the trajectory code, the six-degrees-of-freedom motion of a store separating from a wing was computed using the experimentally determined force and moment fields, then comparing with an independently generated trajectory. Finally, the overall methodology was demonstrated by simulating the unsteady flowfield and the trajectory of a store dropped from a wing. The methodology, its computational cost notwithstanding, has proven to be accurate, automated, easy for dynamic gridding, and relatively efficient for the required man-hours.
Unsteady wind loads for TMT: replacing parametric models with CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacMartin, Douglas G.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2014-08-01
Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure result in image jitter and higher-order image degradation due to M1 segment motion. Advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allow unsteady simulations of the flow around realistic telescope geometry, in order to compute the unsteady forces due to wind turbulence. These simulations can then be used to understand the characteristics of the wind loads. Previous estimates used a parametric model based on a number of assumptions about the wind characteristics, such as a von Karman spectrum and frozen-flow turbulence across M1, and relied on CFD only to estimate parameters such as mean wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy. Using the CFD-computed forces avoids the need for assumptions regarding the flow. We discuss here both the loads on the telescope that lead to image jitter, and the spatially-varying force distribution across the primary mirror, using simulations with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) geometry. The amplitude, temporal spectrum, and spatial distribution of wind disturbances are all estimated; these are then used to compute the resulting image motion and degradation. There are several key differences relative to our earlier parametric model. First, the TMT enclosure provides sufficient wind reduction at the top end (near M2) to render the larger cross-sectional structural areas further inside the enclosure (including M1) significant in determining the overall image jitter. Second, the temporal spectrum is not von Karman as the turbulence is not fully developed; this applies both in predicting image jitter and M1 segment motion. And third, for loads on M1, the spatial characteristics are not consistent with propagating a frozen-flow turbulence screen across the mirror: Frozen flow would result in a relationship between temporal frequency content and spatial frequency content that does not hold in the CFD predictions. Incorporating the new estimates of wind load characteristics into TMT response predictions leads to revised estimates of the response of TMT to wind turbulence, and validates the aerodynamic design of the enclosure.
Experimental Verification of Buffet Calculation Procedure Using Unsteady PSP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2016-01-01
Typically a limited number of dynamic pressure sensors are employed to determine the unsteady aerodynamic forces on large, slender aerospace structures. The estimated forces are known to be very sensitive to the number of the dynamic pressure sensors and the details of the integration scheme. This report describes a robust calculation procedure, based on frequency-specific correlation lengths, that is found to produce good estimation of fluctuating forces from a few dynamic pressure sensors. The validation test was conducted on a flat panel, placed on the floor of a wind tunnel, and was subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body. The panel was coated with fast response Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), which allowed time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations on a dense grid of spatial points. The first part of the report describes the detail procedure used to analyze the high-speed, PSP camera images. The procedure includes steps to reduce contamination by electronic shot noise, correction for spatial non-uniformities, and lamp brightness variation, and finally conversion of fluctuating light intensity to fluctuating pressure. The latter involved applying calibration constants from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Excellent comparison in the spectra, coherence and phase, calculated via PSP and dynamic pressure sensors validated the PSP processing steps. The second part of the report describes the buffet validation process, for which the first step was to use pressure histories from all PSP points to determine the "true" force fluctuations. In the next step only a selected number of pixels were chosen as "virtual sensors" and a correlation-length based buffet calculation procedure was applied to determine "modeled" force fluctuations. By progressively decreasing the number of virtual sensors it was observed that the present calculation procedure was able to make a close estimate of the "true" unsteady forces only from four sensors. It is believed that the present work provides the first validation of the buffet calculation procedure which has been used for the development of many space vehicles.
Unsteady thermocapillary migration of bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dill, Loren H.; Balasubramaniam, R.
