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The AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW) was held in April 2012, bringing together communities of aeroelasticians, computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists. The extended objective was to assess the state of the art in computational aeroelastic methods as practical tools for the prediction of static and dynamic aeroelastic phenomena. As a step in this process, workshop participants analyzed unsteadyaerodynamic and weakly-coupled aeroelastic cases. Forced oscillation and unforced system experiments and computations have been compared for three configurations. This paper emphasizes interpretation of the experimental data, computational results and their comparisons from the perspective of validation of unsteady system predictions. The issues examined in detail are variability introduced by input choices for the computations, post-processing, and static aeroelastic modeling. The final issue addressed is interpreting unsteady information that is present in experimental data that is assumed to be steady, and the resulting consequences on the comparison data sets.
Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteadyaerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteadyaerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.
Recent research is highlighted which was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on two high angle-of-attack flight dynamic phenomena which are dominated by unsteadyaerodynamic effects: wing rock and tumbling. Studies of wing rock induced by strong vortical flows and tumbling characteristics observed on an advanced configuration are reviewed. Results of wind tunnel experiments are summarized and the aerodynamic mechanisms involved in the phenomena were discussed.
After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteadyaerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.
As computational fluid dynamics methods mature, code development is rapidly transitioning from prediction of steady flowfields to unsteady flows. This change in emphasis offers a number of new challenges to the research community, not the least of which is obtaining detailed, accurate unsteady experimental data with which to evaluate new methods. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been actively measuring unsteady pressure distributions for nearly 40 years. Over the last 20 years, these measurements have focused on developing high-quality datasets for use in code evaluation. This paper provides a sample of unsteady pressure measurements obtained by LaRC and available for government, university, and industry researchers to evaluate new and existing unsteadyaerodynamic analysis methods. A number of cases are highlighted and discussed with attention focused on the unique character of the individual datasets and their perceived usefulness for code evaluation. Ongoing LaRC research in this area is also presented.
Schuster, David M.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.
The requirements placed on an unsteadyaerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The main emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the effects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteadyaerodynamic response. Although this theory has been developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to blade motions. The resulting equations consist of a system of three field equations along with conditions imposed at blade, wake and shock surfaces and in the far field. These equations can be solved to determine the fluctuations in all fluid dynamic properties throughout the required solution domain. Example solutions are presented to demonstrate several effects associated with nonuniform steady flows on the linearized unsteadyaerodynamic response to prescribed blade motions.
The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamicsexperiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.
M. M. Hand; D. A. Simms; L. J. Fingersh; D. W. Jager; J. R. Cotrell; S. Schreck; S. M. Larwood
The current status of computational methods for unsteadyaerodynamics is reviewed. The need to match the fluid dynamic flow equation level to the complexity of the type of unsteady flow under consideration is discussed. Comparisons of computational predictions with experimental unsteady pressures and flutter boundaries are presented. The treatment of complex aircraft geometries is also described.
The role of acoustics and unsteadyaerodynamics research in understanding the fundamental physics of time-dependent fluid phenomena is reviewed. The key issues are illustrated by considering the sound radiation of turbulent jets and the aeroacoustics of rotating bodies such as helicopter rotors. The importance of computational methods as a link between aerodynamics and acoustics is also discussed. It is noted that where acoustic analogy techniques are sufficiently accurate, unsteadyaerodynamics can be used for acoustic prediction. In supersonic problems where acoustics and aerodynamics are coupled, an integrated nonlinear analysis can provide an accurate problem solution.
A series of experiments is performed in an extensively instrumented axial flow research compressor to investigate the fundamental flow physics of wake-generated periodic rotor blade row unsteadyaerodynamics at realistic values of the reduced frequency. Unique unsteady data are obtained that describe the fundamental unsteadyaerodynamic gust interaction phenomena on the first-stage rotor blades of a research axial flow compressor
Currently, wind turbine designers rely on safety factors to compensate for the effects of unknown loads acting on the turbine structure. This results in components that are overdesigned because precise load levels and load paths are unknown. To advance wind turbine technology, the forces acting on the turbine structure must be accurately characterized because these forces translate directly into loads imparted to the wind turbine structure and resulting power production. Once these forces are more accurately characterized, we will better understand load paths and can therefore optimize turbine structures. To address this problem, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the UnsteadyAerodynamicsExperiment (UAE), which was a test of an extensively instrumented wind turbine in the giant NASA-Ames 24.4-m (80 feet) by 36.6-m (120 feet) wind tunnel. To maximize the benefits from testing, NREL formed a Science Panel of advisers comprised of wind turbine aerodynamics and modeling experts throughout the world. NREL used the Science Panel's guidance to specify the conditions and configurations under which the turbine was operated in the wind tunnel. The panel also helped define test priorities and objectives that would be effective for wind turbine modeling tool development and validation.
Stator indexing to minimize the unsteadyaerodynamic loading of closely spaced airfoil rows in turbomachinery is a new technique for the passive control of flow-induced vibrations. This technique, along with the effects of steady blade loading, were studied by means of experiments performed in a two-stage low-speed research turbine. With the second vane row fixed, the inlet vane row was indexed to six positions over one vane-pitch cycle for a range of stage loadings. The aerodynamic forcing function to the first-stage rotor was measured in the rotating reference frame, with the resulting rotor blade unsteadyaerodynamic response quantified by rotor blades instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers. Reductions in the unsteady lift magnitude were achieved at all turbine operating conditions, with attenuation ranging from 37% to 74% of the maximum unsteady lift. Additionally, in complementary experiments, the effects of stator indexing and steady blade loading on the unsteady heat transfer of the first- and second-stage rotors was studied for the design and highest blade loading conditions using platinum-film heat gages. The attenuation of unsteady heat transfer coefficient was blade-loading dependent and location dependent along the chord and span, ranging 10% to 90% of maximum. Due to the high degree of location dependence of attenuation, stator indexing is therefore best suited to minimize unsteady heat transfer in local hot spots of the blade rather than the blade as a whole.
A comprehensive series of experiments and analyses was performed on compressor and turbine blading to evaluate the ability of current, practical, engineering\\/analysis models to predict unsteadyaerodynamic loading of modern gas turbine blading. This is part of an ongoing effort to improve methods for preventing blading failure. The experiments were conducted in low-speed research facilities capable of simulating the relevant
A numerical engineering method for the prediction of unsteady wind turbine aerodynamics is presented. The formulation is based on lifting line theory and a semiempirical dynamic stall model of Leishman and Beddoes. The unsteadyaerodynamic response of the blade aerodynamics to the sharp blade-pitch changes or unsteady wind conditions is achieved by superposition of the above methods. Comparisons between computed
A three-dimensional linear frequency domain panel method has been extended to study the unsteadyaerodynamics, aeroelasticity, and aeroacoustics of advanced ducted fans. Additional contributions are to extend and improve previous lifting surface theory to include for stator rows and planar supersonic tip Mach numbers, and radiated noise estimation. A two-dimensional viscous wake model is incorporated to account for the influence
This report documents the results of the numerical simulations of unsteadyaerodynamic models. The results focus on numerical accuracy and efficiency, and the robustness of the numerical methods. The aerodynamic models includes the classical Wagner and Kussner functions and the Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model. The simulations includes the numerical approximations of the Duhamel's integrals using both indicial (step) and impulse responses, the numerical integrations of the state-space models, and the exact solutions. The report also presents the conversion among different model representations.
Nguyen, Khanh Q.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)
A series of experiments is performed in an extensively instrumented axial flow research compressor to investigate the fundamental flow physics of wake-generated periodic rotor blade row unsteadyaerodynamics at realistic values of the reduced frequency. Unique unsteady data are obtained that describe the fundamental unsteadyaerodynamic gust interaction phenomena on the first-stage rotor blades of a research axial flow compressor generated by the wakes from the inlet guide vanes. In these experiments, the effects of steady blade aerodynamic loading and the aerodynamic forcing function, including both the transverse and chordwise gust components, and the amplitude of the gusts, are investigated and quantified.
Manwaring, S.R.; Fleetner, S. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering)
A comprehensive series of experiments and analyses was performed on compressor and turbine blading to evaluate the ability of current, practical, engineering/analysis models to predict unsteadyaerodynamic loading of modern gas turbine blading. This is part of an ongoing effort to improve methods for preventing blading failure. The experiments were conducted in low-speed research facilities capable of simulating the relevant aerodynamic features of turbomachinery. Unsteady loading on compressor and turbine blading was generated by upstream wakes and, additionally for compressors, by a rotating inlet distortion. Fast-response hot-wire anemometry and pressure transducers embedded in the airfoil surfaces were used to determine the aerodynamic gusts and resulting unsteady pressure responses acting on the airfoils. This is the first time that gust response measurements for turbines have been reported in the literature. Several different analyses were used to predict the unsteady component of the blade loading: (1) a classical flat-plate analysis, (2) a two-dimensional linearized flow analysis with a frozen gust model, (3) a two-dimensional linearized flow analysis with a distorted gust model, (4) a two-dimensional linearized Euler analysis, and (5) a two-dimensional nonlinear Euler analysis. Also for the first time, a detailed comparison of these analyses methods is made and the importance of properly accounting for both vortical and potential disturbances is demonstrated. The predictions are compared with experiment and their abilities assessed to help guide designers in using these prediction schemes.
Manwaring, S.R.; Wisler, D.C. (Aerodynamics Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States). GE Aircraft Engines)
Applications for unsteadyaerodynamics analysis in this report are: (1) aeroelastic: blade flutter and forced vibration; (2) aeroacoustic: noise generation; (3) vibration and noise control; and (4) effects of unsteadiness on performance. This requires that the numerical simulations and analytical modeling be accurate and efficient and contain realistic operating conditions and arbitrary modes of unsteady excitation. The assumptions of this application contend that: (1) turbulence and transition can be modeled with the Reynolds averaged and using Navier-Stokes equations; (2) 'attached' flow with high Reynolds number will require thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations, or inviscid/viscid interaction analyses; (3) small-amplitude unsteady excitations will need nonlinear steady and linearized unsteady analyses; and (4) Re to infinity will concern inviscid flow. Several computer programs (LINFLO, CLT, UNSVIS, AND SFLOW-IVI) are utilized for these analyses. Results and computerized grid examples are shown. This report was given during NASA LeRC Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August of 1993.
A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteadyaerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.
The paper studies the effect of neighboring blade rows on unsteadyaerodynamic force due to blade vibration and on flutter\\u000a characteristics of cascading blades. For this purpose the computation program to calculate the unsteady blade loading based\\u000a on the unsteady lifting surface theory for contra-rotating annular cascades was formulated and coded. Numerical examples of\\u000a unsteadyaerodynamic works for various combinations
Launch vehicles frequently experience a reduced stability margin through the transonic Mach number range. This reduced stability margin is caused by an undamping of the aerodynamics in one of the lower frequency flexible or rigid body modes. Analysis of the behavior of a flexible vehicle is routinely performed with quasi-steady aerodynamic lineloads derived from steady rigid computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis can be unconservative at the critical Mach numbers where experiment or unsteady computational aeroelastic (CAE) analysis show a reduced or even negative aerodynamic damping. This paper will present a method of enhancing the quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis of a launch vehicle with unsteadyaerodynamics. The enhanced formulation uses unsteady CFD to compute the response of selected lower frequency modes. The response is contained in a time history of the vehicle lineloads. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the unsteadyaerodynamic lineload response is used to reduce the scale of data volume and system identification is used to derive the aerodynamic stiffness, damping and mass matrices. The results of the enhanced quasi-static aeroelastic stability analysis are compared with the damping and frequency computed from unsteady CAE analysis and from a quasi-steady analysis. The results show that incorporating unsteadyaerodynamics in this way brings the enhanced quasi-steady aeroelastic stability analysis into close agreement with the unsteady CAE analysis.
The creation of micro air vehicles (MAVs) of the same general sizes and weight as natural fliers has spawned renewed interest in flapping wing flight. With a wingspan of approximately 15 cm and a flight speed of a few meters per second, MAVs experience the same low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5) flight conditions as their biological counterparts. In this flow regime, rigid fixed wings drop dramatically in aerodynamic performance while flexible flapping wings gain efficacy and are the preferred propulsion method for small natural fliers. Researchers have long realized that steady-state aerodynamics does not properly capture the physical phenomena or forces present in flapping flight at this scale. Hence, unsteady flow mechanisms must dominate this regime. Furthermore, due to the low flight speeds, any disturbance such as gusts or wind will dramatically change the aerodynamic conditions around the MAV. In response, a suitable feedback control system and actuation technology must be developed so that the wing can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency in this extremely dynamic situation; one where the unsteady separated flow field and wing structure are tightly coupled and interact nonlinearly. For instance, birds and bats control their flexible wings with muscle tissue to successfully deal with rapid changes in the flow environment. Drawing from their example, perhaps MAVs can use lightweight actuators in conjunction with adaptive feedback control to shape the wing and achieve active flow control. This article first reviews the scaling laws and unsteady flow regime constraining both biological and man-made fliers. Then a summary of vortex dominated unsteadyaerodynamics follows. Next, aeroelastic coupling and its effect on lift and thrust are discussed. Afterwards, flow control strategies found in nature and devised by man to deal with separated flows are examined. Recent work is also presented in using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators and angular speed variation to achieve active flow control for MAVs. Finally, an explanation for aerodynamic gains seen in flexible versus rigid membrane wings, derived from an unsteady three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model with an integrated distributed control algorithm, is presented.
Ho, Steven; Nassef, Hany; Pornsinsirirak, Nick; Tai, Yu-Chong; Ho, Chih-Ming
Unsteadyaerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.
The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteadyaerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework f...
Calculated unsteadyaerodynamic characteristics for four Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research Development (AGARD) standard aeroelastic two-dimensional airfoils and for one of the AGARD three-dimensional wings are reported. Calculations were made using...
This article presents a numerical method for predicting unsteadyaerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). In this method the flow field is described by the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The rotor and tower are idealized respectively as actuator disc and flat plate permeable surfaces on which external normal surficial forces are balanced by fluid pressure discontinuities. The external forces
Christian Masson; Arezki Smaïli; Christophe Leclerc
The static and dynamic response of a 0.5-m-chord airfoil were measured in the NASA-Ames 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. The effects of mean angle of attack, Reynolds number, oscillation mode, and frequency were investigated over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers. Unsteady pressure distributions and loads on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil are discussed. The unsteady pressure distributions are compared with classical subsonic theory and with newer unsteadyaerodynamic codes. The experimental data are also used to assess the validity of linearity and modal superposition in the transonic-flow regime.
Calculations of the model frequency and damping for a hingeless rotor on a gimballed support in hover are compared with measured results for two configurations (differing in blade flap stiffness). Good correlation is obtaned when an inflow dynamics model is used to account for the influence of the unsteadyaerodynamics. The effect of the unsteadyaerodynamics is significant for this rotor system. The inflow dynamics model introduces additional states corresponding to perturbations of the wake-induced velocity at the rotor disk. The calculations confirm the experimental observation that the inflow mode introduced by these additional states is measurable for one configuration but not for the other.
The effects of unsteadyaerodynamics on the stability characteristics of helicopter rotor blades were studied. A simple physical model of each blade was used together with Theodorsen, Loewy, and quasi-steady aerodynamics to derive the equations of motion. The stability analysis comparing the effects of using each of the three theories revealed some significant differences between the Loewy and Theodorsen results. These included increases and decreases in lead-lag damping, localized around integer lead-lag frequencies. It was also shown that the standard method of multi-blade coordinates must be modified for use in conjunction with Loewy aerodynamics.
The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteadyaerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena, in the present case being between fluids and structures. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains resulting from blade motions. Unsteady pressures are calculated for a cascade designated as the tenth standard, and undergoing plunging and pitching oscillations. The predicted unsteady pressures are compared with those obtained from an unsteady Euler co-de refer-red in the literature. The Spectrum(TM) code predictions showed good correlation for the cases considered.
We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 10(3) , which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements with direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equation. Using inviscid theory as a guide, we decompose the fluid forces into contributions due to acceleration, translation, and rotation of the plate. For both fluttering and tumbling we find that the fluid circulation is dominated by a rotational term proportional to the angular velocity of the plate, as opposed to the translational velocity for a glider with fixed angle of attack. We find that the torque on a freely falling plate is small, i.e. the torque is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the torque on a glider with fixed angle of attack. Based on these results we revise the existing ODE models of freely falling plates. We get access to different kinds of dynamics by exploring the phase diagram spanned by the Reynolds number, the dimensionless moment of inertia, and the thickness-to-width ratio. In agreement with previous experiments, we find fluttering, tumbling, and apparently chaotic motion. We further investigate the dependence on initial conditions and find brief transients followed by periodic fluttering described by simple harmonics and tumbling with a pronounced period-two structure. Near the cusp-like turning points, the plates elevate, a feature which would be absent if the lift depended on the translational velocity alone.
Currently, the NREL UnsteadyAerodynamicsExperiment (UAE) research turbine is scheduled to enter the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel in early 2000. To prepare for this 3-week test, a Science Panel meeting was convened at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 1998. During this meeting, the Science Panel and representatives from the wind energy community provided numerous detailed recommendations regarding test activities and priorities. The UnsteadyAerodynamics team of the NWTC condensed this guidance and drafted a detailed test plan. This test plan represents an attempt to balance diverse recommendations received from the Science Panel meeting, while taking into account multiple constraints imposed by the UAE research turbine, the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel, and other sources. The NREL-NASA Ames wind tunnel tests will primarily be focused on obtaining rotating blade pressure data. NREL has been making these types of measurements since 1987 and has considerable experience in doing so. The purpose of this wind tunnel test is to acquire accurate quantitative aerodynamic and structural measurements, on a wind turbine that is geometrically and dynamically representative of full-scale machines, in an environment free from pronounced inflow anomalies. These data will be exploited to develop and validate enhanced engineering models for designing and analyzing advanced wind energy machines.
Simms, D.; Schreck, S.; Hand, M.; Fingersh, L.; Cotrell, J.; Pierce, K.; Robinson, M.
The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating the flow fields around a series of plunging NACA symmetric airfoils with thickness ratio ranging from 4.0% to 20.0% of the airfoil chord length. The contribution of viscous force to flapping propulsion is accessed and it is found that viscous force becomes thrust producing, instead of drag producing, and plays a non-negligible role in thrust generation for thin airfoils. This is closely related to the variations of the dynamics of the unsteady vortex structures around the plunging airfoils. As nature flyers use complex wing kinematics in flapping flight, kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performance with different airfoil thicknesses are numerically studied by using a series of NACA symmetric airfoils. It is found that the combined plunging and pitching motion can outperform the pure plunging or pitching motion by sophisticatedly adjusting the airfoil gestures during the oscillation stroke. The thin airfoil better manipulates leading edge vortices (LEVs) than the thick airfoil (NACA0030) does in studied cases, and there exists an optimal thickness for large thrust generation with reasonable propulsive efficiency. With the present kinematics and dynamic parameters, relatively low reduced frequency is conducive for thrust production and propulsive efficiency for all tested airfoil thicknesses. In order to obtain the optimal kinematics parameters of flapping flight, a kinematics optimization is then performed. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is coupled with a second-order SD Navier-Stokes solver to search for the optimal kinematics of a certain airfoil undergoing a combined plunging and pitching motion. Then a high-order SD scheme is used to verify the optimization results and reveal the detailed vortex structures associated with the optimal kinematics of the flapping flight. It is found that for the case with maximum propulsive efficiency, there exists no leading edge separation during most of the oscillation cycle. In order to provide constructive suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carrie
Unsteady pressure distributions of a two-dimensional super-critical wing while it was fluttering were measured in the transonic flow regime. The results were compared with those by the Navier-Stokes code which includes wind-tunnel wall effects. Although there were discrepancies between the experimental results and the analytical model for the pressure phase delay distribution, no disagreements were observed for the pitching first harmonics provided that there was no large flow separation. In the tests, the flutter was forced to be suppressed soon after its onset before it reached a limit cycle oscillation (LCO) where the amplitude of the pitching angle was supposed to be over 2 degrees.
We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 10(3) , which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements
We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 103, which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements with
This article presents a numerical method for predicting unsteadyaerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). In this method the flow field is described by the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The rotor and tower are idealized respectively as actuator disc and flat plate permeable surfaces on which external normal surficial forces are balanced by fluid pressure discontinuities. The external forces exerted by the rotor and tower on the flow are prescribed according to blade element theory. Dynamic behaviour of the rotor aerodynamic characteristics is simulated using either the Gormont or the Beddoes-Leishman model. The resulting mathematical formulation is solved using a control volume finite element method. The fully implicit scheme is used for time discretization. In general, the proposed method has demonstrated its capability to adequately represent the field data. It has been demonstrated that the accuracy of the predicted results depends primarily on the dynamic stall model as well as on the turbulence model employed.
A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.
For aeronautical applications, there has been recent interest in accurately determining the aerodynamic forces and moments experienced by low-aspect-ratio wings performing transient maneuvers which go to angles of attack as high as 90 deg. Focusing on the delta planform with sharp leading edges, the paper surveys experimental and theoretical investigations dealing with the associated unsteady flow phenomena. For maximum angles above a value between 30 and 40 deg, flow details and airloads are dominated by hysteresis in the 'bursting' instability of intense vortices which emanate from the leading edge. As examples of relevant test results, force and moment histories are presented for a model series with aspect ratios 1, 1.5 and 2. Influences of key parameters are discussed, notably those which measure unsteadiness. Comparisons are given with two theories: a paneling approximation that cannot capture bursting but clarifies other unsteady influences, and a simplified estimation scheme which uses measured bursting data.
This paper deals with approximating unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include both the same flexibility in constraining them and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used 'extended least-squares' method. Optimal selection of 'nonlinear' parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear (nongradient) optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteadyaerodynamics whose state-space realization is of lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free 'linear' parameters are determined using least-squares matrix techniques on a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from the different approaches are described, and results are presented which show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example. The results obtained for the example problem show a significant (up to 63 percent) reduction in the number of differential equations used to represent the unsteadyaerodynamic forces in linear time-invariant equations of motion as compared to a conventional method in which nonlinear terms are not optimized.
This paper presents experimental results of unsteadyaerodynamic interactions including Shock/Shock Interaction (SSI) and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI) between two bodies at hypersonic speed. These interactions can be seen in space vehicles consisting of multi-bodies, such as a TSTO, or at a scramjet engine inlet. The present study considers the effect of a flat plate below the SSI where a boundary-layer is developed on the plate surface. More specifically, the interacted flow for a combination of a flat plate (FP) and a hemi-circular cylinder (HCC) is examined at a hypersonic speed (M?=8.1) the distributions of surface pressure and heat transfer rate are measured. To obtain various SSI patterns, the clearance between two bodies (FP and HCC) is changed. Results show that unsteadiness at the SSI point causes a feedback loop between the two bodies; a jet flow impinges on the FP, the effect of which propagates upstream where the jet impinges on the FP, and the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic loads reach their maxima. Finally, we found that the feedback loop can be destroyed by installing a fence on the FP to reduce unsteadiness of flow field.
The nonlinear indicial response method is used to model the unsteadyaerodynamic coefficients in the low speed longitudinal oscillatory wind tunnel test data of the 0.1 scale model of the F-16XL aircraft. Exponential functions are used to approximate the deficiency function in the indicial response. Using one set of oscillatory wind tunnel data and parameter identification method, the unknown parameters in the exponential functions are estimated. The genetic algorithm is used as a least square minimizing algorithm. The assumed model structures and parameter estimates are validated by comparing the predictions with other sets of available oscillatory wind tunnel test data.
Pamadi, Bandu N.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Brandon, Jay M.
Unsteadyaerodynamic design loads have been estimated for each of the vane sets in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). These loads include estimates of local loads over one vane section and global loads over an entire vane set. The analytical methods and computer programs used to estimate these loads are discussed. In addition, the important computer input parameters are defined and the rationale used to estimate them is discussed. Finally, numerical values are presented for both the computer input parameters and the calculated design loads for each vane set.
An analysis of the steady and unsteadyaerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter has been performed. It is shown that slender wing theory can be modified to account for the effect of Mach number and leading edge roundness on both attached and separated flow loads. The orbiter unsteadyaerodynamics can be computed by defining two equivalent slender wings, one for attached flow loads and another for the vortex-induced loads. It is found that the orbiter is in the transonic speed region subject to vortex-shock-boundary layer interactions that cause highly nonlinear or discontinuous load changes which can endanger the structural integrity of the orbiter wing and possibly cause snap roll problems. It is presently impossible to simulate these interactions in a wind tunnel test even in the static case. Thus, a well planned combined analytic and experimental approach is needed to solve the problem.
The program SUSSA ACTS, steady and unsteady subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics for aerospace complex transportation system, is presented. Fully unsteadyaerodynamics is discussed first, followed by developments on normal wash, pressure distribution, generalized forces, supersonic formulation, numerical results, geometry preprocessor, the user manual, control surfaces, and first order formulation. The ILSWAR program was also discussed.
The quasi vortex-lattice method is reviewed and applied to the evaluation of backwash, with applications to ground effect analysis. It is also extended to unsteadyaerodynamics, with particular interest in the calculation of unsteady leading-edge suction. Some applications in ornithopter aerodynamics are given.
Aircraft that maneuver through large angles of attack will experience large regions of flow separation over the wing and fuselage. The separated flow field is characterized by unsteadiness and strong vortical flow structures that can interact with various components of the aircraft. These complicated flow interactions are the primary cause of most flight dynamic instabilities, airload nonlinearities and flow field time lags. The aerodynamic and the vortical flow structure over simple delta wings undergoing either a pitching or rolling motion is presented. This article reviews experimental information on the flow structure over delta wings and complete aircraft configurations. First, the flow structure of leading-edge vortices and their influence on delta wing aerodynamics for stationary models is presented. This is followed by a discussion of the effect of large amplitude motion on the vortex structure and aerodynamic characteristic of pitching and rolling delta wings. The relationship between the flow structure and the unsteady airloads is reviewed. The unsteady motion of the delta wing results in a modification of the flow field. Delays in flow separation, vortex formation, vortex position and the onset of vortex breakdown are all affected by the model motion. These flow changes cause a corresponding modification in the aerodynamic loads. Data is presented which shows the importance of flow field hysteresis in either vortex position or breakdown and the influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of a maneuvering delta wing. The free-to-roll motion of a double-delta wing is also presented. The complicated flow structure over a double-delta wing gives rise to damped, chaotic and wing rock motions as the angle of attack is increased. The concept of a critical state is discussed and it is shown that crossing a critical state produces large transients in the dynamic airloads. Next, several aircraft configurations are examined to show the importance of unsteadyaerodynamics on the flight dynamics of aircraft maneuvering at large angles of attack. The rolling characteristics of the F-18 and X-31 configurations are examined. The influence of the vortical flow structure on the rolling motion is established. Finally, a brief discussion of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling is presented. The importance of critical states and the transient aerodynamics associated with crossing a critical state are examined.
An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.
Over the past three years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated design, development, and testing of a new human-rated space exploration system under the Constellation Program. Initial designs within the Constellation Program are scheduled to replace the present Space Shuttle, which is slated for retirement within the next three years. The development of vehicles for the Constellation system has encountered several unsteadyaerodynamics challenges that have bearing on more traditional unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. This paper focuses on the synergy between the present NASA challenges and the ongoing challenges that have historically been the subject of research and method development. There are specific similarities in the flows required to be analyzed for the space exploration problems and those required for some of the more nonlinear unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic problems encountered on aircraft. The aggressive schedule, significant technical challenge, and high-priority status of the exploration system development is forcing engineers to implement existing tools and techniques in a design and application environment that is significantly stretching the capability of their methods. While these methods afford the users with the ability to rapidly turn around designs and analyses, their aggressive implementation comes at a price. The relative immaturity of the techniques for specific flow problems and the inexperience with their broad application to them, particularly on manned spacecraft flight system, has resulted in the implementation of an extensive wind tunnel and flight test program to reduce uncertainty and improve the experience base in the application of these methods. This provides a unique opportunity for unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelastic method developers to test and evaluate new analysis techniques on problems with high potential for acquisition of test and even flight data against which they can be evaluated. However, researchers may be required to alter the geometries typically used in their analyses, the types of flows analyzed, and even the techniques by which computational tools are verified and validated. This paper discusses these issues and provides some perspective on the potential for new and innovative approaches to the development of methods to attack problems in nonlinear unsteadyaerodynamics.
A time-domain three-dimensional full-potential solver is coupled with a linear structural dynamics model to investigate the unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelasticity of propfans. The solver allows calculations in multiple blade passages with independent blade motions. Aeroelastic calculations are performed in both frequency and time domains. Results are presented for two propfan configurations. Good agreement is seen between the full-potential results and results from linear theory since the flow is subsonic and the thickness of the propfan blades is small; the agreement is not as good for the cases in which the angle of attack is high. Some difficulty is encountered due to wave reflections from outer computational boundaries; however, this does not affect the results in the range of frequencies of interest.
Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Williams, Marc H.
Calculated unsteadyaerodynamic characteristics for four Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research Development (AGARD) standard aeroelastic two-dimensional airfoils and for one of the AGARD three-dimensional wings are reported. Calculations were made using the finite-difference codes XTRAN2L (two-dimensional flow) and XTRAN3S (three-dimensional flow) which solve the transonic small disturbance potential equations. Results are given for the 36 AGARD cases for the NACA 64A006, NACA 64A010, and NLR 7301 airfoils with experimental comparisons for most of these cases. Additionally, six of the MBB-A3 airfoil cases are included. Finally, results are given for three of the cases for the rectangular wing.
The development and application of transonic small disturbance codes for computing two dimensional flows, using the code ATRAN2, and for computing three dimensional flows, using the code ATRAN3S, are described. Calculated and experimental results are compared for unsteady flows about airfoils and wings, including several of the cases from the AGARD Standard Aeroelastic Configurations. In two dimensions, the results include AGARD priority cases for the NACA 54A006, NACA 64A010, NACA 0012, and MBB-A3 airfoils. In three dimensions, the results include flow about the F-5 wing, a typical wing, and the AGARD rectangular wings. Viscous corrections are included in some calculations, including those for the AGARD rectangular wing. For several cases, the aerodynamic and aeroelastic calculations are compared with experimental results.
The development and application of transonic small disturbance codes for computing two dimensional flows, using the code ATRAN2, and for computing three dimensional flows, using the code ATRAN3S, are described. Calculated and experimental results are compared for unsteady flows about airfoils and wings, including several of the cases from the AGARD Standard Aeroelastic Configurations. In two dimensions, the results include AGARD priority cases for the NACA 64A006, NACA 64A010, NACA 0012, and MBB-A3 airfoils. In three dimensions, the results include flows about the F-5 wing, a typical wing, and the AGARD rectangular wings. Viscous corrections are included in some calculations, including those for the AGARD rectangular wing. For several cases, the aerodynamic and aeroelastic calculations are compared with experimental results.
The current status of unstructured grid methods development in the UnsteadyAerodynamics Branch at NASA-Langley is described. These methods are being developed for unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses. The flow solvers are highlighted which were developed for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations and selected results are given which show various features of the capability. The results demonstrate 2-D and 3-D applications for both steady and unsteady flows. Comparisons are also made with solutions obtained using a structured grid code and with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the unstructured grid methodology. These comparisons show good agreement which thus verifies the accuracy.
Batina, John T.; Lee, Elizabeth M.; Kleb, William L.; Rausch, Russ D.
Aerodynamic methods for aeroelastic analysis are applied to various flow problems. These methods include those that solve the three dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) potential equation, the two dimensional (2-D) full potential (FP) equation, and the 2-D thin layer Navier-Stokes equations. Flutter analysis performed using TSD aerodynamics show that such methods can be used to analyze some aeroelastic phenomena. For thicker bodies and larger amplitude motions, a nonisentropic FP method is presented. The unsteady FP equation is modified to model the entropy jumps across shock waves. The conservative form of the modified equation is solved in generalized coordinates using an implicit, approximate factorization method. Pressures calculated on the NLR 7301 and NACA 64A010A airfoils using the nonisentropic FP method are presented. It is shown that modeling shock generated entropy extends the range of validity of the FP method. A Navier-Stokes code is correlated with pressures measured on a supercritical airfoil at transonic speeds. When corrections are made for wind tunnel wall effects, the calculations correlate well with the measured data.
A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference pr...
A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteadyaerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of m...
Methodology is presented to derive reduced-order models for large- scale parametric applications in unsteadyaerodynamics. The specific case considered in this paper is a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model with parametric dependence that arises from ...
A method to efficiently generate a complete aerodynamic description for projectile flight dynamic modeling is described. At the core of the method is an unsteady, time accurate computational fluid dynamics simulation that is tightly coupled to a rigid bod...
The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing aeroelastic analyses for turbomachines for use by NASA and industry. An aeroelastic analysis consists of a structural dynamic model, an unsteadyaerodynamic model, and a procedure to couple the two models. The structural models are well developed. Hence, most of the development for the aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines has involved adapting and using unsteadyaerodynamic models. Two methods are used in developing unsteadyaerodynamic analysis procedures for the flutter and forced response of turbomachines: (1) the time domain method and (2) the frequency domain method. Codes based on time domain methods require considerable computational time and, hence, cannot be used during the design process. Frequency domain methods eliminate the time dependence by assuming harmonic motion and, hence, require less computational time. Early frequency domain analyses methods neglected the important physics of steady loading on the analyses for simplicity. A fast-running unsteadyaerodynamic code, LINFLUX, which includes steady loading and is based on the frequency domain method, has been modified for flutter and response calculations. LINFLUX, solves unsteady linearized Euler equations for calculating the unsteadyaerodynamic forces on the blades, starting from a steady nonlinear aerodynamic solution. First, we obtained a steady aerodynamic solution for a given flow condition using the nonlinear unsteadyaerodynamic code TURBO. A blade vibration analysis was done to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating blades, and an interface code was used to convert the steady aerodynamic solution to a form required by LINFLUX. A preprocessor was used to interpolate the mode shapes from the structural dynamic mesh onto the computational dynamics mesh. Then, we used LINFLUX to calculate the unsteadyaerodynamic forces for a given mode, frequency, and phase angle. A postprocessor read these unsteady pressures and calculated the generalized aerodynamic forces, eigenvalues, and response amplitudes. The eigenvalues determine the flutter frequency and damping. As a test case, the flutter of a helical fan was calculated with LINFLUX and compared with calculations from TURBO-AE, a nonlinear time domain code, and from ASTROP2, a code based on linear unsteadyaerodynamics.
Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, T., Jr.
The unsteadyaerodynamic force and work for contra-rotating annular cascades of oscillating blades are numerically investigated. A comparison among frequency components of unsteady blade loadings on oscillating blades and stationary blades in relative rotational motion is conducted. It is proved that the state of generated acoustic duct mode of the lowest order is a key factor governing the aeroacoustic interaction
Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteadyaerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteadyaerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.
Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.
A linearized potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of nonuniform steady flow phenomena on the linearized unsteadyaerodynamic response to prescribed blade motions, has been applied to five cascade configurations. These include the first, fifth, eighth and ninth standard configurations proposed as a result of the Second International Symposium on Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines and a NASA Lewis flutter cascade. Selected results from this study, including comparisons between analytical predictions and the experimental measurements submitted for three of the foregoing configurations, are described. The correlation between theory and experiment for the first standard configuration (a compressor cascade operating at low Mach number and frequency) is quite good. Moreover, the predictions and measurements for the NASA Lewis cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils show good qualitative agreement. However, wide discrepancies exist between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements for the fifth standard configuration (a subsonic transonic fan tip cascade). These can be partially attributed to conditions being imposed in the experiment which differ from those commonly used in unsteadyaerodynamic analyses.
The analytical development of unsteady supersonic aerodynamic influence coefficients for isolated and nearly parallel interfering coplanar and noncoplanar wings is described. Numerical formulations based on triangular discretizations of wings and diaphragms are handled in a kinematically consistent manner. Examples of isolated wing cases are compared with respect to aerodynamic influence coefficients and flutter boundaries. Aerodynamic influence coefficients for interfering wings are compared where corresponding results are available.
Advancements have occurred in transonic numerical simulation that place aerodynamic performance design into a relatively well developed status. Efficient broad band operating characteristics can be reliably developed at the conceptual design level. Recent aeroelastic and separated flow simulation results indicate that systematic consideration of an increased range of design problems appears promising. This emerging capability addresses static and dynamic structural/aerodynamic coupling and nonlinearities associated with viscous dominated flows.
Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows of axial-flow turbomachines. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of the blading. The emphasis has been placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, high Reynolds number flows driven by small amplitude unsteady excitations have been considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations and lead to a better understanding of the relevant flow physics. In addition, they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for use in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies. Under the present effort, inviscid interaction and linearized inviscid unsteady flow models have been formulated, and inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic steady and unsteady cascade flows have been developed. In this report, we describe the linearized inviscid unsteady analysis, LINFLO, the steady inviscid/viscid interaction analysis, SFLOW-IVI, and the unsteady viscous layer analysis, UNSVIS. These analyses are demonstrated via application to unsteady flows through compressor and turbine cascades that are excited by prescribed vortical and acoustic excitations and by prescribed blade vibrations. Recommendations are also given for the future research needed for extending and improving the foregoing asymptotic analyses, and to meet the goal of providing efficient inviscid/viscid interaction capabilities for subsonic and transonic unsteady cascade flows.
Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Ayer, Timothy C.
It is well known that a bluff body cross-section exhibits various kinds of aerodynamic instabilities such as vortex-induced vibration, galloping and torsional flutter. Since these cross-sections are used in long-span bridges and tall buildings, it is important to predict their occurrence in wind resistant structural design. In this paper, the authors make a series of comparisons of unsteady wind forces, unsteady pressure distributions and free vibration responses between previously conducted studies and an unsteady two-dimensional k-? model for rectangular cross-sections with cross-sectional ratios of 2 and 4 in a smooth uniform flow in order to verify computational predictability of aerodynamic instabilities. As a result, the computation successfully predicted the onset velocities and responses of these aerodynamic instabilities for these cross-sectional ratios, which are common to tall buildings and long bridges.
A new analysis tool, an unsteady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model, for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) in yawed flow is presented, and its convergence and low cost computational performance are demonstrated. In earlier work, a steady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model was developed with a view to improving simulation results obtained by participants of the NASA Ames blind comparison workshop, following the NREL UnsteadyAerodynamicsExperiment. The hybrid method was shown to better predict rotor torque and power over the range of wind speeds, from fully attached to separated flows. A decade has passed since the workshop was held and three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analyses have become available using super computers. In the first chapter, recent results of unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes computations are reviewed as standard references of what is currently possible and are contrasted with results of the Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model in steady flow. In Chapter 2, the computational method for the unsteady Hybrid model is detailed. The grid generation procedure, using ICEM CFD, is presented in Chapter 3. Steady and unsteady analysis results for the NREL Phase IV rotor and for a modified "swept NREL rotor" are presented in Chapter 4-Chapter 7.
This paper presents an adjoint method for the optimum shape design of unsteady flows. The goal is to develop a set of discrete unsteady adjoint equations and the corresponding boundary condition for the non-linear frequency domain method. First, this paper presents the complete formulation of the time dependent optimal design problem. Second, we present the non-linear frequency domain adjoint equations
Siva K. Nadarajah; Matthew S. McMullen; Antony Jameson
Unsteadyaerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteadyaerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.
The use of canards in advanced aircraft for control and improved aerodynamic performance is a topic of continued interest and research. In addition to providing maneuver control and trim, the influence of canards on wing aerodynamics can often result in increased maximum lift and decreased trim drag. In many canard-configured aircraft, the main benefits of canards are realized during maneuver or other dynamic conditions. Therefore, the detailed study and understanding of canards requires the accurate prediction of the non-linear unsteadyaerodynamics of such configurations. For close-coupled canards, the unsteadyaerodynamic performance associated with the canard-wing interaction is of particular interest. The presence of a canard in close proximity to the wing results in a highly coupled canard-wing aerodynamic flowfield which can include downwash/upwash effects, vortex-vortex interactions and vortex-surface interactions. For unsteady conditions, these complexities of the canard-wing flowfield are further increased. The development and integration of advanced computational technologies provide for the time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulations of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flox,fields. Simulation, are performed for non-linear flight regimes at transonic Mach numbers and for a wide range of angles of attack. For the static configurations, the effects of canard positioning and fixed deflection angles on aerodynamic performance and canard-wing vortex interaction are considered. For non-static configurations, the analyses of the canard-wing body flowfield includes the unsteadyaerodynamics associated with pitch-up ramp and pitch oscillatory motions of the entire geometry. The unsteady flowfield associated with moving canards which are typically used as primary control surfaces are considered as well. The steady and unsteady effects of the canard on surface pressure integrated forces and moments, and canard-wing vortex interaction are presented in detail including the effects of the canard on the static and dynamic stability characteristics. The current study provides an understanding of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flowfield. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the canard on aerodynamic performance as well as the detailed flow physics of the canard-wing flowfield interactions. The computational tools developed to accurately predict the time-accurate flowfield of moving canards provides for the capability of coupled fluids-controls simulations desired in the detailed design and analysis of advanced aircraft.
A method for predicting the unsteadyaerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteadyaerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.
In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the unsteadyaerodynamic response of cascades due to incident gusts (the forced response problem) or blade vibration (the flutter problem) when the cascade is part of a multistage fan, compressor, or turbine. Most current unsteadyaerodynamic models assume the cascade to be isolated in an infinitely long duct. This assumption, however, neglects the potentially important influence of neighboring blade rows. They present an elegant and computationally efficient method to model these neighboring blade row effects. In the present method, they model the unsteadyaerodynamic response due to so-called spinning modes (pressure and vorticity waves), with each mode corresponding to a different circumferential wave number and frequency. Then, for each mode, they compute the reflection and transmission coefficients for each blade row. These coefficients can be obtained from any of the currently available unsteady linearized aerodynamic models of isolated cascades. A set of linear equations is then constructed that couples together the various spinning modes, and the linear equations are solved via LU decomposition. Numerical results are presented for both the gust response and blade vibration problems. To validate the model, the authors compare their results to other analytical models, and to a multistage vortex lattice model. They show that the effect of neighboring blade rows on the aerodynamic damping of vibrating cascades is significant, but nevertheless can be modeled with a small number of modes.
Hall, K.C.; Silkowski, P.D. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
A basic problem in flight dynamics is the mathematical formulation of the aerodynamic model for aircraft. This study is part of an ongoing effort at NASA Langley to develop a more general formulation of the aerodynamic model for aircraft that includes nonlinear unsteadyaerodynamics and to develop appropriate test techniques that facilitate identification of these models. A methodology for modeling and testing using wide-band inputs to estimate the unsteady form of the aircraft aerodynamic model was developed previously but advanced test facilities were not available at that time to allow complete validation of the methodology. The new model formulation retained the conventional static and rotary dynamic terms but replaced conventional acceleration terms with more general indicial functions. In this study advanced testing techniques were utilized to validate the new methodology for modeling. Results of static, conventional forced oscillation, wide-band forced oscillation, oscillatory coning, and ramp tests are presented.
This report summarizes the activities in aerodynamic model estimation from flight data. In addition to public presentations at the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conferences, two presentations at Boeing-Seattle were made during personal trips. These are discussed in the following: 1. Methodology of Aerodynamic Model Estimation from Flight Data. 2. Applications of F-16XL aerodynamic modeling. 3. Modeling of turbulence response. 5. Presentations at Boeing-Seattle. 6. Recommendations. and 7. References.
Improved aerodynamic mathematical models, for use in aircraft simulation or flight control design, are required when representing nonlinear unsteadyaerodynamics. A key limitation of conventional aerodynamic models is the inability to map frequency and amplitude dependent data into the equations of motion directly. In an effort to obtain a more general formulation of the aerodynamic model, researchers have been led to a parallel requirement for more general testing methods. Testing for a more comprehensive model can lead to a very time consuming number of tests especially if traditional single frequency harmonic testing is attempted. This paper presents an alternative to traditional single frequency forced-oscillation testing by utilizing Schroeder sweeps to efficiently obtain the frequency response of the unsteadyaerodynamic model. Schroeder inputs provide signals with a flat power spectrum over a specified frequency band. For comparison, experimental results using the traditional single-frequency inputs are also considered. A method for data analysis to determine an adequate unsteadyaerodynamic model is presented. Discussion of associated issues that arise during this type of analysis and comparison of results using traditional single frequency analysis are provided.
We present a short review of aerodynamic computational models for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). Models presented have a various level of complexity to calculate aerodynamic loads on rotor of HAWT, starting with the simplest blade element momentum (BEM) and ending with the complex model of Navier-Stokes equations. Also, we present some computational aspects of these models.
The Peters\\/He Finite State Wake Model is described in its application to fixed wing aerolasticity. Expressions for coupling this model with a wing, aerodynamically represented by a flat plate with a trailing edge flap, are developed, and fidelity issues are discussed. An application is presented where the wing\\/wake system is coupled to a proprotor model. The effects of unsteady wing
Martin Stettner; Daniel P. Schrage; David A. Peters
Summary The aerodynamic forces and flow structures of a NACA 0012 airfoil in some unsteady motions at small Reynolds number (Re=100) are studied by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. These motions include airfoil acceleration and deceleration from one translational speed to another and rapidly pitching up in constant freestream (equivalent to pitching up during translational motion at constant speed). It
Because High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) remains the predominant surprise failure mode in gas turbine engines, HCF avoidance design systems are utilized to identify possible failures early in the engine development process. A key requirement of these analyses is accurate determination of the aerodynamic forcing function and corresponding airfoil unsteady response. The current study expands the limited experimental database of blade
Progress is reported in the development of reliable nonlinear vortex methods for predicting the steady and unsteadyaerodynamic loads of highly sweptback wings at large angles of attack. Abstracts of the papers, talks, and theses produced through this research are included. The modified nonlinear discrete vortex method and the nonlinear hybrid vortex method are highlighted.
A study of transonic unsteadyaerodynamic responses in the vicinity of shock-buffet is presented. Navier-Stokes simulations of a NACA 0012 airfoil with a fitted 20% trailing edge flap are performed to compute the aerodynamic responses to prescribed pitch and flap motions, about mean flow conditions at shock-buffet onset, and while exhibiting shock buffet. The unsteadyaerodynamic response is found to be fundamentally different from the response predicted by the linear aerodynamic theory. At mean angles of attack close to buffet onset noticeable damped resonance responses are observed at frequencies close to the buffet frequency. The responses grow as the mean angle of attack is increased towards buffet onset. Also, a phase lead is observed for the aerodynamic coefficients, for some range of frequencies. The large aerodynamic responses and phase lead appear in frequencies that are typical of structural elastic frequencies, suggesting that they may be responsible for transonic aeroelastic instabilities. At shock buffet conditions, prescribing sufficiently large pitch or flap harmonic motions results in synchronization of the buffet frequency with the excitation frequencies. At these conditions, the lift and pitching moment responses to prescribed pitch motion also result in resonance and phase lead, as in the pre-buffet case. Large prescribed flap motions eliminate the lift resonance response, and significantly reduce the lift coefficient amplitudes, indicating that the aerodynamic coefficients at these conditions can be controlled by prescribed structural motions.
Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteadyaerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight.
Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J.; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi
A major challenge in the design and development of turbomachine airfoils for gas turbine engines is high cycle fatigue failures due to flutter and aerodynamically induced forced vibrations. In order to predict the aeroelastic response of gas turbine airfoils early in the design phase, accurate unsteadyaerodynamic models are required. However, accurate predictions of flutter and forced vibration stress at all operating conditions have remained elusive. The overall objectives of this research program are to develop a transition model suitable for unsteady separated flow and quantify the effects of transition on airfoil steady and unsteadyaerodynamics for attached and separated flow using this model. Furthermore, the capability of current state-of-the-art unsteadyaerodynamic models to predict the oscillating airfoil response of compressor airfoils over a range of realistic reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and loading levels will be evaluated through correlation with benchmark data. This comprehensive evaluation will assess the assumptions used in unsteadyaerodynamic models. The results of this evaluation can be used to direct improvement of current models and the development of future models. The transition modeling effort will also make strides in improving predictions of steady flow performance of fan and compressor blades at off-design conditions. This report summarizes the progress and results obtained in the first year of this program. These include: installation and verification of the operation of the parallel version of TURBO; the grid generation and initiation of steady flow simulations of the NASA/Pratt&Whitney airfoil at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg.; and the investigation of the prediction of laminar separation bubbles on a NACA 0012 airfoil.
Unsteadyaerodynamic forces are calculated by the XTRAN2L finite difference program which solves the complete two dimensional unsteady transonic small perturbation equation. The unsteady forces are obtained using a pulse transfer function technique which assumes the flow field behaves in a locally linear fashion about a mean condition. Forces are calculated for a linear flat plate using the default grids from the LTRAN2-NLR, LTRAN2-HI, and XTRAN3S programs. The forces are compared to the exact theoretical values for flat plate, and grid generated boundary and internal numerical reflections are observed to cause significant errors in the unsteady airloads. Grids are presented that alleviate the reflections while reducing computational time up to fifty-three percent and program size up to twenty-eight percent. Forces are presented for a six percent thick parabolic arc airfoil which demonstrate that the transform technique may be successfully applied to nonlinear transonic flows.
The problem of estimating integro-differential models based on test or simulation data is dealt with. The identification techniques proposed for estimating parameters in models described by differential equations need to be considerably extended to deal with the integral terms. Conditions under which the integral terms may be approximated by algebraic values are discussed. The integro-differential models discussed are related to indicial models proposed by aerodynamicists to describe unsteady flow.
A continuous adjoint formulation is used to determine optimal airfoil shapes in unsteady viscous flows at Re=1×104. The Reynolds number is based on the free-stream speed and the chord length of the airfoil. A finite element method based on streamline-upwind Petrov\\/Galerkin (SUPG) and pressure-stabilized Petrov\\/Galerkin (PSPG) stabilizations is used to solve both the flow and adjoint equations. The airfoil is
Transonic steady and unsteadyaerodynamic data were measured on a large elastic wing in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The wing had a supercritical airfoil shape and a leading-edge sweepback of 28.8 deg. The wing was heavily instrumented to measure both static and dynamic pressures and deflections. A hydraulically driven outboard control surface was oscillated to generate unsteady airloads on the wing. Representative results from the wind tunnel tests are presented and discussed, and the unexpected occurrence of an unusual dynamic wing instability, which was sensitive to angle of attack, is reported.
A general theory for study, oscillatory or fully unsteady potential compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, one obtains a set of differential-delay equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative which is expressed in terms of the generalized coordinates of the structure. For oscillatory flow, the motion consists of sinusoidal oscillations around a steady, subsonic or supersonic flow. For fully unsteady flow, the motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed for time t or = 0 and of small perturbations around the steady state for time t 0.
The aerodynamic forces on an axisymmetric wind tunnel model are altered by fluidic interaction of an azimuthal array of integrated synthetic jet actuators with the cross flow. Four-quadrant actuators are integrated into a Coanda surface on the aft section of the body, and the jets emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots equally distributed around the model's perimeter. The model is suspended in the tunnel using eight wires each comprising miniature in-line force sensors and shape-memory-alloy (SMA) strands that are used to control the instantaneous forces and moments on the model and its orientation. The interaction of the actuation jets with the flow over the moving model is investigated using PIV and time-resolved force measurements to assess the transitory aerodynamic loading effected by coupling between the induced motion of the aerodynamic surface and the fluid dynamics that is driven by the actuation. It is shown that these interactions can lead to effective control of the aerodynamic forces and moments, and thereby of the model's motion.
Progress in the development of computational methods for steady and unsteadyaerodynamics has perennially paced advancements in aeroelastic analysis and design capabilities. Since these capabilities are of growing importance in the analysis and design of high-performance aircraft, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of appropriate aerodynamic methodology. The contributions to those efforts from the integral-equations research program at the NASA Langley Research Center is reviewed. Specifically, the current scope, progress, and plans for research and development for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed, and example applications are shown in order to highlight the generality, versatility, and attractive features of this methodology.
Attention is given to two real integral functions which occur in the kernel of singular integral equations for subsonic unsteady lifting surfaces. The arguments k, r, and X of the functions correspond to the reduced frequency, spanwise distance, and modified coordinate in the flow direction, respectively. The value of the parameter nu in the functions depends on geometrical conditions. The considered investigation has the objective to present a series for general values of the nonnegative integer nu in order to compute efficiently the integral functions. The approach makes it possible to avoid any approximation or numerical quadrature.
The status of computational methods for unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelasticity is reviewed. The key features of challenging aeroelastic applications is discussed in terms of the flowfield state - low angle high speed flows and high angle vortex dominated flows. The critical role played by viscous effects in determining aeroelastic stability for conditions of incipient flow separation is stressed. The need for a variety of flow modeling tools, from linear formulations to implementations of the Navier-Stokes equations, is emphasized. Estimates of computer run times for flutter calculations using several computational methods are given. Applications of these methods for unsteadyaerodynamic and transonic flutter calculations for airfoils, wings, and configurations are summarized. Finally, recommendations are made concerning future research directions.
The current status of computational methods for unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelasticity is reviewed. The key features of challenging aeroelastic applications are discussed in terms of the flowfield state: low-angle high speed flows and high-angle vortex-dominated flows. The critical role played by viscous effects in determining aeroelastic stability for conditions of incipient flow separation is stressed. The need for a variety of flow modeling tools, from linear formulations to implementations of the Navier-Stokes equations, is emphasized. Estimates of computer run times for flutter calculations using several computational methods are given. Applications of these methods for unsteadyaerodynamic and transonic flutter calculations for airfoils, wings, and configurations are summarized. Finally, recommendations are made concerning future research directions.