1988-01-01
Upon the introduction of a gas bubble into a liquid possessing a uniform thermal gradient, an unsteady thermo-capillary flow begins. Ultimately, the bubble attains a constant velocity. This theoretical analysis focuses upon the transient period for a bubble in a microgravity environment and is restricted to situations wherein the flow is sufficiently slow such that inertial terms in the Navier-Stokes equation and convective terms in the energy equation may be safely neglected (i.e., both Reynolds and Marangoni numbers are small). The resulting linear equations were solved analytically in the Laplace domain with the Prandtl number of the liquid as a parameter; inversion was accomplished numerically using a standard IMSL routine. In the asymptotic long-time limit, the theory agrees with the steady-state theory of Young, Goldstein, and Block. The theory predicts that more than 90 percent of the terminal steady velocity is achieved when the smallest dimensionless time, i.e., the one based upon the largest time scale-viscous or thermal-equals unity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janetzke, D. C.; Murthy, D. V.
1991-01-01
Aeroelastic analysis is mult-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic analysis capability on a distributed-memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic model and a panel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent are demonstrated using 32 processors. The effects of subtask ordering, problem size and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared-memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed-memory system.
Space Shuttle flutter as affected by wing-body aerodynamic interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.; Shyprykevich, P.; Hess, R. W.
1974-01-01
In the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch transonic blowdown wind-tunnel, flutter speeds were measured on 1/80-th scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete Space Shuttle, and intermediate component combinations. Using the doublet lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Aerodynamic interaction was found by test and analysis to raise the flutter speed in some configurations while lowering it in others. Although at Mach number less than 0.7, predicted speeds correlated to within 6% of those measured, rapid deterioration of the agreement occurred at higher subsonic Mach numbers, especially on the more complicated configurations. Additional analysis showed that aerodynamic forces arising from body flexibility potentially can have a large effect on flutter speed, but that the current shuttle design is not so affected.
Compendium of NASA Langley reports on hypersonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sabo, Frances E.; Cary, Aubrey M.; Lawson, Shirley W.
1987-01-01
Reference is made to papers published by the Langley Research Center in various areas of hypersonic aerodynamics for the period 1950 to 1986. The research work was performed either in-house by the Center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. Abstracts have been included with the references when available. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Aerodynamic Measurements - Single Shapes; (2) Aerodynamic Measurements - Configurations; (3) Aero-Heating; (4) Configuration Studies; (5) Propulsion Integration Experiment; (6) Propulsion Integration - Study; (7) Analysis Methods; (8) Test Techniques; and (9) Airframe Active Cooling Systems.
NARX modelling of unsteady separation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dandois, J.; Garnier, E.; Pamart, P.-Y.
2013-02-01
This paper presents the application of Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXogenous input (NARX) modelling to model the flow behaviour in response of a periodic forcing. In the first part, the NARX black-box model is presented. The model coefficients are obtained by least-square fitting. The resolution of the associated linear system being ill-conditioned, a Tikhonov regularization is employed. The first application presented is the identification of a NARX model of separation control by a synthetic jet slot over a rounded ramp. It is shown that the pressure at a particular location is representative of the flow state (attached or separated). This quantity will be the output of the model, the input being the forcing signal of the synthetic jet. Then, an identification signal is designed to explore as many flow states as possible with a short signal duration. The next step is dedicated to the selection of the NARX model structure. Input/output correlations, partial output autocorrelations and the Akaike Information Criterion minimization are used. A fit coefficient of 84 % is obtained. Finally, the accuracy of the NARX model, both on the steady and on the unsteady components of the output, is checked by comparison of the results with signals not used in the identification phase. The third part deals with the application of the same methodology to an experiment of separation control by pulsed fluidic vortex generators in a highly curved duct. A fit coefficient of 60 % is obtained in this case.
Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.
Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan
2010-11-01
We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.
Size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics: an integrated computational study.