A method for computing discrete-time state-space models of linearized unsteadyaerodynamic behavior directly from aeroelastic CFD codes is presented. The method involves the treatment of CFD-based pulse responses as Markov parameters for use in a system identification /realization algorithm. Results are presented for the AGARD 445.6 Aeroelastic Wing with four aeroelastic modes at a Mach number of 0.96 using the EZNSS Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver with aeroelastic capability. The System/Observer/Controller Identification Toolbox (SOCIT) algorithm, based on the Ho-Kalman realization algorithm, is used to generate 15th- and 32nd-order discrete-time state-space models of the unsteadyaerodynamic response of the wing over the entire frequency range of interest.
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.
An analytical method has been developed to estimate the unsteadyaerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteadyaerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.
An efficient and accurate computational method for predicting unsteady flows in multistage turbomachinery is presented. Particularly, a method is developed to solve the flutter and forced response problems accounting for blade row coupling. The aerodynamic blade row coupling is provided by propagation of waves in the working fluid. A set of travelling waves is represented by multiple unsteady solutions for
Modifications to an existing three-dimensional, implicit, upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code (CFL3D Version 2.1) for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications, which were previously added to CFL3D Version 1.0, include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the government flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 degree swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.
A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three- dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.
The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteadyaerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral equations and finite difference methods for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite difference solution of the transonic small perturbation equation, the integral equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.
The current scope, recent progress, and plans for research and development of computational methods for unsteadyaerodynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center are reviewed. Both integral-equations and finite-difference method for inviscid and viscous flows are discussed. Although the great bulk of the effort has focused on finite-difference solution of the transonic small-perturbation equation, the integral-equation program is given primary emphasis here because it is less well known.
This paper reports experimental results on using steady and unsteady plasma aerodynamic actuation to control the corner separation,\\u000a which forms over the suction surface and end wall corner of a compressor cascade blade passage. Total pressure recovery coefficient\\u000a distribution was adopted to evaluate the corner separation. Corner separation causes significant total pressure loss even\\u000a when the angle of attack is
Laminar--flow airfoils for large stall--regulated horizontal--axis wind turbines are designed to achieve a restrained maximum lift coefficient and a broad laminar low- drag bucket under steady flow conditions and at specific Reynolds numbers. Blind- comparisons of the 2000 NREL UnsteadyAerodynamicsExperiment showed large discrepancies and illustrated the need for improved physics modeling. We have studied the S809 airfoil under static and dynamic (ramp-up, ramp-down, and oscillatory) conditions, using the four-equation transition model of Langtry and Menter (2009), which has been implemented as a library accessible by an OpenFOAM RANS solver. Model validation is performed using surface--pressure and lift/drag data from U. Glasgow (2009) and OSU (1995) wind tunnel experiments. Performance of the transition model is assessed by analyzing integrated performance metrics, as well as detailed surface pressure and pressure gradient, wall--shear stress, and boundary--layer profiles and separation points. Demonstration of model performance in the light-- and deep--stall regimes of dynamic stall is an important step in reducing uncertainties in full 3D simulations of turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Paterson, Eric; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James
A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteadyaerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The procedure yielded a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the advantages of including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.; Huber, Frank W.
This paper presents recent results in the unsteadyaerodynamics and computational aeroelasticity research programs at the NASA Langley Research Center. These programs include development of two types of computational methods: methods that use structured computational meshes and those that use unstructured meshes. Results show that an aeroelastic analysis method that uses unsteady transonic small disturbance (TSD) potential aerodynamics and structured, Cartesian meshes is capable of accurate analysis of complex aircraft configurations. The paper describes recent enhancements to the TSD method that allow analysis of vehicles with swept, flexible vertical surfaces and flexible fuselages and presents selected results that verify the accuracy of the new capabilities. Modifications to a structured-mesh Euler/Navier-Stokes method to allow aeroelastic analysis are described, and a wing flutter analysis using the resulting method is presented. Advantages of using unstructured meshes for the analysis of complex configurations are discussed. The paper presents development of unstructured-mesh Euler/Navier-Stokes methods for unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelastic analysis. Spatial and temporal adaption methods on unstructured meshes are described, and selected results are presented.
A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteadyaerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology (RSM) and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The optimization procedure yields a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. The computed results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the tremendous advantages that can be gained by including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.
Madavan, Nateri K.; Rai, Man Mohan; Huber, Frank W.
A combination probe for time-resolved measurements of unsteady compressible flows in transonic wind tunnels is described. The probe measures stagnation (total) temperature and pressure, static pressure, and flow angles in two planes. From these, the fluctuating mass flux, Mach number, and velocity as well as their components in three directions can be deduced. The combination probe consists of a dual hot-wire aspirating temperature and pressure probe mounted piggyback with a high-frequency angle probe. The angle probe has four surface-mounted silicon pressure sensors. A scheme is described for retrieving from the four pressure signals the stagnation and static pressures, Mach number, and flow angles in two planes. The calibrations forming the base for this procedure, obtained from steady-state tests, are given. Typical data obtained in the Karman vortex street shed from a cylinder and at the exit of a Mach 0.4 air jet are presented.
An analytical technique is presented for approximating unsteadyaerodynamic forces in the time domain. The order of elements of a matrix Pade approximation was postulated, and the resulting polynomial coefficients were determined through a combination of least squares estimates for the numerator coefficients and a constrained gradient search for the denominator coefficients which insures stable approximating functions. The number of differential equations required to represent the aerodynamic forces to a given accuracy tends to be smaller than that employed in certain existing techniques where the denominator coefficients are chosen a priori. Results are shown for an aeroelastic, cantilevered, semispan wing which indicate a good fit to the aerodynamic forces for oscillatory motion can be achieved with a matrix Pade approximation having fourth order numerator and second order denominator polynomials.
Improved algorithm for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteadyaerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements were developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. A description of the Euler solvers is presented along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.
The Minimum-State Method for rational approximation of unsteadyaerodynamic force coefficient matrices, modified to allow physical weighting of the tabulated aerodynamic data, is presented. The approximation formula and the associated time-domain, state-space, open-loop equations of motion are given, and the numerical procedure for calculating the approximation matrices, with weighted data and with various equality constraints are described. Two data weighting options are presented. The first weighting is for normalizing the aerodynamic data to maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second weighting is one in which each tabulated coefficient, at each reduced frequency value, is weighted according to the effect of an incremental error of this coefficient on aeroelastic characteristics of the system. This weighting yields a better fit of the more important terms, at the expense of less important ones. The resulting approximate yields a relatively low number of aerodynamic lag states in the subsequent state-space model. The formulation forms the basis of the MIST computer program which is written in FORTRAN for use on the MicroVAX computer and interfaces with NASA's Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) computer program. The program structure, capabilities and interfaces are outlined in the appendices, and a numerical example which utilizes Rockwell's Active Flexible Wing (AFW) model is given and discussed.
The problem of the potential incompressible flow about a helicopter rotor blade is solved using an unsteady vortex-panel method where the mutual interaction between the blade and the distorting free wake is taken into account. The present method alleviates the need to rely upon measured-wake geometries or p5escribed-wake models in order to calculate the airloads. A computer program has been developed which is capable of predicting the geometry of the time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) wake and the instantaneous loadings for a single blade in hover, climb, and forward flight. The solution is obtained by using a time-accurate step-by-step procedure. The complex-wake geometry at any time is presented graphically with a computer graphics system. Calculated results are compared with published data for a rotor blade in both hover and forward flight. The code has also been applied to the study of the effect of changing blade tip geometry.
The computer program SUSSA ACTS (Steady and Unsteady, Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics for Complex Transportation Systems) are presented in the final version. The numerical formulation and the description of the program and numerical results are included. In particular, generalized forces for fully unsteady (complex frequency) aerodynamics for a wing-body configuration, in both subsonic and supersonic flows, are discussed. The mathematical analysis includes completely arbitrary motion. The numerical implementation was limited to steady and oscillatory flows. A more general aerodynamic formulation in the form of a fully transient response for time-domain analysis and the aerodynamic transfer function (Laplace transform of the fully unsteady operator) for frequency-domain analysis is outlined.
The general theory of potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green function method, an integral representation for the potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. Under small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point, P, in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface, sigma, of the body. Hence, if the point P approaches the surface of the body, the representation reduces to an integro-differential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative (which is known from the boundary conditions) on the surface sigma. For the important practical case of small harmonic oscillation around a rest position, the equation reduces to a two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation of second-type. It is shown that this equation reduces properly to the lifting surface theories as well as other classical mathematical formulas. The question of uniqueness is examined and it is shown that, for thin wings, the operator becomes singular as the thickness approaches zero. This fact may yield numerical problems for very thin wings.
With the continuous progress in hardware and numerical schemes, Computational UnsteadyAerodynamics (CUA), that is, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to unsteady flowfields, is slowly finding its way as a useful and reliable tool (turbulence and transition modeling permitting) in the aircraft, helicopter, engine and missile design and development process. Before a specific code may be used with confidence it is essential to validate its capability to describe the physics of the flow correctly, or at least to the level of approximation required, for which purpose a comparison with accurate experimental data is needed. Unsteady wind tunnel testing is difficult and expensive; two factors which dramatically limit the number of organizations with the capability and/or resources to perform it. Thus, unsteady experimental data is scarce, often classified and scattered in diverse documents. Additionally, access to the reports does not necessarily assure access to the data itself. The collaborative effort described in this paper was conceived with the aim of collecting into a single easily accessible document as much quality data as possible. The idea is not new. In the early 80's NATO's AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Structures and Material Panel (SMP) produced AGARD Report No. 702 "Compendium of UnsteadyAerodynamic Measurements", which has found and continues to find extensive use within the CUA Community. In 1995 AGARD's Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) decided to update and expand the former database with new geometries and physical phenomena, and launched Working Group WG-22 on "Validation Data for Computational UnsteadyAerodynamic Codes". Shortly afterwards AGARD was reorganized as the RTO (Research and Technology Organization) and the WG was renamed as AVT (Applied Vehicle Technolology) WG-003. Contributions were received from AEDC, BAe, DLR, DERA, Glasgow University, IAR, NAL, NASA, NLR, and ONERA. The final publication with the results of the exercise is expected in the second part of 1999. The aim of the present paper is to announce and present the new database to the Aeroelasticity community. It is also intended to identify, together with one of the groups of end users it targets, deficiencies in the compendium that should be addressed by means of new wind tunnel tests or by obtaining access to additionally existing data.
Ruiz-Calavera, Luis P.; Bennett, Robert; Fox, John H.; Galbraith, Robert W.; Geurts, Evert; Henshaw, Micahel J. deC.; Huang, XingZhong; Kaynes, Ian W.; Loeser, Thomas; Naudin, Pierre; Tamayama, Masato
The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteadyaerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.
Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)
A simple matrix polynomial approach is introduced for approximating unsteadyaerodynamics in the s-plane and ultimately, after combining matrix polynomial coefficients with matrices defining the structure, a matrix polynomial of the flutter equations of motion (EOM) is formed. A technique of recasting the matrix-polynomial form of the flutter EOM into a first order form is also presented that can be used to determine the eigenvalues near the origin and everywhere on the complex plane. An aeroservoelastic (ASE) EOM have been generalized to include the gust terms on the right-hand side. The reasons for developing the new matrix polynomial approach are also presented, which are the following: first, the "workhorse" methods such as the NASTRAN flutter analysis lack the capability to consistently find roots near the origin, along the real axis or accurately find roots farther away from the imaginary axis of the complex plane; and, second, the existing s-plane methods, such as the Roger s s-plane approximation method as implemented in ISAC, do not always give suitable fits of some tabular data of the unsteadyaerodynamics. A method available in MATLAB is introduced that will accurately fit generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients in a tabular data form into the coefficients of a matrix polynomial form. The root-locus results from the NASTRAN pknl flutter analysis, the ISAC-Roger's s-plane method and the present matrix polynomial method are presented and compared for accuracy and for the number and locations of roots.
A linear unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, is being developed to predict the aerodynamic response to blade vibrations in the fan, compressor or turbine stages of modern jet engines. In previous work numerical solutions were restricted to cascades of sharp-edged blades aligned with the mean flow. Under the present effort the solution procedure has been extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges. As part of this effort an analytical model-problem study has been conducted to clarify the behavior of first-order perturbation solutions in the vicinity of airfoil edges. Further, a numerical approximation using concepts from singular perturbation theory has been developed to resolve the unsteady boundary value problem for cascades of blunt leading-edged blades. Numerical results for NACA 0012 cascades, including detailed results in the vicinity of a blade leading edge, are presented and evaluated.
This paper presents the technical details and results of a high-speed wind-tunnel test program of an aeroelastic cantilevered transport type wing with two pylon-mounted engines. The tests were conducted in the NASA-Langley 16-foot Transonic Dynamic tunnel (TDT) during December 1981. Flutter of identical planforms, mass properties, and stiffness. The test parameters included different values of model stiffness and wing loading at various angles of attack. The models were instrumented at span-wise wing stations to determine bending and torsion deflections and vertical accelerations. At two model wing stations, pressure transducers were distributed along the chord to record static and unsteady oscillatory pressures during the approach to and onset of flutter. This paper presents the test program with results of the flutter characteristics and selected steady and unsteadyaerodynamic data for both airfoils at different angles of attack for various Mach numbers and dynamic pressures.
Grosser, W. F.; Britt, R. T.; Childs, C. B.; Crooks, O. J.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.
A highly efficient numerical method is developed for three-dimensional, periodic, vortical flows around a cascade of loaded airfoils. The method linearizes Euler's equations about the mean flow of the cascade and thus fully accounts for the effects of distortion of the vortical disturbances as they propogate and interact with the cascade mean flow. The numerical scheme is based on splitting the unsteady velocity into vortical and potential parts. The latter is governed by a non-constant coefficient inhomogeneous convective wave equation. A new and computationally suitable out-flow conditions are derived and avoid the difficulties associated with the singular velocity downstream. Solutions were obtained in the frequency domain by using a body-fitted coordinate system. Results are presented to demonstrate the effects of the out-flow boundary conditions, cascade spacing, mean blade loading and gust upstream conditions on the aerodynamics response and unsteady pressure field of a cascade.
An unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, was developed to predict aerodynamic forces and moments associated with free vibration or flutter phenomena in the fan, compressor, or turbine stages of modern jet engines. Based on the assumption of small amplitude blade motions, the unsteady flow is governed by linear equations with variable coefficients which depend on the underlying steady low. These equations were approximated using difference expressions determined from an implicit least squares development and applicable on arbitrary grids. The resulting linear system of algebraic equations is block tridiagonal, which permits an efficient, direct (i.e., noniterative) solution. The solution procedure was extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges at incidence relative to the inlet flow.
A technique for measuring unsteadyaerodynamic pressure pulsations on rotating fan blades has been developed with reference to the study of fan vibration and noise. It is shown that there is practically no change in the transfer coefficient of the receiving section for tangential-flow conditions that characterize centrifugal fans when the waveguide-transfer section of the sampling orifice on the blade surface is continuous; hence, the effect of flow on calibration can be neglected. The proposed method yields a signal/noise ratio of 20 dB.
Bazhenov, D. V.; Bazhenova, L. A.; Vodopianov, V. G.; Rimskii-Korsakov, A. V.
A supersonic unsteadyaerodynamic loads prediction method based on the constant pressure method was integrated into the NASA FASTEX system. The updated FASTEX code can be employed for aeroelastic analyses in subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. A brief description of the supersonic constant pressure panel method, as applied to lifting surfaces and body configurations, is followed by a documentation of updates required to incorporate this method in the FASTEX code. Test cases showing correlations of predicted pressure distributions, flutter solutions, and stability derivatives with available data are reported.
Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques for aeroelastic applications require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear time-invariant state-space form. Unsteadyaerodynamics forces have to be approximated as rational functions of the Laplace variable in order to put them in this framework. For the minimum-state method, the number of denominator roots in the rational approximation. Results are shown of applying various approximation enhancements (including optimization, frequency dependent weighting of the tabular data, and constraint selection) with the minimum-state formulation to the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model. The results demonstrate that good models can be developed which have an order of magnitude fewer augmenting aerodynamic equations more than traditional approaches. This reduction facilitates the design of lower order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena.
In this paper, unsteadyaerodynamic forces acting on a three-dimensional wing and its aeroelastic behavior are determined experimentally using a novel semi-experimental method. Towards this end, a rigid wing specimen was fabricated and tested in a low speed, subsonic wind tunnel with two motion sensors for plunging and pitching. Time history samples of the wing motion were obtained at a single air speed and processed using the “Aerodynamics is Aeroelasticity Minus Structure” (AAEMS) system identification method to generate a reduced-order aerodynamic model in discrete-time, state-space format. Coupling the aerodynamic model with the structural model, obtained from the ground vibration test (GVT), results in a reduced-order aeroelastic model that can be analyzed with a variable dynamic pressure. Despite the absence of pressure measurements the model yields a good prediction of aeroelastic behavior, especially for lightly damped modes and for a wide range of dynamic pressures, including the flutter point. It is shown that when the dynamic pressure is at 29.6% of the critical flutter value the method estimates the flutter speed with less than 2% error. However, as the reference dynamic pressure is lowered (relative to the flutter dynamic pressure) the flutter prediction becomes less accurate due to the lack of pressure data. The experimental procedure outlined in this paper can be useful when predicting flutter based on data obtained at sub-critical dynamic pressures.
The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteadyaerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.
Experimental data on the unsteadyaerodynamics of oscillating airfoils in transonic flow are presented. Two 0.5 m-chord airfoil models - an NACA 64A010 and an NLR 7301 - were tested in the NASA-Ames 11 by 11 foot Transonic Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers to 0.85, at chord Reynolds numbers to 12 million and at mean angles of attack to 4 deg. The airfoils were subjected to both pitching and plunging motions at reduced frequencies to 0.3 (physical frequencies to 53 Hz). The new hardware and the extensive use of computer-experiment integration developed for this test are described. The geometrical configuration of the model and the test arrangement are described in detail. Mean and first harmonic data are presented in both tabular and graphical form to aid in comparisons with other data and with numerical computations.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Why are flies and birds much more maneuverable than airplanes? In his Perspective, Dudley explains current thinking about the biomechanics of insect flight. He highlights a report in this issue (Dickinson et al.) of a robotic fly that reproduces many of the flight characteristics of its living counterpart and reveals unexpected force generation at the ends of the up- and downstrokes.
Robert Dudley (University of Texas at Austin;Integrative Biology)
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of neighboring blade rows on the unsteadyaerodynamic response of oscillating cascade blades on the basis of a genuine three-dimensional model. To this end, mathematical formulations based on the lifting surface theory are developed for a pair of contra-rotating annular cascades of oscillating blades. The mechanism of frequency scattering of
The motivation behind the inclusion of unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelastic effects in the computation of stability and control (S&C) derivatives will be discussed as they pertain to aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analysis. This topic will be addressed in the context of two applications, the first being the estimation of S&C derivatives for a cable-mounted aeroservoelastic wind tunnel model tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The second application will be the prediction of the nonlinear aeroservoelastic phenomenon known as Residual Pitch Oscillation (RPO) on the B-2 Bomber. Techniques and strategies used in these applications to compute S&C derivatives and perform flight simulations will be reviewed, and computational results will be presented.
Large-amplitude unsteady motion effects on the aerodynamic force and stability characteristics of flat-plate wings were investigated in a wind tunnel for the cases of two delta wings with respective leading edge sweeps of 70 and 45 deg, and a rectangular wing whose aspect ratio was equal to that of the 70-deg delta wing. Attention was given to the effects of reduced frequency and mean angle of attack. It is found that lags in vortex burst location and separation/reattachment of flow on the upper surface of the wing produced large overshoots and hysteresis loops in normal force and pitching moment coefficients that were a strong function of mean oscillation angle and reduced frequency.
The feasibility of a general theory for the time-domain unsteadyaerodynamics of helicopter rotors is investigated. The wake theory gives a linearized relation between the downwash and the wing bound circulation, in terms of the impulse response obtained directly in the time domain. This approach makes it possible to treat general wake configurations, including discrete wake vorticity with rolled-up and distorted geometry. The investigation establishes the approach for model order reduction; determines when a constrained identification method is needed; verifies the formulation of the theory for rolled-up, distorted trim wake geometry; and verifies the formulation of the theory for wake geometry perturbations. The basic soundness of the approach is demonstrated by the results presented. A research program to complete the development of the method is outlined. The result of this activity will be an approach for analyzing the aeroelastic stability and response of helicopter rotors, while retaining the important influence of the complicated rotor wake configuration.
An implicit method for the computation of unsteady flows on unstructured grids is presented. The resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved at each time step using an agglomeration multigrid procedure. The method allows for arbitrarily large time steps and is efficient in terms of computational effort and storage. Validation of the code using a one-equation turbulence model is performed for the well-known case of flow over a cylinder. A Detached Eddy Simulation model is also implemented and its performance compared to the one equation Spalart-Allmaras Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model. Validation cases using DES and RANS include flow over a sphere and flow over a NACA 0012 wing including massive stall regimes. The project was driven by the ultimate goal of computing separated flows of aerodynamic interest, such as massive stall or flows over complex non-streamlined geometries.
An experimental influence coefficient technique was used to obtain unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficients and, consequently, unsteady pressures for a cascade of symmetric airfoils oscillating in pitch about mid-chord. Stagger angles of 0 deg and 10 deg were investigated for a cascade with a gap-to-chord ratio of 0.417 operating at an axial Mach number of 1.9, resulting in a supersonic leading-edge locus. Reduced frequencies ranged from 0.056 to 0.2. The influence coefficients obtained determine the unsteady pressures for any interblade phase angle. The unsteady pressures were compared with those predicted by several algorithms for interblade phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg.
This work develops reduced order models for the unsteadyaerodynamic forces on a small wing in response to agile maneuvers and gusts. In particular, the classical unsteady models of Wagner and Theodorsen are cast into a low-dimensional state-space framework. Low order state-space models are more computationally efficient than the classical formulations, and are well suited for modification with nonlinear dynamics and the application of control techniques. Reduced order models are obtained using the eigensystem realization algorithm on force data from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a pitching or plunging 2D flat plate at Reynolds numbers between 100 and 1000. Models are tested on rapid pitch and plunge maneuvers with a range of effective angle-of-attack. We evaluate the performance of the models based on agreement with results from DNS, in particular, the ability to reproduce lift forces over a range of pitching and plunging frequencies. Bode plots of the reduced order models, Wagner's and Theodorsen's methods, and DNS provide a concise assessment.
Aerodynamic equations for the longitudinal motion of an aircraft with a horizontal tail were developed. In this development emphasis was given on obtaining model structure suitable for model identification from experimental data. The resulting aerodynamic models included unsteady effects in the form of linear indicial functions. These functions represented responses in the lift on the wing and tail alone, and interference between those two lifting surfaces. The effect of the wing on the tail was formulated for two different expressions concerning the downwash angle at the tail. The first expression used the Cowley-Glauert approximation known-as "lag-in-downwash," the second took into account growth of the wing circulation and delay in the development of the lift on the tail. Both approaches were demonstrated in two examples using the geometry of a fighter aircraft and a large transport. It was shown that the differences in the two downwash formulations would increase for an aircraft with long tail arm performing low-speed, rapid maneuvers.
The steady and unsteadyaerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteadyaerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteadyaerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteadyaerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.
An efficient and accurate computational method for predicting unsteady flows in multistage turbomachinery is presented. Particularly, a method is developed to solve the flutter and forced response problems accounting for blade row coupling. The aerodynamic blade row coupling is provided by propagation of waves in the working fluid. A set of travelling waves is represented by multiple unsteady solutions for each blade row. Each solution has a particular frequency and interblade phase angle defined by the scattering and frequency shifting mechanisms. The waves are allowed to propagate between the rows by exchanging the information between various unsteady solutions at the interface boundaries. Only a finite number of unsteady solutions must be retained in the model to compute accurately the unsteadyaerodynamic response. The unsteady solutions are defined by solving a system of time-linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. After linearization, the resulting system of equations consists of the non-linear steady equations and linear unsteady equations with variable coefficients. The equations are discretized on a deforming, multi-block grid and advanced in the pseudo-time domain using a finite-volume Lax-Wendroff integration technique. Using the circumferential periodicity only one blade-to-blade passage is required to model each blade row. Various acceleration techniques such as multi-grid, local time-stepping and smoothing are employed to improve the convergence rate. The steady flow solver is validated against available experimental data. Results from the unsteady flow solver are compared with a semi-analytical method for the flutter problem. The analysis of the flutter problem for a front one-and-half stage of a modern axial compressor demonstrated the capability of the method of predicting the unsteady loads on blades with complex realistic geometry. The unsteady flow calculations in the forced response problem revealed the importance of the first two blade passing frequencies for computing the unsteady load on blades in a downstream blade row. The present time-linearized method is several orders of magnitude faster than conventional non-linear time-marching methods.
A simple vortex system, used to model unsteadyaerodynamic effects into the rigid body longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft, is described. The equations are used in the development of a parameter extraction algorithm. Use of the two parameter-estimation modes, one including and the other omitting unsteadyaerodynamic modeling, is discussed as a means of estimating some acceleration derivatives. Computer generated data and flight data, used to demonstrate the use of the parameter-extraction algorithm are studied.
From May 6 to 9, 1985, the Fluid Dynamics Panel and Flight Mechanics Panel of AGARD jointly arranged a Symposium on UnsteadyAerodynamics-Fundamentals and Applications to Aircraft Dynamics at the Stadthall, Goettingen, West Germany. This Symposium was organized by an international program committee chaired by Dr. K. J. Orlik-Ruckemann of the Fluid Dynamics Panel. The program consisted of five sessions grouped in two parts: (1) Fundamentals of UnsteadyAerodynamics; and (2) Applications to Aircraft Dynamics. The 35 papers presented at the 4 day meeting are published in AGARD CP 386 and listed in the Appendix. As the papers are already available and cover a very wide field, the evaluators have offered brief comments on every paper, followed by an overall evaluation of the meeting, together with some general conclusions and recommendations.
The purpose is to describe the development of unstructured grid methods which have several advantages when compared to methods which make use of structured grids. Unstructured grids, for example, easily allow the treatment of complex geometries, allow for general mesh movement for realistic motions and structural deformations of complete aircraft configurations which is important for aeroelastic analysis, and enable adaptive mesh refinement to more accurately resolve the physics of the flow. Steady Euler calculations for a supersonic fighter configuration to demonstrate the complex geometry capability; unsteady Euler calculations for the supersonic fighter undergoing harmonic oscillations in a complete-vehicle bending mode to demonstrate the general mesh movement capability; and vortex-dominated conical-flow calculations for highly-swept delta wings to demonstrate the adaptive mesh refinement capability are discussed. The basic solution algorithm is a multi-stage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme with a finite-volume spatial discretization based on an unstructured grid of triangles in 2D or tetrahedra in 3D. The moving mesh capability is a general procedure which models each edge of each triangle (2D) or tetrahedra (3D) with a spring. The resulting static equilibrium equations which result from a summation of forces are then used to move the mesh to allow it to continuously conform to the instantaneous position or shape of the aircraft. The adaptive mesh refinement procedure enriches the unstructured mesh locally to more accurately resolve the vortical flow features. These capabilities are described in detail along with representative results which demonstrate several advantages of unstructured grid methods. The applicability of the unstructured grid methodology to steady and unsteadyaerodynamic problems and directions for future work are discussed.
Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteadyaerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.
A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.
The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.
The highlights of a recent discussion by representatives of the fluid dynamics and structures and materials panels are reported with emphasis on the fundamental aspects of unsteady fluid mechanics. Topics include linearized potential flow theory, transonic flow calculations, unsteady boundary layers, dynamic stall, transonic buffet, and techniques for measuring unsteady pressures.
Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.
An advanced small perturbation (ASP) potential flow theory has been developed to improve upon the classical transonic small perturbation (TSP) theories that have been used in various computer codes. These computer codes are typically used for unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The codes exploit the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP theory was developed methodically by first determining the essential elements required to produce full-potential-like solutions with a small perturbation approach on the requisite Cartesian grid. This level of accuracy required a higher-order streamwise mass flux and a mass conserving surface boundary condition. The ASP theory was further developed by determining the essential elements required to produce results that agreed well with Euler solutions. This level of accuracy required mass conserving entropy and vorticity effects, and second-order terms in the trailing wake boundary condition. Finally, an integral boundary layer procedure, applicable to both attached and shock-induced separated flows, was incorporated for viscous effects. The resulting ASP potential flow theory, including entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects, is shown to be mathematically more appropriate and computationally more accurate than the classical TSP theories. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data. The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which also is briefly described with representative results.
The general behavior of unsteady airloads in the frequency domain is explained. Based on this, a systematic procedure is described whereby the airloads, produced by completely arbitrary, small, time-dependent motions of a thin lifting surface in an airstream, can be predicted. This scheme employs as raw materials any of the unsteady linearized theories that have been mechanized for simple harmonic oscillations. Each desired aerodynamic transfer function is approximated by means of an appropriate Pade approximant, that is, a rational function of finite degree polynomials in the Laplace transform variable. Although these approximations have many uses, they are proving especially valuable in the design of automatic control systems intended to modify aeroelastic behavior.
Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.
Theoretical analyses and computer codes are being developed for predicting compressible unsteady inviscid and viscous flows through blade rows. Such analyses are needed to determine the impact of unsteady flow phenomena on the structural durability and noise generation characteristics of turbomachinery blading. Emphasis is being placed on developing analyses based on asymptotic representations of unsteady flow phenomena. Thus, flow driven by small-amplitude unsteady excitations in which viscous effects are concentrated in thin layers are being considered. The resulting analyses should apply in many practical situations, lead to a better understanding of the relevent physics, and they will be efficient computationally, and therefore, appropriate for aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications. Under the present phase (Task 3), the effort was focused on providing inviscid and viscid prediction capabilities for subsonic unsteady cascade flows.
Verdon, Joseph M.; Barnett, Mark; Hall, Kenneth C.; Ayer, Timothy C.
The overall objective of this research program was to investigate methods to modify the leading edge separation region, which could lead to an improvement in aeroelastic stability of advanced airfoil designs. The airfoil section used is representative of current low aspect ratio fan blade tip sections. The experimental potion of this study investigated separated zone boundary layer from removal through suction slots. Suction applied to a cavity in the vicinity of the separation onset point was found to be the most effective location. The computational study looked into the influence of front camber on flutter stability. To assess the influence of the change in airfoil shape on stability the work-per-cycle was evaluated for torsion mode oscillations. It was shown that the front camberline shape can be an important factor for stabilizing the predicted work-per-cycle and reducing the predicted extent of the separation zone. In addition, data analysis procedures are discussed for reducing data acquired in experiments that involve periodic unsteady data. This work was conducted in support of experiments being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Flutter Cascade. The spectral block averaging method is presented. This method is shown to be able to account for variations in airfoil oscillation frequency that can occur in experiments that force oscillate the airfoils to simulate flutter.
Capece, Vincent R.; Ford, Christopher; Bone, Christopher; Li, Rui
This paper presents an initial step toward model identification from wind tunnel data for an airliner configuration. Two approaches to modeling a transport configuration are considered and applied to both steady and large-amplitude forced-oscillation wind tunnel data taken over a wide range of angles of attack. Only limited conclusions could be drawn from this initial data set. Although model estimated time histories of normal force and pitching moment agree reasonably well with the corresponding measured values, model damping parameters did not, for some cases, have values consistent with small amplitude oscillatory data. In addition, large parameter standard errors implied poor information content for model structure determination and parameter estimation. Further investigation of the modeling problem for more general aerodynamic models is recommended with close attention to experiment design for obtaining parameters with high accuracy.
The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.
This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.
The High Frequency Radiometer (HFR) is the only instrument on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) with sufficient temporal resolution to discern the frequency of unsteady wake oscillations. Determining both the frequency and amplitude of wake unsteadiness during AFE atmospheric entry is essential for reliably predicting the geometry and motion of the wake of future Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTV). These parameters directly affect the location and size of the pay- load and the weight of the required afterbody heat protection. The purpose of the AFE is to validate the technologies required for the design of ASTVs, which will be used to exploit Earth-lunar space. This validation will be conducted at a combination of vehicle size, altitude, and velocity not obtainable in ground-based facilities. The AFE will provide the experimental flight data needed to improve our understanding of hypersonic-wake physics and to validate computational predictions of the aerodynamic and heating loads, including afterbody radiative heating loads, on an ASTV. Reliable prediction of ASTV wake flows will ensure that payloads are located within the shear-layer envelope and will determine the amount of thermal protection the payloads require. Specifically, understanding the temporal nature of the wake unsteadiness is important for two reasons. Most importantly, analysis of ground-based experiments suggests that wake unsteadiness results in a variation of as much as +/- 5 deg in the shear-flow turning angle. This angle must be reliably predicted to avoid shear-layer impingement on the vehicle afterbody, which would result in heating rates of about 10 W/sq cm, of the same order as on the forebody stagnation point. Secondly, the energy associated with wake unsteadiness will reduce the static enthalpy of the wake fluid and cause an error of as much as 30% in the amount of predicted wake radiative heating. Therefore, the HFR flight data, which will quantify the frequency and amplitude of the wake unsteadiness, are required for the verification of computational models of ASTV flowfields. Measurement of wake unsteadiness has been endorsed by the Peer Science Steering Group and the AFE Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Working Group. The Peer Science Steering Group has stressed that a reliable measurement of the wake unsteadiness is fundamental because incorporating unsteadiness represents a substantial challenge to the CFD community, and a reliable measurement will raise confidence in the computer simulation. The AFE CFD Working Group has stated that 44 any data which would prove the existence and effects of unsteady flow would be extremely valuable.
Strawa, A. W.; Park, C.; Deiwert, G. S.; Feiereisen, W.; Arnold, J. O.; Davy, W. C.; Craig, R. A.; Venkatapathy, E.
A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.
The free-tip rotor utilizes a rotor blade tip which is structurally decoupled from the blade inboard section. The tip is free to pitch about its own pitch axis to respond to the local flow angularity changes. The tip also experiences the heaving motion due to the flapping of the rotor blade. For an airfoil in any pitching and heaving motion which can be expanded into a Fourier series, the lift and moment calculated by Theodoren's theory is simply the linear combination of the lift and moment calculated for each harmonic. These lift and moment are then used to determine the response of the free-tip rotor. A parametric study is performed to determine the effect of mechanical damping, mechanical spring, sweep, friction, and a constant control moment on the free-tip rotor response characteristics and the resulting azimuthal lift distributions. The results showed that the free-tip has the capability to suppress the oscillatory lift distribution around the azimuth and to eliminate a significant negative life peak on the advancing tip. This result agrees with the result of the previous analysis based on the steady aerodynamics.
The input data required to execute the computer program AIC/INT (aerodynamic influence coefficients with interference) are presented. The purpose of the computer program is to generate aerodynamic forces for a pair of plane and interfering nearly parallel, non-coplanar wings at supersonic Mach numbers. A finite element technique has been employed. Planforms are described by triangular elements and diaphragm regions are generated automatically.
This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411
Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua
Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.
An investigation of steady and unsteady flow phenomena in centrifugal compressors has been performed. In particular, the effect of vaned diffuser geometry on the compressor unsteadyaerodynamics has been considered, with particular emphasis on the diffuser vane unsteady loading generated by the impeller circumferentially nonuniform flowfield. A series of experiments was performed in the Purdue Centrifugal Compressor Facility to quantify
This paper was presented during the 42nd Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel in Ottawa in April 1976. It deals with a serious difficulty in unsteadyaerodynamics, that is the prediction of the pressure field induced by the rotation of a control ...
Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.
A linearized Euler solver for calculating unsteady flows in turbomachinery blade rows due to both incident gusts and blade motion is presented. Using the linearized Euler technique, one decomposes the flow into a mean (or steady) flow plus an unsteady, harmonically varying, small disturbance flow. Linear variable coefficient equations describe the small disturbance behavior of the flow, and are solved using a pseudo-time marching Lax-Wendroff scheme. For the blade motion problem, a harmonically deforming computational rid that conforms to the motion of vibrating blades eliminates large error producing mean flow gradient terms that would otherwise appear in the unsteady flow tangency boundary condition. The paper also presents a new, numerically exact, nonreflecting far-field boundary condition based on an eigenanalysis of the discretized equations. Computed flow solutions demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of the present method. The solution of the linearized Euler equations requires one to two orders of magnitude less computer time than solution of the nonlinear Euler equations using traditional time-accurate time-marching techniques. In addition, the deformable grid significantly improves the accuracy of the solution.
The Rotor-Fuselage Analysis is a method of calculating the aerodynamic reaction between a helicopter rotor and fuselage. This manual describes the structure and operation of the computer programs that make up the Rotor-Fuselage Analysis, programs which prepare the input and programs which display the output.
The Hypersonic Flight Experiment (HYFLEX) vehicle successfully performed a hypersonic lifting flight. The vehicle was developed to establish the basic technologies necessary for an unmanned shuttle vehicle. In this report, the primary aerodynamic characte...
The method described is based on the panel-technique, which allows the calculation of approximate unsteadyaerodynamic forces on a finite, harmonically vibrating cascade consisting of slightly curved lifting surfaces (vanes) and boundary surfaces in a two...
This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer' to which we have given the name AirDyn. The AirDyn has been designed, in particular, to measure the effect of a ship airwake on a helicopter translating over the ship's landing deck. The AirDyn, which has been implemented in a water tunnel, in preference to a wind tunnel, senses the integrated effect of a turbulent airwake on the helicopter, and the resulting unsteady forces and moments are an indication of the workload the pilot would need to exert to counteract these effects in a real helicopter. Binocular sensing elements and semiconductor strain gauges have been adopted to achieve high sensitivity and relatively high stiffness. The compact strain gauge balance is fitted into the helicopter fuselage, and protective coatings and a flexible bellows are used to seal the balance and protect it from the water. The coefficient matrix of the AirDyn has been obtained by static calibrations, while impulse excitation tests have confirmed that its frequency response is suitable for the measurements of unsteady loads. The application of the instrument is illustrated by using it to quantify the effect that a bulky ship mast has on the airwake and thus on a helicopter as it lands onto a simplified ship in a scaled 50 knot headwind.
A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic translational model flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.52 and a setting angle of 0.90 rad. Unique graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistic high reduced frequency level of 0.15. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time steady and time unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated.
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
The ability to manipulate a flow field to improve efficiency or performance is one of the leading areas of research of many scientists and engineers in fluid mechanics. Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack has been the focus of a number of investigations for many years. The objective of these investigations is to improve the wind turbines aerodynamic performance and increase their operational range by inducing complete or partial flow reattachment. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D wind turbine airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics.
Bifurcation theory is used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic stability characteristics of an aircraft subject to single-degree-of-freedom. The requisite moment of the aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion is shown to be representable in a form equivalent to the response to finite amplitude oscillations. It is shown how this information can be deduced from the case of infinitesimal-amplitude oscillations. The bifurcation theory analysis reveals that when the bifurcation parameter is increased beyond a critical value at which the aerodynamic damping vanishes, new solutions representing finite amplitude periodic motions bifurcate from the previously stable steady motion. The sign of a simple criterion, cast in terms of aerodynamic properties, determines whether the bifurcating solutions are stable or unstable. For the pitching motion of flat-plate airfoils flying at supersonic/hypersonic speed and for oscillation of flaps at transonic speed, the bifurcation is subcritical, implying either the exchanges of stability between steady and periodic motion are accompanied by hysteresis phenomena, or that potentially large aperiodic departures from steady motion may develop.
A nonlinear least squares algorithm for aircraft parameter estimation from flight data was developed. The postulated model for the analysis represented longitudinal, short period motion of an aircraft. The corresponding aerodynamic model equations included indicial functions (unsteady terms) and conventional stability and control derivatives. The indicial functions were modeled as simple exponential functions. The estimation procedure was applied in five examples. Four of the examples used simulated and flight data from small amplitude maneuvers to the F-18 HARV and X-31A aircraft. In the fifth example a rapid, large amplitude maneuver of the X-31 drop model was analyzed. From data analysis of small amplitude maneuvers ft was found that the model with conventional stability and control derivatives was adequate. Also, parameter estimation from a rapid, large amplitude maneuver did not reveal any noticeable presence of unsteadyaerodynamics.
Recent developments of the Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed and summarized. Applying the Green's function method to the fully unsteady (transient) potential equation yields an integro-differential-delay equation. With spatial discretization by the finite-element method, this equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time. Time solution by Laplace transform yields a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. Premultiplying and postmultiplying by the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash to the generalized coordinates one obtains the matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces. The frequency and mode-shape dependence of this matrix makes the program SOUSSA useful for multiple frequency and repeated mode-shape evaluations.
A general method of predicting airloads is applied to helicopter rotor blades on a full three-dimensional basis using the general theory developed for a rotor blade at the psi = pi/2 position where flutter is most likely to occur. Calculations of aerodynamic coefficients for use in flutter analysis are made for forward and hovering flight with low inflow. The results are compared with values given by two-dimensional strip theory for a rigid rotor hinged at its root. The comparisons indicate the inadequacies of strip theory for airload prediction. One important conclusion drawn from this study is that the curved wake has a substantial effect on the chordwise load distribution.
A generalized solution of the hyperbolic wave equation was further developed to relate the velocity components at a field point to the potential gradient distribution in the dependence domain. Singular integrals were evaluated in closed form, with numerical integration methods for more complex but analytic functions. Idealization of the lifting surfaces by trapezoidal elements with two sides parallel to the streamlines is computationally efficient. Streamwise integrals were performed analytically, and spanwise integrals were neccessary only on element leading and trailing sides. All integrands vanish on the Mach cone. Pressure distribution on a double delta wing and generalized aerodynamic coefficients for three AGARD planforms were calculated and compared with available results.
A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic torsional flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.17 and a setting angle of 1.07 rad. Graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistically high reduced frequency level of 0.44. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time-steady and time-unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated. The effects of reduced solidity and decreased setting angle on the flow field were also evaluated.
This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteadyaerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteadyaerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.
Linearized slender-body theory is applied to the computation of aerodynamic forces on an oscillating, or deforming, body in supersonic flow. The undeformed body is a body of revolution and the deformed body is represented by movement of a line through the centers of the cross sections which are assumed to remain circular. The time dependence is based on sinusoidal motion. For a body of vanishing thickness the slender-body theory yields the apparent mass approximation as it is obtained for incompressible crossflow around a cylinder. Both linearized slender-body theory and the apparent mass approximation are used to calculate the pitching-moment coefficients on a rigid slender body with a parabolic arc nose cone, and these coefficients are compared with some experimental results.
A quasi-steady analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the lateral (antisymmetric) modes of the 747/orbiter vehicle was accomplished. The interference effect of the orbiter wake on the 747 tail furnishes an aerodynamic undamping contribution to the elastic modes. Likewise, the upstream influence of the 747 tail and aft fuselage on the orbiter beaver-tail rail fairing also is undamping. Fortunately these undamping effects cannot overpower the large damping contribution of the 747 tail and the modes are damped for the configurations analyzed. However, significant interference effects of the orbiter on the 747 tail have been observed in the pitch plane. The high response of the 747 vertical tail in the orbiter wave was also considered. Wind tunnel data points to flapping of the OMS pod wakes as the source of the wake resonance phenomenon.
To give an insight into the clocking effect and its influence on the wake transportation and its interaction, the unsteady three-dimensional flow through a 1.5-stage axial low pressure turbine is simulated numerically by using a density-correction based, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations commercial CFD code. The 2nd stator clocking is applied over ten equal tangential positions. The results show that the harmonic blade number ratio is an important factor affecting the clocking effect. The clocking effect has very small influence on the turbine efficiency in this investigation. The difference between the maximum and minimum efficiency is about 0.1%. The maximum efficiency can be achieved when the 1st stator wake enters the 2nd stator passage near blade suction surface and its adjacent wake passes through the 2nd stator passage close to blade pressure surface. The minimum efficiency appears if the 1st stator wake impinges upon the leading edge of the 2nd stator and its adjacent wake of the 1st stator passes through the mid-channel in the 2nd stator. The wake convective transportation and the blade circulation variation due to its impingement on the subsequent blade are the main mechanism affecting the pressure variation in blade surface.
Li, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-cheng; Ouyang, Hua; Du, Zhao-hui
A mathematical model is developed to analyze the suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser, thereby addressing the important need for centrifugal compressor rotating stall and surge control. In this model, the precursor to to instability is a weak rotating potential velocity perturbation in the inlet flow field that eventually develops into a finite disturbance. To suppress the growth of this potential disturbance, a rotating control vortical velocity disturbance is introduced into the impeller inlet flow. The effectiveness of this control is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. To demonstrate instability control, this model is then used to predict the control effectiveness for centrifugal compressor geometries based on a low speed research centrifugal compressor. These results indicate that reductions of 10 to 15 percent in the mean inlet flow coefficient at instability are possible with control waveforms of half the magnitude of the total disturbance at the inlet.
The aerodynamic mechanisms employed durng the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, have been investigated through smoke visualization studies with tethered moths. Details of the flow around the wings and of the overall wake structure were recorded as stereophotographs and high-speed video sequences. The changes in flow which accompanied increases in flight speed from 0.4 to 5.7 m s-1 were analysed. The wake consists of an alternating series of horizontal and vertical vortex rings which are generated by successive down- and upstrokes, respectively. The downstroke produces significantly more lift than the upstroke due to a leading-edge vortex which is stabilized by a radia flow moving out towards the wingtip. The leading-edge vortex grew in size with increasing forward flight velocity. Such a phenomenon is proposed as a likely mechanism for lift enhancement in many insect groups. During supination, vorticity is shed from the leading edge as postulated in the 'flex' mechanism. This vorticity would enhance upstroke lift if it was recaptured diring subsequent translation, but it is not. Instead, the vorticity is left behind and the upstroke circulation builds up slowly. A small jet provides additional thrust as the trailing edges approach at the end of the upstroke. The stereophotographs also suggest that the bound circulation may not be reversed between half strokes at the fastest flight speeds.
Willmott, A. P.; Ellington, C. P.; Thomas, A. L. R.
The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.
Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.
A brief review of aerodynamic investigations currently underway at the Institute for Aerospace Studies is provided. An extensive investigation of airship dynamics and turbulence response has resulted in the development of a numerical analysis of airship d...
J. D. Delaurier G. W. Johnston D. W. Zingg W. D. Mckinney C. Hayball
NREL has completed the initial twisted blade field tests of the ``UnsteadyAerodynamicsExperiment.`` This test series continues systematic measurements of unsteadyaerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The blade twist distribution optimizes power production at a single angle of attack along the span. Abrupt transitions into and out of stall are created due to rapid changes in inflow. Data from earlier experiments have been analyzed extensively to characterize the steady and unsteady response of untwisted blades. In this report, a characterization and comparison of the baseline aerodynamic performance of the twisted versus non-twisted blade sets will be presented for steady flow conditions.
The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required.
Meile, W.; Reisenberger, E.; Mayer, M.; Schmölzer, B.; Müller, W.; Brenn, G.
Equations for pressure distributions and generalized aerodynamic forces are derived for a thin nonplanar lifting surface in simple harmonic motion at subsonic speeds. A digital computer program, written in Fortran IV, is also presented. The computer progr...
Tests were conducted a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blade along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The tests were conducted for all 96 combinations 2 mean camberline incidence angles 2 pitching amplitudes 3 reduced frequencies and 8 interblade phase angles. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Data obtained during the test program, reproduced from the printout of the data reduction program are complied. A further description of the contents of this report is found in the text that follows.
New method for predicting subsonic flutter, static deflections, and aeroelastic divergence developed. Unsteadyaerodynamic loads determined by unsteady-vortex-lattice method. Accounts for aspect ratio and angle of attack. Equations for motion of wing and flow field solved iteratively and simultaneously. Used to predict transient responses to initial disturbances, and to predict steady-state static and oscillatory responses. Potential application for research in such unsteady structural/flow interactions as those in windmills, turbines, and compressors.
Turbine aerodynamics remains a challenging and crucial research area for wind energy. Blade aerodynamic forces responsible for power production must be augmented to maximize energy capture. At the same time, adverse aerodynamic loads that fatigue turbine components need to be mitigated to extend machine service life. Successful resolution of these conflicting demands and continued cost of energy reduction require accurate
Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteadyaerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and\\/or industrial experience is
Our previous work (APS/DFD97:Ii1 and 98:FA10) used flow visualization to observe canine olfaction. The results raised some basic questions about the aerodynamics of sniffing, e.g. what flow rate is required, as a function of distance from a scent source, to acquire a detectable scent? Commercial sampler technology does not address such questions. A basic experiment was thus designed to investigate the aerodynamic phenomena and performance of sniffing. A stable thermal layer on a horizontal plane was used as a "scent" source per Reynolds Analogy. The detector was a thermocouple inside a sniffer tube. Flow patterns were observed by schlieren. Results show the importance of sniffer proximity to localize a scent source. A transient scent spike occurs at the sniff onset, followed by signal decline due to source depletion. Sniffing shows extreme sensitivity to disruptive air currents. Unstably-stratified scent sources (thermal plumes) are also considered. These results help us understand evolved sniffing behavior, and they suggest sampler design criteria for electronic-nose devices. (Research supported by DARPA.)
The design-point and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion of a variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) was assessed using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analyses with mixing-planes and sector-periodic, unsteady RANS analyses. The VSPT provides one means by which to effect the nearly 50 percent main-rotor speed change required for the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) application. The change in VSPT shaft-speed during the LCTR mission results in blade-row incidence angle changes of as high as 55 . Negative incidence levels of this magnitude at takeoff operation give rise to a vortical flow structure in the pressure-side cove of a high-turn rotor that transports low-momentum flow toward the casing endwall. The intent of the effort was to assess the impact of unsteadiness of blade-row interaction on the time-mean flow and, specifically, to identify potential departure from the predicted trend of efficiency with shaft-speed change of meanline and 3-D RANS/mixing-plane analyses used for design.
The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.
The aerodynamics of small amplitude pitching motions near stall have been studied experimentally in order to improve understanding of the torsional stall flutter problem for propeller blades. A model wing was oscillated in pitch at several small amplitudes over a wide and representative range of conditions. Unsteady surface pressures were measured and integrated to determine the aerodynamic damping at five spanwise stations. Strong negative damping was found for motions centered near static stall for all studied reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and sweep angles. The 30-deg sweptback configuration was found to become negatively damped over the entire span nearly simultaneously, while the unswept model exhibited local regions of negative damping that moved toward the wing tip as the mean angle of attack was increased.
In order to estimate the potential usefulness of an aerospike for reduction of reentry observables, preliminary tests were conducted to determine the effective body shape created by an aerodynamic spike on a hemisphere in supersonic flow. The tests were p...
Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteadyaerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and/or industrial experience is that many of the current unsteadyaerodynamic theories model a single blade row in an infinitely long duct, ignoring potentially important multistage effects. However, unsteady flows are made up of acoustic, vortical, and entropic waves. These waves provide a mechanism for the rotors and stators of multistage machines to communicate with one another. In other words, wave behavior makes unsteady flows fundamentally a multistage (and three-dimensional) phenomenon. In this research program, we have has as goals (1) the development of computationally efficient computer models of the unsteadyaerodynamic response of blade rows embedded in a multistage machine (these models will ultimately be capable of analyzing three-dimensional viscous transonic flows), and (2) the use of these computer codes to study a number of important multistage phenomena.
Recent developments of the aerodynamics models for the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II are described, particularly the unsteadyaerodynamic models and dynamic stall models, and the free wake geometry calculation. Three models for the unsteadyaerodynamic loads in attached flow are implemented: from incompressible thin-airfoil theory, from ONERA EDLIN, and from Leishman-Beddoes. Five dynamic stall models are implemented: from Johnson, Boeing,
In the avian lung, inhaled air is shunted past the openings of the medioventral secondary bronchi (MVSB) by a mechanism termed 'inspiratory aerodynamic valving' (IAV). Sizes and orientations of the trachea (Tr), syrinx (Sx), extrapulmonary primary bronchus (EPPB), intrapulmonary primary bronchus (IPPB), MVSB, mediodorsal secondary bronchi (MDSB), lateroventral secondary bronchi (LVSB) and the ostium (Ot) were determined in the ostrich, Struthio camelus. Air flow was simulated through computationally generated models and its dynamics analysed. The 'truncated normal model' (TNM) consisted of the Tr, Sx, EPPB, IPPB, MVSB and the Ot. For the 'inclusive normal model' (INM), the MDSB and the LDSB were added. Variations of these models included the 'truncated MVSB1 rotated model' (T(MVSB1)RM), the 'truncated constriction fitted model' (TCFM) and the 'inclusive MVSB1 rotated model' (I(MVSB1)RM). In the TNM, the T(MVSB1)RM and the TCFM, the air flow exited through the MVSB while for the INM and the I(MVSB1)RM, very little of it did: IAV did not occur in the partial models. In the I(MVSB1)RM, rotating the MVSB1 clockwise did not affect IAV. The incomplete models may be faulty because the velocity/pressure profiles in different parts of the interconnected airways form an integrated functional continuum in which different parts of the system considerably impact on each other. PMID:19786124
Selected data sets produced by the Stanford Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layer Program are compared to analytic solutions of the Stokes equations for different kinds of imposed, organized unsteadiness. Good agreement is found, qualifying the facility as one that faithfully produces flows of different prescribed unsteady conditions. Data sets from the facility are therefore considered especially suitable for comparison with predictions of turbulence models for unsteady flows. New data describing the development of an unsteady separation bubble are presented.