Liu, H; Aono, H
2009-03-01
Hovering is a miracle of insects that is observed for all sizes of flying insects. Sizing effect in insect hovering on flapping-wing aerodynamics is of interest to both the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community and also of importance to comparative morphologists. In this study, we present an integrated computational study of such size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics, which is performed using a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator that integrates the modelling of realistic wing-body morphology, the modelling of flapping-wing and body kinematics and an in-house Navier-Stokes solver. Results of four typical insect hovering flights including a hawkmoth, a honeybee, a fruit fly and a thrips, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from O(10(4)) to O(10(1)) are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the present integrated computational methods in quantitatively modelling and evaluating the unsteady aerodynamics in insect flapping flight. Our results based on realistically modelling of insect hovering therefore offer an integrated understanding of the near-field vortex dynamics, the far-field wake and downwash structures, and their correlation with the force production in terms of sizing and Reynolds number as well as wing kinematics. Our results not only give an integrated interpretation on the similarity and discrepancy of the near- and far-field vortex structures in insect hovering but also demonstrate that our methods can be an effective tool in the MAVs design. PMID:19258688
Aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies in nonuniform flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atassi, H. M.; Logue, M. M.
2011-08-01
The unsteady aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies are modeled in terms of the Euler equations linearized about a nonuniform flow. The validity of the inviscid approach is supported by recent LES simulations of an airfoil in a gust indicating that for not-too-small impinging excitations, the interaction process is dominated by inertia forces. Results in the present paper are focused on the aerodynamics and interaction noise of a turbofan modeled as an annular cascade. The model accounts for the inflow-fan-duct coupling and the high frequency of the interaction process. Two high-order numerical algorithms are developed with body-fitted coordinate system. One algorithm uses a primitive variable formulation, the other uses an efficient velocity splitting algorithm and is suitable for broadband computations. Analytical and numerical analysis of disturbances in rotational flows is developed and exact inflow/outflow boundary conditions are derived, yielding directly the radiated acoustics. The upstream disturbances evolve in rotational flows and as a result the aerodynamic-aeroacoustic response of the annular cascade depends on the initial conditions location. Computational results show that the three-dimensional geometry of the annular cascade, the mean flow swirl, and the blade geometry have strong influence on the blade sectional lift and the radiated sound. These results also show the inadequacy of using the popular linear cascade model particularly for realistic fan geometry and inflow conditions.
Evaluation of unsteady pressure fields and forces in rotating airfoils from time-resolved PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villegas, A.; Diez, F. J.
2014-04-01
The instantaneous pressure fields and aerodynamic loads are obtained for rotating airfoils from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. These allowed evaluating the contribution from the local acceleration (unsteady acceleration) to the instantaneous forces. Traditionally, this term has been neglected for wind turbines with quasi-steady flows, but results show that it is a dominant term in the wake where high temporal variations in the flow field are present due to vortex shedding. Briefly, time-resolved particle image velocimetry TR-PIV measurements are used to calculate flow velocity fields and corresponding spatial and temporal derivatives. These derivatives are then used in the Poisson equation to solve for the pressure field and later used in the integral momentum equation to solve for the instantaneous forces. The robustness of the measurements is analyzed by calculating the PIV uncertainty and the independence of the calculated forces. The experimental mean aerodynamic forces are compared with theoretical predictions from the blade element momentum theory showing good agreement. The instantaneous pressure field showed dependence with time in the wake due to vortex shedding. The contribution to the instantaneous forces from each term in the integral momentum equation is evaluated. The analysis shows that the larger contributions to the normal force coefficient are from the unsteady and the pressure terms, and the larger contribution to the tangential force coefficient is from the convective term.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.
Aerodynamic measurements concerned with a turret model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raman, K. R.
1981-01-01
An experimental investigation was carried out in the 14 by 14 ft Ames transonic wind tunnel on a turret model. The aerodynamic parameters measured were steady and unsteady pressures (static and total fluid pressures), local mean velocities, and local mean densities at selected locations along the optical beam path for the azimuth look angles of 90, 120, and 150 degrees from the turret. The test stream Mach numbers considered are 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75, and the Reynolds number per meter is in the range of 10 million. The results indicate that severe optical degradation can be expected at aft look azimuth, angles, this degradation in optical performance increases as the azimuth angle is increased. The ratio of rms static pressure to the local mean static pressure peaks in the range of 0.07 to 0.12 and the ratio of rms total pressure to the local mean total pressure peaks in the range of 0.02 to 0.04. These values depend on the Mach number and the aft look azimuth angle. The scale lengths obtained from correlation considerations are also presented.
Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence
Buffum, D.H.; Capece, V.R.; King, A.J.; El-Aini, Y.M.
1998-01-01
The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low-aspect-ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found, with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.
Fundamental investigation of road vehicle aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Garni, Abdullah Mohammed
The present investigation focuses on the aerodynamics of pickup trucks and SUVs. The flow about generic pickup truck and SUV models and a much simpler bluff body model known as the Square Back (SB) model has been documented experimentally. The main objective of the present research is to gain a better understanding of the pickup truck and SUV aerodynamics through mean and unsteady pressure measurements as well as detailed flow field measurements using PIV. The mean pressure results of the pickup truck show that the pressure outside the tailgate is higher than inside the tailgate suggesting that the tailgate reduces aerodynamic drag. Pressure fluctuation spectra indicate a spectral peak at a Strouhal number of Ëœ0.094 for the SB model and Ëœ0.07 for the SUV and pickup truck models. Velocity field measurements in horizontal planes behind the SUV and SB models show a similar flow pattern characterized by a recirculation region at the base of the model with length about 1.15 times the width of the model. The flow in the symmetry plane varies considerably between models. For the SUV there is strong upwash while for the pickup truck, there is a recirculation region inside the bed and a strong downwash behind the tailgate. For the present pickup truck model the bed recirculation region is bounded by a shear layer which does not interact directly with the tailgate. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the PIV data at selected planes in order to identify the most energetic structures in the wake of these models. It is shown that the first two modes contain almost 20% of the total fluctuation energy while 70% of energy is captured by the first twenty modes. When the most energetic modes were used in reconstruction of the flow field in the wake of SB and SUV, flapping and breathing like motions resulted. For the pickup truck it is shown that some modes capture the energy in the underbody shear layer while other modes seem to contribute more to the cab shear layer. It is found that the first two modes indicate a wavy motion of the underbody flow when used in reconstruction of the flow field.
The investigation of parachute fabric permeability under an unsteady pressure differential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rondeau, Nichole C.
An apparatus for assessing permeability of textiles subjected to time-varying pressure differentials is presented. A Computer Numerically Controlled Piston Permeability Apparatus (CNC-PPA) that can control the volume flow rate through a fabric has been designed and built. This test device has been developed in an effort to improve the understanding and design choices for aerodynamic decelerators. Preliminary results for a low permeability fabric (PIA-C-44378, Type IV) under both steady and unsteady loads are presented. The results from this investigation do indicate a small effect of unsteady pressure differential on the fabric permeability. The fabric permeability is slightly higher than the static permeability when the pressure differential is increasing with respect to time and the opposite is true when the pressure differential is decreasing. This change in permeability is more pronounced as the pressure is higher and the pressure changes more rapidly with respect to time, suggesting dynamic permeability likely affects highly unsteady phenomena such as parachute opening.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.
2002-01-01
The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.
Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics
Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick
2004-10-17
Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.
1983-01-01
The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.
Aerodynamic database development of the ESA intermediate experimental vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezzella, Giuseppe; Marino, Giuliano; Rufolo, Giuseppe C.