Low momentum fluid erupts at the unsteady separation region and forms a local shear layer at the viscous-inviscid interface. At the shear layer, the vorticity lumps into a vortex and protrudes into the inviscid region. This process initiates the separation process. The response of airfoils in unsteady free stream was investigated based on this vortex generation and convection concept. This approach enabled us to understand the complicated unsteadyaerodynamics from a fundamental point of view.
The measured hydraulic data collected in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility located at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center, near Bay St. Louis, Miss., are summarized for a series of experiments designed to study steady and unsteady flow over uniform grass roughness. All experiments were conducted during the 1973 and 1974 test seasons. Tables of measured ground-surface elevations, water-surface elevations, and point velocities are included for all experiments. A total of 19 steady flow experiments and 7 unsteady flow experiments for varying grass heights are included. The tabulated point velocities and water-surface elevations for the unsteady flow experiments were selected to represent the general changes in the flow variables as the flood wave passed through the facility but do not include all collected data. However, all data that were collected have been stored on computer disk storage and may be retrieved using the listing programs and memory locations. (Woodard-USGS)
The unsteady Kutta-Joukowski condition, dynamic stall on oscillating airfoils, and unsteady shock wave-boundary layer interaction are discussed. Emphasis is placed on developing reliable prediction techniques and suppression of unsteady separation on oscillating control surfaces, wings, and rotating blades to improve aerodynamic stability.
Experimental-computational methods for estimating characteristics of unsteady heat transfer processes are analyzed. The methods are based on the principles of distributed parameter system identification. The theoretical basis of such methods is the numerical solution of nonlinear ill-posed inverse heat transfer problems and optimal experiment design problems. Numerical techniques for solving problems are briefly reviewed. The results of the practical application of identification methods are demonstrated when estimating effective thermophysical characteristics of composite materials and thermal contact resistance in two-layer systems.
A two-phase experiment is proposed which utilizes the Shuttle Orbiter and its unique series of repeated entries into the earth's atmosphere as an airborne in situ aerodynamic testing laboratory. The objective of the experiment is to determine static aerodynamic force coefficients, first of the orbiter, and later of various entry configurations throughout the high speed flight regime, including the transition from free molecule to continuum fluid flow. The objective will be accomplished through analysis of inflight measurements from both shuttle-borne and shuttle-launched instrumented packages. Results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment.
Analytical investigations were carried out for the special practical problems of the fixed wing and the rotary wing. Two corresponding mathematical methods were developed in the two-dimensional incompressible case considering the unsteady variation of hor...
This paper investigates the relative importance of including unsteady effects in the lift and downwash in the longitudinal dynamics and parameter extraction algorithm. A simple vortex system has been used to model unsteadyaerodynamic effects into the longitudinal equations of motion of an aircraft. Computer-generated data and flight data were used to demonstrate that inclusion of unsteadyaerodynamics in the parameter-extraction algorithm produced aerodynamic parameters that were different from those extracted when unsteadyaerodynamics were left out of the algorithm. The differences between derivatives associated with the two extraction algorithms (with and without unsteadyaerodynamics) were related to acceleration derivatives which usually cannot be extracted individually.
The turbulent flow within a complex swirled combustor is studied with compressible large eddy simulation (LES), acoustic analysis, and experiments for both cold and reacting flows. Detailed fields of axial, tangential, and radial velocities (average and RMS) given by LES are compared with experimental values measured by LDV. The unsteady activity is identified using LES and acoustic tools for the
S. Roux; G. Lartigue; T. Poinsot; U. Meier; C. Bérat
This paper provides an overview of the activities associated with the aerodynamic database which is being developed in support of NASA's Hyper-X scramjet flight experiments. Three flight tests are planned as part of the Hyper-X program. Each will utilize ...
W. C. Engelund S. D. Holland C. E. Cockrell R. D. Bittner
This report summarizes and makes available to other investigators the measured hydraulic data collected during a series of experiments designed to study the effect of patterned bed roughness on steady and unsteady open-channel flow. The patterned effect of the roughness was obtained by clear-cut mowing of designated areas of an otherwise fairly dense coverage of coastal Bermuda grass approximately 250 mm high. All experiments were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility during the period of October 7 through December 12, 1974. Data from 18 steady flow experiments and 10 unsteady flow experiments are summarized. Measured data included are ground-surface elevations, grass heights and densities, water-surface elevations and point velocities for all experiments. Additional tables of water-surface elevations and measured point velocities are included for the clear-cut areas for most experiments. One complete set of average water-surface elevations and one complete set of measured point velocities are tabulated for each steady flow experiment. Time series data, on a 2-minute time interval, are tabulated for both water-surface elevations and point velocities for each unsteady flow experiment. All data collected, including individual records of water-surface elevations for the steady flow experiments, have been stored on computer disk storage and can be retrieved using the computer programs listed in the attachment to this report. (Kosco-USGS)
A sailplane is currently being developed at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to support a high altitude flight experiment. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the performance characteristics of an airfoil at altitudes between 100,000 and 70,000 feet at Mach numbers between 0.65 and 0.5. The airfoil lift and drag are measured from pilot and static pressures. The location of the separation bubble and vortex shedding are measured from a hot film strip. The details of the flight experiment are presented. A comparison of several estimates of the airfoil performance is also presented. The airfoil, APEX-16, was designed by Drela (MIT) with his MSES code. A two dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis has been performed by Tatineni and Zhong (UCLA) and another at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The role these analysis served to define the experiment is discussed.
Computer data are provided for tests conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge.
Results are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Magellan spacecraft during the October 1994 Termination Experiment, including the effects of the thruster engine exhaust plumes upon the molecular free stream around the spacecraft and upon the aerodynamics coefficients. As Magellan passed through the Venusian atmosphere, the solar arrays were turned in opposite directions relative to the free stream creating a torque on the spacecraft. The spacecraft control system was programmed to counter the effects of this torque with attitude control engines to maintain an inertially fixed attitude. The orientation and reaction engine telemetry returned from Magellan are used to create a model of the aerodynamic torques. Geometric models of the Magellan spacecraft are analyzed with the aid of both free molecular and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes. The simulated aerodynamic torques determined are compared to the measured torques. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is also used to model the attitude engine exhaust plumes, the free stream disturbance caused by these plumes, and the resulting torques acting on the spacecraft compared to no-exhaust plume cases. The effect of the exhaust plumes was found to be sufficiently large that thrust reversal is possible.
A general technique for constructing reduced order models of unsteadyaerodynamic flows about two-dimensional isolated airfoils, cascades of airfoils, and three-dimensional wings is developed. The starting point is a time domain computational model of the unsteady small disturbance flow. For illustration purposes, we apply the technique to an unsteady incompressible vortex lattice model. The eigenmodes of the system, which may
At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.
Yaste, David M (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Hammache, Mustapha (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Browand, Fred (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Pointer, W. David (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ortega, Jason M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Walker, Stephen M (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Heineck, James T (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Storms, B. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Satran, D. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Ross, James (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Englar, Robert (Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA); Chatalain, Philippe (Caltech, Pasadena, CA); Rubel, Mike (Caltech, Pasadena, CA); Leonard, Anthony (Caltech, Pasadena, CA); Hsu, Tsu-Ya (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); DeChant, Lawrence Justin.
At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.
Existing interpretations of the trailing edge condition, addressing both theoretical and experimental works in steady, as well as unsteady flows are critically reviewed. The work of Kutta and Joukowski on the trailing edge condition in steady flow is reviewed. It is shown that for most practical airfoils and blades (as in the case of most turbomachine blades), this condition is violated due to rounded trailing edges and high frequency effects, the flow dynamics in the trailing edge region being dominated by viscous forces; therefore, any meaningful modelling must include viscous effects. The question of to what extent the trailing edge condition affects acoustic radiation from the edge is raised; it is found that violation of the trailing edge condition leads to significant sound diffraction at the tailing edge, which is related to the problem of noise generation. Finally, various trailing edge conditions in unsteady flow are discussed, with emphasis on high reduced frequencies.
In our previous work (APS/DFD97, Ii1), flow visualization was used to observe canine olfactory airflows for the first time. We have since observed two general types of such flows: high-frequency ("short") sniffing during close inspection of an object and low-frequency ("long") sniffing of more distant objects. In both cases the inspiratory airflow pattern is essentially an inviscid sink flow. However, a comparison of the two types of olfaction shows that the dog has some directional control over the twin turbulent jets generated from its nostrils during expiration. During close inspection of a scent source from directly above, the canine nostrils direct the expired air rearward, so that it does not impinge upon the object. However, when "scanning" the vicinity of a scent source on the ground, the motion of the dog's nose can aim its expiratory jets directly at the source. If particulates are present, they are then readily entrained and can be subsequently inspired. No significant distinction was observed between pet animals and a trained explosive detection dog regarding this behavior. High-speed video records of these experiments will be shown. (Research supported by DARPA.)
The effects of slowly varying and persisting covariate effects on the accuracy and precision of experimental result is reviewed, as is the rationale for run-order randomization as a quality assurance tactic employed in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) to defend against such effects. Considerable analytical complexity is introduced by restrictions on randomization in configuration aerodynamics tests because they involve hard-to-change configuration variables that cannot be randomized conveniently. Tradeoffs are examined between quality and productivity associated with varying degrees of rigor in accounting for such randomization restrictions. Certain characteristics of a configuration aerodynamics test are considered that may justify a relaxed accounting for randomization restrictions to achieve a significant reduction in analytical complexity with a comparably negligible adverse impact on the validity of the experimental results.
Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteadyaerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.
Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences
This paper provides an overview of the activities associated with the aerodynamic database which is being developed in support of NASA's Hyper-X scramjet flight experiments. Three flight tests are planned as part of the Hyper-X program. Each will utilize a small, nonrecoverable research vehicle with an airframe integrated scramjet propulsion engine. The research vehicles will be individually rocket boosted to the scramjet engine test points at Mach 7 and Mach 10. The research vehicles will then separate from the first stage booster vehicle and the scramjet engine test will be conducted prior to the terminal decent phase of the flight. An overview is provided of the activities associated with the development of the Hyper-X aerodynamic database, including wind tunnel test activities and parallel CFD analysis efforts for all phases of the Hyper-X flight tests. A brief summary of the Hyper-X research vehicle aerodynamic characteristics is provided, including the direct and indirect effects of the airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system operation on the basic airframe stability and control characteristics. Brief comments on the planned post flight data analysis efforts are also included.
Engelund, Walter C.; Holland, Scott D.; Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Bittner, Robert D.
A quasi-steady scheme for the analysis of aerodynamic interaction between a propeller and a wing has been developed. The quasi-steady analysis uses a 3D steady vortex lattice method for the propeller and a 3D unsteady panel method for the wing. The aerodynamic coupling is represented by periodic loads, which are decomposed into harmonics and the harmonic amplitudes are found iteratively. Each stage of the iteration involves the solution of an isolated propeller or wing problem, the interaction being done through the Fourier transform of the induced velocity field. The propeller analysis code was validated by comparing the predicted velocity field about an isolated propeller with detailed laser Doppler velocimeter measurements, and the quasi-steady scheme by comparison with mean loads measured in a wing-propeller experiment. Comparisons have also been made among the fluctuating loads predicted by the present method, an unsteady panel scheme and a quasi-steady vortex lattice scheme. Copyright
A theoretical analysis and computer program was developed for the prediction of unsteady lifting surface loadings caused by motions of leading edge and trailing edge control surfaces having sealed gaps. The final form of the downwash integral equation was formulated by isolating the singularities from the nonsingular terms and using a preferred solution process to remove and evaluate the downwash discontinuities in a systematic manner. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental pressure data are made for several control surface configurations. The comparisons indicate that reasonably accurate theoretical pressure distributions and generalized forces may be obtained for a wide variety of control surface configurations. Spanwise symmetry or antisymmetry of motion, and up to six control surfaces on each half span can be accommodated.
Rowe, W. S.; Redman, M. C.; Ehlers, F. E.; Sebastian, J. D.
In this paper the basic goals and architecture of the SHEFEX II mission is presented. Also launched by a two staged sounding rocket system SHEFEX II is a consequent next step in technology test and demonstration. Considering all experience and collected flight data obtained during the SHEFEX I Mission, the test vehicle has been re-designed and extended by an active control system, which allows active aerodynamic control during the re-entry phase. Thus, ceramic based aerodynamic control elements like rudders, ailerons and flaps, mechanical actuators and an automatic electronic control unit has been implemented. Special focus is taken on improved GNC Elements. In addition, some other experiments including an actively cooled thermal protection element, advanced sensor equipment, high temperature antenna inserts etc. are part of the SHEFEX II experimental payload. A final 2 stage configuration has been selected considering Brazilian solid rocket boosters derived from the S 40 family. During the experiment phase a maximum entry velocity of Mach around 10 is expected for 50 seconds. Considering these flight conditions, the heat loads are not representative for a RLV re-entry, however, it allows to investigate the principal behaviour of such a facetted ceramic TPS, a sharp leading edge at the canards and fins and all associated gas flow effects and their structural response.
Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is concluded that the new features of this analysis - unsteady coupling, frequency scattering, and flow turning between rotor and stator - have a profound effect on noise generation caused by rotor/stator interaction. Treating rotors and stators as isolated cascades is not adequate for noise analysis and prediction.
Class 8 tractor-trailers are responsible for 11-12% of the total US consumption of petroleum. Overcoming aero drag represents 65% of energy expenditure at highway speeds. Most of the drag results from pressure differences and reducing highway speeds is very effective. The goal is to reduce aerodynamic drag by 25% which would translate to 12% improved fuel economy or 4,200 million gal/year. Objectives are: (1) In support of DOE's mission, provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag; (2) To shorten and improve design process, establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information; (3) Demonstrate new drag-reduction techniques; and (4) Get devices on the road. Some accomplishments are: (1) Concepts developed/tested that exceeded 25% drag reduction goal; (2) Insight and guidelines for drag reduction provided to industry through computations and experiments; (3) Joined with industry in getting devices on the road and providing design concepts through virtual modeling and testing; and (4) International recognition achieved through open documentation and database.
Salari, Kambiz (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Browand, Fred (University of Southern California); Sreenivas, Kidambi (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Pointer, W. David (Argonne National Laboratory); Taylor, Lafayette (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Pankajakshan, Ramesh (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Whitfield, David (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Plocher, Dennis (University of Southern California); Ortega, Jason M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Merzel, Tai (University of Southern California); McCallen, Rose (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Walker, Stephen M (NASA Ames Research Center); Heineck, James T (NASA Ames Research Center); Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John (Auburn University); Storms, B. (NASA Ames Research Center); Ross, James (NASA Ames Research Center); Englar, Robert (Georgia Tech Research Institute); Rubel, Mike (Caltech); Leonard, Anthony (Caltech); Radovich, Charles (University of Southern California); Eastwood, Craig (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Paschkewitz, John (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Castellucci, Paul (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); DeChant, Lawrence Justin.
Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.
This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference trajectory by manipulating the voltage to the
Shaphan R. Jernigan; Yusef Fahmy; Gregory D. Buckner
This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference…
The development and applications of the unsteady transonic code ATRAN3S for clean wings are discussed. Explanations of the unsteady, transonic small-disturbance aerodynamic equations that are used and their solution procedures are discussed. A detailed user's guide, along with input and output for a sample case, is given.
The feasibility of a new experimental technique for studying the effect of unsteady flows on boundary layers is under development. The method studied uses a stationary NACA 0012 airfoil in a steady subsonic wind tunnel. Unsteadiness in the flow over the a...
A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.
Projectile free-flight motion measurement from yaw cards, spark ranges, and instrumented projectiles and accompanying analyses have become integral components of weapon system development. The projectile's aerodynamics can be extracted from these free-fli...
The testing of 3- and 6-meter diameter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test articles was completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40 ft x 80 ft Wind Tunnel test section. Both models were stacked tori, constructed as 60 degree half-angle sphere cones. The 3-meter HIAD was tested in two configurations. The first 3-meter configuration utilized an instrumented flexible aerodynamic skin covering the inflatable aeroshell surface, while the second configuration employed a flight-like flexible thermal protection system. The 6-meter HIAD was tested in two structural configurations (with and without an aft-mounted stiffening torus near the shoulder), both utilizing an instrumented aerodynamic skin.
The paper experimentally and theoretically studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and aerodynamic characteristics on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds number of 110,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). For one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, intermittency behaviors were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The current investigation attempts to extend the intermittency unsteady boundary layer transition model developed in previously to the LPT cases, where separation occurs on the suction surface at a low Reynolds number. The results of the unsteady boundary layer measurements and the intermittency analysis were presented in the ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms. The analysis of the boundary layer experimental data with the flow separation, confirms the universal character of the relative intermittency function which is described by a Gausssian function.
Frequency spectra were computed from Cntime series acquired during the NASA Ames wind tunnel experiment, for rotationally augmented flow field conditions at zero yaw. Prominent peaks were present in the frequency spectra, corresponding to dominant aerodynamic shedding modes. These shedding modes were well correlated with flow field mean structure, and Strouhal number analyses furnished information regarding time varying flow field kinematics. Specifically, Strouhal number analyses implied that one of two distinct shedding modes was present, depending upon test section speed and local inflow angle. Information regarding these shedding kinematics will help provide understanding of the aerodynamics responsible for unsteady load production during rotationally augmented conditions. This, in turn, will aid in establishing a reliable physical basis for accurately predicting the time varying aerodynamic forces responsible for wind turbine fatigue loads and damage.
The unsteadyaerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.
A frequency domain linearized unsteadyaerodynamic analysis is presented for three-dimensional unsteady vortical flows around a cascade of loaded airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion of the impinging vortical disturbances by the mean flow. The entire unsteady flow field is calculated in response to upstream three-dimensional harmonic disturbances. Numerical results are presented for two standard cascade configurations representing turbine and compressor bladings for a reduced frequency range from 0.1 to 5. Results show that the upstream gust conditions and blade sweep strongly affect the unsteady blade response.
Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations, the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At ARC a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft, and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to enhance ENSAERO in both algorithm and geometric capabilities. During the last five years, the algorithms of the code have been enhanced extensively by using high-resolution upwind algorithms and efficient implicit solvers. The zonal capability of the code has been extended from a one-to-one grid interface to a mismatching unsteady zonal interface. The geometric capability of the code has been extended from a single oscillating wing case to a full-span wing-body configuration with oscillating control surfaces. Each time a new capability was added, a proper validation case was simulated, and the capability of the code was demonstrated.
Two dimensional problems are solved using numerical techniques. Navier-Stokes equations are studied both in the vorticity-stream function formulation which appears to be the optimal choice for two dimensional problems, using a storage approach, and in the velocity pressure formulation which minimizes the number of unknowns in three dimensional problems. Analysis shows that compact centered conservative second order schemes for the vorticity equation are the most robust for high Reynolds number flows. Serious difficulties remain in the choice of turbulent models, to keep reasonable CPU efficiency.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations for aerodynamically interfering airfoil configurations are performed as a first step toward solving the three dimensional canard wing interaction problem. These calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN2L two dimensional unsteady transonic small disturbance code to include an additional airfoil. Unsteady transonic forces due to plunge and pitch motions of a two dimensional canard and wing are presented. Results for a variety of canard wing separation distances reveal the effects of aerodynamic interference on unsteady transonic airloads. Aeroelastic analyses employing these unsteady airloads demonstrate the effects of aerodynamic interference on aeroelastic stability and flutter. For the configurations studied, increases in wing flutter speed result with the inclusion of the aerodynamically interfering canard.
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteadyaerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteadyaerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteadyaerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteadyaerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in real-time, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteadyaerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteadyaerodynamic loads in real-time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.
Human speech is initiated as air passing through the glottis triggers self-sustained oscillations of the vocal folds. These oscillations, caused by aerodynamic air pressures, glottal geometry and tissue properties, result in the glottis cyclically forming into a converging, straight, then diverging passage and finally closing. The varying shape of the glottis throughout the cycle causes different coherent structures to form. One such phenomenon evident in quasi-steady flow experiments is the skewing of the glottal jet towards one wall and attachment, i.e. the Coanda effect. It is not understood if the high frequency oscillations inherent in human phonation allow sufficient time for this oscillating jet to attach to the glottal wall, and thereby influence sound production. Unsteady flow through a high aspect ratio slot with an adjacent plate angled at 30 degrees to the streamwise direction was investigated. The driven, unsteady flow oscillation through the slot was chosen to represent known in-vivo velocity wave forms. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the phase-averaged development of the Coanda effect. The evolution of the unsteady Coanda effect over a range of frequencies typical of human phonation will be discussed.
Thermal mixing in a T-junction has been studied for validation of CFD-calculations. Experiments were carried out in a 2\\/3-scale model of a typical T-junction in a nuclear power plant, and temperature fluctuations were measured near the pipe walls by means of thermocouples. Three different flow ratios between the hot and cold water were considered. The computational results show that both
Johan Westin; Farid Alavyoon; Lars Andersson; Pascal Veber
An unsteadyaerodynamics models for simulating large wind energy converters is described. For the attached flow region the loads are calculated via a generalized indicial lift function based on the Wagner function. The angle of attack is defined at the 3/4 chord location and thus pitching velocity and virtual mass terms are included. Leading edge stall is incorporated by a simple time delay based on distance travelled in semichord. Trailing edge stall is incorporated via Kirchhoff's law and two first order lags. Time domain simulation of single point power spectra of velocity fluctuations, and coherence function estimates are compared with measurements.
The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn about the role of scientific research in the design of competition suits for athletes in the Winter Olympics. Students will also explore and research the concept of aerodynamics, and conduct their own scientific experiment to gain an understanding of this concept.
The initial development of a combined active aeroelastic aeroacoustic rotorcraft code is discussed. The GENeral Unsteady Vortex Particle code (GENUVP) is used as the aerodynamic component of the combined code. A brief discussion of the theory behind GENUVP's use of an unsteady panel method with a vortex particle wake is presented. Modifications to GENUVP to increase its computational efficiency are
Daniel G. Opoku; Dimitris G. Triantos; Fred Nitzsche; Spyros G. Voutsinas
With the aim of developing a fast and accurate computer code for predicting the aerodynamic forces needed for a flutter analysis, some basic concepts in computational transonics are reviewed. The unsteady transonic flow past airfoils in rigid body motion is adequately described by the potential flow equation as long as the boundary layer remains attached. The two dimensional unsteady transonic potential flow equation in quasilinear form with first order radiation boundary conditions is solved by an alternating direction implicit scheme in an airfoil attached sheared parabolic coordinate system. Numerical experiments show that the scheme is very stable and is able to resolve the higher nonlinear transonic effects for filter analysis within the context of an inviscid theory.
A coupled viscid-inviscid aerodynamic model ADAM2 (Advanced Dynamic Airfoil Model in 2 dimensions) is utilized to predict separated and unseparated flows over airfoils in steady and unsteady motion. Calculation results include pre- and post-stall pressure...
Unsteady free-surface, wave-induced separation is documented using towing tank experiments for a surface-piercing NACA 0024 foil, which has insignificant separation, no wave effects, and 2-D flow in the deep. The test conditions are for minimal, reattaching, and nonreattaching separation: Froude numbers (Fr)=0.19, 0.37, and 0.55 and Reynolds numbers=0.822, 1.52, and 2.26×106. The measurements include mean far-field wave elevations for all
A numerical procedure for the calculation of the transonic dip of airfoils in the time domain is presented. A viscous-inviscid aerodynamic interaction method is taken to calculate the unsteadyaerodynamic loads. In the present case the integral boundary layer equations are coupled with the Transonic Small Disturbance (TSD) Potential Equation. The coupling between structural motion and aerodynamic loads is carried
The most common and costly unexpected post-development gas turbine engine reliability issue is blade failure due to High Cycle Fatigue (HCF). HCF in centrifugal compressors is a coupled nonlinear fluid-structure problem for which understanding of the phenomenological root causes is incomplete. The complex physics of this problem provides significant challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. Furthermore, the available literature fails to address the flow field associated with the diffuser potential field, a primary cause of forced impeller vibration. Because of the serious nature of HCF, the inadequacy of current design approaches to predict HCF, and the fundamental lack of benchmark experiments to advance the design practices, there exists a need to build a database of information specific to the nature of the diffuser generated forcing function as a foundation for understanding flow induced blade vibratory failure. The specific aim of this research is to address the fundamental nature of the unsteadyaerodynamic interaction phenomena inherent in high-speed centrifugal compressors wherein the impeller exit flow field is dynamically modulated by the vaned diffuser potential field or shock structure. The understanding of this unsteadyaerodynamic interaction is fundamental to characterizing the impeller forcing function. Unsteady static pressure measurement at several radial and circumferential locations in the vaneless space offer a depiction of pressure field radial decay, circumferential variation and temporal fluctuation. These pressure measurements are coupled with high density, full field measurement of the velocity field within the diffuser vaneless space at multiple spanwise positions. The velocity field and unsteady pressure field are shown to be intimately linked. A strong momentum gradient exiting the impeller is shown to extend well across the vaneless space and interact with the diffuser vane leading edge. The deterministic unsteady pressure field is found to be dominated by the blade-vane interaction. HCF concerns are illuminated by persistent pressure waves extending radially across the vaneless space and impacting the impeller pressure surface. Finally, the average impeller exit flow field is found to present a highly unsteady velocity field to the downstream vane row, challenging the common design assumption of a rapid mixing model for diffuser design.
The general equations describing the nonlinear fluttering oscillations of shallow, curved, heated orthotropic panels have been derived. The formulation takes into account the location of the panel on the surface of a generic hypersonic vehicle, when calculating the aerodynamic loads. It is also shown that third order piston theory produces unsteadyaerodynamic loading which is in close agreement with that based upon direct solution of the Euler equations. Results, for simply supported panels, are obtained using Galerkin's method combined with direct numerical integration in time to compute stable limit cycle amplitudes. These results illustrate the sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior to the unsteadyaerodynamic assumptions, temperature, orthotropicity and flow orientation.
Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteadyaerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.
A two-dimensional theory is considered for the unsteady flow disturbances caused by aeroelastic deformations of a thick wing at high subsonic freestream Mach numbers, having a single, internally embedded supercritical (locally supersonic) steady flow region adjacent to the low pressure side of the wing. The theory develops a matrix of unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficients (AICs) suitable as a strip theory for aeroelastic analysis of large aspect ratio thick wings of moderate sweep, typical of a wide class of current and future aircraft. The theory derives the linearized unsteady flow solutions separately for both the subcritical and supercritical regions. These solutions are coupled together to give the requisite (wing pressure-downwash) AICs by the intermediate step of defining flow disturbances on the sonic line, and at the shock wave; these intermediate quantities are then algebraically eliminated by expressing them in terms of the wing surface downwash.