2014-01-01
This work deals with the aerodynamic database development of the Intermediate Experiment Vehicle. The aerodynamic analysis, carried out for the whole flight scenario, relies on computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel test, and engineering-based design data generated during the project phases, from rarefied flow conditions, to hypersonic continuum flow up to reach subsonic speeds regime. Therefore, the vehicle aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections foreseen for the vehicle nominal re-entry. In particular, the databasing activities are developed in the light of build-up approach. This means that all aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are provided by means of a linear summation over certain number of incremental contributions such as, for example, effect of sideslip angle, aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, etc. Each force and moment coefficient is treated separately and appropriate equation is provided, in which all the pertinent contributions for obtaining the total coefficient for any selected flight conditions appear. To this aim, all the available numerical and experimental aerodynamic data are gathered in order to explicit the functional dependencies from each aerodynamic model addend through polynomial expressions obtained with the least squares method. These polynomials are function of the primary variable that drives the phenomenon whereas secondary dependencies are introduced directly into its unknown coefficients which are determined by means of best-fitting algorithms.
An unsteady lifting surface method for single rotation propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Marc H.
1990-01-01
The mathematical formulation of a lifting surface method for evaluating the steady and unsteady loads induced on single rotation propellers by blade vibration and inflow distortion is described. The scheme is based on 3-D linearized compressible aerodynamics and presumes that all disturbances are simple harmonic in time. This approximation leads to a direct linear integral relation between the normal velocity on the blade (which is determined from the blade geometry and motion) and the distribution of pressure difference across the blade. This linear relation is discretized by breaking the blade up into subareas (panels) on which the pressure difference is treated as approximately constant, and constraining the normal velocity at one (control) point on each panel. The piece-wise constant loads can then be determined by Gaussian elimination. The resulting blade loads can be used in performance, stability and forced response predictions for the rotor. Mathematical and numerical aspects of the method are examined. A selection of results obtained from the method is presented. The appendices include various details of the derivation that were felt to be secondary to the main development in Section 1.
An adjoint method for shape optimization in unsteady viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinath, D. N.; Mittal, Sanjay
2010-03-01
A new method for shape optimization for unsteady viscous flows is presented. It is based on the continuous adjoint approach using a time accurate method and is capable of handling both inverse and direct objective functions. The objective function is minimized or maximized subject to the satisfaction of flow equations. The shape of the body is parametrized via a Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) curve and is updated by using the gradients obtained from solving the flow and adjoint equations. A finite element method based on streamline-upwind Petrov/Galerkin (SUPG) and pressure stabilized Petrov/Galerkin (PSPG) stabilization techniques is used to solve both the flow and adjoint equations. The method has been implemented and tested for the design of airfoils, based on enhancing its time-averaged aerodynamic coefficients. Interesting shapes are obtained, especially when the objective is to produce high performance airfoils. The effect of the extent of the window of time integration of flow and adjoint equations on the design process is studied. It is found that when the window of time integration is insufficient, the gradients are most likely to be erroneous.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.
1991-01-01
A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.
2014-02-01
The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000
Modeling Unsteady Cavitation and Dynamic Loads in Turbopumps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald; Dash, Sanford M.
2009-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes representations of effects of unsteady cavitation and associated dynamic loads has been developed to increase the accuracy of simulations of the performances of turbopumps. Although the model was originally intended to serve as a means of analyzing preliminary designs of turbopumps that supply cryogenic propellant liquids to rocket engines, the model could also be applied to turbopumping of other liquids: this can be considered to have been already demonstrated, in that the validation of the model was performed by comparing results of simulations performed by use of the model with results of sub-scale experiments in water. The need for this or a similar model arises as follows: Cavitation instabilities in a turbopump are generated as inlet pressure drops and vapor cavities grow on inducer blades, eventually becoming unsteady. The unsteady vapor cavities lead to rotation cavitation, in which the cavities detach from the blades and become part of a fluid mass that rotates relative to the inducer, thereby generating a fluctuating load. Other instabilities (e.g., surge instabilities) can couple with cavitation instabilities, thereby compounding the deleterious effects of unsteadiness on other components of the fluid-handling system of which the turbopump is a part and thereby, further, adversely affecting the mechanical integrity and safety of the system. Therefore, an ability to predict cavitation- instability-induced dynamic pressure loads on the blades, the shaft, and other pump parts would be valuable in helping to quantify safe margins of inducer operation and in contributing to understanding of design compromises. Prior CFD models do not afford this ability. Heretofore, the primary parameter used in quantifying cavitation performance of a turbopump inducer has been the critical suction specific speed at which head breakdown occurs. This parameter is a mean quantity calculated on the basis of assumed steady-state operation of the inducer; it does not account for dynamic pressure loads associated with unsteady flow caused by instabilities. Because cavitation instabilities occur well before mean breakdown in inducers, engineers have, until now, found it necessary to use conservative factors of safety when analyzing the results of numerical simulations of flows in turbopumps.
Current Issues in Unsteady Turbomachinery Flows (Images)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povinelli, Louis
2004-01-01
Among the numerous causes for unsteadiness in turbo machinery flows are turbulence and flow environment, wakes from stationary and rotating vanes, boundary layer separation, boundary layer/shear layer instabilities, presence of shock waves and deliberate unsteadiness for flow control purposes. These unsteady phenomena may lead to flow-structure interactions such as flutter and forced vibration as well as system instabilities such as stall and surge. A major issue of unsteadiness relates to the fact that a fundamental understanding of unsteady flow physics is lacking and requires continued attention. Accurate simulations and sufficient high fidelity experimental data are not available. The Glenn Research Center plan for Engine Component Flow Physics Modeling is part of the NASA 21st Century Aircraft Program. The main components of the plan include Low Pressure Turbine National Combustor Code. The goals, technical output and benefits/impacts of each element are described in the presentation. The specific areas selected for discussion in this presentation are blade wake interactions, flow control, and combustor exit turbulence and modeling.
Analysis of unsteady compressible viscous layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Power, G. D.; Verdon, J. M.; Kousen, K. A.
1990-01-01
The development of an analysis to predict the unsteady compressible flows in blade boundary layers and wakes is presented. The equations that govern the flows in these regions are transformed using an unsteady turbulent generalization of the Levy-Lees transformation. The transformed equations are solved using a finite difference technique in which the solution proceeds by marching in time and in the streamwise direction. Both laminar and turbulent flows are studied, the latter using algebraic turbulence and transition models. Laminar solutions for a flat plate are shown to approach classical asymptotic results for both high and low frequency unsteady motions. Turbulent flat-plate results are in qualitative agreement with previous predictions and measurements. Finally, the numerical technique is also applied to the stator and rotor of a low-speed turbine stage to determine unsteady effects on surface heating. The results compare reasonably well with measured heat transfer data and indicate that nonlinear effects have minimal impact on the mean and unsteady components of the flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahm, A F
1924-01-01
This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.
Dawes, W.N.
1995-04-01
The aim of this paper is to help advance one`s understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, unsteady flow associated with the interaction of a splittered centrifugal impeller and its vaned diffuser. A time-resolved simulation is presented of the Krain stage performed using a time-accurate, three-dimensional, unstructured mesh, solution-adaptive Navier-Stokes solver. The predicted flowfield, compared with experiment where available, displays a complex, unsteady interaction, especially in the neighborhood of the diffuser entry zone, which experiences large periodic flow unsteadiness. Downstream of the throat, although the magnitude of this unsteadiness diminishes rapidly, the flow has a highly distorted three-dimensional character. The loss levels in the diffuser are then investigated to try and determine how time-mean loss levels compare with the levels expected from equivalent steady flow analysis performed by using the circumferentially averaged exit flow from the impeller as inlet to the diffuser. It is concluded that little loss could be attributed directly to unsteady effects but rather that the principal cause of the rather high loss levels observed in the diffuser is the strong spanwise distortion in swirl angle at inlet, which initiates a strong hub/corner stall.
Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.
1983-01-01
The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.
Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2007-01-01
It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…