The principal sources of flow unsteadiness in the circuit of a transonic wind tunnel are presented. Care must be taken to avoid flow separations, acoustic resonances and large scale turbulence. Some problems discussed are the elimination of diffuser separations, the aerodynamic design of coolers and the unsteadiness generated in ventilated working sections.
This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.
A small model aerodynamic tests of the combined cycle engine were carried out to evaluate its performance in subsonic and supersonic conditions. In this regime of the flow speed, the combined cycle engine operates as an ejector-jet or ramjet. The nitrogen gas was exhausted as the substitution for the actual rocket gas. In a subsonic condition, there appeared local pressure rise at the kink point of the ramp, increasing the pressure drag. Both wall pressure and the pitot pressure distribution at the exit of the model suggested that the flow structure is “two-layered” ; one is subsonic induced air flow, and the other is the supersonic rocket exhaust. A slit was carved on the topwall inside the isolator section, expecting a better suction performance in the ejector-jet mode. The modification actually had an effect to enhance the lower limit of the rocket pressure at which the choking of the induced air is achieved.
A frequency-domain flutter analysis scheme for wings is developed using an unsteady 3D panel method. The unsteadyaerodynamic force calculation is based on the s-plane unsteady nonplanar lifting surface method, and a finite element method is used to structurally model the wing. The flutter analysis is done using the normal mode approach and a U–g method in frequency-domain. The U–g
Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.
Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.
Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen
Unsteady free-surface, wave-induced separation is documented using towing tank experiments for a surface-piercing NACA 0024 foil, which has insignificant separation, no wave effects, and 2-D flow in the deep. The test conditions are for minimal, reattaching, and nonreattaching separation: Froude numbers (Fr)=0.19, 0.37, and 0.55 and Reynolds numbers=0.822, 1.52, and 2.26×106. The measurements include mean far-field wave elevations for all three Fr, unsteady near-field wave elevations for medium and low Fr, mean foil-surface pressures for all three Fr, and unsteady foil-surface pressures for medium Fr. Unsteady measurements are statistically analyzed for mean, r.m.s., FFT, PSD, and phased-averaged organized oscillations and random fluctuation components. For Fr=0.19, there is no separation and the expected Kelvin waves are present. For Fr=0.37, the separation on the free and foil surfaces is demarcated by large r.m.s. (15 20% of the mean value dynamic range) and 1.94, 0.82, and 0.30 Hz dominant FFT frequency regions corresponding to shear layer, Karman shedding, and flapping instabilities, respectively. A large bow wave resembles a spilling breaker with low r.m.s. (2 5% of the mean value dynamic range) and 8.5 Hz dominant FFT frequency on the free and foil surfaces. Mean wave elevations in the separation region are relatively constant with intense free-surface oscillations, turbulence, and breaking. Outside the separation and wake region, the Kelvin waves are evident. The foil-surface pressure is high in the bow wave, low in the wave trough, gradually rises towards the trailing edge, and recovers 2-D distributions at large depths. For Fr=0.55, the bow wave is enormous. The separation region moves towards the trailing edge with increased splashing and bubbles. The Kelvin waves are no longer distinguishable due to increased free-surface turbulence. The mean foil-surface pressure, free-surface, and bottom effects interact with each other. The combination of the present albeit relatively sparse experimental data with complementary computational fluid dynamics studies provides a credible description of the flow physics.
Aerodynamic theory predictions made for a jet flapped wing were compared with experimental data obtained in a fairly extensive series of tests in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. The tests were made on a straight, rectangular wing and investigated two types of jet flap concepts: a pure jet flap with high jet deflection and a wing with blowing at the knee of a plain trailing edge flap. The tests investigated full and partial span blowing for wing aspect ratios of 8.0 and 5.5 and momentum coefficients from 0 to about 4. The total lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients predicted by the theory were in excellent agreement with experimental values for the pure jet flap, even with the high jet deflection. The pressure coefficients on the wing, and hence the circulation lift coefficients, were underpredicted, however, because of the linearizing assumptions of the planar theory. The lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients, as well as pressure coefficients, were underpredicted for the wing with blowing over the flap because of the failure of the theory to account for the interaction effect of the high velocity jet passing over the flap.
Advanced military aircraft 'supermaneuverability' requirements entail the sustained operation of airfoils at stalled flow conditions. The present work addresses the effects of separated flow on vehicle dynamics; an analytic method is presented which employs static experimental data to predict the separated flow effect on incompressible unsteadyaerodynamics. The key parameters in the analytic relationship between steady and nonsteady aerodynamics are the time-lag before a change of flow conditions can affect the separation-induced aerodynamic loads, the accelerated flow effect, and the moving wall effect.
A two-dimensional nonlinear aerodynamics representation analysis is proposed for the investigation of inviscid flowfields of unsteady airfoils. Such problems are reduced to the solution of a nonlinear multidimensional singular integral equation as the source and vortex strength distributions are dependent on the history of these distributions on the NACA airfoil surface. A turbulent boundary layer model is further investigated, based
On August 5 , 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry capsule successfully entered Mars' atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater. The capsule used a reaction control system (RCS) consisting of four pairs of hydrazine thrusters to fly a guided entry. The RCS provided bank control to fly along a flight path commanded by an onboard computer and also damped unwanted rates due to atmospheric disturbances and any dynamic instabilities of the capsule. A preliminary assessment of the MSL's flight data from entry showed that the capsule flew much as predicted. This paper will describe how the MSL aerodynamics team used engineering analyses, computational codes and wind tunnel testing in concert to develop the RCS system and certify it for flight. Over the course of MSL's development, the RCS configuration underwent a number of design iterations to accommodate mechanical constraints, aeroheating concerns and excessive aero/RCS interactions. A brief overview of the MSL RCS configuration design evolution is provided. Then, a brief description is presented of how the computational predictions of RCS jet interactions were validated. The primary work to certify that the RCS interactions were acceptable for flight was centered on validating computational predictions at hypersonic speeds. A comparison of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to wind tunnel force and moment data gathered in the NASA Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel was the lynch pin to validating the CFD codes used to predict aero/RCS interactions. Using the CFD predictions and experimental data, an interaction model was developed for Monte Carlo analyses using 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation. The interaction model used in the flight simulation is presented.
Schoenenberger, Mark; VanNorman, John; Rhode, Matthew; Paulson, John
Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.
Circumferentially local and time-resolved heat transfer measurements were obtained for a circular cylinder in crossflow located downstream of a rotating spoked wheel wake generator in a steady flow tunnel. The unsteady heat transfer effects were obtained by developing an extension of a thin film gauge technique employed to date exclusively in short-duration facilities. The time-average thin film results and conventional steady-state heat transfer measurements were compared. Time-averaged wake-induced stagnation heat transfer enhancement levels above the nowake case were about 10 percent for the four cylinder Reynolds numbers. This enhancement level was nearly independent of bar passing frequency and was related directly to the time integral of the heat transfer spikes observed at the bar passing frequency. It is observed that the wake-induced heat transfer spikes have peak magnitudes averaging 30 to 40 percent above the interwake heat transfer level.
Obrien, J. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Morehouse, K. A.; Lagraff, J. E.
Circumferentially local and time-resolved heat transfer measurements were obtained for a circular cylinder in crossflow located downstream of a rotating spoked wheel wake generator in a steady flow tunnel. The unsteady heat transfer effects were obtained by developing an extension of a thin film gauge technique employed to date exclusively in short-duration facilities. The time-average thin film results and conventional steady-state heat transfer measurements were compared. Time-averaged wake-induced stagnation heat transfer enhancement levels above the nowake case were about 10% for the four cylinder Reynolds numbers. This enhancement level was nearly independent of bar passing frequency and was related directly to the time integral of the heat transfer spikes observed at the bar passing frequency. It is observed that the wake-induced heat transfer spikes have peak magnitudes averaging 30 to 40% above the interwake heat transfer level.
Obrien, J. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Lagraff, J. E.; Morehouse, K. A.
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteadyaerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.
Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteadyaerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.
Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences; Simms, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
A method is presented for solving the three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations on dynamic grids based on flux vector splitting. The equations are cast in curvilinear coordinates and a finite volume discretization is used for handling arbitrary geometries. The discretized equations are solved using an explicit upwind second-order predictor corrector scheme that is stable for a CFL of 2. Characteristic variable boundary conditions are developed and used for unsteady impermeable surfaces and for the far-field boundary. Dynamic-grid results are presented for an oscillating air-foil and for a store separating from a reflection plate. For the cases considered of stores separating from a reflection plate, the unsteadyaerodynamic forces on the store are significantly different from forces obtained by steady-state aerodynamics with the body inclination angle changed to account for plunge velocity.
Wind turbine aerodynamics remains a particularly challenging and crucial research for wind energy industry. The blade element momentum theory is the most widely used in predicting the performance of wind turbine, since the method is simple and fast numerical algorithm. The flow field generated by rotary wing is considerably important and complicated, however, the BEM method has some limitations to model the unsteady effects. To overcome these limitations, the aerodynamic analysis using a time-marching free-vortex wake method was performed in this paper. Moreover, the inboard region of the blade experience a delay in stall and enhanced values of the normal force coefficient because of rotational boundary layer augmentation and three-dimensional effects. For this reason, Raj-Selig stall delay model was applied in this research. The numerical results were compared with experimental data, and the present results show excellent agreement with experiment.
A transonic unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelasticity code has been developed for application to realistic aircraft configurations. The new code is called CAP-TSD which is an acronym for Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance. The CAP-TSD code uses a time-accurate approximate factorization (AF) algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm is very efficient for solution of steady and unsteady transonic flow problems. It can provide accurate solutions in only several hundred time steps yielding a significant computational cost savings when compared to alternative methods. The new code can treat complete aircraft geometries with multiple lifting surfaces and bodies including canard, wing, tail, control surfaces, launchers, pylons, fuselage, stores, and nacelles. Applications are presented for a series of five configurations of increasing complexity to demonstrate the wide range of geometrical applicability of CAP-TSD. These results are in good agreement with available experimental steady and unsteady pressure data. Calculations for the General Dynamics one-ninth scale F-16C aircraft model are presented to demonstrate application to a realistic configuration. Unsteady results for the entire F-16C aircraft undergoing a rigid pitching motion illustrated the capability required to perform transonic unsteadyaerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses for such configurations.
Batina, John T.; Seidel, David A.; Bland, Samuel R.; Bennett, Robert M.
Five organizations from four countries are collaborating to conduct detailed wind turbine aerodynamic test programs. Fullscale atmospheric testing will be conducted on turbines configured to measure aerodynamic forces on rotating airfoils. The purpose of these test programs is to come to a better understanding of the steady and unsteadyaerodynamic behavior of wind turbine rotors, and provide information needed to build accurate aerodynamic models for design codes. Stall, dynamic inflow, yaw conditions, and tower effects all contribute to unknown aerodynamic responses. These unknown responses make it extremely difficult to produce cost-effective wind turbine designs. Turbines behave unexpectedly, experiencing power surges and higher fatigue loads than predicted. In order to evolve state-of-the-art wind turbine designs, these aerodynamic effects must be quantified and understood. This paper describes a coordinated international research effort that is underway to accelerate this key research area, and help develop a more thorough understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics.
The mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers is reviewed. Bryan's original formulation, linear aerodynamic indicial functions, and superposition are considered. These concepts are extended into the nonlinear regime. The nonlinear generalization yields a form for the aerodynamic response that can be built up from the responses to a limited number of well defined characteristic motions, reproducible in principle either in wind tunnel experiments or flow field computations. A further generalization leads to a form accommodating the discontinuous and double valued behavior characteristics of hysteresis in the steady state aerodynamic response.
Two complementary methods, field experiments and physical modelling in a wind tunnel, have been used to investigate the dispersion of tracer-gas released from the ventilation system of a pig barn, under near-neutral stability conditions. In both cases, concentration fluctuations were measured and the deduced statistical results were compared. The choice of data processing applied to the time series of concentration was motivated by special issues in the assessment of odour annoyances: "where, how often, how long and how strong does it smell?" These features were described by the mean concentration distribution, the intermittency factor, the persistence and the 90-percentile. The good agreement between field and wind tunnel data confirmed the ability to replicate in wind tunnel the unsteady properties of a dispersion process, if the unsteady turbulent behaviour of the atmospheric boundary layer was properly modelled. A parametrical study of the influence on the dispersion process of the ratio between the exhaust velocity from the stack and the wind speed was then performed in wind tunnel. The fundamental outcome was that the near-field dispersion process under neutral stability conditions, despite the strong influence of the building wake, was for the most part driven by the meandering behaviour of the plume and not so much by the diffusion process. This study was also focused on the influence of the averaging time on the statistical results. The scatter generated by using dimensionless averaging times 200< Ta*<400 (used during field experiments) instead of Ta*?? (averaging time to ensure reproducible statistic results) was quantified in the wind tunnel. A degree of representativity of the results obtained from short-term samples, compared to fully converged statistical results was therefore assessed.
Current research and future prospects in the field of aerodynamic drag were presented and discussed at this Specialists' Meeting. Main emphasis was placed on subjects of practical value to the aerospace industry in relation to its need for accurate predic...
Micro air vehicles (MAV’s) have the potential to revolutionize our sensing and information gathering capabilities in environmental monitoring and homeland security areas. Due to the MAV’s’ small size, flight regime, and modes of operation, significant scientific advancement will be needed to create this revolutionary capability. Aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and flight dynamics of natural flyers intersects with some of the richest problems in MAV’s, including massively unsteady three-dimensional separation, transition in boundary layers and shear layers, vortical flows and bluff body flows, unsteady flight environment, aeroelasticity, and nonlinear and adaptive control are just a few examples. A challenge is that the scaling of both fluid dynamics and structural dynamics between smaller natural flyer and practical flying hardware/lab experiment (larger dimension) is fundamentally difficult. In this paper, we offer an overview of the challenges and issues, along with sample results illustrating some of the efforts made from a computational modeling angle.
Measurements of the unsteady flow field affecting optical propagation quality have been made with both aerodynamic and direct optical instrumentation. Properties affecting degradation of coherent radiation beams propagated from within the turret have been...
Direct numerical simulations are performed to improve the understanding of unsteady separation processes of turbulent boundary layers characterizing the performance and efficiency of many aerodynamic applications such as helicopter rotor blades, wind turbine blades, pitching and flapping airfoils and wings, and rotating turbomachines. A time varying blowing-suction velocity distribution is imposed along the upper boundary to introduce unsteady adverse pressure gradients to the turbulent boundary layer. The distinct characteristics of turbulent boundary layers under unsteady adverse pressure gradients including unsteady boundary-layer detachment and reattachment, and production and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and vorticity, are revealed by a systematic comparison with steady attached/separated turbulent boundary layers.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
On the basis of the conservative difference method, spatially unsteady flows near complexly shaped objects are studied. The mathematical model is based on the inviscid gas model. For subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes, the nonstationary aerodynamics of various aerospace objects is examined. The three-dimensional structure of the unsteady vortex near wake and its influence on the basic aerodynamic characteristics of aerial vehicles are visualized. The numerical simulation is performed using parallel algorithms on supercomputers of cluster architecture.
This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.
This paper presents novel analytical results for eigenvalues and eigenvectors produced using discrete time aerodynamic and aeroelastic models. An unsteady, incompressible vortex lattice aerodynamic model is formulated in discrete time; the importance of several modeling parameters is examined. A detailed study is made of the behavior of the aerodynamic eigenvalues both in discrete and continuous time. The aerodynamic model is then incorporated into aeroelastic equations of motion. Eigenanalyses of the coupled equations produce stability results and modal characteristics which are valid for critical and non-critical velocities. Insight into the modeling and physics associated with aeroelastic system behavior is gained by examining both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors. Potential pitfalls in discrete time model construction and analysis are examined.
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.
Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.
Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
Building block experiments and companion numerical simulations intended to verify and guide turbulence modeling are described. A series of experiments and computations being used to enhance modeling development for the shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction problem is emphasized. Results are given for transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil undergoing shock wave induced, boundary layer separation for supersonic flow along a tube wall undergoing normal shock wave induced, boundary layer separation. Experimental data which use the complete Navier-Stokes equations are discussed.
This experimental investigation examines the processes that control the grain-size sorting and geometry of cross strata in dunes and unit bars, in particular the effects of bedform superimposition and flow unsteadiness. Cross stratification formed by dunes and unit bars is the most common sedimentary structure in river-channel deposits, and is common in many other depositional environments. Previous work by Reesink and Bridge (2007) shows that the grain-size variation that allows cross strata to be recognized is determined by three main factors: (1) pre-sorting by superimposed bedforms and flow unsteadiness; (2) sorting during deposition on the lee slope, and; (3) reworking of the slope by currents in the lee of the bedform. Differences in the relative importance of these three factors cause cross strata to be more varied in their geometry, grain-size sorting and permeability than commonly realized, and provide information for detailed quantitative interpretation of river-channel deposits. The experiments presented in this paper cover a wide range of steady and unsteady flow conditions with different combinations of host and superimposed bedforms. Lee-side deposition was highly variable at the time required for the buildup of cross strata, but systematic variations related to bed morphology provided good indicators of flow conditions. Water currents in the lee-side flow separation zone affect initial deposition on the lee slope and can re-distribute sediment on the lee slope. Centimeter-scale turbulent eddies were observed to increase the tangential shape, decrease the (vertical) grain-size separation, and reduce the thickness of the cross strata. These effects of turbulent eddies were found to increase with increasing flow velocity, decreasing grain size, and decreasing bedform height. Flow unsteadiness was primarily expressed in a change of host and/or superimposed bedform type. The pre-sorting pattern formed by the superimposed bedforms is lost if the pre-sorting involves less sediment than the processes that re-sort the sediment on the lee slope (e.g. grainflows). If the pre-sorting pattern of the superimposed bedforms can be identified, the cross strata they form can be used to interpret host and superimposed bedform geometries. The presence of reactivation surfaces indicates that superimposed bedform heights (Hs) exceed 25% of the host bedform height ( H; Hs/ H > 0.25). Pre-sorting by superimposed bedforms is recognizable as cross stratification where Hs/ H < 0.25, and comprises: (i) drapes of fine-grained sediment that settles from suspension during the passage of the superimposed trough, and; (ii) a body of coarse-grained bedload with a cross-sectional area that equals the cross-sectional area of the formative superimposed bedform. The distinctiveness and lateral extent of fine-grained drapes represent the distinctiveness and lateral extent of their formative superimposed troughs. The lateral extent and internal grain-size sorting of the thick, coarser-grained body represents the lateral extent and internal grain-size sorting of the body of the superimposed bedform. The plan view shape of the host lee slope controls the cross-stream geometry of cross strata. Thus, cross strata can be used to interpret type, size, and geometry of the host and superimposed bedforms, hence flow and sediment transport condition on the back of the host bedform.
This paper describes the development of a fast-response probe measurement system. Small pressure probes have been equipped with up to 4 miniature pressure sensors. The high frequency response of such sensors allied to minimized cavities between the flow and the sensing diaphragm enables the probe system to take measurements up to 40 kHz bandwidth (typical blade passing frequency: 2-10 kHz). First results of investigations on the aerodynamic of high frequency response measurement probes are presented including experiments in a water towing channel with unsteady flows around different probe geometries. The packaging of the sensor chip into the probe, the properties of the sensors and the measurement errors are examined. Probe calibration methods and aerodynamic evaluation procedures are discussed, followed by a presentation of the data acquisition system and of the data evaluation software. Measurements in a radial compressor test rig and in a fully developed pipe flow are shown as applications.
It is often difficult, if not impossible, to measure the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces on a moving body. For this reason, a classical control-volume technique is typically applied to extract the unsteady forces. However, measuring the acceleration term within the volume of interest using particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be limited by optical access, reflections, as well as shadows. Therefore, in this study, an alternative approach, termed the derivative-moment transformation (DMT) method, is introduced and tested on a synthetic data set produced using numerical simulations. The test case involves the unsteady loading of a flat plate in a two-dimensional, laminar periodic gust. The results suggest that the DMT method can accurately predict the acceleration term so long as appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions are maintained. The major deficiency, which is more dominant for the direction of drag, was found to be the determination of pressure and unsteady terms in the wake. The effect of control-volume size was investigated, suggesting that larger domains work best by minimizing the associated error in the determination of the pressure field. When decreasing the control-volume size, wake vortices, which produce high gradients across the control surfaces, are found to substantially increase the level of error. On the other hand, it was shown that for large control volumes, and with realistic spatial resolution, the accuracy of the DMT method would also suffer. Therefore, a delicate compromise is required when selecting control-volume size in future experiments.
Results of an analytical and experimental investigation, directed at the understanding of the impact of periodic unsteadiness on the time-averaged flows in axial flow turbomachines, are presented. Analysis of available experimental data, from a large-scale rotating rig (LSRR) (low speed rig), shows that in the time-averaged axisymmetric equations the magnitude of the terms representing the effect of periodic unsteadiness (deterministic stresses) are as large or larger than those due to random unsteadiness (turbulence). Numerical experiments, conducted to highlight physical mechanisms associated with the migration of combustor generated hot-streaks in turbine rotors, indicated that the effect can be simulated by accounting for deterministic stress like terms in the time-averaged mass and energy conservation equations. The experimental portion of this program shows that the aerodynamic loss for the second stator in a 1-1/2 stage turbine are influenced by the axial spacing between the second stator leading edge and the rotor trailing edge. However, the axial spacing has little impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These performance changes are believed to be associated with the change in deterministic stress at the inlet to the second stator. Data were also acquired to quantify the impact of indexing the first stator relative to the second stator. For the range of parameters examined, this effect was found to be of the same order as the effect of axial spacing.
Sharma, Om P.; Stetson, Gary M.; Daniels, William A,; Greitzer, Edward M.; Blair, Michael F.; Dring, Robert P.
This paper presents a flutter analysis technique for the transonic flight regime. The technique uses an iterative approach to determine the critical dynamic pressure for a given mach number. Unlike other CFD-based flutter analysis methods, each iteration solves for the critical dynamic pressure and uses this value in subsequent iterations until the value converges. This process reduces the iterations required to determine the critical dynamic pressure. To improve the accuracy of the analysis, the technique employs a known structural model, leaving only the aerodynamic model as the unknown. The aerodynamic model is estimated using unsteady aeroelastic CFD analysis combined with a parameter estimation routine. The technique executes as follows. The known structural model is represented as a finite element model. Modal analysis determines the frequencies and mode shapes for the structural model. At a given mach number and dynamic pressure, the unsteady CFD analysis is performed. The output time history of the surface pressure is converted to a nodal aerodynamic force vector. The forces are then normalized by the given dynamic pressure. A multi-input multi-output parameter estimation software, ERA, estimates the aerodynamic model through the use of time histories of nodal aerodynamic forces and structural deformations. The critical dynamic pressure is then calculated using the known structural model and the estimated aerodynamic model. This output is used as the dynamic pressure in subsequent iterations until the critical dynamic pressure is determined. This technique is demonstrated on the Aerostructures Test Wing-2 model at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center.
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteadyaerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
An engineering methodology has been developed to predict the convective heating and pressure environments to the base surfaces of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle during its earth aeropass. Data obtained from prior flight vehicles, wind tunnel tests, CFD analysis of AFE, and simple one-dimensional isentropic flow expansion relationships along with standard aeroheating methods were employed. With the exception of one corner, the AFE base surfaces are immersed in separated flow and are, therefore, exposed to heating and pressure that are small compared to the front face of the aerobrake.
A quasi-steady scheme for the analysis of aerodynamic interaction between a propeller and a wing has been developed. The quasi-steady analysis uses a 3D steady vortex lattice method for the propeller and a 3D unsteady panel method for the wing. The aerodynamic coupling is represented by periodic loads, which are decomposed into harmonics and the harmonic amplitudes are found iteratively.
The effects of aerodynamic coupling among modes of vibration on the flutter and buffeting re- sponse of long-span bridges are investigated. By introducing the unsteady, self-excited aerodynamic forces in terms of rational function approximations, the equations of motion in generalized modal coordinates are transformed into a frequency-independent state-space format. The frequencies, damping ratios, and complex mode shapes at a prescribed
Two applications of mathematical modeling to aerodynamic problems are cussed. The first application is an investigation of the capacity of a nonlinear aerodynamic mathematical model to describe the aerodynamic reactions on an airfoil with a deflecting flap in transonic flow. Flow field computational methods are used to evaluate the nonlinear, unsteadyaerodynamic data in terms of characteristic motions called for by the model. Histories of unconstrained motions of the flap are generated from the flap equations of motion, with the aerodynamic reactions specified by the mathematical model. In the second application wing rock is investigated. The most recent model accommodates experimental results wing rock by admitting the existence of aerodynamic hysteresis in the variation of the steady state rolling moment coefficient with roll angle is described.
Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.
Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.
The aim of the present work is to understand the aerodynamic phenomena and the vortex topology of an unsteady flapping motion\\u000a by means of numerical and experimental methods. Instead of the use of real insect\\/bird wing geometries and kinematics which\\u000a are highly complex and difficult to imitate by an exact modeling, a simplified model is used in order to understand
D. Funda Kurtulus; Laurent David; Alain Farcy; Nafiz Alemdaroglu
The implication of maneuvers through large angles of incidence is discussed by examining the unsteadyaerodynamic loads, surface pressures, vortical position, and breakdown on slender, flat plate delta wings. Two examples of large amplitude unsteady motions are presented. First, the unsteady characteristics of a 70 degree swept delta wing undergoing pitch oscillation from 0 to 60 degrees is examined. Data is presented that shows the relationship between vortex breakdown and the overshoot and undershoot of the aerodynamic loads and surface pressure distribution. The second example examines the leading edge vortical flow over an 80 degree swept wing undergoing a limit cycle roll oscillation commonly called wing rock.
Nelson, Robert C.; Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Thompson, Scott A.
The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteadyaerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.
The presence of tip stores influences both the aerodynamic and the aeroelastic performance of wings. Such effects are more pronounced in the transonic regime. In this study, a theoretical method is developed, for the first time, to compute unsteady transonics of oscillating wings with tip stores. The method is based on the small-disturbance, aerodynamic equations of motion from the potential-flow theory. To validate the method, subsonic and transonic aerodynamic computations are made for a lower-aspect-ratio wing, and they are compared with the available experimental data. Comparisons are favorable. The strong effects of the tip store on the transonic aerodynamics of the wing are also illustrated. The method developed in this steady can be used for transonic, aeroelastic computations of wings with tip stores.
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteadyaerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteadyaerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
A method to efficiently generate a complete aerodynamic description for projectile flight dynamic modeling is described. At the core of the method is an unsteady, time-accurate computational fluid dynamics simulation that is tightly coupled to a rigid pro...
This thesis is aimed at demonstrating substantial improvements in aerodynamic efficiency of micro-rotorcraft. The work investigates the effect of airfoil surface temperature and heat transfer, and unsteady blade pitching motion on the performance of micro-scale rotors. Prior to testing of new strategies to enhance performance, the baseline aerodynamic performance of the micro-rotor system was quantified. This study indicated that the micro-rotors displayed adequate lifting capacity, however the overall hovering efficiency was very poor compared to full-scale rotors. These results highlighted the need for new strategies to enhance aerodynamic performance of micro-scale airfoils. The improvement of aerodynamic efficiency of small-scale airfoils using surface temperature and heat transfer was investigated using numerical simulations, asymptotic analysis and experimental work. The basic idea was to take a direct advantage of heat transfer that dominates micro-scale systems to enhance lift, reduce drag, and increase the envelope of operation of airfoils. The numerical simulations show that although varying surface temperature does not produce significant impact at the full-scale, its effect is very pronounced at the micro-scale. The asymptotic theory demonstrates that most of the effect actually comes from the heat transfer in the much smaller nose region of the small-scale airfoil. The experimental measurements show good agreement with numerical predictions. The improvement in aerodynamic performance of micro-scale rotors using unsteady blade motion was also investigated using numerical simulations and experiments. The objective was to use dynamic blade pitching motion to delay the onset of stall, enhance the lift and improve the micro-rotor efficiency. A micro-rotor system featuring piezoelectrically actuated controllable twist rotor blades was developed and tested in hover. The piezoelectric actuation system had sufficient control authority and was able to generate significant blade unsteady pitching deformations. Excitation of the blade in torsion resulted in significant improvement in the micro-rotor thrust in the post-stall regime. The experimental measurements also showed good agreement with numerical predictions.
The NASA X-43 "Hyper-X" hypersonic research vehicle will be boosted to a Mach 7 flight test condition mounted on the nose of an Orbital Sciences Pegasus launch vehicle. The separation of the research vehicle from the Pegasus presents some unique aerodynamic problems, for which computational fluid dynamics has played a role in the analysis. This paper describes the use of several CFD methods for investigating the aerodynamics of the research and launch vehicles in close proximity. Specifically addressed are unsteady effects, aerodynamic database extrapolation, and differences between wind tunnel and flight environments.
Buning, Pieter G.; Wong, Tin-Chee; Dilley, Arthur D.; Pao, Jenn L.
The development of a wind turbine aerodynamics model using a Boundary Integral Equation model (BIEM) is presented. The methodology is valid to study inviscid unsteady flows around three dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape and arbitrarily moving with respect to the incoming flow. The extension of this methodology to study viscosity effects in turbine blade flow at high angle of attack
One of the main problems affecting modern propulsor design engineers is the ability to quantitatively predict unsteady propeller forces for modern, multi-blade row, ducted propulsors operating in highly contracting flowfields. Current algorithms provide v...
Aerodynamic equations were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom large amplitude motion about each of its body axes. The model formulation based on indicial functions separated the resulting aerodynamic forces and moments into static terms, purely rotary terms and unsteady terms. Model identification from experimental data combined stepwise regression and maximum likelihood estimation in a two-stage optimization algorithm that can identify the unsteady term and rotary term if necessary. The identification scheme was applied to oscillatory data in two examples. The model identified from experimental data fit the data well, however, some parameters were estimated with limited accuracy. The resulting model was a good predictor for oscillatory and ramp input data.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for aerodynamically interfering lifting surface configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S (Version 1.5) unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of an additional lifting surface. The research was conducted as a first-step toward developing the capability to treat a complete flight vehicle. Grid generation procedures for swept tapered interfering lifting surface applications of XTRAN3S are described. Transonic calculations are presented for wing-tail and canard-wing configurations for several values of mean angle of attack. The effects of aerodynamic interference on transonic steady pressure distributions and steady and oscillatory spanwise lift distributions are demonstrated. Results due to wing, tail, or canard pitching motions are presented and discussed in detail.
The results of two investigations, concerning the aerodynamic response of a turbine blade oscillating in a three-dimensional bending mode, are presented in this paper. The first is an experimental and computational study, designed to produce detailed three-dimensional test cases for aeroelastic applications and examine the ability of a three-dimensional time-marching Euler method to predict the relevant unsteadyaerodynamics. Extensive blade surface unsteady pressure measurements were obtained over a range of reduced frequency from a test facility with clearly defined boundary conditions. The test data indicate a significant three-dimensional effect, whereby the amplitude of the unsteady pressure response at different spanwise locations is largely insensitive to the local bending amplitude. The computational results, which are the first to be supported by detailed three-dimensional test data, demonstrate the ability of the inviscid method to capture the three-dimensional behavior exhibited by the experimental measurements and a good level of quantitative agreement is achieved throughout the range of reduced frequency. Additional computational solutions, obtained through application of the strip methodology, reveal inadequacies in the conventional quasi-three-dimensional approach to the prediction of oscillating blade flows. The issue of linearity is also considered, and both experimental and computational results indicate a linear behavior o the unsteadyaerodynamics. The second, an experimental investigation, addresses the influence of tip leakage upon the unsteadyaerodynamic response of an oscillating turbine blade. Results are provided for three settings of tip clearance.
Wind loads are conveniently divided into steady (time-average) loads and unsteady (time-dependent) loads. The latter arise from fluctuating forces due to turbulence as well as from self-excited aerodynamic instability. The relevant characteristics of atmospheric winds-speed profile and turbulence-and their dependence on the local terrain are briefly discussed. For design based on steady wind loadings the design wind speed is dependent
C. Scruton; E. W. E. Rogers; J. B. Menzies; R. S. Scorer
The main source of flow unsteadiness in turbomachinery is the aerodynamical interaction of the rotor and stator blade rows.\\u000a The blades and vanes, moving relatively to each other, interact because of the viscous wakes and the potential effects of\\u000a the blades. In addition, the wakes and potential effects superimpose with other flow patterns, for instance the tip clearance\\u000a vortices and
Birds, bats and insects have provided inspiration for human-designed small-scale flying machines, and while insects have long been known to rely on unsteady separated flows for their above-average aerodynamic performance at small-scale, the details of air flows over bird and bat wings have been harder to elucidate, mainly because of the extra complexity and precautions required in live experiments. Here we report on the first experiments of the airflow around a bat wing in free (but trained) flight in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. The aerodynamics of fixed wings at these Reynolds numbers are notoriously sensitive to small disturbances of the initially laminar, attached boundary layer, but these flight experiments show that the instantaneous flow fields around the flapping wing bear almost no resemblance to an equivalent fixed-wing experiment. The circulation increment due to the presence of a strong leading-edge vortex is estimated to provide a significant fraction of the total lift. Implications for the design and control of micro-air vehicles are considered.
Advantages to employing Green's function in describing unsteady three-dimensional transonic flows are explored. The development of the function for application to linear subsonic and supersonic unsteadyaerodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that unique solutions are possible for external flows, with all functional expressions being defined in Prandtl-Glauert space. The development of methods of using the Green's function for transonic flows is traced, noting the necessity of including the effects of significant nonlinear terms. The steady-state problem is considered to demonstrate the shock-capturing ability of the method and the usefulness of the function in the incompressible, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic areas of potential unsteady three-dimensional flows around complex configurations. Computational time is asserted to be an order of magnitude less than with finite difference methods.
An aerodynamic computer code, capable of predicting unsteady and C sub m values for an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall, is used to predict the amplitudes and frequencies of a wing undergoing torsional stall flutter. The code, developed at United Technologies Research Corporation (UTRC), is an empirical prediction method designed to yield unsteady values of normal force and moment, given the airfoil's static coefficient characteristics and the unsteadyaerodynamic values, alpha, A and B. In this experiment, conducted in the PSU 4' x 5' subsonic wind tunnel, the wing's elastic axis, torsional spring constant and initial angle of attack are varied, and the oscillation amplitudes and frequencies of the wing, while undergoing torsional stall flutter, are recorded. These experimental values show only fair comparisons with the predicted responses. Predictions tend to be good at low velocities and rather poor at higher velocities.
The aim of this paper is to understand the time averaged pressure distributions and unsteady pressure patterns in a channel diffuser of a centrifugal compressor. Pressure distributions from the impeller exit to the channel diffuser exit are measured and discussed for various flow conditions. And unsteady pressure signals from six fast-response sensors in the channel diffuser are analyzed by decomposition method. The strong non-uniformity in the pressure distribution is obtained over the diffuser shroud wall caused by the impeller-diffuser interaction. As the flow rate increases, flow separation near the throat, due to large incidence angle, increases aerodynamic blockage and reduces the aerodynamic flow area downstream. Thus the minimum pressure location occurs downstream of the geometric throat, and it is named as the aerodynamic throat. And at choke condition, normal shock occurs downstream of this aerodynamic throat. The variation in the location of the aerodynamic throat is discussed. The pressure ratio waveforms by blade passing show regular oscillation not only for the normal but also for the surge conditions and the high frequency fluctuations are superposed on the oscillating pressure waveform as the flow rate increases. Periodic unsteadiness by blade passing does not decay in the diffuser channel. It depends on the operating point and is generally larger in the channel than in the vaneless space. Aperiodic unsteadiness rapidly decrease downstream of diffuser channel.
Detailed unsteadyaerodynamic measurements have been taken in a single-stage transonic fan with a very high stage-hub loading. Two-dimensional dynamic yawmeter probes, capable of measuring mean levels and fluctuations in stagnation pressure, static pressure, and yaw angle have been traversed at rotor exit and downstream of the stator, along with several types of pneumatic three-dimensional probe. Part 1 describes measurements
Detailed unsteadyaerodynamic measurements have been taken in a single-stage transonic fan with a very high stator-hub loading. Two-dimensional dynamic yawmeter probes, capable of measuring mean and fluctuating levels of stagnation pressure, static pressure, and yaw angle have been traversed at rotor exit, and downstream of the stator along with several types of pneumatic three-dimensional probe. Part 1 of this
Analysis of the unsteadyaerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RI.V)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.
Analysis of the unsteadyaerodynamic environment in the Fastrac supersonic turbine is presented. Modal analysis of the turbine blades indicated possible resonance in crucial operating ranges of the turbopump. Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to support the aerodynamic and structural dynamic assessments of the turbine. Before beginning the analysis, two major problems with current unsteady analytical capabilities had to be addressed: modeling a straight centerline nozzle with the turbine blades and exit guide vanes (EGVs), and reducing run times significantly while maintaining physical accuracy. Modifications were made to the CFD code used in this study to allow the coupled nozzle/blade/EGV analysis and to incorporate Message Passing Interface (MPI) software. Because unsteadiness is a key issue for the Fastrac turbine [and future rocket engine turbines such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)], calculations were performed for two nozzle-to-blade axial gaps. Calculations were also performed for the nozzle alone, and the results were imposed as an inlet boundary condition for a blade/EGV calculation for the large gap case. These results are compared to the nozzle/blade/EGV results.
The aerodynamics, dynamic responses and aeroelasticity of tiltrotor aircraft in the tilting of rotor i.e. in conversion flight\\u000a are extraordinarily complicated. The traditional quasi-steady assumption model can not reflect the unsteadyaerodynamic problems\\u000a in the tilting of rotor. The CFD method based on the vortex theory can get better results, but it consumes a lot of computing\\u000a resources. In this
In supersonic flows, when an oblique shock wave impinges a boundary layer and makes it separate, strong aerodynamical loads at low frequency are created. This study aims at studying density effects on these structures by means of wall heating. Experiments are conducted at Mach 2.3. The temperature of the floor of the test section can be heated up to twice the recovery value. The interaction length is investigated through mean schlieren visualizations. It turns out that the interaction length increases of about 30% between the adiabatic case and the heated one, whatever the adverse pressure gradient involved. Hotwire measurements are performed in the external flow in order to characterize the unsteadiness of the reflected shock. Results show that lower frequencies are involved in the heated case, in accordance with the Strouhal number of the interaction based on the interaction length L and the external velocity Ue: St=f*LUe ˜0.03.
A novel unsteady rotor-fuselage interactional aerodynamics model has been developed. This model loosely couples a Generalized Dynamic Wake Theory (GDWT) to a thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution procedure. This coupling is achieved using an unsteady pressure jump boundary condition in the Navier-Stokes model. The new unsteady pressure jump boundary condition models each rotor blade as a moving pressure jump which travels around the rotor azimuth and is applied between two adjacent planes in a cylindrical, non-rotating grid. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted time-averaged and time-accurate rotor inflow ratios. Additional comparisons are made between measured and predicted unsteady surface pressures on the top centerline and sides of the fuselage.
Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Gorton, Susan Althoff
The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteadyaerodynamic characteristics.
MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s?¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10? or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteadyaerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs. PMID:22126793
The unsteadyaerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.
Aerodynamic heating on the Hypersonic Flight Experiment vehicle was measured using newly developed sensors, calibrated by lamp heating tests. These sensors were shown to be of sue for flight measurement purposes. The results of the aerodynamic heating mea...
K. Fujii S. Watanabe M. Shirouzu Y. Inoue T. Kurotaki T. Koyama S. Tsuda N. Hirabayashi
The design of new high-speed railway lines requires longer and more numerous tunnel sections, where aerodynamic effects limit the maximum allowed train velocity for a given tunnel cross-section area. These effects influence the train power requirement, the traction energy costs and the pressure wave amplitude: the knowledge of the unsteadyaerodynamic field around the train is therefore essential to the
This web page describes current research about insect flight dynamics. It focuses on the work of biologist R. McNeill Alexander of the University of Leeds, whose research team has built large-scale models of insects to test their flight aerodynamics in wind tunnels. At the bottom of the page is a small (160 x 120) QuickTime video of a Morpho butterfly (Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with detailed views of its wing scales. It is an excerpt from the Alien Empire miniseries of the Public Broadcasting Service's Nature series. The video requires QuickTime and may not be accessible to those with older or slow computers. The link to the "enhanced multimedia video clip" did not work at the time of this review.
Sensitivity analysis is an essential gradient for data assimilation, aerodynamic design, uncertainty quantification and optimal flow control. In particular. the adjoint sensitivity analysis method has been shown to solve very high dimensional optimization problems typically found these applications. This talk focuses on recent developments in extending adjoint sensitivity analysis to unsteady flows. The adjoint equation of unsteady flows must be integrated backwards in time. Each backward time step must use the flow solution at the corresponding time. As a result, the entire time history of the flow solution must be either stored or recalculated. The invention of checkpointing schemes provides an economic solution to this challenge. In particular, the dynamic checkpointing scheme makes this solution more practical for computational fluid dynamics problems. In unsteady flows, the quantities of interest are often long time averages. We demonstrate that sensitivity analysis of these long time averaged quantities poses significant new challenge. A novel windowing scheme is developed to compute correct sensitivity for periodic unsteady flows, such as in laminar vortex shedding. Initial investigation of sensitivity analysis of chaotic unsteady flows, i.e., transitional and turbulent flows, is also discussed.
A multi-phase, experimental study in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center has provided new insight into the unsteady flow interaction around cylinders in tandem arrangement. Phase 1 of the study characterized the mean and unsteady near-field flow around two cylinders of equal diameter using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire anemometry. These measurements were performed at a Reynolds number of 1.66 x 10(exp 5), based on cylinder diameter, and spacing-to-diameter ratios, L/D, of 1.435 and 3.7. The current phase, Phase 2, augments this dataset by characterizing the surface flow on the same configurations using steady and unsteady pressure measurements and surface flow visualization. Transition strips were applied to the front cylinder during both phases to produce a turbulent boundary layer upstream of the flow separation. For these flow conditions and L/D ratios, surface pressures on both the front and rear cylinders show the effects of L/D on flow symmetry, pressure recovery, and the location of flow separation and attachment. Mean streamlines and instantaneous vorticity obtained from the PIV data are used to explain the flow structure in the gap and near-wake regions and its relationship to the unsteady surface pressures. The combination of off-body and surface measurements provides a comprehensive dataset to develop and validate computational techniques for predicting the unsteady flow field at higher Reynolds numbers.
Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Cahterine B.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
The results of a study are presented in which the applicability at subsonic speeds of several aerodynamic methods for predicting dynamic gust loads on aircraft, including active control systems, was examined and compared. These aerodynamic methods varied from steady state to an advanced unsteadyaerodynamic formulation. Brief descriptions of the structural and aerodynamic representations and of the motion and load equations are presented. Comparisons of numerical results achieved using the various aerodynamic methods are shown in detail. From these results, aerodynamic representations for dynamic gust analyses are identified. It was concluded that several aerodynamic methods are satisfactory for dynamic gust analyses of configurations having either controls fixed or active control systems that primarily affect the low frequency rigid body aircraft response.
An implementation of the Beddoes-Leishman dynamic stall model has been developed at CENER, for modelling the unsteadyaerodynamics on oscillating blade sections. The parameters of the model were adjusted for the S809 aerofoil, using an optimization based on genetic algorithms, and taking into account the values found in the literature and the physics of the aerodynamic process. Once the parameters
A method for predicting unsteady, subsonic aeroelastic responses was developed. The technique accounts for aerodynamic nonlinearities associated with angles of attack, vortex-dominated flow, static deformations, and unsteady behavior. The fluid and the wing together are treated as a single dynamical system, and the equations of motion for the structure and flow field are integrated simultaneously and interactively in the time domain. The method employs an iterative scheme based on a predictor-corrector technique. The aerodynamic loads are computed by the general unsteady vortex-lattice method and are determined simultaneously with the motion of the wing. Because the unsteady vortex-lattice method predicts the wake as part of the solution, the history of the motion is taken into account; hysteresis is predicted. Two models are used to demonstrate the technique: a rigid wing on an elastic support experiencing plunge and pitch about the elastic axis, and an elastic wing rigidly supported at the root chord experiencing spanwise bending and twisting. The method can be readily extended to account for structural nonlinearities and/or substitute aerodynamic load models. The time domain solution coupled with the unsteady vortex-lattice method provides the capability of graphically depicting wing and wake motion.
In the last two decades, there have been extensive developments in computational aerodynamics, which constitutes a major part of the general area of computational fluid dynamics. Such developments are essential to advance the understanding of the physics of complex flows, to complement expensive wind-tunnel tests, and to reduce the overall design cost of an aircraft, particularly in the area of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of aircraft, particularly modern aircraft, which tend to be more flexible. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur because of the interaction of the flow with flexible components. For example, an aircraft with highly swept wings may experience vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations. Also, undesirable aeroelastic phenomena due to the presence and movement of shock waves occur in the transonic range. Aeroelastically critical phenomena, such as a low transonic flutter speed, have been known to occur through limited wind-tunnel tests and flight tests. Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At Ames a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteadyaerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this contract is to continue the algorithm enhancements of ENSAERO and to apply the code to complicated geometries. During the last year, the geometric capability of the code was extended to simulate transonic flows, a wing with oscillating control surface. Single-grid and zonal approaches were tested. For the zonal approach, a new interpolation technique was introduced. The key development of the algorithm was an interface treatment between moving zones for a control surface using the virtual-zone concept. The work performed during the period, 1 Apr. 1992 through 31 Mar. 1993 is summarized. Additional details on the various aspects of the study are given in the Appendices.
An approximate solution is reported for the unsteadyaerodynamic response of an infinite swept wing encountering a vertical oblique gust in a compressible stream. The approximate expressions are of closed form and do not require excessive computer storage or computation time, and further, they are in good agreement with the results of exact theory. This analysis is used to predict the unsteadyaerodynamic response of a helicopter rotor blade encountering the trailing vortex from a previous blade. Significant effects of three dimensionality and compressibility are evident in the results obtained. In addition, an approximate solution for the unsteadyaerodynamic forces associated with the pitching or plunging motion of a two dimensional airfoil in a subsonic stream is presented. The mathematical form of this solution approaches the incompressible solution as the Mach number vanishes, the linear transonic solution as the Mach number approaches one, and the solution predicted by piston theory as the reduced frequency becomes large.
An aeroelastic analysis is presented that accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two-degree-of-freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteadyaerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of (1) airfoil thickness and camber and (2) steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of the steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber, or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
Smith, T.E. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States)); Kadambi, J.R. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))
An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteadyaerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.
The development of the VSAERO-TS and VSAERO-H computer programs for calculating the unsteadyaerodynamic characteristics of arbitrarily shaped wings oscillating in pitch is presented. The effect of several wake parameters on chordwise pressure distribution in VSAERO-TS is given and the convergence characteristics of both programs are discussed. In the program, the influence coefficient for each panel is formulated for a planar surface and so a skewed panel is represented by a projected flat quadrilateral lying in the mean plane. Since panels in the extreme roll-up region of the tip vortex are highly skewed the program was modified to treat each highly skewed panel as a pair of triangles. The programs are validated by comparing the chordwise pressure distribution of several blade tip planforms with experimental data. The comparison, for the most part, is good. The triangular panel representation improved the chordwise pressure distribution near the tip region for higher mean angle of attack.
The development of a streamwise upwind algorithm is presented. Applications of this algorithm to steady flow over a delta wing and unsteady flow over an oscillating wing, respectively, are covered. An extension to higher order accuracy for upwind methods is discussed. This scheme will use the compatibility relations for the extension. The use of multiple zones in the calculation of unsteady flows is considered. Multiple zones are one way to treat complex configurations, such as complete aircraft. Aeroelastic calculations are discussed. A procedure for aeroelastic calculations is described that simultaneously solves the aerodynamic and structural equations of motion. Sample calculations are given to illustrate the above.
Goorjian, P. M.; Obayashi, S.; Chaderjian, N. M.; Guruswamy, G. P.
A low-speed experimental study of the effects of an oscillatory pitching motion on the flowfield of a chined forebody has been performed. These tests were conducted in the University of Illinois low-speed (0- 240 ft\\/sec), low-turbulence (<0.1%), 3 by 4 ft, open circuit wind tunnel. The high fidelity, NC machined aluminum model was sting mounted and oscillated sinusoidally in pitch
The dynamic characteristics of an oscillating airfoil are presented through graphical data derived from wind tunnel tests. The parameters examined include: transition position, boundary layer effects, lift coefficient, moment coefficient, free stream velocity, and Reynolds number.
This two part document contains copies of the text and figures for the papers presented at the symposium held at NASA Langley on 20 to 22 May, 1987. The papers are grouped in five subject areas. The areas covered by this part includes the following: Methods for vortex and viscous flows; Aeroelastic applications, and Experimental results and cascade flows.
Computational fluid dynamics methods have been widely accepted for transonic aeroelastic analysis. Previously, calculations with the TSD methods were used for 2-D airfoils, but now the TSD methods are applied to the aeroelastic analysis of the complete aircraft. The Symposium papers are grouped into five subject areas, two of which are covered in this part: (1) Transonic Small Disturbance (TSD) theory for complete aircraft configurations; and (2) Full potential and Euler equation methods.
The effects of 2.5-m/sec vertical gusts on the flight characteristics of a 1:8.6 scale model of a Mirage 2000 aircraft in free flight at 35 m/sec over a distance of 30 m are investigated. The wind-tunnel setup and instrumentation are described; the impulse-response and local-coefficient-identification analysis methods applied are discussed in detail; and the modification and calibration of the gust-detection probes are reviewed. The results are presented in graphs, and good general agreement is obtained between model calculations using the two analysis methods and the experimental measurements.
The development and application of transonic small disturbance codes for computing two dimensional flows, using the code ATRAN2, and for computing three dimensional flows, using the code ATRAN3S, are described. Calculated and experimental results are comp...
An overview is presented of the entire procedure developed for the aerodynamic design of the contoured wind tunnel liner for the NASA supercritical, laminar flow control (LFC), swept wing experiment. This numerical design procedure is based upon the simple idea of streamlining and incorporates several transonic and boundary layer analysis codes. The liner, presently installed in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, is about 54 ft long and extends from within the existing contraction cone, through the test section, and into the diffuser. LFC model testing has begun and preliminary results indicate that the liner is performing as intended. The liner design results presented in this paper, however, are examples of the calculated requirements and the hardware implementation of them.
Newman, P. A.; Anderson, E. C.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.
The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows. Again, to verify and or direct the development of these advanced codes, complete three-dimensional unsteady flow field data are needed.
Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering
The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for wing-fuselage configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of a fuselage. Details of the XTRAN3S fuselage modeling are discussed in the context of the small-disturbance equation. Transonic calculations are presented for three wing-fuselage configurations with leading edge sweep angles ranging from 0 deg to 46.76 deg. Simple bending and torsion modal oscillations of the wing are calculated. Sectional lift and moment coefficients for the wing-alone and wing-fuselage cases are compared and the effects of fuselage aerodynamic interference on the unsteady wing loading are revealed. Tabulated generalized aerodynamic forces used in flutter analyses, indicate small changes in the real in-phase component and as much as a 30% change in the imaginary component when the fuselage is included in the calculation. These changes result in a 2 to 5% increase in total magnitude and a several degree increase in phase.
Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.
An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteadyaerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.
A linearized unsteadyaerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.
The effects of airfoil shape, thickness, camber, and mean angle of attack on transonic unsteady airloads were investigated as calculated by the transonic small-disturbance computer code XTRAN2L. Shape effects were investigated by examining the pressure distributions, shock locations, and unsteady airloads for three 10 percent thick airfoils. NACA 0010, NACA 64A010, and parabolic arc. Thickness effects were determined by studying a single airfoil shape with three different thicknesses: NACA 0008, NACA 0010, and NACA 0012. Angle of attack and camber effects were studied by including mean angle of attack or by adding a simple parabolic camber distribution to the originally symmetric airfoils. Comparisons of unsteady airloads for different airfoil configurations show similar results caused by variations in airfoil shape, thickness, camber, or mean angle of attack. Computer costs can be reduced by limiting the number of transonic unsteadyaerodynamic calculations for small changes in airfoil geometry or angle of attack.
Insect-like flapping flight offers a power-efficient and highly manoeuvrable basis for a micro air vehicle capable of indoor flight. The development of such a vehicle requires a careful wing aerodynamic design. This is particularly true since the flapping wings will be responsible for lift, propulsion and manoeuvres, all at the same time. It sets the requirement for an aerodynamic tool that will enable study of the parametric design space and converge on one (or more) preferred configurations. In this respect, aerodynamic modelling approaches are the most attractive, principally due to their ability to iterate rapidly through various design configurations. In this article, we review the main approaches found in the literature, categorising them into steady-state, quasi-steady, semi-empirical and fully unsteady methods. The unsteadyaerodynamic model of Ansari et al. seems to be the most satisfactory to date and is considered in some detail. Finally, avenues for further research in this field are suggested.
Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteadyaerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
Recent experience in the application of an optimized, second-order, backward-difference (BDF2OPT) temporal scheme is reported. The primary focus of the work is on obtaining accurate solutions of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations over long periods of time for aerodynamic problems of interest. The baseline flow solver under consideration uses a particular BDF2OPT temporal scheme with a dual-time-stepping algorithm for advancing the flow solutions in time. Numerical difficulties are encountered with this scheme when the flow code is run for a large number of time steps, a behavior not seen with the standard second-order, backward-difference, temporal scheme. Based on a stability analysis, slight modifications to the BDF2OPT scheme are suggested. The performance and accuracy of this modified scheme is assessed by comparing the computational results with other numerical schemes and experimental data.
Vatsa, Veer N.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Lockard, David P.
A clarification is presented on recent work concerning the application of unsteady airfoil theory to rotary wings. The application of this theory may be seen as consisting of four steps: (1) the selection of an appropriate unsteady airfoil theory; (2) the resolution of that velocity which is the resultant of aerodynamic and dynamic velocities at a point on the elastic axis into radial, tangential and perpendicular components, and the angular velocity of a blade section about the deformed axis; (3) the expression of lift and pitching moments in terms of the three components; and (4) the derivation of explicit expressions for the components in terms of flight velocity, induced flow, rotor rotational speed, blade motion variables, etc.
The results of an experimental investigation on a typical centrifugal compressor stage running on an atmospheric pressure test rig are shown. Unsteady flow was invariably observed at low flow well before surge. In order to determine the influence of the statoric components, the same impeller was repeatedly tested with the same vaneless diffuser, but varying return channel geometry. Experimental results show the strong effect exerted by the return channel, both on onset and on the behavior of unsteady flow. Observed phenomena have been found to confirm well the observed dynamic behavior of full load tested machines when gas density is high enough to cause appreciable mechanical vibrations. Therefore, testing of single stages at atmospheric pressure may provide a fairly accurate prediction of this kind of aerodynamic excitation.
An investigation was conducted on the suppression of subsynchronous vibrations due to aerodynamic response to surge in a two-stage centrifugal compressor with air foil bearings. Unsteadyaerodynamic response to surge caused excessive subsynchronous shaft vibration which might result in reduced bearing life. Notably, subsynchronous vibrations associated with rigid mode frequencies were more severe than any other subsynchronous vibrations. The objective
The objective of the current effort is two-fold: 1) to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine; and 2) to provide high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis capability to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicle. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to involve liquid propulsion system, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the turbopump components is an important task. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flow are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. Unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available, at least, for real-world engineering applications. Present effort is an attempt to provide this capability so that developers of the vehicle will be able to extract such information as transient flow phenomena for start up, impact of non-uniform inflow, system vibration and impact on the structure. Those quantities are not readily available from simplified design tools. In this presentation, the progress being made toward complete turbo-pump simulation capability for a liquid rocket engine is reported. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbopump, which contains 106 zones with 34.5 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented.
Forced vibrations in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail due to high-cycle fatigue. Such forced response problems will become more pronounced in newer engines with higher pressure ratios and smaller axial gap between blade rows. An accurate numerical prediction of the unsteadyaerodynamics phenomena that cause resonant forced vibrations is increasingly important to designers. Validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to model the unsteadyaerodynamic excitations is necessary before these codes can be used with confidence. Recently published benchmark data, including unsteady pressures and vibratory strains, for a high-pressure turbine stage makes such code validation possible. In the present work, a three dimensional, unsteady, multi blade-row, Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes code is applied to a turbine stage that was recently tested in a short duration test facility. Two configurations with three operating conditions corresponding to modes 2, 3, and 4 crossings on the Campbell diagram are analyzed. Unsteady pressures on the rotor surface are compared with data.
Bakhle, Milind A.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mehmed, Oral
Forced response, or resonant vibrations, in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail because of the large vibratory blade stresses and subsequent high-cycle fatigue. Forced-response vibrations occur when turbomachinery blades are subjected to periodic excitation at a frequency close to their natural frequency. Rotor blades in a turbine are constantly subjected to periodic excitations when they pass through the spatially nonuniform flowfield created by upstream vanes. Accurate numerical prediction of the unsteadyaerodynamics phenomena that cause forced-response vibrations can lead to an improved understanding of the problem and offer potential approaches to reduce or eliminate specific forced-response problems. The objective of the current work was to validate an unsteadyaerodynamics code (named TURBO) for the modeling of the unsteady blade row interactions that can cause forced response vibrations. The three-dimensional, unsteady, multi-blade-row, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code named TURBO was used to model a high-pressure turbine stage for which benchmark data were recently acquired under a NASA contract by researchers at the Ohio State University. The test article was an initial design for a high-pressure turbine stage that experienced forced-response vibrations which were eliminated by increasing the axial gap. The data, acquired in a short duration or shock tunnel test facility, included unsteady blade surface pressures and vibratory strains.
In the design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) one problem is to determine the aeroelastic behaviour of the rotor blades for the various wind inflow conditions. A step in this process is to predict with accuracy the aerodynamic loads on the blades. The Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) provides a transparent investigation concerning the role of various physical parameters which influence the aerodynamic problem. In this paper we present a method for the calculation of the non-uniform induced downwash of a HAWT rotor using the vortex ring model for the lifting surface coupled with an unsteady free-wake vortex particle model. Comparative studies between results obtained with different models of wake for a generic HAWT are presented.
Results of an unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes simulation of a 0.658-scale V-22 rotor and wing configuration in hover are presented. All geometric components of the flapped-wing and rotor test rig, including rotor blades, are accurately modeled. Rotor motion and rotor/airframe interference effects are simulated directly using moving body overset grid methods. Tiltrotor hover aerodynamics are visualized via unsteady particle trace images. Wing download predictive ability is demonstrated. Simulation results are compared with experimental data.
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394
Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P
The shock wave reflection phenomenon is studied from a phenomenological point of view. Consideration is given to reflection in pseudosteady flows (shock tube experiments over straight wedges), steady flows (wind tunnel experiments), and truly unsteady flows (shock tube experiment over nonstraight wedges, and spherical blast wave reflections). It is suggested that the numerical simulation of shock reflection phenomena be examined
An integrated and rigorous model for the simulation of insect flapping flight is addressed. The method is very versatile, easily integrating the modeling of realistic wing-body morphology, realistic flapping-wing and body kinematics, and unsteadyaerodynamics in insect flight. A morphological model is built based on an effective differential geometric method for reconstructing geometry of and a specific grid generator for the wings and body; and a kinematic model is constructed capable to mimic the realistic wing-body kinematics of flapping flight. A fortified FVM-based NS solver for dynamically moving multi-blocked, overset-grid systems is developed and verified to be self-consistent by a variety of benchmark tests; and evaluation of flapping energetics is established on inertial and aerodynamic forces, torques and powers. Validation of this integrated insect dynamic flight simulator is achieved by comparisons of aerodynamic force-production with measurements in terms of the time-varying and mean lift and drag forces. Results for three typical insect hovering flights (hawkmoth, honeybee and fruitfly) over a wide rang of Reynolds numbers from O(10 2) to O(10 4) demonstrate its feasibility in accurately modeling and quantitatively evaluating the unsteadyaerodynamic mechanisms in insect flapping flight.
Aeroelastic analysis is multi-disciplinary and computationally expensive. Hence, it can greatly benefit from parallel processing. As part of an effort to develop an aeroelastic capability on a distributed memory transputer network, a parallel algorithm for the computation of aerodynamic influence coefficients is implemented on a network of 32 transputers. The aerodynamic influence coefficients are calculated using a 3-D unsteadyaerodynamic model and a parallel discretization. Efficiencies up to 85 percent were demonstrated using 32 processors. The effect of subtask ordering, problem size, and network topology are presented. A comparison to results on a shared memory computer indicates that higher speedup is achieved on the distributed memory system.
Flapping flight has gained much attention in the past decade driven by the desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and the desire to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Advancing our current understanding of unsteadyaerodynamics is an essential component in the development of micro-air vehicles (MAV) intended to utilize flight mechanics akin to insect flight. Thus the efforts undertaken that of bio-mimicry. The complexities of insect wing motion are dissected and simplified to more tractable problems to elucidate the fundamentals of unsteadyaerodynamics in biologically inspired kinematics. The MAV's fruition would satisfy long established needs in both the military and civilian sectors. Although recent studies have provided great insight into the lift generating mechanisms of flapping wings the deflection response of such wings remains poorly understood. This dissertation numerically and experimentally investigates the aerodynamic performance of passively and actively deflected wings in hover and rotary kinematics. Flexibility is distilled to discrete lines of flexion which acknowledging major flexion lines in insect wings to be the primary avenue for deformation. Of primary concern is the development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a high circulation region of low pressure above the wing to which much of the wing's lift generation is attributed. Two-dimensional simulations of wings with chord-wise flexibility in a freestream reveal a lift generating mechanism unavailable to rigid wings with origins in vortical symmetry breaking. The inclusion of flexibility in translating wings accelerated from rest revealed the formation time of the initial LEV was very weakly dependent on the flexible stiffness of the wing, maintaining a universal time scale of four to five chords of travel before shedding. The frequency of oscillatory shedding of the leading and trailing-edge vortices that develops after the initial vortex shedding was shown to be responsive to flexibility satisfying an inverse proportionality to stiffness. In hover, an effective pitch angle can be defined in a flexible wing that accounts for deflection which shifts results toward trend lines of rigid wings. Three-dimensional simulations examining the effects of two distinct deformation modes undergoing prescribed deformation associated with root and tip deflection demonstrated a greater aerodynamic response to tip deflection in hover. Efficiency gains in flexion wings over rigid wing counterpart were shown to be dependent on Reynolds number with efficiency in both modes increasing with increased Reynolds number. Additionally, while the leading-edge vortex axis proved insensitive to deformation, the shape and orientation of the LEV core is modified. Experiments on three-dimensional dynamically-scaled fruit fly wings with passive deformation operating in the bursting limit Reynolds number regime revealed enhanced leading-edge vortex bursting with tip deflection promoting greater LEV core flow deceleration in stroke. Experimental studies on rotary wings highlights a universal formation time of the leading-edge vortex independent of Reynolds number, acceleration profile and aspect ratio. Efforts to replicate LEV bursting phenomena of higher aspect ratio wings in a unity aspect ratio wing such that LEV growth is no limited by span but by the LEV traversing the chord revealed a flow regime of oscillatory lift generation reminiscent of behavior exhibited in translating wings that also maintains magnitude peak to peak.
Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteadyaerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.
Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.
Flapping flight is one of the most widespread mean of transportation. It is a complex unsteadyaerodynamic problem that has been studied extensively in the past century. Nevertheless, by its complex nature, flapping flight remains a challenging subject. With the development of micro air vehicles, researchers need new computational methods to design these aircrafts efficiently. In this dissertation, I will
Small size, high bandwidth pressure sensors are required for instrumentation of probes and test models in aerodynamic studies of complex unsteady flows. Optical-fiber pressure sensors promise potential advantages of small size and low cost in comparison with their electrical counterparts. We describe miniature Fabry-Perot cavity pressure sensors constructed by micromachining techniques in a turbine test application. The sensor bodies are
Matthew J. Gander; William N. MacPherson; James S. Barton; R. L. Reuben; Julian D. C. Jones; R. Stevens; Kam S. Chana; S. J. Anderson; T. V. Jones
The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.
Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteadyaerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated computational model of a hovering insect with rigid and flexible wings. Aerodynamic performance of flapping wings with passive deformation or prescribed deformation is evaluated in terms of aerodynamic force, power and efficiency. Our results reveal that wing flexibility can increase downwash in wake and hence aerodynamic force: first, a dynamic wing bending is observed, which delays the breakdown of leading edge vortex near the wing tip, responsible for augmenting the aerodynamic force-production; second, a combination of the dynamic change of wing bending and twist favourably modifies the wing kinematics in the distal area, which leads to the aerodynamic force enhancement immediately before stroke reversal. Moreover, an increase in hovering efficiency of the flexible wing is achieved as a result of the wing twist. An extensive study of wing stiffness effect on aerodynamic performance is further conducted through a tuning of Young's modulus and thickness, indicating that insect wing structures may be optimized not only in terms of aerodynamic performance but also dependent on many factors, such as the wing strength, the circulation capability of wing veins and the control of wing movements.
Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.
Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.
A semi-empirical model is described for predicting unsteadyaerodynamic forces on arbitrary airfoils under mildly stalled and unstalled conditions. Aerodynamic forces are modeled using second order ordinary differential equations for lift and moment with airfoil motion as the input. This model is simultaneously integrated with structural dynamics equations to determine flutter characteristics for a two degrees-of-freedom system. Results for a number of cases are presented to demonstrate the suitability of this model to predict flutter. Comparison is made to the flutter characteristics determined by a Navier-Stokes solver and also the classical incompressible potential flow theory.
This paper describes experiments performed on stationary and rotating cricket balls to determine the aerodynamic forces acting on the ball over a range of bowling speeds and seam angles. Lift, drag and side forces were measured directly and it was found they exhibited magnitudes in the order of 1.4, 1 and 0.4N, respectively, for the stationary ball. At air velocities
The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.
Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.
A theoretical analysis is presented of unsteady solid propellant combustion, particularly combustion stability and extinction by rapid depressurization. It is assumed that the solid decomposes by a pyrolosis law and the gaseous products react exothermical...
Upon the introduction of a gas bubble into a liquid possessing a uniform thermal gradient, an unsteady thermo-capillary flow begins. Ultimately, the bubble attains a constant velocity. This theoretical analysis focuses upon the transient period for a bubb...
Hui and Tobak applied the complete unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory to the study of dynamic stability of oscillating aerofoils and bodies in revolution. The present article extends the results to general frequencies that may be applicable to flutter analysis. The results are likewise applied to the indicial response fluctuations in unsteady flow at very high Mach numbers. The study shows that for a group of body shapes in Newtonian flow (including the cone and wedge), the aerodynamic response to a step change in angle of attack or pitching velocity contains an initial-instant impulse followed by a rapid adjustment to the new steady-flow conditions. The impulse component is in effect an apparent mass term analogous to that which occurs initially in the aerodynamic indicial response at the zero Mach number limit.
This paper describes the work for optimizing the propulsive efficiency of flapping airfoils, i.e., improving the thrust under constraining aerodynamic work during the flapping flights by changing their shape and trajectory of motion with the unsteady discrete adjoint approach. For unsteady problems, it is essential to properly resolving time scales of motion under consideration and it must be compatible with the objective sought after. We include both the instantaneous and time-averaged (periodic) formulations in this study. For the design optimization with shape parameters or motion parameters, the time-averaged objective function is found to be more useful, while the instantaneous one is more suitable for flow control. The instantaneous objective function is operationally straightforward. On the other hand, the time-averaged objective function requires additional steps in the adjoint approach; the unsteady discrete adjoint equations for a periodic flow must be reformulated and the corresponding system of equations solved iteratively. We compare the design results from shape and trajectory optimizations and investigate the physical relevance of design variables to the flapping motion at on- and off-design conditions.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests
An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.
The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.
Currently, there is a need to develop a means of analyzing and studying unsteady flowfields which involve multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help to understand are the unsteadyaerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of the flowfield. With this motivation, a computational method is developed which couples the governing equations of the unsteady flowfield and the rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom. These equations are solved on composite meshes of overlapped subdomain grids which can move with respect to each other. Initially, several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. It is concluded that a second-order accurate method, for spatial and temporal discretizations as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations, is needed as a minimum measure. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to unity. Then, the method is used to simulate the flowfield history and predict the aerodynamically determined trajectory of a store dropped from its initial position under a wing.
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
A team of undergraduate students has performed experiments on Wiffle balls in the Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel facility. Wiffle balls are of particular interest because they can attain a curved trajectory with little or no pitcher-imparted spin. The reasons behind this have not previously been quantified formally. A strain gauge device was designed and constructed to measure the lift and drag forces on the Wiffle ball; a second device to measure lift and drag on a spinning ball was also developed. Experiments were conducted over a range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to speeds of roughly 0-40 mph. Lift forces of up to 0.2 N were measured for a Wiffle ball at 40 mph. This is believed to be due to air flowing into the holes on the Wiffle ball in addition to the effect of the holes on external boundary layer separation. A fog-based flow visualization system was developed in order to provide a deeper qualitative understanding of what occurred in the flowfield surrounding the ball. The data and observations obtained in this study support existing assumptions about Wiffle ball aerodynamics and begin to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Wiffle ball flight.
Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itÃ¢ÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youÃ¢ÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.
A numerical study of the aerodynamic and thermal environment associated with axial turbine stages is presented. Computations were performed using a modification of the unsteady NASA Ames viscous code, ROTOR1, and an improved version of the NASA Lewis steady inviscid cascade system MERIDL-TSONIC coupled with boundary layer codes BLAYER and STAN5. Two different turbine stages were analyzed: the first stage of the United Technologies Research Center Large Scale Rotating Rig (LSRR) and the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump turbine. The time-averaged airfoil midspan pressure and heat transfer profiles were predicted for numerous thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic wall, prescribed surface temperature, and prescribed heat flux. Computed solutions are compared with each other and with experimental data in the case of the LSRR calculations. Modified ROTOR1 predictions of unsteady pressure envelopes and instantaneous contour plots are also presented for the SSME geometry. Relative merits of the two computational approaches are discussed.
Unsteady functioning of axial flow compressors are studied just before a surge. The ENSAE compressor test bench, consisting of two transonic axial compressor stages, is specially designed to record steady and unsteady measurements at a number of points. A...
The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experienceunsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239?m) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for sediment entrainment and sediment transport dynamics during bed form adjustment. Finally, the flow predictions enable a reassessment of the drag caused by the superimposed bed forms generated by unsteady flow.
Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.
Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and free-molecular analyses were used to provide aerothermodynamic characteristics of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The results of these analyses were used to develop an aerodynamic database that was used extensively for the p...
This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle...
The unsteady localized spot heating of a liquid drop under zero-g conditions is examined theoretically. This pertains to space experiments to measure thermal properties of materials and the purpose here is to predict the thermal behavior of such systems. Spot heating can be achieved by a laser beam focused on a small region of the drop surface. The present theoretical model deals with situations of weak Marangoni flows, whereby the thermal transport is conduction dominated. The heat flow in the drop is treated as unsteady while the surrounding gaseous region is considered to be quasisteady. The ensuing thermally driven flow is analyzed in the Stokes regime.
Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.; Wagner, Paul
A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.
Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteadyaerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed, built, and tested at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The results from the full order model and the approximate reduced order model are analyzed and compared.
Studies were made to investigate the effects of viscosity on aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of oscillating airfoils. The computer code LTRAN2 (viscous), which is based on a small disturbance aerodynamic theory, was used to make aerodynamic computations. Two viscous models, the viscous-ramp model and the lag-entrainment model were considered. The unsteady viscous effects were obtained by use of the quasi-steady assumptions. Two cases, a conventional airfoil, NACA 64A010, and a supercritical airfoil, MBB-A3, were studied at Mach numbers 0.796 and 0.7557, respectively. For both the airfoils, steady and unsteadyaerodynamic computations were made by using inviscid and viscous theories. The steady and the unsteady results for the NACA 64A010 airfoil and the steady results for the MBB-A3 airfoil were compared with the available wind-tunnel results. Flutter speeds were computed for both airfoils by using the U-g method and the effects of viscosity on the airfoils were studied. Results from the viscous methods show improvements over the inviscid method.
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
A finite-difference solution to the Navier-Stokes equations combined with a time-varying grid-generation technique was used to compute unsteady transonic flow over an oscillating airfoil. These computations were compared with experimental data (obtained at Ames Research Center) which form part of the AGARD standard configuration for aeroelastic analysis. A variety of approximations to the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to determine the effect of frequency, shock-wave motion, flow separation, and airfoil geometry on unsteady pressures and overall air loads. Good agreement is shown between experiment and theory with the limiting factor being the lack of a reliable turbulence model for high-Reynolds-number, unsteady transonic flows.
An implicit finite-difference solver for either the Euler equations or the "thin-layer" Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate a transonic flow over the NACA 64A010 airfoil pitching about its one-quarter chord. An unsteady automatic grid-generation procedure that will improve significantly the computational efficiency of various unsteady flow problems is described. The calculated results for both inviscid and viscous flows at Mach number 0.8 over the airfoil oscillating with reduced frequency referenced to one-half chord, 0.2, are compared with experimental data measured in the Ames 11 x 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Nonlinear, unsteady effects of the flow on the surface pressure variations, shock-wave excursions, and overall airloads are examined. Good agreements between the results of computations and experiments were obtained. In the shock-wave region, however, the results of the viscous-flow computations showed closer agreement with the experimental data.
An implicit finite-difference solver for either the Euler equations or the "thin-layer" Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate a transonic flow over the NACA 64A010 airfoil pitching about its one-quarter chord. An unsteady automatic grid-generation procedure that will improve significantly the computational efficiency of various unsteady flow problems is described. The calculated results for both inviscid and viscous flows at Much number 0.8 over the airfoil oscillating with reduced frequency referenced to one-half chord, 0.2, are compared with experimental data measured in the Ames 11 x 11-ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Nonlinear, unsteady effects of the flow on the surface pressure variations, shock-wave excursions, and overall airloads are examined. Good agreements between the results of computations and experiments were obtained. In the shock-wave region, however, the results of the viscous-flow computations showed closer agreement with the experimental data.
Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.
Aerodynamic noise from a wind turbine is numerically modeled in the time domain. An analytic trailing edge noise model is used to determine the unsteady pressure on the blade surface. The far-field noise due to the unsteady pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy theory. By using a strip theory approach, the two-dimensional noise model is applied to rotating wind turbine blades. The numerical results indicate that, although the operating and atmospheric conditions are identical, the acoustical characteristics of wind turbine noise can be quite different with respect to the distance and direction from the wind turbine. PMID:23363200
In the preliminary design phase of the bio-inspired flapping-wing MAV (micro air vehicle), it is necessary to predict the aerodynamic forces around the flapping-wing under flapping-wing motion at cruising flight. In this study, the efficient quasi-steady flapping-wing aerodynamic model for MAV application is explained and it is experimentally verified. The flapping-wing motion is decoupled to the plunging and pitching motion, and the plunging-pitching motion generator with load cell assembly is developed. The compensation of inertial forces from the measured lift and thrust is studied to measure the pure aerodynamic loads on the flapping-wing. Advanced ratio is introduced to evaluate the unsteadiness of the flow and to make an application range of flapping-wing aerodynamic model.
Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Han, Jae-Hung
The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.
Two complementary methods, field experiments and physical modelling in a wind tunnel, have been used to investigate the dispersion of tracer-gas released from the ventilation system of a pig barn, under near-neutral stability conditions. In both cases, concentration fluctuations were measured and the deduced statistical results were compared. The choice of data processing applied to the time series of concentration
In this paper, the effect of aerodynamic asymmetries on the flutter characteristics of turbomachinery blades is investigated. Specifically, the present method is used to study the effect of leading edge blending in loaded and unloaded rotors. The unsteadyaerodynamic response of the blades to self-excited vibrations is modeled using a harmonic balance method, which allows one to model the entire wheel using complex periodic boundary conditions and a computational grid spanning a single sector (symmetry group). This reduces the computational and memory requirements dramatically compared to similar time-accurate analyses. It is shown that alternate blending degrades the stability of a loaded rotor whereas it improves the stability of an unloaded rotor. On the other hand, when blends are spaced five blades apart their effect is less pronounced.
An overview is presented of unsteady inviscid calculation methods developed at NLR, which are primarily based on the full potential equation for the prediction of airloads on oscillating structures in transonic flow. Attention is given to experience with ...
The viscous effect on aerodynamic performance of an arbitrary airfoil executing low frequency maneuvers during transonic flight was investigated. The small disturbance code, LTRAN2, was modified by using a conventional integral method, BLAYER, for the boundary layer and an empirical relation, viscous wedge, for simulating the suddenly thickened boundary layer behind the shock. Before the shock, only the boundary layer displacement thickness was evaluated. After the shock, the empirical wedge thickness was superimposed on the boundary layer thickness along the surface as well as in the wake region. The pressure coefficients were calculated for both steady and unsteady states. The viscous solution takes fewer iterations to obtain the converged steady state solution. Comparisons made with experimental data and the inviscid solution show that the viscous solution agrees better with the experimental data with about the same (or slightly less) amount of computational time.
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
Wind tunnel measurements and calculations of the aerodynamic interactions between two tiltrotor aircraft in helicopter mode are presented. The measured results include the roll moment and thrust change on the downwind aircraft, as a function of the upwind aircraft position (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical). Magnitudes and locations of the largest interactions are identified. The calculated interactions generally match the measurements, with discrepancies attributed to the unsteadiness of the wake and aerodynamic forces on the airframe. To interpret the interactions in terms of control and power changes on the aircraft, additional calculations are presented for trimmed aircraft with gimballed rotors.
Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Derby, Michael R.; Wadcock, Alan J.
This review summarizes the large effects of heat transfer on steady aerodynamics. Cooling the surface delays flow separation and thus is roughly equivalent to an increase in Reynolds number. Conversely heating promotes flow separation and is roughly equivalent to a decrease in Reynolds number. Cooling can also increase the extent of laminar boundary layers. These characteristics might be exploited to identify conditions for which large scale effects occur. The review has found no discussion of the effects of heat transfer on unsteadyaerodynamics. From the steady effects some tentative suggestions are inferred about the probable influence of heat transfer on buffet excitation measurements in wind tunnels.
The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.
The never ending process to increase the efficiency of turbine stages introduced an idea to create an axial turbine stage test rig as part of closed loop transonic wind tunnel at Vyzkumny a zkusebni letecky ustav (VZLU). Studying of unsteady flow field behaviours in turbine stages is nowadays essential in the development process. Therefore, the test rig was designed with focusing on possibility of detailed studying of unsteady flow fields in turbine stages. New methodologies and new instrumentations were developed at VZLU and successfully integrated to gain valuable information from experiments with turbine stages. Two different turbine stages were tested during the facility introduction process. The measurement of these two models demonstrated how flexible the test rig is. One of them was an enlarged model of small gas turbine stage. The other was scaled-down model of stage of intermediate-pressure steam turbine. The external characteristics of both models were acquired during experiments as well as the detailed unsteady flow field measurement. Turbine stages were tested in various regimes in order to check the capabilities of the facility, methodology and instrumentation together. The paper presents results of unsteady flow field investigation in the enlarged turbine stage with unshrouded rotor. The interaction of structures developed in a stator with the rotor flow field is depicted and the influence of turbine load on evolution of secondary flows in rotor is analysed.
A numerical method for computing the nonlinear inviscid flowfield surrounding a body performing coning motion is described. The method permits accurate computation of the aerodynamic moment due to one of the four motions characterizing an arbitrary nonplanar motion. Results of computations for a slender circular cone in coning motion are presented, and show good agreement with